Chronography of events from 1 January 1970 to 31 December 1979

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31/12/1979, Monday (+12,655) In 1979 British airlines flew 47 billion passenger kilometres; this compares with 6 million passenger kilometres flown in 1936.

30/12/1979, Sunday (+12,654) Richard Rodgers, US composer, died aged 77

27/12/1979, Thursday (+12,651) President Hafizullah of Afghanistan was deposed and executed in a coup strongly backed by Soviettroops. On 8/1/1980 President Carter described the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan as the greatest threat to world peace since World War Two. Muslim guerrillas were active against the pro-Soviet regime, and 5,000 Soviet troops were stationed in Afghanistan. The USSR feared a spread of Muslim insurgency to the Soviet Union itself.

24/12/1979, Monday (+12,648) Soviet troops began an invasion of Afghanistan.

23/12/1979, Sunday (+12,647) In Czechoslovakia, playwright Vaclav Havel was convicted of subversion.

20/12/1979, Thursday (+12,644) In the UK, the Housing Bill was introduced to Parliament. This would, from 3/10/1980, give more than 5 million council house tenants the right to buy their home at a discount.

18/12/1979, Tuesday (+12,642) Stanley Barrett became the first man to break the sound barrier on land, driving in California at 739.5 mph.

14/12/1979, Friday (+12,638) Michael Owen, English footballer, was born.

12/12/1979, Wednesday (+12,636) Lord Soames arrived in southern Rhodesia as the official governor, ending 14 years of rebellion and UDI.

10/12/1979, Monday (+12,634) Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her work helping the destitute in India. Born in Albania in 1910, she joined a convent at age 18 and taught in the convent�s Calcutta premises. In 1946 she began working the streets of Calcutta to relieve poverty.

7/12/1979, Friday (+12,631) Charles Haughey of Fianna Fail became the new Irish Prime Minister.This followed the resignation of Jack Lynch.

2/12/1979, Sunday (+12,626) Iran adopted a new Islamic constitution.


30/11/1979, Friday (+12,624) (1) In Dublin, Mrs Thatcher demanded a �1,000 million rebate from the EEC.

(2) Zeppo Marx, the agent of the Marx brothers, died in London.

28/11/1979, Wednesday (+12,622) A sight-seeing flight took off from Auckland, New Zealand, to fly over Antarctica. However there was low cloud and fog. Because of proximity to the South Magnetic Pole compasses were unreliable, so the flight navigation relied on grid co-ordinated programmed into the plane�s computer, but these had been incorrectly entered. They thought they were over the coast of mainland Antarctica but were actually looking down at the coast of Ross Island. The flight crew obtained permission to fly lower, below the cloud, and at 12.49pm slammed into Mont Erebus at 480 kph. There would have been no warning a sthe cloud and ice-covered mountain were visually indistinguishable, and the altimeter gave no alarm until the last second.

25/11/1979, Sunday (+12,619) The West Yorkshire Police Committee raised the price on the head of the Yorkshire Ripper to �20,000.

24/11/1979, Saturday (+12,618) Saudi troops stormed the Great Mosque in Mecca to evict Iranian religious fanatics.

23/11/1979, Friday (+12,617) (1) In Dublin, IRA member Thomas MacMahon was sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of Lord Mountbatten.

(2) Militant Sunni Muslims occupied the Grand Mosque in Mecca, holding out there until 4/12/1979. After false radio reports on 21/11/1979 that US forces had taken the Grand Mosque, the US Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, was attacked by a mob and set on fire, killing four people.

22/11/1979, Thursday (+12,616)

21/11/1979, Wednesday (+12,615) Khomeini warned that if the US attacked Iran the hostages would be killed.

20/11/1979, Tuesday (+12,614) Anthony Blunt, Surveyor of the Queen�s Pictures, lost his knighthood after being exposed as a spy.

19/11/1979, Monday (+12,613)

17/11/1979, Saturday (+12,611) Khomeini ordered the release of 13 female and Black hostages being held at the US Embassy in Tehran. However the remaining 53 were to stand trial for espionage.

16/11/1979, Friday (+12,610) Bucharest Metro Line One opened, from Timpur Noi to Semanatoarea, 8.63 kilometres.

15/11/1979, Thursday (+12,609)

14/11/1979, Wednesday (+12,608) Iranian assets in the USA were frozen.

13/11/1979, Tuesday (+12,607) The Times reappeared after a year�s absence.

12/11/1979, Monday (+12,606) The NASA probe Voyager 1 passed within 140,000 kilometres of Saturn, taking high-resolution pictures of the cloud tops.

8/11/1979, Thursday (+12,602)

5/11/1979, Monday (+12,599) Al Capp, cartoonist, died.

4/11/1979, Sunday (+12,598) Iranian demonstrators, and 100 Revolutionary Guards, seized the American Embassy in Tehran, beginning a hostage crisis. 90 personnel, 63 of them Americans, were taken hostage as the return of the Shah for trial was demanded, see 8/3/1980. On 22/10/1979 the Shah had entered the US for hospital treatment and Iranian students wanted him extradited to Iran. On 12/11/1979 the US stopped all oil imports from Iran. On 14/11/1979 President Jimmy Carter ordered all Iranian assets within the US frozen.

3/11/1979, Saturday (+12,597) Clashes between Communist Worker�s party members and Klu Klux Klan neo-Nazis in Greensboro�, North Carolina, USA. 5 Communists were shot dead.

2/11/1979, Friday (+12,596) Protestors in Tripoli, Libya, attacked and burnt the US Embassy.

1/11/1979, Thursday (+12,595) The struggling Chrysler Corporation received a US$ 1.5 billion bailout from the US Government.


30/10/1979, Tuesday (+12,593) Aeronautical engineer andinventor Sir Barnes Wallis died aged 92. He invented the bouncing bombs for the Dambusters raid.

27/10/1979, Saturday (+12,590) St Vincent and the Grenadines achieved independence.

26/10/1979, Friday (+12,589) President Park Chung Hee of South Korea was assassinated by his secret service.

25/10/1979, Thursday (+12,588) Referendums in Spain approved devolution of power to Catalonia and Euzkadi (Basque region).

24/10/1979, Wednesday (+12,587) James Farrell, rugby player, died (born 7/8/1903).

23/10/1979, Tuesday (+12,586)

22/10/1979, Monday (+12,585) The deposed Shah of Iran, Reza Pahlavi, went to the USA for medical treatment, see 4/11/1979.

21/10/1979, Friday (+12,582) Norwegian female runner Grete Waitz set a new time record of 2 hours 27 minutes 32.6 seconds for the New York marathon, 26 miles / 42 km.

18/10/1979, Thursday (+12,581) The Beatles staged a compilation show, Beatlemania, at the Astoria, London.

16/10/1979, Tuesday (+12,579) 23 people died when a tsunami hit Nice, France.

15/10/1979, Monday (+12,578) (1) (Turkey) Bulent Ecevit, leader of the governing leftist secular Republican People�s Party, resigned amidst growing unrest in Turkey. At the start of 1979, martial law was in force in 13 of Turkey�s 67 provinces, due to clashes between Sunni and Shia Muslims. In April 1979 unrest in Kurdish regions caused martial law to be instituted in a further 6 provinces. There were also Left-Right wing clashes. The Turkish Army began to ally with the Right wing opposition Justice Party, led by Suleyman Demirel. Demirel took over governing Turkey, and announced that during Ecevit�s 22-month rule, there had been 2,444 murders by terrorists. However the killings continued. The US was hoping to store nuclear weapons at its bases in Turley, but Ecevit had not allowed this, without USSR approval, which was not given.

(2) Reformist officers overthrew National Conciliation Party rule. El Salvador was being torn apart by vivil war between Left and Right, with the Conservative Government being accused of kidnappings, torture and arbitrary arrests. The new military regime appealed for an end to the civil war, but to no effect.

14/10/1979, Sunday (+12,577) The first National March in Washington DC, USA, for Lesbian and Gay Rights, had over 100,000 marchers.

12/10/1979, Friday (+12,575)

11/10/1979, Thursday (+12,574) Dimitri Tiomkin, composer, died in London (born 10/5/1894 in St Petersburg, Russia)

10/10/1979, Wednesday (+12,573) Pac-Man was released in Japan by Namco; it soon became a worldwide craze.

9/10/1979, Tuesday (+12,572)

8/10/1979, Monday (+12,571) In Israel, the new Tehiya (Renaissance) Party was launched, to resist any further territorial concessions by Israel for peace.

7/10/1979, Sunday (+12,570) In Japanese general elections, the Liberal Democrat Party won a narrow victory.

6/10/1979, Saturday (+12,569) (Price) Inflationary pressures were mounting in response to oil price hikes, after a cold winter 1978/9 and cuts in Iranian production after the Iranian Revolution. Bankers, to protect the real value of their capital, pressured the US Government to intervene. This day the US Federal Reserve announced it would use interest rates to rein in inflation, which in the USA stood at 13.3%, up from 9% a year earlier, and peaked at 21.5% in December 1980. In response US GDP growth fell from +5% in 1978 to -3% in 1982 before rising again. Meanwhile the UK also hiked its Bank Rate by 3% to a record 17% in November 1979, causing the loss of 1 million manufacturing jobs. The global oil price fell back to 1978 levels in real terms and UK inflation, never below 8% throughout the 70s, fell back to 5%.

1/10/1979, Monday (+12,564) (1) The USA handed back control of the Canal Zone to Panama.

(2) The first section of the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway, from Hong Kong Island to Kowloon, opened.


29/9/1979, Saturday (+12,562) Pope John Paul II arrived in Ireland, the first ever Papal visit there.

27/9/1979, Thursday (+12,560) BBC�s Question Time was broadcast for the first time, with Robin Day in the chair.He stayed with the show for 10 years.

25/9/1979, Tuesday (+12,558)

24/9/1979, Monday (+12,557) A remote control cordless telephone, imported from the USA to UK stores, was declared illegal in Britain as it had not been allocated a radio frequency. It was on sale for �260.

23/9/1979, Sunday (+12,556) A US satellite recorded a brilliant double flash over the ocean between South Africa and Antarctica. A South African Navy ship was in the area, but South Africa denied it had tested a nuclear weapon. Since the 1960s, South Africa had invested in nuclear power technology, despite having abundant coal reserves.

22/9/1979, Saturday (+12,555) Otto Frisch, Austrian-British nuclear physicist, died aged 74.

21/9/1979, Friday (+12,554)

20/9/1979, Thursday (+12,553) �Emperor� Bokassa was deposed in Central Africa and a Republic restored under his cousin, David Dacko. Dacko had been President until Bokassa, then an army colonel, overthrew him in a coup in 1965. Bokassa now fled to France, amid accusations of child cannibalism, and he had wasted money on extravagant living.

19/9/1979, Wednesday (-12,552) Pol Pot, ex-dictator of Cambodia, was sentenced to death in his absence by the Vietnamese-backed Cambodian Government.

18/9/1979, Tuesday (+12,551) Corporal punishment was abolished in all inner London schools.

16/9/1979, Sunday (+12,549) Three families fled East Germany by balloon.

14/9/1979, Friday (+12,547) The UK Government announced plans to redevelop London�s Docklands.

10/9/1979, Monday (+12,543) The Lancaster House Conference in the future of Rhodesia opened.

9/9/1979, Sunday (+12,542) Norrie Paramor, British composer, died in London (born 1914)

8/9/1979, Saturday (+12,541) Pink, singer, was born

7/9/1979, Friday (+12,540) In the USA, the Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN) went on air, giving 24-hour coverage to a wide variety of sports from the Olympics and football to tractor pulling events.

6/9/1979, Thursday (+12,539) Ronald Binge, British composer, died in Ringwood (born 15/7/1910 in Derby)

5/9/1979, Wednesday (+12,538) Earl of Mountbatten's Ceremonial Funeral held in Westminster Abbey

1/9/1979, Saturday (+12,534) The US spacecraft Pioneer 1 visited Saturn, passing by the planet 21,000 kilometres away.


27/8/1979, Monday (+12,529) Earl Mountbatten, British Admiral of the Fleet, his 14 year old grandson Nicolas, and 15 year old boatman Paul Maxwell, were killed when an IRA bomb exploded in their boat near Mullaghmore, Sligo Bay, Ireland. Three others were seriously injured whilst 82-year old Lady Brabourne died the following day. In Ireland, on 30/8/1979, Francis McGirl and Thomas McMahon were charged with his murder in Dublin.

25/8/1979, Saturday (+12,527) Stan Kenton, US composer, died in Los Angeles (born 15/2/1912 in Wichita, Kansas)

23/8/1979, Thursday (+12,525) In Iran, troops clashed with Kurdish rebels.

16/8/1979, Thursday (+12,518) John George Diefenbaker, Canadian Prime Minister (born 18.9.1895 in rural Ontario) died.

15/8/1979, Wednesday (+12,517) Peter Shukoff, US comedian and musician, was born.

14/8/1979, Tuesday (+12,516) John Stonehouse was released from prison.

9/8/1979, Thursday (+12,511) Brighton established Britain�s first nudist beach.

6/8/1979, Monday (+12,508) (Biology) Feodor Lynen, German biochemist, died in Munich.

5/8/1979, Sunday (+12,507) (1) British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher urged rebel leaders in Rhodesia to hold talks.

(2) The Forestry Commission reported the spread of Dutch Elm Disease, which had already infected 3 million trees.

3/8/1979, Friday (+12,505) Francis Macias Nguema, pro-Soviet President of Equatorial Guinea, was deposed by his nephew Lt-Colonel Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo. He was then found guilty of genocide and corruption, and was executed.

1/8/1979, Wednesday (+12,503) Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother was installed as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, the first woman to hold this office.


31/7/1979, Tuesday (+12,502) Nigeria seized British oil installations, in a bid to persuade Mrs Thatcher to take a harder line on Apartheid.

29/7/1979, Sunday (+12,500) Herbert Marcuse, German philosopher, died aged 81.

28/7/1979, Saturday (+12,499) Saddam Hussein purged the Iraqi Ba�ath Party after an alleged plot.

23/7/1979, Monday (+12,494) (Iran) In Iran, Khomeini banned the broadcasting of music.

20/7/1979, Friday (+12,491) Sandinista rebels entered Managua, Nicaragua, and set up a 5-man junta.

19/7/1979, Thursday (+12,490) Two oil tankers, the Atlantic Empress and the Aegean Captain collided off Trinidad, spilling 300,000 tons of crude oil, the world�s largest oil spill.

18/7/1979, Wednesday (+12,489) Jared Hess, US film director and screenwriter, was born

17/7/1979, Tuesday (+12,488) Anastasio Somoza, dictator of Nicaragua, fled to the USA.

16/7/1979, Monday (+12,487) Iraqi President Hasan al Bakr resigned. Vice President Saddam Hussein replaced him.

15/7/1979, Sunday (+12,486) Moraji Desai resigned as Indian Prime Minister. On 28/7/1979 Charan Singh became Indian Prime Minister.

14/7/1979, Saturday (+12,485) Bernie Castro, baseball player, was born in Santiago, Dominican Republic

13/7/1979, Friday (+12,484) Craig Bellamy, footballer, was born.

12/7/1979, Thursday (+12,483) Kiribati became independent. It was formerly known as the Gilbert Islands.

11/7/1979, Wednesday (+12,482) America�s Skylab I fell to earth after 34,981 orbits in six years. It had been launched on 14/5/1973.Debris landed in Australia.

10/7/1979, Tuesday (+12,481) (Football) Mvondo Atangana, Cameroon footballer, was born.

9/7/1979, Monday (+12,480) General Somoza, whose family had ruled Nicaragua for 47 years, was overthrown by the Sandinistas. General Somoza had lost the support of conservative businessmen and the USA.

8/7/1979, Sunday (+12,479) (Chemistry) Robert Burns Woodward, US chemist, died in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

7/7/1979, Saturday (+12,478) China was granted �most favoured nation� status by the USA, giving it ;lower tariff rates on its imports to the US.

6/7/1979, Friday (+12,477)

4/7/1979, Wednesday (+12,475) Algerian leader ben Bella was released after 14 years in jail.

3/7/1979, Tuesday (+12,474) US President Jimmy Carter signed the first secret directive for aid to be given to anti-Communist opponents of the Kabul government.

2/7/1979, Monday (+12,473) (Railways) The Komsomolsk to Urgal railway, Russia, opened.

1/7/1979, Sunday (+12,472) The first Sony Walkman, a portable personal cassette player with headphones, went on sale in Japan.


30/6/1979, Saturday (+12,471)

27/6/1979, Wednesday (+12,468) Brian Weber lost a reverse discrimination case against his union (US Supreme Court, United Steel Workers v Weber), which had recruited Black and White workers in equal numbers to a training programme, although White workers outnumbered Black ones.

26/6/1979, Tuesday (+12,467) Muhammad Ali retired as world heavyweight boxing champion. He made two comebacks in 1980 and 1981 but lost both.

22/6/1979, Friday (+12,463) In Britain, Liberal politician Jeremy Thorpe was cleared of conspiracy to murder homosexual Norman Scott.

18/6/1979, Monday (+12,459) US President Carter and USSR President Brezhnev signed the SALT 2 (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) in Vienna.

12/6/1979, Tuesday (+12,453) (1) Sir Geoffrey Howe, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the new Conservative government�s first Budget. In a decisive change of political direction, direct taxes such as income tax were cut but indirect taxes increased. VAT was raised to 15%. Public spending was cut. Controls on pay, prices and dividends were scrapped, and incentives provided to businesspeople.

(2) The American Bryan Allen made the first man-powered flight across the English Channel. He pedalled his Gossamer Albatross from Folkestone to Cap Gris Nez in 2 hours 50 minutes.

11/6/1979, Monday (+12,452) Actor John Wayne died, aged 72.

10/6/1979, Sunday (+12,451)

8/6/1979, Friday (+12,449) British actor Michael Wilding died.

7/6/1979, Thursday (+12,448) First direct elections to the European Parliament.

5/6/1979, Tuesday (+12,446)

4/6/1979, Monday (+12,445) Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings led a military coup which deposed General Acheampong, who had ruled since 1972. Acheampong was then executed.

3/6/1979, Sunday (+12,444) In Italian general elections, the Communists lost ground.

2/6/1979, Saturday (+12,443) Pope John Paul II visited his native Poland. He was the first Pope to visit a Communist country.

1/6/1979, Friday (+12,442) Rhodesia officially changed its name to Zimbabwe.


29/5/1979, Tuesday (+12,439) (1) Bishop Abel Muzorewa became Rhodesia�s first Black Prime Minister.

(2) Sandinistas from Costa Rica invaded Nicaragua and succeeded in starting a revolution against Somoza.

25/5/1979, Friday (+12,435) A DC-10 airliner crashed at Chicago Airport, killing 273.

23/5/1979, Wednesday (+12,433) Ten days into the new Conservative administration, the Secretary for the Environment, Michael Heseltine, put Britain�s six million council and New Town homes up for sale.Existing tenants could obtain discounts of up to 50%.

22/5/1979, Tuesday (+12,432) In Canada, Pierre Trudeau, Liberal, lost the election. Joe Clark became Progressive Conservative Prime Minister of a minority government.

21/5/1979, Monday (+12,431) Elton John became the first Western rock star to perform in the Soviet Union.

17/5/1979, Thursday (+12,427)

14/5/1979, Monday (+12,424) Jean Rhys, novelist, died aged 88.

13/5/1979, Sunday (+12,423) The Chief of the Central Islamic Revolutionary Court said that anyone who killed the Shah of Iran or his family or aides (all of whom had fled abroad) would be acting on the orders of his court. On 18/5/1979 an Iranian newspaper offered a free trip to Mecca for anyone who killed the exiled Shah.

12/5/1979, Saturday (+12,422) Steve Smith, US footballer, was born in Los Angeles, California

11/5/1979, Friday (+12,421) Lester Flatt, US singer, died in Nashville (born in Overton County, Tennessee, 28/6/1914).

10/5/1979, Thursday (+12,420) The Federated States of Micronesia became self-governing.

9/5/1979, Wednesday (+12,319) Israeli forces pursued into Lebanon some Palestinian guerrillas who had attacked a Jewish settlement. Conflict in the area looked likely to escalate again.

8/5/1979, Tuesday (+12,418) Talcott Parsons, US sociologist, died aged 76.

7/5/1979, Monday (+12,417) Tehran lowered the minimum age of marriage to 13 for boys and 15 for girls.

6/5/1979, Sunday (+12,416) Bernard Leach, British studio pottery artist, died aged 92.

4/5/1979, Friday (+12,414)

3/5/1979, Thursday (+12,413) UK General Election. The Conservatives defeated Labour and Mrs Margaret Hilda Thatcher, born 13/10/1925, becomes Britain�s first woman Prime Minister. The Conservative election majority was 43 seats. The Conservatives won 339 seats, Labour won 269 seats, the Liberals 11, Nationalists 4. Jeremy Thorpe lost his seat, conclusively ending his political career.

2/5/1979, Wednesday (+12,412) Riots in Longwy, France, over the proposed closure of steel plants.

1/5/1979, Tuesday (+12,411) Denmark granted Greenland home rule.


29/4/1976, Sunday (+12,409) The Indian Supreme Court ruled that the Government can imprison political opponents without legal hearings. There were reports of torture of such prisoners.

26/4/1979, Thursday (+12,406)

23/4/1979, Monday (+12,403) A teacher, Blair Peach, was killed, and 300 were arrested after violent clashes between the National Front and the anti-Nazi League in Southall, west London.

22/4/1979, Sunday (+12,402) Keith Richard of the Rolling Stones escaped a drugs conviction in return for performing a benefit concert for the Canadian National institute for the Blind.

20/4/1979, Friday (+12,400) The last Concorde to be built made its maiden flight. Only 16 of the aircraft were ever built; they were too noisy. Even the lawyer hired to secure landing rights publically admitted �Concorde is noisy as hell�.

17/4/1979, Tuesday (+12,397) In Northern Ireland 4 policemen were killed by a 1,000 lb. bomb, the IRA�s most powerful so far.

15/4/1979, Sunday (+12,395) Easter Sunday.

12/4/1979, Thursday (+12,392) Claire Danes, actress, was born.

11/4/1979, Wednesday (+12,391) Kampala, capital of Uganda, was captured by Tanzanian forces who deposed General Idi Amin. Fighting continued in Uganda, and on 22/4/1979 Tanzanian forces captured Jinja, 50 miles from Kampala. Idi Amin fled to Libya as troops closed in on his capital.

10/4/1979, Tuesday (+12,390) Cambodia recognised the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.

9/4/1979, Monday (+12,389) Officials declared Three Mile Island nuclear power station to be safe, see 29/3/1979.

7/4/1979, Saturday (+12,387)

6/4/1979, Friday (+12,386) Milton Ager, US composer, died in Los Angeles (born 6/10/1893 in Chicago).

5/4/1979, Thursday (+12,385) US President Carter established an Energy Security Fund to help US consumers meet fuel costs, and to promote alternative energy and more use of public transport.

4/4/1979, Wednesday (+12,384) (1) There were demonstrations in Pakistan as ex-Prime Minister Ali Bhutto was hanged.He was accused of conspiring to murder a political opponent.See 18/3/1978.

(2) Through services from Canton to Kowloon (Hong Kong) were restored (withdrawn 14/10/1949).

3/4/1979, Tuesday (+12,383) China warned the USSR it would not seek to renew the 1950 Treaty of Friendship when it expired in1980.

2/4/1979, Monday (+12,382) Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin became the first Israeli leader to make an official visit to Egypt.

1/4/1979, Sunday (+12,381) Iranians voted by a 98% majority to make their country an Islamic Republic; the Shah was officially deposed.


31/3/1979, Saturday (+12,380) The British Royal Navy finally withdrew from Malta.

30/3/1979, Friday (+12,379) The MP and opposition spokesman on Northern Ireland, Airey Neave, was killed by an IRA car bomb, in the car park at the House of Commons.

29/3/1979, Thursday (+12,378) Valves in the cooling system at Three Mile Island nuclear reactor malfunctioned, and due to staff error part of the reactor was left without coolant and melted. Radioactive steam escaped outside. A meltdown was averted. This pushed public opinion in the USA and Europe strongly against nuclear power. See 9/4/1979.

28/3/1979, Wednesday (+12,377) The UK Labour government of James Callaghan collapsed over the Home Rule vote in Parliament, losing the vote by one vote, and Parliament was dissolved, see 1/3/1979.

27/3/1979, Tuesday (+12,376) Hafizullah Amin became Prime Minister of Afghanistan.

26/3/1979, Monday (+12,375) In Washington, USA, Mr Begin of Israel and President Sadat of Egypt signed a peace treaty. President Carter oversaw the signing.

22/3/1979, Thursday (+12,371) (1) The leader of the Conservative Opposition, Mrs Thatcher, put down a Motion of No Confidence in the ruling Labour administration, hoping to force a spring election.

(2) Ugandan Army troops surrounded the home of General Idi Amin but he slipped away undetected. Under Amin�s rule some 300,000 Ugandans were killed. Amin became President in 1972, overthrowing Milton Obote; his downfall came when he invaded northern Tanzania in 1971. President Nyerere retaliated, assisting Ugandan rebels to depose Amin.

20/3/1979, Tuesday (+12,369) After a 5-day popular uprising against the PDPA in Herat, Afghanistan, the PDPA retook the city by force. Some 20,000 civilians died in the fighting

19/3/1979, Monday (+12,368) Ceasefire in hostilities between North and South Yemen.

16/3/1979, Friday (+12,365) Vietnam fought a brief nine-day war with China. The Chinese withdrew this day.

13/3/1979, Tuesday (+12,362) Sir Eric Gairy, Prime Minister of Grenada, was ousted in a coup by 33-year-old Marxist, Maurice Bishop, whilst Gairy was away in New York.

8/3/1979, Thursday (+12,357) Women in Tehran demonstrated against Islamic laws.

6/3/1979, Tuesday (+12,355)

4/3/1979, Sunday (+12,353) Voyager 1 photographed Jupiter�s rings, approaching within 290,000 kilometres of the planet on 5/3/1979.

3/3/1979, Saturday (+12,352) Chinese forces in Vietnam took Lang Son.

2/3/1979, Friday (+12,351) Damien Duff, footballer, was born.

1/3/1979, Thursday (+12,350) 32.5% of Scottish voters voted in favour of devolution, short of the 40% required; however a majority of Scots who voted favoured devolution. The Welsh vote was overwhelmingly against devolution. This led to the defeat of the Labour government in a confidence motion, necessitating a General Election, see 28/3/1979.In a Welsh referendum, 11.9% of the electorate voted for independence and 46.9% voted against it.


28/2/1979, Wednesday (+12,349)

25/2/1979, Sunday (+12,345) Christies London auctioneers held their first collectors car sale. A 1936 Mercedes-Benz 500K roadster sold for US$ 400,000.

24/2/1979, Saturday (+12,345) Border guards in North and South Yemen began firing on each other.

23/2/1979, Friday (+12,344) WAC. Bennett, Canadian politician, died aged 78

22/2/1979, Thursday (+12,343) St Lucia became an independent member of the Commonwealth.

21/2/1979, Wednesday (+12,342) Jennifer Love Hewitt, actress, was born.

20/2/1979, Tuesday (+12,341) Poisoning by a high concentration of carbon dioxide killed 175 people in the Indonesian village of Pucukan on Java, built on a plateau near the Mount Sinila crater of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Rescuers evacuated 9,000 people in Pucukan and a neighbouring village. A small eruption from Kawah Simla and neighbouring Sigluduk released the gas that had been trapped underground.

19/2/1979, Monday (+12,340) In Bangladesh, Zia ur Rahman�s Bangladesh Nationalist Party won the elections.

18/2/1979, Sunday (+12,339) (1) The BBC screened the first episode of The Antiques Roadshow, hosted by Bruce Parker, Arthur Negus and Angela Rippon.

(2) The Sahara had a 30-minute snowfall.

17/2/1979, Saturday (+12,338) China launched an invasion of northern Vietnam. China had backed North Vietnam during the Vietnam war with the US-backed South, but since Hanoi�s victory in 1975, North Vietnam had aligned with the Soviet Union, and in January 1979 North Vietnam invaded Cambodia and ousted the Pol Pot regime, which China backed.

16/2/1979, Friday (+12,337) The new government of Iran carried out its first executions of members of the Shah's regime.

15/2/1979, Thursday (+12,336) In Iran, 4 Iranian army generals were executed by firing squad; two members of the Shah�s government were executed the following day.

14/2/1979, Wednesday (+12,335) (1) In Britain, trades unions and the Government announced a Valentine�s day agreement to end the winter of discontent that had started with a 25% pay claim by the lorry drivers. The settlement of the claim by petrol tanker drivers merely encouraged other pay claims to breach the Government 5% �pay norm�. Rubbish piled up in the streets, the dead went unburied, hospitals turned away the sick, food and petrol supplies were disrupted.

(2) In Kabul, Muslim militants kidnapped the US ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs. He was killed the following day in a gunfight between the kidnappers and the police.

(3) The first �1 million transfer deal in British football. Trevor Francis moved from Birmingham City to Nottingham Forest. Later in 1979 this record was broken when Steve Dudley moved from Wolverhampton Wanderers to Manchester United for �1.45 million, and then Andy Gray moved from Aston Villa to Wolverhampton for �1.47 million.

13/2/1979, Tuesday (+12,334) Jean Renoir, French film director, died.

12/2/1979, Monday (+12,333) In Britain, over 1,000 schools closed because of shortages of heating oil.

11/2/1979, Sunday (+12,332) In Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini set up a provisional government.

10/2/1979, Saturday (+12,331) (1) The Iranian Army mutinied against its leader and joined the Iranian Revolution. Khomeini now also controlled the law courts and government administration.

(2) General Zia, ruler of Pakistan, introduced Islamic Shia law.

9/2/1979, Friday (+12,330) Dennis Gabor, physicist who invented holography, died aged 78.

7/2/1979, Wednesday (+12,328)

6/2/1979, Tuesday (+12,327) Pakistan�s Supreme Court ruled that the former Prime Minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, should be hanged for conspiring to murder an opponent. He was hanged in Rawalpindi on 4/4/1979, despite pleas from world leaders.

5/2/1979, Monday (+12,326) Edward Paynter, cricketer, died (born 5/11/1901).

4/2/1979, Sunday (+12,325) Giorgio Pantano, Italian racing car driver, was born.

3/2/1979, Saturday (+12,324) Khomeini created the Council of the Iranian Revolution.

2/2/1979, Friday (+12,323) Sid Vicious (born as John Ritchie), former band member of the Sex Pistols, died of a heroin overdose at a party in New York, aged 21.

1/2/1979, Thursday (+12,322) (Iran) Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran after 14 year�s exile in France, at the invitation of Bakhtiar.


31/1/1979, Wednesday (+12,321) Industrial disputes led to uncollected rubbish building up on Britain�s streets.

30/1/1979, Tuesday (+12,320) White voters in Rhodesia voted to ratify the new Constitution.

29/1/1979, Monday (+12,319) William McCracken, footballer, died.

28/1/1979, Sunday (+12,318) Edwin Mbaso, Zambian footballer, died aged 24 from injuries in a motor vehicle accident.

27/1/1979, Saturday (+12,317) Rosamund Pike, actress, was born.

26/1/1979, Friday (+12,316) Nelson Rockerfeller, Republican politician and vice President to Gerald Ford, died.

25/1/1979, Thursday (+12,315) Pope John Paul II visited Latin America.

18/1/1979, Thursday (+12,308) A Palestinian bomb explo0ded in Jerusalem. In retaliation, Israeli forcesoved into south Lebanon. A truce was agreed on 24/1/1979.

16/1/1979, Tuesday (+12,306) The Shah of Iran and Empress Farah fled to Egypt from Tehran, following months of riots.

15/1/1979, Monday (+12,305) A series of one-day rail strikes hit Britain.

14/1/1979, Sunday (+12,304) John Reuben, American singer, was born in Columbus, Ohio.

