Chrnongraphy of events from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 1999

Page last modified 9/11/2021


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(+9999) = Day count from end of World War Two in Europe. Easter Sundays derived from


For dates from 1/1/2000 click here


1/1/2000,Saturday (+19,961) In the UK it became illegal for retailers to sell in anything but metric units.


31/12/1999, Friday (+19,960) Boris Yeltsin resigned as President of Russia and was replaced by Vladimir Putin. Putin, 47, was elected President on 26/3/2000.

27/12/1999, Monday (+19,958)

23/12/1999, Thursday (+19,954) In Cote D�Ivoire, President Bedie was overthrown by the military, and General Robert Guei took power.

22/12/1999, Wednesday (+19,951) A Korean Air Boeing 747 cargo plane crashed shortly after taking off from London Stansted Airport.

20/12/1999, Monday (+19,949) Macau was handed back to China by Portugal.

10/12/1999, Friday (+19,939) Franjo Tudjman, President of Croatia, died.

2/12/1999, Thursday (+19,931) The UK government devolved power in Northern Ireland to the Northern Ireland Executive. Dublin withdrew its territorial claim to Northern Ireland.


30/11/1999, Tuesday (+19,929) In Seattle, a large-scale protest by the anti-globalisation movement caught the authorities unaware and forced the cancellation on a WTO meeting.

29/11/1999, Monday (+19,928) The Northern Ireland power-sharing executive was set up.

28/11/1999, Sunday (+19,927) Russian forces began a three-day bombardment of Grozny, Chechnya, killing some 500 people.

22/11/1999, Monday (+19,921) (Space exploration) China launched a manned spacecraft.

17/11/1999, Wednesday (+19,916) The IRA promised to decommission its weapons.

14/11/1999, Sunday (+19,913) The UN Security Council voted to impose sanctions on Afghanistan to force the ruling Taleban to hand over Osama bin Laden.

12/11/1999, Friday (+19,911) A 7.2 magnitude earthquake hit Duzce, north-west Turkey, killing 845 and injuring 4,948.

11/11/1999, Thursday (+19,910) 752 hereditary peers lost their voting rights in the House of Lords. They had formed a majority of the 1330 House. However 92 of the hereditaries had a stay of execution, until reforms of the House of lords were completed.

6/11/1999, Saturday (+19,905) The Australians voted to keep the British queen as Head of State.


27/10/1999, Wednesday (+19,895) Brothels were legalised in The Netherlands.

12/10/1999, Tuesday (+19,880) (1) According to the UN, the world population reached 6 billion.

(2) General Pervez Musharraf (born 1943) took control of Pakistan in a military coup. Nawaz Sherif was deposed.

10/10/1999, Sunday (+19,878) The London Eye was erected.

5/10/1999, Tuesday (+19,873) A serious rail crash at Ladbroke Grove, outside Paddington, London, killed 31 people. Over 100 were injured. The 8.06 from Paddington to Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire, was cut in half by the express from Cheltenham at 8.11 am. The newly-privatised rail companies were criticised for not spending enough on signalling.


30/9/1999, Thursday (+10,868) Russian forces invaded Chechnya, to avenge their humiliation of 1996. Putin gained popularity in Russia.

23/9/1999, Thursday (+10,861) NASA lost contact with its Mars probe Climate Orbiter

21/9/1999, Tuesday (+19,859) Central Japan was hit by an earthquake; 2,400 were killed.

20/9/1999, Monday (+19,858) Timor L�Este appealed for help from the international community.

9/9/1999, Thursday (+19,847) The Patten Report on policing in Northern Ireland was published. It proposed measures to make the police force less Protestant-dominated.

7/9/1999, Tuesday (+19,845) A magnitude 5.9 earthquake hit Athens, killing 143 people and injuring over 2,000.

3/9/1999, Friday (+19,841) After an 18-month French judicial inquiry, paparazzi press were cleared of responsibility for the car crash which killed Diana.


30/8/1999, Monday (+19,837) n a referendum, East Timor voted for independence from Indonesia. Pro-Indonesian militias then went o the rampage, with the connivance of the Indonesian Army, until UNH peacekeepers arrived on 20/9/1999.

26/8/1999, Thursday (+19,833) Russia began the Second Chechen War following the invasion of Dagestan.

19/8/1999, Thursday (+19,826) In Belgrade, thousands of demonstrators demanded the resignation of President Slobodan Milosevic.

17/8/1999. Tuesday (+19,824) 17,800 killed as an earthquake hit the Turkish cities of Izmit and Istanbul. The quake measured 7.4 on the Richter Scale.17,000 were killed and 44,000 injured.

12/8/1999, Thursday (+19,819) Local sheep farmers in Millau, S France, led by Mr. Jose Bove, attacked and demolished a partly-built McDonalds restaurant. This was in response to US restrictions on the import of Roquefort cheese, which was itself in retaliation for European restrictions on imports of hormone-fed beef, which affected US farmers. Roquefort production employed some 1,300 people in the Millau area and annual sales to the US were 440 tonnes. The US imposed a 100% import duty on Roquefort, sending its price in Washington DC up from US$ 30 to US$ 60 per kilo, and US sales of this cheese dwindled to zero.

11/8/1999, Wednesday (+19,818) A total eclipse of the Sun was visible in south west England. However the weather was cloudy.

10/8/1999, Tuesday (+19,817) A Pakistani plane intruding into Indian airspace was shot down.

9/8/1999, Monday (+19,816) (1) Russian President Yeltsin again dismissed the Prime Minister (Primakov), and Vladimir Putin became Prime Minister.

(2) Charles Kennedy, 39, was elected as new leader of the Liberal Democrats, succeeding Paddy Ashdown.

8/8/1999, Sunday (+19,815) �Who Wants to be a Millionaire� was first screened; contestants could win up to US$1,000,000.

1/8/1999, Sunday (+19,808) In China the Yangtze River burst its banks, making 5 million homeless.


22/7/1999, Thursday (+19,798) China cracked down on the Falun Gong religious movement, which claimed to have 70 million followers.

20/7/1999, Tuesday (+19,796) The death of King Hassan II of Morocco prompted widespread mourning across the Arab world.

12/7/1999. Monday (+19,788) The three richest men in the world, Bill Gates, Paul Allen, and Warren Buffett, were collectively richer than the world�s poorest 43 nations.

11/7/1999, Sunday (+19,787) India recaptured the town of Kargil from Pakistan, after two months of conflict.

7/7/1999, Wednesday (+19,783) In Tehran, university students demanded liberal reforms. This led to rioting as Islamist vigilantes, the Ansar-e-Hizbollah, attacked the campus, killing 8. Pro-democracy protestors marched in Tehran on 12/7/1999.

1/7/1999, Tursday (+19,777) Queen Elizabeth II opened the Scottish Assembly. The average UK house price was �71,122.


29/6/1999, Tuesday (+19,775) In Turkey, Kurdish separatist leader Abdullah Ocalan was sentenced to death.

26/6/1999. Saturday (+19,772) There were problems at the UK�s Passport Office, with queues for passports reaching a record 530,000.

20/6/1999, Sunday (+19,766) Ethnic Albanians started to return to Kosovo. They began their own ethnic cleansing against Serbians. A UN peacekeeping force was sent to Kosovo.

18/6/1999, Friday (+19,764) Anti-Globalisation protests in many cities around the world, some of which became riots.

16/6/1999, Wednesday (+19,762) Screaming Lord Sutch (born 1940), committed suicide.

12/6/1999, Saturday (+19,758) The UN and NATO peacekeeping force KFOR entered Kosovo.

11/6/1999, Friday (+19,757) Serbia completed its withdrawal from Kosovo.

10/6/1999, Thursday (+19,756) NATO suspended air strikes against the Serbs after Slobodan Milosevic agreed to withdraw his forces from Kosovo.

9/6/1999, Wednesday (+19,755) In the Kosovo War, Yugoslavia and NATO signed a peace treaty.

8/6/1999, Tuesday (+19,754) Jonathan Aitken, former British Government Minister, was jailed for perjury.

7/6/1999, Monday (+19,753) In the USA, the FBI placed Osama bin Laden on its �Ten Most Wanted� list and offered a US$ 5 million reward for his capture.

5/6/1999, Saturday (+19,751)

3/6/1999, Thursday (+19,749) Yugoslav President Milosevic agreed to evacuate Kosovo, in favour of ethnic Albanians.

2/6/1999, Wednesday (+19,748) (1) Thabo Mbeki became President of South Africa.

(2) After decades of resisting external technological influences such as television, the King of Bhutan allowed TV broadcasts in the Kingdom for the first time, to coincide with his silver jubilee.

1/6/1999, Tuesday (+19,747) Napster was released, enabling users to share music files and changing forever the music industry.


27/5/1999, Thursday (+19,715)(1) In Israel, former Premier Binyamin Netanyahu resigned as leader of the opposition Right-wing Likud Party, and was replaced by Ariel Sharon.

(2) Nelson Mandela retired as President of South Africa. He was replaced by Thabo Mbeki.

26/5/1999, Wednesday (+19,741) (1) The first Welsh Assembly for 600 years opened in Cardiff.

(2) Indian air force planes attacked Pakistani intruders in Kashmir, sparking the Kargil War.

20/5/1999, Thursday (+19,735) Bluetooth was announced.

17/5/1999, Monday (+19,732) Ehud Barak was elected President of Israel.

13/5/1999, Thursday (+19,728) The World Trade Organisation, having condemned the EU ban on imports of hormone-treated beef, had set a deadline of this day for the EU to revoke the ban. This deadline was not met, see 12/8/1999.

12/5/1999, Wednesday (+19,727) Russian President Boris Yeltsin dismissed Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov, whose popularity had risen as he stabilised the economy. The Russian Duma (Parliament) discussed impeaching Yeltsin, but the witnesses they required failed to appear and the motion was lost. Sergei Stepashin became the new Prime Minister but see 9/8/1999.

11/5/1999, Tuesday (+19,726)

9/5/1999, Sunday (+19,724) Widespread protests in cities across China over the US accidental bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia.

8/5/1999, Saturday (+19,723) British film star Dirk Bogarde died, aged 78.

7/5/1999, Friday (+19,722) In Yugoslavia, three Chinese Embassy workers were killed and twenty wounded when a NATO aircraft mistakenly bombed the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

6/5/1999, Thursday (+19,721) Elections to the new Welsh and Scottish Assemblies were held. A large vote for the Nationalists in both countries prevented Labour from gaining a majority, and coalition Governments were formed.

5/5/1999, Wednesday (+19,720) Microsoft released Windows 98 Second edition.

3/5/1999, Monday (+19,718) A tornado in Oklahoma City registered the fastest winds so far recorded on Earth, at 318 mph.


30/4/1999, Friday (+19,715) (1) Cambodia joined the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), bringing the total number of members to ten.

(2) Another nail bomb exploded, (see 17/4/1999), in the Admiral Duncan pub in Old Compton Street, Soho, London.A pregnant woman and two friends were killed, and seventy injured.This was part of a hate campaign against gays and ethnic minorities by David Copeland.

28/4/1999, Wednesday (-19,713) Alf Ramsey, footballer, died (born 22/1/1920).

26/4/1999, Monday (+19,711) BBC TV presenter Jill Dando was shot dead on the doorstep of her Fulham house in London. Barry George, a loner obsessed with guns and celebrities, was convicted of the murder in 2001.

20/4/1999, Tuesday (+19,705) US teenagers Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold took two submachine guns to Columbine High School, for an attack planned for Hitler�s birthday. 15 children were killed or injured before the two killed themselves.

19/4/1999, Monday (+19,704) The German Parliament returned to the new Reichstag buildings in Berlin.

17/4/1999, Saturday (+19,702) A nail bomb exploded in a busy market in Brixton, south London.See 30/4/1999.

14/4/1999, Wednesday (+19,699) Following the Indian test, Pakistan also carried out a successful test of its ballistic missile.

12/4/1999, Monday (+19,697) Chancellor Gerhardt Schroder became leader of the German Social democratic Party ()SDP)

11/4/1999, Sunday (+19,696) India carried out a successful test of a ballistic missile.

9/4/1999, Friday (+19,694) The President of Niger, Ibrahim Bare Mainassara, was assassinated by his own guards. His Guard Commander, Major Douad Malam Wanke, took power.

6/4/1999, Tuesday (+19,691) The UK Government scrapped PEPs (Personal Equity Plans) in favour of ISAs (Individual Savings Accounts).

5/4/1999, Monday (+19,690) Two Libyans suspected of the bombing of a Pan Am flight over Lockerbie in 1988 were handed over to the Scottish authorities for eventual trial in The Netherlands.The UN suspended sanctions against Libya.

4/4/1999, Sunday (+19,689) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1999, Thursday (+19,686) (1) The UK introduced a National Minimum wage, of �3.60 an hour, or �3,00 for those aged 18-21.

(2) Nunavut, an Inuit homeland, part of the Northwest Territories, was formed.


26/3/1999, Friday (+19,680) The Melissa worm attacked the Internet.

25/3/1999, Thursday (+19,679) (1) The European Union adopted the Common Agricultural Policy, at a meeting in Berlin.

(2) A fire in the Mont Blanc road tunnel killed 39 people.The tunnel was closed for nearly three years.

24/3/1999, Wednesday (+19,678) (1) NATO launched air strikes against Yugoslavia.This was the first attack by NATO on a sovereign country. In Kosovo, there was escalating violence between Serbs and ethnic Albanians, and President Slobodan Milosevic was accused of ethnic cleansing, driving thousands of Albanians from their homes. NATO�s Operation Allied Force was to curb Serbian military activities.

(2) Britain�s trade deficit was at an all-time high of �2.8 billion.

22/3/1999, Monday (+19,676) Jack Kevorkian, pro-euthanasia doctor, went on trial for murder in Pontiac, Michigan.He was later convicted of second-degree murder.

20/3/1999, Saturday (+19,674) Serbs launched an offensive in Kosovo.

16/3/1999, Tuesday (+19,670) The 240-acre Bluewater Shopping centre opened near Dartford, Kent; it was then Europe�s largest retail and leisure centre. It stood on the site of the former Blue Circle chalk quarry.

12/3/1999, Friday (+19,666) Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic joined NATO.

8/3/1999, Monday (+19,662) Monica Lewisnky arrived in Britain for a book-signing tour, beginning at Harrods.


24/2/1999, Wednesday (+19,650) 38 died when two avalanches hit the Alpine town of Galtuer in Western Austria.

18/2/1999, Thursday (+19,644) The UK Government decided GM crops would not be grown commercially until field trials proved they were harmless.

15/2/1999, Monday (+19,641) Turkish agents in Kenya captured Kurdish separatist leader Abdullah Ocalan and took him to Turkey to stand trial. His supporters then planted bombs in Turkey, in 3/1999.

12/2/1999, Friday (+19,638) (USA) President Clinton was acquitted at his impeachment trial.

9/2/1999, Tuesday (+19,635) The last Khmer Rouge troops in Cambodia surrendered to Government forces.

7/2/1999, Sunday (+19,633) King Hussein of Jordan (born 1935) died of cancer.His son became King Adbullah II of Jordan.

5/2/1999, Friday (+19,631) The Russian economist Wassily Leontief, Nobel Prize winner, born 1906, died.


25/1/1999, Monday (+19,620) A magnitude 6.0 earthquake hit western California, killing over 1,000 people.

20/1/1999, Wednesday (+19,615) China announced restrictions on Internet use, aimed especially at Internet cafes.

18/1/1999, Monday (+19,613) Canaan Banana, former President of Zimbabwe, was convicted in absentia of sodomy and sentenced to 10 years prison/ However he had already fled the country.

15/1/1999, Friday (+19,610) (Yugoslavia) Massacre at Racak, Kosovo, during the Yugoslav civil war.

10/1/1999, Sunday (+19,605) Robert Mugabe arrested 32 soldiers and accused them of plotting a coup, along with two journalists. There were doubts over the validity of this legal process.

7/1/1999, Thursday (+19,602) The impeachment trial of US President Bill Clinton began in Washington DC

6/1/1999, Wednesday (+19,601) Four days of border fighting began between Ethiopia and Eritrea.

3/1/1999, Sunday (+19,598) (Space exploration) The USA launched the MPL probe, to investigate the surface of Mars.

1/1/1999, Friday (+19,596) The Euro currency was introduced. 11 countries adopted it.


18/12/1998, Friday (+19,582) In the US, the House of Representatives voted to impeach President Clinton.

16/12/1998, Wednesday (+19,580) Unscom withdrew weapons inspectors from Iraq after continued obstruction from visiting various sites. Between 16 and 19 December, US and Britain bombed Iraq(Operation Desert Fox) to destroy its nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons programmes.

11/12/1998, Friday (+19,575) (Space exploration) The Mars Climate Orbiter was launched from Cape Canaveral; the craft was later lost because one team was using metric and another using imperial measurements.


26/11/1998, Thursday (+19,560) (1) Japan and China signed a joint declaration of friendship and economic development.

(2) Tony Blair became the first UK Prime Minister to address the Irish Parliament.

23/11/1998, Monday (+19,557) European Agriculture Ministers met to lift the ban on UK beef exports that had followed the BSE crisis.

20/11/1998, Friday (+19,554) (Space exploration) The first launch of the components for the International Space Station.

19/11/1998, Thursday (+19,553) The US Senate began impeachment proceedings against President Bill Clinton over the Monica Lewinsky affair.President Clinton was impeached on 19/12/1998.

1/11/1998, Sunday (+19,535) The European Court of Human Rights was instituted.


31/10/1998, Saturday (+19,534) Iraq ceased all co-operation with the UN Special Commission which was set up to oversee the destruction of Iraq�s Weapons of Mass Destruction (Unscom).

29/10/1998, Thursday (+19,532) (Space exploration) John Glenn, US astronaut, returned to space.

28/10/1998, Wednesday (+19,531) Ted Hughes, Poet Laureate since 1984, died.

24/10/1998, Saturday (+19,527) (Space exploration) The USA launched the Deep Space ion propulsion space probe.

18/10/1998, Sunday (+19,521) 700 people died in a fire in southern Nigeria as they scavenged oil leaking from a pipeline.

17/10/1998, Saturday (+19,520) US Airways placed a record-sized order for 276 Airbus A319s.

16/10/1998, Friday (+19,519) British police placed Augusto Pinochet under house arrest during his medical treatment in Britain. Spain wanted to charge him with crimes of murder and torture.

14/10/1998, Wednesday (+19,517) Labour announced its intention to remove the 700 year old voting rights of the hereditary peers in the House of Lords. Of the 1,165 members of the House of Lords, 476 were committed Tories against 175 for Labour, Amongst the hereditary peers, there were 304 for the Tories against 18 regular Labour supporters. In 1999 Labour announced a compromise whereby 91 hereditary peers could remain in a �transition� House of Lords, whilst a Royal Commission decided its eventual form.

5/10/1998, Monday (+19,508) The US Congressional Committee debated whether to impeach president Clinton overt the Monica Lewinsky affair, over allegations he had abused power and tampered with witnesses.

3/10/1998, Saturday (+19,506)Al Qaeda joined with local Somali tribesmen in battle with US forces, and shot down two US helicopters, an incident known as �Black Hawk Down�.


29/9/1998, Tuesday (+19,502) (1) New Zealand scientists announced that the Ozone Hole had grown to 28 million square km.

(2) The US passed the Iraq Liberation Act, stating the US intention to remove Saddam Hussein from power and replace his regime with a democratic government.

27/9/1998, Sunday (+19,500) In German Parliamentary elections, the governing Centre-Right CDU/CSU-FDP coalition lost its overall majority. Gerhardt Schroder became Chancellor at the head of a �red-green� coalition of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and the Greens.

24/9/1998, Thursday (+19,497) Tehran lifted the fatwa imposed on author Salman Rushdie for his book The Satanic Verses.

18/9/1998, Friday (+19.491) ICANN, the Internet naming company, was formed.

16/9/1998, Wednesday (+19,489) The Basque guerrilla group ETA announced a �total and indefinite ceasefire� to take effect from 18/9/1998

11/9/1998, Friday (+19,484) In the US, the Starr Report into the Monica Lewinsky affair concluded that President Clinton had committed 11 impeachable offences.

7/9/1998, Monday (+19,480) Google was founded.

2/9/1998, Wednesday (+19,475) Swissair flight 111, flying from New York to Geneva, crashed into the Atlantic, killing all 229 on board.


31/8/1998, Monday (+10,473) (1) North Korea test-fired a ballistic weapon over Japan as a show of strength. There were fears that North Korea was covertly building nuclear weapons.

(2) As the Russian Rouble collapsed in value, Boris Yeltsin tried to reinstate Viktor Chernomyrdin as Prime Minister. However the Russian Duma (Parliament) blocked this.Eventually Yevgeny Primakov became Prime Minister.

22/8/1998, Saturday (+19,464) (Football) Madjeski Stadium, home of Reading Football Club, opened. It was named after the Club�s Chairman, John Madjeski.

21/8/1998, Friday (+19,463) In South Africa, former President PW Botha was fined and given a suspended prison sentence for contempt of court. He had refused to testify before the Government�s truth and Reconciliation Commission, which was examining misdeeds committed during the Apartheid era.

20/8/1998, Thursday (+19,462) The USA launched attacks against the Al Shifa pharmaceuticals and chemical plantin Sudan and cruise missile attacks against Al Quaeda bases in Afghanistan in retaliation for the 7/8/1998 embassy bombs.

17/8/1998, Monday (+19,459) President Bill Clinton gave evidence to a Grand Jury about his affair with Monica Lewinsky. He admitted to �inappropriate physical contact� with Monica Lewinsky and apologised for misleading people, including his wife.

15/8/1998, Saturday (+19,457) The Real IRA detonated a car bomb in Omagh, County Tyrone, killing 29 and injuring over 200.

13/8/1998, Thursday (+19,455) UK authorities warned of a rat invasion, saying there were 750,000 rat-infested homes in Britain.

7/8/1998. Friday (+19,449) (1) Osama Bin Laden�s Al-Qaeda terrorists bombed the USA embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, killing 224 people, and wounding over 4,000.

(2) The Yangtse River in China flooded, killing 12,000 people.

5/8/1998, Wednesday (+19,447) Iraq suspended all co-operation with UNSCOM officials.

3/8/1998, Monday (+19,445) The Taleban took Mazar-e-Sharif, the last city outside their control.


31/7/1998, Friday (+19,442) Serbian forces now occupied the whole of Kosovo, displacing some 100,000 ethnic Albanians.

30/7/1998, Thursday (+19,441) The conviction of Derek Bentley fir the murder of a policeman in 1952 was posthumously rescinded; Bentley was hanged in 1953.

23/7/1998, Thursday (+19,434) A team of scientists at the University of Hawaii, led by Ryuzo Yanagimachi, announced they had produced three generations of cloned mice.

15/7/1998, Wednesday (+19,426) Orangemen were forcibly removed from their positions in Northern Ireland, following a week long standoff which ensued when they had tried to march down the predominantly Catholic Garvahy Road, Portadown, on the Orange day Parades of 6/7/1998, This event had triggered a week of violence across Northern Ireland.

7/7/1998, Tuesday (+19,418) German car manufacturer Volkswagen AG agreed to pay compensation to those who were used as slave labour during World War Two.

6/7/1998, Monday (+19,417) The new airport at Chek Lai Kok, Hong Kong, opened.

1/7/1998, Wednesday (+19,412) 500g of streaky bacon cost �2.10500g of beef cost �1.99.250g of cheddar cheese cost �1.25.250g of butter cost 85p.500g of margarine cost 83p.1 kg old potatoes cost 77p.125g of loose tea cost 76p.�� 6 eggs cost 76p.1 kg granulated sugar cost 67p.800g sliced white bread cost 52p. The average UK house price was �65,201.


25/6/1998, Thursday (+19,406) Microsoft released Windows 98 (first edition).

23/6/1998, Tuesday (+19,404) (Education, Schools) In Britain, Labour Education and Employment Secretary David Blunkett announced plans for a �75 million joint business and Government initiative for 25 �education action zones�. Schools, in these zones of poor educational performance, would experiment with longer teaching hours and more use of IT.

22/6/1998, Monday (+19,403) Tony Blair praised the �758 million London Millennium Dome, erected on a former gasworks site, as a �symbol of Britain�s creativity.

16/6/1998, Tuesday (+19,397) The Taleban closed down the last girl�s school in the territory they controlled. This territory expanded in the next 2 months.

12/6/1998, Friday (+19,393) (Brazil) Transpetro, the largest oil and gas pipeline transportation company in Brazil, was established.

11/6/1998, Thursday (+19,392) The UN officially declared a famine in Ethiopia, as one million faced starvation.

10/6/1998, Wednesday (+19,391) (Education, Schools) In Britain, the Government started a programme to promote laptop use by schoolchildren, called Anytime Anywhere Learning.

8/6/1998, Monday (+19,389) (1) Nigerian dictator General Abacha died suddenly.

(2) (Aviation) British Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott announced plans for the privatisation of Britain�s Air Traffic Control.


30/5/1998, Saturday (+19,380) (1) Pakistan conducted further nuclear tests.

(2) A magnitude 6.6 earthquake hit northern Afghanistan, killing 5,000 people.

28/5/1998, Thursday (+19,378) Pakistan test-exploded five nuclear devices in retaliation for India�s nuclear tests earlier in the month.The US, Japan, and other nations imposed sanctions on Pakistan.

25/5/1998, Monday (+19,375) Serbia launched a major offensive against the secessionist Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), which then held some 40% of Kosovo.

24/5/1998, Sunday (+19,374) In the first legislative elections in Hong Kong since China took control, pro-democracy Parties took 60% of the vote.

23/5/1998, Saturday (+19,373)

22/5/1998, Friday (+19,372) Voters approved the Good Friday Agreement of 10/4/1998 by a majority of 71.12%, in Northern Ireland and by 94.39% in the Republic of Ireland.

21/5/1998, Thursday (+19,371) President Suharto of Indonesia resigned as the country�s economy worsened. He had ruled since 1967/ he was replaced by Bacharuddin Habibie.

19/5/1998, Tuesday (+19,369)

18/5/1998, Monday (+19,368) In Britain, the New Labour Government announced that the new Minimum Wage would be �3.60 per hour, coming into force in April 1999.

17/5/1998, Sunday (+19,367) In Israel, Binyamin Netanyahu lost Prime Ministerial elections to the Labour Party under Ehud Barak.

16/5/1998, Saturday (+19,366)

15/5/1998, Friday (+19,365) Frank Sinatra died.

14/5/1998, Thursday (+19,364) The US sitcom Seinfeld was first broadcast.

13/5/1998, Wednesday (+19,363) The US and Japan imposed economic sanctions on India because of its nuclear test.

12/5/1993, Tuesday (+19,362)

11/5/1998, Monday (+19,361) India conducted a nuclear test in the Rajasthan Desert, its first such test since 1974.Pakistan, which already had nuclear weapons, was angered.

10/5/1998, Sunday (+19,360) Members of Sinn Fein, political wing of the IRA, voted to accept the Good Friday peace agreement.

8/5/1998, Friday (+19,358) The US Department of Justice filed a lawsuit against the Microsoft Corporation, claiming it had abused its monopoly power by tying its Web browser, Internet Explorer, to its operating system, Windows.

4/5/1998, Monday (+19,354) Theodore Kaczynski, the Unabomber, received 4 life sentences.

3/5/1998, Sunday (+19,353) The EU confirmed that the new Eurozone, or European Monetary Union, would start from 1/1/1999. 11 countries, all the EU members except Britain, Denmark, Sweden and Greece, would be part of it.

