Page last modified 19 August 2023

 

Egypt )formerly United Arab Republic)

Community

Area 1,001,449 square kilometres (land area 995,450 square kilometres; cultivated and inhabited area, 35,580 square kilometres)

Population,


4,500,000 (AD 1)

3,000,000 (AD 350)

2,700,000 (AD 600)

3,000,000 (AD 800)

3,000,000 (1000)

2,000,000 (1200)

3,000,000 (1340)

2,500,000 (1500)

3,000,000 (1788)

5,125,000 (1859)

6,814,000 (1882)

9,734,405 (1897)

11,139,978 (1907)

14,217,684 (1927)

15,932,694 (1937)

19,021,840 (1947)

27,000,000 (1960)

35,050,000 (1970) +29.8|%

43,300,000 (1980) +23.5%

56,100,000 (1990) +29.6%

68,800,000 (2000) +22.6%

82,760,000 (2010) +20.3%

102,334,000 (2020) +23.7%


Ethnicity and Religion, %

 

Egyptian

Arab

Christian

Coptic

Jewish

Muslim

Sunni

1830

 

7.0

 

 

1907

98.5

7.5

0.4

91.8

1927

98.5

 

 

 

1937

 

 

0.4

91.4

1947

 

8.2

0.4

91.4

1970

94.7 (1)

 

0.0

 

1990

 

7.0

0.0

90.0

2001

 

9.0

0.0

 

2006

99.6

 

0.0

 

2009

98.0

 

0.0

94.6

(1) 1974, includes 6.1% non-Egyptian Arab and 2% Arab-Berber

Birth and death rates Below replacement rate = 2.1

 

Fertility Rate

Birth

Rate

Infant

Mortality

Death

Rate

% Aged

Under 15

% Aged

Over

65

% Urban

1879

 

 

 

 

 

 

19.1

1917

 

 

 

 

 

 

21.0

1937

 

 

 

 

 

 

24.3

1952

 

49.0 (+25.0)

200.0

24.0

39.7

3.0

31.8

1962

6.7

45.0 (+26.5)

196.0

18.5

42.5

3.9

38.6

1972

5.5

38.0 (+22.5)

157.0

15.5

41.9

4.3

42.2

1980

5.4

39.0 (+27.0)

113.0

12.0

40.9

4.5

43.9

1990

4.4

32.0 (+23.6)

63.0

8.4

41.0

4.5

43.5

2000

3.3

26.0 (+19.5)

37.0

6.5

36.6

4.9

42.8

2010

3.2

27.1 (+20.9)

24.3

6.2

32.1

4.8

43.0

2015

3.4

27.2 (+21.2)

20.9

6.0

33.1

5.1

43.1

2017

3.4

27.1 (+21.2)

18.7

5.9

 

 

 

2018

 

 

18.1

 

33.8

5.2

42.7

Life expectancy,


42.4 (1950); 41.0 (M), 44.0 (F)

48.0 (1960); 46.8 (M), 49.3 (F)

52.1 (1970), 50.4 (M), 53.9 (F)

58.3 (1980); 56.2 (M), 60.5 (F)

64.5 (1990); 62.2 (M), 66.9 (F)

68.6 (2000); 66.2 (M), 71.1 (F)

70.3 (2010); 68.2 (M), 72.6 (F)

72.1 (2020); 69.8 (M), 74.4 (F)


Population of principal cities, 1,000s

 

Alexandria1

Aswan2

CAIRO3

MA

Port

Said4

Suez5

200 BC

300

 

 

 

 

 

100 BC

750

 

 

 

 

 

100 AD

400

 

 

 

 

 

600 AD

200

 

 

 

 

 

1400

 

 

450

 

 

 

1600

 

 

400

 

 

 

1800

6

 

300

 

 

 

1825

25

 

 

 

 

 

1840

60

 

 

 

 

 

1850

80

 

250

 

 

 

1882

227

 

375

 

17

 

1890

 

 

 

 

 

11

1902

311

15

600

 

 

18

1907

332

 

654

 

 

 

1935

 

 

 

 

105

 

1937

686

22

1,312

 

125

50

1947

928

26

2,100

 

178

 

1950

1,037

 

2,500

 

192

125

1960

1,513

48

3,346

 

244

203

1976

2,318

144

5,074

 

263

194

1984

 

 

 

10,000

 

 

1990

3,300

200

6,100

13,300

375

392

2006

4,058

266

7,790

 

571

495

2010

4,387

 

 

 

604

 

2012

 

290

 

 

 

566

2017

 

 

9,500

20,440

 

 

1Alexandria was founded in 331 BC by Alexander the Great; the city declined in importance after it was conquered by Rome in 30 BC.Between 400 and 600 AD it was a seat of Christian learning, until conquered by Muslim Arab forces in 641.The decline of Alexandria was completed by the discovery of the sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope; the modern revival of Alexandria began when the French occupied Egypt at the end of the 18th century.

2The first dam on the Nile was completed at Aswan in 1902.The height of the dam was increased in 1912 and raised again in 1933.The much larger Aswan High Dam was completed in 1971.

3Cairo was founded by the Arabs in 641 AD; the original urban centre of Egypt was at Memphis, 20 kilometres south of Cairo.

4Port Said was founded in 1859, as the northern, Mediterranean, port for the Suez Canal. It was named after the Khedive Said.

5Suez is a port at the northern end of the Red Sea; it was of little importance until the Suez Canal was opened in 1869.