13/1/1979, Saturday (+12,303) Concorde began a regular service between Washington DC and Dallas airports.

12/1/1979, Friday (+12,302) Grzegorz Rasiak, footballer, was born in Szczecin, Poland

11/1/1979, Thursday (+12,301) State of Emergency began in Northern Ireland due to the tanker drivers� strike, until 14/1/1979.

10/1/1979, Wednesday (+12,300) In Britain, Labour Prime Minister Jim Callaghan arrived back from a 4-day holiday in the West Indies to face the Winter of Discontent.

9/1/1979, Tuesday (+12,299) Avery Claflin, composer, died aged 80.

8/1/1979, Monday (+12,298) (1) The French oil tanker Betelgeuse exploded in Bantry Bay, west Ireland, killing 49 people.

(2) In Cambodia, the Vietnamese took Phnom Penh; the Khmer Rouge regime fell.

7/1/1979, Sunday (+12,297) Rebel Cambodia forces, along with Vietnamese forces captured Phnom Penh, capital of Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia). Pol Pot and his Khmer rouge retreated to Thailand.

6/1/1979, Saturday (+12,296) Charles Elliott, horse racing champion, died.

5/1/1979, Friday (+12,295) A lorry driver�s strike was causing chaos in Britain.

4/1/1979, Thursday (+12,294) The Shah of Iran appointed Dr Shakpur Bakhtiar as Prime Minister, in a concession to popular discontent.

3/1/1979, Wednesday (+12,293) Conrad Hilton, founder of the Hilton Hotel Group and once married to Zsa Zsa Gabor, died.

2/1/1979, Tuesday (+12,292) Suranne Jones, British actress, was born.

1/1/1979, Monday (+12,291) (1) Diplomatic relations were established between China and the USA.

(2) The European Monetary System (EMS) was formed.

(3) (Iran) Iranian Prime Minister General Azhari resigned. He had been appointed to halt the Islamist protests on the streets of Iran, but despite the use of the army, police and secret police he had not achieved this. Demonstrators continued to call for the Shah to be deposed, and for the return of Ayatollah Khomeini from exile

(4) M-19 Leftist guerrillas (see 19/5/1970) captured over 5,000 weapons from the main military arsenal in Bogota


27/12/1978, Wednesday (+12,286) Spain became a democracy as a new Constitution was approved, after 40 years of dictatorship. See 8/1/1982.

25/12/1978, Monday (+12,284) Vietnam launched a major offensive against the Khmer Rouge of Cambodia.

24/12/1978, Sunday (+12,283) In Tehran, demonstrators tried to attack the US Embassy.

20/12/1978, Wednesday (+12,279)

18/12/1978, Monday (+12,277) Katie Holmes, actress, was born.

17/12/1978, Sunday (+12,276) IRA bombs exploded in Southampton, Bristol, Manchester, and Coventry.

16/12/1978, Saturday (+12,275) (1) Civil war loomed in Iran as the Shah refused to abdicate.

(2) Ministers from Britain and Argentina met to discuss the Falkland Islands, to which Argentina had reiterated its claim. Films on release included Jaws II.

15/12/1978, Friday (+12,274) Cleveland, Ohio, became the first major US city to go into default since the great Depression, under mayor Dennis Kucinich.

14/12/1978, Thursday (+12,273) Newsweek looked at the growing influence of Islam in Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt.

12/12/1978, Tuesday (+12,271)

11/12/1978, Monday (+12,270) (Biology) Vincent du Vigneaud, US biochemist, dies in Scarsdale, New York, USA.

10/12/1978, Sunday (+12,269) (1) In Iran, two million marched in protest against the Shah.

(2) Presidents Menachim Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt shared the Nobel Peace Prize. See 18/9/1978.

9/12/1978, Saturday (+12,268) Two US spacecraft reached Venus, sending back pictures of its surface hidden below clouds. On 5/12/1978 the Pioneer I craft went into orbit around Venus, analysing the atmosphere and mapping the surface by radar. This day the Pioneer 2 craft launched probes which landed, surviving the hellish conditions for four hours.

8/12/1978, Friday (+12,267) Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel 1969-1974, died, aged 80, in Jerusalem.

7/12/1978, Thursday (+12,266) Shiri Appleby, US actress, was born.

6/12/1978, Wednesday (+12,265) James Callaghan announced that Britain would not be joining the new European Monetary System (EMS).

5/12/1978, Tuesday (+12,264) The USSR signed a 20-year friendship treaty with Afghanistan. See 27/4/1978.

4/12/1978, Monday (+12,263) Dianne Feinstein became San Francisco�s first woman mayor, following the murder of mayor George Moscone. She served until 8/1/1988.

2/12/1978, Saturday (+12,261) Nelly Furtado, pop singer, was born.


30/11/1978, Thursday (+12,259) The Times stopped publication because of an industrial dispute. Industrial relations problems continued at The Times until 13/11/1979.

29/11/1978, Wednesday (+12,258) (1) In Jonestown, Guyana, 914 bodies, including 276 children, were found, all believed to have committed suicide, at the premises of the People�s Temple sect. Jonestown was a communal village built by a cult leader, the Reverend Jim Jones (formerly a Methodist Minister). Jones persuaded most of his followers to drink cyanide in an act of �revolutionary suicide�. However not all the 1,100 persons there did so, and there were reports that some had been forced to drink the poison.

(2) (Race Equality, Football) Viv Anderson, of Nottingham Forest, became the first Black footballer to play for England.

28/11/1978, Tuesday (+12,257) The Iranian Government banned religious marches.

27/11/1978, Monday (+12,258) Harvey Milk, first openly gay ,man to hold public office in the USA, on the California Board of Governors, was assassinated.

25/11/1978, Saturday (+12,254) The trial of Liberal leader Jeremy Thorpe, accused along with three other men of conspiracy and incitement to murder a former male model, continued.

20/11/1978, Monday (+12,249) An attempted military coup in Spain failed.

18/11/1978, Saturday (+12,247) Lennie Tristano, US jazz pianist, died in New York (born 19/3/1919 in 19/3/1919)

15/11/1978, Wednesday (+12,344) Margaret Mead, anthropological writer, died.

13/11/1978, Monday (+12,242) US illustrator Norman Rockwell died.

11/11/1978, Saturday (+12,240) The TUC refused to endorse the UK Government�s 5% wage limit.

8/11/1978, Wednesday (+12,237) Uganda dropped its territorial claim on Tanzania.

7/11/1978, Tuesday (+12,236) Indira Ghandi was re-elected to the Indian Parliament.

6/11/1978, Monday (+12,235) As disorder increased in Iran, a military government was appointed.

5/11/1978, Sunday (+12,234) Fierce fighting in Tehran; the Prime Minister, Sharif-Emami, resigned. The British Embassy in Tehran was sacked.

3/11/1978, Friday (+12,232) (1) The Caribbean island of Dominica became an independent member of the Commonwealth.

(2) Vietnam and the USA signed a 25-year treaty of friendship and co-operation in economic, scientific and technical endeavours.

1/11/1978, Wednesday (+12,230) The British newspaper The Daily Star went on sale in the north and midlands.It was owned by Express newspapers.


31/10/1978, Tuesday (+12,229) Iranian oil-workers� strike halved production.

30/10/1978, Monday (+12,228) Edgar Bergen, ventriloquist, died.

29/10/1978, Sunday (+12,227)

28/10/1978, Saturday (+12,226) George Scott-Wood, British composer, died in London (born 27/5/1903 in Glasgow)

27/10/1978, Friday (+12,225) Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat were joint winners of the Nobel Peace Prize.

25/10/1978, Wednesday (+12,223)

24/10/1978, Tuesday (+12,222) (Aviation) US President Jimmy Carter signed the Airlines Deregulation Act. This allowed commercial airlines to ditch their unprofitable short haul routes and to compete on the main inter-city routes and tourist flights.

23/10/1978, Monday (+12,221) The UK Government planned to replace GCE O levels and CSEs with a single exam, the GCSE.

22/10/1978, Sunday (+12,220) John Riley, poet, died.

18/10/1978, Wednesday (+12,216) Frank Woolley, cricketer, died (born 28/5/1887)

16/10/1978, Monday (+12,214) Karol Wojtyla, from Poland, Archbishop of Cracow, became the first non-Italian Pope since 1542, as Pope John Paul II. See 28/9/1978, and 2/4/2005.

14/10/1978, Saturday (+12,212) Daniel Arap Moi became President of Kenya.

13/10/1978, Friday (+12,211) A new Swedish Government, minority Liberal, took power under Ola Ullsten.

12/10/1978, Thursday (+11,210) Border clashes between Uganda and Tanzania, caused by Idi Amin�s expansionist claims on Tanzanian territory.

10/10/1978, Tuesday (+12,208)

9/10/1978, Monday (+12,207) Jacques Brel, musician, died.

8/10/1978, Sunday (+12,206) Australia�s Ken Warby set a new world water speed record of 317.627 mph in The Spirit of Australia at Blowering Dam, Australia.

7/10/1978, Saturday (+12,305)

6/10/1978, Friday (+12,204) The first woman train driver on the London Underground began work.

5/10/1978, Thursday (+12,203) The Swedish Centre-Right Government collapsed over the issue of nuclear power.

4/10/1978, Wednesday (+11,202) Paul Hunter, snooker player, was born (died 9/10/2006)

3/10/1978, Tuesday (+11,201)

1/10/1978, Sunday (+12,199) Vietnam attacked Cambodia.


30/9/1978, Saturday (+12,198) The Ellice Islands became the independent nation of Tuvalu.

29/9/1978, Friday (+12,197) Johannes Vorster became President of South Africa.

28/9/1978, Thursday (+12,196) (1) Pope John Paul I died, after just 33 days in office. See 26/8/1978, and 16/10/1978.

(2) Peter Botha became Prime Minister of South Africa.

26/9/1978, Tuesday (+12,194)

25/9/1978, Monday (+12,193) Jodie Kidd, TV personality, was born.

24/9/1978, Sunday (+12,192) Ruth Etting, US actress, died in Colorado Springs (born 23/11/1896 in David City, Nebraska)

22/9/1978, Friday (+12,190) Harry Kewell, Australian footballer, was born.

20/9/1978, Wednesday (+12,,188) B J Vorster resigned as Prime Minister of South Africa due to ill-health.

18/9/1978, Monday (+12,186) President Menachem Begin of Israel and President Anwar Sadat of Egypt signed the Camp David peace agreement in America, with President Carter of the US. See 10/12/1978. Other Arab leaders were appalled.

16/9/1978, Saturday (+12,184) (1) 25,000 died in a quake in Iran measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale around the town of Tabas.

(2) Zia ul Haq became Head of State in Pakistan, succeeding President Chaudry.

15/9/1978, Friday (+12,183) Wilhelm Messerschmitt, German aviation engineer and designer, died aged 80.

13/9/1978, Wednesday (+12,181)

12/9/1978, Tuesday (+12,180) (Railway Tunnels) The Kamai Range tunnel, North Island, New Zealand, 8.8 km long, opened between Apata and Waharoa.

11/9/1978, Monday (+12,179) (1) Bulgarian defector Georgi Markov, a broadcaster on the BBC�s foreign service, was stabbed in the thigh with a poisoned umbrella in London. He soon collapsed into a coma, and died on 18/9/1979.

(2) The world�s last smallpox victim died. She was a medical school photographer in Birmingham, and had caught the virus on 30/8/1979 after it escaped from a laboratory located on the floor below her workplace. The Head of Department responsible for this laboratory later committed suicide by cutting his throat.

10/9/1978, Sunday (+12,178) Martial law was imposed in parts of Rhodesia.

9/9/1978, Saturday (+12,177) Jack Warner, film studio founder, died.

8/9/1978, Friday (+12,176) In Iran, the Shah imposed martial law in an attempt to quell growing discontent; 122 died and 4,000 were wounded.. This followed demonstrations against the Shah in which 58 died.General Gholam Ali Oveissi was appointed military governor of Tehran. Reviled as the �butcher of Tehran� after his brutal response to riots in 1963, he continued in that pattern. His security forces met a peaceful demonstration in Jaleh Square with a hail of bullets, an incident known as �Black Friday�.

7/9/1978, Thursday (+12,175) Keith Moon, drummer, died.

6/9/1978, Wednesday (+12,174) Gerry Adams was released from jail after a judge ruled there was insufficient evidence to prove IRA membership.

5/9/1978, Tuesday (+12,173) The Camp David Accords; Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat began peace talks at the Camp in Maryland.

4/9/1978, Monday (+12,172) In Rhodesia, guerrillas fighting the Ian Smith regime shot down an airliner with a Russian SAM-7 missile, then massacred the survivors of the crash; they claimed the aeroplane was a �legitimate military target�.

1/9/1978, Friday (+12,169)


27/8/1978, Sunday (+12,164) The new Iranian Government of Sharif-Emami lifted the ban on political parties.

26/8/1978, Saturday (+12,163) (1) After the death of Pope Paul VI on 6/8/1978, Cardinal Albino Luciani was elected Pope John Paul I, the 264th Pope. See 28/9/1978.

(2) The funeral and burial of Rudolf Hess.

25/8/1978, Friday (+12,162) The Shroud of Turin went on public display for the first time in 45 years.

24/8/1978, Thursday (+12,161) Louis Prima, US trumpeter, died in New Orleans (born 7/12/1911 in New Orleans)

22/8/1978, Tuesday (+12,159) Jomo Kenyatta, first President of Kenya since 1964, died in Mombasa aged 86. He was succeeded as leader by Daniel Mori.

20/8/1978, Sunday (+12,157) Gunmen opened fire on an El Al airline bus in London.

19/8/1978, Saturday (+12,156) Extremist Muslims in Abadan, Iran set fire to a cinema, killing nearly 400 people.

17/8/1978, Thursday (+12,154) The first crossing of the Atlantic by balloon. The huge black and silver balloon, Double Eagle II, landed in a wheat field at Miserey, near Paris, 137 hours after leaving Maine. It was flown by three Americans, Ben Abruzzo, Max Anderson and Larry Newman.

14/8/1978, Monday (+12,151) Victor Silvester, British author, died in Le Lavandou, France (born 25/2/1900 in Wembley, Middlesex)

13/8/1978, Sunday (+12,150) A large bomb in Beirut killed 150 Palestinians.

12/8/1978, Saturday (+12,149) China and Japan signed a 10-year friendship treaty

11/8/1978, Friday (+12,148)

9/8/1978, Wednesday (+12,146) Audrey Tatou, actress, was born.

7/8/1978, Monday (+12,144) President Jimmy Carter declared a federal emergency at Love Canal.

6/8/1978, Sunday (+12,143) Pope Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini) died, aged 80.

4/8/1978, Friday (+12,141) Jeremy Thorpe, leader of the Liberal Party, was charged with conspiracy to murder Mr Norman Scott. He was later cleared.

3/8/1978, Thursday (+12,140) De Lorean Motor Company announced its intention to build a sports car factory in Belfast, Northern Ireland.


31/7/1978, Monday (+12,137) The Devolution Acts for Scotland and Wales received Royal Assent.

25/7/1978, Tuesday (+12,131) The world�s first test tube baby was born, in Britain. Louise Joy Brown was born by Caesarean section at Oldham General Hospital, Lancashire, to Lesley Brown. She had been conceived by combining the sperm and egg in a Petri Dish, because her mother�s Fallopian Tubes were blocked.

21/7/1978, Friday (+12,127) Henry Longhurst, golfing champion, died (born 18/3/1909).

20/7/1978, Thursday (+12,126) Teddy Bunn, US jazz and blues guitarist, died (born 1909 in Freeport, New York).

14/7/1978, Friday (+12,120) In the USSR, dissident writer Anatoly Sharansky was sentenced to 13 years prison with hard labour.

10/7/1978, Monday (+12,116) Joe Davis, snooker player, died (born 15/4/1901).

9/7/1978, Sunday (+12,115) Abdul Razak al-Naif, Prime Minister of Iraq, was murdered.

8/7/1978, Saturday (+12,114) Two German mountaineers, Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeller, made the first ascent of Everest without oxygen.

7/7/1978, Friday (+12,113) (1) The EEC looked at proposals to link together its different currencies.

(2) The Solomon Islands became an independent republic within the Commonwealth.They had been a British protectorate since 1899.


30/6/1978, Friday (+12,106) Ethiopia began a major offensive in Eritrea.

27/6/1978, Tuesday (+12,103) The UK was expected to be self-sufficient in oil in two year�s time.

26/6/1978, Monday (+12,102) A bomb set off by Breton nationalists damaged Versailles.

25/6/1978, Sunday (+12,101) Argentina won the World Cup.

24/6/1978, Saturday (+12,100) (Yemen) The President of North Yemen was killed by a bomb as he received the Credentials of a new ambassador from South Yemen.

23/6/1978, Friday (+12,099) (Yugoslavia) Josip Broz Tito was nominated Yugoslav President for life.

22/6/1978, Thursday (+12,098) (Astronomy) Charon, a satellite of Pluto, was discovered.

21/6/1978, Wednesday (+12,097) The musical Evita, score by Andrew Lloyd Webber.premiered at London�s Prince Edward Theatre.

20/6/1978, Tuesday (+12,096) (Earthquake) A magnitude 6.5 earthquake hit Thessaloniki, Greece�s second-largest city. An apartment block in the central district of Ippodrome collapsed, killing over 40 people.

13/6/1978, Tuesday (+12,089) (Lebanon) Israel withdrew from the 6 mile deep zone of southern Lebanon it had occupied since 14/3/1978. However rather than handing control of the territory to UN forces it handed over to Christian forces.

9/6/1978, Friday (+12,085) (Aviation) Prince Charles opened new terminal facilities at Gatwick Airport.

7/6/1978, Wednesday (+12,083) (Chemistry) Ronald George Norrish, English chemist, died in Cambridge.

6/6/1978, Tuesday (+12,082) (USA) Californians approved Proposition 13 � a proposal to cut property taxes by 60%.

1/6/1978, Thursday (+12,077) (Russia) Bugging devices were found at the US embassy in Moscow.


25/5/1978, Thursday (+12,070) (USA) The Unabomber set off his first bomb, in the security section of Northwestern University, USA.

24/5/1978, Wednesday (+12,069) (Britain) Princess Margaret obtained a divorce from Lord Snowdon.

23/5/1978, Tuesday (+12,068) Carolyn Moos, US basketball player, was born.

22/5/1978, Monday (+12,067) Yoshifumi Ono, Japanese footballer, was born.

21/5/1978, Sunday (+12,066) Despite four years of protests, Tokyo�s new second airport at Narita opened.

20/5/1978, Saturday (+12,065) 5 terrorists and 2 policemen were killed at Orly Airport, Paris, after terrorists fired at passengers boarding an Israeli plane.

19/5/1978, Friday (+12,064) Marcus Bent, English footballer, was born.

18/5/1978, Thursday (+12,063) Yuri Orlov, Soviet human-rights campaigner, was sentenced to 7 years in a labour camp.

17/5/1978, Wednesday (+12,062) Compact Discs created by Philips.

16/5/1978, Tuesday (+12,061) Rhodesian forces killed 94 at a Black political meeting.

15/5/1978, Monday (+12,060) Iranian students rioted in Tabriz; troops were called in to quell the disturbances.

14/5/1978, Sunday (+12,059) Sir Robert Menzies, 12th Prime Minister of Australia, died.

13/5/1978, Saturday (+12,058) Steve Mildenhall, English football player, was born.

12/5/1978, Friday (+12,057) The US Commerce Department announced that hurricanes would no longer be named only after women.

11/5/1978, Thursday (+12,056) Rioting in Tehran as Muslims called for the removal of the Shah.

10/5/1978, Wednesday (+12,055) Fundamentalist Islamic riots in Qom, Iran. 10 people killed.

9/5/1978, Tuesday (+12,054) The body of former Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro was found in the boot of a car in central Rome, a victim of the Red Brigade.

8/5/1978, Monday (+12,053) Matthew Davis, US actor, was born.

7/5/1978, Sunday (+12,052) Mrs Thatcher, Conservative Opposition leader, announced that she had no intention of outlawing the closed shop.

6/5/1978, Saturday (+12,051) The UK recognised the new regime in Afghanistan.

4/5/1978, Thursday (+12,049) South Africa raided SWAPO (South West African People�s Organisation) bases in Angola.

1/5/1978, Monday (+12,046) The first May Day bank holiday in Britain.


30/4/1978, Sunday (+12,045) The Soviet Union recognised the new regime in Afghanistan.

27/4/1978, Thursday (+12,042) A bloody coup overthrew the government of Afghanistan and replaced it with a pro-Soviet regime. Tanks and Mig-21 fighter planes attacked the Presidential palace in Kabul as Mohammed Daud was overthrown. The president and his family was massacred. All public meetings were banned and martial law imposed indefinitely.

15/4/1978, Saturday (+12,030) The death penalty was abolished in Spain.

14/4/1978, Friday (+12,029) F R Leavis, British literary critic, died aged 82.

10/4/1978, Monday (+12,025) Volkswagen began manufacturing cars in the USA, in Pennsylvania.

7/4/1978, Friday (+12,022) (1) US President Carter pulled back from building a neutron bomb.

(2) A copy of the Gutenberg Bible sold in New York for US$ 2 million.

4/4/1978, Tuesday (+12,019) The Angolan government began an offensive against UNITA forces.

3/4/1978, Monday (+12,018) Regular BBC radio broadcasts of British Parliamentary proceedings began.

2/4/1978, Sunday (+12,017) The first episode of Dallas was broadcast in the USA.

1/4/1978, Saturday (+12,016) (Education � Universities) The Philippine College of Commerce, through a presidential decree, became the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.


31/3/1978, Friday (+12,015) (Medical) Charles Herbert Best, Canadian-US physiologist, died in Toronto, Ontario.

30/3/1978, Thursday (+12,014) Charles and Maurice Saatchi were recruited by Mrs Thatcher to help publicise her policies ahead of the General Election, then expected for autumn 1978.

28/3/1978, Tuesday (+12,012)

26/3/1978, Sunday (+12,010) Easter Sunday

25/3/1978, Saturday (+12,009) In the Oxford-Cambridge boat race, the Cambridge boat sank.

23/3/1978, Thursday (+12,007)

22/3/1978, Wednesday (+12,006) The Robert Frost Plaza, san Francisco, California, named after the late IUS poet, was dedicated.

21/3/1978, Tuesday (+12,005) The first Black Ministers joined the government of Rhodesia. However Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo were excluded.

19/3/1978, Sunday (+12,003)

18/3/1978, Saturday (+12,002) Former Pakistani PM, Zufilkar Ali Bhutto, was sentenced to death for ordering the murder of a political opponent in 1974, see 5/7/1977 and 4/4/1979.

17/3/1978, Friday (+12,001) The Amoco Cadiz oil tanker ran aground on the Brittany coast.She split in two on 24/3/1978; 220,000 tons of oil were spilled.

16/3/1978, Thursday (+12,000) In Rome, former Prime Minister Aldi Moro was kidnapped.

15/3/1978, Wednesday (+11,999)

14/3/1978, Tuesday (+11,998) (Israel, Arabs) Israeli forces, under Operation Litani, invaded Lebanon. This was in retaliation for the bus hijacking on 11/3/1978. Israeli forces occupied a 6 mile deep strip of territory into Lebanon.

13/3/1978, Monday (+11,997) Moluccan terrorists held 72 people hostage in government buildings in Assen, Holland.

12/3/1978, Sunday (+11,996) Tolchard Evans, British composer, died in London (born 1901 in London)

11/3/1978, Saturday (+11,995) (Israel) A PLO unit sailed from the south coast of Lebanon, landed in northern Israel, and hijacked a bus. 39 of the passengers were killed near Tel Aviv.

10/3/1978, Friday (+11,994)

9/3/1978, Thursday (+11,993) Somalia left Ethiopian territory, so ending the Ogaden War.

8/3/1978, Wednesday (+11,992) The Hitchhiker�s Guide to the Galaxy, by Douglas Adams, was first broadcast on BBC Radio 4. It ran until 1980.

5/3/1978, Sunday (+11,989) Ethiopian forces, backed by Russia and Cuba, completely retook the region of Ogaden seized by Somalia in September 1977.

3/3/1978, Friday (+11,987) Rhodesian forces attacked Zambia.

1/3/1978, Wednesday (+11,985) Charlie Chaplin�s coffin was stolen from a cemetery in Switzerland.


25/2/1978, Saturday (+11,981) Gerry Adams was charged with being a member of the IRA.

17/2/1978, Friday (+11,973) An IRA incendiary bomb attack on the La Mon Hotel, Belfast, killed 16 people.

15/2/1978, Wednesday (+11,971) Rhodesia�s Ian Smith and three Black leaders agreed on a transfer to Black majority rule.

14/2/1978, Tuesday (+11,970) Paul Governali, US football player, died (born 1921).

13/2/1978, Monday (+11,969) In the UK, Anna Ford became ITN�s first woman newscaster.

12/2/1978, Sunday (+11,968) In Nicaragua, the Sandinistas prepared for civil war.

11/2/1978, Saturday (+11,967) China lifted a ban on the works of Shakespeare, Dickens and Aristotle.

10/2/1978, Friday (+11,966)

8/2/1978, Wednesday (+11,964) BBC showed the first episode of the school drama Grange Hill.

7/2/1978, Tuesday (+11,963) Timothy Floyd Fuller, Missouri University basketball coach, was born.

6/2/1978, Monday (+11,962) Turner Layton, US composer, died in London (born 1894 in Washington DC)

4/2/1978, Saturday (+11,862) Junius Jayawardene became President of Sri Lanka.

2/2/1978, Thursday (+11,860) Darrick Leonard Vaughn, US footballer, was born.


30/1/1978, Monday (+11,955) (1) Mrs Thatcher said many in Britain feared �being swamped� by people with a different culture.

(2) Blizzards in the US killed 30 people.

28/1/1978, Saturday (+11,953) Gianluigi Buffon, Italian footballer, was born.

24/1/1978, Tuesday (+11,949) (Canada, Space exploration) A Soviet nuclear-powered satellite, Cosmos 954, crashed in north-western Canada, spilling radioactive debris. The Canadian government presented Moscow with a 6 billion dollar bill for the clean-up, of which Moscow eventually paid half.

23/1/1978, Monday (+11,948) Sweden became the first country to ban aerosol sprays, because of the damage they cause to the ozone layer.

22/11/1978, Sunday (+11,947) Herbert Sutcliffe, cricketer, died (born 24/11/1894).

21/1/1978, Saturday (+11,946) Ethiopian forces began expelling Somali forces from the Ogaden, see 23/7/1977 and 5/3/1978.

18/1/1978, Wednesday (+11,943)

16/1/1978, Monday (+11,941) Philip Wills, gliding champion, died.

15/1/1978, Sunday (+11,940) Eddie Cahill, US actor, was born New York City.

14/1/1978, Saturday (+11,939) Kurt Godel, Austrian-American logician, died aged 71.

13/1/1978, Friday (+11,938) Hubert Humphrey, Vice President to Lyndon Johnson, died.

12/1/1978, Thursday (+11,937) In Italy, the Andreotti government collapsed.

10/1/1978, Tuesday (+11,935) In Nicaragua, Pedro Joaquin Chamorro, editor of La Prensa, (The Press) newspaper, which is opposed to the Somoza regime, was shot dead in Managua.

7/1/1978, Saturday (+11,932) (1) Riots erupted in the Iranian city of Qom after a government controlled newspaper made crude accusations against Khomeini, alleging that he had spied for the British and written erotic poetry.

(2) Emilio Palma was born in Antarctica; he was the first baby born on this continent.

3/1/1978, Tuesday (+11,928) Ex-Prime Minister Indira Ghandi was expelled from her Congress party.

1/1/1978, Sunday (+11,926) An Air India Boeing 77 crashed into the sea off India, killing all 213 people on board.


31/12/1977, Saturday (+11,925) (1) For the first time since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the UK imported more cars than it made itself.

(2) Cambodia broke off diplomatic relations with Vietnam, and suspended air services between them. Fighting between the two countries had erupted in the Parrot�s Beak area, where Cambodia juts out into (South) Vietnam. The Chinese-backed Cambodian regime accused Vietnam of not being sufficiently �revolutionary�. Troubles began when many Cambodians moved across the border into the Mekong Delta area, after Saigon fell and before North Vietnam had fully established control of the area.

28/12/1977, Wednesday (+11,922)

25/12/1977, Sunday (+11,919) Charlie Chaplin died in Switzerland, aged 88.

24/12/1977, Saturday (+11,918) Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin began peace discussions with President Sadat of Egypt.

20/12/1977, Tuesday (+11,914) UK motor executive Sir Reginald Rootes died in London, aged 81.

18/12/1977, Sunday (-11,912) Cyril Ritchard, Australian actor, died in Chicago (born 1/12/1897 in Sydney)

12/12/1977, Monday (+11,906) Lady Churchill, widow of Sir Winston Churchill, died.

10/12/1977, Saturday (+11,904) In Australia the Fraser Government won another large majority in Federal elections.

9/12/1977, Friday (+11,903) Concorde began a short-lived thrice weekly service between London Heathrow and Singapore via Bahrain. The service was initially suspended on 13/12/1977, after just three flights, because of complaints from Malaysia about sonic booms over the Strait of Malacca. On 24/1/1979 the route resumed, with take-offs out to sea from Singapore avoiding Malaysia. However the route was losing �2 million a year due to inadequate demand as was permanently withdrawn on 1/11/1980.

7/12/1977, Wednesday (+11,901)

5/12/1977, Monday (+11,899) Egypt broke with Syria, Libya, Algeria, and South Yemen.

4/12/1977, Sunday (+11,898) In the Central African Republic, Jean Bedel Bokassa crowned himself Emperor.

3/12/1977, Saturday (+11,897) Jack Beresford, rower, died.

2/12/1977, Friday (+11,896) The South African judicial system decided that the security forces were not responsible for the death of Steve Biko, despite evidence that he had been badly beaten.


25/11/1977, Friday (+11,889)

24/11/1977, Thursday (+11,888) Ian Smith said he accepted the idea of universal adult suffrage in Rhodesia, which would mean a Black Government.

23/11/1977, Wednesday (+11,887) Rhodesian troops entered Mozambique and killed over 1,000 alleged guerrillas.

22/11/1977, Tuesday (+11,886) British Airways began regular commercial services by Concorde between London and New York.

21/11/1977, Monday (+11,885) Kerry Packer launched his World Series cricket in Melbourne. Packer had bene unable to secure broadcasting rights with the Australian Cricket Board, so he signed 60 players to start their own series.

20/11/1977, Sunday (+11,884) President Sadat of Egypt became the first Arab leader to visit Israel. He met Israeli PM Menachem begin in the Knesset in Jerusalem, seeking a permanent peace settlement. This outraged many Arabs.

19/11/1977, Saturday (+11,883) Iranian police broke up a peaceful middle class and student protest at Ayramehr University, where intellectuals had begun to challenge the rule of the Shah through letter writing, pamphlets and poetry readings. Students then protested on the streets, where they were met by the Savak security forces.

18/11/1977, Friday (+11,882) Kurt von Schuschnigg, Austrian politician, died.

17/11/1977, Thursday (+11,881)

15/11/1977, Tuesday (+11,879) Peter Phillips, son of the Princess Royal, was born

14/11/1977, Monday (+11,878) Richard Addinsell, British composer, died in London (born 13/1/1904 in Oxford)

11/11/1977, Friday (+11,875) The UK�s Anti-Nazi League was formed.

9/11/1977, Wednesday (+11,873) The Israelis resumed the bombing of Lebanese villages, after a two-year break, in retaliation for Lebanese tolerance of the PLO in their country.

5/11/1977, Saturday (+11,869) Guy Lombardo, band leader, died.

4/11/1977, Friday (+11,868) The UN banned arms sales to South Africa.

1/11/1977, Tuesday (+11,865)


27/10/1977, Thursday (+11,860) Jeremy Thorpe denied any homosexual link with unemployed male model Norman Scott.

26/10/1977, Wednesday (+11,859) (Education, Schools) The UK Department of Education announced plans for national testing of schoolchildren in mathematics, reading and writing.

