Page last modified 18 August 2023

 

Germany

Community

Area

547,370 square kilometres (1900)

108,333 square kilometres (East Germany)

248,706 square kilometres (West Germany)

357,022 square kilometres (all Germany, post-unification 1990) (land area 348,672 square kilometres)

Population (all Germany*),


3,500,000 (AD 1)

3,500,000 (AD 350)

2,100,000 (AD 600)

4,000,000 (AD 800)

4,000,000 (1000)

7,000,000 (1200)

11,000,000 (1340)

12,000,000 (1500)

16,000,000 (1600)

8,000,000 (1648)**

17,000,000 (1650)

25,000,000 (1820)

34,000,000 (1850)

41,058,792 (1871)

45,400,000 (1881)

49,700,000 (1891)

56,345,014 (1900)

65,300,000 (1911)***

61,900,000 (1922)

66,027,000 (1933)

79,612,442 (1939)

68,375,000 (1950)

73,400,000 (1960) +7.3%

78,500,000 (1970) +6.9%

78,300,000 (1980) -0.3%

79,100,000 (1990) +1.0%

81,500,000 (2000) +3.0%

80,900,000 (2010) -0.7%

83,241,000 (2020) +2.9%


*Figures from 1950 cover East and West Germany as they existed post World War Two.However the territories of these two countries is smaller than Germany was in 1939, due to territorial losses to Poland and the USSR in 1945.

**The Thirty Years War reduced the German population from 17 million to 8 million.

***The population growth of 24.3 million, 1871 � 1911, excludes a further 3 million Germans who emigrated from Europe over this period.

Former West Germany

29,838,000 (1900), equivalent area

43,008,300 (1939), equivalent area


50,774,000 (1950)

55,423,000 (1960)

61,796,000 (1970)

61,560,700 (1980)

61,200,000 (1990)

65,322,800 (2000)

65,541,000 (2008)


Former East Germany Including former West Berlin

12,300,000 (1900), equivalent area


19,102,000 (1947)

18,388,000 (1950)

17,241,000 (1960)

16,999,000 (1970)

16,705,635 (1980)

16,645,000 (1990)

16,821,000 (2000)

16,461,000 (2008)


Ethnicity(all-Germany)

 

German

Italy

Polish

Romania

Syria

Turkish

1900*

92.6

 

5.5

 

 

 

1970 (E)

95.4

 

 

 

 

 

1970 (W)

93.6

 

 

 

 

1.5

1992

92.7

1.0

0.1

 

 

 

2007

 

 

 

0.1

 

 

2009

94.0

 

 

 

 

 

2011

92.3

 

 

 

 

2.2

2016

88.0

0.7

0.9

0.6

0.8

1.8

*Reckoned by principal language spoken. French, 0.4%. All other minorities, under 0.25%.

Religion(all-Germany)

 

Christian

Protestant

Christian

R C

Jewish

Muslim

Sunni

No

religion

1870

 

 

1.2

 

 

1890

62.8

35.8

1.1

 

 

1900(All)

62.4

36.0

1.0

0.0

 

1900 (East)

89.5

9.8

0.5

0.0

0.2

1900(West)

51.3

46.0

1.4

0.0

0.2

1932

 

 

0.8

 

 

1937

62.7

32.5

0.5

 

 

1947

 

 

0.1

 

 

1950 (East)

81.3

11.0

 

 

 

1950(West)

51.2

45.2

0.1

 

 

1970 (East)

52.0

7.0

0.0

0.0

21/4

1970(West)

48.5

44.6

0.1

0.7

3.1

1990

43.0

36.0

 

2.0

 

2005

30.8

31.4

0.1

4.5

 

2016

30.2

28.5

0.1

4.9

35.6


Fertility rate (all-Germany) Below replacement rate = 2.1


2.2 (1930)

2.0 (1940)

1.7 (1950)

1.7 (1960)

1.6 (1970)

1.4 (1980)

1.5 (1990)

