Chronography of events from 1 Janury 700 to 31 December 1199

Page last modified 26/11/2022

 

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

 

For dates from 1/1/1200 click here

 

1/1/1200, Saturday (-272,226)

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27/5/1199, Thursday (-272,445) (Britain, France) King John became King of England, also the Angevin lands in France.

18/4/1199, Sunday (-272,484) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1199. Tuesday (-272,496) Richard I, Richard Lionheart, died, killed by an arrow in battle whilst besieging Chaluz Castle.

1/1/1199, Friday (-272,591)

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10/12/1198, Thursday (-272,613) (Islam) Abu al Walid, also known as Averroes, Arab philosopher, died in Marrakesh, Morocco.

9/6/1198, Tuesday (-272,797) Otto of Brunswick was crowned King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor, Otto IV.

17/5/1198, Sunday (-272,820) Frederick, infant son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI, was crowned King of Sicily.

29/4/1198, Wednesday (-272,838)

29/3/1198, Sunday (-272,869) Easter Sunday.

8/1/1198. Thursday (-272,949) (1) Pope Celestine III died.

(2) On his election as Pope, Innocent III called for a new Crusade.

1/1/1198, Thursday (-272,956)

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1/10/1197, Monday (-272,987)

28/9/1197, Friday (-272,990) Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI died. Civil war broke out between Henry�s brother Philip of Swabia and Otto IV, son of Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony.

6/4/1197, Sunday (-273,226) Easter Sunday

1/1/1197, Wednesday (-273,321)

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25/12/1196, Wednesday (-273,328) (Germany) Frederick II, son of Henry VI, was elected King of the Romans

17/11/1196, Sunday (-273,366) (Germany) Pope Celestine rejected the suggestion by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI that the office of Holy Roman Emperor should be hereditary, not elective.

21/4/1196, Sunday (-273,576) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1196, Monday (-273,687)

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6/8/1195, Sunday (-273,835) Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, died.

18/7/1195, Tuesday (-273,854) (Spain) The Almohads won amajor victory over Christian forces at Alarcos. However they had to deal with internal dissentions and were unable to follow up this victory.

8/4/1195, Saturday (-273,955) Emperor Isaac II Angelus was deposed whilst on a hunting trip by his brother Alexius. Alexius now became Emperor Alexius III Angelus; he captured Isaac at Satgira, Macedonia, and blinded him.

2/4/1195, Sunday (-273,961) Easter Sunday. Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV proclaimed a Crusade at Bari.

1/1/1195, Sunday (-274,052)

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26/12/1194, Monday (-274,058) (Germany) Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, was born at Iesi, Italy.

25/12/1194, Sunday (-274,059) Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI was crowned King of Sicily and Naples.

20/11/1194, Sunday (-274,094) Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, who had already conqueredsouthern Italy, now took Palermo and gained control of Sicily.

27/6/1194, Monday (-274,240)

10/6/1194, Friday (-274,257) Chartres Cathedral, France, burnt down.

25/4/1194, Monday (-274,303) (Italy) Eccelino da Romano, Ghibelline leader and supporter of Frederick II, was born (died 7/10/1259).

17/4/1194, Sunday (-274,311) Second coronation of Richard I of England, a ceremony he arranged after his return from the Crusades, following John�s attempt to usurp the throne, to re-establish his authority.

10/4/1194, Sunday (-274,318) Easter Sunday.

26/3/1194, Saturday (-274,333) Richard captured Nottingham Castle � the cause of his brother, John was lost.

3/3/1194, Thursday (-274,356) King Richard I of England began to build an anti-French coalition to combat the aspirations of his brother John and his French allies.

1/1/1194, Saturday (-274,417)

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29/6/1193, Tuesday (-274,603) King Richard I of England was released by Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, to whom Leopold of Austria had passed him. Richard became Henry I�s vassal.

27/4/1193, Tuesday (-274,666)

28/3/1193, Sunday (-274,696) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1193. Thursday (-274,720) Saladdin, Sultan of Egypt, died. See 2/11/1192.

1/1/1193, Friday (-274,782)

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25/12/1192, Friday (-274,789)

11/12/1192, Friday (-274,803) Returning from the Crusades, King Richard I of England was captured near Vienna by Leopold, Duke of Austria. Richard�s brother John, who had pretensions to the throne, now allied with Philip I of France.

2/11/1192. Monday (-274,842) Peace was concluded between Richard I (Lionheart) of England and Saladin of Jerusalem (see 2/12/1187). The Crusades never achieved their objective of liberating the Holy Land from the Muslims but because they caused the death of so many noblemen the system of serfdom and landholding in Europe was gradually dismantled. Feudalism gradually ended over the period 1300 to the Thirty Year�s War, 1618-48.

2/9/1192, Wednesday (-274,903)

5/8/1192, Wednesday (-274,931) (Christian) Final battle of the Third Crusade, at Jaffa. After victory at Arsuf, Richard I had spent months capturing castles and winning minor fights, but never managed to attain his ultimate objective of gaining Jerusalem. In late July 1192 he was in Acre, planning his return trip to England when Saladin unexpectedly attacked Jaffa. Saladin took the town but not the citadel, Richard I arrived at Jaffa by sea and managed to drive the Muslims away from Jaffa. Saladin and Richard I then opened peace negotiations. The end result was a deal that left the Christians with just a narrow coastal strip in the Holy Land, but did at least ensure their presence there for another century.

28/4/1192, Tuesday (-275,030) Conrad of Montferrat, Crusader King of Jerusalem, died.

5/4/1192, Sunday (-275,053) Easter Sunday. Guy de Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, was deposed and succeeded by Conrad, Marquis of Montferrat. Guy received Cyprus as compensation.

1/1/1192, Wednesday (-275,148)

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6/9/1191, Friday (-275,265) (Christian) Richard I defeated the Saracens at the Battle of Arsouf, then marched on Jaffa.

4/7/1191, Thursday (-275,329) (Christian) Crusaders under Richard I captured Acre from Saladdin, during the Third Crusade.

12/5/1191, Sunday (-275,382) Berengaria, wife of King Richard I of England, was crowned Queen at St George�s Chapel, Limassol, Cyprus.

15/4/1191, Monday (-275,409) Pope Celestine III crowned Henry IV as Holy Roman Emperor.

14/4/1191, Sunday (-275,410) Easter Sunday

8/2/1191, Friday (-275,475) Yaroslav II, Grand Prince of Vladimir, was born.

1/1/1191, Tuesday (-275,513) week 39,539

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4/7/1190, Wednesday (-275,694) Richard I set out on a Crusade, leaving his younger brother John in Europe.

21/6/1190, Thursday (-275,707) The German Crusaders arrived in Antioch.

10/6/1190. Sunday (-275,718) Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) drowned in the River Saleph (now, Goksu) on his way to the Holy Land in the Third Crusade. He was succeeded by his son Henry IV.

18/5/1190, Friday (-275,741) Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I advanced into Konya, capital of Rum, western Turkey.

8/5/1190. Tuesday (-275,751) After some six months of increasing persecution, 500 Jews were massacred in York after they had taken refuge in the Castle there. The Jews were killed by groups of young men after a three day siege before these men were due to depart on a Crusade, backed by people who were deeply in debt to Jewish moneylenders. King Richard I, crowned on 2/9/189, showed his dislike of the Jewsby forbidding any to attend his coronation feast, and anti-Semitism was on the rise in England from then.

25/3/1190, Sunday (-275,795) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1190, Monday (-275,878)

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25/12/1189, Monday (-275,885)

12/12/1189, Tuesday (-275,898) King Richard I of England left on the Crusade.

18/11/1189, Saturday (-275,922) William II, King of Sicily, died. His cousin, Tancred, Count of Lecce, seized the throne.

23/10/1189, Monday (-275,948)

4/10/1189, Wednesday (-275,967) (Christian) Saladin returned to Acre with a larger army to relieve the Crusader siege. Both sides lost heavily, and the siege continued.

15/9/1189, Friday (-275,986) (Christian) Saladin attempted to relieve the siege of Acre, which was wanted by Guy of Jerusalem so he could use the port as a base for the expected Third Crusade. However the Muslim forces were driven off.

3/9/1189. Sunday (-275,998) Richard the Lionheart (Richard I) was crowned King at Westminster, after his father Henry II, died. His first act was to free his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine from the Tower of London where King Henry II imprisoned her 16 years earlier for supporting their sons, Richard and John, in a rebellion against Henry. Richard was planning a Third Crusade.

13/8/1189, Sunday (-276, 019) Richard the Lionheart arrived in England, to a hero�s welcome.

6/7/1189, Thursday (-276,057) King Henry II, King of England, died at Chinon, succeeded by his third son, Richard I (Lionheart).

11/5/1189, Thursday (-276,113) (Christian) Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa departed from Regensburg on the Third Crusade, with 100,000 troops.

9/4/1189, Sunday (-276,145) Easter Sunday.

21/1/1189. Saturday (-276,223) Henry II of England, with Philip Augustus and Frederick Barbarossa, assembled troops for a third Crusade.

1/1/1189, Sunday (-276,243)

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17/4/1188, Sunday (-276,502) Easter Sunday.

27/3/1188, Sunday (-276,523) (Germany) Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I exiled Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony. However in 10/1189, after the death of Frederick, Henry returned to Germany and recovered much of Saxony and Holstein.

1/1/1188, Friday (-276,609)

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17/12/1187, Thursday (-276,624) (Papal Succession) Pope Gregory VIII died.

2/12/1187. Wednesday (-276,639) Jerusalem surrendered to Saladin (see 2/11/1192). Saladin was born in 1138, in Tikrit (Saddam Hussein�s native town) of Kurdish parents andwas educated in Syria. In 1164 he accompanies his uncle on a military campaign in Egypt. The aim was to substitute Sunni for Shia Islam there, and also to drive the Crusader Franks out of the Levant. The local Syrian leader died in 1174 and Saladin defeated his 11 year old successor and seized power. The Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad gave Saladin power over all the lands from Morocco to Syria; Saladin later extended his rule into Mesopotamia. Saladin also subdued the Assassins, a Muslim sect that had twice tried to kill him. He now attacked the Crusaders, and on 1 July 1187 captured Tiberias after a six day siege.

After the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, the Franks were almost evicted from the region, holding on only at Antioch, Tripoli, and Tyre. European states set aside their differences in panic and three rulers; Richard I of England, Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, and Philip Augustus of France, set out on a third Crusade. The Crusaders marched on Muslim-held Acre, Saladin arrived, and there ensued a long battle, control swinging back and forth. After two years, Acre fell to the Crusaders. Peace negotiations began, (see 2/11/1192), the end result being a marriage of his daughter with Saladin�s brother, Al-Malik, who was knighted by Richard. The peace gave the coast to the Europeans and the interior to the Muslims. In February 1188 Saladin fell ill with a fever and died 12 days later aged 55.

10/11/1187, Friday (-276,658) Death of King Godred the Black, King of the Scottish Isles and Man.

21/10/1187, Saturday (-276,678) Pope Gregory VIII (173rd Pope) acceded (died 1187).

5/9/1187, Tuesday (-276,724) Louis VIII, King of France, was born.

4/7/1187, Tuesday (-276,787) (Christian, Islam) The Battle of the Horns of Hattin (an extinct volcano crowned with two rocky outcrops). Saladin�s 20,000 strong army defeated Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem. Guy de Lusignan had made a tactical error in attempting to relieve Saladin�s siege of Tiberias. Thirst drove Lusignan�s troops to drink at a nearby lake, where Saladin then attacked them.

1/5/1187, Friday (-276,854) Battle of Cresson: Saladin defeated the Crusaders.

29/3/1187, Sunday (-276,887) Easter Sunday.

18/2/1187, Wednesday (-276,946) Gilbert Foliot, writer, and Bishop of London, died.

1/1/1187, Thursday (-276,974)

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5/9/1186, Friday (-277,092) Marriage of Ermengarde (died 1234) to King William the Lion of Scotland.

19/8/1186, Tuesday (-277,109) Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany, died (born 23/9/1158)

13/4/1186, Sunday (-277,237) Easter Sunday

27/1/1186, Monday (-277,313) (Germany) Henry VI, son of Holy Roman Emperor Fredrrick I, married Constance of Sicily. At the triple coronation in Milan, Frederick was crowned King of Burgundy, Henry as Caesar, and Constance as Queen of the Germans. The marriage strained relations with Pope Urban III, who encouraged Archbishop Philip of Cologne to rebel against Frederick. However in 12/1186 a conference of German Bishops declared in favour of Frederick and against Urban III.

1/1/1186, Wednesday (-277,339)

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24/12/1185, Tuesday (-277,347)

25/11/1185, Monday (-277,376) Pope Lucius III (171st Pope) died.

23/9/1185, Monday (-277,439)

12//9/1185, Wednesday (-277,451) Byzantine Emperor Andronicus I Connenus was killed in a riot in Constantinople. He was succeeded by Isaac II Angelus.

25/5/1185, Saturday (-277,560) (Japan) Battle of Dan no Ura. The Taira clan had now been almost totally driven out of Japan, in the Genpei War, except for an island in the west of the Inland Sea. By 1185 the Minamoto had acquired their own sea expertise. This last battle, fought off the southern tip of Honshu, resulted in the Taira family mostly committing suicide by jumping off their boats and drowning, despite initial military success, after they were betrayed by one of their Generals, who switched sides to the Minamoto mid-battle.

21/4/1185, Sunday (-277,594) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1185, Tuesday (-277,704) week 39,672

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25/12/1184, Tuesday (-277,711)

4/11/1184, Sunday (-277,762) Pope Lucius III proclaimed the persecution of heretics. This developed into the Inquisition.

29/10/1184, Monday (-277,768) (Germany) Henry VI, son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I, was engaged to Constance, heiress to the Kingdom of Sicily.

23/10/1184, Tuesday (-277,774)

1/4/1184, Sunday (-277,979) Easter Sunday

1/3/1184, Thursday (-278,010)

1/2/1184, Wednesday (-278,039)

1/1/1184, Sunday (-278,070)

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1/12/1183, Thursday (-278,101)

17/11/1183, Thursday (-278,115) (Japan) Battle of Mizushima. The Taira had lost central Japan to the Yoshinaka, but had strong bases near the Inland Sea. Minamoto Yoshinaka sent his General, Yada Yoshiyasu, to attack one of these bases at Yashima, on the island of Shikoku. The Taira had gained power partly through their expertise at driving pirates out of the Inland Sea, but the Minamoto were inexperienced at at sea warfare. Taira Tomomori and Taira Noritsune sailed out to meet the Mimamoto. Ships were tied together to make an artificial platform on which both sides fought with swords; the wounded would have been thrown off and drowned. The Minamoto were defeated and disengaged their ships and withdrew to the mainland. From now on, raids on Taira bases were conducted from land.

25/6/1183, Saturday (-278,260) (Italy) The Peace of Konstanz was signed between Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and the Italian Lombard League.

18/6/1183, Saturday (-278,267) Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, took Aleppo, |Syria, and on 24/8/1179 made Damascus his capital.

11/6/1183, Saturday (-278,274) Richard I�s elder brother died. Richard became heir to the English throne, also the Angevin lands, Normandy and Aquitaine.

17/4/1183, Sunday (-278,329) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1183, Saturday (-278,435)

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28/3/1182, Sunday (-278,714) Easter Sunday.

1/3/1182, Monday (-278,741)

1/2/1182, Monday (-278,769)

1/1/1182, Friday (-278,800)

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1/9/1181, Tuesday (-278,922) (Papal Succession) Pope Lucius III acceded.

4/8/1181, Tuesday (-278,950)

2/6/1181, Tuesday (-279,013) (Japan) Battle of Kurikara. The tide of the Gempei wars now turned against the Taira.

5/4/1181, Sunday (-279,071) Easter Sunday

1/1/1181, Thursday (-279,165).

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18/9/1180, Thursday (-279,270) Louis VII, King of France, died.

16/9/1180, Tuesday (-279,272) Frederick also deprived Henry the Lion of his Bavarian lands.

23/6/1180, Monday (-279,357) (Japan) Battle of Uji. Start of the Gempei Wars (to 1185). This marked the end of Taira domination in Japan and the start of the Minamoto Shogunate.

20/4/1180, Sunday (-279,421) Easter Sunday.

13/1/1180, Sunday (-279,519) At a diet at Wurzburg, Bavaria, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick sentenced Henery the Lion to lose hss Saxon fiefs.

1/1/1180, Tuesday (-279,531) 39,933 weeks

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1/12/1179, Saturday (-279,562)

1/11/1179, Thursday (-279,592) Louis VII, in declining health, had his son crowned as King of the Franks, Phillip II. In 1190 Phillip II became the first monarch to style himself �King of France�.

17/9/1179, Wednesday (-279,677) The poet, also theologian and composer, Hildegard of Bingen, died.

24/6/1179, Sunday (-279,722) Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, was put under ban of empire when he refused to appear before Holy Roman Emperor Frederick to answer charges of misgovernment.

3/6/1179, Sunday (-279,743)

1/4/1179, Sunday (-279,806) Easter Sunday

1/1/1179, Monday (-279,896)

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30/11/1178, Wednesday (-279,957) Barbarossa was crowned King of Burgundy at Arles.

18/6/1178, Monday (-280,092) A violent explosion was seen on the face of the Moon. Later, astronomers calculated this may have been the meteor that created the crater known as Giordano Bruno.

10/6/1178, Sunday (-280,100)

9/4/1178, Sunday (-280,163) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1178, Sunday (-280,261)

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29/12/1177, Thursday (-280,264) (Christian, Spain) The Order of Alcantara (founded 1156 as the Order of Saint Julian) received Papal approval. It was a military order of crusading knights, and played a part in the Reconquista of Spain from the Muslims.

25/11/1177, Friday (-280,298) King Baldwin of Jerusalem defeated Saladin at Montgisard.

24/7/1177, Sunday (-280,422) (Italy) Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa effected a reconciliation with Pope Alexander III at Venice.

22/5/1177, Sunday (-280,485)

24/4/1177, Sunday (-280,513) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1177, Saturday (-280,626)

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1/11/1176, Monday (-280,687)

1/10/1176, Friday (-280,718)

17/9/1176, Friday (-280,732) Emperor Manuel of Byzantium was defeated by the Muslims, in the Crusades.

29/5/1176, Saturday (-280,843) (Italy) The Battle of Legnano; In Spring 1176 Holy Roman Emperor Barbarossa was campaigning in Italy, but withdrawal of support by Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, significantly reduced Barbarossa�s army strength. Meanwhile Milan and the other cities of the Lombard League had built up their defences. The Italian foot soldiers maintained a tight formation against Barbarossa�s cavalry, and the horsemen broke on the foot soldier�s pikes. Then Barbarossa was unhorsed and disappeared from view; his soldiers believed he had been killed, however he turned up in Pavia three days later, where they were mourning his death. However the result was that the Italian city-states gained autonomy from the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa. The Lombard League of Italian towns, supported by Pope Alexander III, objected to Barbarossa�s interference in their internal affairs. Barbarossa had laid waste to Milan, but was defeated at Legnano, north-west of Milan, and admitted defeat.

4/4/1176, Sunday (-280,898) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1176, Thursday (-280,992)

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6/10/1175, Monday (-281,079) (Ireland) At a Council in Windsor, King Henry II and Roderick O�Connor, King of Connaught, signed the Treaty of Windsor whereby O�Connor continued to rule Connaught but paid an annual tribute to Henry.

3/10/1175, Friday (-281,082)

1/8/1175, Friday (-281,145)

1/7/1175, Tuesday (-281,176)

29/6/1175, Sunday (-281,178) King Henry II held a Council at Gloucester, at which oaths of loyalty were obtained from the Welsh princes.

13/4/1175, Sunday (-281,255) Easter Sunday, Frederick called off his siege of Alessandria.

1/1/1175, Wednesday (-281,357)

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29/10/1174, Tuesday (-281,421) Holy Roman Emperor Frederick, on his 5th Italian campaign, began a siege of Alessandria, northern Italy.

30/9/1174, Monday (-281,450) King Henry II of England made peace with his rebellious sons, Henry, Richard, Geoffrey and John, after an allocation of territories to them by Henry II caused dissent in 1173.

5/9/1174, Thursday (-281,475) Fire gutted the Choir of Canterbury Cathedral. It was rebuilt using the pointed arch, the first known use of this type of arch in England.

1/8/1174, Thursday (-281,510)

12/7/1174, Friday (-281,530) King Henry II of England performed public penance at Canterbury for the murder of Thomas Becket.

15/5/1174, Wednesday (-281,588) (Egypt) The Syrian Atabeg, Nur ad Din, died. Saladin, ruling in Egypt, declared independence and seized Damascus.

24/3/1174, Sunday (-281,640) ) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1174, Tuesday (-281,722)

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8/8/1173, Wednesday (-281,868) The construction of what is now known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa began.

1/8/1173, Wednesday (-281,875)

8/4/1173, Sunday (-281,990) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1173, Monday (-281,087)

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1/8/1172, Tuesday (-282,240)

16/4/1172, Sunday (-282,347) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1172, Saturday (-282,453)

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25/12/1171, Saturday (-282,460)

23/10/1171, Saturday (-282,523)

17/10/1171, Sunday (-282,529) King Henry landed near Waterford, Ireland.Ireland submitted peacefully to English rule.

13/9/1171, Monday (-282,573) The last Fatimid Caliph of Egypt, al Adid, died. Egypt was now nominally subject to the Caliph of Baghdad, and Saladin was effective ruler.

1/8/1171, Sunday (-281,606)

28/3/1171, Sunday (-282,732) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1171, Friday (-282,818)

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29/12/1170. Tuesday (-282,821) The murder of Thomas Becket, 40th Archbishop of Canterbury, by four knights in his own Cathedral. The knights (Reginald Fitzurse, William de Tracy, Hugh de Merville, and Richard de Breton) believed they were acting on King Henry II�s orders. Becket, far from being the docile cleric Henry believed him to be on appointing him as Archbishop of Canterbury, was a firm upholder of ecclesiastical privileges. Henry, furious at Becket�s excommunication of the six bishops who had assisted the Archbishop of York at the crowning of Henry II�s son in Westminster Abbey, uttered the fatal cry. �Who will rid me of this turbulent priest�. The four knights gave Henry his answer.