24/10/1977, Monday (+11,857) The transatlantic liner France was sold to Saudi Arabia for use as a floating hotel.

18/10/1977, Tuesday (+11,851) German anti-terror forces stormed a hijacked Lufthansa airliner at Mogadishu, Somalia, killing three Palestinian terrorists and freeing all the hostages. Three of the four hijackers were killed.

17/10/1977, Monday (+11,850) The US Supreme Court ruled that Concorde could use New York�s Kennedy Airport.

16/10/1977, Sunday (+11,849)

15/10/1977, Saturday (+11,848) David Trezeguet, French footballer, was born.

14/10/1977, Friday (+11,847) Bing Crosby, US actor, died.

10/10/1977, Monday (+11,843) Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan, co-founders of the Ulster Peace Movement, received the Nobel peace Prize in Oslo.


27/9/1977, Tuesday (+11,830)

25/9/1977, Sunday (+11,828) Freddie Lakers� Skytrain service began between Gatwick and New York. One way fares London to New York cost �59, against the normal price of �190; no frills, with food extra.

17/9/1977, Saturday (+11,820) Operatic singer Maria Callas died.

16/9/1977, Friday (+11,819) Charlotte Leitch, golfer, died (born 13/4/1891)

15/9/1977, Thursday (+11,818) TV show CHiPs, a drama about policing in Los Angeles, was first broadcast in the USA

14/9/1977, Wednesday (+11,817) James Sullivan, rugby player, died (born 2/12/1903).

13/9/1977, Tuesday (+11,816) Leopold Stokowski, organist and conductor, died in Nether Wallop, Hampshire.

12/9/1977, Monday (+11,815) The moderate South African black activist Steven Biko, 30, died after 3 weeks in police detention in Port Elizabeth.He received a head injury during police interrogation and became unconscious; a police doctor recommended hospitalisation. Instead, on 11/9/1977 Biko was taken ona 1,200 mile journey to Pretoria Central prison, naked in the back of a Land Rover, where he died on the 12th. This event proved a focal point in internal and international opposition to the South African regime. Steve Biko�s funeral was held on 25/9/1977. Heavy tactics were used to prevent Black mourners from attending, bus travel permits were denied, roadblocks employed, and Black mourners taken off buses and beaten with truncheons.

11/9/1977, Sunday (+11,814) Atari, Inc. released its Video Computer System in North America.

10/9/1977, Saturday (+11,813) The last official execution by guillotine in France; execution of Hamida Djandoubi. See 17/6/1939.

9/9/1977, Friday (+11,812)

7/9/1977, Wednesday (+11,810) A treaty between the USA and Panama was signed; the US agreed to give Panama control of the Canal by 2000.

6/9/1977, Tuesday (-11,809) Guido Pannain, composer, died aged 85.

5/9/1977, Monday (+11,808) The US launched the Voyager 2 spacecraft to add to the information gathered by Voyager 1 on Saturn.It continued on to Uranus, then to Neptune, where it arrived in September 1989, its last planetary visit.

4/9/1977, Sunday (+11,807) E F Schumacher, German economist, died aged 66.

3/9/1977, Saturday (+11,806) In Pakistan, Bhutto was arrested on charges of conspiring to murder Ahmad Kasuri in 1974.

2/9/1977, Friday (+11,805) Frederic Kanoute, Malian footballer, was born.

1/9/1977, Thursday (+11,804) Anglo-American proposals for a transition to legal rule in Rhodesia were published.


31/8/1977, Wednesday (+11,803) In Rhodesia, Ian Smith�s Rhodesian Front Party won an overwhelming victory.

26/8/1977, Friday (+11,798) French was made the only official language of Quebec, Canada, excluding English.

24/8/1978, Wednesday (+11,796) Kobe Bryant, basketball player, was born.

21/8/1977, Sunday (+11,793) South African Black civil rights activist Steve Biko was arrested on suspicion of promoting unrest in Port Elizabeth and of distributing leaflets calling for �violence and arson�.

20/8/1977, Saturday (+11,792) (1) The Voyager I space craft was launched on a journey via Jupiter and Saturn, later to become the first man-made object to leave the solar system.

(2) Julius, or Groucho Marx, US comedian of the famous Marx Brothers, died in Los Angeles.

19/8/1977, Friday (+11,791) Earthquake and tsunami in Indonesia.

18/8/1977, Thursday (+11,790) Regine Chassagne, Canadian musician, was born in Montreal, Quebec

17/8/1977, Wednesday (+11,789) Thierry Henry, French footballer, was born in Essonne, Paris.

16/8/1977, Tuesday (+11,788) Rock and roll star Elvis Presley died in Memphis, Tennessee, aged 42. He died in the bathroom of his home although he was actually pronounced dead at 3.30 pm in the emergency room of the Baptist Hospital, Memphis. Overweight, he died of heart failure. He was buried in Memphis on 18/8/1977. He was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, the survivor of twin boys, on 8/1/1935.

15/8/1977, Monday (+11,787) Radio astronomers at Ohio State University picked up a powerful radio burst at 1420 Megahertz. This was thought to be a frequency at which intelligent aliens might broadcast as it is a significant radio absorption and emission frequency of hydrogen atoms. It was dubbed the �Wow� signal after the comment scribbled on the radio transcript document by Jerry Ehman. In 2016 astronomers decided it might have been from passing comets.

14/8/1977, Sunday (+11,786) Tamil riots in Sri Lanka.

13/8/1977, Saturday (+11,785) The police used riot shields on the British mainland for the first time, during an anti-fascist demonstration in Lewisham, London.

11/8/1977, Thursday (+11,783) Matthew Stevens, snooker player, was born.

9/8/1977, Tuesday (+11,781)

4/8/1977, Thursday (+11,776) (Medical) Edgar Douglas Baron, English physiologist, died in London.

3/8/1977, Wednesday (+11,775) Archbishop Makarios, religious leader and first President of Cyprus, died.

2/8/1977, Tuesday (+11,774) Edward Furlong, actor, was born.


31/7/1977, Sunday (+11,772)

28/7/1977, Thursday (+11,769) (1) First oil through the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline reached Valdez, Alaska.

(2) Spain formally applied to join the EC.

27/7/1977, Wednesday (+11,768) Anderson de Souza, Portuguese footballer, was born.

26/7/1977, Tuesday (+11,767) Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin defied a plea from US President Jimmy Carter and ordered more settlements to be built on the West Bank.

25/7/1977, Monday (+11,766) Kenny Thomas, US basketball player, was born in Atlanta, Georgia.

24/7/1977, Sunday (+11,765) Algeria�s President intervened to arrange a ceasefire between Libya and Egypt.

23/7/1977, Saturday (+11,764) Somalia invaded the Ogaden region of Ethiopia, in support of the guerrillas of the �Western Somali Liberation Front�.See 21/1/1978.

22/7/1977, Friday (+11,763) The �Gang of Four� were expelled from the Chinese Communist Party.

21/7/1977, Thursday (+11,762) (1) Cambodia and Thailand fought in a border war.

(2) A brief border war started between Libya and Egypt,Both sides suffered heavy losses of men and equipment.

13/7/1977, Wednesday (+11,754) The UK Government abandoned the Social Contract with the TUC as wages rose.

11/7/1977, Monday (+11,752) British magazine Gay News was fined �1,000 for publishing a poem about a homosexual Jesus.

10/7/1977, Sunday (+11,751) Chiwetel Ejiofor, actor, was born

9/7/1977, Saturday (+11,750) Death of women�s suffrage campaigner Alice Paul (born 11/1/1885 in Moorestown, New Jersey, USA).

7/7/1977, Thursday (+11,748) The first test of the USA�s neutron (enhanced-radiation) bomb.

5/7/1977, Tuesday (+11,746) In Pakistan, President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the first democratically elected President of Pakistan, was overthrown, and then arrested, in a military coup by Zia, after rioting following accusations of vote rigging by Bhutto.Bhutto was later arrested and charged with treason, see 18/3/1978.

2/7/1977, Saturday (+11,743) (1) UK miners sought �135 a week for a 4-day week.

(2) In China Deng Xiaoping, 73, was restored to power.

1/7/1977, Friday (+11,742) (1) A large loaf of white bread cost 22p.A lb of back bacon cost 96p.A pint of milk cost 11.5p.A lb of butter cost 54p. A lb of potatoes cost 4p.A lb of oranges cost 22p.A quarter lb loose tea cost 29p.A pint of beer cost 38p.20 king-size cigarettes cost 55p.A sack of house coal cost �2.26.

(2) Deadline set by Gadhafi for Egyptian workers to leave Libya, or be arrested, after Gadhafi had accused Egypt of trying to provoke a war so it could seize Libyan oilfields.


29/6/1977, Wednesday (+11,740)

27/6/1977, Monday (+11,738) Raul Gonzalez Bianco, Spanish footballer, was born in Madrid.

26/6/1977, Sunday (+11,737) Elvis Presley made his last ever live stage appearance at the Market Square Arena in Indianopolis.

25/6/1977, Saturday (+11,736) Lady Baden Powell, founder of the Girl Guides movement in 1910, died.

24/6/1977, Friday (+11,735)

23/6/1977, Thursday (+11,734) Liam Cosgrave retired as President of Ireland.

22/6/1977, Wednesday (+11,733) The 7,000 mile Alaska Oil Pipeline opened.

21/6/1977, Tuesday (+11,732) (Geology) Bruce Charles Heezen, US oceanographer and geologist, died near Reykjanes, Iceland.

20/6/1977, Monday (+11,731) The US Supreme Court ruled that States were not required to fund elective abortions on Medicaid.

18/6/1977, Saturday (+11,729)

17/6/1977, Friday (+11,728) (1) Britain�s unemployment figure rose to 1,450,055; 6.2% of the working population of 23.4 million. The average price of cigarettes was then 60p for 20.

(2) Britain recalled its last two ambassadors from Uganda after threats against them from President Idi Amin.

(3) The feminist claim that God is a woman was supported by no less than the Jesuit journal Civitta Cattolica, published fortnightly in Rome.

16/6/1977, Thursday (+11,727) In Ireland, Fianna Fail defeated the Fine Gael-Labour coalition and retunred to power with Charles Haughey as Taoiseach (Prime Minister).

15/6/1977, Wednesday (+11,726) Spain held its first democratic elections, after 41 years of dictatorship under Franco.

13/6/1977, Monday (11,724) Freddie Laker launched Skytrain, the first low-cost carrier.

8/6/1977, Wednesday (+11,719) The Commission for Racial Equality began work. Films on release included Blazing Saddles.

7/6/1977, Tuesday (+11,718) The Queen lit a bonfire in Windsor Park, starting a week of Royal Silver Jubilee celebrations.

6/6/1977, Monday (+11,717) Derby was designated a city, to mark the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II.

5/6/1977, Sunday (+11,716) Apple 2 computers first went on sale.

4/6/1977, Saturday (+11,715) (USA) Two people died during violence on Puerto Rican Day in Chicago.

3/6/1977, Friday (+11,714) (Medical) Archibald Vivian Hill, English physiologist, died in Cambridge.

2/6/1977, Thursday (+11,713) Djibouti became independent, after over 100 years of French rule.


31/5/1977, Tuesday (+11,711) The Trans-Alaska Pipeline was completed.

23/5/1977, Monday (+11,703) Scientists reported using bacteria to make insulin.

22/5/1977, Sunday (+11,702) (Rail Tunnels) The Santa Lucia tunnel, Italy, 10.262km long, opened on the Naples-Salerno line.

21/5/1977, Saturday (+11,701) (Aviation) Concorde made a memorial flight from New York to Paris to mark the 50th anniversary of Charles Lindbergh�s transatlantic flight. Whereas Lindbergh took 33 hours 29 minutes, Concorde completed the flight in 3 hours 44 minutes.

20/5/1977, Friday (+11,700) (Rail Travel) The Orient Express, between Paris and Istanbul, ran for the last time.

19/5/1977, Thursday (+11,699) (Football) Manuel Almuni, Spanish footballer, was born.

18/5/1977, Wednesday (+11,698) (Jewish) Menachem Begin became President of Israel after his centre-right Likud party coalition won elections, ending 29 years of Labour rule in Israel.

17/5/1977, Tuesday (+11,697) (Science) Erwin Wilhelm Mueller, Hungarian-US physicist, died in Washington DC.

14/5/1977, Saturday (+11,694)

12/5/1977, Thursday (+11,692) Graeme Dott, snooker player, was born.

11/5/1977, Wednesday (+11,691) (Environment) The USA said CFCs were to be banned as propellants in aerosol cans within two years, after worries about ozone depletion.

10/5/1977, Tuesday (+11,690) American film star Joan Crawford died.

8/5/1977, Sunday (+11,688) Dutch art dealer Peter Menten went on trial, charged with murdering Polish Jews in 1941 for financial gain.


30/4/1977, Saturday (+11,680) Red Adair successfully put out an oil rig fire in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.

29/4/1977, Friday (+11,679) Trades Unions were legalised in Spain for the first time since 1936.

28/4/1977, Thursday (+11,678) In Germany, the Baader Meinhof terrorists, Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan Raspe, dedicated to the violent overthrow of capitalism, were jailed for life. The trial began on 21/5/1975.

21/4/1977, Thursday (+11,671) US President Carter proposed a national energy conservation plan to discourage waste and achieve greater efficiency.

20/4/1977, Wednesday (+11,670)

15/4/1977, Friday (+11,665) In Argentina, Jacobo Timerman, publisher of a newspaper called La Opinion, was arrested and tortured as part of a campaign against dissidents.

11/4/1977, Monday (+11,661) Jacques Prevert, French poet, died aged 77.

10/4/1977, Sunday (+11,660) Easter Sunday.

9/4/1977, Saturday (+11,659) Spain legalised the Communist Party after a 38-year ban.

8/4/1977, Friday (+11,658) The Dammed played in New York, the first punk band to play in the USA.

7/4/1977, Thursday (+11,657) In Germany, terrorists murdered the Attorney-General who was prosecuting the Baader-Meinhof gang.

5/4/1977, Tuesday (+11,655)

2/4/1977, Saturday (+11,652) Red Rum became the first horse ever to win three Grand Nationals.

1/4/1977, Friday (+11,651) Hay on Wye declared �independence�.


30/3/1977, Wednesday (+11,649)

28/3/1977, Monday (+11,647) British Breakfast TV began as an experiment on Yorkshire TV, hosted by Bob Warman.

27/3/1977, Sunday (+11,646) Two jumbo jets collided on the ground at the single airstrip of Tenerife Airport, in the fog, killing 582 people. The collision between the KLM and the Pan Am, craft was the worst air disaster ever to date.

25/3/1977, Friday (+11,644)

23/3/1977, Wednesday (+11,642) British Prime Minister James Callaghan and Liberal leader David Steel agreed the so-called �Lib-Lab pact, to avoid a defeat in a confidence motion.

22/3/1977, Tuesday (+11,641) Indira Ghandi resigned as President of India after an election defeat.

20/3/1977, Sunday (+11,639)

18/3/1977, Friday (+11,637) President Mgoubi of Congo-Brazzaville was assassinated.

16/3/1977, Wednesday (+11,635) Richard Faulds, clay pigeon shooting champion, was born.

15/3/1977, Tuesday (+11,634) The Jewish Russian dissident Anatoly Sharansky was arrested on charges of plotting with the CIA.

13/3/1977, Sunday (+11,632) Czech secret police tortured to death the leader of the Charter 77 Movement, Jan Potocka.

12/3/1977, Saturday (+11,631) In Chile, political parties were banned and censorship was tightened.

11/3/1977, Friday (+11,630) Widespread violent protests in Pakistan, amid claims that Mrs Bhutto�s election victory was fraudulent.

9/3/1977, Wednesday (+11,628) Saccharine was banned in the USA because it was believed to be carcinogenic.

7/3/1977, Monday (+11,626) Bhutto won the Pakistani general elections. However opposition to her had been so widespread that vote-rigging was suspected, and the Pakistani Army stepped in, led by Zia Ul Haq.

5/3/1977, Saturday (+11,624) The first Punk Rock LP, Dammed, Dammed, Dammed, was released.

4/3/1977, Friday (+11,623) Earthquake in Bucharest, magnitude 7.2, killed 1,500 people and injured 7,600.


28/2/1977, Monday (+11,619) (El Salvador) In El Salvador, Government troops fired on protestors in San Salvador led by Claramount, the opposition candidate in the 20/2/1977 elections.

20/2/1977, Sunday (+11,611) (El Salvador) Former Defence Minister Carlos Romero rigged the Presidential elections in El Salvador, stuffing ballot boxes to ensure his victory.

19/2/1977, Saturday (+11,610) Anthony Crosland, British Foreign Secretary, died in office. On 21/2/1977 he was succeeded by Dr David Owen.

18/2/1977, Friday (+11,609) The Space Shuttle Enterprise went on its maiden �flight� on the top of a Boeing 747 plane.

16/2/1977, Wednesday (+11,607)The Archbishop of Uganda, the Most Reverend Janani Luwum, was murdered by Idi Amin�s troops.

9/2/1977, Wednesday (+11,600) Buddy Johnson, US musician, died in New York (born 10/1/1915 in Darlington, South Carolina)

5/2/1977, Saturday (+11,596) Oscar Klein, particle physicist, died.

4/2/1977, Friday (+11,595) Police in Liverpool discovered an IRA bomb factory.

3/2/1977, Thursday (+11,594) Colonel Mengistu Haile Maram became leader of Ethiopia after killing 8 other members of the ruling council.

2/2/1977, Wednesday (+11,593) The Pompidou Centre of art and culture opened in Paris.

1/2/1977, Tuesday (+11,592) Khmer Rouge incursion into Thailand killed 30.


31/1/1977, Monday (+11,591) Wembley Conference Centre opened by the Duke of Kent.

30/1/1977, Sunday (+11,590) The 8th (final) part of Roots became the most-watched US entertainment show ever (viewed by 100 million)

29/1/1977, Saturday (+11,589) The IRA set off 7 bombs in London�s West End. No-one was killed.

28/1/1977, Friday (+11,588) The USA warned the USSR not to persecute the dissident, Sakharov.

27/1/1977, Thursday (+11,587) Walter Baldwin, US actor, died aged 88

26/1/1977, Wednesday (+11,586) The US State Department accused Czechoslovakia of violating the Helsinki Accord (1/8/1975) by persecuting dissidents.

25/1/1977, Tuesday (+11,585) The US Supreme Court reversed a previous decision (1966) and ruled that a suspect who has not been formally arrested can be interrogated without being informed of their legal rights.

24/1/1977, Monday (+11,584) The second round of Rhodesian talks failed; Ian Smith rejected British proposals for a transfer of power to Black majority rule.

23/1/1977, Sunday (+11,583) Dick Burnett, US musician, died aged 93

22/1/1977, Saturday (+11,582) Hidetoshi Nakaya, Japanese footballer, was born.

21/1/1977, Friday (+11,581) Jimmy Carter issued a pardon for those who evaded the draft for the Vietnam War.

20/1/1977, Thursday (+11,580) Jimmy Carter became 39th President of the USA.

19/1/1977, Wednesday (+11,579) Snow fell for the first recorded time in Florida.

18/1/1977, Tuesday (+11,578) The worst rail disaster in Australia occurred when a Sydney bound train derailed, killing 82 people.

17/1/1977, Monday (+11,577) The US restored the death penalty, after a ten year suspension, and Gary Gilmore was executed by firing squad in Utah.

16/1/1977, Sunday (+11,576) Peter Finch, actor, died.

15/1/1977, Saturday (+11,575) Simon James Cook, British cricketer, was born in Oxford, England

14/1/1977, Friday (+11,574) Sir Anthony Eden, Earl of Avon and former UK Conservative Prime Minister 1955 � 1957, died aged 79.

13/1/1977, Thursday (+11,573) Orlando Bloom, actor, died.

10/1/1977, Monday (+11,570) In the UK, a miniature portable TV with a 5 cm screen went on sale.

7/1/1977, Friday (+11,567) Civil Rights campaigners in Czechoslovakia published their Charter 77, following the signing by the Czechoslovak Government of the International Convention on Human Rights in 1976. In practice, many civil rights such as freedom of expression had been suppressed following the �normalisation� that followed the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. The Charter�s signatories included Jiri Hajek, who was Czechoslovak Foreign Minister in 1968, and the writer Vaclav Havel. The signatories were greatly harassed by the Communist administration, but the Charter contributed to the downfall of Communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989, when Havel became President.

6/1/1977, Thursday (+11,566) EMI dismissed the Sex Pistols due to their outrageous behaviour and foul language, with a �40,000 payoff. The resultant publicity boosted sales of the Sex Pistol�s album Anarchy in the UK; sales reached 50,000.

2/1/1977, Sunday (+11,562) Erroll Garner, US jazz pianist, died in Los Angeles (born 15/6/1923 in Pittsburgh)

1/1/1977, Saturday (+11,561)


25/12/1976, Saturday (+11,554) Sir Ernest Daryl Lindsay, Australian artist, died (born 31/12/1889).

20/12/1976, Monday (+11,549) Ned Washington, US singer, died in Beverly Hills, California (born 15/8/1901 in Scranton, Pennsylvania)

16/12/1976, Thursday (+11,545) The UK Government announced that Scotland and Wales were to have referendums on a greater measure of self-rule. From today, Scots could drink all day, pubs could stay open from 11am to 11pm.

6/12/1976, Monday (+11,535) Joao Goulart, President of Brazil, died.

5/12/1976, Sunday (+11,534) In Japan, the ruling Liberal Democratic Party suffered losses in the general election.

4/12/1976, Saturday (+11,533) (1) Death of the composer Benjamin Britten, aged 63.

(2) The military ruler of the Central African Republic, Jean-Bedel Bokassa, declared the country a Parliamentary monarchy, the Central African Empire, with himself as monarch, Emperor Bokassa I.

3/12/1976, Friday (+11,532)

2/12/1976, Thursday (+11,531) Museum of London opened by the Queen.

1/12/1976, Wednesday (+11,530) The Sex Pistols, a punk rock group, were interviewed by Bill Grundy on Thames TV Today.


30/11/1976, Tuesday (+11,529)

28/11/1976, Sunday (+11,527) Leonard Harvey, boxer, died (born 11/7/1907).

27/11/1976, Saturday (+11,526) Over 30,000 people joined the Ulster Women�s Peace March.

26/11/1976, Friday (+11,525) An obscure company called Microsoft was officially registered in the US State of New Mexico.

25/11/1976, Thursday (+11,524) Donovan McNabb, US football player, was born

24/11/1976, Wednesday (+11,523) The Turkish province of Van was devastated by an earthquake, and 3,700 people were killed.

23/11/1976, Tuesday (+11,522) Andre Malreux, French novelist. died aged 75.

21/11/1976, Sunday (+11,520)

20/11/1976, Saturday (+11,519) (Biology) Trofim Denisovich Lysenko, Soviet biologist, died in Kiev, Ukraine.

19/11/1976, Friday (+11,518) Sir Basil Spence, designer of the new Coventry Cathedral, died in Eye, Suffolk.

18/11/1976, Thursday (+11,517) Man Ray, US artist, died aged 86.

15/11/1976, Monday (+11,514) The secessionist Party Quebecois wins the Quebec provincial elections.

13/11/1976, Saturday (+11,512) The World Health Organisation declared Asia was free of smallpox for the first time in history.

11/11/1976, Thursday (+11,510) Alexander Calder, US sculptor, died aged 78.

8/11/1976, Monday (+11,507) Brett Lee, cricketer, was born.

2/11/1976, Tuesday (+11,501) President Jimmy �peanuts� (James Earl) Carter became 39th (Democrat) President of the USA, defeating Republican incumbent Gerald Ford.


30/10/1976, Saturday (+11,498) The EEC agreed to introduce a 200-mile fishing zone from 1/1/1977.

29/10/1976, Friday (+11,497) Chairman Hua of China repudiated messages of congratulations from Communist countries.

28/10/1976, Thursday (+11,496) A conference on Rhodesia opened in Geneva.

27/10/1976, Wednesday (+11,495)

26/10/1976, Tuesday (+11,494) Transkei became the first South African Black homeland to gain �independence�. The UN called the exercise a sham; South Africa had effectively deprived the 1.3 million Xhosa in Transkei of South African citizenship.

25/10/1976, Monday (+11,493) Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the National Theatre on London�s South Bank.

23/10/1976, Saturday (+11,491)

22/10/1976, Friday (+11.490) Edward Burra, English painter, died aged 71.

21/10/1976, Thursday (+11,489) Michael Foot became deputy leader of the Labour Party.

16/10/1976, Saturday (+11,484)

11/10/1976, Monday (+11,479) In China the �Gang of Four� were arrested, accused of plotting a coup.

10/10/1976, Sunday (+11,478) Israel promised Egypt that Israeli forces would withdraw from occupied Sinai.

8/10/1976, Friday (+11,476)

7/10/1976, Thursday (+11,475) I(n China, Hua Guofeng succeeded Mao Zedong as Chairman. The �Gang of Four�, including Mao�s widow, were arrested and denounced for plotting to seize power.

6/10/1976, Wednesday (+11,474), Military government took power in Thailand.

5/10/1976, Tuesday (+11,473) (Chemistry) Lars Onsanger, Norwegian-US chemist, died in Coral Gables, Florida, USA.

4/10/1976, Monday (+11,472) The first Inter-City 125 mph train service began in Britain.

3/10/1976, Sunday (+11,471) In German elections, Helmut Schmidt�s Social-Democrat-led coalition was returned to power with a reduced majority.

1/10/1976, Friday (+11,469) International banks agreed to lend Mexico 800 million Eurodollars to aid its economic development.


29/9/1976, Wednesday (+11,467) Britain, humiliatingly, was forced to ask the IMF for a �2.1 billion loan, the maximum allowed, to prop up the ailing Pound. There had been a run on the Pound following left wing successes at the Labour Party Annual Conference. The UK economy was also suffering from high inflation, high Government spending, an energy crisis, and high wage demands. Labour Prime Minister James Callaghan was resisting Left-wing demands for lower taxes and a bigger Welfare budget.

27/9/1976, Monday (+11,465) Francesco Totti, Italian footballer, was born.

26/9/1976, Sunday (+11,464) (Chemistry) Leopold Stephen Ruzicka, Croatian-Swiss chemist, died in Zurich, Switzerland.

25/9/1976, Saturday (+11,463) (1) The government of Rhodesia, led by Mr Ian Smith, announced its acceptance of African rule within two years. Zimbabwe, formerly Rhodesia, became independent on 18/4/1980.

(2) It was announced that the Orient Express, which had run between Istanbul and Paris since 1883, was to be withdrawn. British Rail�s new High Speed Train reached 125 mph.

(3) The BBC called for a rise in the licence fee, from �18 to �27 for colour and from �8 to �12 for black and white. The licence fee stood at �145 in 2013.

(4) A Danish film director was planning a film on Jesus� sex life.

24/9/1976, Friday (+11,462)

22/9/1976, Wednesday (+11,460) Ronaldo, footballer, was born.

21/9/1976, Tuesday (+11,459) The former Chilean Ambassador to the US, Orlando Letelier, was killed by a car bomb explosion in Washington DC. He had been an outspoken critic of President Pinochet.

19/9/1976, Sunday (+11,457) Swedish general election ended 40 years of Social Democrat government. Thorbjorn Falldin, Conservative, became Prime Minister.

17/9/1976, Friday (+11,455) The first female cadets were admitted to Dartmouth Naval College, UK.

16/9/1976, Thursday (+11,454) In the USA, the Episcopalian Church approved the ordination of women.

9/9/1976, Thursday (+11,447) Mao Tse Tung, Chairman of the Chinese Communist party for 40 years, died of a series of strokes, aged 82.

6/9/1976, Monday (+11,444) Soviet air force pilot Viktor Belenko landed his MiG-25 jet fighter at Hakodate in Hokkaido and requested political asylum in the USA.

5/9/1976, Sunday (+11,442) Arthur Gilligan, cricketer, died (born 23/12/1894).

4/9/1976, Saturday (+11,442) In Northern Ireland, 25,000 Protestants and Catholics went on a peace march.

3/9/1976, Friday (+11,441) The US spacecraft Viking 2 landed on Mars after a journey lasting 359 days. It landed in the Utopia Planitia region and broadcast back the first colour pictures of the planet.

2/9/1976, Thursday (+11,440) The European Court of Human Rights said Britain was torturing Ulster detainees.

1/9/1976, Wednesday (+11,439) The worsening drought meant 750,000 homes in Yorkshire went on standpipes.


31/8/1976, Tuesday (+11,438) Shar Jackson, actress, was born.

30/8/1976, Monday (+11,437) Over 100 police officers were taken to hospital after clashes at London�s Notting Hill Carnival.

29/8/1976, Sunday (+11,436) Kazi Nazrul Islam, Bengali poet, died aged 77.

28/8/1976, Saturday (+11,435) Peace marches held across Northern Ireland; 25,000 marched in Belfast.

27/8/1976, Friday (+11,434) Carlos Moya, tennis player, was born.

26/8/1976, Thursday (+11,433) In the Netherlands, Prince Bernhard, husband of Queen Juliana, resigned all his public posts after being accused of corruption in his dealings with the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation.

25/8/1976, Wednesday (+11,432) (1) UK unemployment passed the 1.5 million mark.

(2) Jacques Chirac resigned as French Prime Minister and was replaced by Raymond Barre.

24/8/1976, Tuesday (+11,431) In the UK, Denis Howell was appointed Minister for Drought. Rain fell three days ;later.

23/8/1976, Monday (+11,430) Scott Caan, US actor, was born in Los Angeles, California.

22/8/1976, Sunday (+11,429) Britain was suffering the worst drought for 500 years, and it was also the hottest summer since at least 1727.

21/8/1976, Saturday (+11,428) Mary Langdon, aged 25, joined the East Sussex Fire Brigade, becoming Britain�s first female firefighter.

20/8/1976, Friday (+11,427) The Grunwick Strike, at a film processing company in NW London, began, sparked by te sacking of a young worker. Work conditions at Grunwick were poor, and the strike was led by 43-year-old Jayabeen Desai, a Ugandan Asian who had fled to Britain. 137 of Grunwick�s 490 employees joined the strike. Postal workers refused to deliver mail in sympathy; 84% of Grunwick�s trade was mail-order. The Association of Professional, Executive Clerical and Computer staff, APEX (now part of the GMB trades union), mounted a major picketing action, with some 20.000 turning up on 11/7/1977. Fighting ensued and many were injured. The strike was defeated on 14/7/1978, with Government supporting the company. Arguably the Grunwick Strike paved the way for Mrs Thatcher, elected in 1979, to outlaw secondary picketing. However the Grunwick Strike was also the first time the Trades unions had supported immigrant workers. In 1974 the Transport and General Workers Union had refused to support Asian workers striking for equality with White colleagues at Imperial Typewriters, Leicester.

19/8/1976, Thursday (+11,426)

18/8/1976, Wednesday (+11,425) In North Korea, at Panmunjom, two US soldiers were killed whilst trying to chop down a tree in the demilitarised zone; the tree had obscured their view.

17/8/1976, Tuesday (+11,424) In the Philippines a severe earthquake followed by tidal waves killed over 3,000 people.

14/8/1976, Saturday (+11,421) David Valentine, rugby player, died (born 12/9/1926).

10/8/1976, Tuesday (+11,417) A stolen vehicle driven by IRA gunmen hit and killed a family of pedestrians in south west |Belfast, whilst being pursued by British soldiers.A girl aged 8, a boy aged 2, and a 6 week old baby were killed.This tragedy, after many other deaths in Northern Ireland, started the Ulster Peace Movement.Two of its leaders, Mariead Corrigan and Betty Williams, were subsequently awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 1976.

9/8/1976, Monday (+11,416) Russia launched the Luna 24 probe towards the Moon

8/8/1976, Sunday (+11,415)

7/8/1976, Saturday (+11,414) The Viking 2 probe entered orbit around Mars.