1.4 (2000)

1.4 (2010)

1.5 (2015)

1.6 (2017)


Birth and death rates Prussia

 

Birth rate All

Birth rate

East

Birth rate

West

Death rate

All

Death rate

East

Death rate

West

1818

44.3 (+14.9)

 

 

29.4

 

 

1845

36.1 (+9.3)

 

 

26.8

 

 

1865

37.2 (+10.3)

 

 

26.9

 

 

1875

38.9

 

 

 

 

 

1900

35.5 (+14.7)

 

 

20.8

 

 

1911

27.0 (+12.2)

 

 

14.8

 

 

1933

16.6 (+5.4)

 

 

11.2

 

 

1947

 

 

15.5 (+3.5)

 

 

12.0

1952

16.0 (+5.0)

 

 

11.0

 

 

1957

 

15.6 (+2.7)

 

 

12.9

 

1958

 

15.6 (+2.9)

 

 

12.7

 

1959

 

 

16.9

 

13.3

 

1960

17.3 (+5.3)

 

 

12.0

 

10.8

1962

17.8 (+5.9)

 

18.0

11.9

 

 

1965

17.4 (+5.4)

 

 

12.0

13.3

 

1968

15.7 (+3.1)

14.3

16.6

12.6

 

 

1972

11.5 (-1.5)

 

 

13.0

 

 

1975

9.9 (-2.7)

10.8 (-3.5)

 

12.6

14.3

 

1980

11.1 (-1.2)

14.6

 

12.2

 

 

1985

10.5 (-1.5)

13.8 (+0.3)

9.6

12.0

13.5

 

1990

10.4 (-1.2)

 

 

11.6

13.6

 

2000

9.3 (-0.9)

 

 

10.2

 

 

2010

8.2 (-2.3)

 

 

10.5

 

 

2015

9.0 (-2.3)

 

 

11.3

 

 

2017

9.5 (-1.8)

 

 

11.3

 

 


Infant mortality and urbanisation rates Prussia

 

Infant M.

All

Infant M

East

Infant M

West

% Urban

All

% Urban

East

% Urban

West

1500

 

 

 

12.5

 

 

1800

 

 

 

7.3

 

 

1850

 

 

 

10.6

 

 

1860

200.0

 

 

 

 

 

1880

205.0

 

 

 

 

 

1871

 

 

 

24.0

 

 

1890

 

 

 

30.0

 

 

1900

198.0

 

 

54.3

 

 

1931

74.0

 

 

 

 

 

1939

60.0

 

 

 

 

 

1950

53.01

 

 

72.5

70.8

72.0

1957

 

46.0

 

 

 

 

1960

 

41.0

35.0

71.4

77.9

 

1965

 

24.8

23.8

72.0

 

 

1968

23.4

20.0

23.0

72.1

81.2

 

1970

22.0

 

 

72.3

84.2

 

1980

13.0

 

 

72.8

76.2

 

1987

8.2

8.0

8.0

72.2

77.0

 

1990

7.0

 

 

73.1

 

 

2000

4.3

 

 

73.1

 

87.5

2010

3.5

 

 

74.3

 

 

2015

3.3

 

 

75.3

 

 

2018

3.1

 

 

77.3

 

 

11952 figure

% Under 15 and over 65

 

Under 15

All

Under 15

East

Under 15

West

Over 65

All

Over 65

East

Over 65

West

1900

34.8

 

 

 

 

 

1950

 

22.8

23.3

 

10.6

9.4

1960

21.5

 

 

11.5

 

 

1970

23.2

21.0

23.0

13.6

 

13.2

1980

15.8

19.3

15.0

15.6

13.6

14.8

1990

16.0

20.4

15.2

14.9

12.7

15.1

2000

15.7

 

 

16.5

 

 

2010

13.7

 

 

20.5

 

 

2015

13.1

 

 

21.1

 

 

2018

13.6

 

 

21.5

 

 

Life expectancy,

Prussia


45.0 (1889)


