Page last modified 20 August 2023

 

63) Colombia

Community

Area 1,138,910 square kilometres (land area 1,038,700 square kilometres)

Population,


2,951,323 (1871)

3,878,000 (1881)*

4,279,674 (1905)

8,701,816 (1938)

10,701,816 (1945)

11,548,172 (1951)

16,480,000 (1960)

22,060,000 (1970) +33.9%

27,740,000 (1980) +25.7%

34,270,000 (1990) +23.5%

40,400,000 (2000) +17.9%

45,920,000 (2010) +13.7%

50,883,000 (2020) +10.8%


* Including what is now Panama


Ethnicity %, Note, different years may use different racial definitions

 

Amerindian

Black

Mixed race

White

1905

15

35

40

10

1945

7

5

68

20

1960

2

5

58

35

1970

1.6

6

71

20

Religion %,

 

Animist

Christian

Protestant

Christian

R C

No

religion

1900

20.0

0.0

79.8

0.1

1970

1.3

0.9

96.7

0.4

1990

 

 

93.0

 

2010*

 

16.7

71.0

4.7

*Although 90% of Colombians claim the Christian faith, some 40% of these do not practise it actively

Birth and death rates Below replacement rate = 2.1

 

Fertility Rate

Birth

Rate

Infant

Mortality

Death

Rate

% Aged

Under 15

% Aged

Over

65

% Urban

1500

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.0

1938

 

 

 

 

 

 

29.2

1952

 

47.0 (+30.0)

123.0

17.0

43.2

3.5

37.0

1962

6.8

44.0 (+32.5)

93.0

11.5

46.8

3.2

49.1

1970

5.5

35.0 (+25.7)

70.0

9.3

46.0

3.4

56.6

1980

4.0

32.0 (+25.0)

42.0

7.0

40.6

3.7

63.7

1990

3.1

27.0 (+20.8)

28.0

6.2

36.4

4.1

69.5

2000

2.6

23.0 (+17.4)

21.0

5.6

31.5

5.2

74.0

2010

2.2

20.0 (+14.3)

15.9

5.7

26.4

6.6

78.0

2015

1.9

15.5 (+9.6)

13.6

5.9

24.3

7.7

79.8

2017

1.8

15.1 (+9.0)

12.6

6.1

 

 

 

2018

 

 

12.2

 

23.1

8.5

80.8

Life expectancy,


45.1 (1950); 44.2 (M), 46.0 (F)

56.7 (1960); 55.0 (M), 58.5 (F)

60.9 (1970); 59.0 (M), 62.8 (F)

65.5 (1980); 62.8 (M), 68.3 (F)

68.3 (1990); 64.4 (M), 72.4 (F)

71.0 (2000); 67.3 (M), 74.8 (F)

73.3 (2010); 69.7 (M), 77.0 (F)

77.4 (2020); 74.6 (M), 80.1 (F)


Population of principal cities,

 

Barranquilla

BOGOTA1

Cali2

Medellin3

1800

 

21,464

 

 

1821

 

30,000

 

 

1884

 

95,813

 

 

1900

40,000

120,000

16,000

60,000

1938

150,395

325,658

88,366

143,952

1945

206,630

443,520

135,610

219,790

1950

287,000

607,000

269,000

341,000

1960

452,140

1,250,000

639,900

651,240

1970

500,000

3,700,000

1,022,000

950,000

1980

830,000

 

1,300,000

1,450,000

1990

950,000

4,800,000

1,480,000

1,500,000

2000

1,060,000

6,100,000

 

2,000,000

2010

1,836,000

8,262,000

2,352,000

3,500,000 MA

2012

 

 

3,400,000 MA

3,731,000 MA

2015

 

10,200,000 MA

 

 

1Bogota was founded by the Spanish explorer, Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada, in 1538.It stands on the site of the Indian settlement of Bacata.

2Cali was founded in 1536 by the Spaniard, Benalcazar.In 1914 a railway opened from Cali to the Pacific seaport of Buenaventura.

3Medellin was founded in 1675, the city industrialised in the textiles sector after the railways came in the early 20th century.