6/8/1976, Friday (+11,413) The UK MP John Stonehouse began a seven-year sentence for fraud.

4/8/1976, Wednesday (+11,411) First recorded cases of Legionnaires Disease, at an American Legion convention in Philadelphia, killed 29 people. Scientists isolated the previously unknown bacteria that caused this disease on 18/1/1977.

2/8/1976, Monday (+11,409) Fritz Lang, German film director, died aged 85.

1/8/1976, Sunday (+11,408) Trinidad and Tobago became a Republic.


30/7/1976, Friday (+11,406)

29/7/1976, Thursday (+11,405) (1) Fire damaged the world�s longest pier, at Southend, Essex.

(2) The hijackers (see 27/6/1976 and 3/7/1976) demanded the release of 53 Palestinian prisoners in exchange for the 98 Jewish hostages they were holding in Entebbe.

28/7/1976, Wednesday (+11,404) One of the greatest natural disasters of the 20th century occurred when an earthquake, magnitude 7.8, hit Tangshan in China, killing 255,000 � 750,000 people. At least 164,000 were injured.

27/7/1976, Tuesday (+11,403) (1) The UK broke off diplomatic relations with Uganda.

(2) The Soviet chess champion Korchnoi defected to the West.

26/7/1976, Monday (+11,402) The former Prime Minister of Japan, Kakuei Tanbaka, was arrested on charges that he accepted bribes from the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation.

24/7/1976, Saturday (+11,400)

23/7/1976, Friday (+11,399) Judit Polgar, chess champion, was born.

22/7/1976, Thursday (+11,398) (India) Relations between India and Pakistan improved. This day the first through train ran from Delhi to Lahore.

21/7/1976, Wednesday (+11,397) In Eire, the British Ambassador to Dublin was killed by an IRA car bomb.

20/7/1976, Tuesday (+11,396) The US spacecraft Viking I landed on Mars after an 11-month journey from Earth. On 31/7/1976 NASA released the famous �face on Mars� photograph.

18/7/1976, Sunday (+11,394) The 21st Olympic games opened in Montreal.

15/7/1976, Thursday (+11,391) Paul Gallico, writer, died.

14/7/1976, Wednesday (+11,390) (1) Parliament passed the �Drought Bill� as Britain faced its worst drought in 250 years.

(2) Canada abolished capital punishment.

13/7/1976, Tuesday (+11,389) Roy Jenkins became President of the European Commission.

10/7/1976, Saturday (+11,386) After an explosion at a chemical plant at Seveso, Italy, a 7 km radius was contaminated with dioxin, a weed killer. Crops and 40,000 animals died, and the number of abnormal births rose dramatically.

8/7/1976, Thursday (+11.384) Dame Ellen MacArthur, yachtswoman, was born.

7/7/1976, Wednesday (+11,383) David Steel was elected leader of the Liberal Party.

6/7/1976, Tuesday (+11,382) After the Soweto riots of 16/6/1976, the South Africa Minister for Education announced that plans for compulsory teaching in Afrikaans were to be dropped.

5/7/1976, Monday (+11,381)

3/7/1976, Saturday (+11,379) (1) Israeli commando raid at Entebbe Airport, Uganda, freed 103 hostages from a hijacked aircraft. An Air France airbus had been hijacked there by Palestinian guerrillas, on 27/6/1976, from Athens, on a flight to Paris, with 246 passengers and 12 crew. The Israeli commandos flew 2,500 miles and landed in three large transport aircraft in the dark. In just 35 minutes they had killed all the hijackers and the 20 Ugandan troops guarding them as hostages. 31 lives were lost; 3 hostages, 1 Israeli, 20 Ugandan soldiers, and 7 hijackers. 11 Ugandan aircraft, Russian-made Migs, were destroyed, as the Israelis and the 103 rescued hostages made for Nairobi, where they refuelled and flew to Tel Aviv. In response the Ugandans murdered Dora Bloch, a hostage who had been removed to a Kampala hospital after choking whilst on board the aircraft.

(2) The Supreme Court of the USA, in the case of Gregg vs. Georgia, ruled that the death penalty was not cruel or unusual punishment and was constitutionally acceptable.

2/7/1976, Friday (+11,378) North and South Vietnam were reunited to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

1/7/1976, Thursday (+11,377) Average pay in the UK was �3,340 per year. GPs got �6,344, 190% of average. Teachers got �4,576, 137% of average. Train drivers got �3,900, 116% of average. Factory workers got �3,172, 95% of average. Average UK house price was �11,866.


30/6/1976, Wednesday (+11,376)

28/6/1976, Monday (+11,374) Seychelles became independent.They had been ceded to Britain as a colony in 1814.

27/6/1976, Sunday (+11.373) An Air France airbus on a flight from Athens to Tel Aviv was hijacked by terrorists from the �Popular Front For The Liberation Of Palestine� and forced to fly to Libya, where all non-Jewish passengers were released. The hijackers then flew to Entebbe, Uganda, see 29/7/1976 and 3/7/1976.

26/6/1976, Saturday (+11,372) London recorded a record high temperature of 35 degrees C, or 95 F.

25/6/1976, Friday (+11,371) In Uganda, Idi Amin declared himself President for life.

24/6/1976, Thursday (+11,370) (1) In Poland, Jaroszewicz announced large food price increases, believing that one sudden large rise was better than a number of smaller ones, Basic food prices would rise some 60% from 27/6/1976. Sugar would be up 100%, meat an average 69%, and butter and cheese up 30%. Low wage earners and OAPs would receive pay rises to compensate, and farmers would be paid more for their produce. On 25/6/1976 there were riots, some violent, across Poland. Many rioters suffered arrest, police brutality, summary imprisonment, and dismissal from their jobs. However an amnesty in July 1977 meant most were released from jail.

(2) At a government conference in Hanoi, the unification of North and South Vietnam was approved, as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, see 30/4/1975.

23/6/1976, Wednesday (+11,369) Patrick Viera, French footballer, was born.

20/6/1976, Sunday (+11,366) Unrest in Lebanon following the murder of the US ambassador forced the evacuation of hundreds of Western tourists to Syria by the US military.

18/6/1976, Friday (+11,364) Britain granted independence to the Seychelles.

17/6/1976, Thursday (+11,363) The US Ambassador to Lebanon, Francis Meloy, was assassinated in Beirut. Washington advised all US citizens to leave Lebanon.

16/6/1976, Wednesday (+11,362) Schoolchildren in the black township of Soweto, South Africa, began protesting against having to learn Afrikaans, the language of the then ruling white minority. Police open fire and killed a 13 year old, Hector Peterson. Nationwide demonstrations began, met by more police brutality. By February 1977 over 570 people, mostly black schoolchildren, had been killed. Resistance against apartheid hardened. Apartheid had developed in the 1930s by the Afrikaans rulers as a way of segregating blacks and whites. When the Afrikaaners gained power in 1948 they made apartheid part of the South African legal system.

12/6/1976, Saturday (+11,358)

8/6/1976, Tuesday (+11,354) Lindsay Davenport, tennis player, was born.

7/6/1976, Monday (+11,353) Bobby Hackett, US jazz trumpeter, died in West Chatham, Massachusetts (born 31/1/1915 in Providence, Rhode Island)

6/6/1976, Sunday (+11,352) Paul Getty, American oil tycoon, reputed to be the richest man on earth, died aged 83 at his home, Sutton Place, outside London. He was worth around US$ 4 billion.

3/6/1976, Thursday (+11,349) The UK presented the US with the oldest known copy of Magna Carta.

1/6/1976, Tuesday (+11,347) Britain and Iceland signed an agreement in Oslo to end the Cod War.Up to 24 British trawlers would be permitted to fish within the 200-mile zone claimed by Iceland.


31/5/1976, Monday (+11,346) J L Monod, French biochemist, died aged 66.

29/5/1976, Saturday (+11,344) John Badcock, Olympic rower, died.

26/5/1976, Wednesday (+11,341) Martin Heidegger, German philosopher, died aged 86.

24/5/1976, Monday (+11,339) Concorde made its first commercial transatlantic flight, from London to Washington DC.

11/5/1976, Tuesday (+11,326) Alvar Aalto, Finnish architect, died aged 78.

10/5/1976, Monday (+11,325) Jeremy Thorpe, born 29/4/1929, resigned as leader of the Liberal Party, which he had led since 18/1/1967. David Steele was the new Party leader from 7/7/1976.

9/5/1976, Sunday (+11,324) The terrorist Ulrike Meinhof, 42, hanged herself in her prison cell in Stuttgart.

6/5/1976, Thursday (+11,321) Major earthquake in northern Italy killed 2,000.


27/4/1976, Tuesday (+11,312) Britain began exporting North Sea Oil.

26/4/1976, Monday (+11,311) South African-born British actor Syd James died.

25/4/1976, Sunday (+11,310) (1) The Post Office in Britain stopped Sunday collections; these were partly resumed in 1990.

(2) Portugal held its first free elections for fifty years.

24/4/1976, Saturday (+11,309) Henrik Dam, Danish biochemist, died aged 81.

23/4/1976, Friday (+11,308) Henry Kissinger began a tour of Africa. He stated that his top priority was an end to the maverick status of Southern Rhodesia. He promised Mozambique aid because of the trade losses it had suffered in closing its border with Rhodesia.

20/4/1976, Tuesday (+11,305)

18/4/1976, Sunday (+11,303) Melissa Joan Hart, actress, was born.

16/4/1976, Friday (+11,301) India, to curb population growth, raised the minimum age for marriage to 21 for men and 18 for women.

15/4/1976, Thursday (+11,300) Steve Williams, rower, was born.

14/4/1976, Wednesday (+11,299) Spain withdrew the last of its troops from the Spanish Sahara. This allowed Morocco to annex the phosphate-rich country.

13/4/1976, Tuesday (+11,298) Actor Jonathan Brandis was born in Connecticut USA (committed suicide 12/11/2003, aged 27).

11/4/1976, Sunday (+11,296)

9/4/1976, Friday (+11,294) Phil Ochs, US singer, died in Far Rockaway, New York (born 19/12/1940 in El Paso, Texas)

5/4/1976, Monday (+11,290) (1) James Callaghan, born 27/3/1912, succeeded Harold Wilson, who had resigned, as Prime Minister. Callaghan defeated Michael Foot in the final ballot for leadership of the labour Party by 176 votes to 137.Callaghan remained Prime Minister until the General Election of 1979. See 4/4/1974.

(2) The multi-millionaire Howard Hughes died on his private jet going to a hospital at Houston, Texas leaving a fortune of US$ 2,000 million. He was aged 71.

4/4/1976, Sunday (+11,289) Prince Norodom Sihanouk resigned as leader of Cambodia and was placed under house arrest.

3/4/1976, Saturday (+11,288)

2/4/1976, Friday (+11,287) Portugal adopted a new Constitution with a commitment to socialism.

1/4/1976, Thursday (+11,286) Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak founded the Apple computer company. It sold its first Apple-1 computer in July 1976 for US$666.66, with 8 kB RAM.


29/3/1976, Monday (+11,283) Jennifer Capriati, tennis player, was born.

27/3/1976, Saturday (+11,281) The first 4.6 miles of the Washington DC subway system opened.

24/3/1976, Wednesday (+11,278) (1) Bernard, Viscount Montgomery, Irish-born British Army Field Marshall in World War II, died aged 88.

(2) Isabel Peron, third wife of former President Juan Peron, was ousted as President of Argentina in a bloodless military coup.

23/3/1976, Tuesday (+11,277) Ian Smith rejected Harold Wilson�s conditions for a Rhodesian settlement.

22/3/1976, Monday (+11,276) Reece Witherspoon, actress, was born.

19/3/1976, Friday (+11,273) Alessandro Nesta, Italian footballer, was born.

17/3/1976, Wednesday (+11,271) Luchino Visconti, Italian film director, died aged 69.

16/3/1976, Tuesday (+11,270) Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced his retirement from UK politics. James Callaghan became new Labour Prime Minister on 5/4/1976.Callaghan, aged 64, had defeated Michael Foot in the leadership contest by 176 votes to 137.

15/3/1976, Monday (+11,269)

14/3/1976, Sunday (+11,268) Busby Berkeley, US film director, died.

10/3/1976, Wednesday (+11.264)

4/3/1976, Thursday (+11,258) First non-stop flight of a Japan Airlines jumbo jet from Tokyo to New York. The jet covered the 10,000km in 11 hours 30 minutes.

3/3/1976, Wednesday (+11,257) The newly-independent country of Mozambique closed its border with Rhodesia, as a protest against the illegal regime there.

2/3/1976, Tuesday (+11,256) Brent Cross shopping centre, N W London, was opened; it was the first regional shopping centre in Europe.

1/3/1976, Monday (+11,255) In Britain, wearing seat belts in cars became compulsory under the Road Traffic Bill.


27/2/1976, Friday (+11,252) The Western Sahara declared its independence. Spain gave up its territories in the Sahara but retained the enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta.

24/2/1976, Tuesday (+11,249) Britain sent a fourth gunboat to Iceland.

23/2/1976, Monday (+11,248) Painter L S (Lawrence Stephen) Lowry, noted for his matchstick people, died in Glossop, Derbyshire.

22/2/1976, Sunday (+11,247) Ronaldo Luiz Nazario de Lima, Brazilian footballer, was born.

19/2/1976, Thursday (+11,244) (1) The Cuban backed MPLA won the Angolan civil war, and was recognised by most other countries.See 10/11/1975.

(2) Iceland broke off diplomatic relations with Britain after the two countries failed to reach agreement on fishing limits in the �Cod War� dispute. Conflict began in 1958 when Iceland extended its territorial waters from 3 to 12 nautical miles; Britain finally recognised this limit in 1961. In 1972 Iceland claimed a further extension to 50 miles; Britain ignored this, and Icelandic gunboats sank two British trawlers. In January 1976 an Icelandic gunboat rammed the Royal Navy frigate Andromeda, which had been protecting British fishing boats.

13/2/1976, Friday (+11,238) Nigerian President General Mohammed was assassinated.

11/2/1976, Wednesday (+11,236) In Italy, Aldo Moro formed a minority Christian Democrat Government.

9/2/1976, Monday (+11,234) Percy Faith, musician and composer, died.

4/2/1976, Wednesday (+11,229) A major earthquake devastated parts of Guatemala and Honduras, killing over 23,000 people.

2/2/1976, Monday (+11,227) The 310 acre National Exhibition Centre was opened by the Queen at Bickenhill, Birmingham.

1/2/1976, Sunday (+11,226) (Medical) Gene Hoyt Whipple, US physician, died in Rochester, New York, USA.


31/1/1976, Saturday (+11,225)

29/1/1976, Thursday (+11,223) In Britain, male model Norman Scott alleged in court that he was the homosexual lover of Liberal Party leader Jeremy Thorpe in the 1960s.

28/1/1976, Wednesday (+11,222) Ray Willis Nance, US jazz trumpeter, died in New York (born 10/12/1913)

27/1/1976, Tuesday (+11,221) A UN Resolution calling for Israel to withdraw from all territories occupied since 1967and for a Palestinian State was vetoed by the US delegate.

26/1/1976, Monday (+11,220)

25/1/1976, Sunday (+11,219) 12 IRA bombs exploded in London�s East End.

24/1/1976, Saturday (+11,218) (1) Mrs Thatcher was dubbed the Iron Lady in the soviet newspaper Red Star after a speech about the Communist threat.

(2) The oil tanker Olympic Bravery spilled 250,000 tons of oil off Brittany.

23/1/1976, Friday (+11,217) Paul Robeson, US actor, died aged 77.

22/1/1976, Thursday (+11,216) Ceasefire agreement in Lebanon.

21/1/1976, Wednesday (+11,215) (1) The Financial Times and New York Times went on sale in the USSR.

(2) The British Airways and French Concorde aircraft made their first commercial flights, from London to Bahrain and from Paris to Rio de Janeiro. See 9/1/1969 and 24/10/2003.

20/1/1976, Tuesday (+11,214)

19/1/1976, Monday (+11,213) Jean Lenoir, French composer, died (born 1891)

18/1/1976, Sunday (+11,212) British Labour MPs Jim Sillars and John Robertson launched the Scottish Labour Party (SLP) to campaign for greater devolution for Scotland.

15/1/1976, Thursday (+11,209) The Roman Catholic Church condemned sex outside marriage and said homosexuality could not be condoned.

13/1/1976, Tuesday (+11,207) Argentina suspended diplomatic relations with the UK over the Falkland Islands.

12/1/1976, Monday (+11,206) (1) The UN Security Council voted 12-1 to admit the Palestine Liberation Organisation.

(2) Dame Agatha Christie, English crime story writer and creator of the Belgian detective character Hercule Poirot, died.She was born in Torquay on 15/9/1890.

11/1/1976, Sunday (+11,205) Chester Arthur Burnett, US blues singer, died in Hines, Illinois (born 10/6/1910)

10/1/1976, Saturday (+11,204)

9/1/1976, Friday (+11,203) (Astronomy) Rupert Wildt, German-US astronomer, died in New Orleans., USA.

8/1/1976, Thursday (+11,202) Zhou En Lai, Chinese revolutionary and Prime Minister of China, 1949-76, died. Aged 77, he was succeeded by Hua Goufeng.

7/1/1976, Wednesday (+11,201) In Armagh, the SAS were deployed to combat rising violence; 15 died in sectarian violence the previous week.

6/1/1976, Tuesday (+11,200)

2/1/1976, Friday (+11,196) Britain granted the Solomon Islands internal self-government.

1/1/1976, Thursday (+11,195) Venezuela nationalised its oil industry.


30/12/1975, Tuesday (+11,193) Tiger Woods, US golfer, was born.

27/12/1975, Saturday (+11,190)In the UK, the Sex Discrimination Act and the Equal Pay Act came into force.

24/12/1975, Wednesday (+11,187) Roger Tredgold, fencing champion, died.

21/12/1975, Sunday (+11,184) Left wing terrorists, including Carlos The Jackal, kidnapped delegates of an OPEC conference in Vienna. They killed three hostages, extorted US$ 3 million, and vanished into the Middle East.

17/12/1975, Wednesday (+11,180) Milla Jovovich, actress, was born.

14/12/1975, Sunday (+11,177) The terrorist seizure of a Dutch express train at Beilen, near Assen, ended.On 2/12/1975 south Moluccan extremists seized the train to protest against the Dutch Government�s failure to ensure an independent Republic of South Molucca when The Netherlands granted independence to Indonesia. Indonesia gained independence in 1950; the South Moluccans, who had fought fiercely for the Dutch against the Japanese in World War Two, had also resisted the Indonesian independence movement, and in 1950 feared reprisals from Indonesia. 15,000 South Moluccans fled to the Netherlands, and from 1970 onwards more extremist members of the community had begun to carry out terrorist attacks within Holland, such as petrol-bombing the Indonesia Embassy in The Hague. On 2/12/1975 six Moluccans boarded the train at Groningen. They stopped the train at Beilen and shot the driver, 30-year-old Hans Braam. The passengers were forced into one carriage; one man tried to escape but was also shot. Dutch forces laid siege to the train, which was in open countryside and hard to approach unnoticed. Some hostages were released in return for food and warm clothing, but the Dutch Government refused to cooperate with the terrorists� demands for international broadcasts of their cause. Finally, as the Dutch winter closed in and the train under siege from over 1,000 armed police and military, the Moluccans surrendered and gave up their last 25 hostages.

13/12/1975, Saturday (+11,176) General Election in Australia gave a large majority to the Fraser Government.

12/12/1975, Friday (+11,175)

11/12/1975, Thursday (+11,174) Lee Wiley, US singer, died in New York (born 9/10/1915 in Port Gibson, Oklahoma)

10/12/1975, Wednesday (+11,173) The first shots were fired in the Cod war between Britain and Iceland.

9/12/1975, Tuesday (+11,172)

7/12/1975, Sunday (+11,170) Indonesia invaded East Timor. See 28/11/1975. On 17/7/1976 East Timor was declared the 27th province of Indonesia.

6/12/1975, Saturday (+11,169) The Balcombe Street siege began; IRA terrorists held Mr and Mrs Andrews hostage in their London flat. The siege ended on 11/12/1975.

5/12/1975, Friday (+11,168) Ronald O�Sullivan, snooker champion, was born.

3/12/1975, Wednesday (+11,166)

2/12/1975, Tuesday (+11,165) Following the fall of Saigon, Vietnam, to the Communists the Pathet Lao in Laos took over the entire government, effectively abrogating a coalition agreement with the Lao government made in 21/2/1973.The King of Laos abdicated and Laos was proclaimed a People�s Democratic Republic.

1/12/1975, Monday (+11,164) Gerald Ford became the second U.S. president to travel to China, where he met with Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping.


30/11/1975, Sunday (+11,163) The African country of Dahomey was renamed Benin.

29/11/1975, Saturday (+11,162) In New Zealand the National Party defeated the Labour Government. Robert Muldoon became Prime Minister.

28/11/1975, Friday (+11,161) Portuguese Timor declared independence from Portugal, as East Timor. See 7/12/1975.

27/11/1975, Thursday (+11,160) (1) Devolution was discussed on the TV programme Newsday. TV programmes ceased at 12.25 am with What did you learn at School Today? on ITV.

(2)Provisional IRA gunmen killed Ross McWhirter, co-editor of the Guinness Book of Records. He had launched a �Beat the Bombers� campaign three weeks earlier, offering rewards to informers on the IRA.

(3) A new modern railway from Belgrade to the Mediterranean port of Bar opened (construction began 1952).

26/11/1975, Wednesday (+11,159) Attempted coup in Portugal by left-wing soldiers was foiled.

25/11/1975, Tuesday (+11,158) (1) The UK Government authorised the sending of three Royal Navy frigates to protect British trawlers fishing in disputed waters off Iceland.

(2) Surinam became independent from The Netherlands.It was formerly known as Dutch Guiana.

24/11/1975, Monday (+11,157) Civil war began in Angola.

23/11/1975, Sunday (+11,156) Arno Schreuders, Dutch footballer, was born.

22/11/1975, Saturday (+11,155) The Spanish monarchy was restored following the death of General Franco. King Juan Carlos II became King of Spain on 27/11/1975. See 30/10/1975.

21/11/1975, Friday (+11,154) Gunnar Gunnarsson, Icelandic writer, died aged 86

20/11/1975, Thursday (+11,153) General Franco, Spanish Head of State from 1936, died aged 82. He became leader of Spain following the Spanish Civil War (1935-39), due to lack of intervention by other European countries and the backing of Fascist Italy and Germany. Franco stayed out of World War Two because Adolf Hitler would not agree to cede France�s North African territories to Spain. In 1949 Franco declared Spain to be a monarchy, although there was no monarch until, in 1954, he declared that his heir would be Juan Carlos, grandson of the last Spanish King. Carlos took Spain in a different political direction from Franco, adopting a democratic constitution in 1978 afterreferendum showed 90% of Spaniards in favour of this.

14/11/1975, Friday (+11,147) Spain pulled out of the Western Sahara under the Madrid Accord. However this left the territory vulnerable to occupation by Morocco.

12/11/1975, Wednesday (+11,145) An IRA bomb exploded at Scott�s Restaurant in London, killing one man. Two more people were killed by another IRA bomb on 18/11/1975 at Walton�s Restaurant, London.

11/11/1975, Tuesday (+11,144) Angola became independent from Portugal, but three different liberation factions were fighting for control.320 years of Portuguese occupation ended. Civil was began between the Cuban-backed MPLA (People�s Movement for the Liberation of Angola) and the Western backed UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) and the South African backed FNLA (National Front for the Liberation of Angola).See 19/2/1976.

10/11/1975, Monday (+11,143) The UN General Assembly passed by 72 votes to 35 a resolution defining Zionism as �a form of racism and racial discrimination�. Some 32 nations abstained.

8/11/1975,Saturday (+11,141)

6/11/1975, Thursday (+11,139) (1) (Morals and Fashion) The punk rock band Sex Pistols played their first gig at St Martin�s College of Art in London.

(2) In a �Green March� organised by King Hassan II, 160,000 unarmed Moroccans marched across the border into Western Sahara. Spain now agreed to allow Morocco to take the territory instead of organising a self-determination referendum amongst the indigenous Sahrawi.

5/11/1975, Wednesday (+11,138) (Biology) Edward Lawrie Tatum, US biochemist, died in New York City, USA.

4/11/1975, Tuesday (+11,137) Cuba's leader Fidel Castro ordered 650 troops to Angola to support the Marxist MPLA government against UNITA and South Africa.

3/11/1975, Monday (+11,136) Queen Elizabeth II officially opened a pipeline that was to bring 400,000 barrels of North Sea Oil ashore every day at the Grangemouth refinery. North Sea Oil had been discovered in the 1960s; the first exploited oilfield was Ekofisk, tapped from 1969. The global oil crisis of 1974 intensified the need to develop North Sea resources.

2/11/1975, Sunday (+11,135) Pier Paolo Pasolini, Italian film director, died aged 53

1/11/1975, Saturday (+11,134) 3 died and 6 were injured in an explosion aboard the Ekofisk A oil rig.


31/10/1975, Friday (+11,133) The Provisional Sinn Fein leader Seamus McCusker was shot dead by the official IRA.

30/10/1975, Thursday (+11,132) (1) The Forestry Commission said more than 16 million trees had been destroyed in Britain because of Dutch Elm Disease.

(2) Prince Juan Carlos became acting Head of State in Spain after dictator Franco became ill. See 20/11/1975.

29/10/1975, Wednesday (+11,131) The Yorkshire Ripper, Peter Sutcliffe, committed his first murder, Wilma McCann.

28/10/1975, Tuesday (+11,130) Edward (Oliver Nelson, US composer, died in Los Angeles (born 4/6/1932)

27/10/1975, Monday (+11,129) 18 year old Robert Poulin began shooting at the Pius X High School in Ottawa, Canada, killing 1 and injuring 5. He then shot himself.

26/10/1975, Sunday (-11, 128) Katja Riipi, Finnish ice hockey player, was born in Sodankyla, Finland

25/10/1975, Saturday (+11,127) Evel Knievel made his longest motorbike jump, clearing 14 Greyhound buses on his Harley Davidson machine.

24/10/1975, Friday (+11,126) Women in Iceland staged a one-day general strike.

23/10/1975, Thursday (+11,125) Professor Farley, a leading cancer expert, was killed by a n IRA car bomb intended for Hugh Fraser MP.

22/10/1975, Wednesday (+11,124) In Britain the Guildford Four were sentenced to life imprisonment after being found guilty of planting bombs in Guildford and Woolwich. They were released 19/10/1989.

21/10/1975, Tuesday (+11,123) Spain�s 82 year old General Franco suffered his third heart attack in five days. He died on 20/11/1975. See 22/11/1975.

18/10/1975, Saturday (+11,120)

16/10/1975, Thursday (+11,118) Indonesian forces on a raid into Portuguese Timor killed 5 Australian-based journalists.

15/10/1975, Wednesday (+11,117) Iceland unilaterally extended its fishing grounds to 200 miles, leading to a resumption of the Cod war with Britain.

9/10/1975, Thursday (+11,111) An IRA bomb exploded at Green Park tube station, London, killing 1 and injuring 20.

5/10/1975, Sunday (+11,107) Kate Winslet, British actress, was born.

3/10/1975, Friday (+11,105) The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) was banned.

2/10/1975, Thursday (+11,104) Protestant revenge killings left 11 dead.


30/9/1975, Tuesday (+11,102)

28/9/1975, Sunday (+11,100) Spanish dictator General Franco executed five Basque terrorists.

27/9/1975, Saturday (+11,099) The National Rail Museum in York opened.

24/9/1975, Wednesday (+11,096) The south-west face of Everest was climbed for the first time by Douglas Haston and Doug Scott.

22/9/1975, Monday (+11,094) The US President, Gerald Ford, survived a second assassination attempt in 17 days, when a woman, Sara Jane Moore, fired at him as he left a hotel in San Francisco. On 5/9/1975 Lynette Fromme had attempted an assassination but had been thwarted by a Secret Service agent. On 15/1/1976 Ms Moore was sentenced to life imprisonment.

20/9/1975, Saturday (+11,092) Juan Pablo Montoya, racing car driver, was born.

19/9/1975, Friday (+11,091) The first episode of Fawlty Towers was broadcast by the BBC.

18/9/1975, Thursday (+11,090)

16/9/1975, Tuesday (+11,088) Papua New Guinea became independent from Australia.

15/9/1975, Monday (+11,087) Civil war broke out in Beirut between Christians and Muslims.

14/9/1975, Sunday (+11,086) Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton was canonised by Pope Paul VI to become the first American �saint�.

12/9/1975, Friday (+11,084)

10/9/1975, Wednesday (+11,082) (Science) Sir George Paget, Thomson, English physicist, died in Cambridge.

9/9/1975, Tuesday (+11,081) The Czech tennis player Martina Navratilova defected to the West.

7/9/1975, Sunday (+11,079)

6/9/1975, Saturday (+11,078) A major earthquake in Lice, Turkey, killed nearly 3,000 people.

5/9/1975, Friday (+11,077) Lynette Fromme, a Charles Manson (cult leader and killer) follower, made an assassination attempt on US President Ford, in Sacramento.

4/9/1975, Thursday (+11,076) Ivan Maisky, Soviet politician, died aged 91.

1/9/1975, Monday (+11,073) Kissinger arranged an accord between Israel and Egypt on Sinai.


29/8/1975, Friday (+11,070) Eamon De Valera, leader of the Irish rising 1916, three times Prime Minister of Ireland and President of Ireland 1959 � 1973, died aged 92. His place of birth, New York, to a Spanish father and Irish mother, saved him from execution in 1916.

28/8/1975, Thursday (+11,069) The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced a ban on the use of polyvinyl chloride plastic for packaging of certain foods, because of its potential for causing cancer. At the time, PVC was the second most-used plastic in American food packaging. Although PVC film wrapping of meat and fruits was still permitted, the use of hard PVC plastic on lunch meat packages, and for bottles of liquids, was to be prohibited.

27/8/1975, Wednesday (+11,068) Haile Selassie, deposed Emperor of Ethiopia, nicknamed �the Lion of Judah�, died in exile. In 1916 he had become Ras (Prince) Tafari, and in 1930 became Emperor of Ethiopia. He was seen as the Messiahby Rastafarians, who saw Ethiopia as the Promised Land. He was exiled to England during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia, 1935-39, but returned to Ethiopia in 1941. He helped found the Organisation for African Unity (OAU) but faced considerable opposition within Ethiopia and was deposed in 1974.

26/8/1975, Tuesday (+11,067)

25/8/1975, Monday (+11,066) (Science) John Ray Dunning, US physicist, died in Key Biscayne, Florida, USA.

24/8/1975, Sunday (+11,065) The officers responsible for the military coup in Greece were sentenced to death in Athens � this was later commuted to life imprisonment.

22/8/1975, Friday (+11,063)

21/8/1975, Thursday (+11,062) British unemployment figures reached 1.25 million.

20/8/1975, Wednesday (+11,061) NASA launched the Viking I probe towards Mars.

19/8/1975, Tuesday (+11,060)

15/8/1975, Friday (+11,056) The Birmingham Six were sentenced to life imprisonment for planting bombs that killed 21 people in Birmingham. Their convictions were later overturned.

14/8/1975, Thursday (+11,055) In a military coup in Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rhaman was overthrown; he and his family were murdered. General Zia ur Rahman now headed a military Government which ruled until 1981.

11/8/1975, Monday (+11,052) (1) British Leyland was taken under UK Government control.

(2) Mario Lemos Pires, Governor of Portuguese Timor, was forced to abandon the capital, Dili, due to civil war between UDT and Fretilin.

9/8/1975, Saturday (+11,050) Death of the Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovitch.

8/8/1975, Friday (+11,049) The Banqiao Dam in China failed during a freak typhoon, killing over 200,000 people.

7/8/1975, Thursday (+11,048) Charlize Theron, actress, was born.

1/8/1975, Friday (+11,042) Britain signed the Helsinki Accord on closer co-operation with Europe.