All Germany


49.2 (1911); 47.4 (M), 50.7 (F)

61.4 (1933); 59.5 (M), 62.8 (F)


East Germany,


71.0 (1964); 68.5 (M), 73.5 (F)

73.0 (1988); 70.0 (M), 76.0 (F)


West Germany,


66.6 (1950); 64.6 (M), 68.5 (F)

70.6 (1965); 67.6 (M), 73.5 (F)

71.3 (1975)

75.8 (1990); 72.6 (M), 78.9 (F)


All Germany


67.5 (1952); 65.0 (M), 70,0 (F)

69.3 (1960); 66.8 (M), 72.0 (F)

70.6 (1970); 67.7 (M), 73.7 (F)

72.7 (1980); 69.5 (M), 76.0 (F)

75.2 (1990); 72.1 (M), 78.6 (F)

77.9 (2000); 75.0 (M), 81.0 (F)

80.0 (2010); 77.5 (M), 82.6 (F)

81.4 (2020); 79.1 (M), 83.4 (F)


Population of principal cities, 1,000s,MA = Metropolitan Area

 

BERLIN (All)1

East

West

Bonn2

Bremen3

Cologne4

Dortmund5

Dresden6

1250

 

 

 

 

 

60

 

 

1500

 

 

 

 

 

40

 

3

1700

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1750

113

 

 

 

 

 

 

60

1800

172

 

 

 

 

48

4

 

1816

198

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

430

 

 

12

60

110

22

117

1871

826

 

 

26

 

129

 

177

1880

1,122

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1890

1,480

 

 

40

127

282

90

290

1900

1,889

 

 

51

163

373

143

396

1905

2,034

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1939

4,332

 

 

 

424

768

537

625

1945

2,800

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1950

 

1,189

2,147

 

 

 

 

 

1960

 

1,077

2,193

145

560

790

640

505

1970

 

1,100

2,240

220

 

832

 

505

1980

 

1,146

1,950

 

550

 

 

 

1986

 

1,225

1,860

292

525

917

570

519

1990

3,438

 

 

294

 

 

 

483

2000

3,338

 

 

 

546

 

 

 

2007

 

 

 

316

547

995

586

507

2009

3,395

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2016

6,005 MA

 

 

319

2,400 MA

3,574 MA

5,302

MA

1,143 MA

 

BERLIN (All)1

East

West

Bonn2

Bremen3

Cologne

Dortmund

Dresden

1Berlin was a small village (first mentioned 1230 AD) until chosen by Frederick William, Elector of Prussia, as his capital in the 1600s.Between 1945 and 1990 Berlin was divided into Eastern (Soviet) and Western (French/UK/USA) sectors.

2Bonn was the Roman garrison town of Bonna.Bonn was the capital of West Germany from 1949; after reunification of Germany the capital returned to Berlin in 1999.

3Bremen was originally known as Breme or Bremum; the city was made a bishopric by Charlemagne in the 8th century, and became an important trading city in the 9th century AD within the Hanseatic League. The port of Bremerhaven was built in 1827 so larger ships did not have to use the silted Weser River channel.In 1857 a rival port was established at Geestemunde, (renamed Wesermunde in 1924) but this is now part of the Bremen conurbation.

4Cologne (Koln) was the Roman city of Ara Ubiorum, being founded in 38 BC by the Ubii tribe.In 50 AD it was renamed Colonia Agrippina after the mother of the Emperor Nero.

5Dortmund, dating from the 9th century AD, was known as Trutmania, and then Tremonia.Dortmund gained direct access to the North Sea when the Dortmund � Ems Canal opened in 1899.

6Dresden is on the site of early Slavonic settlement called Drezdzany..Dresden was the capital of Saxony from 1485.

