Page last modified 16 August 2023

 

New Zealand

Community

Area 267,710 square kilometres (land area 267,710 square kilometres)

North Island, 115,777 square kilometres

South Island, 151,215 square kilometres

Population,


80,000 (1840) all

2,000 (1840)*

26,707 (1851)*

99,022 (1861)*

256,260 (1871)*

534,030 (1881)

668,632 (1891)

743,207 (1896)

815,853 (1901)

1,058,308 (1911)

1,271,644 (1921)

1,408,139 (1926)

1,573,819 (1936)

1,702,298 (1945)

1,939,472 (1950)

2,370,000 (1960) +24.2%

2,820,000 (1970) +19.0%

3,150,000 (1980) +11.7%

3,400,000 (1990) +7.9%

3,860,000 (2000) +13.5%

4,370,000 (2010) +13.2%

5,084,300 (2020) +16.3%


*White population only

Ethnicity, %

 

Asian

Maori

Mixed race

Pacific Islands

White

1891

 

6.3

 

 

 

1901

 

5.3

 

 

 

1936

 

 

 

 

94.3

1941

 

5.8

 

 

 

1951

 

6.0

 

 

 

1961

 

7.1

 

 

 

1971

 

8.5

 

1.0

91.0

1981

 

8.8

 

 

 

1991

 

9.4

 

5.0

83.1

1996

5.0

 

 

 

 

2001

6.6

13.8

 

6.5

80.0

2006

9.2

13.6

7.9

6.9

77.6

2013

11.8

14.9

 

7.4

74.0

Religion, %

 

Buddhist

Christian

Anglican

Christian

Methodist

Christian

Presbyterian

Christian

R C

Muslim

No

Religion

1950

 

37.5

 

23.4

13.5

 

 

1960

 

32.4

6.7

20.1

12.9

 

 

1990

 

24.0

5.0

18.0

15.0

 

 

2006

 

13.8

 

 

12.6

 

32.2

2013

1.5

11.8

 

8.5

12.6

1.2

41.9

Birth and death rates Below replacement rate = 2.1

 

Fertility Rate

Birth

Rate

Infant

Mortality

Death

Rate

% Aged

Under 15

% Aged

Over

65

% Urban

1865

 

 

 

13.2

 

 

 

1880

 

 

117.0

 

 

 

 

1900

 

 

79.0

9.8

 

 

 

1933

 

18.0 (+8.7)

39.0

9.3

 

 

 

1940

 

22.8

 

 

 

 

 

1945

 

23.2 (+13.1)

28.0

10.1

 

 

60.3

1952

 

26.0 (+17.0)

26.0

9.0

29.1

9.0

60.7

1962

4.1

25.1 (+14.1)

21.0

9.0

33.1

8.4

77.1

1970

3.2

22.6 (+13.8)

17.0

8.8

31.7

8.5

81.1

1980

2.0

16.4 (+7.9)

13.0

8.5

27.2

9.8

83.4

1990

2.1

18.0 (+9.9)

9.2

8.1

23.2

11.1

84.7

2000

2.0

14.6 (+7.7)

6.1

6.9

22.7

11.8

85.7

2010

2.2

15.0 (+8.5)

5.1

6.5

20.5

13.1

86.2

2015

2.0

13.3 (+6.4)

4.9

6.9

20.0

14.6

86.3

2017

1.8

12.4 (+5.4)

4.8

7.0

 

 

 

2018

 

 

4.7

 

19.7

15.6

86.5

Life expectancy,


55.4 (1900)

60.5 (1908); 59.2 (M), 61.8 (F)

66.5 (1931); 65.0 (M), 67.9 (F)

69.6 (1952); 68.0 (M), 72.0 (F)

71.2 (1960); 68.7 (M), 73.9 (F)

71.3 (1970); 68.2 (M), 74.5 (F)

72.8 (1980); 70.0 (M), 75.8 (F)

75.4 (1990); 72.5 (M), 78.4 (F)

78.6 (2000); 76.1 (M), 81.3 (F)

80.7 (2010); 78.8 (M), 82.7 (F)

82.4 (2020); 80.7 (M), 84.0 (F)


Population of principal cities, 1,000s

 

Auckland1

Christchurch2

Dunedin3

Hamilton

WELLINGTON4

1856

7

 

 

 

 

1870

 

 

15

 

 

1881

17

 

24

 

 

1891

51

17

44

 

37

1901

67

57

53

 

49

1911

 

80

63

 

65

1936

102

92

65

 

116

1945

263

150

84

26

175 MA

1950

322

172

96

 

133

1960

423

215

103

47

145

1970

635

265

110

70

180

1980

 

315

 

 

 

1990

896

330

110

150

320

2001

1,075

334

107

166

340

2009

1,360

 

 

 

391

2017

1.,657 MA

382

129

236 MA

417 MA

1Auckland was first capital of New Zealand, established 1840; Wellington became the capital from 1865.The city was named after Lord Auckland, who was then the Governor-General of India and was famous for winning the First Afghan War.The population of Auckland was boosted by Scottish migration in the 1840s.

2Christchurch was founded as a model English settlement in 1851; with streets laid out in a grid pattern.