2/12/1170, Wednesday (-282,848) Thomas Beckett returned to Canterbury from his voluntary exile. He had left England on 2/11/1164.

28/11/1170, Saturday (-282,852) Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd, Welsh King, died.

13/11/1170, Friday (-282,867) Albrecht �The Bear� of Brandenburg died aged 70, having divided his lands between his six sons.

1/8/1170, Saturday (-282,971)

22/7/1170, Wednesday (-282,981) Thomas Becket and King Henry II were reconciled, at Freteval, western France.

14/6/1170, Sunday (-283,019) King Henry II�s son was crowned, not as was custom by the Archbishop of Canterbury but by the Archbishop of York. This was a major snub to Thomas Beckett, and against Papal instructions. Henry then made verbal reconciliation with Beckett, who, impatient to return to England, did so without proper guarantees of safety.

7/6/1170, Sunday (-283,026)

5/4/1170, Sunday (-283,089) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1170, Thursday (-283,183)

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1/8/1169, Friday (-283,336)

20/4/1169, Sunday (-283,439) Easter Sunday.

23/3/1169, Sunday (-283,467) (Egypt) Shirguh died of a stomach illness, and Saladin was appointed by the Caliph ashis successor.

8/3/1169, Saturday (-283,482) Andrew of Suzdal sacked Kiev, and became the most powewrful Russian Prince.

4/2/1169, Tuesday (-283,514) An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of around 7 struck the eastern coast of Sicily, causing an estimated 15,000 deaths.

6/1/1169, Monday (-283,543) (Egypt) Shirguh, who had hastened to Egypt again to counter the new threat from Almaric, now seized Shawar and executed him some ten days later.

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1/8/1168, Thursday (-283,701)

31/3/1168, Sunday (-283,824) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1168, Monday (-283,914)

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24/12/1167, Sunday (-283,922) King John, sixth and youngest son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was born in Oxford.

10/9/1167, Sunday (-284,027) Empress Matilda, daughter of King Henry I of England and mother of Henry II, died.

1/8/1167, Tuesday (-284,067) week 40.581

27/4/1167, Thursday (-284,163) Italians from the cities of Bergamo, Brescia, Cremona, Mantua, Treviso and Verona arrived at the ruins of Milan to rebuild it. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa had imposed a non-native ruler, or Podesta, upon it, as he had upon other Italian cities he controlled, following the surrender of Milan to him after his siege of it in 1158. The taxes imposed upon Milan by the Podesta were heavy and they revolted. In 1162 Frederick returned to Milan and this time razed it to the ground, dispersing its inhabitants into the countryside. Although Frederick went on to capture Rome in 1167, his army was decimated by malaria and he had to return to Germany for reinforcements. Facing domestic issues in Germany he could not return south and deal with this act of defiance in rebuilding Milan. He was unable to re-enter Italy until 1174, by which time the Lombard League had consolidated and gained control of the central and eastern Alpine passes. In 1168 the Lombards founded a new city, called Alessandria in honour of Pope Alexander II, to defend the western frontier. Alessandria withstood a 6-month siege by Frederick (1174-5) and on 29/5/1176 Frederick was decisively defeated at Legnano.

11/4/1167, Tuesday (-284,179) (Egypt) Battle of Babain. Shirguh and his nephew Saladin defeated an alliance of the Franks and Shawar. The Franks and Shawar then made another attack on Saladin, besieging him in Alexandria, but after 75 days were compelled to raise this siege. This was because Shirguh�s forces were threatening Cairo, where a Frankish garrison had been admitted by Shawar. The Franks and Syrians now agreed to leave Egypt, although they retained a garrison in Cairo.

9/4/1167, Sunday (-284,181) Easter Sunday.

28/1/1167, Saturday (284,252) (Jewish) Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra, Jewish scholar, born in Toledo, Spain, ca. 1092, died.

1/1/1167, Sunday (-284,279)

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1/8/1166, Monday (-284,432)

29/7/1166, Friday (-284,435) Henry II, Count of Champagne, was born.

27/5/1166, Friday (-284,498)

7/5/1166, Saturday (-284,518) Norman King William I of Sicily died after a 12-year reign. He was succeeded by his 13-year-old son who reigned as William II until his death in 1189. William II supported the Papacy and entered a secret agreement with the Lombardy cities to resist Frederick II Barbarossa (Holy Roman Emperor).

24/4/1166, Sunday (-284,531) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1166, Saturday (-284,644)

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24/12/1165, Friday (-284,652) Coronation of William the Lion of Scotland at Scone Abbey.

9/12/1165, Thursday (-284,667) Malcolm IV, King of Scotland, died aged 24. He was succeeded by his 22-year-old brother, William the Lion, who ruled until 1214.

25/11/1165, Thursday (-284,681) Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa visited Utrecht.

21/8/1165, Saturday (-284,777) Philip Augustus, King of France, was born.

1/8/1165, Sunday (-284,797)

4/4/1165, Sunday (-284,916) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1165, Friday (-285,009)

==================================================================================

2/11/1164, Monday (-285,069) Thomas Beckett was condemned for contempt of court, and went into exile in France.

1/8/1164, Saturday (-285,162)

20/4/1164, Monday (-285,265) Death of anti-Pope Victor IV.

12/4/1164, Sunday (-285,273) Easter Sunday

30/1/1164, Thursday (-285,346) Matilda, Queen of England, died (born 1102).

1/1/1164, Wednesday (-285,375)

===============================================================================

1/10/1163, Tuesday (-285,467) The Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas a Beckett, rebutted English King Henry II�s demand that clergy be tried in secular Courts.

1/8/1163, Thursday (-285,528)

24/3/1163, Sunday (-784,628) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1163, Tuesday (-285,740)

=================================================================================

1/8/1162, Wednesday (-285,893)

3/6/1162, Sunday (-285,952) Thomas Becket was consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury.

8/4/1162, Sunday (-286,008) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1162, Monday (-286,105)

================================================================================

25/12/1161, Monday (-286,112)

16/11/1161, Wednesday (-286,152) The Jurchen Jin dynasty planned a seaborne invasion of southern Song China. Some 70,000 soldiers embarked on transport ships. Their commander, Zheng Zia, was not intending to undertake a sea battle, a form of warfare which his horse-borne steppe warriors had no experience. However the invasion fleet was intercepted by a squadron of Song warships, commanded by Li Bao, in the islands off the Shandong Peninsula. The Song warships included �tower ships�; these had a trebuchet to hurl missiles. They also had inflammable gunpowder missiles that set fire to enemy ships. Many Jurchen soldiers drowned as they leapt off burning ships, including Zheng Zia.

1/8/1161, Tuesday (-286,258) week 40,894

18/4/1161, Tuesday (-286,363) Theobald of Bec, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

16/4/1161, Sunday (-286,365) Easter Sunday. King William of Sicily crushed a rebellion, then marched into Apulia and Calabria, Italy.

7/2/1161, Tuesday (-286,433) The title �Confessor� was conferred upon King Edward, by Papal Bull. It signified his adherence to religious principles in the face of temptation.

1/1/1161, Sunday (-286,470)

=================================================================================

25/12/1160, Sunday (-286,477)

26/11/1160, Friday (-286,507) (Italy) Holy Roman Emperor Barbarossa captured the Italian city of Crema. Crema was allied to Milan, a wealthy city which Barbarossa wished to acquire. Arriving at Crema on 2/7/1159, Barbarossa laid siege, and both sides used barbarous tactics, tying prisoners to siege towers, even children, so they were killed by their own side, and hacking prisoners to pieces in front of the enemy. Hunger eventually forced Crema to surrender; its defenders lives were spared, but the city was razed to the ground.

1/8/1160, Monday (-286,623)

27/3/1160, Sunday (-286,750) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1160, Thursday (-286,753) Pope Alexander III excommunicated Frederick I.

1/1/1160, Friday (-286,836)

================================================================================

1/9/1159. Tuesday (-286,958) Death of Pope Adrian IV, elected Pope on 4/12/1154. He was formerly Nicholas Breakspear, and was the only English Pope. In 1155 he authorised King Henry II of England to invade Ireland and hold it as a hereditary fief of the Papacy. Breakspear was born at Bedmond Farm in Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, around 1100. His father became a monk of St Albans abbey, presumably after the death of his wife. Nicholas Breakspear also applied to join the Abbey at age 18 but was refused admission because of too little schooling. He went abroad as a wandering scholar and finally became a monk in the Augustinian Abbey of St Rufus in Avignon in 1130. He was elected Abbot in 1137 and came to the notice of the Pope, Eugenius III. The Pope recognised his qualities and made him a bishop and a cardinal; Breakspear was sent on a trip to war-torn Scandinavia where he restored peace. After 4 years Breakspear returned to Rome to find that Eugenius III had died and was succeeded by Anastasius IV, a man of 90. Within the year Anastasius IV was dead and Nicholas Breakspear was unanimously elected Pope, taking the name Adrian IV.

1/8/1159, Saturday (-286,989)

12/4/1159, Sunday (-287,100) Easter Sunday

1/1/1159, Thursday (-287,201)

=================================================================================

25/12/1158, Thursday (-287,208) Eleanor, wife of King Richard I, was crowned Queen at Worcester Cathedral.

11/11/1158, Tuesday (-287,252) Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa declared himself ruler of northern Italy.

23/9/1158, Monday (-287,302) Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany, was born (died 19/8/1186)

22/9/1158, Sunday (-287,303) Otto of Freising, biographer of Frederick I, died.

20/8/1158, Wednesday (-287,335) Assassination of Ragnald III, Earl of Orkney.

1/8/1158, Friday (-287,354)

20/4/1158, Sunday (-287,457) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1158, Wednesday (-287,566)

=================================================================================

8/9/1157. Sunday (-287,681) King Richard I was born in Oxford, third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, and later known as Richard the Lionheart. Although he reigned for nearly ten years he was only in England twice, for a total of 160 days. He was mostly away on crusades.

1/8/1157, Thursday (-287,719)

31/3/1157, Sunday (-287,842) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1157, Tuesday (-287,931)

=================================================================================

25/12/1156, Tuesday (-287,938)

21/12/1156, Friday (-287,942) Assassination of Erlend III, Earl of Orkney.

17/9/1156, Monday (-288,037) Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa confirmed Austria as a Duchy by the Priveligium Miuns Decree.

1/8/1156, Wednesday (-288,084)

15/4/1156, Sunday (-288,192) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1156, Sunday (-288,297)

================================================================================

1/8/1155, Monday (-288,450)

18/6/1155, Saturday (-288,494) Rioting in Rome as English born Pope Adrian crowned Frederick Barbarossa as Holy Roman Emperor; 1,000 died.

27/3/1155, Sunday (-288,577) Easter Sunday.

28/2/1155, Monday (-288,604) Henry, son of Henry II, was born.

1/1/1155, Saturday (-288,662)

==================================================================================

19/12/1154. Sunday (-288,675) Henry II became King of England, on the death of Stephen on 24/10/1154.

4/12/1154. Saturday (-288,690) Election of Pope Adrian IV,(169th Pope). Adrian IV was Nicholas Breakespear, the only ever English Pope. This followed the death of Pope Anastasius IV (168th Pope) on 3/12/1154, who was Pope from 9/7/1153. He was a strict disciplinarian, which led to attempts to defame his character: he had to appear before Pope Eugene III to clear his character. Adrian IV settled a dispute with Emperor Frederick I over the See of Magdeburg, and he granted the Lordship of Ireland to King Henry II of England.

24/10/1154. Sunday (-288,731) King Stephen of England died at Dover.

1/8/1154, Sunday (-288,815)

4/4/1154, Sunday (-288,934) Easter Sunday,

26/2/1154. Monday (-288,968) King Roger II of Sicily died and was succeeded by his son William the Bald.

1/1/1154, Friday (-289,027)

=================================================================================

20/8/1153, Thursday (-289,161) St Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux, died.

1/8/1153, Saturday (-289,180)

8/7/1153, Wednesday (-289,204) Pope Eugene III (167th Pope) died.

24/5/1153, Sunday (-289,249) King David I (The Saint) of Scotland, died in Carlisle (born ca. 1084, acceded 4/1124). Accession of King Malcolm IV (The Maiden).

19/4/1153, Sunday (-289,284) Easter Sunday.

23/3/1153, Monday (-289,311) The Treaty of Konstanz was signed between Frederick I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, and Pope Eugene III.

1/1/1153, Thursday (-289,392)

=================================================================================

1/8/1152, Friday (-289,545)

16/5/1152, Friday (-289,622) Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry of Anjou, bringing a large area of what is now western France under the English Crown.

30/3/1152, Sunday (-289,669) Easter Sunday.

21/3/1152, Friday (-289,678) The marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine and French King Louis VII was dissolved.

9/3/1152, Sunday (-289,690) Frederick Duke of Swabia was crowned at Aix la Chappelle as Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, to succeed Conrad III.

4/3/1152, Tuesday (-289,695) Frederick I Barbarossa was elected Holy Roman Emperor.

15/2/1152, Friday (-289,713) Conrad III, Holy Roman Emperor, died at Bamberg (see 7/3/1138).

1/1/1152, Tuesday (-289,758) week 41,394

=================================================================================

7/9/1151, Friday (-289,874) Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany, died (born 24/8/1113).

1/8/1151, Wednesday (-289,911)

8/4/1151, Sunday (-290,026) Easter Sunday.

13/1/1151, Saturday (-290,111) Suger, Abbot of St Denis, Paris, and Regent for Louis VII, died.

1/1/1151, Monday (-290,123)

===============================================================================

1/8/1150, Tuesday (-290,276) week 41,468

16/4/1150, Sunday (-290,383) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1150, Sunday (-290,488)

================================================================================

1/8/1149, Monday (-290,641)

29/6/1149, Wednesday (-290,674) Raymond of Poitiers, Prince of Antioch, was defeated and killed by Nur ad Din, son of Imad ad Din Zangi. The Second Crusade ended.

3/4/1149, Sunday (-290,761) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1149, Saturday (-290,853)

================================================================================

25/12/1148, Saturday (-290,860)

2/11/1148, Tuesday (-290,913) Saint Malachy, Church reformer, died.

1/8/1148, Sunday (-291,006)

28/7/1148, Wednesday (-291,010) (Christian) The Crusaders failed to capture Damascus. The troops of Louis II of France and Conrad III of Germany suffered considerable losses at the hands of the Turks on the way to the Holy Land, even before they arrived to join with Baldwin III of Jerusalem. They arrived at Damascus on 23/7/1148 and occupied the large orchards and fields west of Damascus, suffering further losses at the hands of the skilled Damascene archers. Failing to take Damascus from this angle, on 27/7/1148 they moved to the more open ground east of Damascus. The army leaders then began to argue over the best plan of attack, and who should rule Damascus once captured; news also broke of a large Muslim army now in Homs under the command of skilled General Nur-ad-Din. Local Christian lords deserted, taking their men away, and on 28/7/1144 Louis, Conrad and Baldwin began their own retreat back to Jerusalem, having accomplished nothing.

11/4/1148, Sunday (-291,118) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1148, Thursday (-291,219)

==================================================================================

25/12/1147, Thursday (-291,226)

25/11/1147, Tuesday (-291,256)

28/10/1147. Tuesday (-291,284) The Moslems in Lisbon surrendered peacefully to an allied Christian force under Portugal�s Alfonso Henriques. The Moslem inhabitants were allowed to depart peacefully.

25/10/1147, Saturday (-291,287) Battle of Dorylaeum, the Seljuq Turks defeated German Crusaders under Conrad III.

7/10/1147, Wednesday (-291,304) Almeria, one of the most important maritime and commercial centres of al-Andalus, fell into Christian hands after two months of siege.

1/8/1147, Friday (-291,372)

1/7/1147, Tuesday (-291,403)

28/6/1147, Saturday (-291,406) The Second Crusaders, who had earlier gathered at the Devon port of Dartmouth, now agreed to help Afonso I of Portugal liberate Lisbon from the Muslims.

20/4/1147, Sunday (-291,475) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1147, Wednesday (-291,584)

=================================================================================

25/12/1146, Wednesday (-291,591) King Stephen of England arranged a third �coronation�; in reality a demonstration of his authority.

1/8/1146, Thursday (-291,737)

31/3/1146, Sunday (-291,860) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1146, Tuesday (-291,949) week 41,707

================================================================================

1/8/1145, Wednesday (-291,102)

15/4/1145, Sunday (-292,210) Easter Sunday.

15/2/1145, Thursday (-292,269) Pope Eugene III (167th Pope) acceded (died 8/7/1153)

1/2/1145, Thursday (-292,283)

1/1/1145, Monday (-292,314)

===============================================================================

24/12/1144, Sunday (-292,322) The city of Edessa fell to the Muslims, sparking the Second Crusade. Zengi had been informed that Count Joscelin of Edessa had argued with Prince Raymond of Antioch, and had then taken most of his army to Diyarbakir to interfere in a local dispute there. Therefore Zengi moved to capture Edessa at this time. Arriving on 28/11/1144, Zengi began undermining the city walls and battering them with trebuchets. Queen Melisende of Jerusalem sent a relief force, but Prince Raymond of Antioch refused to help. On 24/12/1144 a section of Edessa�s walls fell. Zengi separated local Christians from the foreign ones, then executed the latter. Edessa�s citadel held out until 26/12/1144, surrendering on condition that their lives would be spared, just before Joscelin and Melisende�s troops arrived. These relief troops did hold onto lands west of the Euphrates River. When Pope Eugene III heard of the fall of Edessa, he called for the Second Crusade to begin.

1/8/1144, Tuesday (-292,467) week 41,781

26/3/1144, Sunday (-282,595) Easter Sunday.

12/3/1144, Sunday (-292,609) Pope Lucius II acceded.

1/2/1144, Tuesday (-292,649)

1/1/1144, Saturday (-292,680)

================================================================================

24/12/1143, Friday (-292,688)

22/10/1143, Friday (-292,751)

24/9/1143, Friday (-292,779) Pope Innocent II died.

1/8/1143, Sunday (-292,833)

8/4/1143, Thursday (-292,948) John II, Byzantine Emperor, was killed accidentally.

4/4/1143, Sunday (-292,952) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1143, Friday (-293,045)

=================================================================================

1/8/1142, Saturday (-293,198)

21/4/1142, Tuesday (-293,300) (France) French scholar Peter Abelard died at Chalon sur Saone.

19/4/1142, Sunday (-293,302) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1142, Thursday (-293,410)

==================================================================================

25/12/1141, Thursday (-293,417) The second coronation of King Stephen of England. He insisted on this ceremony after his release from prison to re-establish his authority over the barons.

23/12/1141, Tuesday (-293,419)

1/11/1141, Saturday (-293, 471) Following the death of King Henry I, Matilda his daughter and her cousin Stephen of Blois were fighting a civil war for the English throne. Rival barons robbed and burned villages and abbeys.

14/9/1141, Sunday (-293,519) (Britain) The Battle of Winchester; King Stephen�s release was secured.

12/9/1141, Friday (-293,521)

9/9/1141, Tuesday (-293,524) Seljuk Sultan Sanjar was defeated at Samarkand by the Kara-Khitai, who built an empire from China to the River Oxus (now, Amu Darya).

1/8/1141, Friday (-293,563) (Britain) The siege of Winchester began.

30/3/1141, Sunday (-293,687) Easter Sunday.

3/3/1141. Monday (-293,714) Empress Matilda was formally proclaimed Queen of England.

20/2/1141, Thursday (-293,725) (Britain) At the Battle of Lincoln, King Stephen was captured by Robert, Earl of Gloucester. He had been besieging Lincoln Castle, and was taken by forces under Earl Robert of Gloucester and Earl Ranulf of Chester. This left Matilda as de-facto ruler of England.

1/1/1141, Wednesday (-293,775)

==================================================================================

1/8/1140, Thursday (-293,928)

3/6/1140, Monday (-293,987) French scholar Peter Abelard was found guilty of heresy.

7/4/1140, Sunday (-294,044) Easter Sunday.

6/2/1140, Tuesday (-294,105) Thurstan, Archbishop of York, died.

1/1/1140, Monday (-294,141)

==============================================================================

30/9/1139, Saturday (-294,234) Empress Matilda arrived in England, to lead her followers against Stephen.

1/8/1139, Tuesday (-294,294) week 42,042

25/7/1139, Tuesday (-294,301) (Portugal) King Afonso Henriques I (1110-85) of Portugal defeated the Muslims at Ourique. Portugal. Afonso Henriques attacked the Muslims, defeating a larger army than his own, but one weakened by internal divisions. This gained him the support of the Pope. Afonso was now proclaimed the first King of Portugal.

23/4/1139, Sunday (-294,394) Easter Sunday.

20/4/1139, Thursday (-294,397) The Second Lateran Council denounced the religious reformer, Arnold of Brescia.

1/1/1139, Sunday (-294,506)

================================================================================

25/12/1138, Sunday (-294,513)

11/10/1138, Friday (-294,557) An earthquake in Aleppo, Syria, killed about 230,000 people.

22/8/1138, Monday (-294,638) At the Battle of The Standard, a Scottish Highland and Pict army under King David was defeated near Northallerton by English from Yorkshire and the east Midlands.

1/8/1138, Monday (-294,659)

3/4/1138, Sunday (-294,779) Easter Sunday.

7/3/1138, Monday (-294,806) Conrad III (1093-1152) was again chosen as Holy Roman Emperor (see 18/12/1127). He was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on 13/3/1138, but was still opposed by Henry the Proud, the powerful Duke of Bavaria and Saxony. Henry the Proud died in 10/1139, but Conrad still faced opposition from Henry�s brother, Welf. Peace was finally arranged at Frankfort in 5/1142, with Henry the Lion (son of Henry the Proud) installed as Duke of Saxony, whilst Bavaria was given to Conrad�s stepbrother, Henry Jasomirgott, Margrave of Austria, who married Gertrude, widow of Henry the Proud.