 

Duisburg1

Dusseldorf

Essen

Frankfurt

Am Main2

Hamburg3

Hannover4

1400

 

 

 

 

16

 

1750

 

 

 

 

90

 

1800

5

20

4

40

100

 

1850

12

27

12

65

230

65

1860

 

47

 

 

 

70

1890

147

145

79

230

625

174

1900

214

205

119

290

706

236

1939

431

539

660

547

1,682

473

1960

450

693

697

660

1,825

572

1976

500

610

640

650

1,700

528

1996

538

573

572

645

1,690

515

2007

496

581

583

659

1,771

518

2016

490

1,220 MA

583

2,319 MA

5,107 MA

1,119 MA

1Duisburg is an industrial city in the Ruhr; it grew rapidly between 1905 and 1929.However the original town dates back to Roman times,

2Frankfurt derives from �ford of the Franks�; it was a royal residence in the days of Charlemagne, and the capital of the Eastern Frankish Empire from 876 AD.

3A fortress was built in Hamburg in 825 called Hammaburg.

4Hanover was a member of the Hanseatic League from 1386.

 

Leipzig1

Munich2

Nuremberg3

Rostock4

Stuttgart5

1400

 

 

6

 

 

1500

 

 

30

 

 

1600

 

 

40

 

 

1650

20

 

 

 

 

1800

32

 

25

 

 

1840

41

 

 

 

 

1850

 

125

 

 

51

1860

85

147

68

26

61

1870

107

 

85

 

 

1880

149

 

 

 

 

1890

400*

350

142

 

158

1900

456

499

261

55

177

1939

702

828

431

 

460

1960

595

1,070

450

159

630

1976

566

1,310

495

220

605

1986

550

1,270

470

240

560

2007

511

1,312

503

200

597

2016

1,001 MA

2,606 MA

764 MA

206

2,735 MA

 

Leipzig1

Munich2

Nuremberg3

Rostock4

Stuttgart5

*Leipzig city limits extended from 1880.

1Leipzig was an important trading centre by the 10th century AD, known as Urbs Libzi.

2Munich grew around a monastery founded in the 12th century on the River Isar.���

3Nuremberg dates back to the 11th century AD, and was a prosperous trading centre in the 13th century.

4Founded in 1189, Rostock was part of the Hanseatic League in the 14th century.

5Stuttgart originated as a stud farm (stud-garten, or �stud-garden�), set up by Duke Leopold of Wurttemberg in 961 AD.

Wealth; Gross Domestic Product (nominal values), (E) = East, (W) = West, (G) = all Germany

 

GDP,

US$ million

Total GDP,

% of USA

GDP per capita,

US$

GDP per capita

% of USA

1914

12,000 (G)

 

184 (G)

 

1948

7,800 (E)

15,000 (W)

3.49 (E)

6.71 (W)

300 (E)

360 (W)

19.67 (E)

23.61 (W)

1955

32,000 (W)

8.94 (W)

 

 

1965

85,452 (W)

 

 

 

1966

20,000 (E)

 

1,220 (E)

 

1968

 

 

1,970 (W)

49.50

1970

184,510 (G)

17.75 (G)

3,049 (W)

2,480 (G)

 

48.95 (G)

1975

417,280 (G)

25.52 (G)

5,516 (G)

72.88 (G)

1976

457,600 (W)

 

 

 

1980

809,850 (G)

28.97 (G)

6,500 (E)

13,419 (G)

 

109.26 (G)

1985

619,290 (G)

14.70 (G)

10,200 (E)

10,483 (G)

 

59.32 (G)

1988

87,600 (E)

1,205,397 (W)

 

21,311 (W)

 

1990

1,501,490 (G)

25.87 (G)

24,458 (G)

105.38 (G)

1995

2,456.250 (G)

33.22 (G)

30,131 (G)

108.49 (G)

2000

1,878,110 (G)

18.85 (G)

22,816 (G)

65.57 (G)

2005

2,781,900

21.25

34,700

78.32

2010

3,417,000

22.83

40,120

82.94

2015

3,363,300

18.65

41,200

73.30

2016

3,466,750

18.67

42,893

74.64

GDP by primary sector

 

