Page last modified 20 August 2023

 

122) Kenya

Community

Area 580.367 square kilometres (569,140 square kilometres land area)

Population,


2,900,000 (1900)

3,300,000 (1920)

4,047,000 (1945)

5,406,000 (1948)

6,120,000 (1950)

8,100,000 (1960) +32.4%

11,300,000 (1970) +39.5%

16,370,000 (1980) +44.9%

23,700,000 (1990) +44.8%

31,950,000 (2000) +34.8%

42,030,000 (2010) +31.5%

53,771,000 (2020) +27.9%


Religion, %

 

Animist

Christian

Protestant

Christian

R C

Muslim

Sunni

1900

95.8

0.1

0.2

3.4

1960

40.0

36.0

18.0

6.0

1970

28.1

16.3

24.0

6.4

1990

19.0

46.0

27.0

6.0

2010

1.7

47.4

23.3

10.0

Ethnicity, %

 

African

Arab

European

Indian

1920

 

 

0.1

1.3

1948

97.1

0.4

0.6

1.2

1970

98.0

0.3

0.4

1.3

2016

99.0

 

 

 

Birth and death rates Below replacement rate = 2.1

 

Fertility Rate

Birth

Rate

Infant

Mortality

Death

Rate

% Aged

Under 15

% Aged

Over

65

% Urban

1952

 

53.0 (+30.0)

 

23.0

49.1

3.1

5.2

1962

8.0

51.1 (+32.0)

110.0

19.1

47.5

3.7

7.8

1972

8.0

50.8 (+36.2)

88.0

14.6

49.4

3.4

11.3

1980

7.5

49.0 (+37.5)

69.0

11.5

49.9

3.0

15.6

1990

6.1

42.0 (+31.6)

64.0

10.4

48.9

2.5

16.7

2000

5.2

39.8 (+27.4)

63.0

12.4

45.1

2.3

19.9

2010

4.4

35.1 (+27.9)

38.6

7.2

43.2

1.9

23.6

2015

3.8

31.8 (+26.0)

33.3

5.8

41.3

2.1

25.6

2017

3.6

29.3 (+23.6)

31.8

5.7

 

 

 

2018

 

 

30.6

 

39.8

2.3

27.0

Life expectancy,


41.0 (1952); 39.0 (M), 43.0 (F)

46.4 (1960); 44.5 (M), 48.3 (F)

52.2 (1970); 50.2 (M), 54.4 (F)

57.8 (1980); 55.9 (M), 59.7 (F)

57.5 (1990); 55.2 (M), 60.0 (F)

51.7 (2000); 49.8 (M), 53.8 (F)

62.9 (2010); 61.0 (M), 64.9 (F)

66.7 (2020); 64.3 (M), 69.0 (F)


Population of principal cities, MA = Metropolitan Area

 

Mombasa1

NAIROBI2

1900

27,000

10,000

1910

30,000

14,000

1925

 

29,000

1950

43,000

135,000

1960

159,000

260,000

1970

179,000

509,000

1979

425,634

827,775

1989

461,753

1,346,000

1999

655,018

2,134,254

2009

966,000

3,010,000

2016

1,200,000

6,547,547 MA

1Merchants from Arabia, Persia, and Portugal visited Mombasa from the 10th century AD.From 1901 the extension of railway lines into the African interior boosted the trade of Mombasa.

2The name Nairobi derives from the Masai words �Enkare Nairobi�, meaning �place of cold waters.In 1896 a camp was set up here by Europeans, to trade with caravans running between Uganda and the African coast.In 1899 the railway being built from the coast to Uganda reached Nairobi; railway construction halted here whilst engineers worked out how to climb the escarpment of the Rift Valley.Nairobi was designated as the capital of the colony of Kenya in 1920.