1/1/1138, Saturday (-294,871)

=================================================================================

25/12/1137, Saturday (-294,878)

4/12/1137, Saturday (-294,899) Holy Roman Emperor Lothair II died aged 67.

1/8/1137, Sunday (-295,024) Louis VI, King of France, died, aged 56. He was succeeded by his 16-year old son, Louis VII.

22/7/1137, Thursday (-295,034) Louis, son of Louis VI (The Fat) married Eleanor of Aquitaine

11/4/1137, Sunday (-295,136) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1137, Friday (-295,236)

===============================================================================

15/8/1136, Saturday (-295,375) Holy Roman Emperor Lothair II invested Henry of Bavaria (Henry the Proud) as Duke of Saxony.

1/8/1136, Saturday (-295,389)

22/3/1136, Sunday (-295,521) Easter Sunday. Matilda, wife of King Stephen of England, was crowned Queen at Westminster Abbey.

1/3/1136, Sunday (-295,542)

1/2/1136, Saturday (-295,571)

1/1/1136, Wednesday (-295,602)

===============================================================================

25/12/1135, Wednesday (-295,609)

22/12/1135, Sunday (-295,612) The coronation of King Stephen took place.

1/12/1135. Sunday (-295,633) King Henry I died, aged 66, apparently of a surfeit of lampreys, near Rouen. See 1/11/1141.His nephew Stephen succeeded him. Henry�s only son, Robert, had drowned in 1120 and Henry I wanted his daughter Matilda to succeed him; the barons considered it unfitting for a woman to be monarch and backed the claim of Stephen, Henry�s nephew.

1/8/1135, Thursday (-295,755)

7/4/1135, Sunday (-295,871) Easter Sunday.

30/3/1135, Saturday (-295,879) (Jewish) The great Jewish teacher Moses ben Maimon (Maimonedes) was born in Cordoba. See 13/12/1204.

1/1/1135, Tuesday (-295,967) week 42,281

==================================================================================

7/9/1134, Friday (-296,087) King Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre (acceded 1105) died. He took Saragossa and Tarragona from the

1/8/1134, Wednesday (-296,120)

17/7/1134, Thursday (-296,135) Alfonso, King of Aragon, was defeated by the Moors at Fraga.

15/4/1134, Sunday (-296,228) Easter Sunday

30/3/1134, Friday (-296,244)

1/1/1134, Monday (-296,332)

==================================================================================

24/8/1133, Thursday (-296,462) In London, the first Bartholomew�s Day Fair was held. It was held annually thereafter until 1855.

1/8/1133, Tuesday (-296,485) week 42,385

4/6/1133, Sunday (-296,543) Pope innocent II crowned Lothair as Holy Roman Emperor, after he had campaigned in Italy for Innocent�s claims to the papacy against his rival, Anacletus II.

26/3/1133, Sunday (-296,613) Easter Sunday.

5/3/1133, Saturday (-296,634) Henry II, first Plantagenet King of England, was born near Le Mans, eldest son of Geoffrey Count of Anjou and Matilda, daughter of Henry I.

1/1/1133, Sunday (296,697)

================================================================================

1/8/1132, Monday (-296,850)

10/4/1132, Sunday (-209,963) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1132, Friday (-297,063)

================================================================================

25/12/1131, Friday (-297,070)

4/12/1131, Friday (-297,091) (Iran) Omar Khayyan, Persian poet and mathematician, born 5/15/1048, died at Nishapur.

8/9/1131, Tuesday (-297,178) The English barons pledged allegiance to Matilda as the heir of King Henry I, after Henry I�s only legitimate son, William, had drowned.

21/8/1131, Friday (-297,196) Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem, died and was succeeded by Fulk of Anjou.

1/8/1131, Saturday (-297,216)

9/5/1131, Saturday (-297,300) (Christian) Tintern Abbey was founded.

19/4/1131, Sunday (-297,320) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1131, Thursday (-297,428)

===============================================================================

25/12/1130. Thursday (-297,435) Norman King Roger II was crowned King of Sicily in Palermo Cathedral by the anti-Pope Anacletus, who thereby gained a powerful supporter for his claim on the Papacy against the Pope Innocent II.

25/10/1130, Saturday (-297,496) Pope Innocent III dedicated the Abbey Church of Cluny.

1/8/1130, Friday (-297,581)

30/3/1130, Sunday (-297,705) Easter Sunday.

14/2/1130, Friday (-297,749) Pope Honorius II died.

1/1/1130, Wednesday (-297,793)

=================================================================================

17/12/1129, Tuesday (-297,808) (Morocco) Almohad Mahdi Muhammad Ibn Tumart died and was succeeded by Abd Al Mu�min.

1/8/1129, Thursday (-297,946)

14/4/1129, Sunday (-298,055) Easter Sunday

1/1/1129, Tuesday (-298,158) week 42,594

==================================================================================

1/8/1128, Wednesday (-298,311)

29/6/1128, Friday (-298,344) Conrad of Hohenstaufem was crowned King of Italy.

17/6/1128, Sunday (-298,356) Matilda, daughter of King Henry I of England, and widow of Holy Roman Emperor Henry V, married Geoffrey Plantagenet of Anjou (western France). She was also heir to the English throne.

22/4/1128, Sunday (-298,412) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1128, Sunday (-298,524)

=================================================================================

18/12/1127, Sunday (-298,538) Conrad III (1093-1152) was chosen as Holy Roman Emperor, in opposition to Lothair. He hastily crossed the Alps to be crowned King of Italy at Monza, 6/1128. Whilst being acknowledged as King in northern Italy he was rejected as King by both rival Popes, Innocent II and Anacletus II. He failed to consolidate his holdings in Italy, and returned to Germany in 1132, where he fought with Lothair until 10/1135. He then submitted to Lothair, was pardoned, and recovered his estates, When Lothair died in 12/1137, Conrad III was again chosen as Emperor on 7/3/1138.

1/8/1127, Monday (-298,677)

20/7/1127, Wednesday (-298,689) William I, Norman Duke of Apulia, died and was succeeded by his cousin Roger II of Sicily.

19/4/1127, Tuesday (-298,781) (Christian) Felix of Valois, founder of the monastic order of Trinitarians (Redemptionists) was born (died 4/11/1212).

3/4/1127, Sunday (-298,797) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1127, Saturday (-298,889)

===================================================================================

1/8/1126, Sunday (-299,042)

11/4/1126, Sunday (-299,154) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1126, Friday (-299,254)

====================================================================================

1/11/1125, Sunday (-299,315)

4/10/1125, Sunday (-299,343) (Egypt) Fatik al Bataihi was seized and imprisoned on the orders of Caliph Amir, who now became ruler of Egypt. Fatik Al Bataihi had also suffered defeats by the Franks, losing Tyre to them, and losing his fleet to the Venetians.

30/8/1125, Sunday (-209,378) The pro-Papal Welf or Gueloh nobles blocked the succession of Frederick of Swabia to his uncle Henry V,s position as Holy Roman Emperor and Lothair of Supplinburg, Duke of Saxony, was elected instead. Warfare began between the Guelphs and the Hohenstaufen family, known as Waiblings of Ghibbelines, mfrom their castle at Waiblingen.

1/8/1125, Saturday (-299,407)

23/5/1125, Saturday (-299,477) Holy Roman Emperor Henry V died at Utrecht. He was succeeded by the 55-yerar-old Lothair, who was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on 13/9/1125.

29/4/1125, Wednesday (-299,501)

29/3/1125, Sunday (-299,532) Easter Sunday.

1/3/1125, Sunday (-299,560)

1/2/1125, Sunday (-299,588)

1/1/1125, Thursday (-299,619)

====================================================================================

25/12/1124, Thursday (-299,626)

15/12/1124, Monday (-299,636) Pope Honorius II, (163rd Pope), acceded.

27/11/1124. Thursday (-299,654) Death of King Alexander I of Scotland.. He was born in ca.1078. He founded many abbeys and bishoprics, among them Incholm and Scone.

1/8/1124, Friday (-299,772)

7/7/1124, Monday (-299,797) Tyre fell to the Crusaders.

6/4/1124, Sunday (-299,889) Easter Sunday.

2/3/1124, Sunday (-299,924) Charles The Good, Count of Flanders, was murdered.

1/1/1124, Tuesday (-299,985) week 42,855

====================================================================================

1/8/1123, Wednesday (-300,138)

5/6/1123. Tuesday (-300,195) St Bartholomew Hospital, London, was founded.

29/5/1123, Tuesday (-300,202) The Crusaders defeated the Fatimids at Ibelin, Palestine.

18/4/1123, Wednesday (-300,243) Danishmend Turkish Emir Balak of Khanzit captured King Baldwin of Jerusalem, and destroyed his army. In June Balak occupied Aleppo (Syria). Baldwin was released in June 1124 on payment of a ransom.

15/4/1123, Sunday (-300,246) Easter Sunday

18/3/1123, Sunday (-300,274) The First Lateran Council began. It condemned simony and the marriage of priests.

1/1/1123, Monday (-300,350)

==================================================================================

23/9/1122. Saturday (-300,450) The Diet of Worms. A council was held at the German town of Worms, to settle a dispute between Church and State that went back to 1076, when Pope Gregory VII excommunicated King Henry IV of Germany, seeking to impose papal power over the king. Both Henry IV and his son, the present King Henry V set up anti-Popes and forced the Pope to flee to refuge in a monastery. Pope CalixtusII and King Henry V agreed at this Diet that the King would not force the election of Bishops but allow their free election by the Church; in return the King will be present at the election of Bishops and have some influence over disputes within the church.

1/8/1122, Tuesday (-300,503) week 42,929

26/3/1122, Sunday (-300,631) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1122, Sunday (-300,715)

==================================================================================

25/12/1121, Sunday (-300,722)

27/11/1121, Sunday (-300,750) Muhammad ibn Tumart, leader of the Almohads of the Atlas Mountains, was recognised as the Mahdi (Guided by God). He began to conquer the Almoravid territories in NW Africa.

29/9/1121, Thursday (-300,809) In Germany Holy Roman Emperor Henry V made peace with his opponents.

1/8/1121, Monday (-300,868)

10/4/1121, Sunday (-300,981) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1121, Saturday (-301,080)

===================================================================================

25/12/1120, Saturday (-301,087)

25/11/1120, Thursday (-301,117) William Aethelney, son and heir of the English King Henry I, drowned when his ship hit rocks whilst sailing from Normandy to England.

1/8/1120, Sunday (-301,233)

18/4/1120, Sunday (-301,338) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1120, Thursday (-301,446)

====================================================================================

23/12/1119, Tuesday (-301,455) Pope Calixtus I officialy approved the new Cistercian order

19/9/1119, Friday (-301,550) Severe earthquake in Gloucestershire & Warwickshire, England.

1/8/1119, Friday (-301,599)

28/6/1119, Saturday (-301,633) The Dashmend Turks under Ghazi defeated a Crusader army at Antioch. Roger of Salerno, Prince of Antioch, was killed.

30/3/1119, Sunday (-301,723) Easter Sunday.

29/1/1119, Wednesday (-301,783) End of reign of Pope Gelasius II (161st Pope)

1/1/1119, Wednesday (-301,811)

=================================================================================

25/12/1118, Wednesday (-301,818)

21/12/1118, Saturday (-301,822) Thomas Beckett was born in Cheapside, London.

11/12/1118. Wednesday (-301,832) The Christians captured Saragossa, Spain, from the Muslims.

15/8/1118, Thursday (-301,949) Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus died aged 70 after a 37-year reign. He was succeeded by his 30-year-old son who ruled until 1143 as John II Comnenus.

1/8/1118, Thursday (-301,964)

14/4/1118, Sunday (-302,073) Easter Sunday

7/4/1118, Sunday (-302,080) Pope Gelasius excommunicated Holy Roman Emperor Henry V

2/4/1118, Tuesday (-302,085) Baldwin I, Crusader King of Jerusalem, died and was succeeded by Baldwin II, Count of Edessa in Syria.

24/1/1118, Thursday (-302,153) Pope Gelasius II (161st Pope) acceded.

1/1/1118, Tuesday (-302,176) week 43,168

==================================================================================

1/8/1117, Wednesday (-302,329)

16/4/1117, Monday (-302,436) Execution of Magnus I (Saint Magnus), Earl of Orkney.

25/3/1117, Sunday (-302,458) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1117, Monday (-302,541)

=================================================================================

1/8/1116, Tuesday (-302,694) week 43,242

2/4/1116, Sunday (-302,815) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1116, Saturday (-302,907)

=================================================================================

1/8/1115, Sunday (-303,060)

7/7/1115, Wednesday (-303,085) Peter the Hermit, a leader of the First Crusade, died.

18/4/1115, Sunday (-303,165) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1115, Friday (303,272)

==================================================================================

1/10/1114, Thursday (-303,364) Holy Roman Emperor Henry V was defeated by rebels in the Rhineland.

1/8/1114, Saturday (-303,425)

29/3/1114, Sunday (-303,550) Easter Sunday.

7/1/1114, Wednesday (-303,631) Holy Roman Emperor Henry V married Matilda, daughter of King Henry I of England.

1/1/1114, Thursday (-303,637)

=================================================================================

24/8/1113, Sunday (-303,767) Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany, was born (died 7/9/1151).

1/8/1113, Friday (-303,790)

6/4/1113, Sunday (-303,907) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1113, Wednesday (-304,002)

=================================================================================

1/8/1112, Thursday (-403,155)

21/4/1112, Sunday (-304,257) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1112, Monday (-304,368)

=================================================================================

1/8/1111, Tuesday (-304,521) week 43,503

2/4/1111, Sunday (-304,642) Easter Sunday.

4/2/1111, Saturday (-304,699) Holy Roman Emperor Henry V captured Pope Paschal II and by the Treaty of Sutri forced him to accede to Henry�s conditions for the settlement of the investiture controversy. However in 1112 Pope Paschal II reneged on this agreement, and Henry V was excommunicated at the Synod of Vienne in September 1112. The Church now split into Imperial and Papal factions.

1/1/1111, Sunday (-304,733)

==================================================================================

25/12/1110, Sunday (-304,740)

4/12/1110, Sunday (-304,761) First Crusade, the Crusaders conquered Sidon.

1/8/1110, Monday (-304,886)

10/4/1110, Sunday (-304,999) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1110, Saturday (-305,098)

==================================================================================

1/8/1109, Sunday (-305,251)

12/7/1109, Monday (-305,271) Tripoli, in modern-day Lebanon, surrendered to Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem.

25/4/1109, Sunday (-305,349) Easter Sunday.

21/4/1109, Wednesday (-305,353) English theologian Anselm died.

1/1/1109, Friday (-305,463)

===================================================================================

1/8/1108, Saturday (-305,616)

29/7/1108, Wednesday (-305,619) King Philip I of France died aged 56, after a reign of nearly 48 years. He was succeeded by his 27-year-old son, who reigned as Louis VI until 1137. Louis VI faced continuel rebellions from rebellious barons, and it took him 24 years to eradicate the bandits who plundered travellers on the roads around Paris.

5/4/1108, Sunday (-305,734) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1108, Wednesday (-305,829)

===================================================================================

1/8/1107, Thursday (-305,982)

14/4/1107, Sunday (-306,091) Easter Sunday

8/1/1107, Tuesday (-306,187) King Edgar of Scotland died and was succeeded by his brother Alexander I.

1/1/1107, Tuesday (-306,194) week 43,742

====================================================================================

28/9/1106. Friday (-306,289) (Britain, France) King Henry of England defeated his brother Robert at the Battle of Tinchebrai in France and reunited England and Normandy, divided since William the Conqueror died, see 5/8/1100 and 9/9/1087.

7/9/1106, Friday (-306,310)

7/8/1106, Tuesday (-306,341) Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, died (born 11/11/1050)

1/8/1106, Wednesday (-306,347)

29/7/1106, Sunday (-306,350)

27/5/1106, Sunday (-306,413)

25/3/1106, Sunday (-306,476) Easter Sunday.

1/3/1106, Thursday (-306,500)

1/2/1106, Thursday (-306,528)

1/1/1106, Monday (-306,559)

===================================================================================

27/8/1105, Sunday (-306,686) Baldwin I, French Crusader King of Jerusalem, decisively defeated the Fatimids at the Third Battle of Ramleh.

1/8/1105, Tuesday (-306,712) week 43,816

9/4/1105, Sunday (-306,826) Easter Sunday.

28/2/1105, Tuesday (-306,866)) Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, died whilst besieging Tripoli in Palestine.

1/1/1105, Sunday (-306,924)

===================================================================================

1/8/1104, Monday (-307,077)

7/5/1104, Saturday (-307,163) (Christian) Battle of Harran. The Crusaders were about to lay siege to Harran to distract the Seljuk forces of Sokman of Mardin and Jikirmish of Mosul, who were themselves besieging Edessa. At this point the forces of Sokman and Jikirmish appeared, and drew the Crusaders under Count Baldwin and Prince Bohemond of Antioch. Jikirmish�s cavalry charged and inflicted heavy casualties; Baldwin was taken prisoner. He was freed after paying a ransom, in 1108 and later became King of Jerusalem.

1/1/1104, Friday (-307,290)

===============================================================================

1/8/1103, Saturday (-307,443)

27/4/1103, Friday (-307,539) King Henry I of England exiled Anselm, after he refused to accept Bishops consecrated by the King.

29/3/1103, Sunday (-307,568) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1103, Thursday (-307,655)

================================================================================

1/8/1102, Friday (-307,808)

28/5/1102, Wednesday (-307,873) Baldwin I defeated the Fatimids at Jaffa.

17/5/1102, Saturday (-307,884) The Fatimids defeated Baldwin I, French Crusader King, at Jerusalem.

6/4/1102, Sunday (-307,925) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1102, Wednesday (-307,020)

================================================================================

4/9/1101, Wednesday (-308,139) Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem, defeated the Fatimids at Ramleh.

1/8/1101, Thursday (-308,173)

23/6/1101, Sunday (-308,212) Raymond of Toulouse took Ankara with a new Crusader army from Constantinople. However in 8/1101 his army was destroyed by the Danishmend Turkish army at Mersivan, Anatolia.

22/6/1101, Saturday (-308,213) Norman Roger I Guiscard, King of Sicily, died aged 70. He was succeeded by his 8 year old son, who ruled as Roger 11 from 1112.

21/4/1101, Sunday (-308,275) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1101, Tuesday (-308,385)

===================================================================================

25/12/1100, Tuesday (-308,392) Baldwin was crowned King of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem by Dagobert.

11/11/1100, Sunday (-308,436) Matilda I, first wife of King Henry I of England, was crowned Queen at Westminster Abbey

5/8/1100, Sunday (-308,534) Henry I, youngest son of William the Conqueror aged 31, was crowned in Westminster Abbey. The rightful heir, older brother Robert, was away on the First Crusade and not expected to return until 1101. Henry I was expected to buy him off with territories in Normandy, see 28/9/1101.

2/8/1100. Thursday (-308,537) William Rufus, (William II), king of England after William the Conqueror, (see 9/9/1087) was killed in the New Forest by an arrow in a hunting accident; he was allegedly mistaken for a deer. His brother, Henry, who became Henry I, was crowned on 5/8/1100, succeeded him. Aged 32, he now ruled for 35 years.

18/7/1100, Wednesday (-308,552) Godfrey de Bouillon, first Crusader king of Jerusalem, died, aged 39. He had led successful expeditions against the Seljuk Turks as far as Damascus. He was succeeded by his older brother Baldwin, Count of Flanders, who ruled until 1118 with the support of Tancred, a Sicilian Norman who was now Prince of Galilee.

1/4/1100, Sunday (-308,660) Easter Sunday

1/1/1100. Sunday (-308,751)

===================================================================================

12/8/1099, Friday (-308,893) Battle of Ascalon. Fatimid attack on the Crusaders was defeated by Godfrey.

1/8/1099, Monday (-308,904)

29/7/1099, Wednesday (-308,937) Pope Urban II died in Rome.

22/7/1099, Wednesday (-308,944) Godfrey of Bouillon, a Crusader leader from Boulogne, was elected Defender of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, and established the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

15/7/1099. Wednesday (-308,951) Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders, (see 27/11/1095). 40,000 people, both Jews and Muslims, were slaughtered in two days, an event European scholar-monks acclaimed as �the greatest event since the Crucifixion�. On 12/8/1099 the Crusaders defeated Al-Afdal, the Fatimid Vizier of Egypt, at Ascalon. He was bringing an army to recapture Jerusalem, which the Egyptians had earlier lost to the Turks. Godfrey of Bouillon was elected King, and established the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

12/6/1099, Sunday (-308,954)

7/6/1099, Tuesday (-308,959) The Crusaders arrived at Jerusalem.

10/4/1099, Sunday (-309,017) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1099, Saturday (-309,116)

=================================================================================

1/8/1098, Sunday (-309,269) Adhemar de Monteil, Crusader, Bishop of Puy en Velay from 1077, died during the plague in Antioch.

28/6/1098, Monday (-309,331) Battle of Orontes. Supposed discovery within Antioch of the �Holy Lance� � the weapon used to pierce Jesus�s side at his death. Despite doubts even amongst some Crusaders, they collectively believed that with possession of this lance they were invincible, and they sallied out to attack the Muslims. However with determination they prevailed over the Turks, who fled the battle.

5/6/1098, Saturday (-309,354) Emir Kerboga�s forces now arrived at Antioch and besieged the Crusaders there.

3/6/1098, Thursday (-309,356) The Crusaders took Antioch.

30/5/1098, Sunday (-309,360)

28/3/1098, Sunday (-309,423) Easter Sunday.

21/3/1098, Sunday (-309,430) C�teaux Abbey was founded by the Cistercian Order.

9/2/1098, Tuesday (-309,442) A second Syrian attempt to relieve Antioch was also driven off by the Crusaders.