3Dunedin was founded by Scottish Presbyterian settlers in 1848.

4The harbour at Wellington was visited by Captain Cook in 1773.The city was founded in 1840 by Edward Gibbon Wakefield as the first settlement of the New Zealand Company.It was named after the Duke of Wellington(1769-1852) who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, 1815. Wellington replaced Auckland as the national capital in 1865.

Wealth; Gross Domestic Product (nominal values)

 

GDP,

US$ million

Total GDP,

% of USA

GDP per capita,

US$

GDP per capita

% of USA

1948

1,755

0.79

933

61.18

1956

2,475

0.69

 

 

1960

5,485

1.01

2,312

76.89

1965

5,654

0.76

2,151

56.19

1970

6,450

0.62

2,400

45.74

1975

12,861

0.79

4,172

53.35

1980

23,245

0.83

7,470

59.30

1985

24,680

0.59

7,600

41.60

1990

45,500

0.78

13,663

57.04

1995

63,900

0.86

17,400

57.87

2000

52,623

0.53

13,641

37.42

2005

114,720

0.88

27,750

62.63

2010

146,581

0.98

33,691

69.65

2015

175,565

0.97

38,200

67.96

2016

185,000

1.00

39,425

68.60


GDP by primary sector

 

Agriculture

% GDP

Agriculture

% employed

Industry

% GDP

Industry

% employed

Services

% GDP

Services

% employed

1936

 

23.3

 

 

 

 

1945

 

18.6

 

 

 

 

1960

 

15.0

 

37.0

 

49.0

1970

 

12.0

 

 

 

 

1980

 

10.0

 

35.0

51.3

54.9

1990

8.1

10.0

30.5

27.4

 

 

2000

8.0

 

23.0

 

69.0

71.0

2010

4.6

7.0

24.0

19.0

71.4

74.0

2016

3.9

 

26.3

 

69.8

 

Communications

Language % Official; English and Maori

 

English

Maori

1990

 

1.5

2006

91.2

3.9

2016

96.1

3.7

Literacy, 99.9% (1980 and after)


Physical communications � roads

 

Roads (km)

Surfaced (km)

Motor vehicles

Cars

Commercial Vehicles

1948

 

 

 

226,407

69,267

1951

 

 

 

272,733

95,154

1955

 

 

474,200

363,000

 

1963

 

 

 

593,085

137,811

1964

 

 

800,600

 

 

1969

 

 

1,138,577

843,190

166,387

1978

 

 

 

1,251,600

245,000

1986

 

51,215

 

1,531,425

306,000

1992

 

55,313

2,351,868

1,542.912

 

1997

91,997

 

2,457,116

1,675,300

 

2002

92,200

 

 

1,900,000

 

2007

93,748

 

2,667,000

 

500,000

2009

93,991

 

2,781,000

 

 

2012

94,902

62,759

2,884,000

 

 

2013

 

 

3,250,000

 

 

2014

 

 

3,675,000

 

 

2015

 

 

3,858,000

3,018,000

 

Railways; First steam railway opened 1863, Christchurch to Ferrymead.

Length, kilometres, (% electrified)


74 (1870)

2,058 (1880)

2,941 (1890)

3,560 (1900)

4,447 (1910)

4,859 (1920)

5,371 (1930)

5,458 (1940)

5,683 (1950)

153 e (1956)

5,500 (1960)

5,365 (1962)

4,478 (1980)

4,273 (1986) (4.2% e)

504 e (1993)

4,439 (1996)

3,900 (1999)

3,898 (2002) (13.0% e)

4,128 (2008) (12.3% e)

4,128 (2014) (12.2% e)


Electronic communications, TV broadcasts began 1960 (colour from 1973)

 

Telephones (landlines)

Mobile Telephones

Radios

Televisions

PCs

Internet Users

1938

192,019

 

285,000

 

 

 

1944

244,754

 

380,660

 

 

 

1948

252,626

 

421,000

 

 

 

1950

 

 

454,000

 

 

 

1951

271,935

 

465,609

 

 

 

1960

 

 

580,000

 

 

 

1962

801,875

 

607,881

65,524

 

 

1975

987,000

 

 

 

 

 

1976

 

 

2,715,000

863,100

 

 

1980

1,136,500

 

 

880,000

 

 

1987

 

2,400

 

 

 

 

1990

1,469,000

54,100

3,130,000

1,500,000

300,000

 

1995

 

365,000

3,550,000

1,830,000

800,000

 

1998

 

 

 

 

 

561,000

2000

1,833,000

1,540,000

3,850,000

2,100,000

1,380,000

1,250,000

2004

 

3,000,000

 

 

1,924,000

2,350,000

2006

 

 

 

2,500,000

2,200,000

 

2010

1,870,000

5,023,000

 

 

 

3,330,000

2016

1,820,000

5,800,000

 

 

 

3,960,000

Tourism: Visitors to New Zealand,


220.685 (1969)

295,000 (1975)

390,000 (1977)

445,195 (1980)

689,073 (1986)

976,000 (1990)

1,409,000 (1995)

1,780,000 (2000)

2,353,000 (2005)

2,435,000 (2010)

3,039,000 (2015)

3,600,000 (2016)