2/5/1998, Saturday (+19,352)

1/5/1998, Friday (+19,351) The former Rwandan Prime Minister, Jean Kambanda, pleaded guilty at The Hague to six counts of genocide, at the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.


30/4/1998, Thursday (+19,350) The US Senate voted to admit Hungary, Poland and the Czech republic to NATO.

29/4/1998, Wednesday (+19,349) Yugoslav Government foreign assets were frozen by the West.

20/4/1998, Monday (+19,340) In Germany, the Red Army Faction announced that it was ceasing operations and winding up, as it no longer had a political reason to exist.

17/4/1998, Friday (+19,337) A satellite detected that a 200 square km piece of the Larsen B ice shelf had broken off. Global Warming was blamed.

15/4/1998, Wednesday (+19,335) Pol Pot died, aged 70. He had been dictator of Kampuchea (Cambodia), and murdered thousands of people.

12/4/1998, Sunday (+19,332) Easter Sunday.

11/4/1998, Saturday (+19,331) The worst floods for 50 years hit central and southern England, killing 5 people and causing �500 million damage.

10/4/1998, Friday (+19,330) The Good Friday agreement was signed. Two years of negotiation produced an agreement on plans for a Northern Ireland Assembly and cross-border co-operation with the Irish Republic. A referendum for the proposals was scheduled for May 1998.

2/4/1998, Thursday (+19,322) In Bordeaux, France, Maurice Papon was convicted of complicity in Nazi crimes against humanity committed under the Vichy regime., He was sentenced to 10 years prison.


31/3/1998, Tuesday (+19,320) (1) The New Zealand Government introduced a Bill to compensate the Maori Ngai Tahu people for land stolen from them in the 1800s.

(2) The RAF withdrew its nuclear bombs from service, leaving submarine-based Trident missiles as the UK�s only nuclear deterrent.

(3) The UN Security Council imposed an arms embargo on Yugoslavia to force President Milosevic to negotiate a a peaceful settlement with the Kosovan Albanians.

25/3/1998, Wednesday (+19,314) (Earthquake) A magnitude 8.1 earthquake was recorded in Antarctica, near Balleny Island. This was not attributable to fault activity and may have been caused by glacial rebound.

23/3/1998, Monday (+19,312) (1) Russian President Boris Yeltsin dismissed his entire Cabinet. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin was replaced by 35-year-old Sergei Kiriyenko.

(2) Sinn Fein was readmitted to Northern Ireland peace talks.

14/3/1998, Saturday (+19,303) A magnitude 6.9 earthquake hit south eastern Iran.

10/3/1998, Tuesday (+19,299) Former dictator of Chile, Augusto Pinochet, stepped down as Chief of the Armed Forces and became Senator for life. On 16/10/1998, on a visit to London he was arrested when Spain wanted to charge him, but he was released on grounds of ill-health on 18/2/2000.

6/3/1998, Friday (+19,295) The South Crofty tin mine closed, the last tin mine in Cornwall. The 800 metre deep mine had bee operating since the 16th century and tin had been mined on Cornwall for 3,000 years. In 1983 the tin industry in Cornwall had employed 20,000, but the collapse in world tin prices had ruined the industry.

5/3/1998, Thursday (+19,294) The NASA Satellite Lunar Prospector discovered ice beneath the lunar surface at the South Pole.

4/3/1998, Wednesday (+19,293) (Britain) The Countryside March was held, as 250,000 people marched through central London to protest at issues facing the UK countryside. Points of protest included the ban on hunting with dogs and Government policies on farming.

3/3/1998, Tuesday (+19,292) Panggih Prio Sembodho, Indonesian footballer, was born.

2/3/1998, Monday (+19,291) Data sent from the Galileo probe indicated that Jupiter�s Moon Europa had an ocean of liquid water beneath a frozen crust of ice.

1/3/1998, Sunday (+19,290) (1) Serbia sent paramilitary forces into its southern province of Kosovo to seek out ethnic Albanian guerrillas. Serb forces attacked Albanian villages, killing men, women and children. On 2/3/1998 there was a 50,000-strong anti-Serb demonstration in the Kosovan capital, Pristina.

(2) 250,000 pro-foxhunting demonstrators marched through the centre of London.


23/2/1998, Monday (+19,284) Osama bin Laden issued a fatwa from Afghanistan calling for Muslims to kill Americans anywhere, and to liberate Jerusalem from Westerners.

14/2/1998, Saturday (+19,275) In Northern Ireland, police accused the IRA of two murders. The IRA�s political wing, Sinn Fein, was suspended from peace talks.

13/2/1998, Friday (+19,274) (1) In Sierra Leone a Nigerian-led force of West African peacekeepers overthrew the military government of Major Johnny Paul Koroma and reinstated President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah.

(2) In Australia, delegates at a Constitutional Convention in Canberra voted 89 to 52 to replace The Queen as Head of State by a President chosen by a bipartisan Parliamentary majority. They decided to have a Referendum in 1999 on this change.

10/2/1998, Tuesday (+19,271) Voters in Maine repealed a gay rights law made in 1997, becoming the first US State to abandon such a law.

4/2/1998, Wednesday (+19,265) A 6.1 magnitude earthquake hit north-east Afghanistan, killing over 5,000 people.

3/2/1998, Tuesday (+19,264) The FTSE 100 closed at a record high of 5612.8; the companies on the index were valued at over UK� 1,000 billion for the first time ever.


29/1/1998, Thursday (+19,259) (1) Tony Blair announced an inquiry into the �Bloody Sunday� events in Londonderry on 30/1/1972.

(2) Shell announced that Brent Spar would be disposed of on shore, and used as the foundations for a new ferry terminal.

27/1/1998, Tuesday (+19,257) (Military) In response to w worldwide movement against landmines, the Uk Government said it would destroy its stocks of these weapons.

21/1/1998, Wednesday (+19,251) US President Clinton denied he had any sexual relationship with 24-year-old White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. Rumours had circulated in the Press of an 18-month affair in 1995. There were allegations that Clinton had asked Lewinsky to lie under oath and deny any affair with him.

19/1/1998, Monday (+19,249) Food riots broke out in Zimbabwe as the price of maize meal rose by over 20%. Land confiscations and general mismanagement by Mugabe had crippled the economy. Despite government repression, there was a General Strike 3-4March 1998.

16/1/1998, Friday (+19,246) For safety reasons, Russia closed own over 200 small airlines that had started up since 1992. 315 airlines were pared down to just 53.

15/1/1998, Thursday (+19,245) (Smoking, USA) Five cigarette manufacturers agreed a settlement with the State of Texas for US$ 7.25 billion in compensation for the treatment costs of tobacco-related diseases. This was the largest payment in history. However this settlement was dwarfed on 20/11/1998 by a settlement of US$206 billion by the 4 largest US tobacco firms to agree claims by all US States.

10/1/1998, Saturday (+19,240) An earthquake in China killed 50 and injured 10,000.

8/1/1998, Thursday (+19,238) Scientists announced that the expansion rate of the universe was increasing.

7/1/1998, Wednesday (+19,237) In Canada, the Minister of Indian Affairs, Jane Stewart, officially apologised to indigenous Americans and Inuit people for centuries of mistreatment and injustice.

6/1/1998, Tuesday (+19,236) (Space exploration) The USA launched the Lunar Prospector space probe, to map the lunar surface.

5/1/1998, Monday (+10,235) Kenya�s President, Daniel Arap Moi, who had ruled since 1978, was sworn in for a further 5-year term.

3/1/1998, Saturday (+19,233)

1/1/1998, Thursday (+19,231) California banned smoking in all its bars and restaurants.


31/12/1997, Wednesday (+19,230) The US retail chain Wal-Mart announced its intention to expand into Europe, by acquiring the German retailer Werkauf with its 21 supermarkets.

29/12/1997, Monday (+19,228) Violence marred elections in Kenya. President Arap Moi won a further term, in elections widely seen as flawed.

24/12/1997, Wednesday (+19,223) A violent storm began in Britain, with 80 mph winds in southern England, killing 13 people. The storm ended on 26/12/1997, but another storm on 3-4 January 1998 hit the UK, with winds up to 100 mph, killing 2 people.

23/12/1997, Tuesday (+19,222) Venezuelan terrorist Carlos the Jackal was sentenced to life imprisonment, after being arrested in Sudan.

17/12/1997, Wednesday (+19,216) In South Africa, Thabo Mbeki became President of the Africa National Congress (ANC), However Nelson Mandela remained as the national President.

11/12/1997, Thursday (+19,210) At the Kyoto Climate Conference, delegates agreed to reduce CO2 emissions by 5.2% of 1990 levels by 2012.

7/12/1997, Sunday (+19,206) Billy Bremner, footballer, died (born 9/12/1942).

3/12/1997, Wednesday (+19,202) (Food) UK Agriculture Secretary Jack Cunningham announced a ban on sales of beef on the bone as a measure against BSE causing CJD in humans,


28/11/1997, Friday (+19,197) In India the Congress Party withdrew from the coalition, which then collapsed.

17/11/1997, Monday (+19,186) The terrorist group Jamaat al Islamiyah massacred 58 foreign tourists and 4 Egyptians at Luxor.

9/11/1997, Sunday (+19,178) (Broadcasting) BBC1 began broadcasting 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Previously TV had closed down at night.

8/11/1997, Saturday (+19,177) The main channel of China�s Yangtze River was blocked as construction work continued on the Three Gorges Dam.


29/10/1997, Wednesday (+19,167) Iraq banned UN weapons inspectors from its territory.

21/10/1997, Tuesday (+19,159) Elton John�s �Candle in the Wind�, a tribute to Diana Princess of Wales, sold 31.8 million copies, the best seller ever.

15/10/1997, Wednesday (+19,153) (1) Andy Green drove the land vehicle, Thrust SSC,at faster than sound, in the Nevada Desert. He achieved 763.035 mph, and produced a sonic boom.

(2) The Cassini space probe was launched. It plunged into the planet�s atmosphere to destruction on 15/9/2017.

13/10/1997, Monday (+19,151) Tony Blair shook hands with Gerry Adams at Stormont Castle, the first meeting between a British Prime Minister and a SinnFein leader since the signing of the Anglo-Irish treaty in 1921.

9/10/1997, Thursday (+19,147) Hurricane Pauline hit Acapulco, Mexico, killing 250 people.

2/10/1997, Thursday (+19,140) (1) (European Union) The treaty of Amsterdam was signed, further integrating the European Union.

(2) (Food) UK scientists Moira Bruce and (independently) John Collinge proved that new-variant brain disease CJD in humans was the same as BSE in cows.

1/10/1997, Wednesday (+19,139) Fiji was readmitted to the Commonwealth. It had been expelled in 1987 because of discriminatory legislation against Indians.


27/9/1997, Saturday (+19,135) The Pathfinder probe on Mars ceased functioning, after 2 months on the planet�s surface.

25/9/1997, Thursday (+19,133) The British Thrust supersonic car set a new world land speed record of 714.1 mph in Nevada.

19/9/1997, Friday (+19,127) An inter-city express collided with a freight train at Southall, west London, killing 7 people.

18/9/1997, Thursday (+19,126) Wales voted in favour of devolution and a National Assembly. The �yes� vote was much narrower than in Scotland, with a majority of just 6,721 votes in favour.

15/9/1997, Monday (+19,123)

12/9/1997, Friday (+19,120) Jiang Zemin was confirmed as Chinese Communist party general secretary by the Party�s 15th Congress. The liberalising policies started by the late Deng Xiaoping were to continue.

11/9/1997, Thursday (+19,119) Scotland voted in favour of a devolved Assembly. In Scotland, 73.4% of those voting favoured a National Assembly, and 63.5% favoured the Assembly having tax-raising powers.

8/9/1997, Monday (+19,116) The Boeing 777-300 was unveiled. It was 77 metres long, the longest aircraft to date.

6/9/1997, Saturday (+19,114) Funeral of Diana Princess of Wales in Westminster Abbey.It was watched on television worldwide by over one billion people.

5/9/1997, Friday (+19,113) Mother Teresa died in Kolkata (Calcutta), India, aged 87.


31/8/1997, Sunday (+19,108) Death of Diana, Princess of Wales, born 1961, along with Dodi Al Fayed, born 1955, in a car �accident� in a road tunnel in Paris. See 28/8/1996.

29/8/1997, Friday (+19,106) In London, work began on the Millennium Dome.

27/8/1997, Wednesday (+19,104) Norway and Sweden admitted that, between 1934 and 1967, they sterilised thousands of people deemed �substandard�, including the disabled.

15/8/1997, Friday (+19,092) Oklahoma bomber Timothy McVeigh was sentenced to die by lethal injection. He had killed 168 people.

2/8/1997, Saturday (+19,086) US writer William Burroughs died.

1/8/1997, Friday (+19,085) Sbviatoslav Richter, Russian pianist, died.


30/7/1997, Wednesday (+19,076) Hamas suicide bombers killed 13 in Jerusalem. Peace talks were jeopardised as Israel took retributive action against the Palestinian economy.

23/7/1997, Wednesday (+19,069) (1) Slobodan Milosevic became president of �Yugoslavia� (by then consisting of just Serbia and Montenegro).

(2) (Education, University) The UK Government announced plans to start charging university students �1,000.

19/7/1997, Saturday (+19,065) The IRA announced a new ceasefire, the second in three years. It said this was the �unequivocal restoration of the August 1994 ceasefire�, broken in February 1996.

17/7/1997, Thursday (+19,063) The global Internet system crashed for the first time.

15/7/1997, Tuesday (+19,061) Gianni Versace, clothes designer, was shot dead at the age of 50. The chief suspect was Andrew Cunanan, a gay serial killer; the FBI believed Versace was shot in revenge for infecting other men with HIV. Cunanan was found dead on a houseboat at Miami Beach, having committed suicide when the police arrived. However there were rumours of a mafia money-laundering connection, and that Cunanan had been killed to hide the true killer�s identity.

14/7/1997, Monday (+19,060) (1) In India KR Narayanan was elected President. He was the first President to come from the �untouchable� caste.

(2) In California a Bill was signed allowing women to breast feed in public.

8/7/1997, Tuesday (+19,054) NATO invited the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland to join the alliance.

4/7/1997, Friday (+19,050) NASA�s Pathfinder probe landed on the surface of Mars.

3/7/1997, Thursday (+19,049) Sir Gordon Downey�s report into the �cash for questions� scandal in the found that two former Conservative ministers, Neil Hamilton and Tim Smith, received payment from Mohammed el Fayed in return for asking questions in the House of Commons.

2/7/1997, Wednesday (+19,048) (1) The British Medical Association announced that drugs derived from cannabis were to be made legally available for cancer patients and others suffering from debilitating diseases.

(2) Gordon Brown, Chancellor of the Exchequer, gave Labour�s first Budget speech for 18 years.

(3) (SE Asia) The Thai Baht abruptly fell 25% overnight, as the East Asian Crisis got underway.

1/7/1997, Tuesday (+19,047) (1) Hong Kong was handed back to China.

(2) A pint of milk cost 35p.A dozen large eggs cost �1.59.A loaf of white sliced bread cost 52p.A kg of minced beef cost �3.72.A kg of potatoes cost 20p.A kg of apples cost 51p.A pint of beer cost �1.63.20 cigarettes cost �2.94. Road tax for a car cost �145. The average UK house price was �58,403. A 6-bed house in Wimbledon cost �775,000 (13.27 x average). 2 weeks in Lucerne cost �815. A ,man�s watch cost �29.50. The Observer newspaper cost �1.00.


30/6/1997, Monday (+19,046) The first book in the award-winning Harry Potter series by J K Rowling was published.

28/6/1997, Saturday (+19,044)

26/6/1997, Thursday (+19,042) In Ireland (see 6/6/1997), Bertie Ahern of Fianna Fail formed a coalition with the Progressive Democrats, replacing John Bruton as Taoiseach (Prime Minister).

25/6/1997, Wednesday (+19,041) Jacques Cousteau, French underwater explorer, died.

19/6/1997, Thursday (+19,035) (1) Following the resignation of John Major as Conservative leader, William Hague, 36, became its youngest leader since 1783.

(2) The fast food chain McDonalds won a partial victory in its McLibel case against two environmental campaigners.The judge derided it was true that McDonalds targeted its advertising at children, who then pestered their parents to visit McDonalds.

12/6/1997, Thursday (+19,028) The new Globe Theatre, London, opened.

11/6/1997, Wednesday (+19,027) The UK Parliament voted for a total ban on handguns.

6/6/1997, Friday (+19,022) In general elections in the Republic of Ireland, no Party won a majority, see 26/6/1997. 2/6/1997, Monday (+19,018) (1) Alban Maginness of the SDLP became the first Catholic to be elected Mayor of Belfast.

(2) Timothy McVeigh was convicted on 15 charges of murder and conspiracy for his role in the 1995 terrorist bombing of the Alfred P Murragh building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.On 13/6/1997 he was sentenced to death.

(3) In Canada the governing Liberal Party of Prime Minister Jean Chretien narrowly won general elections.

1/6/1997, Sunday (+19,017) The Socialist Party won French elections starting a period of �cohabitation� (cooperation) between a Left-wing Parliament and a Right-wing President. Socialist leader Lionel Jospin became Prime Minister.


29/5/1997, Thursday (+19,014) NATO and Ukraine signed an agreement on mutual co-operation and security, similar to the one signed with Russia on 27/5/1997.

27/5/1997, Tuesday (+19,012) NATO and Russia signed the Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security.

25/5/1997, Sunday (+19,010) In Sierra Leone, the civilian Government of Ahmed Kebbah was ousted in a coup. Major Johnny Paul Koroma replaced him. Other African States warned they may use force to reinstate civilian rule.

23/5/1997, Friday (+19,008) (1) Russia and Belarus agreed a Union Charter, aimed at eventual union between the two countries.

(2) In Iran, Hojjat al-Islam Seyyed Khatami was elected President. He won a landslide victory gaining 22 million out of 30 million votes.

20/5/1997, Tuesday (+19,005) The British intelligence agency MI5 first advertised to recruit trainee spies, in The Times and The Guardian.

16/5/1997, Friday (+19,001) In Zaire, the Mobutu regime collapsed. Rebel forces under Laurent Kabila had captured the capital, Kinshasa. Mobutu fled the country, which was renamed as the Democratic Republic of Congo.

12/5/1997, Monday (+18,997) Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed a peace treaty with President Aslan Maskhadov of Chechnya. Both sides agreed to renounce the use of force, but Chechnya�s eventual status remained unresolved.

10/5/1997, Saturday (+18,995) An earthquake near Ardekul, north east Iran, killed over 2,400 people.

7/5/1997, Wednesday (+18,992) The International war Crimes Tribunal in The Hagueconvicted Dusan Tadic, a Bosnian Serb reserve policeman, of war crimes committed during the Bosnian War. This was the first such conviction since World War Two.

6/5/1997, Tuesday (+18,991) Labour Chancellor Gordon Brown granted the Bank of England independence in setting interest rates.

5/5/1997, Monday (+18,990) (Space exploration) The USA launched the Iridium satellites, for global communications.

3/5/1997, Saturday (+18,988) (1) Tony Blair was officially sworn in as Prime Minister. Tony�s father was the son of music hall artists Charles Parsons and Gussie Bridson. He was illegitimate however, so was adopted by a Glasgow shipyard worker, James Blair.

(2) The former Deputy Prime Minister, Michael Heseltine, was admitted to hospital with chest pains days after the General Election. It was announced that he would not be contesting the Conservative leadership.

1/5/1997, Thursday (+18,986) (1) New Labour won the UK general election, defeating John Major�s Conservative Party. Tony Blair, 43, became the youngest Prime Minister since 1812, with a majority of 179. Labour won 410 seats against the Conservative�s 169. Labour won 44.4% of the vote; the Conservatives got 31.4%. The Conservative administration had, at 18 years, been the longest serving government of the 20th century.

(2) Tasmania became the last Australian State to decriminalise homosexuality.


25/4/1997, Friday (+18,980) The UN Security Council voted 4-1 against the new Israeli building in east Jerusalem (see 18/3/1997), but the US vetoed the Resolution.

23/4/1997, Wednesday (+18,978) (Russia) In Moscow, Chinese President Jiang Zemin met Russian President Boris Yeltsin. They called for a pluralistic world order where no one nation was dominant.

22/4/1997, Tuesday (+18.977) The siege of the Japanese Embassy in Peru by Tupac Amaru guerrillas was ended violently by government troops. 14 guerrillas and one Japanese citizen were killed; the remaining 71 hostages were rescued. The guerrillas wanted the release of 440 of their comrades.

21/4/1997, Monday (+18,976) In Algeria, Islamists massacred 93 at a farming community at Baouch Bouchelef-Khemisti.

20/4/1997, Sunday (+18,975) In India the minority 13-Party United Front Government led by HD Deve Gowda fell when the Congress party withdrew support. A new United Front government was formed with Congress party backing under former Foreign Minister Kumar Gujral.

18/4/1997, Friday (+18,973)

15/4/1997, Tuesday (+18,970) A fire in a tent camp at the Haj in Mecca killed 340 and injured over 1,500.

14/4/1997, Monday (+18,969) Former Nazi SS Captain Eric Priebke was retried; on 22/7/1997 he was sentenced to 5 years in prison.

13/4/1997, Sunday (+18,968) (1) An Italian-led UN public order force arrived in Albania. It was to lay the ground for elections in 6/1997.

(2) 21 year old Tiger Woods became the youngest ever winner of the US Masters.

9/4/1997, Wednesday (+18,964) In Zaire, Tutsi rebel forces under Laurent Kabila captiured the key town of Lubumbashi.

6/4/1997, Sunday (+18,961) In Algeria, Islamists massacred 52 people in the village of Thalit, near Algiers.


31/3/1997, Monday (+18,955) The Pioneer space probe ended its useful life 6 billion miles from Earth.

30/3/1997, Sunday (+18,954) Easter Sunday. In Britain, Channel Five was launched.

26/3/1997, Wednesday (+18,950) Two IRA bombs exploded near Wilmslow railway station, injuring no-one.

23/3/1997, Sunday (+19,047) Comet Hale-Bopp made its closest approach to Earth, 196 million km away.

22/3/1997, Saturday (+18,946) Tara Lipinski, aged 14, became the youngest ever world women�s figure skating champion.

18/3/1997, Tuesday (+18,942) Palestinians, already angry at the slow pace of Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank, were further enraged when a new Jewish building project began in Arab east Jerusalem. See 25/4/1997.

7/3/1997, Friday (+18,931) Albania dissolved into chaos, and military firearms depots were looted.


28/2/1997, Friday (+18,924) Major earthquake in NW Iran, close to the Azerbaijan border.

27/2/1997, Thursday (+18,923) (1) In Britain a discredited and divided Tory party lost its Parliamentary majority with a by-election defeat in Wirral. This was a prelude to their defeat by New Labour in general elections on 1/5/1997.

(2) (Ireland, Women�s Rights) Divorce became legal in Ireland.

26/2/1997, Wednesday (+18,922)

25/2/1997, Tuesday (+18,921) Tiit Vahi, Prime Ministe4r of Estonia, resigned following a corruption scandal, he was replaced by Mart Siiman.

24/2/1997, Monday (+18,920) The cloned sheep, Dolly, was presented to the public. She had been cloned from a single cell of her mother at the Royal Institute in Edinburgh. There was moral panic about the possibility of cloning humans, but some saw it as a useful way to create organs for transplant.

23/1/1997, Sunday (+18,919) Following the discovery of Nazi gold in Swiss banks, the Swiss Government established a fund to compensate Holocaust victims.

19/2/1997, Wednesday (+18,915) The last of the Chinese revolutionaries, Deng Xiaoping, died aged 92 (born 1904); weeks of mourning followed.

17/2/1997, Monday (+18,913) The Pakistan Muslim league won general elections. Nawaz Sharif became prime Minister.

12/2/1997, Wednesday (+18,908) (Space exploration) Japan launched the Haruka satellite, for radio astronomy observations.

11/2/1997, Tuesday (+18,907) A week of rioting in the southern Albanian towns of Fier and Vlore had ensued, following the collapse of high-risk pyramid schemes into which many Albanians had invested. The protestors believed that the Government of Sali Berisha was to blame for the collapse.

10/2/1997, Monday (+18,906) State of Emergency was declared in Albania as mass rioting broke out when a pyramid savings scheme collapsed.

4/2/1997, Tuesday (+18,900) President Milosevic of Serbia ordered his Government to recognise Opposition gains in the local elections held 11/1996.


30/1/1997, Thursday (+18,895) An underground protest came to an end as the last protestor, known as Swampy, emerged from a tunnel under the proposed A.30.

24/1/1997, Friday (+18,889) The Archers celebrated its 12,000th episode. The Radio 4 series drew an average of 4.5 million listeners each week.

22/1/1997, Wednesday (+18,887) Madeleine Albright became the first female US Secretary of State after confirmation of her appointment by the US Senate.

20/1/1997, Monday (+18,885) President Clinton began his second term of office.

19/1/1997, Sunday (+18,884) Yasser Arafat returned to Hebron after an absence of over 30 years.There were major celebrations as the Israelis handed over the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city.

15/1/1997, Wednesday (+18,880) A belated agreement for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the West bank city of Hebron was signed by PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu. However Arab-Israeli tensions remained high.

3/1/1997, Friday (+18,868) The death toll in Europe�s big freeze hit 220 as temperatures plunged to �10 C from Britain to central Russia.

2/1/1997, Thursday (+18,867) The US State of California extended its smoking ban to bars and other drinking establishments.


29/12/1996, Sunday (+18,863) (Guatemala) The Guatemalan Civil war ended after 36 years. The Government and the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union signed a peace deal.

27/12/1996, Friday (+18,861) Taliban forces retook the important Bagram air base, consolidating their territory around Kabul.

17/12/1996, Tuesday (+18,851) Kofi Annan from Ghana became the first Black African UN Secretary General.

15/12/1996, Sunday (+18,849) Boeing took over McDonnell-Douglas.

13/12/1996, Friday (+18,847) Kofi Anan became the 7th Secretary General of the UN.

12/12/1996, Thursday (+18,846) After Labour won the Barnsley East by election, the Conservatives no longer had a majority in the House of Commons.

10/12/1996, Tuesday (+18,844) South Africa�s new democratic and non-racial Constitution was signed into law by President Mandela.

4/12/1996, Wednesday (+18,838) NASA launched the Pathfinder probe towards Mars.

3/12/1996, Tuesday (+18,837) Algerian Islamic Fundamentalists exploded a bomb on the Paris Metro at Port Royal Station, at 6.05pm in the rush hour, killing 2 and injuring 50 others. Algerian fundamentalists had carried out 7 attacks on the Paris Metro in 1995. They were protesting at a referendum in Algeria, backing a crackdown on fundamentalist political Parties.

1/12/1996, Sunday (+18,835)


30/11/1996, Saturday (+18,834) In Sierra Leone, Government and rebel forces signed a peace agreement, ending a 5-year civil war.

29/11/1996, Friday (+18,833) Drazen Erdemovic, Bosnian Croat who had participated in the massacre of Muslims at Srebrenica in 1995, was sentenced at The Hague to 10 years prison.

28/11/1996, Tuesday (+18,832) Algerians endorsed a new Constitution recognising the Islamic, Algerian and Berber cultures as the main constituents of the Algerian nation. It also effectively banned political Parties with an Islamic foundation, thereby igniting Fundamentalist anger.

