Page last modified 20 August 2023

 

Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia)

Community

Area 390,757 square kilometres (land area 386,857 square kilometres)

Population, Some three million Zimbabweans have fled the country to escape the regime of Robert Mugabe. Many Zimbabwean refugees have gone to South Africa.


607,000 (1900)

772,000 (1911)

899,000 (1921)

1,130,000 (1931)

1,479,000 (1941)

2,320,000 (1951)

3,777,000 (1960)

5,289,000 (1970)

7,408,000 (1980)

10,432,000 (1990)

11,881,000 (2000)

12,698,000 (2010)

13,815,000 (2015)

14,439,000 (2018)


Ethnicity, %

 

African

All

African

Ndebele

African

Shona

African

Other

Asian

White

1941

94.8

 

70.0

 

0.5

4.8

1951

 

 

 

 

0.2

6.3

1970

95.0

16.0

 

 

 

4.5

2012

99.7

14.0

82.0

3.7

0.1

0.2

Religion,

 

Animist

Christian

All

Christian

Anglican

Christian

R C

Islam

1990

42.0

 

30.0

15.0

 

2010

3.8

87.0

 

 

0.9

Birth and death rates Below replacement rate = 2.1

 

Fertility Rate

Birth

Rate

Infant

Mortality

Death

Rate

% Aged

Under 15

% Aged

Over

65

% Urban

1950

 

52.0 (+29.0)

120.0

23.0

 

 

11.0

1960

7.2

52.0 (+36.4)

92.5

15.6

45.3

3.4

12.6

1970

7.4

49.0 (+36.8)

73.2

13.2

48.2

3.2

17.4

1980

6.9

47.0 (+36.6)

68.5

10.4

49.2

3.0

22.4

1990

4.9

37.0 (+27.4)

51.9

9.6

46.3

3.0

29.0

2000

3.8

33.4 (+17.1)

58.4

16.3

42.8

3.1

33.8

2010

4.0

36.0 (+24.2)

53.1

11.8

41.5

3.0

33.2

2015

3.9

33.9 (+25.50

38.5

8.4

41.5

2.8

32.4

2016

 

 

36.3

 

41.4

2.8

32.3

2017

3.7

31.7 (+23.8)

35.4

7.9

 

 

 

2018

 

 

33.9

 

42.4

2.9

 

Life expectancy, decline from 1980s due to AIDS. In Zimbabwe the Mugabe regime officially denied the existence of AIDS in the country until the early 1990s, resulting in a scarcity of anti-retroviral drugs used in AIDS treatment. Lowest life expectance was in 2002 at 44.1; 42.6 (M), 45.6 (F). Trend life expectancy for 2002 was ca. 64.0; 62.0 (M), 66.0 (F). 33.0% of Zimbabwean adults were HIV positive in 2005.


41.5 (1955); 40.0 (M), 43.0 (F)

51.5 (1960); 49.9 (M), 53.2 (F)

50.0 (1962-African)

70.5 (1962-White); 66.9 (M), 74.0 (F)

54.9 (1970); 53.3 (M), 56.6 (F)

59.4 (1980); 57.6 (M), 61.2 (F)

58.0 (1990); 55.0 (M), 61.1 (F)

44.8 (2000); 43.0 (M), 46.7 (F)

52.9 (2010); 51.7 (M), 54.1 (F)

60.3 (2015); 58.6 (M), 62.1 (F)

61.4 (2020); 59.7 (M), 75.1 (F)


Population of principal cities

 

Bulawayo

Chitungwiza

Gweru

HARARE1

Mutare

1936

 

 

 

 

3,566

1946

51,700

 

 

69,000

 

1950

 

 

 

108,000

10,000

1960

151,000

 

 

267,000

 

1970

297,000

 

47,000

400,000

48,000

1982

414,800

175,000

79,000

656,100

70,000

1992

621,742

274,912

124,735

1,189,100

131,800

2002

676,800

321,800

137,000

1,444,500

153,000

2009

 

 

 

1,572,000

 

2012

 

365,026

140,000

1,550,000

188,243

2016

1,200,337

 

 

 

 

1Harare was founded in 1890 as Salisbury, named after the British Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury. The city�s name was changed to Harare in 1982.


Wealth; Gross Domestic Product (nominal values), The economy contracted every year from 1999 to 2006.Growth resumed in 2008.The true exchange rate between the Zimbabwe Dollar and the US Dollar is uncertain, making statistics on Zimbabwe�s economy unreliable.