1/1/1098, Friday (-309,481)

================================================================================

31/12/1097, Thursday (-309,482) A Syrian army attempting to relieve the Crusader siege of Amtioch was driven off.

25/12/1097, Friday (-309,488)

21/10/1097, Wednesday (-309,553) The Crusaders arrived at Antioch.

1/8/1097, Saturday (-309,634)

1/7/1097, Wednesday (-309,665) Battle of Dorylaeum. Bohemund�s forces were losing to a Turkish attack when Godfrey and Raymond�s forces attacked the rear of the Turks, turning the result into a Crusader victory.

24/6/1097, Wednesday (-309,672) The Crusaders took Nicea.

5/4/1097, Sunday (-309,752) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1097, Thursday (-309,846)

================================================================================

23/12/1096, Tuesday (-309,855) Crusader leader Godfrey of Bouillon, along with his brotherBaldwin, arrived in Constantinople.

15/8/1096, Friday (-309,985) The forces of the First Crusade departed from Europe, to rendezvous at Constantinople.

1/8/1096, Friday (-309,999) The Normans completed their conquest of southern Wales.

13/4/1096, Sunday (-310,109) Easter Sunday

1/1/1096, Tuesday (-310,212) week 44,316

==================================================================================

25/12/1095, Tuesday (-310,219)

27/11/1095. Tuesday (-310,247) Pope Urban II called for a Crusade to the Holy Land. He talked of how, due to Turkish misrule, it was no longer safe for Christian pilgrims to visit the holy sites of Jerusalem. The Crusaders defeated the Turks at Dorylaeum on 30/6 1097, opening the way to Jerusalem. Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders on 15/7/1099.

19/11/1095, Monday (-310,255) The Council of Clermont began. The council was called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land.

1/8/1095, Wednesday (-310,365)

29/7/1095, Sunday (-310,368) (Hungary) King Ladislas I of Hungary, having conquered Dalmatia and Croatia, introduced Catholicism, and founded the Bishopric of Zagreb (Agram), died suddenly this day aged 55 just as he was about to join the upcoming Crusade. Ladislas was succeeded by his nephew Coloman, son of his late brother Geza; he ruled until 1116.

25/3/1095, Sunday (-310,494) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1095, Monday (-310,577)

=================================================================================

29/12/1094, Friday (-310,580) Al Munstansir, Caliph of Egypt died; his North African empire collapsed.

25/12/1094, Monday (-310,584)

30/11/1094, Thursday (-310,609)

12/11/1094, Sunday (-310,627) Duncan II, son of Malcolm III Canmore and his first wife Ingibiorg, were murdered by his uncle Donald III Ban. In 1072 Duncan II had been sent as hostage to the court of William I The Conqueror, where he remained until his father�s death in 1093. Then, with the help of an army supplied by William II Rufus, he defeated Donald III in May 1094. However Duncan II was loathed in Scotland for being too pro-Norman/English and so he was assassinated.

8/10/1094, Sunday (-310,662) St Marks Basilica in Venice was consecrated.

1/8/1094, Tuesday (-310,730) week 44,390

17/6/1094. Saturday (-310,775) (Spain) Valencia, Spain, was captured by the Christians under El Cid from the Arabs; the city surrendered due to starvation after a 20 month siege. His kingdom now extended over nearly all of Valencia and Murcia.

11/6/1094, Sunday (-310,781)

9/4/1094, Sunday (-310,844) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1094, Sunday (-310,942)

===================================================================================

25/12/1093, Sunday (-310,949)

13/11/1093, Sunday (-310,991) (Scotland) Malcolm III MacDuncan, King of Scotland, and his eldest son Edward, were killed at a place now called Malcolm�s Cross. Malcolm had been besieging Alnwick. His wife Margaret died 4 days later. He was succeeded by his brother Donald Bane, who ruled until 1097.

11/8/1093, Thursday (-311,085) Construction of Durham Cathedral in England began.

1/8/1093, Monday (-311,095)

12/7/1093, Tuesday (-311,115)

10/5/1093, Tuesday (-311,178)

17/4/1093, Sunday (-311,201) Easter Sunday.

1/2/1093, Tuesday (-311,276)

1/1/1093, Saturday (-311,307)

===================================================================================

25/12/1092, Saturday (-311,314)

1/8/1092, Sunday (-311,460)

12/7/1092, Monday (-311,480)

10/5/1092, Monday (-311,543)

6/5/1092, Thursday (-311,547) Lincoln Cathedral was consecrated (begun 1075).

6/4/1092, Tuesday (-311,577)

31/3/1092, Wednesday (-311,583)

28/3/1092, Sunday (-311,586) Easter Sunday

1/2/1092, Sunday (-311,642)

1/1/1092, Thursday (-311,673)

=================================================================================

25/12/1091, Thursday (-311,680)

23/10/1091, Thursday (-311,743) A severe storm in London destroyed London Bridge along with St Mary le Bow church. 600 houses were damaged, also the Tower of London.

1/8/1091, Friday (-311,826)

13/4/1091, Sunday (-311,936) Easter Sunday

1/1/1091, Wednesday (-312,038)

=================================================================================

1/8/1090, Thursday (-312,191)

21/4/1090, Sunday (-312,293) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1090, Tuesday (-312,403) week 44,629

==================================================================================

11/8/1089, Saturday (-312,546) A powerful earthquake was recorded in Britain.

1/8/1089, Wednesday (-312,556)

28/5/1089, Monday (-312,621) Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

1/5/1089, Tuesday (-312,648)

1/4/1089, Sunday (-312,678) Easter Sunday

1/1/1089, Monday (-312,768)

===============================================================================

1/8/1088, Tuesday (-312,921)

16/4/1088, Sunday (-313,028) Easter Sunday.

16/4/1088, Sunday (-313,028) Easter Sunday

12/3/1088, Sunday (-313,063) Odo was elected Pope; he took the name Urban II.

1/1/1088, Saturday (-313,134)

================================================================================

25/12/1087, Saturday (-313,141)

15/11/1087. Monday (-313,181) Domesday Book completed.

15/10/1087, Friday (-313,212)

26/9/1087, Sunday (-313,231) The coronation of King William II of England.

16/9/1087, Thursday (-313,241) Pope Victor III died.

13/9/1087, Monday (-313,244) John II Komnenos, Byzantine Emperor, was born.

9/9/1087. Thursday (-313,248) (Britain, France) William the Conqueror died, aged 60, in Rouen, France, from injuries sustained when his horse stumbled. He had ridden out to see the ruins of the town of Mantes, having sacked and burnt it in retaliation for French raids on his territory, but the horse stepped on hot ashes and jolted. He was succeeded in Normandy by Robert Curthose and in England by William Rufus, William II, who was crowned on 26/9/1087. See 2/8/1100, and 28/9/1106.

1/8/1087, Sunday (-313,287)

30/5/1087, Sunday (-313,350) Emperor Henry IV crowned his son Conrad as King of Germany.

28/3/1087, Sunday(-313,413) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1087, Friday (-313,499)

==================================================================================

25/12/1086, Friday (-313,506)

23/10/1086, Friday (-313,569) (Spain) The Almoravids from North Africa invaded Spain, defeating Alfonso�s army at Zallaqah this day.

1/8/1086, Saturday (-313,652)

5/4/1086, Sunday (-313,770) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1086, Thursday (-313,864)

=================================================================================

25/12/1085, Thursday (-313,871) King William I of England ordered a complete survey of the wealth of the kingdom, known as the Domesday Book.

23/10/1085, Thursday (-313,934)

8/10/1085, Wednesday (-313,949) The Cathedral of St Mark�s in Venice was consecrated.

1/8/1085, Friday (-314,017)

15/7/1085, Tuesday (-314,034) (Italy) Norman Duke Robert Guiscard died, aged 60, of fever after regaining Corfu and Cephalonia, which his son Bohemund had lostDuke Guiscard was succeeded by his 54-year old brother, Roger Guiscard, who had conquered Sicily, and ruled until 1101.

25/5/1085, Sunday (-314,085) (1) Christian king, Alfonso VI of Leon, captured Toledo (the old Visigothic capital) from the Arabs.

(2) Pope Gregory VII died in exile. His supporters elected Desiderius, Abbott of Monte Casino, as Pope Victor III, refusing to accept the papacy of Clement III as being a puppet of King Henry IV of Germany. When Victor III died the cardinals elected Urban II (1086-99) as Pope, a candidate favoured by Gregory VII himself.

20/4/1085, Sunday (-314,120) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1085, Wednesday (-314,229)

==================================================================================

1/8/1084, Thursday (-314,382)

27/5/1084, Monday (-314,448) Pope Gregory VII was still holding out against the army of Henry IV, a few hundred yards away from the Basilica, in the Castel Sant Angelo (then known as the House of Cencius). Gregory appealed for help from the Normans in Sicily. On this day the Normans entered Rome and escorted Gregory VII to safety in Salerno. The Normans then pillaged Rome and burnt it to the ground.

31/3/1084, Sunday (-314,505) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1084, Sunday (-314, 512) Palm Sunday. Henry IV of Germany, having captured Rome, installed Pope Clement III. In turn Clement III crowned Henry IV as Emperor on Easter Sunday 1084.

1/1/1084, Monday (-314,595)

==================================================================================

1/8/1083, Tuesday (-314,748) week 44,964

9/4/1083, Sunday (-314,862) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1083, Sunday (-314,960)

==================================================================================

1/8/1082, Monday (-315,113)

24/4/1082, Sunday (-315,212) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1082, Saturday (-315,325)

===================================================================================

1/8/1081, Sunday (-315,478)

4/4/1081, Sunday (-315,597) Easter Sunday.

8/1/1081, Friday (-315,683) Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, was born (died 23/5/1125).

1/1/1081, Friday (-315,690)

=================================================================================

25/12/1080, Friday (-315,697)

15/10/1080, Thursday (-315,768) Rudolf of Swabia was killed in battle, leaving Henry IV as unchallenged ruler of Germany.

1/8/1080, Saturday (-315,843)

25/6/1080, Thursday (-315,880) Clement III, antipope, acceded. He was antipope until 9/1100.

14/6/1080, Sunday (-315,891)

15/5/1080, Tuesday (-315,921) Walcher, Bishop of Durham and Earl of Northumberland, was murdered. King William I continued to consolidate his control of northern England.

12/4/1080, Sunday (-315,954) Easter Sunday

7/3/1080, Friday (-315,991) King Henry IV of Germany was excommunicated a second time by Pope Gregory VII, see 27/1/1080. In response Henry IV summoned an assembly of bishops to Brixen and declared Pope Gregory VII deposed and appointed Wilbert, Archbishop of Ravenna, in his place. However not everyone, even in Germany, accepted the right of Henry IV to judge a Pope �appointed by God�.

27/1/1080, Monday (-316,030) King Henry IV of Germany defeated Saxon rebels at Flarchheim. Emboldened by this, he rejected the mediation efforts of Pope Gregory VII to settle the rulership dispute between him and Rudolf of Swabia, see 25/10/1077 and 7/3/1080.

1/1/1080, Wednesday (-316,056)

=================================================================================

1/8/1079, Thursday (-316,209)

24/3/1079,Sunday (-316,339) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1079, Tuesday (-316,421) week 45,203

==================================================================================

1/8/1078, Wednesday (-316,574)

8/4/1078, Sunday (-316,689) Easter Sunday.

31/3/1078, Saturday (-316,697) Emperor Michael VII abdicated. He was replaced by a soldier who began a 3-year reign as Nicephorus III Botaniates.

1/1/1078, Monday (-316,786)

===================================================================================

1/8/1077, Tuesday (-316,939) week 45,277

25/4/1077, Tuesday (-316,037) Hungary�s King Geza died (reigned from 1074). Succeededby Ladislas, the 37-year old son of the late Bela I, who reigned until 1095.

16/4/1077, Sunday (-317,046) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1077, Monday (-317,080) Germans opposed to Henry IV claimed the throne was elective and nominated Rudolf, Duke of Swabia, as King.

25/1/1077, Wednesday (-317,127) German King Henry IV, who was losing popular support because of his excommunication by Pope Gregory VII, arrived at Canossa Castle, northern Italy, to do penance in reconciliation. He knelt in the snow in a monk�s hair shirt for three days before the Pope admitted him. �Going to Canossa� became a saying for reluctant penance, especially in Germany. Henry IV had faced a rebellion by Saxons, and had to reach Pope Gregory by a roundabout route via Burgundy and Provence. Pope Gregory VII wanted, politically, to refuse forgiveness, but as head of the Christian Church he had no choice but to dispense it. The rebels, feeling betrayed by Gregory VII, rejected the kingship of Henry IV anyway and elected Rudolf of Swabia in his place. Germany faced effective civil war. Pope Gregory, to restore his influence over Germany, sent a Papal Legate northwards in 1079 to settle who was the rightful ruler of Germany, decreeing that if either Rudolf or Henry rejected the findings of this legate they would be excommunicated. However see 27/1/1080.

1/1/1077, Sunday (-317,151)

=================================================================================

25/12/1076, Sunday (-317,158)

23/10/1976, Sunday (-317,221)

16/10/1076, Sunday (-317,228) A conference of German princes loyal to The Pope threatened to depose Henry IV.

1/8/1076, Monday (-317,304)

27/3/1076, Sunday (-31`7,431) Easter Sunday.

24/2/1076, Wednesday (-317,463)

24/1/1076, Sunday (-317,494) German King Henry IV called an assembly of German Bishops to Worms to complain about the interference ofPope Gregory VII (Hildebrand) in the rulership of Milan. Earlier, a revolutionary faction called the Pataria had usurped Henry IV�s control over Milan, which included the right to appoint the Archbishop of Milan. Milan was very strategically important to Henry IV as it controlled the Alpine passes between Italy and Germany. Pope Gregory VII sided with the rebels against King Henry IV and insisted that he, Gregory, had the right to appoint the Archbishop (see 4/3/1075, Dictatus Papae). The German Bishops signed a letter of protest from Henry IV calling for Hildebrand �that false monk, who had forsaken the cloisters� (see 22/4/1073)to resign as Pope and that Henry IV did not recognise him as Pope. The message caused an uproar in Rome, in fact the messenger was nearly killed, saved only by the intervention of Hildebrand himself. Two days later Gregory VII (Hildebrand) excommunicated and nominally deposed King Henry IV. See 25/1/1077.

1/1/1076, Friday (-317,517)

==================================================================================

1/8/1075, Saturday (-317,670)

5/4/1075, Sunday (-317,788) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1075, Wednesday (-317,820) Hildebrand issued the Dictatus Papae, 27 short propositions setting out the powers of the Roman Catholic Church. These propositions, aimed at curbing the Greek Church and the temporal power of European Kings, included, (I) that the Roman Catholic Church was founded by God alone, i.e. it was more than �just� apostolic (III), only the Pope can dismiss or reinstate Bishops, (XII), the Pope has the authority to depose Emperors,, (XVI), That only the Pope had the authority to call Councils (the Greek Church didn�t), (XIX), The Pope can be judged by no-one except God himself, (XXII), The Roman Church has never erred and is in fact infallible,

1/1/1075, Thursday (-317,882)

=================================================================================

1/8/1074, Friday (-318,035)

20/4/1074, Sunday (-318,138) Easter Sunday.

9/3/1074, Wednesday (-318,149) Married priests were excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII. He also decreed, at the Council of Rome, that all laymen who received Communion from a married priest should be excommunicated. Nevertheless, instances of married Catholic priests still occurred down into the 12th and 13th centuries.

1/1/1074, Wednesday (-318,247)

==================================================================================

1/8/1073, Thursday (-318,400)

22/4/1073, Monday (-318,501) Hildebrand was elected Pope Gregory VII. His election was unusual, being accomplished by Roman clergy and common people, rather than by Cardinals.

21/4/1073, Sunday (-318,502) Death of Pope Alexander II.

31/3/1073, Sunday (-318,523) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1073, Tuesday (-318,612) week 45,516

===================================================================================

25/12/1072, Tuesday (-318,609)

23/11/1072, Friday (-318,641) Death of Alp Arslan, Seljuk Sultan

1/8/1072, Wednesday (-318,765)

8/4/1072, Sunday (-318,880) Easter Sunday.

22/2/1072, Wednesday (-318,926) (Christian) Pietro Damiani, ecclesiastic, died. He was opposed to simony, but reserved his main energies for attacking the marriage of clergy.

10/1/1072, Tuesday (-318,969) The Normans under Robert Guiscard conquered Palermo, Sicily.

1/1/1072, Sunday (-318,978)

=================================================================================

24/10/1071, Monday (-319,047) Byzantine Emperor Romanus IV was deposed and imprisoned. Michael VII Ducas succeeded him, and made an appeal for help, in vain, from the Western Christian kingdoms.

26/8/1071. Friday (-319,106) The armies of the Byzantine leader Emperor Romanus Diogenes and the Turkish leader Mohammed Ibn Da�ud clashed at Manzikert (or, Malazagird), north of Lake Van. The Byzantines had entered Armenia with the French and Normans, and some Turks from the Uzes tribe, and the Turkish leader had to abandon a campaign in Syria and hurry north to meet this invasion. The Turkish cavalry routed the enemy. Ibn Da�ud died on 24/11/1072.

1/8/1071, Monday (-319,131)

24/4/1071, Sunday (-319,230) Easter Sunday.

16/4/1071. Saturday (-319,238) Norman, Robert Guiscard, took Bari after a three year siege. On 10/1/1072 Robert Guiscard and his brother Roger took Palermo in Sicily.

1/1/1071, Saturday (-319,343)

=================================================================================

15/8/1070, Sunday (-319,482) King William I of England dismissed Englishman John Stigand as SArchbishop of Canterbury and appointed the Norman, Lanfranc, as his replacement.

1/8/1070, Sunday (-319,496)

4/6/1070. Friday (-319,554) Roquefort cheese was created in a cave near Roquefort, France.

4/4/1070, Sunday (-319,615) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1070, Friday (-319,708)

================================================================================

28/10/1069. Tuesday (-319,774) Death of Abbad-al-Motadid, Arab ruler in Spain.

21/9/1069, Sunday (-319,811) The Norman castle of York was attacked and overran. The defenders were all killed, except for two castellans and their families, who were held for ransom. William, who had been hunting in the Forest of Dean, hurried north yet again. Delayed by heavy rain, he eventually arrived in York to find it a deserted smouldering ruin. The local rebels had withdrawn, and the Danes returned to their ships on the Humber, unreachable by William�s soldiers. William now took decisive action. Having paid off the Danes to go away, he killed and burned large parts of the population and its villages in the north of England, in what became known as the Harrying of the North, Large regions of Lancashire, Yorkshire, Cheshire and Staffordshire were devastated. Thousands were made homeless or starved.

19/9/1069, Friday (-319,813) The Norman garrison at York faced further rebellions by supporters of Edgar Aetheling, assisted by Danish ships under Asbjorn, brother of King Sweyn II of Denmark. This day the York defenders attempted to improve their defences by clearing the ground in front of the castle, but succeeded in starting a fire that badly damaged the city and destroyed St Peter�s Cathedral.

1/8/1069, Saturday (-319,861)

12/4/1069, Sunday (-319,972) Easter Sunday

1/1/1069, Thursday (+320,073)

==============================================================================

1/8/1068, Friday (-320,226)

23/3/1068, Sunday (-320,357) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1068, Tuesday (-320,439) week 45,777

=================================================================================

1/8/1067, Wednesday (-320,592)

8/4/1067, Sunday (-320,707) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1067, Monday (320,804)

===============================================================================

25/12/1066. Monday (-320,811) William the Conqueror was crowned King of England, in Westminster Abbey.

23/10/1066, Monday (-320,874)

14/10/1066 Saturday (-320,883) Battle of Hastings. William the Conqueror had landed in England, at Pevensey Bay, seven miles from the Battle site, on 28/9/1066. The English lost partly because they left their strong position on the crest of a hill, and partly because they were exhausted by the Battle of Stamford Bridge and the long march south. The Witan chose Edgar Atheling, grandson of Edmund Ironside, as King. William circled London and approached from the north. At Berkhamsted, Edgar and other Saxon nobles met William and offered him the crown. King Edward the Confessor of England (1003-66, see 5/1/1066) had promised the throne of England to King William of Normandy upon his death. However in response to a Viking threat, Edward also promised the throne to the Danish King Svein Estrithsson, and Harald Hadraada of Norway had also been promised the English throne by an earlier King. The English nobility preferred a native ruler, Harold of Wessex.

2/10/1066, Monday (-320,895) News reached Harold of William�s landing at Hastings, and he began marching south to confront him.

28/9/1066, Thursday (-320,899) William the Conqueror landed at Hastings.

25/9/1066. Monday (-320,902) King Harold defeated the Norwegians under Tostig at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, near York, unaware that William of Normandy was about to invade the south coast. Tostig had begun an invasion of Northumbria.

20/9/1066, Wednesday (-320,907) Harald Hardraada of Norway and Earl Tostig defeated the northern English Earls Edwin and Morcar. However the Norwegian forces were weakened so that they lost to Harold II at Stamford Bridge (25/9/1066). In turn the northern English forces were so weakened by these two battles that they could not fully assist Harold at Hastings (14/10/1066).

1/8/1066, Tuesday (-320,957) week 45,851

16/4/1066, Sunday (-321,064) Easter Sunday.

7/1/1066. Saturday (-321,163) Harold was crowned King of England in succession to Edward the Confessor. Ten months later he died at the Battle of Hastings.

5/1/1066. Thursday (-321,165) Death of Edward the Confessor, said to be England�s most pious king.Leaving no heir, he recommended Harold as his successor. See 14/10/1066.

1/1/1066, Sunday (-321,169)

===============================================================================

28/12/1065, Wednesday (-321,173) Westminster Abbey was consecrated.

1/8/1065, Monday (-321,322)

1/7/1065, Friday (-321,353)

24/6/1065, Friday (-321,360) Ferdinand I, King of Castile and Leon, died.

8/5/1065, Sunday (-321,407) In Spain, Ramiro I of Aragon died whilst attacking the Moors.