29/7/1975, Tuesday (+11,039) A military coup in Nigeria.

22/7/1975, Tuesday (+11,032) (1) Britain�s unemployment figures, at 1,087, 869, were the worst since World War Two.

(2) It was announced that the fixed �2 parking fine � set in 1960 and by then regarded as a good buy by some motorists � would be increased to �6 in September.

18/7/1975, Friday (+11,028) John Stonehouse, former Labour minister, returned to Britain to face 21 charges of fraud, forgery, and conspiracy. On 6/8/1976 he was convicted of theft and conspiracy and sentenced to 7 years imprisonment.

17/7/1975, Thursday (+11,027) The crews of Apollo 18 (USA) and Soyuz 19 (USSR) visited each other�s capsules in the first such joint space venture between the two countries. They shook hands 140 miles over the south coast of Britain.The Apollo 18 mission was reckoned to have cost US$ 500 million, and the expense of this put an end to the Apollo project.

16/7/1975, Wednesday (+11,026)

15/7/1975, Tuesday (+11,025) Apollo 18 was launched, crewed by Vance Brand, Thomas Stafford, and Donald Slayton.

14/7/1975, Monday (+11,024) Zutty Singleton, US jazz drummer, died in New York (born 14/5/1898 in Bunkei, Louisiana)

13/7/1975, Sunday (+11,023) President Idi Amin of Uganda was promoted from General to Field Marshall.

12/7/1975, Saturday (+11,022) Sao Tome and Principe declared independence from Portugal.

11/7/1975, Friday (+11,021) Inflation reached 25% in Britain. The Government limited annual pay rises to �6 a week, and to zero for those earning over �8,500 a year. Firms would be fined of they passed on higher wage costs in price rises. Prime Minister Harold Wilson called the plan tough but essential.

9/7/1975, Wednesday (+11,019)

7/7/1975, Monday (+11,017) (Weather) Jacob Aall Bonnevie Bjerknes, Norwegian-US meteorologist, died in Los Angeles, California.

6/7/1975, Sunday (+11,016) The Comoros declared their independence from France.

5/7/1975, Saturday (+11,015) Cape Verde gained independence from Portugal after nearly 500 years of colonial rule.

4/7/1975, Friday (+11,014) A Palestinian bomb in Jerusalem killed 14.

3/7/1975, Thursday (+11,013)

1/7/1975, Tuesday (+11,011) Australia broke up the Postmaster-General�s Department into Telecom Australia and Australia Post.


30/6/1975, Monday (+11,010) In India, Indira Gandhi imposed press censorship, to suppress dissent.

27/6/1975, Friday (+11,007) Toby Maguire, actor, was born.

25/6/1975, Wednesday (+11,005) Mozambique became independent from Portugal.This followed a ten-year war against Portuguese colonial rule.

19/6/1975, Thursday (+10,999) Lord Lucan was found guilty of murdering his nanny, but he was still missing.

18/6/1975, Wednesday (+10,998) The first North Sea Oil, from the Argyll field, came ashore from a Liberian tanker.

16/6/1975, Monday (+10,996) Oregon, USA, became the first place to ban the sale of aerosols containing CFC gases..

12/6/1975, Thursday (+10,992) Greece applied to join the EEC.

11/6/1975, Wednesday (+10,991) The High Court in India ruled that Indira Gandhi had used unfair practices to win the election and must stand down. She refused to go.

10/6/1975, Tuesday (+10,990) Henrik Pedersen, Danish football player, was born.

9/6/1975, Monday (+10,989) Live radio broadcasting from the House of Commons began. On 12/6/1989, TV broadcasts from the House of Commons began.

8/6/1975, Sunday (+10,988) The USSR launched the Venera 9 probe towards Venus. It landed on the surface, transmitting data and pictures for 53 minutes.

7/6/1975, Saturday (+10,987) Sony introduced the Betamax home videotape recorder.

6/6/1975, Friday (+10,986) Larry Blyden, US TV game show host of What's My Line? was killed aged 49 in a car accident in Morocco.

5/6/1975, Thursday (+10,985) (1) A referendum in the UK showed a 67.2% majority in favour of remaining in the EEC. 17, 378,581 (67.2%) voted for Europe, and 8,470,073 (32.8%) voted no.The only areas in the UK to have a �no� majority were the Shetlands and the Western Isles of Scotland.

(2) President Sadat opened the Suez Canal reopened to all international maritime traffic except Israeli shipping, after eight years of total closure since the Six-Day War.

4/6/1975, Wednesday (+10,984) Angelina Jolie, actress, was born.

3/6/1975, Tuesday (+10,983) Eisaku Sato, Japanese politician, died aged 75.

2/6/1975, Monday (+10,982) Singapore introduced strict new road congestion measures. Rush hour travel permist costing �25 cut traffic congestion by 40%.

1/6/1975, Sunday (+10,981) Snow fell on London in June, for the first time since records began.


31/5/1975, Saturday (+10,980) Peter Alliss, British golfer, died (born 8/1/1897)

30/5/1975, Friday (+10,979) Andrew Farrell, rugby player, was born.

29/5/1975, Thursday (+10,978) Bianca Langham, hockey player, was born

28/5/1975, Wednesday (+10,977) (Africa) The Treaty of Lagos was signed, creating ECOWAS as a means of continental integration. Borders were to be open to travel and trade.

27/5/1975, Tuesday (+10,976) Jamie Oliver, celebrity chef, was born.

26/5/1975, Monday (+10,975) The stuntman Evel Knievel suffered severe spinal injuries whilst attempting to jump 13 buses in his car.

23/5/1975, Friday (+10,972)

21/5/1975, Wednesday (+10,970) The trial of the Baader Meinhof terrorist group began. On 28/4/1977 they were sentenced to life imprisonment.

20/5/1975, Tuesday (+10,969) Barbara Hepworth, English artist, died aged 72.

18/5/1975, Sunday (+10,967) Japanese climber Junko Tabei became the first woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest.

16/5/1975, Friday (+10,965) India annexed Sikkim.

13/5/1975, Tuesday (+10,962) Richard Hollingshead, who pioneered the development of the drive-in movie theatre in 1933 In Camden, USA, died this day.

12/5/1975, Monday (+10,961) Jonah Lomu, rugby player, was born.

5/5/1975, Monday (+10,954) The Scottish Daily News, a worker�s co-operative newspaper, was launched. However it closed in October 1975, despite intervention by Robert Maxwell.

2/5/1975, Friday (+10,951) David Beckham, footballer, was born in Leytonstone, London.

1/5/1975, Thursday (+10,950) The US Securities and Exchange Commission ordered an abolition of the fixed commission rate on Wall Street. This increased the number of investors who came forward, meaning more money was available for shares trading.


30/4/1975, Wednesday (+10,949) Saigon surrendered to the North Vietnamese, so ending the 15-year Vietnam War. This had been the longest conflict of the 20th century.

29/4/1975, Tuesday (+10,948) A US helicopter evacuated Americans and a few lucky Vietnamese from the roof of the US Embassy in Saigon to a nearby US warship a day before Saigon fell to the Vietcong. The picture of the helicopter evacuation became an iconic symbol of US humiliation in Vietnam. In the US Embassy, some Vietnamese women quickly �married� Americans in order to gain a place in the evacuation; the marriage ceremony was rather brief, �Do you? I do�. Conditions in the embassy corridors quickly deteriorated as the air conditioning broke down. In all, 1,373 Americans, 5,595 South Vietnamese and 85 other nationals were evacuated in the last days of the war.

28/4/1975, Monday (+10,947) North Vietnamese forces encircled Saigon and shelled its airfield, ending the evacuation by aeroplane. See 23 and 29/4/1975.

27/4/1975, Sunday (+10,946) Nicholas Soussanin, actor, died aged 86.

26/4/1975, Saturday (+10,945) In Portugal�s first free elections for 50 years, former exile Mario Soares won for the Portuguese Socialist Party.

25/4/1975, Friday (+10,944) The Australian Embassy in Saigon, South Vietnam, shut as North Vietnamese forces closed in.

24/4/1975, Thursday (+10,943) The British Government decided to take a majority shareholding in British Leyland motor company.

23/4/1975, Wednesday (+10,942) US President Ford announced that US involvement in Vietnam was to end. US forces began the final evacuation of personnel from Saigon by aeroplane, see 28 and 29/4/1973.

22/4/1975, Tuesday (+10,941) Oswaldo L�pez Arellano was removed from office as President of Honduras by order of the nation's high military council.

21/4/1975, Monday (+10.940) President Thieu of South Vietnam, aware that the North would never negotiate with him, resigned in a last ditch attempt to find an agreement by appointing a new leader in his place. Thieu escaped to Taipei with 3.5 tons of gold. General Duong Van Minh became leader in his place.

20/4/1975, Sunday (+10,939) South Vietnamese forces were now driven back to Long Binh and Bien Hoa airbases, just 12 miles from Saigon. Saigon was now surrounded by 15 divisions, and defended by just four.

18/4/1975, Friday (+10,937)

17/4/1975, Thursday (+10,936) In Cambodia, the capital Phnom Penh fell to the Khmer Rouge. The civil war there ended. Pol Pot proclaimed the �Democratic Republic of Kampuchea, and became its Prime Minister, from 1975 to 1979.

16/4/1975, Wednesday (+10,935) Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Indian statesman, died aged 86.

15/4/1975, Tuesday (+10.934) British actor Michael Flanders died.

14/4/1975, Monday (+10,933)

13/4/1975, Sunday (+10,932) Fighting broke out in Beirut between Christians and Moslems. The fighting was sparked by a Phalangist attack on a Palestinian bus in Ain El Remmeneh, and led to 13 years of civil war in Lebanon.

12/4/1975, Saturday (+10,931) (Aviation) French President Valery Giscard d�Estaing opened the new airport at Lyons-Satolas.

11/4/1975, Friday (+10,930) Josephine Baker, US entertainer, died.

8/4/1975, Tuesday (+10,927) Pagers were launched in Britain.

6/4/1975, Sunday (+10,925) A plane carrying 99 Vietnamese orphans landed at Heathrow Airport, London.

5/4/1975, Saturday (+10,924) The Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai Shek died in Taiwan, aged 87.

4/4/1975, Friday (+10,923) A Galaxy transport plane carrying 243 Vietnamese orphans from Saigon to the US crashed shortly after take-off, killing over 200 children and 44 adults.

2/4/1975, Wednesday (+10,921)


30/3/1975, Sunday (+10,918) Easter Sunday (1) North Vietnamese forces captured the port of Da Nang. Ships attempted to rescue over 1 million refugees.

(2) The Great Train Robbers Ronald �Buster� Edwards and James White were released on bail after serving 9 years in gaol.

(3) The Provisional IRA council planned to meet to discuss the future of a ceasefire declared on 10/2/1975. Films on release included Monty Python and the Holy Grail.

29/3/1975, Saturday (+10,917) Tommy Green, champion walker, died (born 30/3/1894).

27/3/1975, Thursday (+10,915) Arthur Bliss, English composer, died aged 83.

25/3/1975, Tuesday (+10,913) (1) In South Vietnam, Hue fell to the North.

(2) In Saudi Arabia, King Faisal was assassinated by his 31-year-old mentally deranged nephew, and Crown Prince Khalid Ibn Abdul Aziz acceded to the throne. The US had regarded Faisal as a moderating influence in the unstable Middle East.

21/3/1975, Friday (+10,909) (1) Ethiopia abolished the monarchy.

(2) John Stonehouse, the disappeared MP, was arrested in Australia for theft, fraud, and deception.

20/3/1975, Thursday (+10,908) In Vietnam, Communist forces overran Da Nang,

19/3/1975, Wednesday (+10.907) In South Vietnam, Quang Tri Province fell to the North, leaving the provincial capital of Hue exposed.

17/3/1975, Monday (+10,905)

16/3/1975, Sunday (+10,904) Aaron Thibeaux, Us blues singer, died in Los Angeles (born 28/5/1910 in Linden, Texas)

15/3/1975, Saturday (+10,903) (1) Troops in Glasgow cleared 70,000 tons of refuse that had built up during the dustmen�s strike.

(2) Aristotle Onassis, Greek shipping magnate and Olympic Airways operator, second husband of Jacqueline Kennedy, died.

14/3/1975, Friday (+10,902) (USA) Presidential aide Fred de la Rue was sentenced to 6 months imprisonment for his part on the Watergate cover up.

12/3/1975, Wednesday (+10,900)

10/3/1975, Monday (+10,988) (Rail Tunnel) The Shin Kannon rail tunnel, Japan, 18.713 km long, opened, also the Kitakyushu line, 11.747 km long, also the Bingo Tunnel, 8.9 km long. Also the Aki Tunnel, 13.03 km long.

9/3/1975, Sunday (+10,897) (USA) Construction of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline began.

7/3/1975, Friday (+10,895)

6/3/1975, Thursday (+10,894) (India) Large demonstrations in New Delhi against Indira Gandhi.

5/3/1975, Wednesday (+10,893) (Jewish) Palestinian guerrillas raided a hotel at Tel Aviv, taking 30 hostages. Israeli troops stormed the hotel, killing 7 of the 8 terrorists, and 11 other lives were lost.

4/3/1975, Tuesday (+10,892) Queen Elizabeth II knighted the actor Charlie Chaplin.

2/3/1975, Sunday (+10.890)

1/3/1975, Saturday (+10,889) Colour TV broadcasting began in Australia.


28/2/1975, Friday (+10,888) (1) A London Underground train from Drayton Park crashed through the buffers at Moorgate, killing 42 people. The driver, Leslie Newton, was bringing in his 8.37 train when instead of braking he accelerated into a 72 metre blind tunnel. The front 4.5 metres of the leading carriage were crushed into 60 centimetres.

(2) The Watergate scandal continued as 3 Nixon aides were sentenced for their role.

(3) The Lome Convention was signed in Lome, capital of Togo, between the EC and 46 developing nations.The agreement provided for free access for the export of these 46 countries into the EC, also for aid and investment.It laid the foundation for the post imperialistic (colonial) relations between Europe and Africa.

27/2/1975, Thursday (+10,884) Peter Lorenz, Chairman of the West Berlin Christian Democratic Union, was kidnapped by terrorists. He was released on 5/3/1975 after demands that 5 terrorists were released from German jails and flown out of the country were met.

25/2/1975, Tuesday (+10,885)

24/2/1975, Monday (+10,884) Nikolai Bulganin, Soviet Prime Minister from 1955 to 1958, died.

23/2/1975, Sunday (+10,883) In response to the energy crisis, daylight saving time began two months early in the USA.

22/2/1975, Saturday (+10,882) Drew Barrymore, US actress, was born.

21/2/1975, Friday (+10,881) Those convicted of offences in the Watergate affair received sentences of between 30 months and 8 years.

20/2/1975, Thursday (+10,880) Britain issued new �10 notes, depicting Florence Nightingale carrying a lamp.

19/2/1975, Wednesday (+10,879) Italian composer Luigi Dallapiccola died in Florence aged 71.

18/2/1975, Tuesday (+10,878) Gary Neville, English footballer, was born.

17/2/1975, Monday (+10,877)

14/2/1975, Friday (+10.874) PG Wodehouse, author, died.

13/2/1975, Thursday (+10,873) (1) The UK miners accepted a pay rise of 35%.

(2) Turkish held northern Cyprus declared itself �The Turkish Federated State of Cyprus�.

12/2/1975, Wednesday (+10,872)

11/2/1975, Tuesday (+10,871) Mrs Thatcher was confirmed as leader of the UK Conservative Party.

10/2/1975, Monday (+10,870) Martyn Green, British actor, died in Hollywood (born 22/4/1899 in London)

7/2/1975, Friday (+10,867) In response to the global oil crisis, Canada imposed a national speed limit of 55 mph.

4/2/1975, Tuesday (+10,864) Edward Heath resigned as leader of the Conservative Party. Mrs Thatcher became the first woman to lead a political party on 11/2/1975. Aged 49, she was the wife of a wealthy businessman and the mother of twins. She had defeated 4 other male challengers for the position of leader of the Conservatives. 146 MPs had voted for her, against just 79 for her nearest rival, William Whitelaw. Geoffrey Howe, James Prior, and John Peyton were far behind.

3/2/1975, Monday (+10,863) (Science) William David Coolidge, US physicist, died in Schenectady, New York, USA.


30/1/1975, Thursday (+10,859) (Innovations) The Rubik Cube was patented by Erno Rubik in Hungary.

28/1/1975, Tuesday (+10,857) Antonin Novotkny, Czechoslovak politician, died aged 70.

27/1/1975, Monday (+10,856) Five IRA bombs exploded in London.

24/1/1975, Friday (+10,853) Dr Donald Coggan was enthroned as the 101st Archbishop of Canterbury, succeeding Michael Ramsey.

20/1/1975, Monday (+10,849) The Channel Tunnel project was abandoned by the British Government.

19/1/1975, Sunday (+10.848) Thomas Hart Benton, US painter, died in Kansas City, Missouri.

18/1/1975, Saturday (+10,847)

16/1/1975, Thursday (+10,845) The IRA ended its 25-day truce.

15/1/1975, Wednesday (+10,844) Britain proposed to nationalise its aircraft construction industry.

14/1/1975, Tuesday (+10,843) The House Committee on Internal Security (formerly HUAC, House Committee on Un-American Activities) was formally terminated on January 14, 1975, the day of the opening of the 94th Congress. The Committee's files and staff were transferred on that day to the House Judiciary Committee.

10/1/1975, Friday (+10,839) The Portuguese Government agreed on independence for Angola.

7/1/1975, Tuesday (+10,836) (1) OPEC agreed to raise crude oil prices by 10%.

(2) (SEAsia, USA) North Vietnamese forces captured the southern province of Phuoc Long (see 29/3/1973). There was no reaction from the US. On 10/3/1975 North Vietnam captured the strategic town of Ban Me Thuot in the Central Highlands. Within four days South Vietnam decided to abandon the entire Central Highlands to concentrate on the defence of Saigon. This strategic withdrawal became a rout, woith hundreds of thousands of cicilians, and fleeing soldiers, clogging the roads as the Communists advanced. By 1/4/1975 half of South Vietnam was occupied by the North and the South Vietnamese army was disintegrating. US Congress had no intention of further aid to the South; they did not even intend to organise an evacuation of US citizens and pro-US Vietnamese, instead hoping to persuade the North to stop short of total conquest and accept a coalition government in Saigon.President Thieu of South Vietnam resigned on 28/4/1975 and was replaced by the neutralist General Duong Van Minh. By then North Vietnamese forces were in the suburbs of Saigon. A few fortunate personnel were evacuated from the roof of the US Embassy by helicopter (see 29/4/1975).However in the last-minute chaos nobody thought to destroy the records of South Vietnamese who had supported the US. On 30/4/1975 a North Vietnamese tank crashed through the gates of the Presidential Palace in Saigon and a soldier raised the North Vietnamese flag. Then the event was repeated for the benefit of TV cameras who had missed the original. Meanwhile in Cambodia the Khmer Rouge had entered Phnom Penh and begub deporting hundreds of thousands of its population to the killing fields. The defeat of the US was total and complete.

6/1/1975, Monday (+10,835) Burton K. Wheeler, 92, U.S. Senator, died.

5/1/1975, Sunday (+10,834) The Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh, came under siege by Khmer Rouge forces (led by Pol Pot), despite heavy US military aid to the Cambodian leader, Lon Nol.

4/1/1975, Saturday (+10,833) U.S. President Gerald R. Ford signed legislation making 55 miles per hour the maximum speed limit across the United States, making permanent what had been a temporary order in 1973 by President Nixon.

3/1/1975, Friday (+10,832) Turkish president, Mr Bulent Ecevic, received a hero�s welcome as he arrived in Famagusta, northern Cyprus. He had ordered the Turkish invasion of part of the island 6 months earlier.

2/1/1975, Thursday (+10,831) British hospital consultants started a work-to-rule over new contracts.

1/1/1975, Wednesday (+10,830) (1) In the USA, aides of President Nixon, H R Haldeman, John D Erlichman and John H Mitchell were found guilty of Watergate offences. On 21/2/1975 they were sentenced to between 2 � and 8 years in prison.

(2) In Uruguay, all Marxist Parties were permanently outlawed. In practice the military control was by then so heavy-handed that such Parties could not have existed anyway.


31/12/1974, Tuesday (+10,829)

29/12/1974, Sunday (+10,827) Brad Hodge, cricketer, was born.

28/12/1974, Saturday (+10,826) An earthquake in northern Pakistan killed over 5,000 people.

27/12/1974, Friday (+10,825)

25/12/1974, Wednesday (+10,823) Darwin, capital of Australia�s Northern Territory, was devastated by Cyclone Tracy.

24/12/1974, Tuesday (+10,822) The Beatles� legal partnership was formally dissolved.

22/12/1974, Sunday (+10,820) The North Vietnamese General Van Tra, to prove that the South Vietnamese Army was on the point of collapse, made a ferocious attack on Don Luan. The town fell within four days, enabling the North to push on southwards towards Phuoc Long province.

20/12/1974, Friday (+10,818) The new Ethiopian regime declared its socialist principles.

19/12/1974, Thursday (+10,817) Ricky Ponting, cricketer, was born.

17/12/1974, Tuesday (+10,815)

14/12/1974, Saturday (+10,812) Walter Lippmann, US political writer, died aged 85.

13/12/1974, Friday (+10,811) Malta became a republic within the Commonwealth.

12/12/1974, Thursday (+10,810) Jimmy Carter said he would run for US Presidency.

11/12/1974, Wednesday (+10,809) 200,000 workers in the Basque Region of Spain staged a general strike, demanding am amnesty for political prisoners.

10/12/1974, Tuesday (+10,808) Israeli rocket attack on the PLO headquarters in Lebanon, injuring 2 people.

9/12/1974, Monday (+10,807) Miki Takeo became Japanese Prime Minister.

8/12/1974, Sunday (+10,806) Greece voted against restoring the monarchy by 62%.

7/12/1974, Saturday (+10,805) President Makarios returned to Cyprus; however almost half of it was occupied by Turkey.

6/12/1974, Friday (+10,804) The UK Government announced it was taking a shareholding in British Leyland car company, in return for providing financial support.

5/12/1974, Thursday (+10,803) The last episode of Monty Python�s Flying Circus was broadcast by the BBC.

4/12/1974, Wednesday (+10,802) Leo Goossen, US racing car designer, died aged 82.

3/12/1974, Thursday (+10,801) In the UK, the Ford Motor Company asked for 1.,750 staff to volunteer for redundancy, out of 16,000 employees, to safeguard the company�s future.

2/12/1974, Monday (+10,800) Israel announced that it possessed the capability of manufacturing nuclear weapons.

1/12/1974, Sunday (+10,799) TWA Flight 514, a Boeing 727, crashed 40 km northwest of Dulles International Airport during bad weather, killing all 92 people on board.


30/11/1974, Saturday (+10,798) An IRA bomb was thrown into a pub in Belgravia, injuring 4 people.

29/11/1974, Friday (+10,797) (1) The IRA was outlawed in Britain.

(2) Ironsidewas on TV. In the cinema the new sensurround film Earthquake made its debut.

28/11/1974, Thursday (+10,796) A truce in Londonderry between the IRA and the UDA. Both agreed to cease sectarian killings.

27/11/1974, Wednesday (+10,795) Two IRA bombs exploded at the Army Museum in Chelsea, London, injuring 4 policemen.

26/11/1974, Tuesday (+10,794) Kakuei Tanaka resigned as Prime Minister of Japan after financial scandals emerged.

25/11/1974, Monday (+10,793) U Thant, Burmese diplomat and Secretary-General to the UN 1962-71, died in New York.

24/11/1974, Sunday (+10,792) The MP John Stonehouse disappeared from as Miami beach; it was assumed he had drowned.

23/11/1974, Saturday (+10,791) In Ethiopia, 60 Government officials were executed.

22/11/1974, Friday (+10,790) As anger mounted at the Birmingham pub bombings, there were calls in the UK for a return of capital punishment and some attacks on Irish workers in Birmingham.

21/11/1974, Thursday (+10,789) IRA bombs exploded in two Birmingham pubs, killing 21 and injuring a further 182. On 14/11/1974 an IRA bomber, James McDade, was blown up by his own bomb which he had intended to plant at Coventry telephone exchange.The UK Government banned demonstrations in his memory, and the IRA bombed Birmingham in retaliation. The Birmingham bombings triggered the Prevention of Terrorism Act, giving the UK police extensive powers to investigate suspects; unfortunately they misused this to ensure charges were pinned on someone, innocent or guilty.

20/11/1974, Wednesday (+10,788) The first fatal crash of a jumbo jet. A Lufthansa Boeing 747 crashed on take-off at Nairobi Airport. 59 were killed but 98 escaped.

19/11/1974, Tuesday (+10,787) Three Arab terrorist attacked the Israeli town of Beth Shean, killing 4 and wounding 38 before being shot themselves.

18/11/1974, Monday (+10,786) US President Ford made the first ever visit by a US President to Japan.

17/11/1974, Sunday (+10,785) The rule of the colonels ended in Greece, and Karamanlis became Prime Minister.

16/11/1974, Saturday (+10,784) The Arecibo radio telescope beamed a message towards the M13 star cluster encoding information about mankind, in case any aliens are there to receive it.

15/11/1974, Friday (+10,783) US President Gerald Ford confirmed that he would stand for re-election in 1976.

14/11/1974, Thursday (+10,782) An IRA bomber blew himself up whilst planting a bomb at Coventry telephone exchange. Another IRA bomb went off at the RAF Club in Northampton, but injured nobody.

13/11/1974, Wednesday (+10,781) Karen Silkwood, activist over nuclear industry safety concerns, died in unclear circumstances in a car crash.

12/11/1974. Tuesday (+10,780) A salmon was caught in the Thames, the first since around 1840. It was retrieved from the filters of West Thurrock power station.

11/11/1974, Monday (+10,779) In Pakistan, Ahmad Kasuri, an outspoken critic of President Zufilkar al Bhutto, was assassinated by members of Bhutto�s security forces.

10/11/1974, Sunday (+10,778) Niko Hurme, Finnish musician, was born in Karkkila, Finland.

9/11/1974, Saturday (+10,777)Alessandro del Piero, Italian footballer, was born.

8/11/1974, Friday (+10,776) Covent Garden Market moved from central London to Nine Elms, after 300 years in the West End

7/11/1974, Thursday (+10,775) (1) An IRA nail bomb exploded at the Kings Arms pub in Woolwich, London.The pub was opposite the Woolwich Barracks.Two died and 34 were injured.

( 2) Lord Lucan, 7th Earl of Lucan, disappeared following the murder of his children�s nanny. The nanny had been found bludgeoned to death on the 6th November, and his estranged wife was also brutally attacked. Police arrived at Lucan�s flat but he was not there; his bloodstained car was found in Sussex, and some suspected he had drowned himself. His body however was never found. Several alleged sightings of him occurred in the following years. In 2015 his heir, George Bingham, attempted to have him legally declared dead but the family of the murdered nanny lodged an objection.

4/11/1974, Monday (+10,772)


31/10/1974, Thursday (+10,768) Britain, France and the USA vetoed a motion to expel South Africa from the UN.

30/10/1974, Wednesday (+10,767) All Arab States recognised the Palestinian Liberation organisation (PLO) as the �sole representative of the Palestinian people�.

29/10/1974, Tuesday (+10,766) Michael Vaughan, cricketer, was born

28/10/1974, Monday (+10,765) Russia launched the Luna 23 probe towards the Moon.

26/10/1974, Saturday (+10,763)

25/10/1974, Friday (+10,762) Nick Drake, songwriter, died.

24/10/1974, Thursday (+10,761) Russian violinist David Oistrakh died in Amsterdam, aged 66.

21/10/1974, Monday (+10,758) Liverpool City radio went on air.

18/10/1974, Friday (+10,755) A unit in Whitehall; was set up to prepare for devolution of power to Wales and Scotland.

17/10/1974, Thursday (+10,754) 10 million Italian workers went on strike demanding measures to protect them against recession and inflation.

16/10/1974, Wednesday (+10,753) In the USA the 82nd airborne division was put on alert as race riots in Boston continued. President Ford was reluctant to send in troops.

15/10/1974, Tuesday (+10,752) Riots at The Maze prison, Northern Ireland.

14/10/1974, Monday (+10,751) The United Nations recognised the Palestine Liberation Organisation.

13/10/1974, Sunday (+10,750) Ed Sullivan, TV host, died.

12/10/1974, Saturday (+10,749) Ladbrokes gave odds of 50 to 1 against Mrs Thatcher being the successor to Edward Heath.

11/10/1974, Friday (+10,748) Labour won the British elections with a tiny majority of three seats. Labour won 319 seats, Conservatives won 277, Liberals 13, Scottish Nationalists 11.

10/10/1974, Thursday (-10,747) Widespread race rioting in Boston, USA,in protest at the bussing of black schoolchildren to maintain a racial balance in the city�s schools.

9/10/1974, Wednesday (+10,746) Oskar Schindler, German businessman who saved the lives of many Jews in World War Two, died.

8/10/1974, Tuesday (+10,745) Harry Carney, US jazz saxophonist, died in New York (born 1/4/1910 in Boston, USA)

7/10/1974, Monday (-10,744)

5/10/1974, Saturday (+10,742) 5 died and 65 were injured when the IRA bombed two pubs in Guildford.

4/10/1974, Friday (+10.741) The American, David Kunst, completed the first round the world trip on foot, 14,450 miles, having started in 1970.

3/10/1974, Thursday (+10,740) 32 people died in major earthquake in Lima, Peru.

2/10/1974, Wednesday (+10,739) US scientists announced that experiments with monkeys proved that cannabis did cause permanent irreversible brain damage.

1/10/1974, Tuesday (10,738) (1) The first McDonalds opened in London, heralding the fast-food revolution.


30/9/1974, Monday (+10,737) A report by the Royal Society for the prevention of accidents showed that the 50 mph speed limit imposed on Britain�s roads during the 1973 fuel crisis had reduced road accident casualties by over 6,000. The TV show Some mothers do �ave �em was showing.

23/9/1974, Monday (+10,730) The world�s first Ceefax service began, operated by the BBC.

20/9/1974, Friday (+10,727) A Nationalist government took control in Mozambique, headed by Jacques Chissano.

19/9/1974, Thursday (+10,726) Hurricane Fifi killed 8,000 in Honduras.

18/9/1974, Wednesday (+10,725) Sulzeer Campbell, English footballer, was born.

17/9/1974, Tuesday (+10,724) The British Motor Corporation unveiled the Vanden Plas 1500.

15/9/1974, Sunday (+10,722)

14/9/1974, Saturday (+10,721) China sent two giant pandas, Chia-Chia and Ching-Ching, to London Zoo.

13/9/1974, Friday (+10,720) Japanese �Red Army� terrorists took French diplomats hostage at The Hague. On 17/9/1974 France and The Netherlands paid a ransom.

12/9/1974, Thursday (+10,719) In Ethiopia, President Haile Selassie was deposed by leaders of the armed forces. He was taken to prison where he died on 27/8/1975. A famine in 1972 in which 200,000 Ethiopians died had exposed the organisational inadequacies of the Ethiopian Government. From early 1974 Ethiopia saw strikes, army mutinies, demonstrations by students and peasants revolts. In June 1974 a committee of junior army officers was formed, known as the Derg, and it was this body who overthrew the President. Unfortunately rule by the Derg proved more autocratic and oppressive than under Haile Selassie.

11/9/1974, Wednesday (+10,718) Lucian Sahetapy, footballer, was born in Groningen, Netherlands.

10/9/1974, Tuesday (+10,717) Guinea Bissau became independent.

9/9/1974, Monday (+10,716) Mathias Farm, guitarist was born in Orebro, Sweden.

8/9/1974, Sunday (+10,715) President Nixon�s successor, Gerald Ford, issued Nixon an unconditional pardon for any crimes committed whilst in office.

7/9/1974, Saturday (+10,714) Mario Frick, footballer, was born in Chur, Switzerland.

