Page last modified 16 August 2023

 

Poland

Community

Area 312,685 square kilometres (land area 304,255 square kilometres)

Historical area, 127,322 square kilometres pre-1918; 388,600 square kilometres 1918-1945. In 1945 Poland lost 179,700 square kilometres in the east and gained 102,800 square kilometres in the west.

Population,


4,500,000 (1840)

5,000,000 (1863)

6,100,000 (1870)

9,455,943 (1897)

27,200,000 (1921)

32,107,000 (1931)

34,849,000 (1938)

23,911,172 (1946)*

24,800,000 (1950)

29,640,000 (1960) +19.5%

32,665,000 (1970) +10.2%

35,575,000 (1980) +8.9%

38,110,000 (1990) +7.1%

38,260,000 (2000) +0.4%

38,043,000 (2010) -0.6%

37,951,000 (2020) -0.2%


*6 to 7 million Poles died during World War Two. Post War Poland was also smaller than it had been pre-War.

Ethnicity, %.

 

German

Polish

Silesian

Ukrainian

1921

 

69.2

 

 

1939

 

69.0

 

 

1946

9.6

85.8

 

 

1963

 

 

 

0.6

1976

 

97.0

 

 

2002

0.4

96.7

 

0.1

2011

0.2

96.9

1.1

0.1

Religion, %;

 

Christian

Orthodox

Christian

R C

Jewish

Muslim

No

religion

1931

11.8

64.8

9.8

 

 

1937

 

 

10.5

 

 

1947

 

 

0.4

 

 

1963

1.3

 

0.1

 

 

1976

 

80.0

 

 

 

1990

2.0

93.0

 

 

 

2000

 

95.0

 

 

 

2010

0.7

87.5

 

>0.1

2.4

Birth and death rates Below replacement rate = 2.1

 

Fertility Rate

Birth

Rate

Infant

Mortality

Death

Rate

% Aged

Under 15

% Aged

Over

65

% Urban

1930

 

 

143.0

 

 

 

 

1935

 

 

137.0

 

 

 

27.0

1950

 

30.0 (+21.0)

95.0

11.0

29.4

5.2

39.0

1960

3.0

24.9 (+16.3)

71.0

8.6

33.6

5.7

47.9

1970

2.2

16.8 (+8.6)

32.0

8.2

27.2

8.2

52.1

1980

2.3

19.5 (+9.7)

21.0

9.8

24.0

10.2

58.1

1990

2.1

14.0 (+3.8)

15.0

10.2

25.1

10.0

61.3

2000

1.4

10.0 (+0.4)

8.0

9.6

19.6

12.0

61.7

2010

1.4

11.0 (+1.1)

5.2

9.9

15.2

13.5

60.9

2015

1.3

9.7 (-0.7)

4.2

10.4

14.9

15.6

60.5

2017

1.4

10.6 (0.0)

3.9

10.6

 

 

 

2018

 

 

3.8

 

15.1

17.5

60.1

Life expectancy,


49.8 (1931); 48.2 (M), 51.4 (F)

61.3 (1952); 59.0 (M), 64.0 (F)

67.7 (1960); 64.9 (M), 70.6 (F)

69.9 (1970); 66.6 (M), 73.3 (F)

70.1 (1980); 66.0 (M), 74.4 (F)

70.9 (1990); 66.5 (M), 75.5 (F)

73.7 (2000); 69.7 (M), 78.0 (F)

76.2 (2010); 72.1 (M), 80.6 (F)

78.8 (2020); 74.9 (M), 82.6 (F)


Population of principal cities, 1,000s MA = Metropolitan Area

 

Cracow

MA

Gdansk

(Danzig)

MA

Lodz

MA

Poznan

MA

1550

80

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1800

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

38

 

67

 

 

 

 

 

1870

50

 

 

 

39

 

 

 

1880

75

 

109

 

50

 

 

 

1890

 

 

120

 

 

 

 

 

1900

91

 

141

 

315

 

 

 

1939

259

 

250

 

672

 

272

 

1946

300

 

118

 

497

 

268

 

1950

344

 

195

 

 

 

321

 

1960

479

 

275

 

698

 

408

 

1966

525

 

324

 

740

 

450

 

1976

693

 

427

 

800

 

510

 

1986

720

 

465

 

850

 

565

 

1996

738

 

463

 

812

 

585

 

2001

759

 

461

 

789

 

579

 

2011

756

 

461

 

 

 

 

 

2017

767

1,726

464

1,081

694

1,100

552

1,100

 

Cracow

MA

Gdansk

(Danzig)

MA

Lodz

MA

Poznan

MA

Population of principal cities, 1,000s MA = Metropolitan Area

 

Szczecin

(Stettin)

MA

WARSAW1

MA

Wroclaw

(Breslau)

MA

1700

 

 

30

 

 

 

1720

6

 

 

 

 

 

1750

14

 

 

 

52

 

1792

 

 

115

 

 

 

1800

18

 

64*

 

 

 

1850

45

 

163

 

130

 

1870

76

 

270

 

208

 

1890

116

 

533

 

335

 

1900

210

 

715

 

423

 

1910

236

 

770

 

 

 

1925

 

 

1,000

 

 

 

1939

383

 

1,301

 

 

 

1946

 

 

477**

 

168

 

1950

179

 

803

 

309

 

1960

269

 

1,095

 

429

 

1966

320

 

1,250

 

500

 

1976

370

 

1,300

 

580

 

1986

400

 

1,600

 

640

 

1996

415

 

1,650

 

640

 

2001

415

 

1,672

 

640

 

2011

 

 

1,710

 

 

 

2017

406

777

1,758

3,101

638

1,165

 

Szczecin

(Stettin)

MA

WARSAW1

MA

Wroclaw

(Breslau)

MA

*An anti-Prussian uprising in Warsaw was crushed in 1794, with many casualties.