27/3/1065, Sunday (-321,449) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1065, Saturday (-321,534)

==============================================================================

1/8/1064, Sunday (-321,687)

11/4/1064, Sunday (-321,799) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1064, Thursday (-321,900)

==============================================================================

4/10/1063, Saturday (-321,989) Death of Tughril, founder of the Seljuk Empire.

5/8/1063, Tuesday (-321,049) Gruffydd Ap Llywelyn, Welsh King, died.

1/8/1063, Friday (-322,053)

30/4/1063, Wednesday (-332,146) Renzong, Emperor of China, died.

20/4/1063, Sunday (-332,156) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1063, Wednesday (-322,265)

==============================================================================

1/8/1062, Thursday (-322,418)

31/3/1062, Sunday (-322,541) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1062, Tuesday (-322,630) week 46,090

================================================================================

25/12/1061, Tuesday (-322,637)

28/10/1061, Sunday (-322,695) Pope Honorius II, antipope, acceded; ruled until 1072.

23/10/1061, Tuesday (-322,700)

1/8/1061, Wednesday (-322,783)

15/4/1061, Sunday (-323,891) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1061, Monday (-322,995)

==============================================================================

25/12/1060, Monday (-323,002)

14/11/1060, Tuesday (-323,043) Geoffrey Martel, Count of Anjou, died (born 14/10/1006)..

4/8/1060, Friday (-323,145) Henry I, King of France, died after a 29-year reign, aged 52. He was succeeded by his 8-year-old son who ruled as King PhilipI until 1108.

1/8/1060, Tuesday (-323,148)

26/3/1060, Sunday (-) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1060, Saturday (-323,361)

==================================================================================

25/12/1059, Saturday (-323,368) Byzantine Emperor Isaac I Comnenus abdicated in favour of a senior financial officer who began an 8-year reign as Constantine X (Dukas). The new Emperor antagonised the army by shifting resources towards the civil service, the church and scholars.

23/8/1059, Monday (-323,492) Pope Nicholas II (1058-61) met with Robert Guiscard, leader of the Normans of southern Italy, at Melfi, and accepted Robert�s vassalship. Robert pledged that if Pope Nicholas died before him, he would assist the Cardinals in the election of a new Pope. In effect, Robert was pledging to protect the Cardinals from political interference by the Roman nobility. In return Pope Nicholas bestowed upon Robert the title of Duke of Calabria and Apulia. This infuriated the (Byzantine) Roman Emperor, who claimed all of Italy as part of his domain, and insisted that Nicholas could not give away lands he had no title to.

1/8/1059, Sunday (-323,514)

4/4/1059, Sunday (-323,633) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1059, Friday (-323,726)

==================================================================================

25/12/1058, Friday (-323,733)

28/11/1058, Saturday (-323,760) Poland�s Grand Duke Casimir died aged 43, having restored Christianity and regained much of the territory Poland lost with the help of the late King Henry III of Germany. Casimir was succeeded by his 19-year-old son who ruled until 1079 as Boleslav II (The Bold).

1/8/1058, Saturday (-323,879)

25/4/1058, Saturday (-323,977) Malcolm III, King of Scotland, was crowned at Scone Abbey.

19/4/1058, Sunday (-323,983) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1058, Sunday (-323,997) Pope Benedict X, antipope, acceded (died 1059). Parma Cathedral begun.

29/3/1058, Sunday (-324,004) Pope Stephen X died.

17/3/1058, Tuesday (-324,016) Lulach, King of Scots, died and was succeeded by Malcolm III, son of Duncan I.

1/1/1058, Thursday (-324,091)

==================================================================================

31/8/1057, Sunday (-324,214) Byzantine Emperor Michael IV Stratioticus abdicated. The Comnenus Dynasty, which endured until 1185, began in Byzantium with the reign of Isaac I Comnenus, a military leader proclaimed ruler by the barons of Anatolia.

15/8/1057. Friday (-324,230) Scottish King Macbeth, who killed King Duncan 1 in 1040, was killed in battle by Duncan�s son, Malcolm.

1/8/1057, Friday (-324,244)

30/3/1057, Sunday (-324,368) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1057, Wednesday (-324,456)

===================================================================================

25/12/1056, Wednesday (-324,463)

5/10/1056, Saturday (-324,544) Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, died, aged 38. He was succeeded as German king by his 5-year-old son, who reigned as Henry IV until 1106. His mother Agnes acted as Regent until 1065.

21/8/1056, Wednesday (-324,589) Byzantine Empress Theodora died, aged 76, ending the Macedonian Dynasty that had begun with the reign of Justinian the Great in 527. Theodora�s successor, Michael VI (Stratioticus) was overthrown in early 1057 bya rebellion of the feudal barons of Anatolia.

1/8/1056, Thursday (-324,609)

17/6/1056, Sunday (-324,655) Gruffydd Ap Llywelyn, King of Wales, raided into England and killed the Bishop of Hereford.However later in 1956 he acknowledged the supremacy of King Edward the Confessor of England, who in turn recognised Gruffydd as ruler of Welsh territory.

1/1/1056, Monday (-324,822)

================================================================================

18/12/1055, Monday (-324,836) (Iraq) The Seljuk Turks took Baghdad, ending the Bawayhod Dynasty. Tughril Beg became Sultan of Baghdad

1/8/1055, Tuesday (-324,975) week 46,425

16/4/1055, Sunday (-325,082) Easter Sunday.

7/2/1055, Tuesday (-325,150) Jaroslav I, Great Prince of Russia, died, ending the golden age of Kiev. His lands were divided amongst his five sons. The Kievan Rus State, in existence since the 9th century, split into several smaller states and civil war followed.

11/1/1055, Wednesday (-325,177) Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX died, aged 55, leaving Theodora to rule alone.

1/1/1055, Sunday (-325,187)

=================================================================================

1/8/1054, Monday (-325,340)

27/7/1054, Wednesday (-325,345) (Scotland) Earl Siward of Northumbria defeated Scottish King Macbeth at Dunsinane and installed Malcolm Canmore, son of the murdered Duncan I as King of southern Scotland.

4/7/1054, Monday (-325,368) Chinese astronomers recorded a supernova so bright it could be seen in daylight for 23 days and at night for almost 2 years.

19/4/1054, Tuesday (-325,444) Pope Leo IX died.

3/4/1054, Sunday (-325,460) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1054, Saturday (-325,552)

=================================================================================

1/8/1053, Sunday (-325,705)

18/6/1053, Friday (-325,749) (Italy) Battle of Civitate, Italy. The Normans established domination over southern Italy, defeating a Papal, Byzantine and Swabian force.

14/4/1053, Wednesday (-325,814) Godwin, Earl of Wessex, died.

11/4/1053, Sunday (-325,817) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1053, Friday (-325,917)

==================================================================================

25/12/1052, Friday (-325,924)

4/10/1052, Sunday (-326,006) Vladimir Yaroslavich, Prince of Novgorod, died.

1/8/1052, Saturday (-326,070)

15/5/1052, Friday (-326,148) Godwin returned to England, and Edward the Confessor restored him as Earl of Wessex.

19/4/1052, Sunday (-326,174) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1052, Wednesday (-326,283)

=================================================================================

1/8/1051, Thursday (-326,436)

31/3/1051, Sunday (-326,559) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1051, Tuesday (-326,648) week 46,664

==================================================================================

1/12/1050, Saturday (-326,679)

11/11/1050, Sunday (-326,699) Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, was born (died 7/8/1106)

1/8/1050, Wednesday (-326,801)

15/4/1050, Sunday (-326,909) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1050, Monday (-327,013)

==================================================================================

1/10/1049, Sunday (-327,105) Pope Leo IX (1048-54), noted for his attempts to eradicate simony, arrived at Reims, France. In March 1049 he had begun a tour of the Christian lands of Europe, to assert his authority over these regions. He left Rome and travelled via Florence, Pavia and Cologne to Reims. Whilst still Bishop of Toul, Pope Leo IX had pledged to be present at the Consecration of the Cathedral of Reims, built to honour St Remigius, who had baptised Clovis and played a large role on converting the Franks to Christianity. In fact due to opposition to Leo�s visit by the King of France, only 20 bishops and 40 abbots attended at Reims, a clear sign of Leo�s limited authority on France. After parading an effigy of the Saint around the town, before setting in in its place in the Cathedral, Leo set it on the high altar as a �witness� and asked all present to declare, individually one by one, that they had not paid money for their office. Many of those present would not make such a statement.

1/8/1049, Tuesday (-327,166) week 46,738

26/3/1049, Sunday (-327,294) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1049, Sunday (-327,378)

=================================================================================

9/8/1048, Tuesday (-327,523) Pope Damasus II died.

1/8/1048, Monday (-327,531)

17/7/1048, Sunday (-327,546) Pope Damasus II (151st Pope) acceded.

15/5/1048, Sunday (-327,609) Persian mathematician and poet Omar Khayyam was born at Nisipar. He was the first to solve cubic equations (those containing terms to the power of three).

3/4/1048, Sunday (-327,651) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1048,Friday (-327,744)

=================================================================================

25/12/1047, Friday (-327,751)

8/11/1047, Sunday (-327,798) Pope Benedict IX (150th Pope) regained the Papacy, and was Pope for a third time (died 1048).

23/10/1047, Friday (-327,814)

9/10/1047, Friday (-327,828) Pope Clement II died.

1/8/1047, Saturday (-327,897)

19/4/1047, Sunday (-328,001) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1047, Thursday (-328,109)

================================================================================

25/12/1046, Thursday (-328,116) (1) Pope Gregory VI (148th Pope) deposed. The Synod of Rome elected Pope Clement II (Saxon, 149th Pope) (died 1047).

(2) The German King was crowned Holy Roman Emperor Henry III in Rome by Pope Clement II.

25/10/1046, Saturday (-328,177) (Christian) At a Church Council in Pavia, Emperor Henry III denounced simony, the practice of buying and selling ecclesiastical positions.

1/8/1046, Friday (-328,262)

30/3/1046, Sunday (-328,386) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1046, Wednesday (-328,474)

=================================================================================

1/8/1045, Thursday (-328,627)

1/5/1045, Wednesday (-328,719) Pope Gregory VI (148th Pope, deposed 1046) acceded, having bought the Papacy from the deposed Pope Benedict IX (147th Pope).

7/4/1045, Sunday (-328,743) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1045, Tuesday (-328,839) week 46,977

==================================================================================

1/8/1044, Wednesday (-328,992)

22/4/1044, Sunday (-329,093) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1044, Sunday (-329,205)

=================================================================================

1/8/1043, Monday (-329,358)

3/4/1043, Sunday (-329,478) Easter Sunday. Edward the Confessor was crowned.

11/1/1043, Tuesday (-329,560) (Germany) Agnes (1024-77), daughter of William V the Pious, Duke of Aquitaine and Agnes of Aquitaine, married Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry III died in 1056 and Agnes (daughter) served as Regent for her minor son, Henry IV. However when Henry IV came of age, Agnes refused to relinquish the throne. She was eventually deposed by the efforts of two German bishops; she thereafter lived in Rome, as a staunch supporter of Pope Gregory VII, until her death in 1077.

1/1/1043, Saturday (-329,570)

=================================================================================

1/8/1042, Sunday (-329,723)

1/7/1042, Thursday (-329,754)

12/6/1042, Saturday (-329,773) In Byzantium, Empress Zoe�s third husband, Constantine IX Monomachus, became Emperor.

8/6/1042,Tuesday (-329,777) Harthacanute, King of Denmark and England, died.

11/4/1042, Sunday (-329,835) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1042, Friday (-329,935)

=================================================================================

1/8/1041, Saturday (-330,088)

22/3/1041, Sunday (-330,220) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1041, Thursday (-330,300)

=================================================================================

14/8/1040, Thursday (-330,440) Macbeth murdered Duncan I, King of Scotland, and became King himself.

1/8/1040, Friday (-330,453)

18/6/1040, Wednesday (-330,497) Harthacanute, King of England, was crowned in Canterbury Cathedral.

8/6/1040, Sunday (-330,507)

6/4/1040, Sunday (-330,570) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1040, Monday (-330,590) Harold Harefoot, King of England, was born.

1/1/1040, Tuesday (-330,666) week 47,238

===================================================================================

1/8/1039, Wednesday (-330,819)

17/6/1039, Sunday (-330,814)

4/6/1039, Monday (-330,877) Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II died in Utrecht, aged 49. He was succeeded as German King by his 21-year-old son, Henry.

15/4/1039, Sunday (-330,927) Easter Sunday.

10/3/1039, Saturday (-330,963) Seige of Mauze.

1/1/1039, Monday (-331,031)

===================================================================================

15/8/1038, Tuesday (-331,170) Stephen I, King of Hungary, died and was succeeded by Peter the German.

1/8/1038, Tuesday (-331,184)

26/3/1038, Sunday (-331,312) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1038, Sunday (-331,396)

===================================================================================

1/8/1037, Monday (-331,549)

18/6/1037, Saturday (-331,593) Persian philosopher and physician Avicenna died. His writings were valued sources for European doctors.

12/6/1037, Sunday (-331,599)

10/4/1037, Sunday (-331,662) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1037, Saturday (-331,761)

=================================================================================

1/8/1036, Sunday (-331,914)

18/4/1036, Sunday (-332,019) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1036, Thursday (-332,127)

================================================================================

25/12/1035, Thursday (-332,134)

12/11/1035. Tuesday (-332,178) Death of the Danish King of England, Canute (Cnut), aged 40. His kingdom disintegrated. Harold I, Cnut�s son by Aelgifu of Northampton, became Regent of England whilst his half-brother delayed in Denmark. England split into the old political pattern of Northumbria and Mercia against Wessex.

1/8/1035, Friday (-332,280)

2/7/1035, Wednesday (-332,310) Robert, Duke of Normandy, died and was succeeded by hisillegitmate son, William.

30/3/1035, Sunday (-332,404) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1035, Wednesday (-332,492)

==================================================================================

25/12/1034, Wednesday (-322,499)

1/11/1034, Friday (-322,553) King Duncan I of Scotland was crowned.

23/10/1034, Wednesday (-322,562)

1/8/1034, Thursday (-332,645)

14/4/1034, Sunday (-332,754) Easter Sunday

11/4/1034, Thursday (-332,757) Byzantine Emperor Romanus III died. He was succeeded by Michael IV, who married Romanus�s widow, Zoe.

15/3/1034, Friday (-332,784) King Mieszco II of Poland died. Paganism re-emerged in Poland.

1/1/1034, Tuesday (-332,857) week 47,551

==================================================================================

1/8/1033, Wednesday (-333,010)

22/4/1033, Sunday (-333,111) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1033, Monday (-333,222)

=================================================================================

1/8/1032, Tuesday (-333,375) week 47,625)

2/4/1032, Sunday (-333,496) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1032, Saturday (-333,588)

=================================================================================

30/11/1031, Tuesday (-333,620) (Spain) Hisham III, Umayyad Muslim ruler in Cordoba, was deposed by the city�s inhabitants.

1/8/1031, Sunday (-333,741)

20/7/1031, Tuesday (-333,753) Robert II (The Pious), King of France, died aged 61 He was succeeded by his 23-year-old son Constance of Aquitaine, who ruled as Henry I until 1060.

13/6/1031, Sunday (-333,790)

11/4/1031, Sunday (-333,853) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1031, Friday (-333,953)

=================================================================================

1/8/1030, Saturday (-334,106)

21/4/1030, Tuesday (-334,208) (India) Mahmud, Emir of Ghazni, died.

29/3/1030, Sunday (-334,231) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1030, Thursday (-334,318)

=================================================================================

1/8/1029, Friday (-334,471)

6/4/1029, Sunday (-334,588) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1029, Wednesday (-334,683)

==================================================================================

1/8/1028, Thursday (-334,836)

14/4/1028, Sunday (-334,945) Easter Sunday. Henry, son of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II, was crowned King of the Germans.

1/1/1028, Monday (-335,049)

===================================================================================

1/8/1027, Tuesday (-335,202) week 47,886

26/3/1027, Sunday (-335,830) Easter Sunday. Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II was crowned in Rome.

1/1/1027, Sunday (-335,414)

==================================================================================

1/8/1026, Monday (-335,567)

10/4/1026, Sunday (-335,680) Easter Sunday

1/1/1026, Saturday (-335,779)

==================================================================================

25/12/1025, Saturday (-335,786)

15/12/1025, Wednesday (-335,796) Byzantine Emperor Basil II (the Bulgar Slayer) died. His brother, and previous co-Emperor, Constantine VIII, succeeded him.

1/8/1025, Sunday (-335,932)

18/4/1025, Sunday (-336,037) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1025, Friday (-336,144)

==================================================================================

1/8/1024, Saturday (-336,297)

13/7/1024, Monday (-336,316) Holy Roman Emperor Henry II died aged 51 after a 10-year reign. He was succeeded as King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor by his 34-year-old son, who ruled as Conrad II until 1039.

Tuesday (-336,336)

8/5/1024, Friday (-336,382)

5/4/1024, Sunday (-336,415)

1/1/1024, Wednesday (-336,510)

==================================================================================

1/8/1023, Thursday (-336,663)

8/5/1023, Wednesday (-336,748)

14/4/1023, Sunday (-336,772) Easter Sunday

1/1/1023, Tuesday (-336,875) week 48,125

=================================================================================

1/8/1022, Wednesday (-337,028)

8/5/1022, Tuesday (-337,113)

25/3/1022, Sunday (-337,157) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1022, Monday (-337,240)

==================================================================================

Tuesday (-337,337)

1/8/1021, Tuesday (-337,393) week 48,199

8/5/1021, Monday (-337,478)

2/4/1021, Sunday (-337,514) Easter Sunday.

13/2/1021, Monday (-337,562) Al Hakim, Caliph of Egypt, was murdered and su cceeded by his son, al Zahir.

1/1/1021, Sunday (-337,605)

================================================================================

25/12/1220, Sunday (-337,612)

23/10/1220, Sunday (-337,675)

14/10/1020, Friday (-337,684) Assassination of Einar II Rangmund, co-Earl of Orkney.

1/8/1020, Monday (-337,758)

8/5/1020, Sunday (-337,843)

16/4/1020, Sunday (-337,864) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1020, Friday (-337,971)

===============================================================================

1/8/1019, Saturday (-338,124)

8/5/1019, Friday (-338,209)

29/3/1019, Sunday (-338,249) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1019, Thursday (-338,336)

===============================================================================

Tuesday (-338,338)

1/8/1018, Friday (-338,489)

21/7/1018, Monday (-338,500) (Poland) Boleslav I defeated Jaroslav of Novgorod, who had seized Kiev. Anti-Polish uprisings then forced Boleslav to retreat, but nevertheless he still retained Czerwien and Przemsyl for Poland.

8/5/1018, Thursday (-338,574)

6/4/1018, Sunday (-338,606) Easter Sunday.

30/1/1018, Thursday (-338,672) (Poland) The Treaty of Bautzen ended a 15-year war between Germany and Poland. Boleslav the Brave gained Lusatia.

1/1/1018, Wednesday (-338,701)

================================================================================

1/8/1017, Thursday (-338,854)

8/5/1017, Wednesday (-338,939)

21/4/1017, Sunday (-338,956) Easter Sunday.

21/3/1017, Thursday (-338,987)

21/2/1017, Thursday (-339,015)

21/1/1017, Monday (-339,046)

6/1/1017, Sunday (-339,061) (Britain) Cnut was crowned King of England in London.

1/1/1017, Tuesday (-339,066) week 48,438

=================================================================================

6/12/1016, Thursday (-339,092)

30/11/1016, Friday (-339,098) King Edmund was murdered and Cnut became King of England.

28/10/1017, Sunday (-339,131) Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, was born (died 5/10/1056).

18/10/1016, Thursday (-339,141) The Danes under Canute defeated the Saxons at the Battle of Assandun (now Ashingdon, Essex)

16/8/1016, Thursday (-339,204)

1/8/1016, Wednesday (-339,219)

14/6/1016, Thursday (-339,267)

8/5/1016, Tuesday (-339,304)

23/4/1016, Monday (-339,319) Ethelred died and was succeeded by his son Edmund II, Ironside. Edmund and Cnut fought for the throne. Edmund agreed to keep Wessex and leave Cnut ruling over the rest of England.

8/4/1016, Sunday (-339,334)

Tuesday (-339,339)

1/4/1016, Sunday (-339,341) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1016, Sunday (-339,432)

===============================================================================

1/8/1015, Monday (-339,585)

8/5/1015, Sunday (-339,670)

10/4/1015, Sunday (-339,698) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1015, Saturday (-339,797)

================================================================================

1/8/1014, Sunday (-339,950)

6/7/1014, Tuesday (-339,976) (Byzantium, Bulgaria) The Byzantine Emperor Basil II defeated the Bulgarian army, after a 28-year war, under Tsar Samuel, then ordered the defeated 15,000 men to be blinded. Basil arranged for one eye of every hundredth man to be spared so the army could find its way back to the Tsar.

8/5/1014, Saturday (-340,035)

25/4/1014, Sunday (-340,048) Easter Sunday.

23/4/1014, Friday (-340,050) (1) Battle of Clontarf: Gaelic Irish forces under Brian Boru defeated several allied Viking forces in Ireland, ending their power there but losing Brian in the battle.

(2) Accession of Einar II Rangmund as co-Earl of Orkney.

14/2/1014, Sunday (-340,118) King Henry III of Germany was proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope. Arduin, considering himself the King of Italy, seized Vercelli, west of Milan amd besieged Novara and Como; however he was then vanquished by Henry III�s forces. Arduin then retired to a monasteryat Fruttuaria, near Turin, where he died in 1015.

3/2/1014, Wednesday (-340,129) (Britain) Svein Forkbeard, King of Denmark, Norway and England, died. In Denmark he was succeeded by his son Harold, and in England by his other son Cnut. Ethelred the Unready, however, returned from Normandy to displace Cnut, who then left England.

