Page last modified 20 August 2023

 

Venezuela

Community

Area 912,050 square kilometres (land area 882,050 square kilometres)

Population,


1,356,000 (1850)

2,075,245 (1881)

2,323,527 (1891)

3,850,771 (1941)

5,034,838 (1950)

8,141,000 (1960)

11,396,000 (1970)

15,182,000 (1980)

19,633,000 (1990)

24,192,000 (2000)

28,440,000 (2010)

30,082,000 (2015)

28,870,000 (2018)


Ethnicity and Religion, %

 

Amerindian

Black

Mixed race

White

1900

15.7

 

 

 

1975

2.0

10.0

67.0

21.0

1981

2.0

9.0

69.0

20.0

1990

2.0

9.0

70.0

19.0

2011

 

3.6

51.6

43.6


Religion, %,

 

Christian

Protestant

Christian

R C

Jewish

No

religion

1981

 

94.0

 

 

1990

 

92.0

0.1

 

2011

17.0

71.0

0.0

8.0

Birth and death rates Below replacement rate = 2.1

 

Fertility Rate

Birth

Rate

Infant

Mortality

Death

Rate

% Aged

Under 15

% Aged

Over

65

% Urban

1890

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.0

1930

 

 

 

 

 

 

30.0

1950

 

47.0 (+35.0)

106.0

12.0

43.6

1.8

53.0

1960

6.6

44.0 (+34.0)

59.6

10.0

45.8

2.3

61.6

1970

5.4

36.0 (+29.0)

48.0

7.0

46.3

2.6

71.9

1980

4.2

29.0 (+23.4)

36.0

5.6

41.0

3.2

79.2

1990

3.4

30.0 (+24.7)

25.0

5.3

37.9

3.7

84.3

2000

2.8

23.0 (+18.0)

19.0

5.0

34.2

4.3

88.0

2010

2.5

21.0 (+16.7)

14.7

5.3

29.8

5.5

88.8

2015

2.3

19.3 (+13.7)

16.8

5.6

28.2

6.3

89.0

2016

 

 

21.4

 

27.9

6.4

89.0

2017

2.3

18.2 (+12.5)

21.4

5.7

 

 

 

2018

 

 

21.4

 

27.7

7.3

 

Life expectancy,


55.2 (1952); 54.0 (M), 57.0 (F)

59.3 (1960); 57.7 (M), 61.0 (F)

64.6 (1970); 62.2 (M), 67.2 (F)

68.2 (1980); 65.3 (M), 71.2 (F)

69.8 (1990); 67.1 (M), 72.7 (F)

72.3 (2000); 68.5 (M), 76.4 (F)

73.7 (2010); 69.6 (M), 77.9 (F)

74.1 (2020); 69.5 (M), 79.0 (F)


Population of principal cities, 1000s MA = Metropolitan Area

 

Barquisimeto1

CARACAS2

Cuidad

Guayana

Maracaibo

Maracay

Valencia

1771

 

19

 

 

 

 

1800

 

40

 

 

 

 

1881

 

56

 

 

 

 

1891

 

72

 

 

 

 

1900

40

100

 

35

 

39

1940

54

269

 

112

32

53

1950

105

495

 

236

65

89

1960

195

739

 

405

 

 

1965

 

1,485 MA

100

 

 

 

1971

331

 

144

 

255

367

1981

523

 

314

890

388

624

1990

787

1,825 MA

543

1,600

957

1,724

2009

1,159

 

 

2,153

1,040

1,738

2011

1,996

2,924 MA

1,050

 

955

1,900

2013

 

 

 

2,658

 

 

1Barquismeto was founded in 1522; the railway from Valencia was opened in 1893


2Caracas was founded 1561, destroyed by Indian attacks, re-founded in 1567.