23/11/1996, Saturday (+18,827)

18/11/1996, Monday (+18,822) Serious fire on Channel Tunnel train. The train was 12 miles inside the Tunnel, and the open latticework of the lorry carriages may have had a blowtorch effect on the fire which could have started before the train entered the Tunnel. Eight people suffered smoke inhalation injuries and the Tunnel was closed for months.

17/11/1996, Sunday (+18,821) Protests in Belgrade after President Slobodan Milosevic refused t recognise Opposition victories in municipal elections.

15/11/1996, Friday (+18,819) Mass migration as Hutu refugees returned to Rwanda.

7/11/1996, Thursday (+18,811) (Space exploration) The USA launched the MGS (Mars Global Survey) space probe.

6/11/1996, Wednesday (+18,810) A cyclone hit Andhra Pradesh, India, killing 2,000.

5/11/1996, Tuesday (+18,809) (1) Bill Clinton won the US elections. He was re-elected for a second term, seeing off a challenge by the Republican Bob Dole. Clinton was better at attracting the female than male vote. However only 49% of the electorate bothered to vote at all, the lowest turnout since 1924.

(2) The Pakistan President dismissed Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto after she and her Government were accused of corruption and mismanagement.


24/10/1996, Thursday (+18,797) Rioting in Florida after a Black youth, Tyron Lewis, was shot dead by police.

20/10/1996, Sunday (+18,793) Arnoldo Aleman Lacayo of the Constitutional Liberal Party defeated Ortega and the Sandinistas, who also lost the election of 2001.

16/10/1996, Wednesday (+18,789) Proposals to ban most handguns in the UK, in the aftermath of the Dunblane massacre.


26/9/1996, Thursday (+18,769) (1) The Taleban captured Kabul. They drove out the former President, Burhanuddin Rabbani and executed Mohammad Najibullah. See 3/11/1994.

(2) The first death under legalised euthanasia in Australia.

21/9/1996, Saturday (+18,764) The USA prohibited same-sex marriages under the Defence of Marriage Act.

19/9/1996, Thursday (+18,762) The US spacecraft Atlantis docked with the Russian space station Mir.

14/9/1996, Saturday (+18,757) In Bosnia-Hercegovina a Muslim, President Izetbegovic, was elected as Chairman of the thre-man collective Presidency. He was joined by a Bosnian Serb and a Bosnia Croat.

7/9/1996, Saturday (+18,750) (Electrical) Noel Walton Bott, pioneer of wave energy for electrical power, died (born 9/12/1907)

3/9/1996, Tuesday (+18,746) The US extended the southern Iraq no-fly-zone, established on 26/8/1992 south of 32 degrees, up to 33 degrees, just south of Baghdad.

2/9/1996, Monday (+18,745) President Ramos of the Philippines signed a peace deal with the Moro national Liberation Front (MNLF), a Muslim separatist group. This endeda 26 year rebellion by the Moro people of southern Philippines islands.


31/8/1996, Saturday (+18,743) (1) Iraqi forces launched a major offensive into the northern no-fly-zone and captured the city of Erbil from the Kurds.

(2) Russia and Chechnya signed a peace accord, under which the separatist Chechens agreed to put aside their demands for independence for 5 years.

29/8/1996, Thursday (+18,741) British forces began to leave Hong Kong.

28/8/1996, Wednesday (+18,740) The Prince of Wales, Charles, and Princess, Diana Spencer, divorced. See 31/8/1997.

26/8/1996, Monday (+18,738) The courts in Sweden heard their first ever case of dangerous handling of a shopping trolley.

23/8/1996, Friday (+18.735) (Islam) Osama bin Laden issued a 30-page Fatwa declaring war on the USA.

9/8/1996, Friday (+18,721) Boris Yeltsin became Russia�s first democratically-elected head of State.

6/8/1996, Tuesday (+18,718) Separatist Chechens stormed the capital Grozny and other towns in Chechnya.

1/8/1996, Thursday (+18,713) (Food) The UK Central Veterinary Laboratory published findings that Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis could be transmitted from mother cow to calf.


29/7/1996, Monday (+18,710) England striker Alan Shearer was transferred from Blackburn to Newcastle United for a record �15 million transfer fee.

27/7/1996, Saturday (+18,708) A nail bomb exploded at the Atlanta Olympics, killing two people and injuring over 100.

19/7/1996, Friday (+18,700) Muhammad Ali lit the flame for the 26th Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

18/7/1996, Thursday (+18,699) A TWA jet exploded at New York, killing all 230 people on board.

15/7/1996, Monday (+18,696)

12/7/1996, Friday (+18,693) Saddam Hussein, Iraqi President, was reported to have foiled a coup attempt by 50 military officers. There were mass executions following this event.

11/7/1996, Thursday (+18,692) The War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague issued arrest warrants for Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic and Bosnian Serb military commander General Ratko Mladic.

9/7/1996, Tuesday (+18,690) Rioting in Northern Ireland after the RUV blocked the route of a planned Orange March through a Nationalist area of Portadown. Finally Sir Hugh Annesley, Chief Constable of the RUC, decided to permit the March to proceed under RUC supervision. This decision provoked further disturbances.

7/7/1996, Sunday (+18,688) The German town of Konstanz elected a Green Mayor.

5/7/1996, Friday (+18,686) Dolly the sheep became the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult stem cell. Lamb 6LL3 was named after Dolly Parton. The animal died prematurely in February 2003.

1/7/1996, Monday (+18,682) (1) The Northern Territory in Australia legalised voluntary euthanasia.

(2) The average wage in the UK was �18,307 per year. GPs got �44,304, 242% of average. Teachers got �23,088, 126% of average. Train drivers got �22,308, 122% of average. Factory workers got �14,612, 80% of average. The average UK house price was �53,394.


30/6/1996, Sunday (+18,681) Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic resigned.

27/6/1996, Thursday (+18,678) In Northern Ireland, journalist Veronica Guerin was murdered during her investigation into drug-dealing.

25/6/1996, Tuesday (+18,676) Bin Laden�s Al Quaeda group bombed the Khobar Towers HQ of the US Air Force in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. 19 Americans died.

23/6/1996, Sunday (+18,674) Andreas Papandreou, Greek statesman, born 1919, died.

18/6/1996, Tuesday (+18,669) In Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu formed a Likud-dominated coalition government with some smaller religious Parties.

16/6/1996, Sunday (�18,667) In the first round of Presidential voting in Russia, Boris Yeltsin soundly beat Communist challenger Gennady Zyuganov into second place.

15/6/1996, Saturday (+18,666) A large IRA bomb destroyed Manchester city centre. However nobody was killed.

13/6/1996, Thursday (+18,664)

11/6/1996, Tuesday (+18,662) (1) A damning US Senate report on the Whitewater Affair accused Hillary Clinton of complicity in afraudulent land deal in Arkansas in the 1980s.

(2) Russian troops began to withdraw from Chechnya.

10/6/1996, Monday (+18,661) Talks on the future of Northern Ireland opened at Stormont Castle; the Sinn Fein was excluded until the IRA renewed its ceasefire.

8/6/1996, Saturday (+18,659) US President Clinton established the 1.9 million acre Grand Staircase-Escalante National Park in Utah.

6/6/1996, Thursday (+18,657) (Football) British Premier League Clubs and BskyB and the BBC signed a �743 million deal for four years� coverage of League matches.

5/6/1996, Wednesday (+18,656) (Roads) The second Severn Road Crossing (Prince of Wales Bridge) opened near Bristol.

4/6/1996, Tuesday (+18,655) The European Space Agency�s �565 million Ariane 5 rocket exploded during liftoff.

1/6/1996, Saturday (+18,652)


29/5/1996, Wednesday (+18,649) Benjamin Netanyahu was elected Prime Minister of Israel, narrowly defeating Shimon Peres of the Labour Party. Netanyahu was a hard-line Right-winger of the Likud Party, who did not subscribe to Labour�s land for peace policy. This imperilled the future of the peace process.

28/5/1996, Tuesday (+18,648) Jim and Susan McDougal, former business associates of President Clinton, were found guiltyof fraud and conspiracy in the Whitewater scandal, involving property deals in Arkansas.

27/5/1996, Monday (+18,647) Russian President Boris Yeltsin met Chechnya rebels for the first time and negotiated a ceasefire.

11/5/1996, Saturday (+18,631) Yoweri Kaguta Museveni won the first free Presidential elections in Uganda.

2/5/1996, Thursday (+18,622) In the UK, the Conservative�s loss of popularity continued as they won just 28% of the vote at local government elections.


29/4/1996, Monday (+18,619) In The Hague, Netherlands, the War crimes Tribunal opened, to try cases relating to the war in former Yugoslavia.

23/4/1996, Tuesday (+18,613) Filippo Florio, Italian footballer, was born.

21/4/1996, Sunday (+18,611) Chechen separatist leader Dzhokhar Dudayev was killed in a Russian rocket attack.

18/4/1996, Thursday (+18,608) Israeli helicopters attacked Qana refugee camp, Lebanon, an alleged Hezbollah base. This, and an earlier attack (11/4/1996) Hezbollah bases in Beirut, Lebanon, was in retaliation for Hezbollah rocket attacks on northern Israel.

17/4/1996, Wednesday (+18,607) In Para, Brazilian troops opened fire on a demonstration by the Landless Workers Movement. 23 people were killed.

15/4/1996, Monday (+18,603) The USA returned some of its bases to Japan and promised to enforce better discipline amongst its troops, following a scandal in 1995 in which a child was raped.

11/4/1996, Thursday (+18,601) A treaty establishing Africa as a nuclear-free zone was signed in Cairo.

7/4/1996, Sunday (+18,597) Easter Sunday.

3/4/1996, Wednesday (+18,593) Theodore Kaczynski, a former mathematics professor, was arrested and charged with being the Unabomber. Overall he was reckoned to have committed 16 bombings, killing 23. His motive was to persuade the world of the unsustainability of modern technology as a threat to the planet.

1/4/1996, Monday (+18,591) (Food) In the UK Douglas Hogg, Agriculture Minister, announced plans to cull all British cattle over 6 years old, 4.6 million cows, to eradicate the threat from Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis.


31/3/1996, Sunday (+18,560) (1) Boris Yeltsin announced a ceasefire in Chechnya and the imminent withdrawal of Russian troops.

(2) (Crime) Crumlin Road Prison, Belfast, closed.

29/3/1996, Friday (+18,588)

27/3/1996, Wednesday (+18,586) The European Commission imposed a total ban on the export of UK beef, worldwide, in the wake of the fatal CJD outbreak, linked to BSE or �mad cow� disease.

26/3/1996, Tuesday (+18,585) The International Monetary Fund approved a US$ 10.2 billion loan to Russia for economic reforms.

22/3/1996, Friday (+18,581) The War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague made its first indictment; three Muslims and a Croat were charged with torture, rape, and murder of Serbs.

19/3/1996, Tuesday (+18,578) Sarajevo was reunited when Bosniak authorities took control of the last district occupied by Serbs.

16/3/1996, Saturday (+18,575) Dutch aircraft maker Fokker went bankrupt after 77 years in business.

15/5/1996, Friday (+18,574) (Food) In the UK, home-produced beef was banned from schools and hospitals as concerns rose over Bovine Spongiform Encelopathy.

14/3/1996, Thursday (+18,573)

13/3/1996, Wednesday (+18,572) The Dunblane Massacre in Scotland; 16 children and a teacher died; a further 12 children were injured. The unstable misfit Thomas Hamilton, 43, entered Dunblane Primary School and shot a teacher and 16 children in the gym, injured another teacher and 5 children, then shot and killed himself. This began a debate in the UK and other countries on banning handguns.

12/3/1996, Tuesday (-18,571) In Barcelona, Spain, the World Health Authority launched a taskforce to tackle obesity worldwide.

10/3/1996, Sunday (+18,569)

8/3/1996, Friday (+18,567) China conducted military exercises in the Taiwan Strait, to intimidate Taiwanese voters in their upcoming elections. In these elections the pro-independence candidate Lee Teng-Hui won, but there was no subsequent formal declaration of independence.

7/3/1996, Thursday (+18,566) Genetically-modified sheep Megan and Morag were introduced to the world.

6/3/1996, Wednesday (+18,565)

5/3/1996, Tuesday (+18,564) Further Hamas suicide bombings killed 32 people in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv (see 25/2/1996). In revenge for these attacks, Israel declared all-out war on Hamas. This put the Peace Process in jeopardy.

4/3/1996, Monday (+18,563) UN forces left Rwanda as the UN mandate ended.

2/3/1996, Saturday (+18,561) In Australia the Labour Party finally lost an election, having won the previous five contests, in 1983, 1984, 1987, 1990 and 1993.


29/2/1996, Thursday (+18,559) (1) The siege of Sarajevo ended.

(2) Bailiffs began evicting the Newbury by-pass protestors who had been protesting that the route ran through environmentally-sensitive areas. Contractors had been due to start work on 10/1/1996.

28/2/1996, Wednesday (+18,558) (1) Russia became a member of the Council of Europe.

(2) The Princess of Wales, Diana, announced that she had agreed to divorce Prince Charles.

25/2/1996, Sunday (+18,555) In revenge for the killing of Yahyah Ayyash (6/1/1996), Hamas suicide bombers killed 26 people in Jerusalem and Ashkelon. See 3/3/1996.

19/2/1996, Monday (+18,549) In Madrid, Spain, one million people demonstrated against violence by the Basque separatist group ETA.

18/2/1996, Sunday (+18,548) The World Health Organisation sent experts to Gabon where ten people had died of the Ebola virus.

17/2/1996, Saturday (+18,547) (Space exploration) The USA launched the NEAR space probe, to rendezvous with an asteroid.

15/2/1996, Thursday (+18,544) Hamas suicide bomber attacks on Jerusalem and Ashkelon, killing 25. The Palestinians wished to derail a Peace Agreement that would leave them with just a fraction of their former lands.

12/2/1996, Monday (+18,542) Klein Stanley Eden Cristobal, Trinidadian footballer, was born.

10/2/1996, Saturday (+18,540) The computer programme Deep Blue beat Gary Kasparov at chess, the first victory by a computer over a human.

9/2/1996, Friday (+18,539) The IRA ended its ceasefire with a bomb in London�s Docklands. The bomb contained about half a ton of explosive and was planted under the Docklands Light railway at South Quays, exploding at 7.01 p.m. 2 people were killed and at least 100 injured. The widespread damage to houses, shops, and offices amounted to over �100 million. UK Prime Minister John Major said �there is now a dark shadow of doubt where optimism had been�.

5/2/1996, Monday (+18,535) The first privately-run trains for nearly 50 years ran on British Railways. South West Trains and Great Western won the first franchises; under the 1993 Railway Act. A third franchise, London Tilbury and Southend, was cancelled amidst allegations of ticketing fraud. British Railways had been nationalised on 1/1/1948.

2/2/1996, Friday (+18,532) Harry Billy Winks, English footballer, was born.

1/2/1996, Thursday (+18,531) The US Government offered to help a UN food assistance programme in famine-hit North Korea.


31/1/1996, Wednesday (+18,530)

29/1/1996, Monday (+18,528) (Atomic, France) France bowed to international pressure and announced it had ended the current series of atomic tests at Mururoa Atoll in the south Pacific.

28/1/1996, Sunday (+18,527) Joseph Brodsky, Russian poet, died.

25/1/1996, Thursday (+18,524) In the UK, the results of the first National School Tests sat in May 1995 showed that over 50% of 11-year-olds failed to reach expected standards in English and Maths.

24/1/1996, Wednesday (+18,523) The report of the international decommissioning agency for Northern Ireland under US Senator George Mitchell dismissed British demands that the IRA hand over its weapons before joining talks.

22/1/1996, Monday (+18,521) NearBrcko, Bosnia, a mass grave containing the bodies of some 3,000 Muslims and Croats killed in �ethnic cleansing� by Bosnian Serbs in 1992 was discovered.

20/1/1996, Saturday (+18,519) Yasser Arafat was re-elected President of the PLO.

18/1/1996, Thursday (+18,517) A service in Coventry Cathedral marking the centenary of the motor car was disrupted by a naked woman claiming to be Lady Godiva protesting about the thousands of deaths caused by motor vehicles.

9/1/1996, Tuesday (+18,508) Chechen insurgents seized 3,000 civilian hostages. They demanded the withdrawal of Russian forces from Chechnya. Most of the hostages were released the following day, and the rest were rescued by Russian forces on 24/1/1996.

8/1/1996, Monday (+18,507) President Mitterrand, (born 1916) died of cancer. He was President of France 1981-95.

6/1/1996, Saturday (+18,505) Palestinian bomb-maker Yahya Ayyash was killed, allegedly by Israeli security forces, see 25/2/1996.

2/1/1996, Tuesday (+18,501) UN troops entered Bosnia on a peacekeeping mission.


17/12/1995, Sunday (+18,485) Rene Preval was elected President of Haiti.

15/12/1995, Friday (+18,483) In Northern Ireland, the Arms Decommissioning Panel, headed by former US Senator George Mitchell, began work.

14/12/1995, Thursday (+18,482) The Dayton Peace Accord was signed in Paris, ending the Yugoslav conflict.

7/12/1995, Thursday (+18,475) (1) A link was revealed between BSE in cattle and CJD in humans.

(2) The space probe Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter, and sent a probe into the planet�s atmosphere.

4/12/1995, Monday (+18,472) NATO troops landed in the Balkans.

2/12/1995, Saturday (+18,470) (1) The USA launched SOHO, a space probe to monitor solar activity.

(2) In Singapore, rogue trader Nick Leeson was sentenced to 6 � years in prison. He had been extradited from Germany and pleaded guilty to fraud and forgery.


30/11/1995, Thursday (+18,468) US President Bill Clinton visited Northern Ireland.

28/11/1995, Tuesday (+18,466) Britain�s Turner Prize for Contemporary Art, worth �20,000, was awarded to Damien Hurst for his four glass tanks containing the divided carcass of a cow and its calf, entitled Mother and Child Divided.

27/11/1995, Monday (+18,465) (Ireland, Women�s Rights) In Ireland, voters narrowly approved a limited no-fault provision for divorce, for couples who had lived apart for four of the previous five years, by a majority of 9,114 out of 1.63 million votes. There had been a constitutional ban on divorce since 1937.

25/11/1995, Saturday (+18,463) A ceasefire was declared in the Republics of former Yugoslavia, following a peace agreement signed at Dayton, Ohio. Bosnia would be a united Republic comprising the Muslim-Croat areas and the Serb Republic, unifying the city of Sarajevo. Individuals charged with war crimes were banned from holding public office.

23/11/1995, Thursday (+18,461) French film director Louis Malle died.

22/11/1995, Wednesday (+18,460) (1) A magnitude 7.2 quake hit Israel, Egypt, and was felt over much of the Mediterranean and North Africa.

(2) Rosemary West, aged 41, was sentenced to life for killing 10 women and girls, including her daughter and stepdaughter. Lodgers at their house at 25 Cromwell Street Gloucester had also been murdered. Rosemary�s husband Fred West, 53, had hanged himself whilst in custody at Winson Green prison, Birmingham, on 1/1/1995.

21/11/1995, Tuesday (+18,459) Jim Eanes, musician, died (born 6/12/1923).

19/11/1995, Sunday (+18,457)

17/11/1995, Friday (+18,455) (Space exploration) The European Space Agency launched ISO, an Infared space observatory.

16/11/1995, Thursday (+18,454) The UN tribunal charged Radovan Karadic and Ratko Mladic with genocide during the Bosnian War.

15/11/1995, Wednesday (+18,453) The Today newspaper ceased publishing.

14/11/1995, Tuesday (+18,452)

13/11/1995, Monday (+18,451) Seven died as a bomb exploded at a US military base in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

12/11/1995, Sunday (+18,450) The Northern Ireland Peace Process was faltering, with disagreement over whether to begin all-party talks before the IRA had decommissioned its weapons. All sides were keen to make progress before US President Bill Clinton visited on 30/11/1995.

10/11/1995, Friday (+18,448) (1) The Nigerian military government hanged the dissident Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other activists. They had been protesting against the exploitation of the Ogoni people and their lands by large oil companies. In particular, an oil leak from an old pipeline in August 1995 had polluted Ogoni lands. Oil and gas had been discovered in the Niger delta in 1957 and commercial exploitation began a year later. In 1995 oil accounted for 80% of Nigerian government earnings and 90% of foreign exchange earnings.

(2) Iraqi disarmament crisis; the UN intercepted 240 Russian gyroscopes and accelerometers en route from Russia to Iraq.

7/11/1995, Tuesday (+18,445)

4/11/1995, Saturday (+18,442) Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Labour Prime Minister, was assassinated. Moments after attending a peace rally in the Square of the Kings, he was killed by a 27 year old Jewish law student, Yigal Amir. Mr Rabin had been the target of a hate campaign since he shook hands with Mr Yasser Arafat, PLO leader, on the steps of the White House. Rabin�s successor, Shimon Peres, promised to continue the peace process. The assassin, Yigal Amir, was sentenced on 11/4/1996, to life imprisonment.

3/11/1995, Friday (+18,441) Queen Elizabeth II gave Royal Assent to a law restoring land to the indigenous Tainui Maori people, New Zealand.

2/11/1995, Thursday (+18,440) Canadian novelist Robertson Davies died.

1/11/1995, Wednesday (+18,439) Participants in the Yugoslav War began negotiations at the Wright-Patterson air force base, Ohio, USA.


30/10/1995, Monday (+18,437) Quebec separatists narrowly (by just 1%) lost a referendum to regain independence from Canada.

22/10/1995, Sunday (+18,429) Kingsley Amis, British author, died.

18/10/1995, Wednesday (+18,425) DNV presented the results of their audit on Brent Spar; it did not contain anything like 5,500 tons of crude oil.

16/10/1995, Monday (+18,423) The Million Man march was held in Washington DC.It was conceived by Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan.

15/10/1995, Sunday (+18,422) The road bridge between Skye and the Scottish mainland opened.

12/10/1995, Thursday (+18,419)

9/10/1995, Monday (+18,416) Sir Alec Douglas Home, British Conservative Prime Minister 1963-4, died (born 2/7/1903).

8/10/1995, Sunday (+18,415) US President Bill Clinton announced the start of a 60-day ceasefire in Bosnia-Hercegovina.

6/10/1995, Friday (+18,413) Michael Mayor and Didier Queloz announced the discovery of the first extra-solar planet, 51 Pegasi b.

3/10/1995, Tuesday (+18,410) Former American football star OJ Simpson was acquitted of the murder of his wife


29/9/1995, Friday (+18,406) Former Barings Brothers trader Nick Leeson agreed to return to Singapore to face trial for deception. On 2/12/1995 he was sentenced to 6 � years in prison.

24/9/1995, Sunday (+18,401) Israel and the PLO agree to extend self-rule to most of the West Bank.

11/9/1995, Monday (+18,388) After 9 months conflict, the Mexican government and the Zapatista national Liberation Army (ENZL) agreed an accord to settle some of the Zapatista�s grievances.

8/9/1995, Friday (+18,385) In Geneva, the framework for a peace agreement in Bosnia Hercegovina was worked out between the warring factions and Britain, France, Germany, Russia and the USA.

5/9/1995, Tuesday (+18,382) (1) Greenpeace admitted their claim that Brent Spar contained 5,500 tonnes of crude oil was inaccurate and apologised to Shell.

(2) France exploded a 10-kiloton nuclear device under the Pacific atoll of Mururoa. Anti-French riots broke out in Papeete, the capital of Tahiti, necessitating French paratroopers to be sent in to maintain order. Australia and New Zealand condemned the test, and there were fears of a worldwide boycott of French exports.

4/9/1995, Monday (+18,381) The alleged rape of a 12-year-old girl in Japan by three US servicemen caused widespread resentment against the US military presence in Japan.

1/9/1995, Friday (+18,378)


31/8/1995, Thursday (+18,377) The London Meteorological Office announced that August 1995 had been the hottest month since 1659.

30/8/1995, Wednesday (+18,376) UN forces attacked key Serb positions in Bosnia.The NATO campaign continued into October.

29/8/1995, Tuesday (+18,375)

28/8/1995, Monday (+18,374) Serbian mortar bomb near Sarajevo market killed 37 civilians.

27/8/1995, Sunday (+18,373) The International Rugby Football Board, the Governing Body of Rugby Union, voted unanimously to end the game�s amateur status.

24/8/1995, Thursday (+18,370) Microsoft launched Windows 5. It replaced Windows 3.x.

18/8/1995, Friday (+18,364) The largest traditional stone-built Hindu temple in the world outside India opened in Neasden, N W London.

9/8/1995, Wednesday (+18,355) Croat forces had now overrun the Serb-held areas of Croatia; Krajina and West Slavonia. 150,000 Croatian Serbs had fled to Serbia and Serb-held areas of Bosnia-Hercegovina. Croatian forces also held off a Serb attack on the �safe haven� of Bihac, in eastern Bosnia.

6/8/1995, Sunday (+18,352) British licensing laws were relaxed to allow pubs to open from 12 noon on Sundays onwards.

5/8/1995, Saturday (+18,351) Croatian forces captured the town of Knin.

4/8/1995, Friday (+18,350) Croatians launched Operation Storm, against Serbian forces in Krajina, compelling them to retreat to Bosnia.


29/7/1995, Saturday (+18,344)

26/7/1995, Wednesday (+18,341) Keanu Neal, US football linebacker, was born.

25/7/1995, Tuesday (+18,340) A bomb exploded on a train at the St Michel Metro station in Paris, killing seven people.

18/7/1995, Tuesday (+18.,333)

12/7/1995, Wednesday (+18,327) Shell commissioned an independent Norwegian consultancy, Det Norske Veritas, to conduct an audit of the materials contained in the Brent Spar, to check Greanpeace�s allegations.

11/7/1995, Tuesday (+18,326) (1) Bosnian Serbs marched into Srebrenica as Dutch UN peacekeepers left. Later; large numbers of Bosniak men and boys were massacred.

(2) US resumed full diplomatic relations with Vietnam.

10/7/1995, Monday (+18,325) The Burmese Nobel Peace prize winner, Aung San Kyi, was released, from six years house arrest. Amnesty International reported that the Human Rights situation in Burma remained �desperate�.

9/7/1995, Sunday (+19,324) In Portadown, Northern Ireland, the first of what would become an annual series of stand-offs between Protestant Orange marchers and local residents began when RUC officers prevented the marchers from taking their traditional route along the Garvaghy Road. The marchers refused to disperse or take an alternative route, eventually an uneasy compromise was reached as the marchers were allowed to walk silently along the road.

8/7/1995, Saturday (+18,323) Volcanic eruption began on the island of Montserrat.

7/7/1995, Friday (+18,322) Norway granted permission to moor the Brent Spar in Erfjord whilst options for its disposal were considered.

4/7/1995, Tuesday (+18,319) John Major won the battle to lead the Conservative Party, beating John Redwood by 218 votes to 89.

1/7/1995, Saturday (+18,316)The average UK house price was �51,245.


30/6/1995, Friday (+18,315) (1) Military accord to end fighting in Chechnya.

(2) Eleven states called for a moratorium on sea disposal of decommissioned offshore installations; the motion was opposed by Britain and Norway.

29/6/1995, Thursday (+18,314) The space shuttle Columbia docked for the first time with the Russian Mir space station.

22/6/1995, Thursday (+18,307) John Major, UK Conservative Prime Minister, resigned I order to trigger a leadership contest, in abid to bolster his authority over his divided Party. He went on to defeat right-wing Eurosceptic John Redwood, but his Party remained divided.

20/6/1995, Tuesday (+18,305) Shell Oil Company caved in to international pressure and agreed not to dump the Brent Spar oil platform in the Atlantic.