1/2/1014, Monday (-340,131)

1/1/1014, Friday (-340,162)

================================================================================

25/12/1013, Friday (-340,169) Danish King Swein Forkbeard invaded England and was declared its King. However he died 5 weeks later.

1/8/1013, Saturday (-340,315)

Tuesday (-340,340)

8/5/1013, Friday (-340,400)

5/4/1013, Sunday (-340,433) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1013, Thursday (-340,527)

===============================================================================

1/8/1012, Friday (-340,680)

24/5/1012, Saturday (-340,749) Boleslav of Poland paid homage to the German Emperor Henry II, and kept all his conquests except Bohemia.

8/5/1012, Thursday (-340,765)

20/4/1012, Sunday (-340,783) Suleiman was re-established as Caliph in Cordoba.

19/4/1012. Saturday (-340,784) St Alpheage, Archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered by the Danes. He had been captured by the Danes who sacked Canterbury in 1011 and kept in prison for 7 months, and killed when a ransom was not paid.. Born in 954, St Alpheage was elected Abbot at Bath, and in 984 became the Bishop of Winchester. In 1006 he succeeded Aelfric as Archbishop of Canterbury.

13/4/1012, Sunday (-340,790) Easter Sunday

1/1/1012, Tuesday (-340,893) week 48,699

================================================================================

1/8/1011, Wednesday (-341,046)

8/5/1011, Tuesday (-341,131)

Tuesday (-341,341)

25/3/1011, Sunday (-341,175) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1011, Monday (-341,258)

===============================================================================

1/8/1010, Tuesday (-341,411)

8/5/1010, Monday (-341,496)

9/4/1010, Sunday (-341,525) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1010, Sunday (-341,623)

===============================================================================

25/12/1009, Sunday (-341,630)

23/10/1009, Sunday (-341,693)

27/9/1009, Tuesday (-341,719) (Christian) Caliph Al Hakim ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem.

1/8/1009, Monday (-341,776)

8/5/1009, Sunday (-341,861)

16/4/1009, Sunday (-341,882) Easter Sunday.

14/3/1009, Tuesday (-341,915) German missionary Bruno Boniface was killed whilst attempting to convert the Baltic Jadzwingas tribe.

1/1/1009, Saturday (-341,988)

==============================================================================

1/8/1008, Sunday (-342,141)

8/5/1008, Saturday (-342,226)

28/3/1008, Sunday(-) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-342,342)

1/1/1008, Thursday (-342,354)

==============================================================================

25/12/1007, Thursday (-342,361)

1/11/1007, Saturday (-342,414) (Christian Missionary) German Emperor Henry II established the Bishopric of Bamberg, in order to convert the Wends.

23/10/1007, Thursday (-342,423)

1/8/1007, Friday (-342,507)

8/5/1007, Thursday (-342,592)

6/4/1007, Sunday (-342,624) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1007, Wednesday (-342,719)

=============================================================================

25/12/1006, Wednesday (-342,726)

23/10/1006, Wednesday (-342,789)

14/10/1006, Monday (-342,798) Geoffrey Martel, Count of Anjou, was born (died 14/11/1060).

3/10/1006,

1/8/1006, Thursday (-342,872)

8/5/1006, Wednesday (-342,957)

21/4/1006, Sunday (-342,974) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1006, Tuesday (-343,084) week 49,012

===============================================================================

1/8/1005, Wednesday (-343,237)

8/5/1005, Tuesday (-343,322)

Tuesday (-343,343)

8/4/1005, Sunday (-343,352)

1/4/1005, Sunday (-343,359) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1005, Monday (-343,449)

===============================================================================

1/8/1004, Tuesday (-343,602)

14/5/1004, Sunday (-343,691) Arduin left Italy. Emperor Henry II was crowned King.

8/5/1004, Monday (-343,687)

16/4/1004, Sunday (-343,709) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1004, Saturday (-343,815)

===============================================================================

25/12/1003, Saturday (-343,822)

23/10/1003, Saturday (-343,885)

1/10/1003, Friday (-343,907) All the German princes accepted Henry II�s title of Emperor.

1/8/1003, Sunday (-343,968)

12/5/1003. Wednesday (-344,049) Sylvester II, (Gerbert of Aurillac) the first French Pope, died. Elected in 999 with the backing of Otto III, he encouraged the Holy Roman Emperor�s ambition to re-create the Roman Empire of the west.

8/5/1003, Saturday (-344,053)

28/4/1003, Wednesday (-344,063)

28/3/1003, Sunday(-344,094) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1003, Friday (-344,180)

===============================================================================

25/12/1002, Friday (-344,187)

13/11/1002, Friday (-344,229) In England, on St Brice�s Day, many leading men of Viking descent were massacred on th orders of King Ethelred II The Unready, because he doubted their loyalty. His policy of buying the Vikings off had failed to halt their raids. In revenge Sweyn returned in 1002 and ravaged Exeter in 1003 and Norwich and Thetford in 1004. After a lull in 1005 Viking attacks on English towns resumed and Aethelred bought them off for a larger sum than ever, �36,000, in 1007. But in 1010 the Vikings were bought off again, for �48,000 this time. In the 1010s the Vikings made efforts to gain political control of the English Kingdom of northern and western England. Aethelred, called the Unready as he was without rede or counsel, had been a weak, improvident, and self-indulgent monarch, and he died in London on 23/4/1016. His wife Emma subsequently married Canute, and died in retirement at Winchester on 6/3/1052 after not her son (Hardicanute) but Harold Harefoot had become king of England.

1/8/1002, Saturday (-344,333)

Tuesday (-344,344)

21/6/1002, Sunday (-344,374) Pope Leo IX was born.

8/5/1002, Friday (-344,418)

5/4/1002, Sunday (-344,451) Easter Sunday.

15/2/1002, Sunday (-344,500) Arduin led an Italian revolt against German rule, and was crowned King of Italy

23/1/1002, Friday (-344,523) Holy Roman Emperor Otto III died aged 21, whilst fighting Rome. He was succeeded as King of the Franks and Bavarians by his 28-year-old cousin Henry, Duke of Bavaria, who became Holy Roman Emperor in 1014.

1/1/1002, Thursday (-344,545)

================================================================================

25/12/1001, Thursday (-344,552)

2/12/1001. Tuesday (-344,575) The Danes in England were massacred on the orders of King Aethelred, after his policy of buying them off had failed to halt the Dane�s raids. In revenge Sweyn returned in 1002 and ravaged Exeter in 1003 and Norwich and Thetford in 1004. After a lull in 1005 Danish attacks on English towns resumes and Aethelred bought them off for a larger sum than ever, �36,000, in 1007. But in 1010 the Danes were bough off again, for �48,000 this time. In the 1010s the Danes made efforts to gain political control of the English Kingdom of northern and western England. Aethelred, called the Unready as he was without rede or counsel, had been a weak, improvident, and self-indulgent monarch, and he died in London on 23/4/1016. His wife Emma subsequently married Canute, and died in retirement at Winchester on 6/3/1052 after not her son (Hardicanute) but Harold Harefoot had become king of England.

27/11/1001, Thursday (-344,580) (India) Mahmud of Ghazni (now, Afghanistan) defated Jaipal of the Punjab at Peshawar and occupied the Punjab. Jaipal committed suicide.

1/8/1001, Friday (-344,698)

8/5/1001, Thursday (-344,783)

13/4/1001, Sunday (-344,808) Easter Sunday

1/1/1001, Wednesday (-344,910)

==============================================================================

25/12/1000, Wednesday (-344,917) Stephen I became King of Hungary, which was established as a Christian kingdom.

9/9/1000, Monday (354,024) Alarmed by the growing power of Olaf Tryggvason, King of Norway, King Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark, King Olaf Eriksson of Sweden and Earl Eirik Hakonarson of Lade united to eliminate him. Olaf travelled to Wendland to seek allies, but his fleet was caught by the three allies off Svolder Island (probably, modern Rugen). Most of Olaf�s mercenary fleet abandoned him, and he was drowned when he jumped ship and his men surrendered. However the allied effort was in vain, because within 35 years Norway was a united Christian Kingdom under Olaf�s son Magnus.

1/8/1000, Thursday (-345,063)

8/5/1000, Wednesday (-345,148)

8/4/1000, Monday (-345,178)

31/3/1000, Sunday (-345,186) (Poland) Easter Sunday. Emperor Otto III crowned Boleslav I as King of Poland, recognising Poland�s ecclesiastical and political independence.

1/1/1000, Monday (-345,276)

===================================================================================

25/12/999, Monday (-345,283)

17/12/999, Sunday (-345,291) Adelheid, widow of King Otto I of Germany, mother of King Otto II and grandmother of King Otto III, born 931, died.

Tuesday (-345,345)

1/8/999 Tuesday (-345,429) week 49,347

8/5/999, Monday (-345,514)

9/4/999, Sunday (-345,543) Easter Sunday.

2/4/999, Sunday (-345,550) Gerbert of Aurillac, mathematician, philosopher and inventor, became Pope Sylvester II, (139th Pope) the first French Pope (died 1003)

4/2/999, Saturday (-345,607) Pope Gregory V died.

1/1/999, Sunday (-345,641)

===================================================================================

998,

25/12/998, Sunday (-345,648)

2/11/998, Tuesday (-345,702) The Abbot of Cluny, France, instituted this day as All Soul�s day, when prayers are said for the dead. This way the Church co-opted the ancient pagan festival of Samhain, at the beginning of November, when the souls of the dead were said to return to roam the Earth.

1/8/998, Monday (-345,794)

8/5/998, Sunday (-345,879)

16/4/998, Sunday (-345,900) Easter Sunday.

1/1/998, Saturday (-346,006)

==================================================================================

1/8/997, Sunday (-346,159)

8/5/997, Saturday (-346,244)

23/4/997, Friday (-346,259) St Adalbert, the Apostle of the Prussians, from Prague, was murdered by the Prussians, whom he was trying to convert. He had also preached to the Hungarians and Bohemians, the latter being annoyed by his asceticism.

28/3/997, Sunday(-346,285) Easter Sunday.

1/1/997, Friday (-346,371)

==================================================================================

25/12/996, Friday (-346,378)

24/10/996, Saturday (-346,440) Robert II The Pious, son of Hugh Capet, became King of France.

14/10/996, Wednesday (-346,450) Hugh Capet, King of the Franks, died aged 58. He was succeeded by his 26-year-old son who ruled as Robert II until 1031.

Tuesday (-346,346)

1/8/996, Saturday (-346,524)

21/5/996, Thursday (-346,596) (Germany, Italy) Pope Gregory V crowned Otto III as Emperor. Gregory was expelled by the citizens of Rome in September 996.

8/5/996, Friday (-346,609)

12/4/996, Sunday (-346,635) Easter Sunday

1/1/996, Wednesday (-346,737)

=================================================================================

1/8/995, Thursday (-346,890)

8/5/995, Wednesday (-346,975)

21/4/995, Sunday (-346,992) Easter Sunday.

1/1/995, Tuesday (-347,102) week 49,586

===============================================================================

1/8/994, Wednesday (-347,255)

14/6/994, Thursday (-347,303) (Egypt) The Caliph of Egypt defeated a Byzantine army near Antioch.

10/5/994, Thursday (-347,338) The Vikings invaded Anglesey.

8/5/994, Tuesday (-347,340)

Tuesday (-347,347)

8/4/994, Sunday (-374,370)

1/4/994, Sunday (-374,377) Easter Sunday.

1/1/994, Monday (-347,467)

==============================================================================

1/8/993, Tuesday (-347,620) week 49,620

8/5/993, Monday (-347,705)

16/4/993, Sunday (-347,727) Easter Sunday.

1/1/993, Sunday (-347,832)

===============================================================================

1/8/992, Monday (-347,985)

8/5/992, Sunday (-348,070)

8/4/992, Friday (-348,100)

27/3/992, Sunday (-348,112) Easter Sunday.

29/2/992, Monday (-348,139) Saint Oswald, Archbishop of York, died.

1/1/992, Friday (-348,198)

==============================================================================

11/8/991, Tuesday (-348,341) Battle of Maldon. The Danes under Olaf Tryggvason attempted a landing at Maldon, Essex, but were pinned down on the causeway from Northey Island to the mainland, where battle was impossible. They requested to be allowed to progress onto the mainland where proper battle could take place, and for some reason Aethelred II allowed them to, perhaps out of a sense of fair play or possibly he was confident he could defeat them. In the event the Danes won, allowing them to conquer first Essex then much of the rest of England.

1/8/991, Saturday (-348,351)

15/6/991, Monday (-348,398) Empress Theophano, Byzantine-born widow of King Otto II of Germany, died.

Tuesday (-348,348)

8/5/991, Friday (-348,436)

5/4/991, Sunday (-348,469) Easter Sunday.

1/1/991, Thursday (-348,563)

===============================================================================

25/12/990, Thursday (-348,570)

23/10/990, Thursday (-348,633)

28/9/990. Sunday (-348,658) King Wenceslas of Bohemia, the Good King Wenceslas of the Christmas carol, died in Stara Boleslav.

1/8/990, Friday (-348,716)

8/5/990, Thursday (-348,801)

20/4/990, Sunday (-348,819) Easter Sunday.

13/2/990, Thursday (-348,885) Ethelgar, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

1/1/990, Wednesday (-348,928)

===============================================================================

1/10/989, Tuesday (-349,020) Byzantine rebel usurper Bardas Phocas surrendered.

1/8/989, Thursday (-349,081)

8/5/989, Wednesday (-349,166)

8/4/989, Monday (-349,196)

31/3/989, Sunday (-349,204) Easter Sunday.

1/1/989, Tuesday (-349,293) week 49,899

================================================================================

Tuesday (-349,349)

1/8/988, Wednesday (-349,446)

19/5/988, Saturday (-349,520) Saint Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury (born near Glastonbury ca. 910) died in Canterbury. He was appointed to Archbishop by King Edgar in 959.

8/4/988, Sunday (-349,661) Easter Sunday.

1/1/988, Sunday (-349,659)

==================================================================================

14/9/987, Wednesday (-349,768) Bardas Phocas proclaimed himself Byzantine emperor.

1/8/987, Monday (-349,812)

3/7/987, Sunday (-349,841) Hugh Capet, Duke of the Franks, succeeded to the French throne, founding the Capetian dynasty, which ruled France until 1328.

21/5/987, Saturday (-349,884) Louis V of France died without an heir.

8/5/987, Sunday (-349,897)

24/4/987, Sunday (-349,911) Easter Sunday.

8/4/987, Friday (-349,927)

8/3/987, Tuesday (-349,958)

1/1/987, Saturday (-350,024)

=================================================================================

986,

1/8/986, Sunday (-350,177)

8/5/986, Saturday (-350,262)

4/4/986, Sunday (-350,296) Easter Sunday.

2/3/986, Tuesday (-350,329) Lothair, King of the Franks, died, aged 44. He was succeeded by his 19-year-old son who ruled briefly as Louis V (le Faineant).

Tuesday (-350,350)

1/1/986, Friday (-350,389)

================================================================================

985,

1/8/985, Saturday (-350,542)

8/5/985, Friday (-350,627)

12/4/985, Sunday (-350,653) Easter Sunday

1/1/985, Thursday (-350,754)

===============================================================================

984,

1/8/984, Friday (-350,907)

8/5/984, Thursday (-350,992)

23/3/984, Sunday (-351,039) Easter Sunday.

1/1/984, Tuesday (-351,120) week 50,160

===============================================================================

983,

25/12/983, Tuesday (-351,127)

7/12/983, Friday (-351,145) (Italy, Germany) Holy Roman Emperor Otto II died in his palace in Rome, aged 28. He was succeeded by his 3-year-old son, Otto III, under the guardianship of his Byzantine mother Theophano.

1/8/963, Wednesday (-351,273)

Tuesday (-351,351)

8/5/983, Tuesday (-351,358)

8/4/983, Sunday (-351,388) Easter Sunday.

9/1/983, Monday (-351,485)

================================================================================

982,

1/8/982, Tuesday (-351,638) week 50,234

13/7/982, Thursday (-351,657) Emperor Otto II, who had invaded Italy, was defeated at Apulia by an allied Arab-Byzantine force.

8/5/982, Monday (-351,723)

16/4/982, Sunday (-351,745) Easter Sunday.

9/1/982, Sunday (-351,850)

================================================================================

981,

1/8/981, Monday (-352,003)

8/5/981, Sunday (-352,088)

27/3/981, Sunday (-352,130) Easter Sunday.

1/1/981, Saturday (-352,215)

================================================================================

Tuesday (-352,352)

1/8/980, Sunday (-352,368)

8/5/980, Saturday (-352,453)

11/4/980, Sunday (-352,480) Easter Sunday.

1/1/980, Thursday (-352,581)

===============================================================================

1/8/979, Friday (-352,734)

8/5/979, Thursday (-352,819)

20/4/979, Sunday (-352,837) Easter Sunday.

24/3/979, Monday (-352,864) Bardas Sclerus was defeated by the Byzantine Army.

1/1/979, Wednesday (-352,946)

================================================================================

1/8/978, Thursday (-353,099)

19/6/978, Wednesday (-353,142) Rebel Byzantine General Bardas Sclerus defeated Byzantine Imperial forces in Anatolia.

8/5/978, Wednesday (-353,184)

8/4/978, Monday (-353,214)

4/4/978, Thursday (-353,218) Ethelred II (the Unready) was crowned King of England

31/3/978, Sunday (-353,222) Easter Sunday.

18/3/978, Monday (-353,235) King Edward the Martyr was murdered at Corfe Castle, and succeeded by Ethelred II (The Unready or Ill-Advised).

1/1/978, Tuesday (-353,311) week 50,473

===============================================================================

Tuesday (-353,353)

1/8/977, Wednesday (-353,464)

8/5/977, Tuesday (-353,549)

8/4/977, Sunday (-353,579) Easter Sunday.

1/1/977, Monday (-353,676)

===============================================================================

25/12/976, Monday (-353,683)

23/10/976, Monday (-353,746)

1/10/976, Sunday (-353.768) Al Hakkam II, Caliph of Spain, died and was succeeded by his son, Hisham II. However from then until around 1002 the real power was with the Regent, Al-Mansour, who won major victories against Christian forces in 988 and 997.

1/8/976, Tuesday (-353,829) week 50,547

8/5/976, Monday (-353,914)

23/4/976, Sunday (-353,929) Easter Sunday.

10/1/976, Monday (-354,033) Byzantine co-Emperor John I Tzimisces died aged 51 after returning from a second campaign against the Saracens. The other co-Emperor, Basil II, then aged 20, now ruled alone until 1025.

1/1/976, Saturday (-354,042)

==============================================================================

1/8/975, Sunday (-354,195)

8/5/975, Saturday (-354,280)

4/4/975, Sunday (-354,314) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-354,354)

1/1/975, Friday (-354,407)

===============================================================================

1/8/974, Saturday (-354,560)

8/5/974, Friday (-354,645)

12/4/974, Sunday (-354,671) Easter Sunday

1/1/974, Thursday (-354,772)

================================================================================

1/8/973, Friday (-354,925)

11/5/973, Sunday (-355,007)Edgar was crowned King of England at Bath.

7/5/973, Wednesday (-355,011) Otto I, King of Germany, died, aged 60, after an 11-year reign. He was succeeded by his 18-year-old son, Otto II, who had been joint Emperor since Christmas 967, and who in 972 had married the Byzantine Princess Theophano, daughter of Romanus II. Otto II ruled until 7/12/ 983.

23/3/973, Sunday (-355,056) Easter Sunday.

1/1/973, Wednesday (-355,137)

=================================================================================

6/9/972, Friday (-355,254) Pope John XIII died.

1/8/972, Thursday (-355,290)

Tuesday (-355,355)

8/5/972, Wednesday (-355,375)

14/4/972, Sunday (-355,399) (Byzantium, Germany, Italy) Otto II was married to Theophano, niece of Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimisces. This allied the �Western Roman Empire� with Byzantium.

7/4/972, Sunday (-355,406) Easter Sunday.

1/1/972, Monday (-355,503)

================================================================================

2/10/971, Monday (-155,594) Mahmud of Ghazni, Afghan warrior, was born (died 1030).

1/8/971, Tuesday (-355,656) week 50,808

8/5/971, Monday (-355,741)

23/4/971, Sunday (-355,756) (Bulgaria) Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimisces expelled Svyatoslav of Kiev from Bulgaria and the Crimea.

16/4/971, Sunday (-355,763) Easter Sunday.

1/1/971, Sunday (-355,868)

================================================================================

1/8/970, Monday (-356,021)

8/5/970, Sunday (-356,106)

27/3/970, Sunday (-356,148) Easter Sunday.

1/1/970, Saturday (-356,233)

================================================================================

25/12/969, Saturday (-356,240)

10/12/969, Friday (-356,255) Byzantine Emperor Nicephoras II Phocas was murdered. He was succeeded by John I Tzimisces.

28/10/969. Thursday (-356,298) After a prolonged siege, Byzantium captured Antioch from the Arabs.

Tuesday (-356,356)

1/8/969, Sunday (-356,386)

6/7/969, Tuesday (-356,412) Fatimid Caliph al-Mu�izz conquered Egypt, making Cairo his capital, and the centre of a Shiite Empire.

8/5/969, Saturday (-356,471)

11/4/969, Sunday (-356,498) Easter Sunday.

1/1/969, Friday (-356,598)

============================================================================

1/8/968, Saturday (-356,751)

19/4/968, Sunday (-356,856) Easter Sunday.

1/1/968, Wednesday (-356,964)

============================================================================

22/12/967, Sunday (-356,974) (Italy) Pope John XIII formally crowned Otto II, son of Otto I The Great, co-Emperor.

4/8/967, Sunday (-357,114)

1/8/967, Thursday (-357,117)

8/5/967, Wednesday (-357,202)

8/4/967, Monday (-357,232)

31/3/967, Sunday (-357,240) Easter Sunday.

1/1/967, Tuesday (-357,329)

==============================================================================

Tuesday (-3570,357)

1/8/966, Wednesday (-357,482)

8/5/966, Tuesday (-357,567)

15/4/966, Sunday (-357,590) Easter Sunday.