6/9/1974, Friday (+10,713) Stuntman Evel Knievel, a 34 year old former salesman, failed in his attempt to fly a rocket across the Snake River Canyon in Idaho. He plunged 1,500 feet into the river 30 seconds after take off. Charles Kray, elder brother of the Kray twins, left Maidstone Prison for 5 days �acclimatisation leave�. Mary Whitehouse described as �completely irresponsible� a sketch on the BBC children�s programme Jackanory in which a actors walked away unharmed after blowing up a car. At least one Japanese soldier was reported to be still roaming the forests of the central Philippines, left behind after World War Two.

5/9/1974, Thursday (+10,712) Rawl Lewis, West Indian cricketer, was born in Grenada

4/9/1974, Wednesday (+10,711) The USA established diplomatic relations with East Germany.

3/9/1974, Tuesday (+10,710) Rebecca Bailey, champion cyclist, was born in Christchurch, New Zealand

2/9/1974, Monday (+10,709) Maureen Gardner, athlete (hurdles), died

1/9/1974, Sunday (+10,708) General Somoza was elected as President of Nicaragua.


31/8/1974, Saturday (+10,707) Luis Marcelo Duran, footballer, was born in Montevideo, Uruguay.

26/8/1974, Monday (+10,702) Charles Lindbergh, US aviator, the first to fly across the Atlantic solo non-stop in 1927, died.

22/8/1974, Thursday (+10,698) Jacob Bronowski, presenter of the BBC TV show The Ascent of Man, died in a car crash.

19/8/1974, Monday (+10,695) The US Ambassador to Nicosia, Rodger Davies, was shot dead during a Greek Cypriot demonstration outside his Embassy.

18/8/1974, Sunday (+10,694) Severe flooding devastated central Luzon, Philippines.

17/8/1974, Saturday (+10,693) The Commander of Haile Selassie�s bodyguard was arrested by the Ethiopian Army.

16/8/1974, Friday (+10,692) Ivan Hurtado, Ecuadorian footballer, was born.

15/8/1974, Thursday (+10,691) Natasha Henstridge, actress, was born.

14/8/1974, Wednesday (+10,690) Clarksons and Horizon Holidays collapsed, leaving over 5,000 stranded abroad.

13/8/1974, Tuesday (+10,689)

9/8/1974, Friday (+10,685) Gerald Ford sworn in as the 38th President of the USA.He succeeded Richard Nixon, who had resigned over Watergate, hence Ford became the first President not chosen by the US people in an election. See 8/9/1974.

8/8/1974, Thursday (+10,684) Richard Nixon announced his resignation as US President after his implication in the Watergate scandal. President Ford granted a pardon to Nixon for any offences he might have committed in the Watergate affair.Nixon was the first American President to resign. See 9/5/1974. President Gerald Ford takes office as the 38th president. He was the first person not to have been elected by ballot to the Presidency or Vice Presidency.

7/8/1974, Wednesday (+10,683) In the USA, the Electoral Reform Act was passed, which aimed to limit the contribution of large individual donations towards Presidential election campaigns. However large sums could still be raised through Political Action Committees.

5/8/1974. Monday (+10,681) President Nixon admitted his complicity in the Watergate affair. See 27/7/1974 and 8/8/1974.

1/8/1974, Thursday (+10,677) Restoration of the 1952 Constitution in Greece.


31/7/1974, Tuesday (+10,675) Prison riots at the French prison of St Martin de Re, Brittany. Two prisoners were killed and 21 injured.

30/7/1974, Tuesday (+10,675) The House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach US President Nixon on three counts. 1) Obstruction of justice, 2) Failure to uphold laws, and 3) Refusal to produce material subpoenaed by the committee.

29/7/1974, Monday (+10,674) Erich Kastner, German author, died aged 75.

28/7/1974, Sunday (+10,673) Nicole Narain, US-Lebanese actress, was born.

27/7/1974, Saturday (+10,672) (1) Greek military leaders handed political power to a civilian government.

(2) A Judiciary Committee voted to impeach Nixon for obstructing justice in the Watergate affair. See 20/10/1973 and 5/8/1974.

26/7/1974, Friday (+10,671) An IRA bomb exploded in a Heathrow car park.

25/7/1974, Thursday (+10,670) The International Court of Justice at The Hague ruled that Britain was not bound to observe Iceland�s unilateral extension of its fishing rights from 12 to 50 miles in 1972.

24/7/1974, Wednesday (+10,669) The US Supreme Court ruled that the White House Watergate tapes must be handed over to a special prosecutor.

23/7/1974, Tuesday (+10,668) The Greek �Colonels� military junta resigned.Civilian rule returned to Greece, under President Karamanlis.

22/7/1974, Monday (+10,667) Greece and Turkey agreed to a ceasefire in Cyprus. On 23/7/1974 Sampson was replaced as President by Glafkos Clerides. 2,000 British and foreign residents and tourists were evacuated by the Royal Navy.

21/7/1974, Sunday (+10,666) Steve Byrne, US comedian, was born.

20/7/1974, Saturday (+10,665) Turkey invaded northern Cyprus, after the overthrow of Makarios.See 15/7/1974.

19/7/1974, Friday (+10,664) The Soviet space probe Soyuz 14 returned safely to Earth.

18/7/1974, Thursday (+10,663) The Maplin project, which would have created a seaport and airport combined the size of Rotterdam off the Essex coast, was scrapped.

17/7/1974, Wednesday (+10,662) An IRA bomb exploded at the Tower of London, killing one person and injuring 41.

16/7/1974, Tuesday (+10,661) Robinne Lee, US actress, was born.

15/7/1974, Monday (+10,660) In Cyprus. Archbishop Makarios was deposed as President in a coup by officers of the Greek National Guard. Nicos Sampson was installed as President.Makarios, nearly assassinated, went into exile for 6 months.Cyprus descended into near-anarchy, and Turkey took advantage of this to invade (see 20/7/1974).By August 1974 Turkey occupied the northern 40% of Cyprus; Greeks were forced to leave this area.

14/7/1974, Sunday (+10,659) Left-wing government took office in Portugal, under Colonel Vasco Goncalves.

13/7/1974, Saturday (+10,658) Peter Blackett, British physicist, died aged 76.

12/7/1974, Friday (+10,657) In the US John Erlichman, former Director of Domestic Affairs at the White House, was found guilty of lying over the Watergate tapes.

9/7/1974, Tuesday (+10,654) In Canadian elections, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau�s Liberal Party won with 141 seats out of 264. The Conservatives took 95 seats, the New Democratic Party took 11 the Social Credit Party won 11 and there was one independent seat.

5/7/1974, Friday (+10,650) British novelist Georgette Hayer died.

4/7/1974, Thursday (+10,649) In Bangkok, a State of Emergency was declared as tanks entered the Chinese Quarter to suppress riots.

3/7/1974, Wednesday (+10,648) In Spain, 15 were killed at an explosion at a munitions works in Bilbao.

2/7/1974, Tuesday (+10,647) In Ethiopia, Prince Eskinder Desta, grandson of Haile Selassie, was arrested by the Army.

1/7/1974, Monday (+10,646) (1) A loaf of bread cost 15p, and beer rose on the budget by 1p to 15p a pint.

(2) General Juan Peron, President of Argentina, died aged 78. He was succeeded by his wife, Maria Estela Peron. However she was deposed in a military coup in March 1976 and sentenced to five years in prison for alleged corruption.


30/6/1974, Sunday (+10,645) France formally left SEATO.At a meeting of ministers in New York at the end ofSeptember 1975 it was decided to �phase out� SEATO because of changed conditions in the region.

28/6/1974, Friday (+10,643)

27/6/1974, Thursday (+10,642) Cliff Friend, US composer, died in las Vegas (born 1/10/1893 in Cincinnati)

26/6/1974, Wednesday (+10,641) (1) The first use of barcodes in a supermarket. A pack of Wrigley�s Juicy Fruit was scanned at a March�s supermarket in Troy, Ohio.

(2) In the UK, Labour and the TUC agreed on the �Social Contract�, to restrain pay claims.

25/6/1974, Tuesday (+10,640)

21/6/1974, Friday (+10,636) (1) The destroyer HMS Coventry was launched at the Cammell Laird shipyard in Birkenhead.

(2) TV showed The Wombles.

20/6/1974, Thursday (+10,635) Israeli aircraft attacked a Palestinian refugee camp in southern Lebanon, killing 16.

19/6/1974, Wednesday (+10,634) The Pink Panther Show entertained the young on TV, whilst later on, grown ups had The Two Ronnies. The Best of Les Dawson provided relief after seven hours of World Cup Grandstand.

18/6/1974, Tuesday (+10,633) Georgi K Zhukov, Soviet statesman, died aged 77.

17/6/1974, Monday (+10,632) Two large IRA bombs exploded in London. The first went off at the Houses of Parliament just before 8.30a.m. and caused fire damage to the 800 year-old Westminster Hall. The second, larger, bomb, went off at The Tower of London later in the day when there were many tourists there, and there were serious casualties.

15/6/1974, Saturday (+10,630)

13/6/1974, Thursday (+10,628) Palestinian terrorists killed three Israeli women in Kibbutz Shamir.

12/6/1974, Wednesday (+10,627) The Redgrave Theatre, Farnham, opened.

8/6/1974, Saturday (+10,623)

3/6/1974, Monday (+10,618) Yitzhak Rabin became Prime Minister of Israel.

2/6/1974, Sunday (+10,617) In Bhutan, King Jigme Singye Wangchuk was installed as the 4th hereditary ruler, the Druk Gyalpo, or Dragon King.

1/6/1974, Saturday (+10,616) A major explosion at the Nypro chemical works at Flixborough, Lincolnshire, killed 29 people.2,000 houses were damaged and a large cloud of toxic cyclohexane gas escaped. Cyclohexane was used to manufacture nylon. A pipe at Nypro had sprung a leak, leading to 40 tons of cyclohexane gas escaping in about one minute, this gas cloud then ignited.


31/5/1974, Friday (+10,615) (Israel) Israel signed a truce with Syria. Israel returned the city of Kuneitra, occupied since the Yom Kippur War of October 1973, to Syria.

30/5/1974, Thursday (+10,614) Vigor Bovolenta, Italian volleyball champion, was born.

29/5/1974, Wednesday (+10,613) Northern Irish intransigence caused the Northern Ireland Assembly to collapse, see 28/6/1973. Donald Crisp, British actor and director (How Green Was My Valley, Pollyana), dies at 91

28/5/1974, Tuesday (+10,612) Angela Loij died, last full-blooded member of the Selk'nam people of Tierra del Fuego.

27/5/1975, Monday (+10,611) Jacques Chirac became Prime Minister of France.

26/5/1974, Sunday (+10,610) UK Opposition leader Edward Heath met Chairman Mao of China to improve relations between the two countries.

25/5/1974, Saturday (+10,609) Donald Crisp, British actor (How Green Was My Valley), died aged 91.

24/5/1974, Friday (+10,608) Duke Ellington, jazz musician, died of lung cancer aged 75.

23/5/1974, Thursday (+10,607) The Avonmouth M.5 Bridge was opened.

22/5/1974, Wednesday (+10,696) Sean Gunn, US actor, was born.

21/5/1974, Tuesday (+10,605) The film company United Artists was facing prosecution over allegations that the film Last Tango in Paris contravened the Obscene Publications Act.

20/5/1974, Monday (+10,604) The Cornish Parliament, or Stannary, sat for the first time in 221 years.

19/5/1974, Sunday (+10,603) (1) Valery Giscard d�Estaing was elected President of France.

(2) A state of emergency was declared in Northern Ireland. An IRA bomb exploded at a Heathrow car park.

18/5/1974, Saturday (+10,602) India exploded its first nuclear bomb. Pakistan, which lost its third war with India in 1970, was nervous.

17/5/1974, Friday (+10,601) Car bombs in Dublin and Monaghan killed 28 people and injured over 100.

16/5/1974, Thursday (+10,600) Helmut Schmidt became Chancellor of West Germany.Chancellor Brandt had resigned on 6/5/1974 over a spy scandal.

15/5/1974, Wednesday (+10,599) General Spinola became ruler of Portugal, see 25/4/1974. A moderate conservative senior army officer, Spinola was unable to block the rise of the Communists in Portugal and he resigned in September 1974. Spinola attempted a counter-coup against the Communists in March 1975 but this failed. In April 1975 Mario Soares�s moderate socialist party won elections, but power remained with the Supreme Revolutionary Council of Marxist Officers, led by Captain Otelo de Carvalho. Portugal seemed to be on the way to becoming a Communist state, but in November 1975 moderate socialists under Colonel Ramalho Eanes arrested Carvalho and other communist officers, with little resistance. Eanes became president in 1976 with Soares as Prime Minister, restoring democracy.

14/5/1974, Tuesday (+10,598) Dr Donald Coggan was made Archbishop of Canterbury.

12/5/1974, Sunday (+10,596)

11/5/1974, Saturday (+10,595) Big earthquake killed 20,000 in Sichuan, China.

10/5/1974, Friday (+10,594) Anatoly Karpov defeated Boris Spassky to become world chess champion.

9/5/1974, Thursday (+10,593) Impeachment proceedings were opened against President Nixon � see 2/3/1974 and 8/8/1974.

8/5/1974, Wednesday (+10,592) UK nurses began a strike over low pay.

6/5/1974, Monday (+10,590) Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, was forced to resign after he unwittingly employed an East German spy as a secretary. There had been warnings for 4 years that Gunter Guillaume was a spy.Brandt became Foreign Minister in 1966 and West Germany�s first Social Democratic Chancellor in 1969. In 1971 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Price for his policies of detente with the Communist bloc.

4/5/1974, Saturday (+10,588) Gerald Bright, British bandleader, died in Vevey, Switzerland (born 10/8/1904 in London)

2/5/1974, Thursday (+10,586) Eric Winstone, British composer, died in Pagham, Sussex (born 1/1/1915)

1/5/1974, Wednesday (+10,585) The musical Billy opened in Drury lane, London


30/4/1974, Tuesday (+10,584)

25/4/1974, Thursday (+10,579) A military coup in Portugal.PM Marcello Caetano was overthrown in an almost bloodless military coup organised by left-wing junior officers of the secret Movimento das Forcas Armadas (MFA).There was dissatisfaction with Portugal�s demoralising colonial wars in Angola and Mozambique. The coup provoked rejoicing in Lisbon and the red carnation was adopted as symbol of the revolution. See 15/5/1974.

24/5/1974, Wednesday (+10,578) Fierce fighting in Vietnam, just 50 km from Saigon.

22/4/1974, Monday (+10,576) The Israeli Labour Party voted by 298 votes to 254 for General Yitzhak Rabin to succeed Golda Meir as Prime Minister.

20/4/1974, Saturday (+10,574) A Catholic became the thousandth person to die in �The Troubles�.

17/4/1974, Wednesday (+10,571) Victoria Beckham, singer, was born.

14/4/1974, Sunday (+10,568) Easter Sunday.

13/4.1974, Saturday (+120,567) End of a strike by 6 million Japanese workers, which had begun on 11/4/1974.

12/4/1974, Friday (+10,566) (1) Israeli soldiers destroyed several houses in Lebanon in retaliation for an Arab guerrilla attack on the Israeli town of Kiryat Shemona in which 18 people died.

(2) Films on release included Last Tango in Paris and The Exorcist.

11/4/1974, Thursday (+10,565) Palestinian terrorists killed 18 Israelis, mainly women and children, in a raid on Kiryat Shemona.

10/4/1974, Wednesday (+10,564) Golda Meir resigned as Israeli Prime Minister. Yitzhak Rabin of the Labour Party replaced her on 22/4/1974.

8/4/1974, Monday (+10,562)

7/4/1974, Sunday (+10,561) Pete Wendling, US composer, died in New York (born 6/66/1888)

6/4/1974, Saturday (+10,560) Abba won the Eurovision Song Contest with the song Waterloo.

5/4/1974, Friday (+10,559) Richard Crossman, British Labour MP, died aged 66.

4/4/1974, Thursday (+10,558) The USA and Canada suffered their worst tornadoes since 1925, killing over 300 people.

3/4/1974, Wednesday (+10,557) President Nixon agreed to pay US$ 432,787 outstanding income tax.

2/4/1974, Tuesday (+10,556) Georges Pompidou, French president from 1969, died in office, from cancer, aged 62.

1/4/1974, Monday (+10,555) Major reorganisation of British Local Authorities. Rutland disappeared, and 4 new counties were created. They were Avon, Cleveland, Humberside, and Cumbria.


30/3/1974, Saturday (+10,553)

29/3/1974, Friday (+10,552) (1) The US spacecraft Mariner sent back the first photos of the planet Mercury.

(2) Chinese peasants digging a well unearthed a terracotta army of 8,000 figures and horses, buried over 2,000 years ago near Xi�an. They belonged to Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi, who first united China and built the Great Wall. The artisans who built the tomb were walled up within it, to safeguard its secrets.

28/3/1974, Thursday (+10,551) (Medical) In Britain, the NHS Family Planning Service was inaugurated.

27/3/1974, Wednesday (+10,550) Simon Terry, archery champion, was born.

26/3/1974, Tuesday (+10,549) In Romania, Mr ion Maurer, 71, retired as Prime Minister and was succeeded by Mr Manea Manescu.

25/3/1974, Monday (+10,548) Fifty army officers were killed after a failed coup attempt against President Idi Amin of Uganda.

24/3/1974, Sunday (+10,547) In Uganda an attempted coup against President Amin by Brigadier Arube was suppressed. Arube shot himself and later died in hospital.

23/3/1974, Saturday (+10,546) Eric Washington, US basketball player, was born.

22/3/1974, Friday (+10,545) Sam Donahue, US musician, died in Reno, Nevada (born 8/3/1918 in Detroit).

21/3/1974, Thursday (+10,544) France suffered widespread power cuts as electricity workers went on a 24-hour strike..

20/3/1974, Wednesday (+10,543) A kidnap attempt was made on Princess Anne, in The Mall, London. The perpetrator, Ian Ball, was making a bizarre attempt to draw attention to the decline in medical services for mental patients in Britain.

19/3/1974, Tuesday (+10, 542) Food riots in Bihar, India.

18/3/1974, Monday (+10,543) The Iraqi Army assembled 3 divisions, 48,000 men, to suppress the Kurdish rebellion.

17/3/1974, Sunday (+10,540) The Arab oil embargo, imposed om the US in 1973 in retaliation for US support for Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, was lifted.

16/3/1974, Saturday (+10,539) Daniel Frank Gerber, US manufacturer of baby food, died aged 75.

15/3/1974, Friday (+10,538) The Kurdish rebellion in northern Iraq intensified. The Kurds now controlled 330 km of the border between Iraq and Turkey.

14/3/1974, Thursday (+10,537) Bobby Moore, former England Football Captain, was transferred from West Ham United to Fulham for �25,000.

13/3/1974, Wednesday (+10,536) Britain�s newly-elected Labour Government wrote off the National Coal Board�s �105 million debt.

12/3/1974, Tuesday (+10,535) The EEC Parliament elected its first Communist Vice-President, Mr Gerard Bordu.

11/3/1974, Monday (+10,534) The Iraqi Revolutionary Council granted self-rule to the country�s Kurds to try and end the ongoing fighting.

10/3/1974, Sunday (+10,533) A Japanese soldier was found hiding on Lubang Island in the Philippines; he believed World War Two was ongoing and was waiting for relief by his own side.

9/3/1974, Saturday (+10,532) Britain�s 3-day-week ended. The three-day week had begun in December 1973 to conserve fuel supplies. Oil supplies from the Middle East had been disrupted due to an Arab-Israeli war.

8/3/1974, Friday (+10,531) Charles de Gaulle airport at Paris was opened.

7/3/1974, Thursday (+10,530) Following a strike by Ethiopian Trades Unions for better pay and conditions, Emperor Haile Selassie drove to Addis Ababa market place and personally handed out money to the poor. However this did not halt political pressure building against him.

6/3/1974, Wednesday (+10,529) Harold Wilson formed a minority Labour government. Mr Denis Winston Healey became Chancellor of the Exchequer. The UK coal miners were offered a 35% pay increase, and returned to work. Labour had 301 seats, the Conservatives had 297, the Liberals 14, 9 were held by Scottish and Welsh Nationalists, and 12 to Northern Ireland.

5/3/1974, Tuesday (+10,528) Billy De Wolfe, US actor, died of lung cancer aged 67

4/3/1974, Monday (+10,527) Edward Heath resigned as Prime Minister.

3/3/1974, Sunday (+10,526) A Turkish Airlines DC10 crashed into a wood near Paris, killing all 344 people on board.

2/3/1974, Saturday (+10,525) A USA Grand Jury decided Richard Nixon was involved in the Watergate cover up see 9/5/1974.

1/3/1974, Friday (+10,524) 7 of President Nixon�s advisors were arrested over charges to obstruct justice in the Watergate investigation.


28/2/1974, Thursday (+10,523) (1) General Election in the UK. 4/3/1974. Harold Wilson, born 11/3/1916, succeeded Edward Heath as Prime Minister. There was no overall majority; Labour gained 301 seats, the Conservatives 296, and the Liberals, 14 seats. Other parties gained 9 seats. See 13/12/1973, 4/2/1975 and 5/4/1976. Edward Heath had tried to make a coalition with the Liberals on 7/2/1974 but they refused.The Conservatives gained 225,789 more votes than Labour did, but fewer seats.

(2) The USA and Egypt resumed diplomatic relations after a break of 7 years.

27/2/1974, Wednesday (+10,522) New Constitution in Sweden stripped the monarchy of all remaining powers.

26/2/1974, Tuesday (+10,521) Sebastian Loeb, racing car driver, was born.

24/2/1974, Sunday (+10,519)

23/2/1974, Saturday (+10,518) Iceland was hit by a General Strike; only civil servants and printers remained at work. Workers demanded a 28% pay rise.

22/2/1974, Friday (+10,517) Pakistan recognised Bangladesh.

21/2/1974, Thursday (+10,516) The last Israeli military units left the west bank of the Suez Canal.

20/2/1974, Wednesday (+10,515) In Israel, Golda Meir formed a minority Government after the National Religious Party withdrew its support.

19/2/1974, Tuesday (+10,514) In the guerrilla war in Zimbabwe waged by African Nationalists, 73 civilians had so far died. Also 230 guerrillas and 31 security men had been killed.

18/2/1974, Monday (+10,513) Terrorists killed two White farmers and a woman in Rhodesia(Zimbabwe).

17/2/1974, Sunday (+10,512) British Opposition leader Harold Wilson proposed the �Social Contract� between the Labour Party and the TUC. In return for wage restraint, Labour would promote social legislation.

16/2/1974, Saturday (+10,511) Fanis Katergiannakis, Greek footballer, was born.

15/2/1974, Friday (+10,510) Fierce fighting on the Golan Heights between Israel and Syria.

14/2/1974, Thursday (+10,509) A quarter ton IRA bomb exploded in Dungannon, County Down, killing nobody but causing extensive damage.

13/2/1974, Wednesday (+10,508) (Russia) Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian author and winner of the Nobel Prize in 1970, was expelled from the USSR. This was a result of the publication of his work, The Gulag Archipelago, a study of the Stalinist prison camp system. Solzhenitsyn himself had spent time in these camps between 1945 and 1953.

12/2/1974, Tuesday (+10,507) A 30lb IRA bomb exploded at the National College of Defence at Latimer, Buckinghamshire, injuring 10 people.

11/2/1974, Monday (+10,506) John Poulson, a British architect who undertook numerous contracts for local authorities, was sentenced to 5 years prison on corruption charges, On 15/3/1974 he received another 7 years on further charges.

10/2/1974, Sunday (+10,505) In Britain the National Union of Miners began an all out strike, calling for a wage rise of 30-40%.

9/2/1974, Saturday (+10,504) Amber Valletta, US actress wasborn in Phoenix, Arizona.

8/2/1974, Friday (+10,503) America�s final Skylab mission ended after 84 days, as Gerald Carr, Edward Gibson, and William Pogue returned to Earth.

7/2/1974, Thursday (+10,502) Grenada, in the Windward Islands, became an independent state within the Commonwealth, with Eric Gairy as its first Prime Minister. It had been a British colony since 1783.

6/2/1974, Wednesday (+10,501) Olaf Lindenbergh, Dutch footballer, was born in Purmerend, Netherlands.

5/2/1974, Tuesday (+10,500) (1) (Brazil) Manuel dos Reis Machado died (born 23/11/1899). In 1932 he set up a School of Capoeira, the martial arts/music culture of Quilombo Black Brazilians.

(2) The US spacecraft Mariner 10 sent back pictures of Venus.

4/2/1974, Monday (+10,499) (1) 12 men were killed as an IRA bomb went off on their army coach whilst on the M.62 near Bradford, Yorkshire; 11 died.

(2) Heiress Patty Hearst was kidnapped.

(3) UK coal miners, in an 86% turnout vote, voted 81% in favour of a national strike.

3/2/1974, Sunday (+10,498) Om Kalsoum, famous Arab singer, died aged 77.

2/2/1974, Saturday (+10,497) Jean Absil, Belgian composer, died aged 80.

1/2/1974, Friday (+10,496) Ronald Biggs, who had escaped from London�s Wandsworth Prison n 1965, was arrested in Rio De Janeiro, but extradition was refused. Biggs had been serving 30 years for his part in the Great Train Robbery.


31/1/1974, Thursday (+10,495) Sam Goldwyn, Polish-born US film producer, died aged 91.

30/1/1974, Wednesday (+10,494) Christian Bale, actor, was born.

29/1/1974, Tuesday (+10,493) HE Bates, English novelist, died aged 68.

28/1/1974, Monday (+10,492) President Grivas of Cyprus died aged 75.

25/1/1974, Friday (+10,489)

22/1/1974, Tuesday (+10,486) In Northern Ireland, hard-line Loyalists opposed to any form of power-sharing disrupted the first meeting of the new Assembly, and all Unionist delegates withdrew the next day.

21/1/1974, Monday (+10,485) Joseph Washburne, US singer, died in Santa Ana, California (born 28/12/1904 in Houston, Texas)

20/1/1974, Sunday (+10,484) Football League games were played on a Sunday for the first time.

19/1/1974, Saturday (+10,483) Edward Seago, British artist, died aged 63.

18/1/1974, Friday (+10,482) Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State, brokered a peace deal between Egypt and Israel. Israel would withdraw from the east bank of the Suez Canal, and Egypt would reoccupy the west bank. Israel then, in June 1974, agreed to withdraw from Syria and parts of the Golan Heights.

17/1/1974, Thursday (+10,481) Clara Edward, US singer, died aged 93

16/1/1974, Wednesday (+10,480) Kate Moss, British model, was born.

15/1/1974, Tuesday (+10,479) Riots in Jakarta, Indonesia, in protest at a visit by the Japanese Prime Minister.

14/1/1974, Monday (+10,478) Talks between British Prime Minister Edward Heath and the National Union of Miners leader, Mick McGahey, broke down., On 28/1/1974 Heath accused the NUM of trying to bring down the government.

13/1/1974, Sunday (+10,477) The world�s largest airport opened, at Dallas, Texas, USA.

12/1/1974, Saturday (+10,476) Christopher Mackintosh, athlete (also rugby, skiing), died.

11/1/1974, Friday (+10,475) The first surviving sextuplets were born to Mrs Sue Rosenberg in Cape Town, South Africa.

10/1/1974, Thursday (+10.474) Dr Henry Kissinger, US Head of State, held talks with President Sadat to discuss an Arab-Israeli peace plan.

9/1/1974, Wednesday (+10,473) Rioting in Thailand in protest at a visit by Japanese Prime Minister Tanaka.

8/1/1974, Tuesday (+10,472) In Rome, youths protested against the film Jesus Christ Superstar. The film�s makers protested that this film should not be confused with the Danish film Jesus Christ Superstud.

7/1/1974, Monday (+10,471) In response to fuel shortages (see 4/11/1973 and 17/10/1073), The Netherlands introduced petrol rationing.

6/1/1974, Sunday (+10,470) In response to the energy crisis, the USA started Daylight Savings Time, almost 4 months before usual; many children had to leave for school before sunrise.

5/1/1974, Saturday (+10,469) Lev Oborin, Russian pianist and composer died aged 66

4/1/1974, Friday (+10,468) On TV, whilst Holiday �74 compared the rival delights of Blackpool and Benidorm, Dad�s Army also entertained viewers. The James Bond film Live and let Die was released in South Africa. Teachers requested that 16 year old �bovver boys� (�they don�t even speak English, they just grunt�) should be allowed to leave school as soon as exams were over rather than having to stay on till the end of term.

3/1/1974, Thursday (+10,467) (Libya) The EEC (Brussels) accused Colonel Gaddafi of funding international terrorist organisations.

2/1/1974, Wednesday (+10,466) In response to the Oil Crisis, the USA imposed a national 55 mph (88 kph) speed limit on its major roads.

1/1/1974, Tuesday (+10,465) (1) Direct Rule in Northern Ireland ended as a new Ulster Executive took control; however Direct Rule was reinstated later in 1974.

(2) New Year�s Day was a public holiday for the first time in the UK.

(3) Golda Meir was re-elected Prime Minister of Israel.


31/12/1973, Monday (+10,464) Mohammad Iqbal, Pakistani born Canadian cricketer, was born.

30/12/1973, Sunday (+10,463) In London, Joseph Seiff, Jewish head of Marks and Spencer, was shot and injured by an Arab terrorist.

29/12/1973, Saturday (+10,462) Christophe Rinero, French road racing cyclist, was born.

28/12/1973, Friday (+10,461) (1) US President Nixon signed the Endangered Species Act, providing further environmental protection.

(2) In Paris, Alexander Solzhenitsyn published The Gulag Archipelago, detailing conditions in the Soviet prison system.

26/12/1973, Thursday (+10,460)

25/12/1973, Tuesday (+10,458) Ismet Inonu, Turkish statesman, died aged 84.

24/12/1973, Monday (+10,457) Dutch-US astronomer Kuiper died.

23/12/1973, Sunday (+10,456) OPEC quadrupled the price of crude oil.

20/12/1973, Thursday (+10,453) The Spanish Prime Minister, Admiral Luis Carrero Blanca, was killed in Madrid by a Basque ETA bomb which blew his car up. Every day Blanca attended Mass at the same church at the same time then took the same route beck to his office. This predictability enabled a group of five young ETA men, pretending to be arts students, to rent a ground floor flat on his route then dig a tunnel out under the road and detonate 80 kg of explosives as his car passed overhead. The car seemed to have completely disappeared; it had in fact been blasted over a four-storey building to land in the internal courtyard.

Luis Blanca had been chosen by General Franco as his successor, and had promised to continue Franco�s policies. Many Spaniards disliked this, not just the Basques, and after the event jokes circulated about �Spain�s first astronaut� and a folk song went �Whoops, there he goes�.

17/12/1973, Monday (+10,450) 31 people died after Arab guerrillas hijacked a West German airliner at Rome Airport.

14/12/1973, Friday (+10,447) John Paul Getty II was freed by kidnappers after his grandfather paid a US$ 750,000 ransom.

13/12/1973, Thursday (+10,446) A three day working week, beginning from 1/1/1974, was ordered by Edward Heath�s government because of the Arab oil embargo and the coal miner�s industrial action. See 5/12/1973 and 8/1/1974. Use of electricity for much of industry and commerce was restricted, and TV had to close down at 10.30 pm. The miners had rejected a 13% pay offer and staged an overtime ban, and fighting in the Middle East had massively raised oil prices. Coal supplies to the power stations dropped by 40%. Disruption to the coal mines, power stations, and railways forced a General Election, on 28/2/1974, which the Conservatives lost.

Within 1 week 320,000 workers in the Midlands alone registered as temporary unemployed; nationwide the unemployment total rose to 1.5 million. However many smaller Black Country companies just carried on with a normal work week. Officially, five-day working recommenced on 9/3/1974.

12/12/1973, Wednesday (+10,445) On British Railways, an overtime ban began to disrupt services.

