214) Syria

Community

Area 185,180 square kilometres (land area 183,630 square kilometres). Includes 1,295 square kilometres of the Golan Heights occupied by Israel.

Population,

Over one million Iraqi refugees arrived in Syria between 2003 and 2007. However many Syrians have fled the country since the civil war started there in 2011.


4,400,000 (AD 1)

4,400,000 (AD 350)

4,000,000 (AD 600)

4,000,000 (AD 800)

2,000,000 (1000)

2,700,000 (1200)

3,000,000 (1340)

2,000,000 (1500)

2,750,000 (1860)

3,500,000 (1950)

4,575,000 (1960)

6,350,000 (1970)

8,930,000 (1980)

12,446,000 (1990)

16,410,000 (2000)

21,363,000 (2010)

17,997,000 (2015)

16,906,000 (2018)


Religion, %

 

Christian

Jewish

Muslim

All

Muslim

Shia

1910

16.0

 

 

 

1945

 

1.0

 

 

1952

14.0

 

85.7

 

1954

12.8

 

86.3

 

1970

 

0.7

 

 

1980

 

 

85.0

 

2009

 

 

92.9

25.0

2013

10.0

 

90.0

18.0

Birth and death rates Below replacement rate = 2.1

 

Fertility Rate

Birth

Rate

Infant

Mortality

Death

Rate

% Aged

Under 15

% Aged

Over

65

% Urban

1950

 

47.0 (+26.0)

160.0

21.0

41.4

4.4

35.3

1960

7.5

47.0 (+30.9)

118.0

16.1

46.5

4.0

36.8

1970

7.6

47.0 (+36.0)

74,5

11.0

48.1

3.3

43.3

1980

7.1

44.0 (+37.1)

47.0

6.9

49.0

3.0

46.7

1990

5.3

36.0 (+31.5)

30.0

4.5

47.1

3.0

48.9

2000

4.1

31.0 (+27.3)

20.0

3.7

41.0

3.3

51.9

2010

3.4

26.0 (+22.5)

14.0

4.5

37.4

3.5

55.7

2015

2.9

22.2 (+16.6)

14.2

5.6*

33.1

4.0

57.7

2016

 

 

14.2

 

 

4.2

58.1

2017

2.8

24.1 (+18.7)

14.1

5.4

 

 

 

2018

 

 

14.0

 

31.4

4.5

 

*Increase in death rate due to Syrian civil war. Trend death rate would have been ca. 3.1.

Life expectancy,


46.2 (1952); 45.0 (M), 47.0 (F)

52.0 (1960); 50.7 (M), 53.4 (F)

58.8 (1970); 57.5 (M), 60.2 (F)

65.8 (1980); 64.5 (M), 67.1 (F)

70.5 (1990); 69.1 (M), 72.1 (F)

73.1 (2000); 71.0 (M), 75.3 (F)

72.3 (2010); 68.1 (M), 76.8 (F)

73.2 (2020); 68.8 (M), 78.2 (F)


Population of principal cities, 1000s MA = Metropolitan Area

 

Aleppo

DAMASCUS

Hama

Homs

Latakia

1150

 

 

 

7

 

1785

 

 

 

2

 

1850

 

 

 

25

 

1883

99

 

 

 

 

1900

129

190

 

60

 

1943

314

286

71

102

37

1950

363

335

 

 

 

1960

425

557

97

137

68

1970

639

837

 

215

126

1981

977

1,251

176

355

197

1990

1,400

1,400

 

 

 

1994

 

 

273

558

303

2004

 

 

313

 

424 MA

2009

2,985

1,711

854

1,276

 

2010

4,600

5,000 MA

 

 

 

2017

1,800

 

 

200

 


The Syrian Civil War from 2011 onwards hit the cities of Aleppo and Homs particularly badly. Refugees left Syria in large numbers.