Wealth; Gross Domestic Product (nominal values)

 

GDP,

US$ million

Total GDP,

% of USA

GDP per capita,

US$

GDP per capita

% of USA

1948

1,456

0.65

132

8.66

1956

3,900

1.09

 

 

1960

4,040

0.74

245

8.15

1965

5,790

0.78

300

7.84

1970

7,200

0.69

340

6.48

1975

13,260

0.81

529

6.76

1980

28,050

1.00

1,022

8.11

1985

31,830

0.76

1,112

6.09

1990

40,270

0.69

1,221

5.10

1995

92,500

1.25

2,526

8.40

2000

99,900

1.00

1,962

5.38

2005

146,000

1.12

3,390

7.65

2010

289,000

1.93

6,250

12.92

2015

291,500

1.62

6,044

10.75

2016

282,400

1.52

5,800

10.09

GDP by primary sector

 

Agriculture

% GDP

Agriculture

% employed

Industry

% GDP

Industry

% employed

Services

% GDP

Services

% employed

1960

 

51.0

 

19.0

 

29.0

1970

 

39.0

 

 

 

 

1980

25.0

34.0

28.0

21.0

46.0

53.0

1990

19.0

26.0

35.0

21.0

 

 

2010

9.3

18.0

38.0

20.0

53.8

68.0

2011

 

17.0

 

21.0

 

62.0

2016

7.1

 

32.6

 

60.3

 


Communications

Language Official; Spanish

Spanish, 99.0% (1990, 2010)

Literacy


10.0% (1900)

32.0% (1918)

51.6% (1928)

62.0% (1951)

68.0% (1960)

81.0% (1980)

88.0% (1987); 89.0% (M), 87.0% (F)

91.0% (1995); 91.0% (M), 91.0% (F)

91.9% (2000); 91.9% (M), 91.9% (F)

94.2% (2010); 94.1% (M), 94.4% (F)


Physical communications � roads and railways, First railway opened 1874. Medellin metro opened 1995.

 

Roads (km)

Motor vehicles

Cars

Commercial Vehicles

Railways

(km)

Medellin

Metro (km)

1902

 

 

 

 

650

 

1944

 

 

 

9,407

 

 

1945

15,860

 

15,306

13,808

3,100

 

1948

17,975

 

 

 

 

 

1950

 

 

36,374

23,763

 

 

1956

26,523

150,000

80,000

 

2,893

 

1962

32,840

 

86,659

 

 

 

1967

45,000

256,823

158,786

 

 

 

1975

 

500,000

220,000

 

 

 

1977

50,978

 

387.500

67,400

 

 

1985

 

1,091,751

509,478

104,639

2,622

 

1995

 

1,800,000

1,200,000

 

 

 

1999

112,988

 

 

184,495

 

 

2005

 

2,686,000

2,883,000

 

2,532

 

2010

164,183

 

3,949,000

 

 

32.0

2013

 

9,734,500

4,745,000

 

 

 

2015

204,885

 

 

 

2,141

 

2016

 

13,000,000*

 

 

 

 

*7,400,000 of these were motorcycles.

Electronic communications, TV broadcasting began in 1954; colour broadcasts began in 1979

 

Telephones (landlines)

Mobile Telephones

Radios

Televisions

PCs

Internet Users

1938

39,283

 

42,000

 

 

 

1941

44,981

 

 

 

 

 

1945

 

 

175,000

 

 

 

1950

 

 

500,000

 

 

 

1959

247,298

 

 

 

 

 

1960

 

 

1,971,000

 

 

 

1961

322,486

 

2,159,000

200,000

 

 

1968

515,000

 

 

 

 

 

1978

 

 

3,000,000

1,750,000

 

 

1980

1,075,700

 

3,500,000

 

 

 

1990

2,414,726

 

5,600,000

3,600,000

 

 

1992

 

 

 

 

320,000

 

1994

 

86,800

 

 

 

 

1995

 

275,000

20,200,000

4,200,000

630,000

 

1997

 

 

 

 

 

120,000

2000

7,192,778

2,260,000

21,600,000

12,000,000

1,500,000

 

2005

 

21,850,000

 

13,000,000

1,891,615

4,740,000

2006

 

 

 

 

2,488,000

 

2009

7,500,000

 

 

 

 

22,538,000

2010

7,200,000

43,405,000

 

 

5,000,000

23,800,000

2012

6,291,000

 

 

 

 

 

2016

7,115,984

58,685,000

 

 

 

27,450,000

Tourism: Visitors to Colombia,


197,503 (1973)

362,917 (1974)

522,000 (1976)

1,400,000 (1980)

1,227,000 (1982)

732,000 (1986)

813,000 (1990)

1,399,000 (1995)

557,000 (2000)

933,243 (2005)

1,405,000 (2010)

2,978,000 (2015)