9/12/1973, Sunday (+10,442) A 4-day conference ended at Sunningdale with an historic Anglo-Irish agreement to set up a Council of Ireland, There would be cooperation between Dublin and Belfast in areas such as trade and tourism. The Irish Republic agreed there could be no change in the status of Northern Ireland without majority consent. Northern Ireland Loyalists remained opposed to any power sharing with Dublin.

6/12/1973, Thursday (+10,439) Gerald Ford sworn in as US Vice President.

5/12/1973, Wednesday (+10,438) The UK government announced a nation-wide speed limit of 50 mph to conserve oil stocks, see 13/12/1973.

4/12/1973, Tuesday (+10,437) Tyra Banks, actress, was born.

3/12/1973, Monday (+10,436) The Pioneer 10 spacecraft captured the first close-up images of Jupiter,

2/12/1973, Sunday (+10,435) Monica Seles, tennis player, was born.

1/12/1973, Saturday (+10,434) (1) Death of Israeli statesman David Ben Gurion. Born in 1886 he was one of the founders of the State of Israel and its first President from 1948 to 1963.

(2) Papua New Guinea became internally self-governing, see 16/9/1975.


29/11/1973, Thursday (-10,432) Ryan Giggs, footballer, was born in Cardiff.

26/11/1973, Monday (+10,,429) The Getty family agreed to pay US$ 1 million in ransom for their kidnapped son Paul, whose ear had been posted to them.

25/11/1973, Sunday (+10,428) The 200th British soldier died in Northern Ireland.

24/11/1973, Saturday (+10,427) Germany imposed speed limits on its autobahns in response to the global oil crisis. The limits were ;lifted 4 months later.

21/11/1973, Wednesday (+10,424)

17/11/1973, Saturday (+10,420) UK Prime Minister Edward Heath and French President Pompidou signed an agreement to build a Channel Tunnel rail link. However there were delays and construction did not start until 1987.

16/11/1973, Friday (+10,419) (Space exploration) The third Skylab mission was launched, on an 84-day mission.

15/11/1973, Thursday (+10,418) (Jewish) Egypt and Israel exchanged prisoners of war.

14/11/1973, Wednesday (+10,417) (1) Princess Anne married Captain Mark Phillips, in Westminster Abbey.

(2) Greek students, in a protest against the military rule of the Colonels, occupied the Polytechnical School of Athens. The protest was ended by brutal police violence.

13/11/1973, Tuesday (+10,416) In the UK, a state of emergency was declared as miners and power workers went on strike.

12/11/1973, Monday (+10,415) British miners began an overtime ban in protest at their pay offer.

11/11/1973, Sunday (+10,414) Egypt and Israel signed a ceasefire agreement.

10/11/1973, Saturday (+10,413) Nick Lachey, musician, was born.

9/11/1973, Friday (+10,412) Six Watergate burglars jailed in the US.

8/11/1973, Thursday (+10,411) The Cod War between Britain and Iceland ended.

7/11/1973, Wednesday (+10,410) Pakistan formally left SEATO.

6/11/1973, Tuesday (+10,409) After singer Gram parsons died of a drugs overdose (23/9/1973), his manager Phil Kaufman took his body to the Joshua Tree Desert where he poured petrol over it and cremated it, in accordance with Gram�s last wishes. Kaufman was charged with stealing and burninga coffin, as it was not a crime to steal a body.

5/11/1973, Monday (+10,.408) United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger began his shuttle diplomacy initiative to facilitate the cessation of hostilities following the Yom Kippur War.

4/11/1973, Sunday (+10,407) In response to fuel shortages caused by an Arab oil embargo (see 17/10/1973), The Netherlands introduced car-less Sundays (Autoloze Zondags), when all motor vehicles were banned from the road, see also 7/1/1974. By the end of November 1973 Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Switzerland and West Germany had also introduced car-less Sundays. Only emergency vehicles, taxis, and some exempt drivers such as doctors and diplomats were allowed to drive on the roads.

3/11/1973, Saturday (+10,406) (Space exploration) The USA launched the Mariner-10 space probe. It made 1 flyby of Venus then 3 flybys of Mercury.

2/11/1973, Friday (+10,405) The IMCO Conference for Marine Pollution attended by 665 delegates from 79 countries, ended in London.

1/11/1973, Thursday (+10,404) The new bronze statue of Sir Winston Churchill was unveiled in Parliament Square by the Queen, the Queen Mother, and five Prime Ministers. These were Heath, Wilson, Douglas � Home, MacMillan, and Eden. The Royal Commission on the constitution completely rejected the case for separate sovereign parliaments for Scotland and Wales. The Watergate Tapes case continued with President Richard Nixon in Washington.


31/10/1973, Wednesday (+10,403) Three provisional IRA leaders were sprung from Mountjoy Prison with a hi-jacked helicopter.

30/10/1973, Tuesday (+10,402) Preliminary impeachment hearings in the Watergate scandal began. Some tapes were still missing, including ones covering the crucial period of allegations.

29/10/1973, Monday (+10,401)

27/10/1973, Saturday (+10,399) The Canon City meteorite, a 1.4kg chondrite, fell in Fremont County, Colorado, USA.,

26/10/1973, Friday (+10,398) US President Nixon considered an attack on the Soviet Union, after hearing that the USSR was arming Arab nations in the Middle East.

25/10/1973, Thursday (+10,397) Steve White, US footballer, was born.

24/10/1973, Wednesday (+10,396) Syria accepted a ceasefire, and fighting ceased on both fronts.

23/10/1973, Tuesday (+10,395) The US House of Representatives ordered a judicial committee to consider the evidence for impeaching President Nixon.

22/10/1973, Monday (-10,394) Pablo Casals, Spanish composer, died aged 96.

21/10/1973, Sunday (+10,393) The Sydney Opera House was opened by Queen Elizabeth II.It was designed by Danish architect Joern Utzon. Costs had soared from AU$ 7 million (UK� 3 million) to AU$ 100 million (UK� 43 million). The orchestra pit was criticised for being too small.

20/10/1973, Saturday (+10,392) (1) Sixteen impeachment orders were raised in the US House of Representatives after President Nixon ordered the removal from office of a special prosecutor who had refused to do a deal over the Watergate tapes, see 16/7/1973 and 27/7/1974.

(2) The Dalai Lama first visited Britain.

19/10/1973, Friday (+10,391) Severe floods in Spain killed 500.

18/10/1973, Thursday (+10,390) The Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences was awarded to US economist Wassily Leontief

17/10/1973, Wednesday (+10,389) Oil prices suddenly rose 70%. Saudi Arabia and several other oil-rich Arab countries voted to cut off supplies to America, and on 19/10/1973 Libya said it would also cut supplies to the USA and raise the price of oil to other countries from $4.90 a barrel to $8.25 a barrel.On 21/10/1973 Dubai, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait also cut US supplies. This was OPEC�s first major action since it was founded in 1960.Western experts predicted oil prices of over $100 a barrel by 2000. In fact in 2003 prices were around $30 a barrel. However they were rising through US$ 60 in June 2005, and reached just over US$ 100 a barrel in 2013.

16/10/1973, Tuesday (+10,388) Israeli forces crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt.

15/10/1973, Monday (+10,387) Moscow announced it would give all help possible to Arab nations to assist them to recover territory lost to Israel in the Six Day War.

14/10/1973, Sunday (+10,386) Edmund A. Chester, US journalist, died.

13/10/1973, Saturday (+10,385) The Polish Sejm (Parliament) passed a Bill adopting a national system of education, 11 years from ages 7 to 18, 3 years primary, 5 years secondary, and 3 years specialised secondary for certain careers.

12/10/1973, Friday (+10,384) (1) In the US, President Richard Nixon nominated Gerald Ford as Vice President.

(2) The US Court of Appeals ordered Richard Nixon to hand over the Watergate Tapes.

(3) Students jostled the Queen when she visited Stirling University.

(4) Israeli forces advanced to within 29 km of Damascus.

11/10/1973, Thursday (+10,383) (Israel) Israeli forces counterattacking on the Golan heights began to invade Syrian territory. They advanced almost halfway from the Golan towards the Syrian capital Damascus.

10/10/1973, Wednesday (+10,382) US Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned after pleading guilty to tax evasion charges.

9/10/1973, Tuesday (+10,383) Capital Radio (London) began broadcasting.

8/10/1973, Monday (+10,380) (1) The first TV commercial in Britain for frozen fish fingers was broadcast.

(2) Britain�s first legal commercial radio station, LBC (London Broadcasting Company) Radio in London, began transmission.

7/10/1973, Sunday (+10,379) Dida, Brazilian footballer, was born in Bahia.

6/10/1973, Saturday (+10,378) Egypt launched the Yom Kippur War. Syria also attacked Israel on a second front. Israeli civilians had to be mobilised before the Syrians could be halted. Israel was heavily outgunned on the Golan, with its 2 brigades, 11 artillery batteries and 180 tanks facing a Syrian force of 5 divisions, 188 artillery batteries and 1,300 tanks. Only with mass mobilisation of its reserve forces did Israel turn the tide on 8/3/1973, forcing Syrians back beyond their initial positions by 10/10/1073. Meanwhile on the Egyptian front, Arab forces possessed state of the art SAM missiles that were highly effective at destroying Israeli fighter planes, in contrast to 1967. The Egyptians captured the Israeli / Sinai town of Qantara on 8/10/1973; they actually advanced too far, beyond air defence range, enabling Israeli aircraft to destroy their ground forces. On 16/10/1773 the Israeli General Sharon crossed on to the Egyptian side of the Suez Canal and cut off the Egyptian 100,000 � strong Third Army.Fighting ceased on 23/10/1973.This war strained relations between the USA and the USSR, who backed Israel and the Arabs respectively.The USSR was forced to threaten �unilateral military action� if the USA did not enforce a ceasefire, when it was clear the Israelis were winning.

3/10/1973, Wednesday (+10,375) Neve Campbell, actress, was born.

1/10/1973, Monday (+10,373) Denis Healey promised that Labour will tax the rich �until the pips squeak�.


28/9/1973, Friday (+10,370) W H Auden, English-American poet, died aged 66.

26/9/1973, Wednesday (+10,368) a French Concorde flew non-stop from Washington to Paris in 3 hours 32 minutes. Now Concorde is out of service the same flight takes over eight hours.

23/9/1973, Sunday (+10,365) General Juan Peron was elected President of Argentina.

20/9/1973, Thursday (+10,362) An IRA bomb exploded at Chelsea Barracks, London.

19/9/1973, Wednesday (+10,361) Gram Parsons, musician, was born.

18/9/1973, Tuesday (+10,360) The UN admitted East and West Germany.

17/9/1973, Monday (+10,359) Edward Heath met Irish Prime Minister Cosgrave at a military airfield near Dublin; the first official visit to Ireland by a British Prime Minister.

16/9/1973, Sunday (+10,358)

15/9/1973, Saturday (+10,357) Gustavus VI, King of Sweden since 1950, died aged 90. He was succeeded by his 23-year-old son, Carl Gustavus XVI.

14/9/1973, Friday (+10,356) Most Chileans supported the coup by Pinochet, believing he had saved the country from a Left-wing coup. Pinochet began a savage repression of Allende�s supporters. Many were executed without trial, or simply �disappeared�. Congress was dismissed and strict Press control began. This repression was to continue for the next sixteen years.

13/9/1973, Thursday (+10,355) Major air battle between Israel and Syria.

12/9/1973, Wednesday (+10,354)

11/9/1973, Tuesday (+10,353) A military junta took control in Chile after President Salvador Allende, elected leader of a left-wing government, was deposed. He committed suicide as his palace was bombarded by planes and tanks. The coup was mounted by General Augusto Pinochet, and backed by the USA. Pinochet had made a show of loyalty towards Allende right up till the moment it was clear the military coup was going to succeed. This was the prelude to a savage repression in Chile in which at least 3,000 civilians were killed, and tens of thousands tortured or exiled. A majority of Chileans had probably favoured the overthrow of Allende, but did not support the repression that followed. Allende had attempted to run a Socialist government but with parliamentary democracy; however there was widespread unrest from business interests, and a major lorry drivers strike in 1972-3, backed by the CIA.Coups swiftly followed in Uruguay and Argentina, where 30,000 were killed by the dictatorship. Due to Pinochet�s rule, and that of Mexico�s Carlos Salinas and Peru�s Alberto Fujimori, many Latin Americans in 2003 associate free-market economics with authoritarian rule. Augusto Pinochet ruled for 17 years. His free-market reforms led to rapid economic growth for Chile, but at great cost to human life and rights.

10/9/1973, Monday (+10,352) IRA bombs exploded at several London railway stations, injuring 13 people.

9/9/1973, Sunday (+10,351)

7/9/1973, Friday (+10,349) Iceland threatened to break off diplomatic relations with Britain over the fishing dispute.

6/9/1973, Thursday (+10,348) Greg Rusedski, tennis player, was born.

5/9/1973, Wednesday (+10,347) Jordanian terrorists held 13 hostages in the Saudi Arabian Embassy in Paris.

4/9/1973, Tuesday (+10,346) (1) BBC2 was still broadcasting for less than 7 hours a day, including the antique �lover�s show Collector�s World. ITV began at 11.15 am with Galloping Gourmet. Other programmes of the day included A TUC Special, Crossroads, and the sitcom Up The Workers. Emmerdale Farm was also on, and schedules closed at 12.15 am after The Evangelists. The Rolling Stones played in London for the first time in 2 � years, and then attended a party at Buckingham Palace which Mick Jagger described as �very dull�.

(2) First class stamps rose to 3 � pence and second class to 3p, and the price of half a dozen eggs rose by 2p, making them between 37p and 42p for six.

(3) IRA Bombs exploded in London, Birmingham, and Manchester.

3/9/1973, Monday (+10,345) In the UK, 20 Trade Unions were expelled from the TUC.

2/9/1973, Sunday (+10,344) J R R Tolkien, author of The Lord of the Rings, died at Bournemouth.

1/9/1973, Saturday (+10,343) Ram Kapoor, Indian actor, was born in New Delhi


31/8/1973, Friday (+10,342) (1) The growing drugs menace in Britain was investigated by the TV programme Midweek on Drugs.

(2) The IRA exploded a large bomb in London�s West End after a security drive by Scotland Yard. There were no casualties but thousands of guests were evacuated from nearby hotels and a large number of cars were wrecked.

30/8/1973, Thursday (+10,341) Kenya banned hunting elephants and trading in ivory.

28/8/1973, Tuesday (+10,339) 500 killed in Mexican earthquake.

24/8/1973, Friday (+10,335) David Chapelle, comedian, was born.

22/8/1973, Wednesday (+10,333) the Chilean Interior Minister, General Carlos Prats, warned Allende that a coup was now inevitable. Prats resigned, and reassured Allende that his replacement, General Pinochet, was loyal to him. However Prats also warned Allende that the momentum for a coup by the Army was now so strong that any officer who tried to resist it would be powerless.

21/8/1973, Tuesday (+10,332) The coroner in the Bloody Sunday inquest accused the British army of "sheer unadulterated murder" after the jury returned an open verdict.

20/8/1973, Monday (+10,331) (1) IRA bombs exploded in London.

(2) On TV, an account was shown of how the local community was resisting the new 6-lane Archway Road, north London.

19/8/1973, Sunday (+10,330) Marco Materazzi, Italian footballer, was born.

17/8/1973, Friday (+10,328)

15/8/1973, Wednesday (+10,326) Britishmotorcycle designer Edward Turner died aged 72.

14/8/1973, Tuesday (+10,325) Augustin Okocha, footballer, was born.

12/8/1973, Sunday (+10,323) Darren Campbell, athlete, was born.

9/8/1973, Thursday (+10,320) Filippo Inzaghi, Italian footballer, was born.

6/8/1973, Monday (+10,317) The US accidentally bombed friendly Laotian villages, causing hundreds of casualties.

5/8/1973, Sunday (+10,316) A terrorist attack at Athens Airport left 3 dead and 55 wounded.

4/8/1973, Saturday (+10,315) Eddie Condon, US jazz musician, died in New York (born 16/11/1905 in Goodland, Indiana)

3/8/1973, Friday (+10,314) Race riots at the University of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe).

2/8/1973, Thursday (+10,313) 46 people died and 80 were injured when fire swept through the Summerland amusement centre at Douglas, Isle of Man. The acrylic sheeting covering the structure caught fire and melted onto the people below.

1/8/1973, Wednesday (+10,312) The Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) was inaugurated.


31/7/1973, Tuesday (+10,311) (1) US Congress voted to cut off funds for US military action anywhere in Indochina.

(2) The first, tumultuous, meeting of the new Northern Ireland Assembly took place in Belfast.

30/7/1973, Monday (+10,310) Families of thalidomide victims won �20 million damages after an 11-year court case fought on their behalf by The Sunday Times newspaper. Babies had been born with missing or malformed limbs after their pregnant mothers took the drug for morning sickness.

29/7/1973, Sunday (+10,309) Stephen Dorff, actor, was born.

28/7/1973, Saturday (+10,308) The car in which gangsters Bonnie and Clyde died, a 1934 Ford V8, was sold at auction for US$ 175,000.

27/7/1973, Friday (+10,307)

26/7/1973, Thursday (+10,306) A truckers strike began in Chile, backed by the CIA. After 2 months the strike was estimated to have cost the Chilean economy some US$ 100 million, and inflation reached 320%. The Chamber of Deputies called on the Chilean Army to stage a coup to overthrow Allende, and unlike in 1970 (see 17/9/1970) the Army generals were happy to comply, fearing a Left-wing coup. The Deputies hoped that after the coup the Army would retire and civilian rule resume.

23/7/1973, Monday (+10,303) Monica Lewinsky, White House intern, was born.

21/7/1973, Saturday (+10,301) France resumed nuclear tests at Mururoa Atoll, despite protests from Australia and New Zealand.

20/7/1973, Friday (+10,300) A Japanese Boeing 747 with 123 passengers and 22 crew was hijacked over Holland and forced to fly to Dubai. Later, at Benghazi, the aircraft was blown up by the hijackers. A girl hijacker was killed by a grenade explosion, but all passengers and crew escaped.

19/7/1973, Thursday (+10,299) US Kung Fu film star Bruce Lee died.

18/7/1973, Wednesday (+10,298)

17/7/1973, Tuesday (+10,297) Daoud, supported by the Parcham Party, ousted his cousin King Mohammed Zabiur Shah, who had rued Afghanistan since 1933. Daoud proclaimed himself President of the new Republic of Afghanistan.

16/7/1973, Monday (+10,296) A former White House aide revealed that all conversations in the White House had been recorded, at President Nixon�s request, see 25/6/1973. Nixon flouted several subsequent court orders to release the tapes, see 20/10/1973.

15/7/1973, Sunday (+10,295) Paul Getty III was kidnapped.

12/7/1973, Thursday (+10,292) Christian Vieri, Italian footballer, was born.

10/7/1973, Tuesday (+10,290) The Bahamas became independent from Britain and joined the Commonwealth.They had beenBritish colony since 1783.

8/7/1973, Sunday (+10,288) Wilfred Rhodes, cricketer, died (born 29/10/1876).

6/7/1973, Friday (+10,286) Otto Klemperer, Jewish-German composer, died aged 88.

5/7/1973, Thursday (+10,285) Rioting at Long Kesh prison, Northern Ireland.

4/7/1973, Wednesday (+10,284)

3/7/1973, Tuesday (+10,283) Betty Grable, US actress, died in Santa Monica, California (born 18/12/1918 in St Louis, Missouri)

2/7/1973, Monday (+10,282) US Congress passed the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) mandating Special Education federally.

1/7/1973, Sunday (+10,281) A pint of draught lager cost 14p. A 800g white loaf of bread cost 11p. 1kg dessert apples cost 28p. A pint of milk cost 6p. 1kg pork sausages cost 58p. 250g UK butter cost 13p. 1kg carrots cost 11p. 1kg granulated sugar cost 11p. 100g instant coffee cost 28p. A dozen eggs cost 33p. 1.5kg self-raising flour cost 15p. 1 litre diesel cost 14p. An average detached house cost �16,980. Gold was �34 per troy ounce.


30/6/1973, Saturday (+10,280)

29/6/1973, Friday (+10,279) President Nixon warned US Congress that the US, with just 6% of the world population, consumed one third of the world�s energy supply, and that energy supplies were not infinite.

28/6/1973, Thursday (+10,278) A Northern Ireland Assembly was elected, but collapsed, see 29/5/1974.

27/6/1973, Wednesday (+10,277)

26/6/1973, Tuesday (+10,276) The newly formed �Ulster Freedom Fighters� murdered Senator Paddy Wilson of the SDLP in Belfast,

25/6/1973, Monday (+10,275) US President Nixon�s former legal counsel, John Dean, gave evidence at the Ervin Committee that directly contradicted Nixon�s statement regarding Watergate that he had made on 22/5/1973, see also 16/7/1973.

24/6/1973, Sunday (+10,274) Irish President De Valera resigned at the age of 90; he had been President since 1959. Erskine Childers succeeded him. De Valera died on 29/8/1975.

23/6/1973, Saturday (+10,273) The first graduates from the Open University received their degrees at a ceremony at Alexandra Palace, London.

22/6/1973, Friday (+10,272) East and West Germany were accepted into the UN.

21/6/1973, Thursday (+10,271) Juliette Lewis, US film actress, was born.

20/6/1973, Wednesday (+10,270) Juan Peron returned to Argentina as President after 20 years exile.

16/6/1973, Saturday (+10,266) First performance of Benjamin Britten�s opera Death in Venice.

12/6/1973, Tuesday (+10,262) In West Germany, Helmut Kohl became leader of the right of centre Christian Democratic Union Party (CDU).

9/6/1973, Saturday (+10,259) Erich von Manstein, military adviser to Adolf Hitler in World War Two (born in Berlin, 24/11/1887) died, having been imprisoned by the British in August 1945. His advice on attacking France through the Ardennes in 1940 was crucial to Nazi success here.

8/6/1973, Friday (+10,258) Enoch Powell said people should vote Labour to protest against Britain joining the EEC.

7/6/1973, Thursday (+10,257) The West German Chancellor Willy Brandt visited Israel.

6/6/1973, Wednesday (+10,256)

4/6/1973, Monday (+10,254) (Aviation) A Soviet version of Concorde crashed at the Paris Air Show. All six crew, and 27 spectators, were killed. Sabotage was suspected.

3/6/1973, Sunday (+10,253) (1) (Rail Tunnels) The Lierasen rail tunnel, Norway, 10.7km long, opened on the Oslo-Drammen line.

(2) (Jewish) Israel freed 96 Arab prisoners in exchange for 3 pilots.

2/6/1973, Saturday (+10,252) Carlos Acosta, Cuban ballet dancer, was born in Havana.

1/6/1973. Friday (+10,251) (1) (Greece) The Greek monarchy was abolished and George Papadopoulos became first president of the Republic.The Greek Colonels (see 21/4/1967 and 13/12/1967) alleged that ex-King Constantine II was plotting to overthrow their regime from exile.

(2) (South America) The British colony of British Honduras was officially renamed Belize.See 21/1/1981.


31/5/1973, Thursday (+10,250) Kate Howey, judo player, was born.

30/5/1973, Wednesday (+10,249) In Irish presidential election: voters elected Erskine H Childers as successor to President �amon de Valera, defeating Tom O'Higgins.

29/5/1973, Tuesday (+10,248) Alpay Ozalan Fehmi, Turkish footballer, was born.

28/5/1973, Monday (+10,247) Actor Marlon Brando refused an Oscar in protest at the USA�s treatment of indigenous Amerindians.

27/5/1973, Sunday (+10,246) Jack Bennett, hockey player, died.

26/5/1973, Saturday (+10,245) An Icelandic gunboat shelled and holed a British trawler.

25/5/1973, Friday (+10,244) The Peronist Hector Campora was elected President of Argentina.

24/5/1973, Thursday (+10,243) The Cod War continued between Britain and Iceland. In Reykjavik several hundred protesters, in a crowd of several thousand, threw stones, eggs, and paint at the British Embassy. Reykjavik�s 150 police officers were hopelessly outnumbered.

23/5/1973, Wednesday (+10,240) The Greek Government foiled a naval mutiny.

22/5/1973, Tuesday (+10,241) President Nixon admitted concealing evidence of wrongdoing regarding Watergate (see 17/5/1973 and 25//6/1973), but denied knowing of the burglary before it took place.

21/5/1973, Monday (+10,240) A British warship and an Icelandic frigate played cat and mouse in the first Royal Navy action of the Cod War. The British frigate Cleopatra and the Icelandic gunboat Thor were shadowing each other when the Thor suddenly turned and chased after a German trawler; the Cleopatra followed. The Thor suddenly turned and confronted the Cleopatra; Cleopatra retreated, with Thor in chase. As darkness fell the two ships were still dodging each other.

20/5/1973, Sunday (+10,239)

18/5/1973, Friday (+10,237) Royal Navy frigates were sent to protect British trawlers fishing in disputed waters near Iceland.

17/5/1973, Wednesday (+10,236) US Senate hearings over Watergate began. See 30/1/1973 and 22/5/1973.

16/5/1973, Tuesday (+10,235) Tori Spelling, US actress, was born.

14/5/1973, Monday (+10,233) The US put Skylab I into orbit. It eventually returned to Earth on 11 July 1979 after 34,981 orbits.

12/5/1973, Saturday (+10,231) Racing car driver Art Lee Pollard Jr was killed in an accident.

11/5/1973, Friday (+10,230) Joop den Uyl became Dutch Prime Minister after a record 164-day ministerial crisis.

10/5/1973, Thursday (+10,229) The Polisario was founded by radical students at Ain Bentili. Its aim was to free the Western Sahara from Spanish, then Moroccan, control.

7/5/1973, Monday (+10,226) The Pulitzer Prize was awarded to journalists Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, for exposing the Watergate Scandal.

4/5/1973, Friday (+10,223) The Sears Tower in Chicago, then the world�s tallest office building at 1,454 feet and 110 storeys was �topped out� when the highest storey was completed.

1/5/1973, Tuesday (+10,220) A TUC 1-day strike in protest at pay restraint was supported by 1.6 million workers.


30/4/1973, Monday (+10,219) 4 of Nixon�s aides resigned over Watergate.

27/4/1973, Friday (+10,216)

24/4/1973, Tuesday (+10,213) An Icelandic gunboat opened fire on two British trawlers.

23/4/1973, Monday (+10,212) Henry Kissinger, head of the US National Security Council, called for a new �Atlantic Charter� governing relations between the US, Europe and Japan.

22/4/1973, Sunday (+10,211) Easter Sunday.

21/4/1973, Saturday (+10,210) Mark Dexter: English actor, was born.

20/4/1973, Friday (+10,209) Edris Hapgood, footballer, died.

19/4/1973, Thursday (+10,208) The Portuguese Socialist Party was founded in the German city of Bad M�nstereifel, by militants from Portuguese Socialist Action.

18/4/1973, Wednesday (+10,207) Nixon told Haldemann, a White House aide, to destroy the Watergate tapes. Had he done so, Nixon would probably have avoided having to resign.

17/4/1973, Tuesday (+10,206) President Nixon dropped the ban on White House staff appearing before Senate Committee hearings on Watergate.

16/4/1973, Monday (+10,205) (1) US bombing raids resumed on Laos.

(2) Criminal indictments were expected to be issued against senior members of President Nixon�s staff over the Watergate affair. The Church of England said that practising homosexuals would not be accepted for training as priests after a radio statement by the Archbishop of York said that many clergymen were homosexuals.

15/4/1973, Sunday (+10.204) Naim Talu, former civil servant, formed the new Turkish Government.

14/4/1973, Saturday (+10,203) Adrien Brody, actor, was born.

13/4/1973, Friday (+10,202) Balraj Sahni, Punjabi film actor, died aged 59.

12/4/1973, Thursday (+10,201) Arthur Freed, US film producer, died in Hollywood (born 9/9/1894 in Charleston, South Carolina)

11/4/1973, Wednesday (+10,200) UK Parliament voted against restoring capital punishment by a margin of 142 votes.

10/4/1973, Tuesday (+10,199) Israeli special forces completed an operation in Lebanon to attack terrorist targets there.

9/4/1973, Monday (+10,198) Arab terrorists attempted to hijack an Israeli plane at Nicosia. One Arab was killed and 7 captured.

8/4/1973, Sunday (+10,197) (1) Indian troops annexed Sikkim in the Himalayas.

(2) Spanish painter Pablo Picasso died of a heart attack, aged 91. He was famous for his Cubist style.

7/4/1973, Saturday (+10,196) Brett Tomko, US baseball player, was born

6/4/1973, Friday (+10,195) The space probe Pioneer 11 was launched. Passing Jupiter a year after Pioneer 10 it continued on to Saturn, which it reached in 1979.

5/4/1973, Thursday (+10,194) Pharrell Williams, musician, was born.

4/4/1973, Wednesday (+10,193) The British Government provided a �15 million subsidy to keep the mortgage rate below 9.5% for the next three months.

3/4/1973, Tuesday (+10,192) The world�s first ever mobile phone call was made, in New York.

2/4/1973, Monday (+10,191) The LexisNexis computerized legal research service began..

1/4/1973, Sunday (+10,190) VAT, or Value Added Tax, was introduced in Britain. It replaced Purchase Tax and Selective Employment Tax; this latter tax was meant to favour manufacturing jobs over services, and so prop up the UK�s old staple industries, but was doomed to failure.


30/3/1973, Friday (+10,188)

29/3/1973, Thursday (+10,187) (SE Asia, USA) US pulled its last troops out of South Vietnam. The quadrupling of oil prices by OPEC worsened the finances of the USA. Nixon was in trouble with Watergate and Congress reasserted its power over US foreign policy. The War Powers Resolution of November 1973 removed the President�s power to make war without prior Congressional approval, nullifying Nixon�s promise to send troops to support South Vietnam if the Communists threatened again. In 1974 Congress slashed the budget for the war in Vietnam. US influence also declined in Cambodia, where extensive bombing had disrupted society and promoted the growth of the Communist Khmer Rouge, backed by Prince Sihanouk. Many Cambodians regarded Sihanouk as their legitimate leader, and by 1974 Sihanouk�s US-backed replacement, General Lon Nol, controlled just one third of Cambodia. In Laos an extensive bombing campaign to destroy the Ho Chi Minh trail, a network of routes used to supply the Communist Vietcong, simply resulted in the strengthening of the Pathet Lao, the Laotian Communists. Throughout 1974 the North Vietnamese quietly built up strength in the border regions of South Vietnam, and on 7/1/1975 they captured the South Vietnamese province of Phuoc Long.

28/3/1973, Wednesday (+10,186) Marlon Brando refused an Oscar because of Hollywood�s abuses of the American Indians.

27/3/1973, Tuesday (+10,185) Boyan Georgiev Ikonomov, Bulgarian composer, died aged 72

26/3/1973, Monday (+10,184) Women were allowed on the floor of the London Stock Exchange for the first time. Mrs Susan Shaw stepped onto the floor, the first woman in the 171-year history of the Stock Exchange.

22/3/1973, Thursday (+10,180) William Llewellyn, rugby player, died (born 1/1/1878).

20/3/1973, Tuesday (+10,178) Trial without jury was introduced for terrorist offences on Northern Ireland.

17/3/1973, Saturday (+10,175) A Cambodian Air Force office stole a plane and bombed the Presidential Palace, in an attempt to assassinate President Lon Nol. He missed his target, although he killed 20 others.

16/3/1973, Friday (+10,174) The new London Bridge was opened by the Queen. In 23/9/1968 the foundation stone of the old London Bridge had been laid at Lake Havasu City, Arizona.

15/3/1973, Thursday (+10.173) The last American PoWs from the Vietnam War were released by the North Vietnamese.

13/3/1973, Tuesday (+10,171) Edgar Steven Davids, Dutch footballer, was born.

11/3/1973, Sunday (+10,169) In Argentine general elections, the Peronist candidate, Hector Campora, won. On 13/7/1973 he resigned to make way for Peron.