Wealth; Gross Domestic Product (nominal values) The Syrian civil war which began in 2011 has cut GDP by over 70%

 

GDP,

US$ million

Total GDP,

% of USA

GDP per capita,

US$

GDP per capita

% of USA

1956

450

0.13

 

 

1960

857

0.16

188

6.25

1965

1,470

0.20

274

7.16

1970

2,140

0.21

337

6.42

1975

6,820

0.42

906

11.59

1980

13,062

0.47

1,491

11.84

1985

16,400

0.39

2,062

11.29

1990

12,300

0.21

1,017

4.25

1995

16,620

0.22

1,163

3.87

2000

17,550

0.18

1.176

0.00

2005

28,800

0.22

1,577

3.56

2009

53,000

 

2,600

 

2014

24,600

 

 

 

GDP by primary sector

 

Agriculture

% GDP

Agriculture

% employed

Industry

% GDP

Industry

% employed

Services

% GDP

Services

% employed

1960

 

54.0

 

19.0

 

27.0

1970

20.0

50.0

 

 

 

 

1980

19.0

33.0

25.0

31.0

56.0

36.0

1990

27.0

33.0

20.0

29.0

53.0

38.0

2000

26.0

40.0

23.0

20.0

51.0

40.0

2010

17.7

17.0

28.2

16.0

54.1

67.0

2016

19.5

 

19.0

 

61.5

 

Communications

Language, %Official; Arabic

 

Arabic

Armenian

Kurdish

1947

88.0

 

8.0

1950

86.0

 

 

1970

85.0

2.0

8.2

1980

89.0

3.0

6.0

2000

90.0

 

9.0

Literacy


30.0% (1960)

65.7% (1980); 80.0% (M), 50.8% (F)

75.3% (2000); 88.8% (M), 61.6% (F)

83.1% (2010); 89.7% (M), 76.5% (F)

86.4% (2015); 91.7% (M), 81.0% (F)


Physical communications � roads

 

Roads (km)

Surfaced (km)

Motor vehicles

Cars

Commercial Vehicles

1930

 

 

4,822

 

 

1947

 

2,700

 

11,886

 

1960

 

 

 

28,000

8,926

1961

 

4,194

 

 

12,520

1968

9,200

 

50,000

 

 

1975

 

10,740

100,100

50,000

19,100

1980

20,300

14,300

 

75,200

92,000

1986

28,900

22,860

256,200

 

 

1992

 

25,900

356,100

111,900

 

1995

 

 

 

136,100

 

1999

43,400

 

 

138,600

310,000

2002

46,700

 

 

181,000

367,000

2007

 

 

 

 

 

2010

69,873

63,060

2,070,350

1,250,000

376,700

Railways; The railway from Beirut to Damascus opened 1895

Length, kilometres


68 (1900)

612 (1910)

712 (1920)

778 (1930)

860 (1940)

852 (1950)

961 (1960)

1,533 (1976)

1,932 (1980)

1,934 (1990)

2,798 (2000)

2,052 (2010)

2,052 92014)


Electronic communications, TV broadcasting began 1960 (colour from 1976).

 

Telephones (landlines)

Mobile Telephones

Radios

Televisions

PCs

Internet Users

1950

11,000

 

50,000

 

 

 

1954

 

 

149,000

 

 

 

1959

43,800

 

 

 

 

 

1960

 

 

260,000

1,000

 

 

1962

57,864

 

 

 

 

 

1969

98,500

 

 

 

 

 

1975

128,000

 

 

 

 

 

1980

239,800

 

1,800,000

405,000

 

 

1985

 

 

2,500,000

600,000

 

 

1990

496,300

 

3,150,000

740,000

 

 

1994

 

 

 

 

80,000

 

1995

 

 

3,750,000

950,000

100,000

 

1999

 

4,000

 

 

 

 

2000

1,675,250

30,000

4,560,000

2,750,000

250,000

30,000

2003

2,100,000

400,000

 

 

 

500,000

2005

 

2,950,000

 

 

800,000

1,000,000

2006

 

 

 

3,750,000

1,300,000

1,750,000

2010

4,069,000

11,969,000

 

 

 

4.469,000

2016

3,464,846

12,351,000

 

 

 

5,477,000

Tourism: Visitors to Syria,


900,000 (1974)

1,389,079 (1976)

831,000 (1982)

562,000 (1990)

815,000 (1995)

2,100,000 (2000)

3,571,000 (2005)

8,546,000 (2010)

5,070,000 (2011)