Wealth; Gross Domestic Product (nominal values)

 

GDP,

US$ million

Total GDP,

% of USA

GDP per capita,

US$

GDP per capita

% of USA

1948

1,478

0.66

322

21.11

1955

3,600

1.01

 

 

1960

8,737

1.61

1,072

35.65

1965

9,500

1.28

970

25.34

1970

12,900

1.24

1,100

20.96

1975

31,850

1.95

2,340

29.92

1980

69,840

2.50

4,650

36.91

1985

61,970

1.47

3,300

18.06

1990

48,390

0.83

2,482

10.36

1995

77,320

1.04

3,539

11.77

2000

120,490

1.21

5,015

13.76

2005

145,500

1.11

5,430

12.26

2010

392,000

2.62

13,540

27.99

2016

236,400

1.27

 

 

GDP by primary sector

 

Agriculture

% GDP

Agriculture

% employed

Industry

% GDP

Industry

% employed

Services

% GDP

Services

% employed

1960

 

35.0

 

22.0

 

43.0

1970

9.0

25.0

 

 

 

 

1980

7.0

18.0

16.0

15.2

58.5

56.5

1990

6.0

13.0

35.0

25.0

59.0

65.0

2000

4.0

10.0

34.0

22.0

54.4

69.0

2010

4.7

7.3

34.9

21.8

60.4

71.0

2016

4.0

 

35.5

 

60.6

 

Communications

Language Official; Spanish.English is the second language.

Spanish, 98.0% (1990)

Literacy


63.0% (1960)

76.5% (1980); 79.7% (M), 73.4% (F)

84.7% (1990); 87.5% (M), 83.0% (F)

92.6% (2000); 93.1% (M), 92.1% (F)

97.1% (2015); 97.0% (M), 97.2% (F)


Physical communications � roads

 

Roads (km)

Surfaced (km)

Motor vehicles

Cars

Commercial Vehicles

1938

9,472

 

 

 

 

1955

 

 

243,800

146,200

 

1959

24,923

6,264

 

239,000

92,411

1962

26,400

 

 

280,000

 

1963

28,198

13,220

450,000

286,600

101,922

1975

 

19,000

1,324,600

955,200

369,400

1985

62,601

24,036

3,400,000

1,600,000

 

1996

84,300

33,200

 

 

434,000

2002

96,160

 

 

1,875,500

603,600

2007

 

 

4,044,000

2,952,100

 

2010

 

 

4,908,000

 

 

2014

96,189

 

 

 

 


Railways First railway opened 1877.

Length, kilometres, (% electrified)


592 (1900)

456 (1959)

473 (1963)

419 (1980)

336 (1985)

336 (1994)

447 (2014) (9.3% e)


Urban metro systems, kilometres (year opened)

 

Caracas

(1983)

Los Teques

(2006)

Maracaibo

(2006)

Valencia

(2006)

2010

54.1

9.5

6.5

4.7

2015

54.1

10.2

6.5

4.7

Electronic communications, TV broadcasts began 1952

 

Telephones (landlines)

Mobile Telephones

Radios

Televisions

PCs

Internet Users

1938

21,880

 

85,000

 

 

 

1948

52,618

 

 

 

 

 

1950

 

 

218,000

 

 

 

1959

158,875

 

 

 

 

 

1960

 

 

1,250,000

 

 

 

1961

 

 

1,300,000

263,000

 

 

1962

215,000

 

 

 

 

 

1969

345,704

 

 

 

 

 

1975

501,000

 

 

 

 

 

1980

800,000

 

 

1,850,000

 

 

1982

 

 

 

 

 

 

1983

 

 

5,000,000

 

 

 

1986

 

 

7,500,000

2,500,000

 

 

1988

 

1,800

 

 

100,000

 

1990

1,488,000

7,422

8,600,000

3,100,000

200,000

 

1995

 

404,000

10,000,000

3,700,000

600,000

 

1997

 

 

10,750,000

 

 

12,000

2000

2,536,000

5,447,000

 

4,500,000

1,100,000

 

2002

 

 

 

 

 

1,274,000

2005

 

12,495,700

 

5,500,000

2,475,000

2,500,000

2010

7,083,000

 

 

 

 

9,000,000

2016

7,752,232

27,600,000

 

 

 

18,550,000

Tourism: Visitors to Venezuela,


652,000 (1977)

615,000 (1987)

525,000 (1990)

700,000 (1995)

469,000 (2000)

706,000 (2005)

526,000 (2010)

988,000 (2012)

789,000 (2015)