15/6/1995, Thursday (+18,300) German Chancellor Helmut Kohl protested to the British Prime Minister John Major at the G7 Summit about the planned sinking of the Brent Spar.

14/6/1995, Wednesday (+18,299) A week of protests across Germany began against Shell petrol stations; protestors threatened to firebomb 200 Shell filling stations. 50 were actually damaged, two fire-bombed, and one raked with bullets.

11/6/1995, Sunday (+18,296) Shell began to tow the Brent Spar out to the disposal site.

9/6/1995, Friday (+18,294) Russia and Ukraine agreed to divide the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet.

7/6/1995, Wednesday (+18,292) Australian prime Minister Paul Keating declared his aim that Australia should be a Republic by the year 2001.

5/6/1995, Monday (+18,290) Bose-Einstein condensate was created.

3/6/1995, Saturday (+18,288) UN rapid intervention force sent to Bosnia.


30/5/1995, Tuesday (+18,284) Edward Drake, footballer, died (born 16/8/1912).

28/5/1995, Sunday (+18,282) Neftegorsk, Russia, was hit by a 7.6 magnitude earthquake that killed 2,000 people, 2/3 of the town�s population.

25/5/1995, Thursday (+18,279) Serbian forces attacked the safe haven of Tuzla, killing 67 civilians. On 16/5/1995 the Serbs had resumed shelling Sarajevo, after a major anti-Serb offensive by Bosnians.

24/5/1995, Wednesday (+18,278) Harold Wilson, British Prime Minister 1964-70 and 1974-76, born 11/3/1916, died.

16/5/1995, Tuesday (+18,270) (1) Jacques Chirac became President of France.

(2) Japanese police besieged the headquarters of the Aum Shrnrinko cult near Mount Fuji, and arrested the leader Shoko Asuhara.

(3) An Ebola outbreak in Zaire had now killed 77. The disease kills victims so fast they have little time to pass it on, so does not cause major pandemics.

14/5/1995, Sunday (+18,268) Carlos Menem was elected as President of Argentina.

13/5/1995, Saturday (+18,267) A magnitude 6.6 earthquake hit the Greek Macedonian city of Kozani; nobody was injured.

12/5/1995, Friday (+18,266)

11/5/1995, Thursday (+18,265) In New York City, 170 nations agreed to extend the nuclear non-proliferation treaty indefinitely, without conditions.

10/5/1995, Wednesday (+18,264) The British Government held the first Ministerial talks with Sinn Fein since 1972.

9/5/1995, Tuesday (+18,263) The German Ministry of the Environment protested about the plans to sink the Brent Spar.

7/5/1995, Sunday (+18,261) (1) UK betting shops opened on Sundays for the first time.

(2) Jacques Chirac was elected President of France. He defeated the Socialist candidate Lionel Jospin. Alain Juppe became Prime Minister of France.

5/5/1995, Friday (+18,259) (1) The Conservative Party did badly in local council elections, losing control in 62 councils in England and Wales, retaining control in just 8, whilst Labour gained 42 to control a total of 155, and the Liberal Democrats gained 14 to control a total of 44. The Conservatives had also done badly in the Scottish local council elections of 6/4/1995, failing to gain a single one of 29 unitary authorities there. Prime Minister John Major faced a challenge to his leadership.

(2) The UK Government granted a disposal licence to Shell to sink the Brent Spar.

3/5/1995, Wednesday (+18,257) (Mathematics) Fermat�s Last Theorem was finally proved in generality, for all values of n. It was proposed by Pierre de Fermat (ca. 1607 � 1665) in 1637, that an + bn = cn had no solution for any value of n greater than 2.


30/4/1995, Sunday (+18,254) Greenpeace asserted that Bremt Spar still contained 5,500 tonnes of crude eoil.

29/4/1995, Saturday (+18,253) Tony Blair got the Labour Party to drop Clause 4, which had called for common ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange. In a modernising move, away from Socialism, the change to a commitment to work for a just society, dynamic economy, and healthy environment was backed by 65.23% of votes.

25/4/1995, Tuesday (+18,249) Ginger Rogers, US actress, died.

20/4/1995, Thursday (+18,244) Robert Wyatt,cricketer, died (born 2/5/1901).

19/4/1995, Wednesday (+18,243) A car bomb in Oklahoma City killed 168 including 12 children. The bomb hidden in a truck contained 4,000 lb of explosive and blew up in front of the Alfred P Murrah Federal Building, where the Federal ATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms) was housed, and also a children�s nursery. Timothy McVeigh was later convicted of the bombing.

18/4/1995, Tuesday (+18,242) Artuto Frondizi, President of Argentina, died.

16/4/1995, Sunday (+18,240) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1995, Friday (+18,238) (1) British troops prepared to leave Northern Ireland.

(2) The UN allowed Iraq to resume partial exports of its oil to pay for essential food and medicine. Iraq did not implement this until December 1996.

4/4/1995, Tuesday (+18,228) In Burundi, Tutsi soldiers massacred 400 Hutu women and children (see 9/3/1995).


30/3/1995, Thursday (+18,223) Tony Lock, cricketer, died.

28/3/1995, Tuesday (+18,221) Serbians took UN peacekeepers hostage, to deter further NATO airstrikes.

26/3/1995, Sunday (+18,219) In Europe, the Schengen Convention came into force, allowing free movement between countries,

24/3/1995, Friday (+18,217) The House of Representatives, USA, passed welfare reforms denying state benefits to immigrants, unmarried mothers, and those who refused to work.

23/2/1995, Thursday (+18,216) The Taiwanese Parliament approved compensation payments to relatives of indigenous Taiwanese massacred by Kuomintang troops after they evacuated from mainland China in February 1947.

22/3/1995, Wednesday (+18,215) (Space exploration) Valeri Polyakov returned to earth from the longest stay in space by a human, 437 days, 18 hours.

20/3/1995. Monday (+18,213) (1) A ceasefire in Bosnia-Hercegovina, from 31/12/1994, broke down. Bosnian troops attacked Serb positions.

(2) Nerve gas was released on the Tokyo Subway by the Ayum Shrinkyo religious cult.Five separate trains were affected; 12 died and 5,500 were injured.

17/3/1995, Friday (+18,210) Ronnie Kray died.

16/3/1995, Thursday (+18,209) (Ireland) US President Bill Clinton met with Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams at the White House.

15/3/1995, Wednesday (+18,208) (1) (Aviation) Jet plane manufacturers Lockheed and Martin merged to become the Lockheed Martin Corporation.

(2) (Sport) Harlow greyhound racing stadium, Essex, UK, opened.

12/3/1995, Sunday (+18,205)

9/3/1995, Thursday (+18,202) Hutu leader Ernest Kabushemeye was assassinated in Burundi. There were immediate reports of genocide and a refugee crisis, amidst fears of a repeat of the violence in 1994 in Rwanda. See 4/4/1995.

8/3/1995, Wednesday (+18,201) UK Government agreed to direct meetings between ministers and Sinn Fein before an IRA arms surrender.

6/3/1995, Monday (+18,199) Russia announced it had gained control of the Chechen capital Grozny.

3/3/1995, Friday (+18,196) The UN peacekeeping mission in Somalia ended.

2/3/1995, Thursday (+18,195) Financial dealer Nick Leeson was arrested at Frankfurt Airport after a week-long manhunt. The derivatives trader, working for Barings Bank, see 26/2/1995, had bet on the Japanese futures market, and assumed that the Nikkei would rise; it fell, especially after the Kobe earthquake. Barings lost �860 million. Later in December 1995, after apparently striking a deal with the Singapore authorities, Leeson was sentenced to six and a half years.


28/2/1995, Tuesday (+18,193) Denver International Airport opened. 23 miles from Denver city centre, it covered 53 square miles, cost US$ 4.9 billion, and replaced the 65-year-old Stapleton Airport.

26/2/1995, Sunday (+18,191) The 200 year old Barings Bank went into receivership. One of its brokers, Nick Leeson, had lost US$1.4 billion speculating on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. See 2/3/1995.

22/2/1995, Wednesday (+18,187) British Prime Minister John Major and Irish Prime Minister John Bruton agreed a framework for all-party talks on a political settlement for Northern Ireland. A �North-South body� would be set up to harmonise agreed areas, Northern Ireland would have an elected devolved Parliament, and the South would amend its constitution to drop territorial claims to the North. Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Fein, was happy that the �ethos of the agreement was for one Ireland�. The Unionists were less pleased, saying �Northern Ireland has been given an eviction notice from the UK�.

17/2/1995, Friday (+18,182) Peru and Ecuador settled their border dispute (see 26/1/1995).

8/2/1995, Wednesday (+18,173) Russian workers staged a 24-hour strike, over unpaid wages.

4/2/1995, Saturday (+18,169) Godfrey Brown, runner, died (born 21/2/1915).

2/2/1995, Thursday (+18,167) Frederick Perry, tennis champion, died (born 18/5/1909).

1/2/1995, Wednesday (+18,166) Major floods hit northern Europe during January and February. The Netherlands and Germany were worst hit.


29/1/1995, Sunday (+18,163) Richard Burnell, champion rower, died (born 26/7/1917).

26/1/1995, Thursday (+18,160) (1) Baring Brothers, Britain�s oldest merchant bank, went into receivership after one of its futures traders, Nick Leeson, racked up losses of over �800 million.

(2) Heavy fighting began along the Peru-Ecuador border.

24/1/1995, Tuesday (+18,158) The trial of former US football star OJ Simpson, for the murder of his wife, began.

22/1/1995, Sunday (+18,156) 22 Israelis died in Tel Aviv in a suicide bombing by Palestinians.

19/1/1995, Thursday (+18,153) Russian troops seized the Presidential palace in Grozny, Chechnya.

17/1/1995, Tuesday (+18,151) (Earthquake, Japan) 5.46 am, local time, earthquake in Kobe, southern Japan, killed 6,433, and injured 27,000. The quake measured 7.2 on the Richter Scale and made 300,000 homeless. Cost of damage was estimated at �63 billion. It was the worst quake to hit Japan since Tokyo, 1923.

15/1/1995, Sunday (+18,149) The British Army ended daylight patrols in Belfast, after 25 years.

7/1/1995, Saturday (+18,141) Harry Golombek, chess player, died (born 1/3/1911).

2/1/1995, Monday (+18,136) Graham Sharpe, champion figure skater, died (born 19/12/1917).

1/1/1995, Sunday (+18,135) (1) Austria, Finland, and Sweden joined the European Union.

(2) (International) The World Trade Organisation was created to replace GATT.

(3) Fred West, accused of mass murder, hanged himself inside Winson Green prison, Birmingham.

(4) Mercosur, comprising Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, came into existence.


31/12/1994, Saturday (+18,134) (1) A four-month ceasefire was agreed by the combatants in Bosnia-Hercegovina.

(2) Britain began using the Trident nuclear deterrent on its submarines.

(3) Russian forces attacked the Chechen capital Grozny.

30/12/1994, Friday (+18,133)

28/12/1994, Wednesday (+18,131) James Woolsey, director of the CIA, resigned after allegations that the organisation was vulnerable to double agents.

27/12/1994, Tuesday (+18,130) Peter May, cricketer, died (born 31/12/1929).

26/12/1994, Monday (+16,129) Robert Emhardt, US actor, died aged 80.

25/12/1994, Sunday (+18,128) Protests by indigenous villagers of Papua against mine pollution (see 1936) were met with military attacks, killing three protestors,

24/12/1994, Saturday (+18,127) British playwright John Osborne died.

19/12/1994, Monday (+18,122) (1) A financial meltdown began in Mexico, unleashing the �Tequila Crisis� on world markets.The Clinton administration bailed out Mexico with US$50,000 billion.

(2) Civil unions between homosexuals were made legal in Sweden.

17/12/1994, Saturday (+18,120) Eurotunnel announced that the fare for the Channel Tunnel was to be �49 day return for a car.

15/12/1994, Thursday (+18,118) The Web browser Netscape 1.0 was launched.

11/12/1994, Sunday (+18,114) Boris Yeltsin ordered troops into Chechnya.

9/12/1994, Friday (+18,112) The first official talks between the British Government and Sinn Fein for 22 years began.

8/12/1994, Thursday (+18,111) (USA, International) US President Clinton signed for the USA to agree to the Uruguay Round of the GATT trade liberalisation agreement, This replaced GATT by the WTO in 1995.

2/12/1994, Friday (+18,105) The Australian Government agreed to pay compensation to indigenous Australians who were displaced during the nuclear tests at Maralinga in the 1950s and 60s.


29/11/1994, Tuesday (+18,102) Russian aircraft bombed the Chechen capital, Grozny.

28/11/1994, Monday (+18,103) Norwegians, in a referendum, rejected membership of the EU, for a second time.

23/11/1994, Wednesday (+18,096) The Taliban captured Kandahar, Afghanistan. See 26/9/1996.

20/11/1994, Sunday (+18,093) The Angolan Government and UNITA signed the Lusaka Protocol.

19/11/1994, Saturday (+18,092) First National Lottery draw in the UK. Seven people shared the UK� 15.8 million jackpot prize. 25 million people bought tickets, over half the adult population, raising UK� 45 million, half of which went on �good causes�.

13/11/1994, Sunday (+18,086) (1) In a referendum, Swedish voters chose to join the European Union.

(2) The first passengers travelled through the Channel Tunnel.

8/11/1994, Tuesday (+18,081) The Republicans gained control of the US Congress.

1/11/1994, Tuesday (+18,074) Sydney Dernley, Britain�s last surviving executioner, died aged 73.


31/10/1994, Monday (+18,073) The Duke of Edinburgh became the first member of the British Royal Family to visit Israel.

25/10/1994, Tuesday (+18,067)

22/10/1994, Saturday (+18,064) In the USA, the Rhinoceros and Tiger Act came into force. It was intended to assist the preservation of these animals in countries where their habitat is.

21/10/1994, Friday (+18,063) North Korea agreed to international inspection of its nuclear facilities in return for political and economic benefits.

20/10/1994, Thursday (+18,062) Burt Lancaster, US film actor, died.

17/10/1994, Monday (+18,059) Augustus Risman, rugby player, died (born 21/3/1911).

15/10/1994, Saturday (+18,057) The UN demanded that Iraq withdrew military units positioned near the border with Kuwait. Iraq complied.

14/10/1994, Friday (+18,056) The Nobel Peace prize was awarded jointly to Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres, and Yasser Arafat.

13/10/1994, Thursday (+18,055) Ulster�s three main Loyalist terrorist groups announced a ceasefire.

9/10/1994, Sunday (+18,051) Horatio Carter, footballer, died.

5/10/1994, Wednesday (+18,047) Fifty members of the Solar Temple cult were found dead in Switzerland.

3/10/1994, Monday (+18,045) Fernando Henrique Cardoso was elected President of Brazil.


28/9/1994, Wednesday (+18,040) The car ferry Estonia sank off Uto Island in the Baltic during a heavy storm on its way to Sweden. Waves 10 metres high had ripped off the bow doors used for loading vehicles; only 140 of the 1,047 passengers and crew survived, the worst ferry disaster in Europe since World War Two. There were similarities to the Herald of Free Enterprise disaster on 7/4/1987. Ferry operators had been slow to follow recommendations for watertight bulkhead doors on the car deck.

19/9/1994, Monday (+18,031) US troops went to Haiti to overthrow the military junta led by Raoul Cedras. Former President Jean Bertrand Aristide returned after a three-year exile on 15/10/1994, but was ousted in 2004.

12/9/1994, Monday (+18,024) In Canada the Parti Quebecois won an overall majority in the State legislature.

9/9/1994, Friday (+18,021) US President Clinton, faced with an influx of 20,000 Cubans, renegotiated with Fidel Castro the return of travel restrictions on Cubans wishing to emigrate to the USA (see 11/8/1992).

8/9/1994, Thursday (+18,020) The last British forces left Berlin.

7/9/1994, Wednesday (+18,019) The American flag was lowered over the US HQ in Berlin, formally ending American presence on the city after almost 50 years.

3/9/1994, Saturday (+18,015) The USSR and China agreed to stop targeting nuclear missiles at each other.


31/8/1994, Wednesday (+18,012) IRA announced a ceasefire in Northern Ireland. The British were concerned about the omission of the word �permanent� from the ceasefire declaration.

29/8/1994, Monday (+18,010) In Britain, large shops were allowed to open legally for the first time on a Sunday.

14/8/1994, Sunday (+17,995) Carlos the Jackal was arrested in Sudan.

11/8/1994, Thursday (+17,992) Fidel Castro of Cuba lifted restrictions on emigration, prompting a surge of 20,000 Cubans leaving for the USA. However see 9/9/1994.

5/8/1994, Friday (+17,986) NATO air strike on Bosnian Serb positions near Sarajevo.


25/7/1994, Monday (+17,975) Israel and Jordan signed a peace treaty, formally ending a state of war between them that had existed since 1948.

21/7/1994, Thursday (+17,971) Tony Blair was elected leader of the UK Labour Party. At age 41 he was the youngest leader ever. John Prescott was elected Deputy Leader.

20/7/1994, Wednesday (+17,970) South Africa was readmitted to the Commonwealth, after 33 years of exclusion.

18/7/1994, Monday (+17,968) Fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy were observed by the Hubble telescope crashing into Jupiter.

9/7/1994, Saturday (+17,959) China announced its intention to abolish Hong Kong�s Legislative Council once it took back the territory from the UK in 1997.

8/7/1994, Friday (+17,958) North Korean President Kim Il Sung (born 1912) died. His son Kim Jong Il succeeded him after a power struggle.

7/7/1994, Thursday (+17,957) Troops from North Yemen occupied Aden.

6/7/1994, Wednesday (+17,956)

5/7/1994, Tuesday (+17,955) Yasser Arafat became the first President of the Palestinian Authority, which had been created under the Cairo Agreement of 1994.

4/7/1994, Monday (+17,954) Kigali fell to the Rwandan Patriotic Front. After the Rwandan President was killed in an air crash (see 6/4/1994) violence occurred against the Tutsi minority. Half a million died and 1.5 million refugees were created.

3/7/1994, Sunday (+17,953)

2/7/1994, Saturday (+17,952) Andres Escobar, Colombian footballer, whose own-goal in the USA eliminated his country form the World Cup, was shot on his return to Medellin.

1/7/1994, Friday (+17,951) (1) PLO leader Yasser Arafat returned to Gaza to lead the new Palestinian Authority. it was the first time he had been in Palestine for 25 years.

(2) 1 kg old potatoes cost 40.5p. The average UK house price was �51,634.A second class return rail fare London to Glasgow cost �69.00


22/6/1994, Wednesday (+17,942) Russia joined NATO�s �partnership for peace.

15/6/1994, Wednesday (+17,935) Israel and The Vatican established full diplomatic relations.

12/6/1994, Sunday (+17,932) In European Parliamentary elections, the Tories won only 18 seats to Labour�s 62.

7/6/1994, Tuesday (+17,927) SW Colombia was hit by an earthquake that set off an avalanche. 1,000 died and many more were left homeless.


29/5/1994, Sunday (+17,918) Erich Honecker, leader of East Germany, (born 1912) died.

27/5/1994, Friday (+17,916) Alexander Solzhenitsyn returned to Russia.

20/5/1994, Friday (+17,909) William Kitchen, speedway champion, died.

13/5/1994, Friday (+17,902) Israel began to withdraw its forces from Jericho and the Gaza Strip, in accordance with the Israeli-Palestinian agreement of 13/9/1993.

12/5/1994, Thursday (+17,901) In the UK, Labour party leader John Smith died suddenly of a heart attack, aged 55. On 17/7/1994 Tony Blair was elected leader of the Labour Party.

10/5/1994, Tuesday (+17,899) Nelson Mandela was sworn in as the first Black president of South Africa (see 2/5/1994). Nelson Mandela voted for the first time in his life on elections held between 26 and 29 April and his Africa National Congress Party won an overwhelming 62.6% of the vote. The National Party won 20.4%.

6/5/1994, Friday (+17,895) The Channel Tunnel was opened by Queen Elizabeth II and President Mitterand.50 kilometres long, it had taken15,000 workers 7 years to complete and cost UK� 10 billion. Construction of the Tunnel was started in November 1987, and workers met in the middle three years later. An earlier Channel Tunnel proposal in 1907 had been withdrawn after the British military feared it would be used for invasion.

2/5/1994, Monday (+17,891) South African President F W de Klerk conceded defeat to Nelson Mandela in the country�s first truly democratic elections, see 10/5/1994.

1/5/1994, Sunday (+17,890) Formula One driver Ayrton Senna (born 1960) died in a crash in Italy.


26/4/1994, Tuesday (+17,885) First multiracial elections in South Africa. See 10/5/1994.

22/4/1994, Friday (+17,881) Richard Nixon, 37th US President, (born 1913) died.

21/4/1994, Thursday (+17,880) The Red Cross estimated that 100,000 had died in the Rwandan Genocide.

20/4/1994, Wednesday (+17,879) In France, Paul Touvier was found guilty of ordering the massacre of 17 Jews whilst serving in the Vichy France Milice.

18/4/1994, Monday (+17,877)

16/4/1994, Saturday (+17,875) In a referendum in Finland, voters decided to join the European Union.

15/4/1994, Friday (+17,874) John Curry, figure skater, died (born 9/9/1949).

10/4/1994, Sunday (+17,869) NATO air strikes against the Serbs around Gorazde.

6/4/1994, Wednesday (+17,865) An air crash killed the Presidents of both Rwanda (President Juvenal Habyarimana) and Burundi (President Cyprien Ntaryamira). The Rwandan Patriotic Front was suspected but so were Hutu extremists opposed to the Arusha Agreement. See 5/10/1993 and 4/7/1994. On 7/4/1994 the Hutu militia, known as the Interhamwe, began organising the killing of many Tutsis.

5/4/1994, Tuesday (+17,864) US rock star Kurt Cobain, frontman of Nirvana, shot himself aged 27.

3/4/1994, Sunday (+17,862) Easter Sunday.


28/3/1994, Monday (+17,856) (Italy) Silvio Berlusconi became Prime Minister of Italy He led a short-lived Rightist government.

25/3/1994, Friday (+17,853) US forces withdrew from Somalia,

24/3/1994, Thursday (+17,852) Allegations made in US Congress that President Clinton and his wife behaved improperly in dealings with the Whitewater Development Corporation. Later on this was to prove electorally damaging to President Clinton.

22/3/1994, Tuesday (+17,850) Talks between North and South Korea, aimed at averting nuclear capability by the North, broke down and a full military alert was set up in the South. The crisis was defused when former US President Jimmy Carter visited Pyongyang on 15/6/1994.

13/3/1994, Sunday (+17,841) (Yugoslavia) In former Yugoslavia, Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Muslims formed an anti-Serb alliance.

12/3/1994, Saturday (+17,840) The Church of England ordained its first women priests. 32 were ordained.

11/3/1994, Friday (+17,839) Riots in South African Black Homeland of Bophutatswana.

9/3/1994, Wednesday (+17,837) The IRA launched a mortar attack at London Heathrow Airport.

6/3/1994, Sunday (+17,834) A referendum in Moldova showed the electorate opposed to possible unification with Romania.

1/3/1994, Tuesday (+17,829) South Africa ceded Walvis Bay to Namibia.


28/2/1994, Monday (+17,828) Four Serbian planes shot down by US F-16 pilots over Bosnia, for violating the US-imposed no-fly zone there.

26/2/1994, Saturday (+17,826)

25/2/1994, Friday (+17,825) Kahanist Baruch Goldstein opened fire in the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron, killing 29 Muslims, before worshippers overpowered him and beat him to death.

24/2/1994, Thursday (+17,824) Police in Gloucester began excavating the property of Frederick West at 25 Cromwell Street.He and his wife were arrested on 28/2/1994.

21/2/1994, Monday (+17,821) In Britain, Parliament voted to lower the age of consent for homosexuals from 21 to 18.

19/2/1994, Saturday (+17,819) English film director Derek Jarman died.

13/2/1994, Sunday (+17,813) Liverpool FC signed record �4m shirt sponsorship deal with Danish brewers Carlsberg.

9/2/1994, Wednesday (+17,809) The Vance-Owen peace plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina was announced.

5/2/1994, Saturday (+17,805) 70 killed and 200 injured in a Serb mortar attack on Sarajevo marketplace.

3/2/1994, Thursday (+17,803) US President Clinton lifted trade sanctions against Vietnam; In December 1992 President Bush had allowed US companies to open offices in Vietnam but the embargo meant they could not yet trade there.


31/1/1994, Monday (+17,800) German car manufacturer BMW announced the purchase of Rover from British Aerospace for US$ 800 million.

21/1/1994, Friday (+17,790) In the USA Lorena Bobbitt was cleared of malicious wounding after cutting off her husband�s penis.

20/1/1994, Thursday (+17,789) Sir Matthew Busby, footballer, died (born 26/5/1909).

19/1/1994, Wednesday (+17,788) Jane Brown, headmistress of a school in Hackney, London, barred pupils from seeing Romeo and Juliet because it was �too heterosexual�.

17/1/1994, Monday (+17,786) A magnitude 6.7 earthquake hit Northridge in the San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles.

15/1/1994, Saturday (+17,784) In a Virginia, USA, Court, Lorena Bobbitt said she could not remember the moment she cut off her husband�s penis, after an alleged rape by him; she leaded temporary insanity. The member was successfully reattached by surgeons.

11/1/1994, Tuesday (+17,780) The Irish government ended a 15-year old broadcasting ban on the IRA and its political arm, Sinn Fein.

10/1/1994, Monday (+17,779) UK Prime Minister John Major started his �Back to basics� campaign, calling for a return to old-fashioned family values.

1/1/1994, Saturday (+17,770) (1) The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) went into force.

(2) In Mexico�s Chiapas State, near the Guatemalan border, campesinos, mostly indigenous peoples, rebelled. They named themselves Zapatistas, after Emilio Zapatista, a hero of the 1910 Revolution. They seized control of some large estates and turned them into communal farms. Chiapas was the poorest State in Mexico. 26.4% of its people were of Mayan origin (average for Mexico was 7.5%). The State had large areas unserved by electricity, despite containing dams that generated it for other areas of Mexico, A third of the people in Chiapas did not speak Spanish, and nearly 60% of Chiapas workers earned under US$3.33 an hour in 1990, the National Minimum Wage for Mexico at that time. 19% of the labour force were unwaged, working on subsistence agriculture. The main cash crop, coffee, had fallen in price considerably. 1/1/1994 was the day NAFTA came into effect, and the Zapatistas described NAFTA as the �death certificate� for Mexico, unable to compete with US and Canadian enterprises. The army was deployed to counter the rebellion; casualties were low by past Mexican standards, with some 150-400 killed. Eventually Salinas entered negotiations with the rebels.


30/12/1993, Thursday (+17,768) Israel and The Vatican recognised each other.

28/12/1993, Tuesday (+17,766) The Russian government announced that nearly 50% of the economy had been privatised.

27/12/1993, Monday (+17,765) In Cairo, Muslim militants opened fire on a tourist bus, wounding 16, including 8 Australians.

25/12/1993, Saturday (+17,763) Death of US (Russian-born, 8/2/1940) chess champion, Boris Kogan.

20/12/1993, Monday (+17,758) Charles Smirke, champion jockey, died (born 23/9/1906).

19/12/1993, Sunday (+17,757) Several people were inured in an IRA bomb blast in Londonderry.

18/12/1993, Saturday (+17,756) The first corrected images from the Hubble Telescope were taken.

17/12/1993, Friday (+17,755) Warring parties in Bosnia agreed to a ceasefire from the 23rd December to the 3rd January. However despite the ceasefire, on 25/12/1993, Serb gunmen fired over 1,300 rounds into Sarajevo, killing 6 civilians.