10/3/1973, Saturday (+10, 168) Following a period of political tension in Bermuda, the Governor, Sir Richard Sharples, was assassinated.

9/3/1973, Friday (+10,167) A referendum in Northern Ireland showed 592,000 in favour of retaining links with the UK; 6,000 voted for union with Ireland. Most Catholics boycotted the vote.

8/3/1973, Thursday (+10,166) (1) The IRA set off two bombs in London, outside the Old Bailey and in Whitehall.One person was killed and 244 injured.

7/3/1973, Wednesday (+10,165) Comet Kohoutek was discovered by Czech astronomer Lubo� Kohoutek.

6/3/1973, Tuesday (+10,164) The UK government budget introduced VAT and car tax.

5/3/1973, Monday (+10,163) 68 people died when two Spanish airliners collided over France, during a French air traffic controllers strike.

3/3/1973, Saturday (+10,161)

2/3/1973, Friday (+10,160) (Israel) Palestinian terrorists murdered the US ambassador to the Sudan, citing �US collusion with Israel� as their motive.

1/3/1973, Thursday (+10,159) An IRA bomb exploded in London, killing one and injuring 238.


28/2/1973, Wednesday (+10,158) US Indians took hostages at Wounded Knee. They challenged the US Government to �repeat the massacre of Sioux Indians� that happened there over 80 years earlier.

26/2/1973, Monday (+10,156) Ole Gunnar Solskjaer, Norwegian footballer, was born.

23/2/1973, Friday (+10,153) Andre Tannenberger, disc jockey, was born.

22/2/1973, Thursday (+10,152) Elizabeth Bowen, Irish novelist, died aged 73.

21/2/1973, Wednesday (+10,151) A ceasefire agreement was signed in Vientiane, capital of Laos, between the Pathet Lao Communist guerrillas and the Lao Government.By now the Communists occupied much of Laos.See 2/12/1975.

20/2/1973, Tuesday (+10,150) (Science) Marie Goeppert Mayer, German-US physicist, died in San Diego, California.

18/2/1973, Sunday (+10,148)

16/2/1973, Friday (+10,146) Cathy Freeman, athlete, was born.

14/2/1973, Wednesday (+10,144) An Israeli fighter jet shot down a Libyan passenger plane over the Sinai Desert, killing 74 passengers and crew.

13/2/1973, Tuesday (+10,143) The USA devalued the Dollar by 10%, causing the price of gold to rise to US$42.22.

12/2/1973, Monday (+10,142) (1) The first group of American POWs was released from North Vietnam.

(2) In Uruguay, President Juan Maria Bordaberry (born 1928) agreed to a military dictatorship of the country. The army used harsh repression methods against the Tupumaros, including mass arrest and torture; some Tupumaros fled to Argentina.

10/2/1973, Saturday (+10,140)

8/2/1973, Thursday (+10,138) Makarios was re-elected President of Cyprus.

7/2/1973, Wednesday (+10,137) Unionists in Northern Ireland called a 1-day strike.

5/2/1973, Monday (+10,135) 20,000 Black workers went on strike in South Africa.

3/2/1973, Saturday (+10,133) Andy Razaf, US singer, died in Hollywood (born 16/12/1895 in Washington DC)

1/2/1973, Thursday (+10,131) The Common Agricultural Policy of the EEC came into operation.


31/1/1973, Wednesday (+10,130) Portia de Rossi, actress, was born.

30/1/1973, Tuesday (+10,129) G Gordon and James McCord were convicted of burglary, wire-tapping, and attempted bugging of the Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate Building in Washington. The men were part of the Campaign to Re Elect the President (CREEP) campaign (President Nixon). See 17/6/1972 and 17/5/1973.

29/1/1973, Monday (+10,128) The USA�s balance of payments deficit for 1972 was estimated at US$ 6 � 7 billion; the Dollar collapsed.

28/1/1973, Sunday (+10,127) Police in Londonderry fired rubber bullets on a crowd marking the anniversary of Bloody Sunday.

27/1//1973, Saturday (+10,126) The war in Vietnam ended, as President Nixon signed the ceasefire agreement in Paris. One million combatants had been killed. The last US troops left Vietnam on 29/3/1972. This was just days before the Watergate scandal erupted. US astronauts were preparing for the launch of Skylab. However fighting later continued between North and South Vietnam, see 30/4/1975.

26/1/1973, Friday (-10,125) US actor Edward G Robinson died.

25/1/1973, Thursday (-10,124)

23/1/1973, Tuesday (+10,122) 5,000 evacuated from the island of Heimay in Iceland as volcano erupted.

22/1/1973, Monday (+10,121) (1) The US Supreme Court ruled, in Roe vs Wade; a ruling that resulted in the liberalisation of abortion laws, so women had the freedom to choose a private abortion. Abortion was subsequently legalised in France (1975) and Italy (1977). The actual case was between Henry Wade, Dallas County District Attorney, and Norma McCorvey; McCorvey�s name was disguised as Jane Roe.

(2) Lyndon Johnson, US Democrat President from 1963 to 1969, died of a heart attack in San Antonio, Texas.

21/1/1973, Sunday (+10,120)

20/1/1973, Saturday (+10,119) Disc Jockey Jimmy Saville ran his �clunk click every time� seat belt campaign.

19/1/1973, Friday (+10,118) Max Adrian, Irish actor, died in London (born 1/11/1903).

18/1/1973, Thursday (+10,117)

17/1/1973, Wednesday (+10,116) President Marcos of the Philippines extended his term indefinitely.

16/1/1973, Tuesday (-10,115) Edgar Sampson, US composer, died in Englewood, New Jersey (born 31/8/1907 in New York)

15/1/1973, Monday (+10,114) Bombing of North Vietnam halted by Nixon, as he ordered a ceasefire. This followed an intensive US bombing campaign of Hanoi over Christmas 1972, in which a hospital was destroyed and 1,600 civilians killed as 36,000 tons of bombs were dropped on the city, leaving much of it in ruins. US Congress was hostile to further bombing raids.

13/1/1973, Saturday (+10,112)

12/1/1973, Friday (+10,111) Yasser Arafat was re-elected leader of the PLO.

11/1/1973, Thursday (+10,110) The Open University awarded its first degrees. See 23/7/1969.

8/1/1973. Monday (+10,107) Russia launched the Luna 21 probe towards the Moon

4/1/1973, Thursday (+10,103) John Samuel Tucker, rugby player, died (born 1/6/1895).

2/1/1973, Tuesday (+10,101) Eleazar L�pez Contreras, President of Venezuela 1935�1941, died aged 89.

1/1/1973, Monday (+10,100) Britain, Denmark, and Ireland joined the EEC, enlarging it from 6 to 9 countries.


31/12/1972, Sunday (+10,099) (1) Sinclair were selling a pocket calculator for �79, or US$ 195.

(2) Casualties in the Northern Ireland conflict over 1972 amounted to 467, including 103 British soldiers.

30/12/1972, Saturday (+10,098) The Tutankhamen exhibition closed in London; 1.6 million had visited since it opened on 29/3/1972.

29/12/1972, Friday (+10,097) Survivors of a Uruguayan plane crash in the Andes admitted to eating the bodies of their fello0w passengers to stay alive.

28/12/1972, Thursday (+10,096) Patrick Rafter, tennis player, was born.

27/12/1972, Wednesday (+10,095) Death of Lester Pearson, Canadian politician and Liberal Prime Minister 1963-8.

26/12/1972, Tuesday (+10,094) Harry S Truman, Democrat, 23rd US President 1945-53, died in Independence, Missouri, aged 88.

25/12/1972, Monday (+10,093) In Managua, Nicaragua, over 10,000 people were killed in an earthquake.

24/12/1972, Sunday (+10,092) Melville Ruick, US actor, died aged 74.

23/12/1972, Saturday (+10,091) Managua, Nicaragua, was hit by a severe earthquake. More than 10,000 people died as huge fires broke out.

22/12/1972, Friday (+10,090) Vanessa Paradis, actress, was born.

21/12/1972, Thursday (+10,089) East and West Germany signed the Grundvertrag (Basic Treaty), by which the two States recognised each other�s boundaries and established a reciprocal presence in each other�s capital cities.

18/12/1972, Monday (+10,086) Heavy bombing of Hanoi by US B-52s.

12/12/1972, Tuesday (+10,080) South Vietnamese President Thieu rejected US peace proposals (see 20/11/1972).

11/12/1972, Monday (+10,079) India and Pakistan agreed on atruce line in Jammu and Kashmir.

10/12/1972, Sunday (_10,078)

9/12/1972, Saturday (+10,077) Louella Parsons, gossip columnist, died.

8/12/1972, Friday (+10,076) The US State of Florida restored the death penalty

7/12/1972, Thursday (+10,075) The US spacecraft Apollo 17 was launched, crewed by Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans, Dr Harrison Schmitt.Cernan and Schmitt made the 6th Moon landing.

6/12/1972, Wednesday (+10,074) In Britain, four �Angry Brigade� anarchists were jailed for conspiracy to cause explosions after a record 111-day trial.

4/12/1972, Monday (+10,072)

3/12/1972, Sunday (+10,071) Swiss voters approved a Free Trade Agreement with the European Community by 1,345,057 votes to 509,350 against.

2/12/1972, Saturday (+10,070) The Australian Labour Party won a sweeping electoral victory; Gough Whitlam became Prime Minister.

1/12/1972, Friday (+10,069) Two IRA bombs exploded in Belfast, killing two people and injuring 127.


30/11/1972, Thursday (+10,068) The UK Government cancelled a planned �10 million loan to Uganda because of Amin�s treatment of the Asians there. With the Asians gone, Uganda now suffered serious economic problems. In Kampala, 80% of the shops were closed, a third of the residential areas were deserted, and there was a shortage of teachers at some schools, also of medical personnel; few Ugandans were qualified to replace them. Imports were disrupted, causing prices and unemployment to rise.

29/11/1972, Wednesday (+10,067) Life magazine ceased publication (see 23/11/1936) but was revived in 10/1978.

28/11/1972, Tuesday (+10,066) North and South Yemen agreed to unify.

27/11/1972, Monday (+10,065) In the first episode of the fourth season of Sesame Street, the character of "The Count" (officially Count von Count) was introduced. True to his name, the friendly children's show puppet vampire (performed by Jerry Nelson) helped children count.

26/11/1972, Sunday (+10,064) The Race Relations Act became UK law; employers were now not allowed to discriminate on grounds of race.

25/11/1972, Saturday (+10,063) Norman Kirk became Prime Minister of New Zealand after Labour won a sweeping electoral victory.

24/11/1972, Friday (+10,062) Finland became the first western nation to formally recognise East Germany.

23/11/1972, Thursday (+10,061) Alf-Inge Haland, Norwegian footballer, was born in Stavanger

22/11/1972, Wednesday (+10,060) The first US B-52 bomber was shot down over Vietnam.

21/11/1972, Tuesday (+10,059) (USA, Russia) SALT 2 talks between the USA and Russia began in Geneva.

20/11/1972, Monday (+10,058) North Vietnamese peace negotiators rejected US peace proposals (see 12/12/1972).

18/11/1972, Saturday (+10,056)

16/11/1972, Thursday (+10,054) UNESCOs World Heritage Convention was adopted. This seeks to preserve sites of major cultural or biological significance around the world.

15/11/1972, Wednesday (+10,053) The RAF museum at Hendon opened.

14/11/1972, Tuesday (+10,052) Alfred Shrub, athlete (runner), died (born 12/12/1879).

13/11/1972, Monday (+10,051) Arnold Jackson, athlete, died (born 5/4/1891).

12/11/1972, Sunday (+10,050) Rudolf Friml, Bohemian-US composer, died in Los Angeles (born 7/12/1879 in Prague)

11/11/1972, Saturday (+10,049)

9/11/1972, Thursday (+10,047) New London Stock Exchange opened by the Queen.

8/11/1972, Wednesday (+10,046) East and West Germany signed the Basic Treaty, agreeing to respect each other�sindependence and sovereignty. The East claimed that this Treaty finalised the division of Germany; the West claimed it did not preclude the possible later reunification of Germany should the Cold War come to an end. In any case the Treaty was a political triumph for Chancellor Willy Brandt and his policy of Ostpolitik, allowing for personal contact between the leaders of East and West Germany.

7/11/1972, Tuesday (+10,045) (1) Richard Nixon was re-elected President of the USA for a second four year term.

(2) Californians voted to reinstate the death penalty.

6/11/1972, Monday (+10,044) (1) The UK faced continued large pay claims, such as the miners settlement of a 22% rise in February 1972 backdated to November 1971. Rising inflation was an ongoing threat. On this day the Prime Minister announced a compulsory freeze on prices, pay, dividends and rents for a period of 90 days, with a possible extension of a further 60 days.

(2) A Coptic Christian church was set alight during sectarian violence in the northern Cairo suburb of Khanka.

4/11/1972, Saturday (+10,042)

3/11/1972, Friday (+10,041) Harry Richman, US composer, died in Hollywood (born 10/8/1895 in Cincinnati, Ohio)

2/11/1972, Thursday (+10,040) Phil Baxter, US composer, died in Dallas (born 5/9/1896 in Navarro County Texas)

1/11/1972, Wednesday (+10,039) The Standard Oil Company was reorganised as the Exxon Corporation.


31/10/1972, Tuesday (+10,038) Matt Dawson, English rugby player, was born in Birkenhead

30/10/1972, Monday (+10,037) (1) In Canadian elections the incumbent Liberal party narrowly won and Pierre Trudeau remained as Prime Minister.

(2) The Paignton to Kingswear railway closed.

29/10/1972, Sunday (+10,036) Black September terrorists hijacked a Lufthansa aircraft and successfully negotiated the release of the three terrorists being held in Germany for the Munich bombing.

28/10/1972, Saturday (+10,035) (Environment) The USA signed the Federal Noise Control Act, limiting noise emissions by trucks, buses, trains and construction equipment.

27/10/1972, Friday (+10,034) (USA) The Golden Gate National Recreation Area, USA, was created.

26/10/1972, Thursday (+10,033) Igor Sikorsky, Russian-born US aeronautical engineer who developed the first successful helicopter in 1939, died in Easton, Connecticut.

25/10/1972, Wednesday (+10,032) Iceland boycotted British goods as part of the Cod War.

23/10/1972, Monday (+10,030)

21/10/1972, Saturday (+10,028) An EC Summit in Paris approved the principle of economic and monetary union by 1980.

20/10/1972, Friday (+10,027) (Astronomy) Harlow Shapley, US astronomer, died in Boulder, Colorado.

18/10/1972, Wednesday (+10,025)

17/10/1972, Tuesday (+10,024) European Communities Bill received Royal Assent.

16/10/1972, Monday (+10,023) Protesters demanded compensation from the makers of the drug Thalidomide. Venereal Disease cases amongst under 16s were up 10% on last year. BBC1�s daytime TV included Pebble Mill At One and The Magic Roundabout as well as Blue Peter. Soaps included Crossroads, filmed in a Birmingham warehouse. Z Cars and Mastermind were also on the TV schedules. ITV was offering Opportunity Knocks and Coronation Street. Films included Steven Spielberg�s Duel. Emmerdale Farm, known as Emmerdale since 1989, was first broadcast on ITV.

13/10/1972, Friday (+10,020) In Britain, the �Minimum Lending Rate� replaced the �Bank Rate�.

10/10/1972, Tuesday (+10,017) Sir John Betjeman, born 28/8/1906, was appointed Poet Laureate.

5/10/1972, Thursday (+10,012) The Congregational Church and the Presbyterian Church of England combined to form the United Reformed Church.

4/10/1972, Wednesday (+10,011) The first ABC Afterschool Special was broadcast. The drama series for children, shown once a month on a Wednesday afternoon, addressed contemporary issues and ran until 1997.

3/10/1972, Tuesday (+10,010) (USA, Russia) The US and USSR signed SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) accords, limiting submarine based and land based missiles.

2/10/1972, Monday (+10,009) Denmark voted in a referendum to join the Common Market.

1/10/1972, Sunday (+10,008) The archaeologist and anthropologist David Leakey died. He had worked on human fossils in Africa to trace the history of mankind.


30/9/1972, Saturday (+10,007) Ari Behn, author, was born.

29/9/1972, Friday (+10,006) Japan and China formally ended the state of war between them that had existed since 1937.

28/9/1972, Thursday (+10,005) Gwyneth Paltrow, actress, was born.

27/9/1972, Wednesday (+10,004) Border fighting between North and South Yemen.

26/9/1972, Tuesday (+10,003) (1) Norway voted in a referendum against joining the Common Market.

(2) President Nixon opened the Museum of Immigration, at the base of the Statue of Liberty, New York.

25/9/1972, Monday (+10,002) Friedrich Schroder, German composer, died in Berlin (born 6/8/1910)

24/9/1972, Sunday (+10,001) Esther Budiardjo, Indonesian pianist was born in Jakarta

23/9/1972, Saturday (+10,000) Last motor race at the Crystal Palace circuit, south London.

22/9/1972, Friday (+9,999) Idi Amin gave the remaining 80,000 Ugandan Asians 48 hours to leave Uganda.

21/9/1972, Thursday (+9,998) William Whitelaw ended internment without trial in Northern Ireland.

20/9/1972, Wednesday (+9,998) Fighting ceased after a short border war in which 1,000 Ugandan refugees living in Tanzania had invaded Uganda, occupying three small towns.

19/9/1972, Tuesday (+9,996) Robert Casadesus, French pianist, died aged 73

18/9/1972, Monday (+9,995) Ian Smith, rugby player, was born.

17/9/1972, Sunday (+9,994) The first Asians fleeing Idi Amin arrived in the UK.

16/9/1972, Saturday (+9,993) Ramon van Haaren, Dutch footballer, was born in Waalwijk, Netherlands

15/9/1972, Friday (+9,992) Seven men were indicted in Washington over the Watergate burglary on 17/6/1972.They were charged with burglary, wiretapping and conspiracy. Five of the seven were arrested at the scene, attempting to install bugging devices. All seven were members of the Republican committee to re-elect President Nixon.

13/9/1972, Wednesday (+9,990) In the USA, the TV drama series The Waltons premiered on CBS. It was the story of a family living in the Virginia Mountains during The Depression and World War Two. The series ran until 1981, and had seven TV movies as spin-offs.

11/9/1972, Monday (+9,988) The BBC quiz Mastermind was first broadcast.

8/9/1972, Friday (+9,985) In retaliation for Munich, Israeli jets attacked 10 guerrilla bases in Lebanon.

7/9/1972, Thursday (+9,984) South Korea withdrew the 37,000 troops it had in South Vietnam.

5/9/1972, Tuesday (+9,982) Arab terrorists from the Black September terrorist group massacred 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics. Initially 2 athletes were killed and 9 taken hostage as the terrorists broke into dormitory, and after negotiations with the German Chancellor, Willy Brandt, the kidnappers and their hostages were flown to Furstenfeld military airfield, 25 miles from Munich. Later the terrorists were stormed by German police, and all 9 hostages were killed plus a German policeman and 5 terrorists. 3 terrorists were captured; one terrorist escaped. Police had stormed the kidnappers as they attempted to board a waiting aircraft. The Munich Olympic Games continued.

3/9/1972, Sunday (+9,980)

1/9/1972, Friday (+9,978) Iceland extended its fishing limit from 12 to 50 miles.


31/8/1972, Thursday (+9,977) Chris Tucker, actor, was born.

30/8/1972, Wednesday (+9,976) Pavel Nedved, Czech footballer, was born.

29/8/1972, Tuesday (+9,975) Amanda Meta Marshall, Canadian pop-rock singer, was born.

28/8/1972, Monday (+9,974)

27/8/1972, Sunday (+9,973) Denise Lewis, heptathlete, was born

26/8/1972, Saturday (+9,972) (1) The 20th Olympic Games at Munich opened.

(2) Sir Francis Chichester, English round the world yachtsman, died in Plymouth, Devon.

25/8/1972, Friday (+9,971) China vetoed the admission of Bangladesh to the UN.

22/8/1972, Tuesday (+9,968)

15/8/1972, Tuesday (+9,961) Ben Affleck, actor, was born.

14/8/1972, Monday (+9,960) Oscar Levant, US composer, died in Beverly Hills, California (born 27/12/1906 in Pittsburgh)

12/8/1972, Saturday (+9.958)

11/8/1972, Friday (+9,957) The last US ground combat forces left Vietnam. However more than 43,000 US air force and support personnel remained.

10/8/1972, Thursday (+9,956) Lawrence Dallaglio, rugby player, was born

8/8/1972, Tuesday (+9,954) The musical Jesus Christ Superstar premiered at the Palace Theatre, London.

6/8/1972, Sunday (+9,952) Idi Aminbegan expelling 50,000 British Asians from Uganda. He gave all Ugandan Asians who were not citizens of Uganda 90 days in which to leave the country.

5/8/1972, Saturday (+9,951) Milton Mesirow, US musician, died in Paris (born 9/11/1899 in Chicago)


1/8/1972, Tuesday (+9,947) Journalists Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of the Washington Post started a series of reports on a link between the Watergate break in and the Committee for the Re-Ele3ction of the President (CREEP)


31/7/1972, Monday (+9,946) Paul Spaak died, aged 73. He had been one of the chief architects of the European Community (EC).

27/7/1972, Thursday (+9,942) Work began on the Humber Bridge, the world�s longest suspension bridge with a central span of 4,626 feet.Queen Elizabeth II opened it on 17/7/1981.

23/7/1972, Sunday (+9,938) The US launched Landsat I, a satellite that could monitor Earth�s natural resources and their depletion from space.

22/7/1972, Saturday (+9,937) The Russian space probe Venera 8 landed on Venus.

21/7/1972, Friday (+9,936) The IRA set off 19 bombs in Belfast city centre, killing 9 and injuring 130. This day became known as Bloody Friday, and lost the Provisionals much support amongst Roman Catholics. On 31/7/1972 the British army was able to sweep aside the barricades and enter the �no-go� zones with little resistance. British troops were permanently stationed at strongpoints inside Catholic districts. The loss of these safe havens was a major blow to the IRA and their military capability was severely reduced.

20/7/1972, Thursday (+9,935)

19/7/1972, Wednesday (+9,934) Harold Weetman, golfer, died.

18/7/1972, Tuesday (+9,933) (1) In the UK, Reginald Maudling resigned as Home Secretary because of connections to John Poulson, an architect facing bankruptcy and a police corruption enquiry. He was succeeded by Robert Carr.

(2) Sadat expelled 20,000 Soviet advisers after the USSR failed to supply promised armaments.

14/7/1972, Friday (+9,929) 4 died in Belfast as the IRA ended its 2-week ceasefire.

9/7/1972, Sunday (+9,924) Martin McGuiness from the IRA met William Whitelaw from the British Government in secret talks in London.

8/7/1972, Saturday (+9,923) US President Nixon announced that the USSR was to buy US$ 750 million worth of US grain over the next 3 years.

7/7/1972, Friday (+9,922) Talal bin Abdullah, King of Jordan, died.

6/7/1972, Thursday (+9,921) Laurent Gaude, French writer, was born.

5/7/1972, Wednesday (+9,920) Pierre Mesmer succeeded Jacques Chaban-Delmas as Prime Minister of France.

3/7/1972, Monday (+9,918)

2/7/1972, Sunday (+9.917) India and Pakistan agreed to renounce the use of force in settling disputes.

1/7/1972, Saturday (+9,916) Annual fees at Eton public school were �800.


30/6/1972, Friday (+9,915) (Railways) The Georgetown to Plaisance railway closed.

29/6/1972, Thursday (+9,914) The US Supreme Court abolished the death penalty as being unconstitutional, as it was a �cruel and unusual punishment�.

28/6/1972, Wednesday (+9,913) US President Nixon announced that no more draftees would be sent to Vietnam.

25/6/1972, Sunday (+9,910)

23/6/1972, Friday (+9,908) (1) In the USA, hurricane Agnes killed a34 and caused US$ 1.5 billion.

(2) Anthony Barber, UK Chancellor, announced he would float the Pound to try and curb inflation.

22/6/1972, Thursday (+9,907) The IRA agreed to a ceasefire.

20/6/1972, Tuesday (+9,905)

19/6/1972, Monday (+9,904) President Nixon�s campaign manager, having initially denied, on 18/6, any connection to the Watergate burglary, now admitted that one of the burglars, Bernard Barker, had met Howard Hunt, who until 29/3/1972 had been a consultant to the Presidential counsel, Charles Colson.

18/6/1972, Sunday (+9,903) A BEA Trident airliner crashed at Staines, west London, killing 118.

17/6/1972, Saturday (+9,902) American biggest political scandal, Watergate, began when five burglars were caught breaking into the offices of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate office complex, Washington DC, with photographic and surveillance equipment. See 30/1/1973.

16/6/1972, Friday (+9,901) German police captured Ulrike Meinhof, the last member of the Baader Meinhof gang still at large.

15/6/1972, Thursday (+9,900) Soviet President Podgorny began a 4-day visit to North Vietnam.

13/6/1972, Tuesday (+9,898) Clyde McPhatter, US singer, diedin Tea Neck, New Jersey (born 15/1/1933 in Durham, North Carolina)

11/6/1972, Sunday (+9,896) Gaddafi said Libya was aiding the IRA.

10/6/1972, Saturday (+9,895) Fighting between troops, Catholics and Protestants in Belfast left 6 dead.

9/6/1972, Friday (+9,894) After heavy rain in Rapid City, South Dakota, USA, river flooding killed at least 226 people.

8/6/1972, Thursday (+9,893) A pit explosion in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) killed 400 miners.

7/6/1972, Wednesday (+9,892) Curtis Robb, athlete, was born.

6/6/1972, Tuesday (+9,891) David Bowie�s album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars was released, starting the era of Glam Rock.

3/6/1972, Saturday (+9,888) In Cincinnati, Sally Priesand was inaugurated as the first woman rabbi.

1/6/1972, Thursday (+9,886) Iraq nationalised the Iraq Petroleum Company.


30/5/1972, Tuesday (+9,884) Terrorists opened fire on passengers at Lod Airport, Israel, killing 26 and injuring hundreds. Two of the terrorists were shot dead by security guards, and the third was arrested. 116 passengers had just arrived on the Air France plane and filed into the airport baggage area; amongst them were three Japanese belonging to the �Red Army�, a terrorist organisation with links to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). They opened their luggage which contained submachine guns, ammunition and grenades and proceeded to sweep the airport with gunfire, throwing grenades into huddled groups of passengers, as security guards struggled to respond. The massacre lasted four minutes. Two terrorists died in the baggage hall, one killed by his own grenade. The third ran out onto the runway, discarding his weapon, but was caught by an El-Al mechanic.

29/5/1972, Monday (+9,883) Brezhnev and Nixon signed SALT-2 (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty).

28/5/1972, Sunday (+9,882) The Duke of Windsor, the abdicated King Edward VIII, died in Paris aged 77.

27/5/1972, Saturday (+9,881) Jack Strachey, British composer, died in London (born 25/9/1894 in London)

24/5/1972, Wednesday (+9,878) Spaghetti Junction opened in Birmingham. It was expected to handle 40,000 vehicles a day when opened, but in 2002, 140,000 vehicles used the junction every day.This was part of the Midlands Link, opened this day, a seven mile stretch opened by Peter Walker, Secretary of State for the Environment.There was now continuous motorway from London to Carlisle.

22/5/1972, Monday (+9,876) (1) Ceylon, a self-governing dominion since 4/2/1948, became a republic within The Commonwealth, and adopted the new name of Sri Lanka.

(2) US President Richard Nixon arrived in Moscow, the first visit to the Soviet Union by an American President.

20/5/1972, Saturday (+9,874) Busta Rhymes, singer and rapper, was born.

19/5/1972, Friday (+9,873) In Beijing, China, the USDSR and North Vietnam discussed how to combat the US which was now mining North Vietnamese ports.

17/5/1972, Wednesday (+9,871)

15/5/1972, Monday (+9,869) George Wallace, Governor of Alabama, was shot and injured by a White assailant, Arthur Bremer, aged 21. Wallace, known for his racist and segregationist policies (see 2/9/1963), was campaigning for the Democratic Party�s Presidential nomination.

14/5/1972, Sunday (+9,868) The Ulster Defence Association set up the first Protestant �no go� areas in Belfast.

13/5/1972, Saturday (+9,867) A fire devastated a department store in Osaka, Japan, killing 115 people.

12/5/1972, Friday (+9,866) Eric Ephraim Smith, champion jockey, died.

11/5/1972, Thursday (+9,865) (1) In West Germany, The �Red Army Faction� set off a bomb at the American 5th Army Corps base.

(2) Pakistan was facing severe financial difficulties. It had lost the revenue from jute in former east Pakistan., and the Treasury was empty. This day the Pakistani Rupee was devalued from 4.7 to the US$ to 11.

10/5/1972, Wednesday (+9,864) A referendum in Ireland gave 83% support to EC membership.

9/5/1972, Tuesday (+9,863) Israeli troops stormed a hijacked jet at Jerusalem, freeing 92 passengers held hostage by Black September Palestinian terrorists.

8/5/1972, Monday (+9,862) President Nixon ordered a blockade and mining of North Vietnamese ports.

5/5/1972, Friday (+9,859)

2/5/1972, Tuesday (+9,856) J Edgar Hoover, American founder of and head of the FBI, died in Washington DC.

1/5/1972, Monday (+9,855) Quang Tri fell to the North Vietnamese (retaken by South Vietnam, 15/9/1972).


30/4/1972, Sunday (+9,854) Josephine Grace Johanna Scoglio, actress, died (born 3/3/1934),

27/4/1972, Thursday (+9,851) Kwame Nkrumah, former Ghanaian president and Prime Minister, died. Ousted in a military coup in 1966 whilst he was in China, he died in Bucharest, Hungary.

24/4/1972, Monday (+9,848) Chad Ginsburg, US musician, was born.

23/4/1972, Sunday (+9,947) (European Union) In a referendum in France, voters approved the treaty adding Britain, Ireland and Denmark into the Common Market, with more than 68% in favour.

22/4/1972, Saturday (+9,846) John Fairfax and Sylvia Cook arrived in Australia, having become the first people to row across the Pacific.

21/4/1972, Friday (+9,845) Severina Vuckovic, Croatian singer, was born.

20/4/1972, Thursday (+9,844) Apollo 16 landed on the Moon.

19/4/1972, Wednesday (+9,843) An inquiry into �Bloody Sunday� found troops were provoked, but then fired recklessly.

18/4/1972, Tuesday (+9,842) Pakistan became a member of the Commonwealth again. See 30/1/1972.

17/4/1972, Monday (+9,841, Bangladesh formally seceded from Pakistan.See 26/3/1971.

16/4/1972, Sunday (+9,840) Apollo 16 was launched with John Young, Charles Duke, and Thomas Mattingley. Young and Duke made the 5th Moon landing.

15/4/1972, Saturday (+9,839) US bombers made heavy raids on North Vietnam.

14/4/1972, Friday (+9,838) (Football) Paul Devlin, English-Scottish footballer and manager, was born.

13/4/1972, Thursday (+9,837) 23 IRA bombs went off in Ulster in the worst day of violence since Direct Rule was imposed.

12/4/1972, Wednesday (+9,836) (Sport) Paul Lo Duca, US baseball player, was born.

11/4/1972, Tuesday (+9,835) Natacha Regnier, Belgian actress, was born.

10/4/1972, Monday (+9,834) Earthquakes in Iran killed over 3,000 people.

9/4/1972, Sunday (+9,833) Jonathan Parkin, rugby player, died.

7/4/1972, Friday (+9,831)

4/4/1972, Tuesday (+9,828) (1) The USSR refused a visa to the Swedish Academy Official due to deliver the Nobel Prize for Literature to Alexander Solzhenitsyn.

(2) The USA formally recognised Bangladesh. The US had delayed this move because of its support for Pakistan, which emerged from the war with a badly damaged economy, low national morale, and its army on the point of collapse.