Agriculture

% GDP

Agriculture

% employed

Industry

% GDP

Industry

% employed

Services

% GDP

Services

% employed

1871

 

49.0

 

31.0

 

20.0

1900

35.0

36.5

 

39.0

 

24.5

1933

 

28.9

 

40.4

 

30.7

1939 (West*)

 

27.5

 

 

 

 

1950 West

 

22.1

 

 

 

 

1950 East

11.3

22.9

41.5

45.5

 

 

1960

 

 

51.3

 

 

 

1960 East

 

18.0

 

48.0

 

34.0

1960 West

 

14.0

 

48.0

 

38.0

1967 East

8.7

15.6

58.6

46.9

 

 

1980 East

 

10.0

 

50.0

 

40.0

1980 West

 

4.0

 

46.0

 

50.0

1988 East

12.1

10.8

73.8

44.0

13.3

45.0

1988 West

1.5

4.8

39.7

39.8

58.8

53.9

1993

1.2

3.7

39.4

39.1

59.3

57.2

2000

1.0

3.0

 

 

 

 

2007

 

 

30.4

28.0

68.7

70.0

2010

0.8

2.4

27.9

29.7

71.3

67.8

2016

0.6

1.4

30.3

24.2

69.1

74.3

*Calculated for territory covered by West Germany post 1945

Communications

Language, %, Official; German, Arabic, Polish, Tamil also spoken

 

German

Kurdish

Turkish

1990

97.0

 

2.1

2015

95.5

0.3

1.8

Literacy

99.9% (1900 and after)


Physical communications � roads (km), motor vehicles (1,000s),

 

Roads

All

Roads

East

Roads

West

Motor Veh.

All

Motor Veh.

East

Motor Veh.

West

1937

212,731

 

 

 

 

 

1956

 

 

 

 

 

3,660

1960

 

45,970

135,172

 

 

7,332

1963

 

 

144,008

 

 

 

1964

 

 

 

 

856

8,911

1970

 

 

162,500

 

 

15,500

1977

 

117,300

 

 

 

 

1980

 

 

171,521

 

 

26,500

1985

 

 

173,045

 

 

30,617

1988

 

122,700

492,478

 

4,254

31,050

1992

622,000

 

 

 

9,200

37,465

1998

 

 

 

49,000

 

 

2000

 

 

 

50,726

 

 

2005

 

 

 

54,520

 

 

2007

 

 

 

55,511

 

 

2008

644,480

 

 

 

 

 

2010

645,000

 

 

 

 

 

Cars and Goods Vehicles, 1,000s

 

Cars

All

Cars

East

Cars

West

Goods Veh.

All

Goods Veh.

East

Goods Veh.

West

1956

 

 

2,243

 

 

 

1958

 

130

 

 

130

 

1960

 

 

3,895

 

 

668

1963

 

 

7,075

 

 

800

1966

 

920

 

 

194

 

1970

 

 

12,585

 

 

1,052

1977

 

2,236

20,377

 

 

 

1980

 

2,678

22,535

 

 

1,236

1985

 

3,306

25,845

 

221

1,281

1988

 

3,744

27,908

 

 

1,328

1992

 

7,000

32,007

 

 

1,549

1998

41,327

 

 

2,345

 

 

2005

45,375

 

 

2,572

 

 

2007

46,570

 

 

2,604

 

 

2015

45,100

 

 

 

 

 

2017

45,800

 

 

 

 

 

Railways; First railway in Germany opened 1835, from Nuremberg toFurth (Bavaria).