16/12/1993, Thursday (+17,754) Ratu Penaia Ganilau, President of Fiji (1987-93), died aged 75.

15/12/1993, Wednesday (+17,753) (1) (UK, Ireland) The Downing Street Declaration; the UK committed itself to finding a solution to the problem of Northern Ireland. Prime Ministers John Major of the UK and John Reynolds of Ireland discussed the possibility of a future united Ireland.

(2) (International) Completion of the GATT Uruguay Round (began 1986 in Punta del Este, Uruguay). 117 countries signed the economic liberalisation agreement in Marrakesh, Morocco.

14/12/1993, Tuesday (+17,752) (1) The Russian elections produced a move to the Right. Around 50% voted for Conservative-Nationalist parties with Vladimir Zhirinovsky (Liberal Democrat) emerging as overall leader. Yeltsin remained President of Russia. The Baltic States feared revenge from Zhirinovsky for their precipitating the collapse of the old USSR.

(2) Yasser Arafat, PLO leader, made his first official visit to Britain.

13/12/1993, Monday (+17,751) A fire in textile factory in Fuzjou China, killed 60.

12/12/1993, Sunday (+17,750) An earthquake hit Flores, Indonesia, killing 2,200.

11/12/1993, Saturday (+17,749) Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, leader of the Coalition for Democracy, was elected President of Chile.

10/12/1993, Friday (+17,748) (1) The Hubble telescope was successfully repaired in space by Shuttle astronauts. Its mirror had been slightly misshapen, blurring its vision of deep space. The Shuttle landed safely on 13/12/1993.

(2) Builders of the Channel Tunnel officially handed over the keys to the operators, Eurotunnel.

9/12/1993, Thursday (+17,747) Foreigners began leaving Algeria after death threats by Islamic militants.

8/12/1993, Wednesday (+17,746) The House of Commons voted to allow large British shops to open for six hours on Sundays. High Street shops now prepared for a price war with the supermarkets.

7/12/1993, Tuesday (+17,745) Felix Houphouet Boigny, President of Cote d�Ivoire, died.

5/12/1993, Sunday (+17,743)

4/12/1993, Saturday (+17,742) Frank Zappa, US rock musician, died.

3/12/1993, Friday (+17,741) Diana Princess of Wales announced her retirement from public life.

2/12/1993, Thursday (+17,740) (1) The Space Shuttle Endeavour was launched on a mission to repair flaws in the Hubble Space Telescope.

(2) A planned merger between Renault of France and Volvo of Sweden fell through.

1/12/1993, Wednesday (+17,739) Georgian and Abkhaz representatives met in Geneva to sign an accord to end their conflict.


28/11/1993, Sunday (+17,736) The Observer revealed that the UK Government had a secret channel of communication with the IRA despite UK denials.

25/11/1993, Thursday (+17,733) The English author and composer Anthony Burgess died, aged 76.

24/11/1993, Wednesday (+17,732) Two 11 year old boys, John Venables and Robert Thompson, were found guilty of the murder of 2-year-old James Bulger in Liverpool. Judge Michael Moreland suggested watching violent video films had contributed to the boy�s actions.They were sentenced to �indefinite detention�.

23/11/1993, Tuesday (+17,731) US President Bill Clinton apologised to the indigenous Hawaiians for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii in the 19th century.

20/11/1993, Saturday (+17,728)

18/11/1993, Thursday (+17,726) The Georgian President extended the country�s state of emergency indefinitely.

17/11/1993, Wednesday (+17,725) The US Congress voted for NAFTA.

15/11/1993, Monday (+17,723)

12/11/1993, Friday (+17,720) Britain refused to join a worldwide ban on dumping nuclear waste at sea.

11/11/1993, Thursday (+17,719) The USA imposed new sanctions on Libya for refusing to handover two suspects wanted for the Lockerbie bombing of a Pan Am plane.

10/11/1993, Wednesday (+17,718) Euro Disney announced losses of US$ 900 million after its first year of business. Europe-wide recession, high interest rates, and high unemployment were blamed by management for the losses. The 10,000 staff fear further job cuts on top of the 950 already dismissed, but must keep smiling to welcome the visitors (both of them).

9/11/1993, Tuesday (+17,717) (1) The UN said the number of refugees worldwide rose from 2.5 million in 1973 to 19.7 million today.

(2) The historic 16th century Mostar Bridge was demolished by a barrage of shells from Croat forces fighting Muslims.

5/11/1993, Friday (+17,713)

1/11/1993, Monday (+17,709) The European Union (formerly EC) came into existence as the Maastricht Treaty came into effect for its 12 members.


31/10/1993, Sunday (+17,708) River Phoenix, US actor, died.

28/10/1993, Thursday (+17,705)

25/10/1993, Monday (+17,702) In Canada the Liberal Party won a decisive victory in the general election. The Progressive Conservative Party, which had been in office since 1984, retained only 2 seats. The Bloc Quebecois became the second-largest Party.

24/10/1993, Sunday (+17,701) Jo Grimond, UK Liberal Party leader, died.

23/10/1993, Saturday (+17,700) An IRA bomb in Belfast killed 9.

22/10/1993, Friday (+17,699) Innes Ireland, motor racing champion, died (born 12/6/1930).

21/10/1993, Thursday (+17,698) Gary Kasparov defeated Nigel Short in the chess championships.

20/10/1993, Wednesday (+17,697) Pakistan elected Benazir Bhutto (1953-2007) as Prime Minister.

19/10/1993, Tuesday (+17,696) The UK Post Office began selling self-adhesive stamps that didn�t need licking.

18/10/1993, Monday (+17,695) As part of UK defence cuts, the privatisation of Devonport and Rosyth naval dockyards was announced.

15/10/1993, Friday (+17,692) Nelson Mandela and President F W De Klerk shared the Nobel Peace Prize.

5/10/1993, Tuesday (+17,682) The UN created a body to oversee the Arusha agreement, see 4/8/1993 and 6/4/1994.

4/10/1993, Monday (+17,681) Russian rebels surrendered at Moscow �White House�. Troops loyal to President Yeltsin opened fire on rebels in the White House who wanted a return to old-style Communism. 146 people died in theconflict; Yeltsin pardoned the ringleaders.

3/10/1993, Sunday (+17,680) US troops fought large-scale land battles with local militiamen in Mogadishu, Somalia.

2/10/1993, Saturday (+17,679) Tara Lynne Barr, US actress, was born.

1/10/1993, Friday (+17,678) Buckingham Palace closed after being open to the public for 8 weeks. 400,000 people visited, raising some �2.2 million.


30/9/1993, Thursday (+17,677) Earthquake in southwest India killed 10,000.

29/9/1993, Wednesday (+17,676) Alfred Ellaby, rugby player, died (born 24/11/1902).

28/9/1993, Tuesday (+17,675) Abkhaz rebels took the Georgian Black Sea port and resort city of Sukhumi. Georgian President Eduard Sheverdnadze accused Moscow of helping the rebels.

27/9/1993, Monday (+17,674) (Georgia) Abkhaz separatists, backed by Russia, captured the Georgian city of Sukhumi, which they had been besieging.

24/9/1993, Friday (+17,671) (1) The USA and Commonwealth lifted trade sanctions against South Africa.

(2) In the Philippines, Imelda Marcos was jailed for 18 years for corruption.

22/9/1993, Wednesday (+17,669) The Albanian national football team were banned from swapping shirts with their opponents, because the authorities couldn�t afford replacements.

21/9/1993, Tuesday (+17,668) (1) (Russia) In Russia, President Yeltsin suspended the Constitution and scrapped Parliament.

(2) (Cambodia) Cambodian elections were won by the Royalist, Funcinpec. Sihanouk became King.

15/9/1993, Wednesday (+17,662) The USA, Britain, and other Western countries agreed to sanctions on Jonas Savimbi�s UNITA forces fighting the Angolan government.

13/9/1993, Monday (+17,660) Israel and the PLO signed a peace accord in Washington. Shimon Peres, the Israeli Foreign Minister, shook hands with Mahmoud Abbas, the PLO deputy chief, and Palestinian self-rule was promised. Then the PLO leader, Yassser Arafat, held out his hand to the Israeli PM, Yitzhak Rabin. After a slight hesitation and a nudge from the US President, Bill Clinton, the two shook hands. On 14/9/1993 Israel and Jordan signed an agreement to negotiate a peace treaty.

1/9/1993, Wednesday (+17,648) In the UK, British Sky Broadcasting began transmissions.


30/8/1993, Monday (+17,646) The Israeli Government approved the granting of self-rule to Palestinians living on the West Bank and in Jericho. The PLO signed this plan on 9/9/1993.

23/8/1993, Monday (+17,639) US Policeraided singer Michael Jackson�s home after a 13-year old boy made allegations of child abuse.

20/8/1993, Friday (+17,636) Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo Peace Accord.

16/8/1993, Monday (+17,632) South Africa agreed to return Walvis Bay, its last colonial possession, to Namibia.

15/8/1993, Sunday (+17,631) Massacre of members of the Yanomami tribe in Brazil by gold and tin miners.

14/8/1993, Saturday (+17,630) Armenia launched a big offensive inside Azerbaijan near the Iranian border. Azerbaijan was also contending with another separatist movement, also near the Iranian border, at Lenkoran.

13/8/1993, Friday (+17,629) Firebombs planted by the IRA in Bournemouth caused damage but no injuries.

7/8/1993, Saturday (+17,623) Buckingham Palace, London, opened to the public for the first time ever. 4,314 visited on the first day, paying an �8 entrance fee.

4/8/1993, Wednesday (+17,620) The President of Rwanda�s Hutu-dominated government, Juvenal Habyarima, signed the Arusha Peace Agreement with the opposition Rwandan Patriotic Front, whose mainly Tutsi forces were closing in on the capital, Kigali. A ceasefire was agreed and plans made for power-sharing. 2,500 UN troops were pledged to overseethe implementation of the agreement. But on 4/8/1993 Kigali�s Radio television Libre des Milles Collines began broadcasting Hutu-supremacist, anti-Tutsi, propaganda. See 5/10/1993.

2/8/1993, Monday (+17,618) The UK ratified the Maastricht Treaty.

1/8/1993, Sunday (+17,617) Major flooding hit the Midwest Mississippi area of the USA.


31/7/1993, Saturday (+17,616) King Baudouin I of Belgium died.

25/7/1993, Sunday (+17,610) Israeli air strikes on pro-Iranian Hizbullah positions in southern Lebanon.

23/7/1993, Friday (+17,608) Megan Taylor, figure skating champion, died.

19/7/1993, Monday (+17,604) A poll in the UK showed only 37% of Britons believed Prince Charles was fit to be King.

16/7/1993, Friday (+17,601) St Louis, Missouri, flooded as the Mississippi broke its banks.

13/7/1993, Tuesday (+17,598) (1) Rolls Royce opened its first showroom in Russia.

(2) Tajik rebels, helped by Afghani guerrillas from across the border in Afghanistan, attacked Russian troops in Tajikistan who were there to prop up the local government clinging to power against Muslim fundamentalists.

12/7/1993, Monday (+17,597) A magnitude 7.8 earthquake off Hokkaido caused a major tsunami to hit Okushuri island, killing 202 people.

10/7/1993, Saturday (+17,595)

6/7/1993, Tuesday (+17,591) Georgia steeped up resistance to Abkhazian rebels, who were seeking their own Muslim state, around the Black Sea resort of Sukhumi.

5/7/1993, Monday (+17,590) Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, major cuts were announced to Britain�s Royal Navy.

4/7/1993, Sunday (+17,589)

2/7/1993, Friday (+17,587) In Turkey, 40 died in an arson attack on a hotel by Islamist terrorists protesting against Salman Rushdie�s book The Satanic Verses.

1/7/1993, Thursday (+17,586) The average UK house price was �51,211.


29/6/1993, Tuesday (+17,584)

27/6/1993, Sunday (+17,582) US forces launched cruise missile attack on Baghdad Intelligence HQ in retaliation for an attempted assassination of US President George Bush in April 1993.

26/6/1993, Saturday (+17,581) Jack Bittner, entertainer, died.

25/6/1993, Friday (+17,580) Kim Campbell (born 1947) became Canada�s first female Prime Minister (Progressive Conservative Party). In October 1993 her Party were defeated in an election by the Liberal Party, led by Jean Chretien, and in December 1993 Campbell resigned as Party leader.

24/6/1993, Thursday (+17,579) (1) Israel announced plans to build a US$ 13 million fence around the Occupied Territories.

(2) Ireland legalised gay sex with an equal age of consent as for homosexuals, 17.

23/6/1993. Wednesday (+17,578) The US lowered the Stars and Stripes for the last time at the Tempelhof airbase in Berlin after 48 years of military service there.

22/6/1993, Tuesday (+17,577) Hannah Troy, fashion designer, died.

21/6/1993, Monday (+17,576) (1) In Britain, government Minister Michael Heseltine suffered a heart attack.

(2) Basque separatists set off a car bomb in Madrid, killing 5 senior military officers in a minibus. Two others were also killed, and 24 injured.

20/6/1993, Sunday (+17,575) Benjamin Mascolo, singer, was born

19/6/1993, Saturday (+17,574) The US recognised the Government in Angola.

18/6/1993, Friday (+17,573) In a second referendum, Denmark narrowly approved the Maastricht Treaty.

17/6/1993, Thursday (+17,572) In Somalia, UN ground troops along with US helicopters launched a dawn raid on the HQ of General Mohammed Farrah Aidid, in retaliation for an attack that left 24 Pakistani peacekeepers dead 12 days earlier. Aidid escaped capture or death.

16/6/1993, Wednesday (+17,571) Lindsay Hassett, Australian cricketer, died.

15/6/1993, Tuesday (+17,570) The last Russian troops left Cuba.

14/6/1993, Monday (+17,569) Tansu Ciller became Turkey�s first woman president.

13/6/1993, Sunday (+17,568) Serb shells hit a hospital in the Muslim town of Gorazde, killing 50 people.

12/6/1993, Saturday (+17,567) Sarah Peralta, US author, died.

11/6/1993, Friday (+17,566) Ali Akbar Rafsanjani was re-elected for a second term as President of Iran.

10/6/1993, Thursday (+17,565) Scott McLaughlin, racing driver, was born.

9/6/1993, Wednesday (+17,564) In Britain, Norman Lamont made a bitter attack on John Major in the Commons.

6/6/1993, Sunday (+17,561) In Liberia, 270 civilians were massacred when rebel forces of the Patriotic National Front attacked a rubber plantation near Monrovia.

3/6/1993, Thursday (+17,558) (1) Holbeck Hall, Scarborough�s only 4-star hotel, began to collapse into the sea, with its extensive gardens. The collapse took several days.

(2) Prime Minister John Major�s ratings were also falling fast. His popularity rating fell to 21%, the lowest for ant PM since polling began in the UK in the 1930s.


30/5/1993, Sunday (+17,554) Neo-Nazi skinheads attacked and set fire to a hostel housing Turkish migrant workers in the German steel town of Solingen. This was the worst of several such attacks on migrant workers. The German government responded with a crackdown on Neo-Nazis and more controls on immigration.

28/5/1993, Friday (+17,552) Charles Barnett, cricketer, died.

27/5/1993, Thursday (+17,551) Norman Lamont resigned as UK Chancellor; Kenneth Clarke replaced him.

25/5/1993, Tuesday (+17,549)

24/5/1993, Monday (+17,548) (Ethiopia-Eritrea) Eritrea became independent. from Ethiopia, after 32 years of war between them. In 1961, to gain Ethiopia as an ally against the Soviets, Western powers had insisted on a federation of Ethiopia with Eritrea, although Eritrea was supposed to retain its own government, Shortly afterwards, Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie annexed Eritrea as a mere province. However in 1974 Haile Selassie was deposed and the country became pro-Soviet. In 1991,with Soviet support ended, Eritrean rebels were making headway and they managed to capture the Eritrean capital, Asmara, in 5/1991. A referendum on independence in Eritrea produced a majority of 99.81% in favour.

23/5/1993, Sunday (+17,547) Eseosa Mandy Aigbogun, Swiss footballer, was born.

18/5/1993,Tuesday (+17,542) The Danes voted yes to the Maastricht Treaty.

10/5/1993, Monday (+17,534) An explosion at a doll factory in Bangkok, Thailand killed 187.

6/5/1993, Thursday (+17,530) In Britain, the Conservatives did badly in elections. In a by-election, they lost Newbury on a 29% swing to the Liberals. They also did badly in county council elections the same day.

1/5/1993, Saturday (+17,525) President Ranasinghe Premadasa of Sri Lanka was assassinated by a suicide bomber.


30/4/1993, Friday (+17,524) CERN posted the source code for the Internet for free, for anyone to use.

27/4/1993, Tuesday (+17,521) The Ethiopian province of Eritrea voted overwhelmingly for independence.

25/4/1993, Sunday (+17,519) Pope John Paul II made the first Papal visit to Albania, until then the world�s only officially atheist state.

24/4/1993, Saturday (+17,518) IRA bomb exploded at Bishopsgate in the City of London. The bomb was hidden in a truck close to the Nat West Tower and left a crater of 14 square yards. One person was killed and 44 injured, and one million square feet of office space made un-useable. Insurance claims were estimated at �1 billion.

23/4/1993, Friday (+17,517) The World Health Organisation declared tuberculosis a global emergency, saying TB could kill 30 million people by 2003.

22/4/1993, Thursday (+17,516) A Black teenager, Stephen Lawrence, 18, was stabbed to death in Eltham, south east London, in a racist attack.

20/4/1993, Tuesday (+17,514)

19/4/1993, Monday (+17,513) The siege at Waco, Texas, ended after 51 days. On 28/2/1993 the Branch Davidian sect, led by David Koresh, was visited by US Federal Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms personnel to arrest Koresh for suspected firearms offences. Sect members opened fire, killing four Federal Agents and injuring a dozen more. US government troops and armoured cars surrounded the sect�s ranch. On 19 April the wooden compound was set alight by cult members as troops fired tear gas into the buildings. 86 people, including David Koresh and 17 children, died.

18/4/1993, Sunday (+17,512) The Muslim town of Srebrenica surrendered to Serb forces.

17/4/1993, Saturday (+17,511) Two Los Angeles policemen were convicted of beating up Rodney King.

15/4/1993, Thursday (+17,509)

11/4/1993, Sunday (+17,505) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1993, Saturday (+17,504) Iran said income from tourism rose by 50% over the past year.

9/4/1993, Friday (+17,503) Wouter Perquin, Dutch MP (KVP), died aged 74.

8/4/1993, Thursday (+17,502) Marian Anderson, US musician, died.

7/4/1993, Wednesday (+17,501) The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia joined the United Nations.

6/4/1993, Tuesday (+17,500) Queen Elizabeth became liable for Income Tax and Capital Gains Tax.

5/4/1993, Monday (+17,499) Republican Guards killed 64 in Chad.

4/4/1993, Sunday (+17,498) Armenian forces now occupied a tenth of Azerbaijan. Armenia laid claim to the enclave of Nagorny-Karabakh and was occupying territory separating the enclave from Armenia.

3/4/1993, Saturday (+17,497) Animal Rights activists disrupted the Grand National at Aintree, Liverpool.

2/4/1993, Friday (+17,496) 1st test flight of Fokker 70.

1/4/1993, Thursday (+17,495)(1) Britain agreed to send aircraft to enforce the no-fly zone over Bosnia.

(2) A survey showed a record 69% of Australians wanted their country to become a Republic.


30/3/1993, Tuesday (+17,493)

29/3/1993, Monday (+17,492) Two Hoover executives were fired by the American parent company Maytag after the free-flights fiasco. The deal whereby any Hoover purchase over �100 entitled the customer to a flight worth �400 was vastly over-subscribed and cost Hoover over �20 million.

28/3/1993, Sunday (+17,491) Type II supernova detected in M81.

27/3/1993, Saturday (+17,490) Ziang Zemin became President of the People�s Republic of China.

25/3/1993, Thursday (+17,488)

23/3/1993, Tuesday (+17,486) The UN stated that record low levels of ozone had been registered over large areas of the Western Hemisphere.

22/3/1993, Monday (+17,485) South Africa officially abandoned its nuclear weapons programme. President de Klerk announced that the country's 6 warheads had already been dismantled in 1990.

21/3/1993, Sunday (+17,484) Pope John Paul II declared Duns Scotus a saint.

20/3/1993, Saturday (+17,483) An IRA bomb exploded in Warrington, killing a child. A second child died of his injuries later. On 28/3/1993 thousands joined a peace rally in Dublin.

19/3/1993, Friday (+17,482) UN relief convoy reached Srebrenica, Yugoslavia.

18/3/1993, Thursday (+17,481) Kenneth E Boulding, US economist and activist, died (born 1910).

17/3/1993, Wednesday (+17,480) In Britain, protests over Budget plans to impose VAT on domestic fuel, initially at 8%, and at 17.5% from 1995.

14/3/1993, Sunday (+17,477) Severe storms along the east coast of the USA killed 66 people.

12/3/1993, Friday (+17,475) 257 people were killing in a bombing in Mumbai, India.

11/3/1993, Thursday (+17,474) North threatened to withdraw from the nuclear non-proliferation treaty, but did not in fact leave.

10/3/1993, Wednesday (-17,473) Dr David Gunn, gynaecologist, was murdered by an anti-abortion campaigner.

9/3/1993, Tuesday (+17,472)

7/3/1993, Sunday (+17,470) Vin�cius de Freitas Ribeiro, Brazilian footballer, was born.

6/3/1993, Saturday (+17,469) Ning Zetao, champion Chinese swimmer was born in Zhengzhou.

5/3/1993, Friday (+17,468) Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson was banned from the sport for life after failing a drugs test. In 1988 he had been banned for 2 years after using steroids at the Olympics.

4/3/1993, Thursday (+17,467) In Britain, a reform of the Honours System was announced, to give greater reward for merit.

3/3/1993, Wednesday (+17,466) (1) Rolls Royce announced plans to open a showroom in China.

(2) Tony Bland, in a vegetative state since becoming a victim of the Hillsborough soccer disaster on 15/4/1989, was allowed to die by doctors.

2/3/1993, Tuesday (+17,465) Paul Zimmerman, US screenwriter, died (born 3/7/1938).

1/3/1993, Monday (+17,464) Funeral of two-year-old James Bulger, abducted from Bootle shopping centre on 12/2/1993 and later murdered by two youths on a Liverpool railway line; his body was found by the tracks on 16/2/1993. Two boys aged ten from Walton, Robert Thompson and Jon Venables, were charged with the murder on 20/2/1993. The case provoked a moral panic about social breakdown in society and �loss of values�.


28/2/1993, Sunday (+17,463) In Cairo, a caf� used by foreigners was bombed by Muslim extremists. 4 were killed and 16 injured. Americans, Swedes, and Germans were amongst the injured.

27/2/1993, Saturday (+17,462) Alphonse Areola, footballer, was born.

26/2/1993, Friday (+17,461) Bomb exploded beneath World Trade Centre, New York. Six were killed and hundreds injured when a bomb explodedin an underground car park, planted by Muslim fundamentalists.

25/2/1993, Thursday (+17,460) The USA announced it was to drop food and medicine to Muslims besieged by Serbs in Bosnia.

24/2/1993, Wednesday (+17,459) Brian Mulroney resigned as Canadian Prime Minister.

21/2/1993, Sunday (+17,456) A poll revealed that nearly 50% of Britons would emigrate if they could, the highest since 1948.

19/2/1993, Friday (+17,454) UK Prime Minister John Major rejected the idea of a posthumous pardon for First World War soldiers executed for cowardice or desertion on the grounds that it would be �rewriting history�.

18/2/1993, Thursday (+17,453) In the UK, Prime Minister John Major faced anger in Parliament after UK unemployment rose to 3,062,065 in January, the highest since April 1987.

17/2/1993, Wednesday (+17,452) Heavy fighting in Lebanon between Israeli forces and pro-Iranian guerrillas.

16/2/1993, Tuesday (+17,451)

14/2/1993, Sunday (+17,449) Iran again called on Britain to hand over Salman Rushdie, sentenced to death by Ayatollah Khomeini on 14/2/1989 for his book The Satanic Verses.

13/2/1993, Saturday (+17,448) A second three-day meeting between the PLO and Israel in Oslo, Norway, concluded with a draft Declaration of Principles. See 23/1/1993 and 20/8/1993.

12/2/1993, Friday (+17,447)

11/2/1993, Thursday (+17,446) Buckingham Palace announced the Queen would pay income tax in April.

10/2/1993, Wednesday (+17,445) The Pope, John Paul II, called for an end to the persecution of Christians in Sudan.

7/2/1993, Sunday (+17,442) Algeria announced that the state of emergency imposed a year ago because of Islamic fundamentalism would continue indefinitely.

3/2/1993, Wednesday (+17,438) Statistics showed French women had the highest life expectancy in Europe at 81.1 years, 8 years more than French men.

1/2/1993, Monday (+17,436) (1) The EC began formal talks on admitting Austria, Sweden, and Finland by 1995.

(2) The Cambodian government began an offensive against Khmer Rouge rebels in western and north-central Cambodia.


29/1/1993, Friday (+17,433) The US Census Bureau announced that the number of women in managerial jobs had risen 95% between 1980 and 1990, to 6.2 million.

28/1/1993, Thursday (+17,432) The IRA bombed Harrods for the third time in 20 years. Four people were injured. The bomb, one poundof Semtex, was in a litter bin, one of several removed on the advice of the police but reinstated by Kensington and Chelsea Council because of the litter problem left by shoppers at a Harrods sale. The last IRA attack on Harrods had been in 1984, killing six people.

27/1/1993, Wednesday (+17,431) A DC-3 crashed in Kinshasa, killing 12.

26/1/1993, Tuesday (+17,430) Vaclav Havel became the first president of the new Czech Republic. He was a centre-right candidate, opposed by Communists and the extreme-right Republican Party.

25/1/1993, Monday (+17,429) President Mubarak of Egypt vowed to end Muslim fundamentalism.

24/1/1993, Sunday (+17,428) In Poland the ferry boat John Heweliusz sank, with 52 killed.

23/1/1993, Saturday (+17,427) A three-day secret meeting between representatives of the PLO and Israel concluded in Oslo, Norway. See 13/2/1993.

22/1/1993, Friday (-17,426) The UK government announced plans for privatising British Rail. Passenger services were to be franchised out to up to 40 different operators, who would hold the franchises for 5 years of more. There was Labour, and some Tory, opposition, and investors were wary of large losses in the rail industry.

21/1/1993, Thursday (+17,425) Abe Kobo, Japanese writer, died (born 7/3/1924).

20/1/1993, Wednesday (+17,424) (1) Bill Clinton sworn in as the 42nd US President. Prayers were said by the Reverend Billy Graham. The Iraqi official media advised former President Bush to commit suicide.

(2) Jonas Savimbi�s UNITA rebels took the important Angolan oil refining town of Sayo.

19/1/1993, Tuesday (+17,423) The space shuttle Endeavour landed after a 6-day mission.

18/1/1993, Monday (+17,422) Eleanor Hibbert, English writer, died (born 1/9/1906).

17/1/1993, Sunday (+17,421) Bookmakers cut the odds of the UK monarchy being abolished before the year 2000 from 100-1 to 50-1.

16/1/1993, Saturday (+17,420) Florence Desmond, English actress, died (born 31/5/1905).

15/1/1993, Friday (+17,419) The situation in Somalia continued tense despite a ceasefire brokered and enforced by US troops.