14/4/966, Saturday (-357,591)Mieszko I, the first duke of Poland, was baptized a Christian. This is usually considered the beginning of the Polish state.

1/1/966, Monday (-375,694)

================================================================================

25/12/965, Monday (-375,701)

23/10/965, Monday (-375,764)

1/10/965, Sunday (-375,786) John XIII became Pope.

1/8/965, Tuesday (-357,847) week 51,121

8/5/965, Monday (-357,932)

26/3/965, Sunday (-357,975) Easter Sunday.

1/1/965, Sunday (-358,059)

================================================================================

1/8/964, Monday (-358,212)

8/5/964, Sunday (-358,297)

3/4/964, Sunday (-358,332) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-358,358)

1/1/964, Friday (-358,425)

=================================================================================

25/12/963, Friday (-358,432)

4/12/963, Friday (-358,453) (Papal succession, Italy) Emperor Otto I The Great deposed Pope John XII. Leo VIII was elected to succeed him.

16/8/963, Sunday (-358,563) Nicephoras II Phocas was crowned Byzantine Emperor.

1/8/963, Saturday (-358,578)

8/5/963, Friday (-358,663)

19/4/963, Sunday (-358,682) Easter Sunday.

12/4/963, Saturday (-358,697) The foundation of Luxembourg. On this day Count Sigefroi of the House of Ardenne acquired the site of present day Luxembourg City for the purpose of erecting a castle there.

1/1/963, Thursday (-358,790)

================================================================================

1/8/962, Friday (-358,943)

8/5/962, Thursday (-359,028)

8/4/962, Tuesday (-359,058)

30/3/962, Sunday (-359,067) Easter Sunday.

2/3/962, Sunday (-359,095)

2/2/962, Sunday (-359,123) Saxon Otto I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII.

1/1/962, Wednesday (-359,155)

================================================================================

1/8/961, Thursday (-359,308)

Tuesday (-359,359)

26/5/961, Sunday (-359,375) Otto, son of Otto I The Great, was crowned King of Lorraine.

8/5/961, Wednesday (-359,393)

7/4/961, Sunday (-359,424) Easter Sunday.

1/1/961, Tuesday (-359,520) week 51,360

===============================================================================

1/8/960, Wednesday (-359,673)

8/5/960, Tuesday (-359,758)

22/4/960, Sunday (-359,774) Easter Sunday.

1/1/960, Sunday (-359,886)

===============================================================================

25/12/959, Sunday (-359,893)

7/11/959, Monday (-359,941) Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus died after a reign of 47 years. He was succeeded by his son Romanus II, who misruled for 4 years.

23/10/959, Sunday (-359,956)

1/10/959, Saturday (-359,978) King Eadwig of England died, and was succeeded by his brother Edgar, who effectively completed the unification of England when Northumbria finally submitted to his rule.

1/8/959, Monday (-360,039)

2/6/959, Thursday (-360,099) Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

8/5/959, Sunday (-360,124)

3/4/959, Sunday (-360,159) Easter Sunday.

1/1/959, Saturday (-360,251)

===============================================================================

Tuesday (-360,360)

1/8/958, Sunday (-360,404)

8/5/958, Saturday (-360,489)

11/4/958, Sunday (-360,516) Easter Sunday.

1/1/958, Friday (-360,616)

===============================================================================

1/8/957, Saturday (-360,769)

8/5/957, Friday (-360,854)

19/4/957, Sunday (-360,873) Easter Sunday.

1/1/957, Thursday (-360,981)

================================================================================

1/8/956, Friday (-361,134)

17/6/956, Tuesday (-361,179) Hugh The Great died, 2 months after gaining mastery of Burgundy. He was succeeded by his 18-year-old son, Hugh Capet, who was reluctantly acknowledged as Duke of the Franks by his cousin, Lothair, King of the Franks.

8/5/956, Thursday (-361,219)

6/4/856, Sunday (-361,251) Easter Sunday.

26/1/956, Saturday (-361,322) King Eadwig (Edwy) of England was crowned.

1/1/956, Tuesday (-361,347) week 51,621

================================================================================

25/12/955, Tuesday (-361,354)

23/11/955, Thursday (-361,387) King Edred of England died and was succeeded by Eadwig, son of Edred�s brother and former King (Edmund I).

10/8/955, Friday (-361,491) At the Battle of Lechfeld, near Augsburg, Otto I of the Holy Roman Empire heavily defeated the Magyars, stopping their westwards invasion into Germany.

1/8/955, Wednesday (-361,500)

8/5/955, Tuesday (-361,585)

15/4/955, Sunday (-361,608) Easter Sunday.

1/1/955, Monday (-361,712)

================================================================================

10/9/954, Sunday (-361,825) Louis IV, King of France, died aged 33. He was succeeded by his 13-year-old son Lothair who reigned until 986.

1/8/954, Tuesday (-361,865) week 51,695

8/5/954, Monday (-361,950)

26/3/954, Sunday (-361,993) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1954, Sunday (-362,077)

==================================================================================

1/8/953, Monday (-362,230)

8/5/953, Sunday (-362,315)

3/4/953, Sunday (-362,350) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-362,362)

1/1/953, Saturday (-362,442)

================================================================================

1/8/952, Sunday (-362,595)

8/5/952, Saturday (-362,680)

18/4/952, Sunday (-362,700) Easter Sunday.

1/1/952, Thursday (-362,808)

================================================================================

1/8/951, Friday (-362,961)

8/5/951, Thursday (-363,046)

30/3/951, Sunday (-363,085) Easter Sunday.

1/1/951, Wednesday (-363,173)

==============================================================================

1/8/950, Thursday (-353,326)

Tuesday (-363,363)

8/5/950, Wednesday (-363,411)

7/4/950, Sunday (-363,442) Easter Sunday.

1/1/950, Tuesday (-363,538) week 51,934

===============================================================================

1/8/949, Wednesday (-363,691)

8/5/949, Tuesday (-363,776)

22/4/949, Sunday (-363,792) Easter Sunday.

1/1/949, Monday (-363,903)

===============================================================================

8/5/948, Monday (-364,141)

2/4/948, Sunday (-364,177) Easter Sunday.

1/1/948, Saturday (-364,269)

===============================================================================

Tuesday (-364,364)

8/5/947, Saturday (-364,507)

11/4/947, Sunday (-364,534) Easter Sunday.

1/1/947, Friday (-364,634)

==============================================================================

16/8/946, Sunday (-364,772) King Eadred of England was crowned.

28/7/946, Tuesday (-364,791)

26/5/946, Tuesday (-364,854) King Edmund I of England was murdered by a fugitive whom he was trying to apprehend.He was succeeded by his brother, Eadred.

8/5/946, Friday (-364,872)

22/3/946, Sunday (-364,919) Easter Sunday.

1/1/946, Thursday (-364,999)

==============================================================================

25/12/945, Thursday (-365,006)

23/10/945, Thursday (-365,069)

19/9/945, Friday (-364,103) Cabiz, Islamic theologian, was executed for maintaining that Christ was superior to Muhammad.

8/5/945, Thursday (-365,237)

6/4/945, Sunday (-365,269) Easter Sunday.

1/1/945, Wednesday (-365,364)

=============================================================================

25/12/944, Wednesday (-365,371)

16/12/944, Monday (-365,380) Byzantine Emperor Romanus I was deposed by his sons.

8/5/944, Wednesday (-365,602)

14/4/944, Sunday (-365,626) Easter Sunday

1/1/944, Monday (-365,730)

==============================================================================

8/5/943, Monday (-365,968)

26/3/943, Sunday (-366,011) Easter Sunday.

1/1/943, Sunday (-366,095)

==============================================================================

8/5/942, Sunday (-366,333)

10/4/962, Sunday (-363,361) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-366,366)

1/1/942, Saturday (-366,460)

==============================================================================

8/5/941, Saturday (-366,698)

18/4/941, Sunday (-366,718) Easter Sunday.

1/1/941, Friday (-366,825)

==============================================================================

8/5/940, Friday (-367,063)

29/3/940, Sunday (-367,104) Easter Sunday.

1/1/940, Wednesday (-367,191)

=============================================================================

25/12/939, Wednesday (-367,198)

29/11/939, Friday (-367,224) King Edmund I of England was crowned.

27/10/939, Sunday (-367,257) King Athelstan of Mercia died. He was succeeded by his brother Edmund I. Son of Edward the Elder, grandson of Alfred the Great, he was elected King of Wessex and Mercia on his father�s death in 924. He invaded Northumbria, thereby becoming the first King of all England in 937.

Tuesday (-367,367)

8/5/939, Wednesday (-367,429)

14/4/939, Sunday (-367,453) Easter Sunday

1/1/939, Tuesday (-367,556) week 52,508

============================================================================

8/5/938, Tuesday (-367,794)

22/4/938, Sunday (-367,810) Easter Sunday.

1/1/938, Monday (-367,921)

==============================================================================

8/5/937, Monday (-368,159)

2/4/937, Sunday (-368,195) Easter Sunday.

1/1/937, Sunday (-368,286)

==============================================================================

Tuesday (-368,368)

10/7/936, Sunday (-368,461)

2/7/936, Saturday (-368,469) Henry the Fowler, King of Germany, died aged 60 after a 17-year reign. He was succeeded by his 23-year-old son, who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962 and ruled as Otto I until 973.

8/5/936, Sunday (-368,524)

1/1/936, Friday (-368,652)

=============================================================================

16/4/936, Sunday (-368,545) Easter Sunday.

8/5/935, Friday (-368,890)

29/3/935, Sunday (-368,930) Easter Sunday.

1/1/935, Thursday (-369,017)

=============================================================================

8/5/934, Thursday (-369,255)

6/4/934, Sunday (-369,287) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-369,369)

1/1/934, Wednesday (-369,382)

=============================================================================

8/5/933, Wednesday (-369,620)

14/4/933, Sunday (-369,644) Easter Sunday

1/1/933, Tuesday (-369,747) week 52,821

===============================================================================

8/5/932, Tuesday (-369,985)

8/4/932, Sunday (-370,015)

1/4/932, Sunday (-370,022) Easter Sunday.

1/1/932, Sunday (-370,113)

===============================================================================

8/5/931, Sunday (-370,351)

Tuesday (-370,370)

10/4/931, Sunday (-370,379) Easter Sunday.

1/1/931, Saturday (-370,478)

=============================================================================

8/5/930, Saturday (-370,716)

18/4/930, Sunday (-370,736) Easter Sunday.

1/1/930, Friday (-370,843)

=============================================================================

25/12/929, Friday (-370,850)

23/10/929, Friday (-370,913)

7/10/929, Wednesday (-370,929) Charles III, The Simple, King of France, died.

28/9/929, Monday (-370,938) Prince Wenceslas of Bohemia was murdered by his brother Boleslav I, who then proclaimed his independence from Henry I of Germany.

4/9/929, Friday (-370,962) Henry I of Germany defeated the Wends, and converted them to Christianity.

21/8/929, Friday (-370,976)

8/5/929, Friday (-371,081)

5/4/929, Sunday (-371,114) Easter Sunday.

16/1/929, Friday (-371,193) Abd ar Rahman III, Umayyad Emir of Spain, declared himself Caliph, independent of Baghdad.

1/1/929, Thursday (-371,208)

=============================================================================

Tuesday (-371,371)

8/5/928, Thursday (-371,446)

13/4/928, Sunday (-371,471) Easter Sunday

1/1/928, Tuesday (-371,574) week 53,082

=============================================================================

27/5/927, Sunday (-371,793) Bulgar King Simeon (ruled 893-927) died. He fixed the Bulgarian capital at Preslav; the Bulgarian Empire now extended from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.He was succeeded by his son Peter, who signed a peace agreement with Byzantium that restored Byzantine control of Serbia.

8/5/927, Tuesday (-371, 812)

25/3/927, Sunday (-371,856) Easter Sunday.

1/1/927, Monday (-371,939)

==========================================================================

8/5/926, Monday (-372,177)

2/4/926, Sunday (-372,213) Easter Sunday.

1/1/926, Sunday (-372,304)

==========================================================================

25/12/925, Sunday (-372,311)

23/10/925, Sunday (-372,374)

4/9/925, Sunday (-372,423) Coronation of King Aethelstan of England.

8/5/925, Sunday (-372,542)

16/4/925, Sunday (-372,563) Easter Sunday.

1/1/925, Saturday (-372,669)

============================================================================

17/7/924, Saturday (-372,837) King Edward the Elder of England died and was succeeded by his son Aethlstan.

10/7/924, Saturday (-372,,844)

8/5/924, Saturday (-372,907)

28/3/924, Sunday(-372,948) Easter Sunday.

1/1/924, Thursday (-373,035)

===========================================================================

15/6/923, Sunday (-373,235) Robert I, King of France, was killed in battle.

8/5/923, Thursday (-373,273)

6/4/923, Sunday (-373,305) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-373,373)

1/1/923, Wednesday (-373,400)

===========================================================================

922,

25/12/922, Wednesday (-373,407)

23/10/922, Wednesday (-373,470)

29/9/922, Sunday (-373,494) In France, Charles III (The Simple) was deposed by rebellious barons and replaced by King Odo who was crowned this day at Reims.

8/5/922, Wednesday (-373,638)

21/4/922, Sunday (-373,655) Easter Sunday.

1/1/922, Tuesday (-373,765) week 53,395

===========================================================================

15/9/921, Saturday (-373,873) The Duchess of Bohemia, later St Ludmila, was assassinated by command of her daughter in law. She and her husband had built the first Christian church in Bohemia, and she had taught her grandson, later known as Good King Wenceslas.

8/5/921, Tuesday (-374,003)

8/4/921, Sunday (-374,033)

1/4/921, Sunday (-374,040) Easter Sunday.

1/1/921, Monday (-374,130)

=============================================================================

25/12/920, Monday (-374,137)

17/12/920, Sunday (-378,145) Romanus I Lecapenus seized power in Byzantium and became co-Emperor with Constantine VII.

8/5/920, Monday (-374,368)

Tuesday (-374,374)

9/4/920, Sunday (-374,397) Easter Sunday.

1/1/920, Saturday (-374,496)

=============================================================================

8/5/919, Saturday (-374,734)

25/4/919, Sunday (-374,747) Easter Sunday.

1/1/919, Friday (-374,861)

============================================================================

25/12/918, Friday (-374,868)

12/11/918, Thursday (-374,911) Death of Aethelflaed, eldest daughter of Alfred the Great and Queen of Mercia. Mercia was now fully incorporated into Wessex by King Edward the Elder.

23/10/918, Friday (-374,931)

23/9/918, Tuesday (-374,962) German King Conrad I died after a 7-year reign.

8/5/918, Friday (-375,099)

5/4/918, Sunday (-375,132) Easter Sunday.

1/1/918, Thursday (-375,226)

===============================================================================

Tuesday (-375,375)

8/5/917, Thursday (-375,464)

13/4/917, Sunday (-375,489) Easter Sunday

1/1/917, Wednesday (-375,591)

=============================================================================

8/5/916, Wednesday (-375,829)

24/3/916, Sunday (-375,874) Easter Sunday.

1/1/916, Monday (-375,957)

============================================================================

8/5/915, Monday (-376,195)

9/4/915, Sunday (-376,224) Easter Sunday.

1/1/915, Sunday (-376,322)

===========================================================================

Tuesday (-376,376)

8/5/914, Sunday (-376,560)

16/4/914, Sunday (-376,581) Easter Sunday.

1/1/914, Saturday (-376,687)

===========================================================================

8/5/913, Saturday (-376,925)

28/3/913, Sunday(-376,966) Easter Sunday.

1/1/913, Friday (-377,052)

===========================================================================

25/12/912, Friday (-377,059)

23/11/912, Sunday (-377,092) Holy Roman Emperor, Otto the Great, was born.

15/10/912, Wednesday (-377,131) Abd Allah, Emir of Spain, died. He was succeeded by Abd ar Rahman III, under whom the Umayyad Dynasty reached the peak of its power and cultural achievements.

8/5/912, Friday (-377,290)

12/4/912, Sunday (-377,316) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-377,377)

1/1/912, Wednesday (-377,418)

==========================================================================

25/12/911, Wednesday (-377,425)

8/11/911, Thursday (-377,473) Following the death of King Louis III (The Child) at age 18, the son of Conrad, Count of Lanhgau, was chosen as German King, at Forchheim.

8/5/911, Wednesday (-377,656)

21/4/911, Sunday (-377,673) Easter Sunday.

14/4/911, Sunday (-377,680) Pope Sergius III died.

21/1/911, Monday (-377,763) Louis III The Child, last German ruler of the Carolingian line, died.

1/1/911, Tuesday (-377,783) week 53,969

============================================================================

25/12/910, Tuesday (-377,790)

23/10/910, Tuesday (-377,853)

21/8/910, Tuesday (-377.916)

5/8/910, Sunday (-377,932) Edward the Elder of Wessex defeated the Danes of Northumbria at Tetenhall, Staffordshire. Halfdan, King of York, was killed.

8/5/910, Tuesday (-378,021)

8/4/910, Sunday (-378,051)

1/4/910, Sunday (-378,058) Easter Sunday.

1/1/910, Monday (-378,148)

===========================================================================

25/12/909, Monday (-378,155)

7/12/909, Thursday (-378,173) (Islam) Sa�id Ibn Hussein was proclaimed Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi (�the divinely guided one�) in Tunis. He established an Ismailite (Shiite) caliphate in opposition to the caliphate of Baghdad, and founded the Fatimid Dynasty.

16/5/909, Tuesday (-378,378)

8/5/909, Monday (-378,386)

16/4/909, Sunday (-378,408) Easter Sunday.

1/1/909, Sunday (-378,513)

==========================================================================

8/5/908, Sunday (-378,751)

27/3/908, Sunday (-)378,793 Easter Sunday.

1/1/908, Friday (-378,879)

===========================================================================

10/5/907, Friday (-379,054)

4/7/907. Saturday (-379,060) The Bavarians suffered a disastrous defeat by the Hungarians.

8/5/907, Friday (-379,117)

5/4/907, Sunday (-379,150) Easter Sunday.

1/1/907, Thursday (-379,244)

==========================================================================

Tuesday (-379,379)

8/5/906, Thursday (-379,482)

2/5/906, Friday (-379,488) King Boris I of Bulgaria died.

13/4/906, Sunday (-379,507) Easter Sunday

1/1/906, Wednesday (-379,609)

===========================================================================

8/5/905, Wednesday (-379,847)

8/4/905, Monday (-379,877)

31/3/905, Sunday (--379,885) Easter Sunday.

1/1/905, Tuesday (-379,974) week 54,282

==========================================================================

29/7/904. Sunday (-380,130) The Arabs sacked Thessalonica, the second greatest city of the Empire after Byzantium itself, before withdrawing.

10/7/904, Tuesday (-380,149)

8/5/904, Tuesday (-380,212)

8/4/904, Sunday (-380,242) Easter Sunday.

1/1/904, Sunday (-380,340)

============================================================================

Tuesday (-380,380)

8/5/903, Sunday (-380,578)

16/4/903, Sunday (-380,599) Easter Sunday.

1/1/903, Saturday (-380,705)

==========================================================================

25/12/902, Saturday (-380,712)

13/12/902, Monday (-380,724) The Anglo-Saxon men of Kent defeated the Vikings of East Anglia at the Battle of the Holme.

11/10/902, Monday (-380,787)

9/8/902, Monday (-380,850)

1/8/902. Sunday (-380,858) The Arabs captured Taormina, which completed their conquest of Sicily from Byzantium.

8/5/902, Saturday (-380,943)

28/3/902, Sunday(-380,984) Easter Sunday.

1/1/902, Friday (-381,070)

===========================================================================

8/5/901, Friday (-381,308)

12/4/901, Sunday (-381,334) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-381,381)

1/1/901, Thursday (-381,435)

==========================================================================

8/6/900, Sunday (-381,642) Coronation of Edward the Elder, King oif Wessex (born 871 or 872)..

8/5/900, Thursday (-381,673)

20/4/900, Sunday (-381,691) Easter Sunday.

8/1/900, Tuesday (-381,794)

1/1/900, Tuesday (-381,801) week 54,543

==========================================================================

25/12/899, Tuesday (-381,808)

26/10/899. Friday (-381,868) Death of King Alfred the Great, succeeded by Edward the Elder. Born in ca.848, he was sent at the age of 5 to be confirmed by Pope Leo IV. At this time Alfred had three elder brothers and so was by no means guaranteed to be the future King of Wessex. Alfred�s two eldest brothers, Aethelbald and Aethelbert, had short reigns. The third brother, Aethelred, became king in 866. In 868 Aethelred and Alfred made an unsuccessful attempt to throw the Danes out of Mercia. In 870 numerous battles were fought by Aethelred against the Danes; a Danish defeat at Englefield, Berkshire, on 31/112/870 was followed by a Danish victory at Reading on 4/1/871. The Danes lost again at the Battle of Ashdown, near Compton Beauchamp, Shrivenham, on 8/1/871, but defeated the English on 22/1/871 at Basing, and repeated the Danish victory at Marton, Wiltshire, on 22/3/871. Aethelred, Alfred�s older brother, died in April 871, and while Alfred was busy with the funeral the Danes won another victory, and defeated his army once more at Wilton in May 871.

From then until 876 the Danes were occupied fighting elsewhere in England but in 876 they returned to Wessex to occupy Wareham and in 877 managed to take Exeter. Here the Danes were blockaded by Alfred, and a Danish relief fleet was scattered by storms. Hence the Danes submitted and withdrew to Mercia. In early January 878 the Danes suddenly attacked King Alfred�s Christmas celebrations at Chippenham; most were killed but Alfred and a few men escaped to the fort at Athelney, from where he made preparations for attacks on the Danes. By May 878 Alfred was ready and he moved out of Athelney, joined by armed soldiers from Somerset, Wiltshire, and Hampshire. The Danes also moved out of their camp at Chippenham and the two armies met at Edington in Wiltshire. The result was a decisive victory for Alfred; the Danes surrendered, and Guthrum, the Danish King, and 29 of his chief men, submitted to baptism as Christians. By the Peace of Wedmore, 878, the Danes were cleared from all of Wessex and from Mercia west of Watling Street. There were no more Danish attacks on England until 884 or 885 when a Danish landing in Kent was successfully repelled; this nevertheless encouraged an uprising by East Anglian Danes. Alfred then managed to capture London from the Danes.. After a further period of peace, the Danes on the continent found their position becoming more precarious and in 892 or 893, attempted to colonise, with their women and children, areas of Kent and the Thames estuary.

