Page last modified 20 August 2023

 

Romania

Community

Area square kilometres


119,953 (1881)

294,960 (1939)

244,838 (1940)

195,195 (1941)


238,391 (post-1945 ) (land area 229,891 square kilometres)

Population,


5,500,500 (1881)

5,956,690 (1899)

18,057,208 (1930)

14,280,729 (1930)*

15,872,624 (1948)

17,489,794 (1956)

18,400,000 (1960)

20,250,000 (1970) +10.1%

22,240,000 (1980) +9.8%

23,200,000 (1990) +4.3%

22,443,000 (2000) -3.3%

20,247,000 (2010) -9.8%

18,286,000 (2020) -9.7%


*Within present (post-1945) borders

Ethnicity, % (see Religion below for Jewish ethnicity/faith)

 

Bulgaria

Germany

Hungary

Roma

Romania

Russia

Turkey

Ukraine

1880

1.8

0.9

0.9

3.6

81.0

 

 

 

1930

2.0

4.0

8.0

1.5

92.5

2.3

1.6

 

1948

 

2.2

9.4

 

85.7

 

 

 

1970

 

2.0

8.0

 

88.0

 

 

 

1992

 

0.5

7.1

1.8

 

 

 

 

2009

 

 

6.5

 

 

0.2

0.2

 

2011

 

0.2

6.1

3.3

88.9

 

 

0.3

Religion, %

 

Christian

Gk Orth.

Christian

Reformed

Christian

R C

Christian

Russ Orth

Jewish

Muslim

Sunni

None

1880

 

 

 

81.0

7.2

 

 

1900

 

 

 

 

4.3

0.7

 

1930

9.8

 

8.1

69.6

4.0

0.3

 

1948

9.0

 

7.0

81.0

0.9

 

 

1990

3.0

 

5.0

70.0

 

 

 

2002

 

 

4.7

 

 

 

0.1

2011

0.8

3.0

4.3

81.0

 

0.3

0.2

Birth and death rates Below replacement rate = 2.1

 

Fertility Rate

Birth

Rate

Infant

Mortality

Death

Rate

% Aged

Under 15

% Aged

Over

65

% Urban

1900

 

 

 

 

 

 

18.8

1938

 

29.6

 

 

 

 

 

1940

 

 

 

 

 

 

19.1

1950

 

25.0 (+13.0)

101.0

12.0

28.4

5.3

25.6

1960

2.3

20.6 (+11.9)

69.0

8.7

28.9

6.8

34.2

1970

2.9

21.1 (+11.6)

47.7

9.5

26.0

8.5

40.3

1980

2.4

18.0 (+7.6)

28.5

10.4

26.8

10.2

46.1

1990

1.8

14.0 (+3.4)

24.5

10.6

23.7

10.4

53.2

2000

1.3

10.4 (-1.0)

18.4

11.4

18.5

13.6

53.0

2010

1.6

10.5 (-2.3)

9.7

12.8

15.8

15.7

53.8

2015

1.6

9.3 (-3.9)

7.8

13.2

15.4

17.0

53.9

2017

1.6

9.7 (-3.6)

6.6

13.3

 

 

 

2018

 

 

6.1

 

15.5

18.3

54.0

Life expectancy,


61.1 (1952); 59.0 (M), 63.0 (F)

65.6 (1960); 63.9 (M), 67.5 (F)

68.1 (1970); 65.9 (M), 70.4 (F)

69.1 (1980); 66.5 (M), 71.8 (F)

69.7 (1990); 66.6 (M), 73.0 (F)

71.2 (2000); 67.7 (M), 74.8 (F)

73.5 (2010); 69.8 (M), 77.3 (F)

76.1 (2020); 72.7 (M), 79.6 (F)


Population of principal cities, 1,000s MA = Metropolitan Area

 

Brasov

BUCHAREST1

Constanta2

Ploesti

Timisoara

1595

 

10

 

 

 

1650

 

20

 

 

 

1789

 

30

 

 

 

1866

 

142

5

26

33

1892

31

196

 

 

 

1900

35

282

13

45

53

1912

41

340

27

56

73

1945

85

985

80

105

108

1950

83

1,111

107

 

133

1960

130

1,249

145

130

163

1968

172

1,600

240

154

215

1977

257

1,807

257

 

 

1984

335

1,961

318

232

309

1992

324

2,350

350

252

 

2002

285

1,926

310

233

318

2005

 

 

312

 

309

2009

255

1,933

 

 

 

2011

370 MA

1,883

283

210

319

2016

290

2,412 MA

426 MA

266 MA

359 MA

1Vlad the Impaler built a fortress at Bucharest in the 14th century to resist Ottoman expansion into the Balkans.Bucharest was the capital of Wallachia from 1665; it became the capital of Romania in 1861. The city�s name may derive from a 15th century shepherd called Bucur.