14/1/1993, Thursday (+17,418) (1) Despite calls for his arrest on manslaughter charges, the former East German leader, Eric Honecker, 80 years old and with terminal liver cancer, was allowed to depart for Chile because of his failing health.

(2) The UK aircraft carrier Ark Royal set sail for the Adriatic as part of British reinforcements for peacekeeping troops in Bosnia. Also today the first British soldier was killed, shot by a sniper, in Bosnia, whilst escorting an ambulance.

(3) Ramiro de Leon Carpio was sworn in as President of Guatemala.

13/1/1993, Wednesday (+17,417) Official statistics from Canada showed that Chinese was the country�s third most common language, after English and French.

12/1/1993, Tuesday (+17,416) (1) London�s first refuge for battered husbands opened.

(2) The Burmese military junta said it would hold opposition leader and Nobel Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi indefinitely.

11/1/1993, Monday (+17,415) Richard Branson won a legal victory after British Airways apologised for a �dirty tricks� campaign against Virgin Atlantic Airways.

10/1/1993, Sunday (+17,414) Press reports emerged that Princess Diana, already separated from her husband Prince Charles, wanted to divorce him.

9/1/1993, Saturday (+17,413) Sir Paul Hasluck, Governor General of Australia died (born 1/4/1905).

8/1/1993, Friday (+17,412) President Saddam Hussein of Iraq continued to defy calls by Britain, France, The USA, and Russia to move surface-to-air missiles away from the air exclusion zone in southern Iraq.Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz was defiant; however the missiles were in fact soon moved, to a location unknown to the Allies due to poor weather.

7/1/1993, Thursday (+17,411) (1) The British Foreign Secretary, Douglas Hurd, became the first Cabinet Minister to visit Argentina since the Falklands War of 1982. He met Argentine President Carlos Menem, and the still disputed question of ownership of the Falkland Islands was avoided. Oil exploration and fishing issues were discussed,

(2) Ford unveiled its new family car, the Mondeo.

(3) In the USA, the Environmental Protection Agency released the results of a 4-year study proving that second-hand cigarette smoke was killing 3,000 non-smokers a year through lung cancer, as well as causing asthma attacks and respiratory infections in babies.

6/1/1993, Wednesday (+17,410) President Alberto Fujimori restored constitutional government in Peru.

5/1/1993, Tuesday (+17,409) The oil tanker MV Braer ran aground off Shetland after losing power in a storm, and began leaking all her cargo of 84,700 tons of crude oil. However fears that the Shetland Islands would be polluted for years to come were allayed as the storm waves dispersed the oil.

4/1/1993, Monday (+17,408) (1) Muslim fundamentalists killed two Coptic Christians in Egypt.

(2) P & O European Ferries announced the closure of its passenger services between Dover and Boulogne after 170 years.

3/1/1993, Sunday (+17,407) President Bush of the USA and Yeltsin of the USSR signed the START II (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks) Treaty.

2/1/1993, Saturday (+17,406) Alden Richards, TV actor, was born.

1/1/1993, Friday (+17,405)(1) The European Single Market came into operation. Apart from the UK, Ireland, Denmark, and Greece, passports would not be needed at frontiers within the EU. British shoppers began to take advantage of more much relaxed limits on the amount of alcohol and tobacco they could bring back from France.

(2) Czechoslovakia split into the Czech and Slovak Republics, in a �velvet divorce�.


31/12/1992, Thursday (+17,404) The Queen described 1992 as an �annus horibilis�, one of the worst years for the UK monarchy since the abdication crisis of 1936. The Duke and Duchess of York had separated, Princess Anne had divorced, the Prince of Wales had reportedly attempted suicide through marital difficulties, and then separated from Diana, and Windsor Castle had suffered a major fire, on 20/11/1992. There was extensive damage to rooms, artwork, furniture, and other effects. There was public condemnation when it emerged the restoration cost would be met from the public purse. Six days after the fire the Prime Minister John Major announced that the Queen was reconsidering the scope of the Civil List and might end her exemption from income tax.

30/12/1992, Wednesday (+17,403) All Soviet troops have left Mongolia.

25/12/1992, Friday (+17,398)

20/12/1992, Sunday (+17,393) The Folies Bergere, Paris music hall which opened in 1869, closed down.

19/12/1992, Saturday (+17,392) (Taiwan) The first democratic General Elections in Taiwan (see 1986). The incumbent Kuomintang won, with 53% of the vote, but the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) made significant inroads. See 2000.

18/12/1992, Friday (+17,391)

16/12/1992, Wednesday (+17,389) (1) Israel ordered the deportation of 415 Palestinians to Lebanon. The intifada, or Palestinian uprising, was now in its sixth year. However Lebanon refused to accept the deportees and they remained stranded in a no-mans-land between Lebanon and the barbed wire border of Israel�s self-declared security zone.

(2) The IRA disrupted Christmas shopping with two bombs in Oxford Street. Four people were injured.

15/12/1992, Tuesday (+17,388) El Salvador�s 12-year civil war, which had killed 75,000, officially ended.

14/12/1992, Monday (+17,387) In Algeria, Muslim extremists ambushed and killed five policemen.

13/12/1992, Sunday (+17,386) KC Irving, Canadian industrialist, died (born 14/3/1899).

12/12/1992, Saturday (+17,385) An earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale hit just offshore from Flores Island, Indonesia. At least 1,500 were killed as 80% of the buildings in the island�s capital, Maumere, were destroyed.

11/12/1992, Friday (+17,384) An Edinburgh Summit of EC heads of State discussed Denmark�s� rejection of the Maastricht Treaty.

10/12/1992, Thursday (+17,383) Melissa Roxburgh, Canadian actress, was born.

9/12/1992, Wednesday (+17,382) The UK Prime Minister announced to the House of Commons that Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer were to separate.

8/12/1992, Tuesday (+17,381) Yui Yokoyama, Japanese actress, was born.

7/12/1992, Monday (+17,380) (1) Three Israeli soldiers were shot by Islamic militants on the Gaza Strip.

(2) Religious riots swept India after Hindu fanatics destroyed the Babri Masjid mosque.

6/12/1992, Sunday (+17,379) (India) Riots followed a Hindu attack on the Ayodha Mosque, India. This mosque was built by the first Moghul Emperor Babur in the early 16th century; Hindus contended that it was built on top of a Hindu temple marking the birthplace of the Hindu god, Rama. India appeared to be abandoning its secular legacy in favour of a militant Hinduism.

5/12/1992, Saturday (+17,378) Hilary Tindall, English actress (born 14/8/1938) died.

4/12/1992, Friday (+17,377) US troops landed in Somalia. Rival warlord�s factions were causing chaos on Somali capital Mogadishu and hundreds of thousands were starving in the countryside. The US sent 28,000 troops to help relief efforts, codenamed �Restore Hope�.

3/12/1992, Thursday (+17,376) (1) The IRA set off two bombs in Manchester.

(2) The oil tanker Aegean Sea ran aground near La Coruna, Spain, making an oil slick 20 kilometres long.

2/12/1992, Wednesday (+17,375) The Prime Minister of Greece, Constantine Mitsotakis, dismissed his entire Cabinet after dissent over austerity measures broke out.

1/12/1992, Tuesday (+17,374) Two C-141B Starlifters collided in Montana and crashed, 13 died.


30/11/1992, Monday (+17,373) SWAPO won a landslide victory in elections in Namibia.

28/11/1992, Saturday (+17,371)

27/11/1992, Friday (+17,370) (Universities) Bournemouth University was inaugurated.

26/11/1992, Thursday (+17,369) In Britain, the Queen announced she would pay income tax on her private income.

25/11/1992, Wednesday (+17,368) The Czechoslovak National Assembly voted for the country to split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, on 1 January 1993.

20/11/1992, Friday (+17,363) A fire broke out in the private chapel at Windsor Castle. The fire burned for 15 hours, causing major damage.The cause was a spotlight left in contact with a curtain.

18/11/1992, Wednesday (+17,361) In Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto was put under house arrest after police broke up a political demonstration.

17/11/1992, Tuesday (+17,360) In France, cave paintings were discovered at Cosquer that were estimated to date from 25,000 BC.

16/11/1992, Monday (+17,359) A brain-dead woman had been artificially kept alive to allow her foetus to be born; however she miscarried and the life support was turned off.

13/11/1992, Friday (+17.356)

12/11/1992, Thursday (+17,355) In northern Canada, a referendum amongst the Inuit people produced a majority for a semi-autonomous territory to be called Nunavut.

11/11/1992, Wednesday (+17,354) (Christian) The UK General Synod voted for ordination of women. Several hundred male clergy left the Church in protest and even in 2000 there were some 1,000 Church of England congregations that were refusing to accept female priests. The first female priests were ordained in 1994 and by 2001 around 20% of the Church of England clergy was female. Some saw this as progressive, others as blasphemous.

10/11/1992, Tuesday (+17,353) In the UK, an inquiry into the Matrix-Churchill affair was announced.

9/11/1992, Monday (+17,352)

3/11/1992, Tuesday (+17,346) Bill Clinton, 46 year old Governor of Arkansas, was elected 42nd US President, winning decisively over the incumbent, Republican President George Bush. Clinton got 43.7 million votes, Bush got 38.2 million and the independent Ross Perot got 19.2 million.

2/11/1992, Monday (+17,345) Iran increased the reward for killing Salman Rushdie.

1/11/1992, Sunday (+17,344) Reece Brown, English footballer, was born.


31/10/1992, Saturday (+17,343) The Vatican admitted that Galileo was right when he said the Earth revolved around the Sun.

30/10/1992, Friday (+17,342) A Middle East peace conference began in Madrid, Spain.

29/10/1992, Thursday (+17,341) The Muslim town of Jajce fell to the Serbs.

28/10/1992, Wednesday (+17,340) The American Galileo spacecraft made a close approach to 951 Gaspra, becoming the first space probe to visit an asteroid.

27/10/1992, Tuesday (+17,339) Turkey sent tanks into northern Iraq as a security measure against Kurdish separatist guerrillas.

26/10/1992, Monday (+17,338) In a referendum,, Canadians rejected the Charlotte-town reform which would have granted concessions to French-speaking Quebec.

25/10/1992, Sunday (+17,337) Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin confirmed that Israel did not intend to withdraw from the Golan Heights.

18/10/1992, Sunday (+17,330) More violence on the West Bank, as a Palestinian killed an Israeli woman and injured nine other Israelis.

14/10/1992, Wednesday (+17,326) (Poland, Russia) The Russian KGB handed over documents to Poland�s Lech Walesa revealing that the Russians killed Polish officers in 1940 in the Katyn Forest Massacre. The Kremlin had previously insisted it was the Germans who had done this.

13/10/1992, Tuesday (+17,325) British Coal announced 31 pit closures and the loss of 31,000 jobs.

12/10/1992, Monday (+17,324) Earthquake hit Cairo. It was 5.9 on the Richter scale, with an epicentre 19 miles from Cairo, tremors were felt in Jerusalem 250 miles away. There was panic as at least 160 buildings collapsed and many were trampled to death in the ensuing chaos. Fortunately the Aswan Dam was not breached.

11/10/1992, Sunday (+17,323) In Cameroon�s first multi-party elections, President Biya won a slim majority.

10/10/1992, Saturday (+17,322) Tens of thousands rallied in Washington, D. C., calling on the government to dedicate more funding to combating HIV/AIDS.

9/10/1992, Friday (+17,321) Two IRA bombs exploded in London, to coincide with the Conservative Party Conference.

8/10/1992, Thursday (+17,320) Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, died.

7/10/1992, Wednesday (+17,319) In Peru, the Shining Path leader Abimael Guzman was convicted of treason and sentenced to life in prison.

6/10/1992, Tuesday (+17,318) A truce in the 16-year-old civil war in Angola looked fragile after UNITA disputed election results giving the MPLA government, under President Jose Eduardo Dos Santos a 51% to 39% lead over Jonas Savimbi.

5/10/1992, Monday (+17,317) In Guyana, general elections produced a narrow victory for the People�s Progressive Party, ending the 28-year rule of the People�s National Congress.

4/10/1992, Sunday (+17,316) An Israeli El Al cargo plane crashed into a block of flats in Amsterdam shortly after take-off, killing 75 people.

3/10/1992, Saturday (+17,315) Matthew Little, actor, was born.

2/10/1992, Friday (+17,314) In the USA, IBM announced it was to lay off 40,000 workers, 25% of its workforce.

1/10/1992, Thursday (+17,313) Pittsburgh�s new International Airport opened.


30/9/1992, Wednesday (+17,312) (1) Britain introduced a new and lighter 10p coin.

(2) In Angola�s first democratically-held elections, Jose Eduardo dos Santos defeated Jonas Savimbi.

29/9/1992, Tuesday (+17,311) (1) Racism was on the rise in Germany. 28% of Germans aged between 16 and 24 had racist views, compared with 15% in 1990.

(2) Pope John Paul II visited Ireland for a 3-day visit. 1.2 million people, a third of the population, attended his Mass in Phoenix Park, Dublin.

27/9/1993, Sunday (+17,309)

24/9/1992, Thursday (+17,306) The National Heritage Minister David Mellor resigned after a sex scandal.

23/9/1992, Wednesday (+17,305) Abimael Guzman Reynoso Shining Path leader, was arrested in Peru after 12 years as a wanted man..

20/9/1992, Sunday (+17,302) The Maastricht issue split the EC, with France voting narrowly for it but Denmark voting narrowly against it. The idea was to further integrate Europe. British politics was also split with �Euro-sceptics� on the Conservative back benches harassing John Major, Prime Minister.

16/9/1992, Wednesday (+17,298) �Black Wednesday� as Britain was forced out of the ERM by currency speculators betting on a fall in the pound.The Italian Lira was also ejected.George Soros, financier, had �sold short� more than UK� 5 billion in the currency markets.

12/9/1992, Saturday (+17,294) A Los Angeles traffic warden ticketed a Cadillac without noticing that the driver inside was dead. He had been shot in the back of the head 13 hours earlier.

7/9/1992, Monday (+17,289) The first hanging in over 20 years took place in Afghanistan, with around 3,000 spectators.

3/9/1992, Thursday (+17,285) (Georgia) After Georgian forces had pulled out of the Gagra region, following an agreed ceasefire, Abkhaz forces under Shamil Basayev began an ethnic cleansing of the local Georgian population, killing 30,000 Georgians and causing many others to flee.


27/8/1992, Thursday (+17,278) The US established a �no-fly� zone over southern Iraq, south of latitude 32 degrees.

19/8/1992, Wednesday (+17,270) Right wing rioting began in Rostock, Germany. Hundreds of right wing youths, throwing paving stones and firebombs, attacked an immigrant hostel, cheered on by local people, in the poor Lichtenhagen area of the city. Thousands of police were drafted in to restore order, which had broken down when many Romanian refuges, unable to secure a place in the hostel, had camped outside it. The asylum seekers were evacuated but fighting between police and youths continued for days and spread to other German cities. Germany had seen both a rise in asylum seekers and increased unemployment in the east since reunification, as eastern industries were exposed to competition from the more efficient west.

18/8/1992, Tuesday (+17,269) (Georgia) After five days of fighting, Georgian forces took control of the separatist Abkhazian capital, Sukhumi.

17/8/1992, Monday (+17,268)

15/8/1992, Saturday(+17,266) The new Premier League, of elite English football clubs, was launched.

14/8/1992, Friday (+17,265) After Abkhaz Separatists wanting to secede from Georgia had attacked Georgian Government buildings in 6/1992, this day the Georgian police and National Guard entered the Abkhaz capital, Sukhumi, to restore authority. Georgian forces were bolstered by prisoners who had been offered freedom if they fought the Abkhaz.

13/8/1992, Thursday (+17,264) Jan Elburg, poet, died.

12/8/1992, Wednesday (+17,263) US composer John Cage died, aged 79.

11/8/1992, Tuesday (+17,262) The biggest shopping mall in the USA opened in Minnesota. It had over 300 stores, covering 4.2 million square feet.

10/8/1992, Monday (+17,.261) (Space exploration) The European Space Agency launched Topex/Poseidon, a geodetic mapping satellite.
9/8/1992, Sunday (+17,260) The Barcelona Olympic Games closed.

3/8/1992, (1) Monday (+17,254) Reports from Bosnia told of Nazi-style concentration camps and ethnic cleansing.

(2) The US began forces manoeuvres in Kuwait, as a warning to Iraq.


31/7/1992, Friday (+17,251) The 25th Olympic Games were held in Barcelona. Black market tickets to the Olympics had been selling for $1,500.

29/7/1992, Wednesday (+17,249) Herr Honecker, former leader of East Germany, was forced to leave the Chilean Embassy in Moscow where he had taken refuge, to face manslaughter charges over the deaths of people trying to escape over the Berlin Wall to West Germany.

28/7/1992, Tuesday (+17,248) Afghanistan banned women, even wearing veils, from being seen on TV.

23/7/1992, Thursday (+17,243) The UK saw riots in Bristol, Carlisle, Blackburn, Burnley, and Huddersfield. 62 youths were arrested.

20/7/1992, Monday (+17,240) Vaclav Havel resigned as President of Czechoslovakia. This was after a proclamation of sovereignty by Slovakia, which was to split the country in two.

18/7/1992, Saturday (+17,238) John Smith elected leader of the British Labour Party.

15/7/1992, Wednesday (+17,235) British MPs gave themselves a 40% rise on their expenses.

13/7/1992, Monday (+17,233) Britain�s former executioner, Albert Pierrepoint, died.

10/7/1992, Friday (+17,230) Ex-President Noriega of Nicaragua, forcibly brought into the USA, was sentenced to 40 years on drugs charges.

9/7/1992, Thursday (+17,229) Chris Patten, last British Governor of Hong Kong, took office; the colony was to be handed back to China in 1997.

8/7/1992, Wednesday (+17,228) Thomas Klestil became President of Austria

7/7/1992, Tuesday (+17,227) Iraq again obstructed UNSCOM weapons inspectors, refusing them access to the Ministry of Agriculture, where there may have been details of Iraq�s chemical weapons programme.

6/7/1992, Monday (+17,226) French lorry drivers blockaded roads, causing chaos.

5/7/1992, Sunday (+17,225) UN forces arrived in the Somali capital, Mogadishu, to help with food distribution.

4/7/1992, Saturday (+17,224) Joe Newman, US Jazz trumpeter, died (born 1922).

3/7/1992, Friday (+17,223) Crystal Dunn, US soccer player, was born.

2/7/1992, Thursday (+17,222) Ali Kafi became the new President of Algeria.

1/7/1992, Wednesday (+17,221) The average UK house price was �51,815.


30/6/1992, Tuesday (+17,220) Fidel Ramos became President of the Philippines.

29/6/1992, Monday (+17,219) The 73 year old President of Algeria, Mohammed Boudiaf, was assassinated whilst making a speech at a political rally.

28/6/1992, Sunday (+17,218) California had its strongest earthquake for 40 years. Measuring 7.4 on the Richter scale, the epicentre was in a sparsely-populated area of the Mojave Desert, 100 miles from Los Angeles, and the only casualty was a child killed by a falling chimney.

27/6/1992, Saturday (+17,217) Allan Jones, US actor, died aged 84.

26/6/1992, Friday (+17,216) Joel Campbell, footballer, was born.

25/6/1992, Thursday (+17,215) William E Harris, entertainer, died.

24/6/1992, Wednesday (+17,214) The family of US woman Rose Cipollone, who died of lung cancer after 42 years of smoking, succeeded in a lawsuit against the cigarette companies.

23/6/1992, Tuesday (+17,213) In South Africa the ANC withdrew from constitutional talks in protest at the Boipatong violence.

22/6/1992, Monday (+17,212) Reginald Harris, cycling champion, died.

21/6/1992, Sunday (+17,211) Max Schneider, actor, was born.

20/6/1992, Saturday (+17,210) Police fired on Black residents in Boipatong.

19/6/1992, Friday (+17,209) Kathleen Godfree, tennis player, died (born 7/5/1896).

18/6/1992, Thursday (+17,208) 39 people were killed in South Africa in the Boipatong Massacre, which was allegedly by Inkatha supporters.

17/6/1992, Wednesday (+17,207) Ryan Allsop, English footballer, was born.

16/6/1992, Tuesday (+17,206) In the Philippines, Cory Aquino was defeated in elections by General Fidel Ramos.

11/6/1992, Thursday (+17,201) The last survivor of the Titanic disaster, Marjorie Robb, died in Boston, USA, aged 103.

3/6/1992, Wednesday (+17,193) The Earth Summit began in Rio de Janeiro.

2/6/1992, Tuesday (+17,192) Denmark, in a referendum, rejected the Maastricht Treaty.

1/6/1992, Monday (+17,191) Terrorist Carlos the Jackal was sentenced to life imprisonment in France.


30/5/1992, Saturday (+17,189) The UN agreed wide-ranging sanctions against what was left of Yugoslavia as the Belgrade �Serbian government suppressed other races and attempted to establish a �greater Serbia� by force. When in January 1992 the EC recognised Croatian and Slovenian independence, a third of Croatia was occupied by Serb forces. A new phrase entered the language � �ethnic cleansing�, as Bosnian Muslims and other non-Serbs were forcibly expelled from villages overrun by Serb forces. Images of concentration camps reminded people, of the horrors of World War Two as pictures of skeletal Bosnian detainees behind barbed wire reached the West. By mid-July 1992 the Bosnian capital Sarajevo had been under siege for over 100 days, shelled by Serb gunners in the hills above the city, and snipers roamed freely in the streets. Civilian casualties were appalling, and by the end of September 1992 relief efforts stalled. Winter loomed, and with it the spectre of mass starvation in the heart of Europe.

28/5/1992, Thursday (+17,187) The US prison population reached a record high of 823,414. One in three was being held for a drugs-related offence.

25/5/1992, Monday (+17,184) Oscar Salfaro was elected President of Italy.

23/5/1992, Saturday (+17,182) In Italy, Judge Giovanni Falcone, the principal anti-Mafia investigator, was killed by a massive car bomb.

9/5/1992, Saturday (+17,168) William Nevett, horse racing champion, died (born 26/3/1906).

6/5/1992, Wednesday (+17,165) Marlene Dietrich, German actress, died in Paris aged 90. She was born on 27/12/1901 in Berlin, and left Germany for the USA in 1930. Her role in the film The Blue Angel brought her to fame. She became a US citizen in 1937, rejecting attempts by Hitler to bring her talents back to Germany. She played a major role in entertaining the wartime Allied troops. In 1960, on only her second post-war visit to Germany, she encountered hostility from pro-Nazi sympathisers. She subsequently remained hostile to the ideas of returning to Germany again, until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and chose the city as her final resting place.


30/4/1992, Thursday (+17,159) In April and May, Los Angeles saw the worst rioting in the US for more than 25 years. The racial unrest began after 4 policemen were acquitted of assaulting a Black motorist, Rodney King, despite TV footage showing him being kicked and beaten. The trial had been held in a white area of town and the jury did not include a single Black person. In the riots, over 50 were killed, 4,000 injured, and four days of looting and arson saw 12,000 arrests and over US$ 1 billion of damage. 10,000 troops and National guardsmen had to be drafted in to restore order. There were also smaller riots in other US cities such as Atlanta and Las Vegas.

29/4/1992, Wednesday (+17,158) The autocratic Siaka Stevens regime in Sierra Leone was overthrown, by a group led by Captain Valentine Strasser.

28/4/1992, Tuesday (+17,157) The French composer Olivier Messiaen died aged 83. Also this day the English painter Francis Bacon died in Madrid, aged 82.

27/4/1992, Monday (+17,156) Betty Boothroyd became the first woman Speaker in the House of Commons.

26/4/1992, Sunday (+17,155) Worshippers celebrated Easter at the Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow for the first time in 74 years.

25/4/1992, Saturday (+17,154) Kabul, Afghanistan, fell to Mujaheddin forces.

24/4/1992, Friday (+17,153) Sean Rademaker, US actor, was born in Washington, DC.

23/4/1992, Thursday (+17,152) Scientists in the USA announced the discovery of �ripples� in the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of the universe. This helped account for the present-day uneven distribution of matter in the Universe.

22/4/1992, Wednesday (+17,151) Gas leaked into sewers in Guadalajara, Mexico, then exploded, killing 230.

21/4/1992, Tuesday (+17,150) Vladimir Romanov, the Pretender to the Russian throne, died aged 74.

20/4/1992, Monday (+17,149) The comedian Benny Hill died.

19/4/1992, Sunday (+17,148) Easter Sunday.

18/4/1992, Saturday (+17,147) Misa Eguchi, Japanese tennis player, was born.

17/4/1992, Friday (+17,146) Hank Penny, country music singer, died aged 73 of heart failure

16/4/1992, Thursday (+17,145) President Najibullah of Afghanistan was overthrown. Mujaheddin rebels closed in on Kabul.

15/4/1992, Wednesday (+17,144) UN sanctions imposed on Libya (authorised by the UN, 31/3/1992) came into effect. These were because of Libya�s refusal to hand over two men suspected of the Lockerbie bombing.

14/4/1992, Tuesday (+17,143) In Florida, an 11-year old boy successfully �divorced� his parents in court.

13/4/1992, Monday (+17,142) (1) An earthquake rocked Roermond in The Netherlands, along the Peel fault.

(2) Neil Kinnock resigned as leader of the UK Labour Party, following the Conservative victory of 9/4/1992.

12/4/1992, Sunday (+17,141) Euro-Disney opened just east of Paris. The $4 billion, 4,800 acre, complex could accommodate up to 60,000 visitors a day. It had 6 hotels with a total of 5,200 rooms, and a total of 14,000 staff, or �cast members�. On 4/6/1992 Euro-Disney reported that it had received 1.5 million visitors, or 30,000 per day.

11/4/1992, Saturday (17,140) Eve Merriam, US poet, died (born 19/7/1916).

10/4/1992, Friday (+17,139) A massive IRA bomb exploded at 9.25 p.m. in the City of London. The 100 lb device killed 3 and injured 91.It blew out every window in the Commercial Union Tower, and many more windows in other office blocks. Another IRA bomb went off at Staples Corner on the North Circular, causing no injuries, but closing the flyover for some months.

9/4/1992, Thursday (+17,138) The Conservatives under John Major won the UK General Election. This prompted Neil Kinnock�s resignation as Labour Party leader.

8/4/1992, Wednesday (+17,137) Punch magazine published its last issue.

7/4/1992, Tuesday (+17,136) The EC and USA recognised Bosnia-Hercegovina�s independence.

6/4/1992, Monday (+17,135) (1) Serbian troops began the siege of Sarajevo, after Serbs in Bosnia objected to Bosniaks and Croats seeking independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina from Serbia.

(2) Isaac Asimov, science fiction writer, born 2/1/1920, died.

5/4/1992, Sunday (+17,134) (1) Germany�s extreme right gained in elections, over the issue of immigrants from eastern Europe.

(2) Samuel Moore Walton, born 29/3/1918, founder of Wal-Mart, died.


30/3/1992, Monday (+17,128)

28/3/1992, Saturday (+17,126) Norman Bruce, rugby player, died (born 24/8/1932).

27/3/1992, Friday (+17,125) Martin Engelman, Dutch artist, died.

26/3/1992, Thursday (+17,124) Mike Tyson was sentenced to 10 years in jail after being found guilty of rape.

25/3/1992, Wednesday (+17,123) (1) United Newspapers announced the closure of Punch magazine, after 150 years of publication.

(2) Barbara Harmer, 39, became the first woman pilot of Concorde.

24/3/1992, Tuesday (+17,122) Jeremy Rosado, US singer, was born.