 

Railways

All (km)

Electric

%

Railways

East (km)

Electric

%

Railways

West (km)

Electric

%

Stations

1835

148

 

 

 

 

 

 

1840

539

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

6,013

 

 

 

 

 

 

1860

11,563

 

 

 

 

 

 

1870

19,677

 

 

 

 

 

 

1880

32,528

 

 

 

 

 

 

1890

42,995

 

 

 

 

 

 

1900

51,980

 

 

 

 

 

 

1910

61,523

 

 

 

 

 

 

1920

57,722

 

 

 

 

 

 

1930

58,363

 

 

 

 

 

 

1940

59,163

5.0

 

 

 

 

 

1950

 

 

15,952

 

36,813

 

 

1958

 

 

16,150

 

36,787

7.9

 

1968

 

 

15,327

7.9

34,078

 

 

1978

 

 

14,221

11.8

32,000

35.0

 

1988

 

 

14,008

36.4

27,484

41.6

 

1996

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,640

2001

44,439

44.0

 

 

 

 

5,300

2005

40,412

 

 

 

 

 

5,046

2009

41,981

 

 

 

 

 

 

2014

43,468

46.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Railways

All (km)

Electric

%

Railways

East (km)

Electric

%

Railways

West (km)

Electric

%

Stations

Urban metro systems, kilometres (year opened)

 

Berlin1

(1902)

Frankfurt Am Main

(1968)

Hamburg

(1912)

Munich2

(1971)

Nuremberg

(1971)

1971

 

 

 

12.0

 

1992

136.0

51.0

95.0

63.0

23.0

2005

144.0

58.6

100.7

75.0

25.0

2010

151.7

 

 

100.8

34.6

2012

 

64.9

104.7

103.1

37.1

1The first section of the Berlin elevated suburban railway opened in 1902; electrification began in 1924.


2First section of Munich metro, 12 kilometres (Friemann to Goetheplatz), opened in 1971


Electronic communications, 1,000s (E) = East, (W) = West, (G) = all Germany. From 1990, all figures relate to entire post-unification Germany.

TV broadcasting began 1929 (colour from 1967).

 

Telephones (landlines)

Mobile phones

Radios

TVs

PCs

Internet Users

1938

4,146 (G)

 

 

 

 

 

1939

 

 

16,000 (G)

 

 

 

1950

2,393(W)

 

9,018 (W)

 

 

 

1950

332(E)

 

3,489 (E)

 

 

 

1958

3,062 (W)

 

14,860 (W)

2,129(W)

 

 

1959

575 (E)

 

5,489 (E)

593 (E)

 

 

1960

 

 

5,574 (E)

1,035 (E)

 

 

1960

 

 

16,441 (W)

4,635 (W)

 

 

1961

6,509(W)

 

5,594(E)

1,459(E)

 

 

1962

1,366(E)

 

15,830(W)

6,835(W)

 

 

1968

11,249 (W)

 

18,988 (W)

14,958(W)

 

 

1971

 

 

 

17,673(W)

 

 

1977

2,860(E)

 

6,261(E)

5,450(E)

 

 

1978

26,100 (W)

 

 

 

 

 

1980

3,072 (E)

 

6,410 (E)

5,730 (E)

 

 

1985

37,900 (W)

1 (W)

6,650 (E)

 

 

 

1987

40,290 (W)

 

26,390 (W)

23,390(W)

 

 

1988

 

 

 

6,000 (E)

4,300(G)

 

1990

 

273 (G)

 

44,000(G)

6,500(G)

 

1995

 

3,725

 

46,000

14,600

 

1997

 

 

37,500

 

 

 

1998

 

 

 

 

 

7,300

2000

50,220

48,200

 

 

27,640

 

2002

 

 

40,920

 

 

35,200

2004

 

 

42,170

 

45,000

 

2005

55,046

79,200

42,500

 

 

37,500

2010

53,000

 

 

 

 

66,250

2013

 

 

 

 

53,000

 

2016

44,310

94,433

 

 

 

72,366

 

Telephones (landlines)

Mobile phones

Radios

TVs

PCs

Internet Users

Tourism: Visitors to Germany,


8,423,000 (W) (1977)

14.280,000 (1987)

17,045,000 (1990)

14,847,000 (1995)

18,983,000 (2000)

21,500,000 (2005)

26,875,000 (2010)

34,970,000 (2015)