8/5/899, Tuesday (-382,039)

8/4/899, Sunday (-382,069)

1/4/899, Sunday (-382,076) Easter Sunday.

1/1/899, Monday (-382,166)

==============================================================================

898,

Tuesday (-382,382)

8/5/898, Monday (-382,404)

16/4/898, Sunday (-382,426) Easter Sunday.

1/1/898, Sunday (-382,531) Odo, King of France, died and was succeeded by Charles II The Simple.

============================================================================

8/5/897, Sunday (-382,769)

27/3/897, Sunday (-382,811) Easter Sunday.

1/1/897, Saturday (-382,896)

===========================================================================

8/5/896, Saturday (-383,134)

4/4/896, Sunday (-383,168) Easter Sunday

1/1/1896, Thursday (-383,262)

========================================================================

25/12/895, Thursday (-383,269)

23/10/895, Thursday (-383,332)

Tuesday (-383,383)

24/8/895, Sunday (-383,392) Death of Gothfrith, ruler of Jorvik from 883.

21/8/895, Thursday (-383,395)

8/5/895, Thursday (-383,500)

20/4/895, Sunday (-383,518) Easter Sunday.

1/1/895, Wednesday (-383,627)

=======================================================================

8/5/894, Wednesday (-383,865)

8/4/894, Monday (-383,895)

31/3/894, Sunday (-383,903) Easter Sunday.

1/1/894, Tuesday (383,992) week 54,856

========================================================================

8/5/893, Tuesday (-384,230)

8/4/893, Sunday (-384,260) Easter Sunday.

28/1/893, Sunday (-384,330) Charles III The Simple was crowned King of France, after a revolt against Odo�s rule.

1/1/893, Monday (-384,357)

========================================================================

25/12/892, Monday (-384,364)

Tuesday (-384,384)

15/10/892, Sunday (-384,435) (Iraq) Caliph al-Mutamid died and was succeeded by his son al-Mutadid, who restored the capital to Baghdad.

8/5/892, Monday (-384,595)

23/4/892, Sunday (-384,610) Easter Sunday.

1/1/892, Saturday (-384,723)

========================================================================

14/9/891, Tuesday (-384,832) Pope Stephen V died.

1/9/891, Wednesday (-384,845) (France-Germany) The Vikings were defeated at Louvain (now, Belgium), and later again at Brabant.

8/5/891, Saturday (-384,961)

4/4/891, Sunday (-384,995) Easter Sunday.

1/1/891, Friday (-385,088)

=========================================================================

8/5/890, Friday (-385,326)

12/4/890, Sunday (-385,352) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-385,385)

1/1/890, Thursday (-385,453)

==========================================================================

8/5/889, Thursday (-385,691)

23/3/889, Sunday (-385,737) Easter Sunday.

1/1/889, Wednesday (385,818)

============================================================================

24/6/888, Monday (-386,009) Odo defeated the Vikings at Montfaucon, France.

8/5/888, Wednesday (-386,056)

7/4/888, Sunday (-386,087) Easter Sunday.

13/1/888,Saturday (-386,172) With the death of Charles the Fat, the Frankish kingdom was split again, and this time permanently. Odo, Count of Paris became King of the Western Franks.

1/1/888, Monday (-386,184)

===============================================================================

18/9/887, Monday (-388,289) Pietro, Doge of Venice, was killed in an expedition against the Dalmatian pirates

11/9/887, Monday (-388,296)

10/7/887, Monday (-388,359)

Tuesday (-386,386)

8/5/887, Monday (-386,422)

16/4/887, Sunday (-386,444) Easter Sunday.

1/1/887, Sunday (-386,549)

===============================================================================

25/12/886, Sunday (-386,556)

23/10/886, Sunday (-386,619)

29/8/886, Monday (-386,674) Byzantine Emperor Basil I died after a 19-year reign. He was succeeded by a son of the late Emperor Michael (by Basil�s widow, Eudocia); he reigned until 912 as Leo VI (The Wise).

21/8/886, Sunday (-386,682)

8/5/886, Sunday (-386,787)

27/3/886, Sunday (-386,829) Easter Sunday.

1/1/886, Saturday (-386,914)

=================================================================================

25/12/885, Saturday (-386,921)

26/11/885, Friday (-386,950) (France) Paris was attacked by the Vikings but they failed to take the city, despite a long siege lasting until October 886. In the end they were bought off by Charles the Fat, with 700 pounds of silver. They were sent off to ravage Burgundy, then in revolt against Frankish rule.

8/5/885, Saturday (-387,152)

11/4/885, Sunday (-387,179) Easter Sunday

6/4/885, Tuesday (-387,184) (Christian) Methodius of Moravia died; he had promoted the use of Slavonic, rather than Latin, in the Liturgy. Pope Stephen V banned this use of Slavonic and after Methodius� death his followers were expelled from Moravia by Svatopulk.

1/1/885, Friday (-387,279)

=================================================================================

25/12/884, Friday (-387,286)

12/12/884, Saturday (-387,299) King Carloman of France died whilst out hunting and was succeeded as King of the West Franks by Holy Roman Emperor Charles III (The Fat), son of the late Louis the German. The French nobility had invited Charles III to be his successor; this reunited Charlemagne�s Empire.

Tuesday (-387,387)

8/5/884, Friday (-387,517)

19/4/884, Sunday (-387,536) Easter Sunday.

1/1/884, Wednesday (-387,645)

==================================================================================

8/5/883, Wednesday (-387,883)

8/4/883, Monday (-387,913)

31/3/883, Sunday (-387,921) Easter Sunday.

1/1/883, Tuesday (-388,010)

==================================================================================

25/12/882, Tuesday (-388,017)

15/12/882, Saturday (-388,027) Pope John VIII was murdered. Marinus I succeeded him.

5/8/882, Sunday (-388,159) Louis III, King of France, died, aged 19. His brother Carloman succeeded him.

10/7/882, Tuesday (-388,185)

8/5/882, Tuesday (-388,248)

8/4/882, Sunday (-388,278) Easter Sunday.

1/1/882, Monday (-388,375)

==================================================================================

Tuesday (-388,388)

8/5/881, Monday (-388,613)

23/4/881, Sunday (-388,628) Easter Sunday.

12/2/881, Sunday (-388,698) (France-Germany) Pope John VIII crowned Charles III The Fat as Emperor.

1/1/881, Sunday (-388,740)

=================================================================================

8/5/880, Sunday (-388,978)

3/4/880, Sunday (-389,013) Easter Sunday

1/1/880, Friday (-389,106)

=================================================================================

8/5/879, Friday (-389,344)

12/4/879, Sunday (-389,370) Easter Sunday

10/4/879, Friday (-389,372) King Louis II (The Stammerer) of France died at Compeigne, aged 32, after a reign of 18 months. He was succeeded jointly by his sons, Louis III and Carloman, and divided the kingdom between them a few months later.

Tuesday (-389,389)

1/1/879, Thursday (-389,471)

=================================================================================

8/5/878, Thursday (-389,709)

23/3/878, Sunday (-389,755) Easter Sunday.

1/1/878, Wednesday (-389,836)

=================================================================================

1/12/877, Sunday (-389,867)

1/11/877, Friday (-389,897)

23/10/877, Wednesday (-389,906) (Christian) St Ignatius of Constantinople, Byzantine prelate who had opposed Imperial interference in Church affairs, died.

5/10/877, Saturday (-389,924) King Charles the Bald of France died.

14/6/877, Friday (-390,037) Charles II the Bald consolidated the feudal hereditary system of fiefdoms. The King granted land, held in heredity, in return for military service.

7/5/877, Tuesday (-390,075) Charles II The Bald raised a tax to bribe the Vikings to leave the Seine region.

7/4/877, Sunday (-390,105) Easter Sunday.

1/4/877, Monday (-390,111)

1/3/877, Friday (-390,142)

1/2/877, Friday (-390,170)

1/1/877, Tuesday (-390,201) week 55,743

===============================================================================

25/12/876, Tuesday (-390,208)

23/10/876, Tuesday (-390,271)

28/8/876, Thursday (-390,332) Louis II the German died. His lands were divided amongst his sons. Carloman received Bavaria and the Eastern March, and Louis the Younger ruled Saxony and Franconia. Charles the Fat became King of Alemannia, as Charles III.

Tuesday (-390,390)

8/5/876, Tuesday (-390,439)

15/4/876, Sunday (-390,462) Easter Sunday.

1/1/876, Sunday (-390,567)

=============================================================================

25/12/875, Sunday (-390,574) (France-Germany) Pope John VIII crowned Charles the Bald as Emperor of the West.

12/8/875, Friday (-390,709) Holy Roman Emperor Louis II died in Brescia, aged 50.

10/7/875, Sunday (-390,742)

8/5/875, Sunday (-390,805)

27/3/875, Sunday (-390,847) Easter Sunday.

1/1/875, Saturday (390,932)

==============================================================================

8/5/874, Saturday (-391,170)

11/4/874, Sunday (-391,197) Easter Sunday.

1/1/874, Friday (-391,297)

===============================================================================

8/5/873, Friday (-391,535)

19/4/873, Sunday (-391,554) Easter Sunday.

1/1/873, Thursday (-391,662)

=============================================================================

8/5/872, Thursday (-391,900)

30/3/872, Sunday (-391,939) Easter Sunday.

1/1/872, Tuesday (-392,028)

============================================================================

8/5/871, Tuesday (-392,266)

23/4/871, Monday (-392,281) King Ethelred of Wessex died in battle against the Danes; he was succeeded by King Alfred.

15/4/871, Sunday (-392,289) Easter Sunday.

25/3/871, Sunday (-392,310)

22/3/871, Thursday (-392,313) Battle of Marton (Wiltshire), between the Danes and Wessex.

22/2/871, Thursday (-392,341)

2/2/871, Friday (-392,361) Louis II (the German) evicted the Arabs from Bari, southern Italy.

22/1/871, Monday (-392,372) Battle of Basing, between the Danes and Wessex. King Ethelred of Wessex was defeated.

8/1/871, Monday (-392,386) Battle of Ashdown, between the Danes and Wessex. King Ethelred of Wessex defeated the Danes.

4/1/871, Thursday (-392,390) Battle of Reading, between the Danes and Wessex. King Ethelred of Wessex was defeated.

Tuesday (-392,392)

1/1/871, Monday (-392,393)

==================================================================================

31/12/870, Sunday (-392,394) Battle of Englefield (Berkshire), between the Danes and Wessex. King Ethelred of Wessex defeated the Danes.

20/11/870, Monday (-392,435) The Danes murdered Edmund, King of East Anglia, when he refused to become their subject. He was succeeded by Oswald, last English King of East Anglia. The Danes moved south west and camped at Reading, ready to invade Wessex.

8/8/870, Tuesday (-392,539) The Treaty of Mersen was signed.Charles the Bald and his half-brother Louis the German divided the Kingdom of their nephew Lothair II (died 869) between them.

10/7/870, Monday (-392,568)

8/5/870, Monday (-392,631)

26/3/870, Sunday (-392,674) Easter Sunday.

1/1/870, Sunday (-392,758)

==================================================================================

30/10/869, Monday (-392,820) The radical German theologian Gottschalk of Orbais died.

9/10/869, Monday (-392,841)

9/9/869, Friday (-392,872) Charles II (The Bald) was crowned King of Lothairingia, after the death of his nephew Lothair.

8/8/869, Monday (-392,904) Lothair II, King of Lotharingia, died.

28/7/869, Thursday (-392,915)

26/5/869, Thursday (-392,978) An earthquake and tsunami devastated a large part of the Sanrikucoast near Sendai, Japan.

8/5/869, Sunday (-392,996)

3/4/869, Sunday (-393,031)

14/2/869, Sunday (-393,080) St Cyril died. He had conducted Christian missionary work in the Balkans and other areas of eastern Europe.

1/1/869, Saturday (-393,123)

================================================================================

11/5/868. Tuesday (-393,358) The world�s first printed book, the Diamond Sutra, was published in China. It was found in 1900.

8/5/868, Saturday (-393,361)

18/4/868, Sunday (-393,381) Easter Sunday.

Tuesday (-393,393)

1/1/868, Thursday (-393,489)

===============================================================================

25/12/867, Thursday (-393,496)

13/11/867, Thursday (-393,538) Pope Nicholas I died.

13/10/867, Monday (-393,569)

24/9/867, Wednesday (-393,588) Byzantine Emperor Michael III was murdered. His successor Basil I founded the Macedonian Dynasty.

8/5/867, Thursday (-393,727)

30/3/867, Sunday (-393,766) Easter Sunday.

21/3/867, Friday (-393,775) Death of King Aelle II, last independent King of Northumbria, in battle against the Vikings (acceded 862). He was replaced by Egbert, a puppet ruler installed by the Vikings, who ruled until 872. Egbert was deposed in 872 by a revolt against Viking rule.

1/1/867, Wednesday (-393,854)

===============================================================================

8/5/866, Wednesday (-394,092)

23/4/866, Tuesday (-394,107) The Logothete (senior government official) Bardas wasmurdered by Byzantine Emperor Michael III.

7/4/866, Sunday (-394,123) Easter Sunday.

1/1/866, Tuesday (-394,219) week 56,317

================================================================================

Tuesday (-394,394)

8/5/865, Tuesday (-394,457)

22/4/865, Sunday (-394,473) Easter Sunday.

3/2/865, Saturday (-394,551) (Christian Missionary) St Anskar, the Bishop of Hamburg who had led Christian missions to Denmark and Sweden, died.

1/1/865, Monday (-394,584)

===============================================================================

23/7/864, Sunday (-394,746) Edict of Pistres: Charles the Bald ordered defensive measures against the Vikings.

10/7/864, Monday (-394,759)

8/5/864, Monday (-394,822)

2/4/864, Sunday (-394,858) Easter Sunday.

1/1/864, Saturday (-394,950)

==============================================================================

8/5/863, Saturday (-395,188)

11/4/863, Sunday (-395,215) Easter Sunday.

1/1/863, Friday (-395,315)

=============================================================================

Tuesday (-395,395)

8/5/862, Friday (-395,553)

19/4/862, Sunday (-395,572) Easter Sunday.

1/1/862, Thursday (-395,680)

=============================================================================

11/12/861, Thursday (-395,701) Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil was assassinated, starting The Anarchy at Samarra.

8/5/861, Thursday (-395,918)

6/4/861, Sunday (-395,950) Easter Sunday.

1/1/861, Wednesday (-396,045)

=============================================================================

25/12/860, Wednesday (-396,052)

20/12/860, Friday (-396,657) Death of King Athelbald of Wessex (acceded 855). He was succeeded by King Athelbert of Kent.

8/5/860, Wednesday (-396,283)

14/4/860, Sunday (-396,307) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-396,396)

1/1/860, Monday (-396,411)

===========================================================================

3/6/859. Saturday (-396,623) Edgar, King of All England, was crowned on Whit Sunday by Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the Saxon Abbey on the site of the present Bath Abbey.

8/5/859, Monday (-396,649)

26/3/859, Sunday (-396,692) Easter Sunday.

1/1/859, Sunday (-396,776)

================================================================================

13/6/858, Monday (-396,978) Ethelwulf, King of Wessex, died and was succeeded by his son Ethelbald, who had been his co-ruler for three years and who married his stepmother Judith.

8/5/858, Sunday (-397,014)

7/4/858, Thursday (-397,045\) Pope Benedict III died.

3/4/858, Sunday (-397,049) Easter Sunday.

1/1/858, Saturday (-397,141)

=================================================================================

8/5/857, Saturday (-397,379)

Tuesday (-397,397)

18/4/857, Sunday (-397,399) Easter Sunday.

1/1/857, Friday (-397,506)

================================================================================

25/12/856, Friday (-397,513) The Vikings attacked and burnt Paris.

22/12/856, Tuesday (-397,516) Earthquake in Danghan, Iran, killed 200,000.

20/10/856, Tuesday (-397,579)

1/10/856, Thursday (-397,597) Aethelwulf, King of Wessex, married Judith, 12 year old daughter of Charles the Bald.

8/5/856, Friday (-397,744)

29/3/856, Sunday (-392,785)) Easter Sunday.

1/1/856, Wednesday (-397,872)

============================================================================

25/12/855, Wednesday (-397,879)

23/10/855, Wednesday (-397,942)

29/9/855, Sunday (-397,966) Holy Roman Emperor Lothair abdicated in Prum aged 60. He divided his kingdom between his three sons. 33-year-old Louis II received Italy, which he had already governed since 844, and now ruled until 875. His brother Lothair received Austrasia, which he renamed Lotharingia, later, Lorraine A third son received Provence and southern Burgundy.

8/5/855, Wednesday (-398,110)

7/4/855, Sunday (-398,141) Easter Sunday.

1/1/855, Tuesday (-398,237)

==============================================================================

Tuesday (-398,398)

8/5/854, Tuesday (-398,475)

22/4/854, Sunday (-398,491) Easter Sunday.

1/1/854, Monday (-398,602)

==============================================================================

8/5/853, Monday (-398,840)

2/4/853, Sunday (-398,876) Easter Sunday.

1/1/853, Sunday (-398,967)

============================================================================

8/5/852, Sunday (-399,205)

10/4/852, Sunday (-399,233) Easter Sunday.

1/1/852, Friday (-398,333)

=============================================================================

Tuesday (-399,399)

22/8/851, Saturday (-399,465) (France) Battle of Jengland. Duke Nominoe of Brittany died in 851, and the Frankish Emperor Charles the Bald took the opportunity to march in with 4,000 armoured Frankish infantry and 1,000 lightly-armed Saxon foot soldiers. He could have taken cavalry but chose not to. The new Duke of Brittany, Erispoe, ambushed the invading force at Jengland as they advanced up the old Roman road from Nantes, using Breton horsemen who threw javelins at the foot soldiers. They then withdrew, but any Franks who pursued them were then cut down in disarray. The Franks retreated on the second day of battle, demoralised by the clandestine departure of their leader earlier. A few weeks later at the Peace of Angers, Charles the Bald recognised Erispoe as King of Brittany, with greatly expanded borders. This is considered as the birth of the Breton state.

10/7/851, Friday (-399,508)

8/5/851, Friday (-399,571)

8/4/851, Wednesday (-399,601)

22/3/851, Sunday (-399,618) ) Easter Sunday

1/1/851, Thursday (-399,698))

===============================================================================

8/5/850, Thursday (-399,936)

6/4/850, Sunday (-399,968) Easter Sunday.

5/3/850, Wednesday (-400,000)

1/1/850, Wednesday (-400,063)

================================================================================

8/5/849, Wednesday (-400,301)

14/4/849, Sunday (-400,325) Easter Sunday

Tuesday (-400,400)

1/1/849, Tuesday (-400,428) week 57,204

================================================================================

8/5/848, Tuesday (-400,666)

4/4/848,Wednesday (-400,700)

25/3/848, Sunday (-400,710) Easter Sunday.

1/1/848, Sunday (-400,794)

==============================================================================

8/5/847, Sunday (-401,032)

10/4/847, Sunday (-401,060) Easter Sunday.

1/1/847, Saturday (-401,159)

==============================================================================

25/12/846, Saturday (-401,166)

1/11/846, Monday (-401,220) Louis II, King of France, was born.

8/5/846, Saturday (-401,397)

Tuesday (-401,401)

18/4/846, Sunday (-401,417) Easter Sunday.

1/1/846, Friday (-401,524)

==============================================================================

8/5/845, Friday (-401,762)

29/3/845, Sunday (-402,802) ) Easter Sunday.

28/3/845, Saturday (-402,803) Siege of Paris ended when Paris was sacked by a Viking raiding fleet, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collected a huge ransom in exchange for leaving. The Vikings also sacked Hamburg and Melun.

1/1/845, Thursday (-401,889)

==============================================================================

8/5/844, Thursday (-402,127)

13/4/844, Sunday (-402,152) Easter Sunday

1/1/844, Tuesday (-402,255) week 57,465

==============================================================================

10/8/843, Friday (-402,399) The Treaty of Verdun divided the Holy Roman Empire into three equal sharesThe imperial crown and central portion from Frisia to Italy went to Lothair.Louis the German received Germany, and Charles the Bald, son of Pepin, received France.

Tuesday (-402,402)

10/7/843, Tuesday (-402,430)

8/5/843, Tuesday (-402,493)

22/4/843, Sunday (-402,509) Easter Sunday.

11/3/843, Sunday (-402,551) Icon veneration was officially restarted at the cathedralof Hagia Sofia, Constantinople.

1/1/843, Monday (-402,620)

================================================================================

8/5/842, Monday (-402,858)

2/4/842, Sunday (-402,894) Easter Sunday.

1/1/842, Sunday (-402,985)

===============================================================================

25/6/841, Saturday (-403,175) The Battle of Fontenoy (Carolingian Civil War).

8/5/841, Sunday (-403,223)

16/4/841, Sunday (-403,244) Easter Sunday.

1/1/841, Saturday (-403,350)

==============================================================================

Tuesday (-403,403)

8/5/840, Saturday (-403,588)

5/5/840, Wednesday (-403,591) One of the sons of Charlemagne, Emperor Louis of Bavaria, died of fright during a solar eclipse.His other sons quarrelled, causing the division of his empire into France, Germany, and Italy, see 10/8/843.

28/3/840, Sunday(-403,629) Easter Sunday.

1/1/840, Thursday (-403,716)

=============================================================================

8/5/839, Thursday (-403,954)