 

GDP,

US$ million

Total GDP,

% of USA

GDP per capita,

US$

GDP per capita

% of USA

1948

210

0.09

105

6.89

1960

1,050

0.19

297

9.88

1965

1,310

0.18

195

5.09

1970

1,884

0.18

364

6.94

1975

4,370

0.27

715

9.14

1980

6,680

0.24

932

7.40

1985

5,640

0.13

673

3.68

1990

8,780

0.15

897

3.74

1995

7,120

0.10

621

2.07

2000

7,190

0.07

550

1.51

2005

5,750

0.04

445

1.00

2010

10,050

0.07

715

1.48

2015

16,070

0.09

1,018

1.81

2016

16,290

0.09

1,008

1.75


GDP by primary sector

 

Agriculture

% GDP

Agriculture

% employed

Industry

% GDP

Industry

% employed

Services

% GDP

Services

% employed

1960

 

69.0

 

11.0

 

20.0

1967

20.0

 

 

 

 

 

1980

11.0

60.0

24.5

17.3

 

 

1990

15.0

70.0

35.0

8.0

61.0

20.0

2000

17.4

66.0

23.8

10.0

60.0

24.0

2010

20.4

66.0

24.6

10.0

55.0

24.0

2016

12.5

 

27.0

 

60.6

 

Communications

Language , Official; English and 15 African languages,

 

Shona

Sindebele

2010

70.0

20.0

Literacy


39.0% (1960)

70.8% (1980); 78.0% (M), 63.8% (F)

74.0% (1985); 81.0% (M), 67.0% (F)

85.0% (1995); 90.0% (M), 80.0% (F)

88.7% (2000); 92.8% (M), 84.7% (F)

91.2% (2010); 94.1% (M), 88.3% (F)


Physical communications � roads

 

Roads (km)

Surfaced (km)

Motor vehicles

Cars

Commercial Vehicles

1928

 

 

 

10,800

 

1929

 

 

 

13,150

 

1961

 

 

 

98,400

36,200

1964

 

 

138,600

 

 

1966

 

5,000

 

109,408

 

1981

 

 

 

167,423

 

1986

77,927

 

282,300

253,500

20,000

1996

86,000

8,700

 

323,000

32,000

2002

97,267

18,141

 

405,000

89,000

2007

 

 

700,000

 

 

2010

 

 

747,000

 

 

2013

 

 

853,000

 

 

2015

 

 

1,100,000

 

 

Railways; First railway 1897

Length, kilometres


1,027 (1900)

3,214 (1910)

3,447 (1920)

3,748 (1930)

3,846 (1940)

3,846 (1950)

4,231 (1958)

3.278 (1968)

3,470 (1981)

3,394 (1985) (9.1% e)

2,759 (1995) (11.3% e)

2,759 (2005) (17.5% e)


Electronic communications, Radio broadcasts began 1933. TV broadcasts began 1960 (colour from 1984).

 

Telephones (landlines)

Mobile Telephones

Radios

Televisions

PCs

Internet Users

1938

6,711

 

8,445

 

 

 

1950

 

 

30,000*

 

 

 

1961

 

 

36,000

 

 

 

1969

 

 

127,738

42,309

 

 

1975

81,650

 

 

 

 

 

1980

95,600

 

 

 

 

 

1982

 

 

300,000

80,000

 

 

1986

 

 

450,000

130,500

 

 

1990

123,650

 

832,000

260,000

2,000

 

1995

 

 

1,000,000

320,000

33,000

 

1997

 

5,734

 

 

 

 

1998

 

 

 

 

 

10,000

2000

249,000

266,400

 

 

195,000

50,000

2001

 

 

1,140,000

640,000

 

 

2002

 

 

 

 

 

500,000

2005

 

699,000

 

850,000

1,200,000

 

2008

348,000

 

 

 

 

 

2010

325,000

7,500,000

 

 

 

1,430,000

2016

305,720

12,879,000

 

 

 

3,363,000

2017

 

 

 

 

 

6,727,000

*Figures for what is now Zimbabwe and Malawi, as �Rhodesia and Nyasaland�

Tourism: Visitors to Zimbabwe,


319,224 (1968)

227,000 (1980)

454,779 (1987)

636,000 (1990)

1,416,000 (1995)

1,967,000 (2000)

1,559,000 (2005)

2,239,000 (2010)

2,057,000 (2015)


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