**Major population losses from World War Two. Warsaw�s pre-War Jewish population of ca. 400,000 was annihilated.

1The Warsaw area was first settled in the 11th century, and Warsaw was founded as a city in around 1300. The name may derive from the Polish word for �castle�, var.

Wealth; Gross Domestic Product (nominal values)

 

GDP,

US$ million

Total GDP,

% of USA

GDP per capita,

US$

GDP per capita

% of USA

1948

4,504

2.01

190

12.46

1965

20,000

2.69

710

18.55

1970

25,650

2.47

820

15.63

1975

37,100

2.27

1,134

14.50

1980

53,870

1.93

1,572

12.48

1985

67,230

1.60

1,872

10.25

1990

66,000

1.14

1,606

6.70

1995

127,050

1.72

3,419

11.37

2000

160,860

1.61

4,232

11.61

2005

299,200

2.29

7,800

17.60

2010

468,500

3.13

12,600

26.05

2015

477,340

2.65

12,566

22.36

2016

469,500

2.53

12,370

21.53

GDP by primary sector

 

Agriculture

% GDP

Agriculture

% employed

Industry

% GDP

Industry

% employed

Services

% GDP

Services

% employed

1921

 

63.8

 

15.4

 

20.8

1950

36.9

53.5

26.5

25.6

 

 

1960

 

48.0

 

29.0

 

23.0

1967

24.2

39.9

42.4

39.9

 

 

1980

20.0

31.0

 

39.0

 

30.0

1990

13.0

28.5

60.7

38.9

26.3

32.6

2000

3.0

28.0

30.5

22.0

61.0

50.0

2010

4.0

17.4

32.0

29.2

64.0

53.4

2016

2.4

11.5

40.2

30.4

64.2

57.6

Communications

Language Official; Polish.German, Ukrainian, also spoken

Polish,


69.8% (1931)

99.0% (1990)

97.8% (2002)

98.7% (2011)


Literacy


30.5% (1897); 34.2% (M), 26.8% (F)

96.0% (1960)

98.0% (1980)

99.7% (2000); 99.7% (M), 99.7% (F)

99.8% (2015); 99.9% (M), 99.7% (F)


Physical communications � roads

 

Roads (km)

Surfaced (km)

Motor vehicles

Cars

Commercial Vehicles

1939

 

 

 

26,000

 

1946

 

94,583

 

23,036

36,914

1948

 

 

 

24,240

 

1955

 

98,679

 

 

88,000

1960

 

110,000

 

110,000

120,000

1962

 

 

 

157,000

143,200

1964

 

 

388,500

 

 

1970

 

130,000

 

1,050,000

250,000

1977

299,725

 

 

1,547,300

509,500

1980

 

147,680

 

2,269,900

612,100

1986

360,629

 

 

 

 

1990

 

218,000

5,600,000

5,260,000

1,050,000

2000

364,656

250,000

 

9,991,260

1,783,000

2006

 

 

15,964,000

13,384,000

2,393,000

2010

385,356

 

20,459,000

 

 

2012

 

 

24,876,000

 

 

2013

 

 

25,700,000

 

 

2014

417,026

287,650

26,500,000

20,000,000

 

Railways; First steam railway opened 1845

 

Length (km) standard gauge

% Electrified

Narrow gauge lines (km)

Warsaw Metro (km) (opened 1995)

1864

635

 

 

 

1885

1,941

 

 

 

1911

3,394

 

 

 

1945

23,170

 

3,930

 

1958

23,437

 

3,774

 

1968

23,218

13.8

3,422

 

1977

23,953

26.3

 

 

1980

 

30.0

 

 

1985

 

35.0

 

 

1992

22,740

 

1,855

 

1995

 

 

 

11.0

2000

20,300

50.0

511

 

2007

20,107

59.2

0*

18.0

2010

19,700

 

 

23.1

2015

19,231 (all)

61.7

 

29.0

*Some narrow gauge lines remained in private ownership as tourist lines

Electronic communications, TV broadcasting began 1937. There was no TV broadcastingin Poland between 1939 and 1952. Colour TV broadcasting from 1971.

 

Telephones 1000s

Mobile Telephones

1000s

Radios

1000s

Televisions

1000s

PCs

Internet Users

1937

272

 

 

 

 

 

1938

 

 

861

 

 

 

1945

83

 

 

 

 

 

1946

 

 

425

 

 

 

1947

118

 

974

 

 

 

1950

225

 

1,464

 

 

 

1958

446

 

4,500

 

 

 

1959

 

 

 

1,883

 

 

1960

 

 

5,268

 

 

 

1962

636

 

5,620

 

 

 

1975

1,386

 

7,500

6,000

 

 

1977

 

 

8,348

7,170

 

 

1980

1,943

 

9,000

7,500

 

 

1988

 

 

 

 

150,000

 

1990

3,293

 

16,500

11,640

300,000

 

1992

 

2.2

 

 

 

 

1995

 

75

17,500

12,000

1,100,000

 

1997

 

 

20,200

 

 

700,000

2000

10,946

6,747

 

15,000

2,670,000

 

2002

 

 

 

 

 

8,800,000

2004

 

 

 

 

7,362,000

 

2005

 

29,165

 

15,500

 

10,000,000

2009

9,556

44,553

 

 

 

22,452,000

2016

9,345

55,879

 

 

 

28,240,000

2017

 

 

 

 

 

28,267,000

Tourism: Visitors to Poland,


9,131,000 (1979)

2,997,000 (1984)

4,776,000 (1987)

18,211,000 (1990)

19,215,000 (1995)

17,400,000 (2000)

15,200,000 (2005)

12,470,000 (2010)

16,722,000 (2015)