23/3/1992, Monday (+17,121) Freidrich Hayek, economist, born 8/5/1899, died.

22/3/1992, Sunday (+17,120) The developers of Canary Wharf, London Docklands, Olympia and York, were on the verge on bankruptcy. The UK recession, and poor transport links to Docklands, meant 40% of its offices stood empty.

21/3/1992, Saturday (+17,119) The US Census Bureau officially estimated the world population to be 5.4 billion, of whom 1.2 billion were Chinese. It projected a world population of over 8 billion by 2020.

20/3/1992, Friday (+17,118) Avonne Taylor, actress, died.

19/3/1992, Thursday (+17,117) It was announced that the Duke and Duchess of York were to separate.

18/3/1992, Wednesday (+17,116) Anthony Barr, footballer, was born.

17/3/1992, Tuesday (+17,115) (1) A suicide bomber with a 200lb bomb destroyed the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility, saying the attack was in revenge for the killing of Sheikh Abbas Mussawi in an Israeli helicopter ambush last month. 29 were killed and 242 injured.

(2) South African Whites voted for constitutional change.

16/3/1992, Monday (+17,114) The Nikkei had a bad day, dropping over 3% in one day to below 20,000. It closed at 19,837, compared to nearly 40,000 three years previously. In January 2002 it fell below 10,000.

15/3/1992, Sunday (+17,113) Jack Washburn, actor, died aged 62.

14/3/1992, Saturday (+17,112) The Emir of Kuwait, Sheikh Jaber al Ahmed al Sabah, returned home.

13/3/1992, Friday (+17,111) (1) A major quake in eastern Turkey, 6.8 on the Richter scale, killed an estimated 1,000 people.

(2) In Rwanda, fighting broke out between the Hutus, who held power, and the Tutsis.

12/3/1992, Thursday (+17,110) Mauritius broke its links with the British Crown and became fully independent.

9/3/1992, Monday (+17,107) Menachem Begin, Israeli politician, died.

6/3/1992, Friday (+17,104) British Telecom announced 25,000 job cuts, over 10% of the workforce.

5/3/1992, Thursday (+17,103) In Belgium, Christian Democrat Jean-Luc Dehaene agreed to form a coalition government after a three-month political crisis.

4/3/1992, Wednesday (+17,102) The Supreme Court of Algeria declared the Islamic Salvation Front illegal. It was poised to win control of the Parliament of Algeria in runoff elections.

3/3/1992, Tuesday (+17,101) Russian troops began withdrawing from Lithuania.

2/3/1992, Monday (+17,100) Violent clashes in Sarajevo between Serbs, Croats and Muslims.

1/3/1992, Sunday (+17,099) A referendum in Bosnia-Hercegovina, boycotted by Serbs, produced a majority in favour of independence from Yugoslavia.


29/2/1992, Saturday (+17,098) Ruth Pitter, English poet (born 7/11/1897) died.

28/2/1992, Friday (+17,097) Baghdad was still obstructing UN weapons inspectors teams, until sanctions are relaxed.

27/2/1992, Thursday (+17,096) Marinus Ruppert, Dutch Trade Unionist, died aged 80.

26/2/1992, Wednesday (+17,095) The Supreme Court of Ireland ruled that a 14-year-old rape victim could visit the UK to get an abortion.

25/2/1992, Tuesday (+17,094) Riots in Albania over food shortages.

24/2/1992, Monday (+17,093) Kay Loring, actress, died.

23/2/1992, Sunday (+17,092) A ceasefire was agreed in Somalia.

22/2/1992, Saturday (+17,091) The Pope visited Goree Island, near Dakar, Senegal, to commemorate the �forgotten holocaust� of the estimated 15 million slaves who passed through this way on route to slavery in the Americas.

21/2/1992, Friday (+17,090) The UN Security Council approved Resolution 743 and decided to send peacekeeping troops to Yugoslavia.

18/2/1992, Tuesday (+17,087)

15/2/1992, Saturday (+17,084) US composer William Schuman died, aged 81.

14/2/1992, Friday (+17,083) Michael Heseltine promised that the UK would phase out CFCs, which were destroying the ozone layer. Earlier on 11/2/1992 President Bush had made a similar commitment.

13/2/1992, Thursday (+17,082) Carl Bildt announced the end of Sweden�s policy of neutrality.

12/2/1992, Wednesday (+17,081) (Mongolia) Mongolia adopted a new Constitution, cementing new human rights and freedoms. The new Constitution also created a single legislative chamber, the Great State Khural (GSKh).

10/2/1992, Monday (+17,079)

7/2/1992, Friday (+17,076) The Maastricht Treaty was signed, founding the European Union.

6/2/1992, Thursday (+17,075) The Basque separatist group ETA set off a bomb in the centre of Madrid.

5/2/1992, Wednesday (+17,074)

4/2/1992, Tuesday (+17,073) Venezuelan Lieutenant-Colonel Hugo Chavez, originating from a poor background, founded the Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement (MRB). Named after Venezuela�s independence hero, Simon Bolivar, the MRB sought to overthrow the Venezuelan Government. On this day MRB-affiliated Army units entered Caracas and attempted a coup. However at the end of a day the coup had failed and Chavez was in prison. Nevertheless, the coup attempt made Chavez a folk hero amongst the poor and he went on to win the Presidential election of 1998.

3/2/1992, Monday (+17,072) The discovery of the lost city of Ubar, dated around 2000 BC, in the Arabian desert on the Omar-Yemen border, was announced.

2/2/1992, Sunday (+17,071) Serbia accepted the UN Peace Plan.

1/2/1992. Saturday (+17,070) UN Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar brokered a peace deal in El Salvador.


31/1/1992, Friday (+17,069) Boris Yeltsin, leader of Russia, made a speech at the UN calling for America and Russia to develop a joint �star wars� shield against missiles from rogue nations.

30/1/1992, Thursday (+17,068) In Ireland, Charles Haughey, Prime Minister, resigned over allegations of phone tapping. On 6/2/1992 Charles Reynolds became Prime Minister.

25/1/1992, Saturday (+17,063)

19/1/1992, Sunday (+17,057) Zhelyu Zhelev was elected President of Bulgaria.

18/1/1992, Saturday (+17,056) (1) (China) Chinese leader Deng Xiao Ping stated that China should continue to focus on improving its economy, even at the �cost of embracing certain capitalistic models and ideas�. This was a marked reversal of the ideas of Chairman Mao.

(2) Faced with a new outbreak of terrorism, the UK government decided to send more troops to Northern Ireland.

17/1/1992, Friday (+17,055) IBM announced its biggest ever loss, US$ 564 million,

15/1/1992, Wednesday (+17,053) As the old Yugoslavia broke up, the EC recognised Slovenian and Croatian independence.

12/1/1992, Sunday (+17,050) Russia and Ukraine agreed to divide the Black Sea fleet.

11/1/1992, Saturday (+17,049) The Algerian Army, alarmed by the electoral victory of the Islamists (see 26/12/1991), mounted a military coup, forcing Benjedid to resign.

8/1/1992, Wednesday (+17,046) Bosnian Serbs declared their own Republic within Bosnia and Hercegovina in protest at Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats decision to seek recognition from the EC.

3/1/1992, Friday (+17,041) Civil war continued in Somalia.

2/1/1992, Thursday (+17,040) Figures from the UK showed that the richest 1% of the population owned 18% of the marketable wealth, whilst the poorest 60% owned 6%.

1/1/1992, Wednesday (+17,039) Butros Butros Ghali, a 69-year-old Egyptian, became the 6th General Secretary of the United Nations.


30/12/1991, Monday (+17,037)

26/12/1991, Thursday (+17,033) (Algeria) The Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) easily won Algerian elections.

25/12/1991, Wednesday (+17,032) Above the Kremlin, Moscow, the old Soviet flag was lowered and the new Russian flag was raised.

20/12/1991, Friday (+17,027) President Boris Yeltsin said he wanted Russia to join NATO.

18/12/1991, Wednesday (+17,025) The World Bank, the European Commission and the Group of Seven leading industrial nations granted Brazil US$ 250 million for conservation work in the Amazon rainforest. $ 100 million of that sum was for scientific research; the rest was for the establishment of national parks, tribal reserves, and promoting non-destructive use of Amazon Forest, such as rubber tapping and brazil-nut harvesting.

17/12/1991, Tuesday (+17,024) Joseph Robert Smallwood, Canadian politician who took Newfoundland into the Canadian Federation in 1949 and became its first Prime Minister, died just before his 91st birthday.

16/12/1991, Monday (+17,023) (1) Kazakhstan became independent from the former USSR.

(2) An IRA bomb exploded near Clapham Junction station, SW London.

(3) In London, Stella Rimington became the first female to head MI5, and the first director-general to be publically named.

15/12/1991, Sunday (+17,022) (1) Wildlife investigators uncovered an illegal plot to sell 15,000 elephant tusks for �6 million, in defiance of the international ban on the ivory trade. The 83 tons of ivory had been bought from the Government of Burundi by 2 South African businessmen, to sell in the Far East. 80% of Africa�s elephants had been slaughtered for their tusks in the previous 10 years.

(2) More than 470 drowned when a ferry carrying returning Egyptian pilgrims and overseas workers sank in the Red Sea.

(3) F W de Klerk was under pressure at it emerged that the South African Government had given money and other assistance to the Zulu Inkatha organisation, an arch-enemy of the ANC, and had organised for Inkatha members to travel to Israel for military training.

14/12/1991, Saturday (+17,021) The industry lobby in Europe blocked a carbon dioxide tax.

13/12/1991, Friday (+17,020) The UN ended a ban on sporting, scientific and academic links with South Africa.

12/12/1991, Thursday (+17,019) The Russian Parliament voted to replace the USSR with a looser confederation to be known as the CIS or Confederation of Independent States.

11/12/1991, Wednesday (+17,018) Artur Lundkvist, Swedish writer (born 3/3/1906) died.

10/12/1991, Tuesday (+17,017) The marriage rate in England and Wales was less than half what it was 20 years ago, as nearly a third of couples in their 20s chose to cohabit, not marry. At least 10% of marriages ended in divorce within 5 years.

9/12/1991, Monday (+17,016) �420 million was found to be missing from pension funds controlled by the late Robert Maxwell, who died on 5/11/1991.

8/12/1991, Sunday (+17,015) The leaders of the republics of Russia, Byelorussia (Belarus), and Ukraine formed a commonwealth of independent states (CIS), after the dissolution of the USSR, see 5/9/1991.

7/12/1991, Saturday (+17,014) After a 67-day siege, Serbian forces bombarded the centre of Dubrovnik.

5/12/1991, Friday (+17,013)

4/12/1991, Wednesday (+17,011) The American correspondent Terry Anderson was freed by Islamic Jihad after 2,454 days in captivity. Held since 16/3/1985, he was the longest-held kidnap victim in Lebanon.

3/12/1991, Tuesday (+17,010) Clifford Bastin, footballer, died (born 14/3/1912)

1/12/1991, Sunday (+17,008) The Ukraine voted in a referendum to leave the USSR.


27/11/1991, Wednesday (+17,004) (Russia) Yeltsin refused to recognise the declaration of independence by Chechnyia from Russia, under Dzhokar Dudayev; Dudayev was a former Air Force General in the Soviet military. Yeltsin immediately sent armed forces to Chechnyia to quell the independence movement there. Chechnyia had been absorbed into Russia in 1859, and during World War Two Stalin accused the Chechens of collaborating woth Germany, exiling the entire population to Kazakhstan. The Chechens were only allowed home in 1957, 4 years after Stalin�s death.

24/11/1991, Sunday (+17,001) Freddie Mercury, lead singer of the rock group Queen, died of AIDS, aged 45.

23/11/1991, Saturday (+17,000) Croats in Vukovar surrendered to Serb forces. Serbs now planned to attack the 150,000 Croats in Osijek region. Capture of Osijek would give the Serbs control of the fertile eastern plains of Croatia.

18/11/1991, Monday (+16,995) (1) Gustav Husak, former President of Czechoslovakia and Communist Party leader, who crushed the Prague Spring in 1968, died in Prague aged 78.

(2) Terry Waite was released from captivity in Lebanon (see 20/1/1987), along with another hostage, Tom Sutherland.

14/11/1991, Thursday (+16,991) Prince Norodom Sihanouk returned to Cambodia after 13 years exile.

8/11/1991, Friday (+16,985) Hong Kong began to repatriate its Vietnamese boat people.

7/11/1991, Thursday (+16,984) The first report on carbon nanotubes was reported in Nature.

6/11/1991, Wednesday (+16,983) The last of the oil wells set alight in Kuwait by retreating Iraqis was extinguished.

5/11/1991, Tuesday (+16,982) The body of the millionaire publishing tycoon Robert Maxwell was found at sea hours after disappearing from his yacht off the Canary Islands. The funeral was in Israel on 8/11/1991.

2/11/1991, Saturday (+16,979)


31/10/1991, Thursday (+16,977) President Kaunda of Zambia was heavily defeated in elections.

30/10/1991, Wednesday (+16,976) Queen Elizabeth II opened the Queen Elizabeth Bridge over the Thames at Dartford.

26/10/1991, Saturday (+16,972) The Yugoslav army was besieging Dubrovnik and shelling its historic centre.

23/10/1991, Wednesday (+16,969) (1) A peace accord between the warring factions in Kampuchea (Cambodia) was signed in Paris after being brokered by the UN.

(2) The House of Lords ruled that men could be legally convicted of raping their wives. The group Women Against Rape had been campaigning for this move since 1977.

22/10/1991, Tuesday (+16,968) Peter Willes, British actor, died.

21/10/1991, Monday (+16,967) American Jesse Turner was released after five years as a hostage in Lebanon.

20/10/1991, Sunday (+16,966) Magnitude 7.0 earthquake in northern Italy, killed 2,000 people.

14/10/1991, Monday (+16,960) (1) The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Aung San Suu Chi of Burma/Myanmar.

(2) Communist rule ended in Bulgaria.

9/10/1991, Wednesday (+10,955) Bryan Marshall, horse racing champion, died (born 29/2/1916).

8/10/1991, Tuesday (+16,954) The Croatian Parliament cut all remaining ties with Yugoslavia.

5/10/1991, Saturday (+16,956)

3/10/1991, Thursday (+16,949) Sir Allen Green QC, 56, the British Director of Public Prosecutions, resigned after having been stopped by the police for kerb-crawling in the Kings Cross area of London.

2/10/1991, Wednesday (+16,948) The Yugoslav Army bombarded Dubrovnik.

1/10/1991, Thursday (+16,947) New Zealand's Resource Management Act 1991 comes into force.


30/9/1991, Monday (+16,946) At the first World Scrabble Championship, held in London, Peter Morris, representing the US, won the first prize of US$10,000. He scored 86 for �inhaler�.

29/9/1991, Sunday (+16,945)

28/9/1991, Saturday (+16,944) Miles Davis, US jazz musician, died.

27/9/1991, Friday (+16,943) Joseph Hulme, footballer, died (born 26/8/1904).

24/9/1991, Tuesday (+16,940) (Austria) A mummified 5,000 year old corpse was found in the Austrian Alps. It was named �Otzi�, and revealed much about Bronze Age life in Europe.

21/9/1991, Saturday (+16,937) International climate change conference in Nairobi; the US resisted cuts in carbon dioxide emissions, Japan remained uncommitted, but Europe wanted agreement on reductions.

20/9/1991, Friday (+16,936) Clashes in South Africa between Blacks and Right-wing Whites.

17/9/1991, Tuesday (+16,933) Women were admitted to the �Magic Circle� magician�s association.

8/9/1991, Sunday (+16,924) Macedonia became independent from Yugoslavia.

6/9/1991, Friday (+16,922) Leningrad reverted to the name St Petersburg.

5/9/1991, Thursday (+16,921) The USSR ceased to exist as the Congress of People�s Deputies voted to give the republics their independence. See 8/12/1991.

3/9/1991, Tuesday (+16,919) Riots hit the British cities of Cardiff, Oxford, and Birmingham this week. All occurred on estates with high unemployment and deprivation. The Cardiff riot was sparked by a trading dispute between two shops, see 29/8/1991. The Handsworth, Birmingham, riot occurred after a power failure and black-out. The one in Oxford was after police cracked down on �hotting� � the racing of stolen cars, on the Blackbird Leys estate. Later in the month there were more riots in Tyneside, in the West End of Newcastle.

1/9/1991, Sunday (+16,917) Boeing ended production of the 707 after 37 years.


30/8/1991, Friday (+16,915) Mike Powell set a new long jump record of 8.95 metres.

29/8/1991, Thursday (+16,914) A trading dispute between two shops in Cardiff led to riots. Mr Abdul Waheed, owner of a grocery shop on the poor Ely estate, won an injunction against Mr Carl Agius, the newsagent next door, preventing him selling bread and groceries. Mr Agius put a notice in his shop telling people of this, and a crowd of mainly white youths petrol-bombed Mr Waheed�s shop. The police claimed the violence was not racially motivated but had been opportunistic, a hundred of the rioters had joined in after the pubs closed.

27/8/1991, Tuesday (+16,912)

26/8/1991, Monday (+16,911) Yugoslav Federal forces and Serb guerrillas launched a fierce attack on Vukovar in eastern Croatia. The city of 50,000 people was roughly half Serb and half Croat. Yugoslav planes bombed Vinkovici, 20 miles from Vukovar.

25/8/1991, Sunday (+16,910) (1) Linus Torvalds introduced the first version of the Linux operating system.

(2) Carl Lewis set a new world record for the 100m sprint, 9.85 seconds.

23/8/1991, Friday (+16,908)

21/8/1991, Wednesday (+16,906) The Soviet hardline coup collapsed and Gorbachev was restored as President. On 25/8/1991 Gorbachev resigned as leader of the Communist party, and the Party prepared to dissolve, ending 70 years of Communist supremacy.

20/8/1991, Tuesday (+16,905) Estonia voted for independence,

19/8/1991, Monday (+16,904) Soviet hardliners toppled President Gorbachev.

15/8/1991, Thursday (+16,900) Iraq was required by the UN to provide a list of all proscribed weapons and weapon development programmes.

13/8/1991, Tuesday (+16,898) Britain�s new Dangerous Dogs Act came into force.

8/8/1991, Thursday (+16,893) Hostage John McCarthy came back to the UK after 5 years and 3 months kidnapped in Beirut.


30/7/1991, Tuesday (+16,884) Pavarotti gave a free concert in Hyde Park.

29/7/1991, Monday (+16,883) (1) Margaret Thatcher announced that she was to resign asMP for Finchley after the next General Election, but still intended to play a role in UK politics.

(2) Yugoslavia edged further into civil war. The country�s ethnic mix in 1991 was 36% Serb, 20% Croatian, 9% Moslem, 8% Slovene, 8% Albanian, 6% Macedonian, 3% Montenegrin, 2% Hungarian. The two richest republics, Slovenia and Croatia, seceded, against the wishes of the militarily strongest republic, Serbia. Two helicopters were shot down over the Slovenian capital, Llubljana, where Federal tanks were on the streets. Airports and borders were closed. An EC delegation went to Belgrade to warn that all EC aid will be cut off if the Federal, Yugoslav, army did not return to barracks in Slovenia and elsewhere.

27/7/1991, Saturday (+16,881) A week of violence in Yugoslavia left 50 dead.

24/7/1991, Wednesday (+16,878) Frederick Brown, cricketer, died (born 16/12/1910).

23/7/1991, Tuesday (+16,877) Peter Kane, boxer, died.

19/7/1991, Friday (+16,873) Marten Hodgson, rugby player, died (born 26/3/1909).

11/7/1991, Thursday (+16,865) Violence between Serbs and Croats continued to escalate, especially in eastern Croatia where Serb and Croat villages and even houses were mixed together.

10/7/1991, Wednesday (+16,864) The Queen opened the new Sainsbury wing at the National Gallery.

3/7/1991, Wednesday (+16,857) Talks at Stormont on the future of Northern Ireland collapsed.

1/7/1991, Monday (+16,855) (1) Rear seat belt wearing became compulsory in the UK in cars fitted with them.

(2) The average UK house price was �54,626.


28/6/1991, Friday (+16,852) The Warsaw Pact was disbanded.

27/6/1991, Thursday (+16,851) An IRA bomb was found in a bag outside the Beck Theatre in Hayes, Middlesex, where a military band had staged a concert the day before. The bomb was safely defused.

26/6/1991, Wednesday (+16,850) The �Maguire Seven� were cleared of running an IRA bomb factory in England.

25/6/1991, Tuesday (+16,849) Slovenia and Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia. The European Community and the USA said they would not recognise this move.

23/6/1991, Sunday (+16,847) The International Monetary Fund agreed to offer associate membership to Russia.

20/6/1991, Thursday (+16,844) The German Parliament voted to move the seat of government from Bonn to Berlin.

19/6/1991, Wednesday (+16,843) Colonel Gaddafi of Libya declared his support for the IRA as a just cause.

18/6/1991, Tuesday (+16,842) Margaret Thatcher, in a speech in Chicago, warned against a European Super-State, saying it would be �nothing less than a disaster�.

17/6/1991, Monday (+16,841) (1) (Earthquake) Mount Pinatubo continued to erupt. On 24/6/1991 Mount Didicas, 280 miles north-east of Mount Pinatubo, also erupted, killing 343 people.

(2) (South Africa) In South Africa, the repeal of the Population Registration Act of 1950 officially ended apartheid.

(3) (Medical) 8,000 scientists met for an international conference on AIDS at Florence. AIDS was now in 163 countries and especially severe in Africa; the WHO estimated that over 1.5 million people had developed AIDS, with a total of 8�10 million infected. WHO expected a total of 40 million AIDS cases by 2000. In the USA, 170 had the disease, and a further 6,000 contracted it every month; in the UK 4,500 cases had been reported since 1981.

16/6/1991, Sunday (+16,840) The Soviet Army finally left Hungary after 47 years.

15/6/1991, Saturday (+16,839)

13/6/1991, Thursday (+16,837) First free Presidential election in the USSR.Boris Yeltsin was elected President.

12/6/1991, Wednesday (+16,836) The citizens of Leningrad voted 55% to 43% to return to the name St Petersburg.

9/6/1991, Sunday (+16,833) (Earthquake, Philippines) Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines erupted. 500,000 people had to be evacuated as the USA�s biggest overseas air base, Clark Naval Base, was threatened. Manila was covered 30 cm deep in volcanic ash.

7/6/1991, Friday (+16,831) Bill Morris became the General Secretary of the Transport and General Workers Union, the first Black leader of a UK trade union.

5/6/1991, Wednesday (+16,829) In South Africa, the �Pillars of Apartheid�, the Land Acts of 1913 and 1936, and the Areas Act of 1950, were repealed.

4/6/1991, Tuesday (+16,828) The AIDS epidemic worsened in Malawi, with 37% of the population now carrying the virus.

3/6/1991, Monday (+16,827) Soviet troops sealed off the centre of Vilnius, Lithuania.

2/6/1991, Sunday (+16,826) Ashley Williams, Welsh amateur boxer, was born.

1/6/1991, Saturday (+16,825) An IRA attack killed three soldiers and injured 18 from the Ulster Defence Regiment in Glennan, County Armagh.


31/5/1991, Friday (+16,824) The 17-year civil war in Angola ended.

25/5/1991, Saturday (+16,818) 15,000 Black Ethiopian Jews (Falashas) were transported to Israel because of unrest in Ethiopia.

23/5/1991, Thursday (+16,816) Chinese authorities marked the 40th anniversary of their �liberation� of Tibet with low-key celebrations.

22/5/1991, Wednesday (+16,815) Ethiopian President Mengistu Haile Mariam escaped to Zimbabwe as rebel forces closed in on the capital, Addis Ababa. With massive spending on Soviet armaments to put down rebellions in Eritrea, Tigray and Oromo provinces, agriculture was starved of cash and the country went from being 40% forested to almost tree-less and desertified.

21/5/1991, Tuesday (+16,814) Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Ghandi was assassinated. Police blamed Tamil Tigers.

20/5/1991, Monday (+16,813) (1) A UK Government White Paper proposed giving polytechnics the same status as universities, increasing participation in Higher Education.

(2) The USSR passed a law allowing people to leave the country free of all restrictions.

19/5/1991, Sunday (+16,812) Helen Sharman, the first Briton in space, lifted off with two Soviet astronauts to join up with the Soviet Mir space station.

18/5/1991, Saturday (+16,811) Muriel Box, British writer, film director and feminist, died aged85.

17/5/1991, Friday (+16,810) Daniel Curtis Lee, American actor, was born.

16/5/1991, Thursday (+16,809) Edith Cresson, aged 57, became France�s first woman Prime Minister.

15/5/1991, Wednesday (+16,808) The Nepalese Prime Minister, Bhattarai, resigned.

14/5/1991, Tuesday (+16,807) In South Africa, Winnie Mandela, wife of ANC leader Nelson Mandela, was sentenced to 6 years for kidnap and accessory to assault.

13/5/1991, Monday (+16,806) In South Africa, Winnie Mandela was convicted of kidnapping 4 Black people.

12/5/1991, Sunday (+16,805) Serbs in Croatia vote for union with Serbia. On 20/5/1991 Croatia voted overwhelmingly for independence from Serbia. Croatia formally declared independence on 30/5/1991. This was the beginning of a bloody conflict that ended with the disintegration of Yugoslavia.

11/5/1991, Saturday (+16,804) 250,000 people died in a cyclone which hit Bangladesh.

10/5/1921, Friday (+16,803)

8/5/1991, Wednesday (+16,801) UK scientists discovered the gene that determines sex.

7/5/1991, Tuesday (+16,800) Stanley Mortensen, footballer, died (born 26/5/1921).

2/5/1991, Thursday (+16,795) (1) Clashes between Serbs and Croats left 35 dead.

(2) The World Health Organisation estimated that 40 million people will have the AIDS virus by 2000.

(3) The UN set a six-day deadline for Iraqi troops to withdraw from the Iraq/Kuwait border.


30/4/1991, Tuesday (+16,793) In Lesotho, Major-General Justin Lekhanya, military leader, was deposed by Colonel Elias Ramaema.

29/4/1991, Monday (+16,792) (1) A 145mph cyclone devastated the port of Chittagong in Bangladesh, killing 138,000 people and making millions homeless.

(2).Marks and Spencer announced 850 job losses in the first redundancy programme since the 1950s.

24/4/1991, Wednesday (+16,787) Gerald Ratner, Managing Director of Ratners, Britain�s biggest chain of jewellers, announced his goods are �crap� and that his earrings are likely to last for less time than a Marks and Spencer sandwich. He later said he was joking.

22/4/1991, Monday (+16,785) Jackie Berg, boxer, died (born 28/6/1909).

19/4/1991, Friday (+16,782) English legal history was made in Winchester when the first man to be convicted of raping his wife whilst they were still living together was jailed for 5 years.

15/4/1991, Monday (+16,778) The EC lifted sanctions in South Africa, imposed because of Apartheid.

13/4/1991, Saturday (+16,776) Iran opened its borders and asked for Western help to deal with 1.5 million Kurdish refugees, as hundreds died each day from cold, hunger, and disease. Iran felt more help had been given to Turkey, which had not been as hospitable to the Kurds as Iran had. On 19/4/1991 the Allies took over ground for Kurdish refugees just inside Iraq.

10/4/1991, Wednesday (+16,773) The USA ordered Iraq to cease all military activity within its borders.

9/4/1991, Tuesday (+16,772) (1) Georgia voted to secede from the USSR.

(2) Customs officers in the West Midlands arrested four men from two firms over alleged export of machine tools to Iraq.