2Constanta was founded by Greeks in the 7th century BC, and known as Tomis, Constanta was rebuilt by Constantine the Great in the 4th century AD, and renamed Constantiniana.However by the 15th century it had declined to become just a small fishing village.Urban growth and industrialisation began after Bulgaria seized the Dobruja region in 1878, temporarily gaining control of Constanta.

Wealth; Gross Domestic Product (nominal values)

 

GDP,

US$ million

Total GDP,

% of USA

GDP per capita,

US$

GDP per capita

% of USA

1966

12,000

2.13

650

15.68

1975

21,010

1.28

991

12.67

1980

34,060

1.22

1,540

12.22

1985

47,600

1.13

2,101

11.50

1990

38,240

0.66

1,650

6.89

1995

35,840

0.48

1,660

5.52

2000

37,856

0.38

1,670

4.58

2005

98,600

0.75

4,700

10.61

2010

161,600

1.08

8,300

17.16

2015

177,500

0.98

8,950

15.92

2016

186,700

1.01

9,500

16.53

GDP by primary sector

 

Agriculture

% GDP

Agriculture

% employed

Industry

% GDP

Industry

% employed

Services

% GDP

Services

% employed

1935

 

80.0

 

 

 

 

1950

31.3

74.3

23.3

14.2

 

 

1960

 

67.0

 

15.0

 

18.0

1970

25.0

42.0

 

 

 

 

1980

 

 

36.1

36.0

 

 

1990

20.6

36.0

 

 

 

28.0

2000

15.0

 

38.1

 

43.4

 

2010

12.8

29.7

36.0

23.2

51.2

47.1

2014

 

28.3

 

28.9

 

42.8

2016

4.4

 

34.2

 

63.3

 


Communications

Language Official;, Romanian.German and Hungarian (Magyar) also spoken

 

German

Hungarian

Romanian

Yiddish

1948

2.2

9.4

85.7

0.9

1956

2.2

9.0

85.7

0.5

1990

1.0

10.0

89.0

 

2010

 

6.2

85.0

 

Literacy


11.6% (1899)

17.3% (1902)*

89.0% (1950)

94.0% (1990)

97.9% (1995); 98.9% (M), 96.9% (F)

98.2% (2000); 99.1% (M), 97.4% (F)

97.6% (2010); 98.3% (M), 96.9% (F)

98.8% (2015); 99.1% (M), 98.5% (F)


*Urban 42.0%, Rural 11.5%

Physical communications � roads

 

Roads (km)

Motor vehicles

Cars

Commercial Vehicles

1945

69,060

 

 

 

1947

 

29,000

14,609

12,000

1961

 

 

 

21,890

1969

153,359

 

 

 

1988

 

1,100,000

850,000

 

1996

 

 

2,408,000

 

2001

198,000

 

3,225,512

 

2005

199,000

3,897,000

3,363,800

 

2010

211,250

5,028,000

4,320,000

 

2015

 

6,600,000

5,155,000

 

Railways; First railway in Romania opened 1869, Bucharest to Giurgiu.

 

Length (km)

% electrified

1870

245

 

1880

1,383

 

1890

2,473

 

1910

3,181

 

1920

3,590

 

1930

11,212

 

1940

11,365

 

1955

12,500

 

1984

11.134

28.0

1994

10,887

35.5

2004

10,900

36.0

2014

11,268

29.2


Urban metro systems (kilometres)

Bucharest metro, (opened 1979)


76.5 (2001)

67.3 (2010)

71.4 (2013)


Electronic communications, TV broadcasting began 1955

 

Telephones 1,000s

Mobile Telephones

Radios

1,000s

Televisions

1,000s

PCs

Internet Users

1938

93

 

274

 

 

 

1944

99

 

295

 

 

 

1947

127

 

 

 

 

 

1950

135

 

313

 

 

 

1957

 

 

 

28

 

 

1959

190

 

688

 

 

 

1960

 

 

2,008

 

 

 

1962

237

 

2,372

149

 

 

1968

 

 

 

1,200

 

 

1969

596

 

3,150

 

 

 

1975

857

 

 

2,692

 

 

1980

1,618

 

 

3,700

 

 

1990

2,366

 

6,645

4,500

50,000

 

1993

 

800

 

 

 

 

1995

 

9,070

6,933

5,100

300,000

16,000

2000

3,899

2,500,000

7,300

 

713,000

 

2002

 

 

 

 

 

1,800,000

2004

4,390

 

5,369

5,822

2,450,000

4,500,000

2005

 

13,354,100

 

 

2,750,000

 

2009

5,313

 

 

 

 

7,787,000

2012

4,680

 

 

 

 

 

2014

 

 

 

 

 

11,000,000

2016

4,110

22,900,000

 

 

 

12,850,000

Tourism: Visitors to Romania,


1,432,000 (1990)

5,445,000 (1995)

5,264,000 (2000)

5,839,000 (2005)

7,498,000 (2010)

9,331,000 (2015)