Wealth; Gross Domestic Product (nominal values)

 

GDP,

US$ million

Total GDP,

% of USA

GDP per capita,

US$

GDP per capita

% of USA

1948

2,060

0.92

112

7.34

1958

2,370

0.66

 

 

1965

5,112

0.69

165

4.31

1970

7,560

0.73

227

4.33

1975

14,490

0.89

291

3.72

1980

22,370

0.80

529

4.20

1985

34,700

0.82

691

3.78

1990

43,130

0.74

750

3.13

1995

58,730

0.79

944

3.14

2000

99,800

1.00

1,430

3.92

2005

90,000

0.69

1,160

2.62

2010

216,800

1.45

2,600

5.37

2015

332,700

1.84

3,550

6.32

2016

336,300

1.81

3,514

6.11

GDP by primary sectorIn recent decades, tourism has provided 12.5% of employment and contributed 11.3% of GDP, but unrest and terrorist attacks since 2010 have cut tourist numbers.

 

Agriculture

% GDP

Agriculture

% employed

Industry

% GDP

Industry

% employed

Services

% GDP

Services

% employed

1927

 

66.4

 

 

 

 

1937

 

64.7

 

 

 

 

1947

 

57.3

 

 

 

 

1960

 

58.0

 

12.0

 

30.0

1970

 

52.0

 

 

 

 

1980

20.0

48.0

33.0

30.0

47.0

20.0

1990

16.7

42.0

35.0

21.0

54.0

37.0

2000

16.5

32.0

34.8

17.0

48.7

45.8

2010

13.5

37.9

 

 

48.6

51.0

2013

 

29.2

 

23.5

 

47.3

2016

11.9

 

32.9

 

55.2

 

Communications

Language, Official; Arabic.English and French also spoken.

Arabic, 97.0% (1950, 1960)

Literacy


12.0% (1907)

20.0% (1947)

26.0% (1960)

43.0% (1976)

44.0% (1980); 58.1% (M), 29.1% (F)

44.5% (1985); 59.0% (M), 30.0% (F)

51.4% (1995); 63.6% (M), 38.8% (F)

56.1% (2000); 67.2% (M), 44.8% (F)

72.0% (2010); 83.6% (M), 60.7% (F)

73.8% (2015); 82.2% (M), 65.4% (F)


Physical communications � roads and railways, First railway opened 1854, Cairo to Alexandria (construction began 1852). Railway to Suez opened 1858, closed 1868 when Suez Canal opened, and reopened 1934.

 

Roads (km)

Surfaced (km)

Motor vehicles

Cars

Commercial Vehicles

Railways

(km)

%

Electric

1860

 

 

 

 

 

464

 

1870

 

 

 

 

 

1,341

 

1880

 

 

 

 

 

1,520

 

1890

 

 

 

 

 

1,547

 

1900

 

 

 

 

 

2,093

 

1910

 

 

 

 

 

2,359

 

1920

 

 

 

 

 

2,697

 

1930

 

 

 

 

 

3,455

 

1940

 

 

 

 

 

3,877

 

1942

 

 

 

28,675

5,529

 

 

1950

13,300

 

 

54,933

31,664

4,669

 

1955

 

 

94,900

 

 

 

 

1958

 

3,313

 

57,000

15,500

4,343*

 

1962

 

 

 

76,000

23,000

 

 

1964

 

 

115,300

 

 

4,446

 

1976

26,596

 

 

283,000

64,000

 

 

1984

47,000

16,200

 

790,000

 

4.,321

 

1996

 

 

 

1,354,000

397,000

5,024

 

2006

 

 

 

2,372,000

1,463,000

5,063

0.8

2009

65,000

47,500

3,940,000

 

 

5,085

1.2

2013

 

 

5,030,000

7,038,000

 

5,085

1.2

2014

 

 

 

7,900,000

 

 

 

* also 1,327 km agricultural private light railways

Urban metro systems, kilometres

Cairo Metro, (opened 1987)


65.5 (2010)

77.9 (2014)


Electronic communications, TV broadcasts began 1960

 

Telephones (landlines)

Mobile Telephones

Radios

Televisions

PCs

Internet Users

1938

59,922

 

72,359

 

 

 

1942

77,099

 

98,456

 

 

 

1947

95,303

 

108,742

 

 

 

1950

115,500

 

264,000

 

 

 

1958

196,711

 

791,228

 

 

 

1960

 

 

1,500,000

 

 

 

1962

245,000

 

1,800,000

100,000

 

 

1969

365,000

 

 

 

 

 

1975

 

 

5,120,000

620,000

 

 

1976

 

 

5,250,000

 

 

 

1980

410,000

 

 

 

 

 

1982

 

 

7,000,000

1,850,000

 

 

1984

 

 

12,000,000

4,000,000

 

 

1987

 

2,627

 

 

 

 

1990

1,602,000

4,000

17,000,000

5,700,000

 

 

1994

 

 

 

 

194,000

 

1995

 

7,400

19,400,000

6,850,000

250,000

 

1998

 

 

 

 

 

61,000

2000

5,483,600

1,360,000

21,900,000

14,000,000

800,000

450,000

2003

7,750,000

4,500,000

 

 

 

2,900,000

2005

 

13,629,600

 

18,000,000

2,800,000

3,900,000

2006

 

 

 

 

3,160,000

5,500,000

2009

10,313,000

 

 

 

 

20,136,000

2010

 

70,661,000

 

 

 

20,750,000

2012

8,557,000

 

 

 

 

 

2016

6,118,250

97,790,000

 

 

 

37,123,000

2017

 

 

 

 

 

37,333,850

Tourism: Visitors to Egypt,


497,382 (1964)

542,000 (1965)

428,000 (1971)

679,476 (1974)

1,100,000 (1980)

2,411,000 (1990)

2,871,000 (1995)

5,116,000 (2000)

8,244,000 (2005)

14,051,000 (2010)

9,139,000 (2015)