Wealth; Gross Domestic Product (nominal values)

 

GDP,

US$ million

Total GDP,

% of USA

GDP per capita,

US$

GDP per capita

% of USA

1948

250

0.11

47

3.08

1960

791

0.15

98

3.26

1965

998

0.13

105

2.74

1970

1,570

0.15

142

2.71

1975

3,480

0.21

245

3.13

1980

7,100

0.25

427

3.39

1985

6,130

0.15

308

1.69

1990

8,590

0.15

365

1.52

1995

9,050

0.12

336

1.12

2000

10,360

0.10

404

1.11

2005

18,000

0.14

520

1.17

2010

40,000

0.27

967

2.00

2015

63,750

0.35

1,350

2.40

2016

70,530

0.38

1,455

2.53

GDP by primary sector

 

Agriculture

% GDP

Agriculture

% employed

Industry

% GDP

Industry

% employed

Services

% GDP

Services

% employed

1960

 

86.0

 

5.0

 

9.0

1970

 

85.0

 

 

 

 

1980

33.0

83.0

12.0

8.0

53.0

14.0

1990

28.0

80.0

20.0

6.8

52.0

13.0

2000

24.0

77.0

19.0

 

57.0

 

2005

 

61.1

 

6.7

 

32.2

2010

22.0

75.0

16.0

 

62.0

 

2016

35.6

 

17.2

 

47.3

 

Communications

Languages, % Official; English, Swahili

 

Kalenjin

Kamba

Kikuyu

Luhya

Luo

1980

11.0

11.0

21.0

14.0

13.0

Literacy


20.0% (1960)

27.0% (1970)

47.1% (1980); 60.0% (M), 34.8% (F)

63.8% (1985)

78.1% (1995); 86.3% (M), 70.0% (F)

83.3% (2000); 89.5% (M), 77.3% (F)

85.1% (2005); 90.6% (M), 79.7% (F)

 


Physical communications � roads and railways

 

Roads (km)

Surfaced (km)

Motor vehicles

Cars

Commercial Vehicles

Railways

(km)

1956

 

 

52,500

 

 

 

1964

 

 

81,500

 

 

 

1969

 

 

 

 

 

926

1975

 

4,045

 

 

 

926

1976

50,091

 

 

 

 

2,426

1977

 

 

 

 

83,900

 

1980

 

6,540

 

 

 

 

1982

 

 

 

113,629

84,193

 

1985

54,584

6,714

250,000

125,000

87,500

 

1990

 

7,687

 

160,000

125,000

2,650

1995

63,800

8,900

 

 

 

2,500

2000

63,942

 

 

245,000

 

2,634

2007

 

 

770,000

562,400

210,900

 

2010

 

11,197

920,000

 

 

 

2014

 

 

 

 

 

3,806

2017

 

14,420

 

 

 

 

Electronic communications, TV broadcasting began 1962

 

Telephones (landlines)

Mobile Telephones

Radios

Televisions

PCs

Internet Users

1938

4,356

 

2,995

 

 

 

1944

7,294

 

6,700

 

 

 

1950

 

 

13,000

 

 

 

1960

 

 

57,000

 

 

 

1975

53,000

 

 

 

 

 

1976

 

 

514,000

50,000

 

 

1980

73,000

 

 

 

 

 

1982

 

 

600,000

72,000

 

 

1990

175,050

 

2,000,000

225,000

8,000

 

1992

 

1,100

 

 

 

 

1995

 

2,300

2,600,000

500,000

18,000

 

1998

 

 

 

 

 

5,000

2000

291,700

127,400

6,760,000

750,000

150,000

200,000

2003

 

 

 

 

300,000

700,000

2005

 

4,612,500

 

1,800,000

 

2,250,000

2010

 

24,969,000

 

 

 

3,995,500

2011

 

 

 

 

 

10,492,000

2012

251,600

 

 

 

 

 

2016

72,801

38,982,000

 

 

 

12,166,000

2017

 

 

 

 

 

43,330,000

Tourism: Visitors to Kenya,


28,000 (1950)

46,000 (1960)

127,000 (1967)

343,000 (1970)

377,510 (1974)

350,000 (1980)

814,000 (1990)

918,000 (1995)

899,000 (2000)

1,399,000 (2005)

1,470,000 (2010)

1,114,000 (2015)