8/4/1991, Monday (+16,771) The establishment of a UN safe haven for Kurds in northern Iraq was approved.

7/4/1991, Sunday (+12,770) Iran closed its border to fleeing Kurds, saying it had no more resources to cope with them. Iraqi forces heavily suppressed rebellions in the Shiite south and Kurdish north since the Gulf war ceasefire in March 1991.

5/4/1991, Friday (+16,768) (1) President Bush ordered US transport planes to drop supplies to Kurdish refugees in northern Iraq.

(2) The IRA planted a large bomb in the main shopping area of Manchester.

3/4/1991, Wednesday (+16,766) Unscom demanded that Iraqi missiles with a range of over 150 kilometres must be removed, destroyed, or made harmless. UN Resolution 687 set out Iraq�s disarmament obligations.

2/4/1991, Tuesday (+16,765) Turkey sought UN help as its army turned away thousands of Kurds at the border fleeing the Iraqi army. President Bush said he would not allow US troops to risk their lives in what was an Iraqi civil war. John Major sent �20 million of food aid to the Kurds but also would not intervene militarily.

1/4/1991, Monday (+16,764)


31/3/1991, Sunday (+16,763) Easter Sunday (1) Albania had its first multi-party elections.

(2) In Yugoslavia, troops moved to control fighting between Serbs and Croats.

(3) Kirkuk was recaptured by Iraqi forces, see 19/3/1991.

30/3/1991, Saturday (+16,762) (Space exploration) The USSR launched Almaz-1, a survey satellite.

28/3/1991, Thursday (+16,760)

26/3/1991, Tuesday (+16,758) Norman Lamont, Chancellor of the Exchequer, raised VAT to 17.5% to finance a �140 per head cut in the Poll Tax.

25/3/1991, Monday (+16,757) Michael Heseltine, Department of the Environment, announced the creation of the East Thames Corridor.

24/3/1991, Sunday (+16,756) Madonna was awarded an Oscar in Los Angeles.

23/3/1991, Saturday (+16,755) (1) Kurds were fleeing over the Iraqi border to Turkey and Iran after the Iraqi army, having defeated the Shiites in the south, turned on the Kurdish Peshmerga rebels. Many refugees died of cold in the mountains on the border.

(2) (Sierra Leone) Foday Sankoh, supported by Charles Taylor of Liberia, created the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), an armed group which then took over the diamond-rich areas of the country. Sankoh�s RUF also dismembered some 10,000 children, and forced others as young as 10 into military service. The RUF �soldiers� were not paid, but expected to �pay themselves� from looting. By 2000, the conflict had killed some 100,000 to 200,000 people, from a population of 4.5 million.

22/3/1991, Friday (+16,754) Millions of people were threatened by starvation and civil war in Ethiopia.

21/3/1991, Thursday (+16,753) The Poll Tax was ditched as Michael Heseltine, the Environment Secretary, unveiled a property tax to replace it.

19/3/1991, Tuesday (+16,751) Kurdish rebels claimed to have captured Kirkuk, the main oil city of northern Iraq. See 31/3/1991.

17/3/1991, Sunday (+16,749) Russia held an election to decide whether to remain as the USSR or break up into Republics.

16/3/1991, Saturday (+16,748) (1) Saddam Hussein, speaking publicly for the first time since the end of the Gulf war, claimed the Shiite rebellion in the south had been crushed. He admitted the fighting with Kurdish rebels continued in the north.

(2) Bush and Major said they would maintain sanctions against Iraq till it paid for the Kuwaiti war and got rid of its weapons of mass destruction.

15/3/1991, Friday (+16,747) Albania and the USA restored diplomatic relations after a gap of 52 years.

14/3/1991, Thursday (+16,746) The Birmingham Six were released. They had been convicted in 1975 of the worst mass-murder in British history, the IRA pub bombings in which 21 died.They were found guilty on scientific evidence but also on confessions which they claimed the police had beaten out of them. West Midlands Police were found to have falsified notes and scientific test results.

12/3/1991, Tuesday (+16,744)

10/3/1991, Sunday (+16,742) US troops began to leave the Persian Gulf.

9/3/1991, Saturday (+16,741) Albanian troops fired on 4,000 people trying to board a boat to flee to Italy. In Yugoslavia, a crowd of at least 70,000 fought with riot police in Belgrade. The crowd was demanding an end to Communist control of the media. One 18 year old youth was killed by a rubber bullet and over 70 others were injured. Police used live ammunition and water cannon as well as rubber bullets. The crowd marched on parliament and the television centre.

8/3/1991, Friday (+16,740) The Tories suffered a shock by-election defeat in Ribble Valley, their tenth safest seat. The Liberals turned a 19,500 Conservative majority into a Liberal majority of 4,601; Labour came a poor third. The defeat was blamed on the unpopularity of the Poll Tax, flagship of the third Tory administration under Mrs Thatcher.

7/3/1991, Thursday (+16,739) Michele Rigione, Italian footballer, was born.

6/3/1991, Wednesday (+16,738) Dr George Carey was elected Archbishop of Canterbury.

5/3/1991, Tuesday (+16,737) (1) Republican Guards loyal to Saddam Hussein fired on Shia rebels in the southern Iraqi city of Basra. The Kurds in the north were also preparing to try for independence. Baghdad Radio announced that the annexation of Kuwait was annulled.

(2) The last of the Cruise Missiles were taken from Greenham Common for dismantling in Arizona under the INF disarmament treaty.

4/3/1991, Monday (+16,736) (1) A primitive version of the world wide web began operating.

(2) Vermont celebrated the 200th anniversary of its statehood.

(3) The Kuwaiti Crown prince returned to Kuwait. There was massive destruction in Kuwait and much had been looted. Almost all of Kuwait�s 950 oil wells had been set on fire, creating a vast pall of black smoke and an oil slick covering hundreds of square kilometres in the Gulf. The Kuwaiti authorities began to impose martial law but there were determined calls for democratic reform in Kuwait.

3/3/1991, Sunday (+16,735) Estonia and Latvia voted to secede from the USSR. A peace agreement was reached between Allied and Iraqi forces after the Gulf War. In 1990 Iraqi forces under Saddam Hussein had invaded Kuwait, on August 2nd. A week later USA forces arrived in the Gulf and in January 1991 operation Desert Storm was launched against Iraq, supported by the USA, Saudi Arabia, and 27 other countries.

2/3/1991, Saturday (+16,734) The United Nations voted in favour of US resolutions for a cease fire with Iraq.

1/3/1991, Friday (+16,733) Wandsworth set the lowest Poll Tax in Britain, �136. Other councils were �400 or more.


28/2/1991, Thursday (+16,732) (1) Ceasefire in the Gulf. Fears of massive Allied casualties never materialised, and in the event Iraqi resistance crumbled and 250 Allied personnel were killed. Iraqi casualties are not known exactly but were probably between 35,000 and 100,000. President Bush called for the Iraqi people to overthrow Saddam Hussein, but gave no actual assistance and both a Shia uprising in southern Iraq and a Kurdish rebellion in the north failed. Iraq viciously reasserted its power and hundreds of thousands of refugees especially Kurds fled to Turkey across inhospitable mountain terrain. President Bush feared the coalition would collapse if his forces went as far as Baghdad and overthrew Saddam Hussein, an action not covered by the UN mandate.

(2) British banks announced major job losses, despite a cut in interest rates to 13% on 27/2/1991. Barclays planned to shed 5,000 jobs. Overall, some 30,000 banking jobs were expected to go in the next two years.

27/2/1991, Wednesday (+16,731) Saudi forces entered Kuwait City, evacuated by Iraqi invaders. US forces had moved in behind the Iraqi army and cut off its retreat. The US lost 184 men; the Allies took 80,000 Iraqi prisoners and an estimated 80-100,000 Iraqi soldiers died. Kuwait would take an estimated US$ 50 billion to rebuild, and Iraq would cost US$ 200 billion.

26/2/1991, Tuesday (+16,730) In Bangladeshi general elections, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party won 139 of 300 seats in the Jatiyo Sangshad. BNP leader Khaleda Zia became President of Bangladesh on 19/3/1991.

25/2/1991, Monday (+16,729) (1) Iraqi tanks and troops fled from Kuwait. The Allies pounded the retreating troops, not wishing to see Iraq keep its armour intact. Over 270 Iraqi tanks were destroyed and over 25,000 Iraqi soldiers captured as POWs. Many Iraqi conscript soldiers surrendered without a fight.

(2) Warsaw Pact military alliance dissolved.

24/2/1991, Sunday (+16,728) Allies began land offensive against Iraq. Heading Operation Desert Storm was �Stormin� Norman� US General H Norman Schwarzkopf. US troops crossed from Saudi Arabia into Kuwait and also crossed the Saudi border further west into Iraq, to wheel north and east and encircle Iraqi forces around Kuwait. This manoeuvre surprised Saddam Hussein, who may have been hoping to repeat the tactic of the Iraq/Iran war by luring US troops into frontal attacks and then massacring them.

23/2/1991, Saturday (+16,727) Thai Prime Minister Prem Tinsulanonda was ousted in a bloodless coup.

22/2/1991, Friday (+16,726) The USA said it would begin a full-scale land attack if Iraq did not withdraw from Kuwait by noon 23/2/1991. Iraq began systematically setting fire to Kuwaiti oil wells. 150 wells were fired, sending a huge pall of black smoke across the Gulf area. Five million gallons of oil a day were being destroyed.

21/2/1991, Thursday (+16,725) Somalia had virtually disintegrated through civil war, sending many refugees to nearby countries.

20/2/1991, Wednesday (+16,724) The President of Albania, Ramiz Alia, dismissed the government headed by Prime Minister of Albania Adil Carcani in an effort to stem prodemocracy protests. Fatos Nano was sworn in as Prime Minister on 22/2/1991.

19/2/1991, Tuesday (+16,723) In the USSR, Boris Yeltsin, Russian President, called on Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet President, to resign. Yeltsin accused Gorbachev of dictatorship.

18/2/1991, Monday (+16,722) (1) The US assault ship Tripoli and the guided missile cruiser Princeton were damaged by mines in the Persian Gulf during the Gulf War.

(2) The IRA set off a bomb in a litter bin at London�s Victoria Station, killing one commuter and injuring 43 others. Another IRA bomb went off at Paddington Station.

17/2/1991, Sunday (+16,721) The Cape Verdean Presidential election, Cape Verde's first multiparty presidential election since 1975, was won by Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro.

16/2/1991, Saturday (+16,720) During the Gulf War, two Scud missiles hit Israel; one fell in the Negev Desert near the Dimona nuclear reactor. Meanwhile a poll in Europe showed 1 in 3 people in favour of using nuclear weapons on Saddam Hussein if he used chemical weapons in the Gulf War.

15/2/1991, Friday (+16,719) The Visegrad Agreement was signed; the leaders of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland agreed to move towards free-market systems.

14/2/1991, Thursday (+16,718) The Peruvian Cabinet resigned over splits caused by an economic crisis.

13/2/1991, Wednesday (+16,717) (1) 500 Iraqi civilians were killed when the US bombed a civilian bomb shelter, believing it to be a military bunker.

(2) Germany�s Red Army Faction carried out a gun attack on the US Embassy in Bonn, claiming a link to the Gulf War.

12/2/1991, Tuesday (+16,716) North and South Korea formed a joint team for a table tennis competition

11/2/1991, Monday (+16,715) The Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sent a letter to all Warsaw Pact government leaders proposing the disbandment of the military pact on 1/4/1991. The Pact was formed one week after a re0armed West Germany joined NATO in 1955.

10/2/1991, Sunday (+16,714) In a poll in Lithuania, in which 85% of the electorate voted, 90% were in favour of independence from Moscow. Only 6% voted against independence. The Soviet president, Mikhail Gorbachev, declared the poll illegal.

9/2/1991, Saturday (+16,713)

7/2/1991, Thursday (+16,711) The IRA launched a mortar bomb attack on 10 Downing Street from a van in Whitehall. PM John Major�s cabinet was in session. Nobody was hurt. The mortars were hidden in a commercial van parked nearby and fired through its roof by remote control. One bomb landed in the garden of No. 10 and a second shattered the windows of the room where John Major was discussing the Gulf Crisis.

6/2/1991, Wednesday (+16,710) The UK suffered a severe cold snap as temperatures fall to �10 C (14 F), the coldest for four years. Greece declared a state of emergency because of the worst winter weather for ten years.

5/2/1991, Tuesday (+16,709) Haiti's first democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, was sworn in.

4/2/1991, Monday (+16,708) Stewart Morris, yachting champion, died (born 25/5/1909).

1/2/1991, Friday (+16,705) (1) De Klerk of South Africa promised an end to all apartheid legislation.

(2) An earthquake in Pakistan killed 1,500 people.


28/1/1991, Monday (+16,701) Iraqi troops invaded the Saudi border town of Khafji, abandoned by its residents as Operation Desert Storm began on 16/1/1991. Allied forces recaptured it on 31/1/1991.

27/1/1991, Sunday (+16,700) The Iraqis had laid 1 million mines in Kuwait to halt an Allied advance.

26/1/1991, Saturday (+16,699) (1) Seven Iraqi warplanes fled to Iran.

(2) (Somalia) President Siad Barre was forced to flee Somalia; his rule had become more repressive since his failed invasion of Ethiopia in 1977. His departure left a political vacuum that was filled by rival warlords.

25/1/1991, Friday (+16,698) (1) Baghdad now had no water or electricity after continued bombing. Sewage pumping had ceased because of no electricity. Bridges had also been destroyed. However the Allies now realised that Saddam would not give in because of bombing alone and a land offensive will be needed. 16 Allied aircraft had been lost to anti-aircraft missiles in 10,000 sorties; most of the Iraqi air force remained protected in bomb-proof bunkers. The RAF bombed Iraqi runways.

(2) Iraq began pumping huge quantities of oil into the Gulf, to hinder Allied amphibious operations. A slick formed, two miles wide by ten miles long, harming wildlife.

24/1/1991, Thursday (+16,697) (1) Soviet troops opened fire on traffic outside Vilnius, 1 person was killed.

(2) The Gulf war was costing the UK nearly �30 million a day in munitions, lost equipment, and operations spending.

(3) The Allies captured the Kuwaiti island of Qaruh, the first part of Kuwait to be liberated from Iraq.

23/1/1991, Wednesday (+16,696) Iraq suspended sales of petrol and diesel because half its refining capacity had been destroyed by Allied bombing.

22/1/1991, Tuesday (+16,695) Iraq set fire to two Kuwaiti oil refineries and oil wells near the Saudi border. By the end of the war 732 of Kuwait�s oil wells had been set on fire.

21/1/1991, Monday (+16,694) Iraq threatened to use shot-down Allied airmen as human shields against bomb attacks. Captured US airmen were paraded on Iraqi TV.

20/1/1991, Sunday (+16,693) A crowd of over 100,000 protested in Moscow against military violence in the Baltic Republics.

19/1/1991, Saturday (+16,692) More bombing of Baghdad, more Scuds hit Tel Aviv. Scud missiles were also fired on Riyadh, the Saudi capital.

18/1/1991, Friday (+16,691) (1) Baghdad launched Scud missiles on Tel Aviv and Haifa. Saddam Hussein hoped to provoke Israel into attacking the Arabs, thereby getting the Arab world on his side. President Bush called on Israel not to retaliate and promised to equip Israel with Patriot missiles to destroy the Scuds in mid-air.

(2) Anti-Gulf war protests across the USA, with 1,400 demonstrators arrested. Many more protested in European cities, including Bonn, Berlin and Paris. However US polls showed 75% in favour of the war, up from 50% just before the war began; 80% were in favour in the UK. Anti-Western demonstrations took place across the Muslim world.

17/1/1991, Thursday (+16,690) (1) Baghdad was heavily bombed, also other Iraqi military targets; Iraq fired 8 Scud missiles into Israel.

(2) King Olaf V of Norway died, aged 87. He was succeeded by his 53-year-old son, Harald V.

16/1/1991, Wednesday (+16,689) Operation Desert Storm began. Phase One involved heavy bombing of Iraq, as US warships in the Gulf launched Cruise Missiles on Baghdad. also gaining US air superiority. In the first 24 hours, US aircraft flew 400 missions against 60 targets in Iraq. Phase Two involved destroying any Iraqi nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons capability, and Phase Three involved pounding the Iraqi Army from the air to pave the way for a ground invasion. Iraq attacked |Israel, which had taken no action against Iraq.

15/1/1991, Tuesday (+16,688) The UN deadline for Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait passed, see 31/8/1990 and 29/11/1990.

14/1/1991, Monday (+16,687) Valentin Pavlov become Prime Minister of the USSR

13/1/1991, Sunday (+16,686) Soviet troops fired on crowds in Vilnius, capital of Lithuania; 13 died. The EC threatened to halt aid to Russia unless troops withdrew. Estonia and Latvia also made moves for independence. On 20/1/1991 Soviet �Black Beret� elite troops stormed Riga, killing 4 and injuring 9. Lithuania had lost its independence to Russia in 1939 under a pact between Hitler and Stalin.

12/1/1991, Saturday (+16,685) The US Congress authorised the use of force against Iraq.

10/1/1991, Thursday (+16,683)

8/1/1991, Tuesday (+16,681) In Lithuania, the government of Kazimiera Prunskiene resigned over price increases.

7/1/1991, Monday (+16,680) 5,000 Albanians of Greek ethnicity fled to Greece as chaos mounted in Albania.

6/1/1991, Sunday (+16,679) John Major said the Poll Tax will not be abolished.

4/1/1991, Friday (+16,677) The UN unanimously voted to condemn Israeli treatment of Palestinians.

2/1/1991, Wednesday (+16,675) (1) Sharon Pratt Dixon was sworn in as Mayor of Washington DC, becoming the first Black woman to lead such a major US city.

(2) Soviet troops seized the Communist Party headquarters in Vilnius, Lithuania, sparking massive protests. See 4/1/1990.

1/1/1991, Tuesday (+16,674) Albanian President Ramiz Alia promised that elections would soon be held, ending 43 years of Communist dictatorship.


30/12/1990, Sunday (+16,672) Patrick Harward-Duffy, a 36-year-old Glaswegian, attacked the 70-foot Christmas Tree in London�s Trafalgar Square with a chainsaw, cutting a third of the way through the trunk before police stopped him. He was protesting against �the unfairness of the Norwegian legal system�. Ever since 1947 the people of Oslo have donated a Christmas Tree to London in gratitude for liberation from the Nazis.

26/12/1990, Wednesday (+16,668) Exiled King Michael of Romania, who fled his country in 1947 at gunpoint for Switzerland, attempted to return to Romania. He landed at Bucharest Airport in a private jet with his wife and daughter. However he was stopped by police who disputed the validity of his travel documents, and sent back to Geneva. The Romanian authorities did not wish to see a Royalist revival, and said Michael could return after the forthcoming elections.

24/12/1990, Monday (+16,666) A cyclone hit Queensland, Australia, withwind speeds up to 150 mph.

23/12/1990, Sunday (+16,665) Slovenia voted in a referendum to secede from Yugoslavia.

22/12/1990, Saturday (+16,664) (1) Lech Walesa became president of Poland.

(2) Saddam Hussein announced that he would never relinquish Kuwait and, if attacked, would launch missiles and chemical weapons on Israel.

20/12/1990, Thursday (+16,662) The last coal mine in the Rhondda closed. Once 40,000 men worked at 56 pits here, and over 100 died in the mines. This day Maerdy Colliery closed, 300 were made redundant. Only 17 miners stayed in the industry, moving to other pits.

17/12/1990, Monday (+16,659) Lothar de Matziere resigned from the German government after allegations that he had worked for the Stasi.

16/12/1990, Sunday (+16,658) Bertrand Aristide was elected President of Haiti, ending 3 decades of military rule.

15/12/1990, Saturday (+16,657) Betty Warren actress, died.

14/12/1990, Friday (+16,656) (1) The EC agreed to send food aid to the USSR, whose food distribution system had collapsed. See 15/10/1990.

(2) Oliver Tambo, ANC President, returned to South Africa after 30 years exile.

13/12/1990, Thursday (+16,655) The Northern Echo newspaper, Darlington, UK, became the first paper to appear on CD-ROM.

12/12/1990, Wednesday (+16,654) US President George Bush agreed to send US$ 1,000 million food aid to the Soviet Union.

11/12/1990, Tuesday (+16,653) The British Government announced it would award �42 million to haemophiliacs who became infected with HIV after being treated with contaminated Inhibitor Factor VIII.

10/12/1990, Monday (+16,652) (1) In the Serbian Republic, the Communist Party won free elections.

(2) Australia�s oldest newspaper corporation, the Fairfax Group, went into receivership with debts of Australian $ 1,500 million.

9/12/1990, Sunday (+16,651) Slobodan Milosevic became President of Serbia.

8/12/1990, Saturday (+16,650) John Currie, rugby player, died (born 3/5/1932).

7/12/1990, Friday (+16,649) Reinaldo Arenas, Cuban poet and novelist, died aged 47.

6/12/1990, Thursday (+16,648) Saddam Hussein announced that all 34,000 foreign hostages held in Iraq since the invasion of Kuwait were now free to leave.

5/12/1990, Wednesday (+16,647) Montee Ball, footballer, was born.

4/12/1990, Tuesday (+16,646) Edward Binns, US actor, died of a heart attack aged 74.

3/12/1990, Monday (+16,645) Argentinean President Carlos foiled an attempted coup.

2/12/1990, Sunday (+16,644) Helmut Kohl of the Christian Democrats won the first election in the reunited Germany.

1/12/1990, Saturday (+16,643) The Channel Tunnelers broke through to each other, 40 metres below the Channel seabed.


30/11/1990, Friday (+16,642) US President George Bush proposed a US-Iraq meeting to avoid war.

29/11/1990, Thursday (+16,641) The United Nations, in Resolution 678, authorised the use of �all necessary means� if Saddam Hussein did not leave Kuwait by 15/1/1991, five weeks away. This was the first authorisation of the use of force by the UN since the Korean War.

28/11/1990, Wednesday (+16,640) The President of Chad, Hissene Habre, was deposed by the Patriotic Salvation Movement and replaced as president by its leader, Idriss Deby.

27/11/1990, Tuesday (+16,639) John Major, at the age of 47, became the youngest prime Minister of the 20th century. The other contenders for Tory leader were Michael Heseltine, aged 57, and Douglas Hurd. In 1894 Lord Roseberry was Prime Minister aged 46. Mrs Thatcher had resigned on 22/11/1990, having failed to win a first leadership ballot on the Conservative Party on 20/11/1990.

26/11/1990, Monday (+16,638) President Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore resigned after 26 years in office.

25/11/1990, Sunday (+16,637) Lech Wałesa and Stanisław Tyminski won the first round of the presidential elections in Poland.

24/11/1990, Saturday (+16,636) White extremists attacked 300 Black children in a park in Louis Trichardt.

23/11/1990, Friday (+16,635) Roald Dahl, British writer, died (born 13/9/1916)

22/11/1990, Thursday (+16,634) Mrs Thatcher resigned as Prime Minister, see 27/11/1990.

21/11/1990, Wednesday (+16,633) A declaration of the end of the Cold War was signed in Paris.

20/11/1990, Tuesday (+16,632) Mrs Thatcher lost a leadership ballot within the Conservative Party.

19/11/1990, Monday (+16,631) Saddam Hussein sent another 250,000 troops to Kuwait.

18/11/1990, Sunday (+16,630) In Romania the Socialist Party of Labour, a recreated Communist Party, was launched.

17/11/1990, Saturday (+16,629) A mass grave, believed to be from World War Two, was discoverednear the infamous Bridge over the River Kwai, Thailand.

16/11/1990, Friday (+16,628) Manuel Noriega claimed the US had denied him a fair trial.

15/11/1990, Thursday (+16,627) President Bush signed the Clean Air Act 1990.

14/11/1990, Wednesday (+16,626) (1) Germany and Poland signed a treaty agreeing their border as the Oder-Neisse line.

(2) Michael Heseltine announced he would challenge Mrs Thatcher for office of Prime Minister.

13/11/1990, Tuesday (+16,625) Sir Geoffrey Howe made a Commons speech explaining his resignation as Deputy Prime Minister. This speech helped to oust Mrs Thatcher as Prime Minister.

12/11/1990, Monday (+16,624) Crown Prince Akihito became the 125th Japanese monarch and Emperor.

11/11/1990, Sunday (+16,623) (1) London police seized an IRA arms cache at Kilburn, London; 2 were arrested.

(2) The UN Security Council passed Resolution 688, giving Iraq until 15/1/1991 to withdraw from Kuwait.

10/11/1990, Saturday (+16,622) Mario Schenberg, Brazilian physicist, died (born 2/7/1914).

9/11/1990, Friday (+16,621) (1) President Bush announced a doubling of US forces in the Gulf.

(2) Mary Robinson, a 46 year old lawyer, became the first woman President of the Irish Republic. She stood as an Independent, beating both Fianna Fail and Fine Gael. Irish voters were protesting against the corruption rife in politics.

6/11/1990, Tuesday (+16,618) 14 women staged a protest drive in Saudi Arabia, where women at that time were not allowed to drive cars. They drove a short way out of a supermarket before being stopped and arrested.

1/11/1990, Thursday (+16,613) Geoffrey Howe resigned from Mrs Thatcher�s Cabinet in a dispute over European Monetary Union.


31/10/1990, Wednesday (+16,612) In India, Hindu fundamentalists again attempted to storm the mosque at Ayodhya. Hindus wanted to demolish the mosque, claiming it stood on the site of the birthplace of one of their gods, Lord Rama. Over 8 days, 170 died in India in clashes over this mosque.

30/10/1990, Tuesday (+16,611) InNorway, Gro Harlem Brundtland formed a minority Labour government.

29/10/1990, Monday (+16,610) The coalition government in Norway resigned.

28/10/1990, Sunday (+16,609) In Moldavia, troops kept ethnic Moldavians and Gaugaz Turks apart.

27/10/1990, Saturday (+16,608) In New Zealand elections, the National Party led by James Bolgar defeated the ruling Labour Party.

24/10/1990, Wednesday (+16,605) (1) Edward Heath returned from Iraq with hostages. On 21/10/1990 Heath had had a 3-hour meeting with Saddam Hussein to negotiate the hostages� release.

(2) Ending a three-year freeze on UK child benefit at �7.25 a child, John Major�s government announced a �1 a week rise, but only for the eldest child.

19/10/1990, Friday (+16,,600) In South Africa, the ruling South African National Party formally opened its membership to people of all races.

15/10/1990, Monday (+16,596) Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. However in November and December bread rationing had to be introduced in some Russian cities, including Leningrad. Despite a record harvest, distribution systems had broken down. Grain rotted in Russian warehouses whilst the international community, led by Germany, sent emergency food aid. Circuses but no bread. See 14/12/1990.

14/10/1990, Sunday (+16,595) Leonard Bernstein, US composer, died aged 72.

13/10/1990, Saturday (+16,594) Syrian forces invaded Lebanon and ousted General Michel Aoun�s government. This consolidated Syria�s 14-year occupation of Lebanon.

11/10/1990, Thursday (+16,592)

9/10/1990, Tuesday (+16,590) Hundreds of Chinese queued to buy Big Macs when McDonalds opened its first restaurant in Shenzhen.

8/10/1990, Monday (+16,589) (1) 21 Arabs killed in rioting on the Temple Mount, Jerusalem.

(2) The UK joined the ERM. See 2/10/1990, and 26/10/1989.

7/10/1990, Sunday (+16,588) Israel began handing out gas masks to