Chronography of events from 1 January 1960 to 31 December 1969

Page last modified 19 September 2023


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30 December 1969, Tuesday (+9,002) Jay Kay, singer (Jamiroquai) was born.

27 December 1969, Saturday (+8,999) Sir William Russell Flint, British painter, died in London (born 4 April 1880 in Edinburgh)

21 December 1969, Sunday (+8,993) Julie Delpy, actress, was born.

18 December 1969, Thursday (+8,990) (1) The death penalty for murder was formally abolished in Britain.

(2) (Saudi Arabia) The agreement on the neutral zone between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait was formally exchanged between the two countries. However whilst agreement on sharing out current oil revenues has been reached, there could still be potential disagreement of new discoveries are made in the area.

15 December 1969, Monday (+8,987) (1) Dubcek was made Czechoslovak Ambassador to Turkey. He was expelled from the Czech Communist party on 26 June 1970.

(2) Swansea received City Status.

12 December 1969, Friday (+8,984) Bernadette Devlin, who had become the youngest British MP for nearly 200 years at age 22 in April 1969, was today jailed for 6 months in Derry for incitement to riot. She was freed on bail pending an appeal.

10 December 1969, Wednesday (+8,982) A Nobel Prize was added for Economics.

9 December 1969, Tuesday (+8,981) Bixente Lizarazu, French footballer, was born

6 December 1969, Saturday (+8,978) A free concert given by the Rolling Stones, at Altamont, California, ended in tragedy when Hell�s Angels stabbed a man to death.

4 December 1969, Thursday (+8,976) Jack Payne, British bandleader, died in London (born 22 August 1988 in Leamington Spa)


30 November 1969, Sunday (+8,972) Catherine McKiernan, athlete, was born.

28 November 1969, Friday (+8,970) Sonia O�Sullivan, athlete (running), was born.

25 November 1969, Tuesday (+8,967) John Lennon returned his MBE to Buckingham Palace, in protest at British involvement in the Biafra civil war in Nigeria.

24 November 1969, Monday (+8,966) Guru Nanak Dev University was established at Amritsar, Punjab State, India, on the 500th birthday of the founder of Sikhism, Guru Nanak

23 November 1969, Sunday (+8,965) Spade Cooley, US musician, died in Oakland, California (born 17 December 1910 in Back Saddle Creek, Oklahoma)

22 November 1969, Saturday (+8,964) Acario Cotapos, Chilean composer, died aged 80

21 November 1969, Friday (+8,963) Norman Lindsay, artist, died.

20 November 1969, Thursday (+8,962) Sir George Oswald, cricketer, died (born 31 July1902).

19 November 1969, Wednesday (+8,961) Second landing on the Moon. See 20 July1969.

18 November 1969, Tuesday (+8,960) Edward Heath, British composer, died in Virginia Water, Surrey (born 30 May 1900 in Wandsworth, London).

17 November 1969, Monday (+8,959) Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) opened in Helsinki between the USSR and USA (President Nixon). The talks had been proposed for 19 June 1969 but suspended by the USA due to the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.

16 November 1969, Sunday (+8,958) Bryan Abrams, US singer was born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

15 November 1969, Saturday (+8,957) (1) The first colour TV advert went on British television � for Birds Eye peas.

(2) Huge anti Vietnam War demonstration in Washington.

14 November 1969, Friday (+8,956) (1) Gadhafi nationalised all foreign banks in Libya.

(2) The US launched Apollo 12, crewed by Charles Conrad, Richard Gordon, and Alan Bean.Conrad and Bean made the 2nd Moon landing.

13 November 1969, Thursday (+8,955) In London, a woman had quintuplets after fertility drug treatment.

12 November 1969, Wednesday (+8,954) (USA) News of the My Lai massacre (see 16 March 1968) of civilians, by US troops in Vietnam during the Tet Offensive, was finally broken to a news reporter, Sy Hersh. The news helped raise further anti-war sentiment in the USA.

11 November 1969, Tuesday (+8,953) The owners of the Torrey Canyon agreed to pay �1.5 million compensation to Britain and France.

10 November 1969, Monday (+8,952) The TV programme Sesame Street began on US TV. It aimed to teach children the basics of numbers, letters and other topics.

9 November 1969. Sunday (+8,951) Allison Wolfe, US musician, was born in Memphis, Tennessee

8 November 1969, Saturday (+8,950) Henry Mallin, boxer, was born (died 8 November 1969).

7 November 1969, Friday (+8,949) The 250,000th Chevrolet Corvette was manufactured.

6 November 1969, Thursday (+8,948) Susan Taubes, Hungarian-born US novelist, died aged 41

5 November 1969, Wednesday (+8,947) Anti-Apartheid demonstrators invaded the pitch at Twickenham, during a game by the touring South African Springboks.

1 November 1969, Saturday (+8,943) Dorothy Crowfoot (later, Hodgkin) published the 3-d structure of insulin


29 October 1969, Wednesday (+8,940) The Arpanet went live.

27 October 1969, Monday (+8,938) Eric Maschwitz, British songwriter, died in Ascot, Berkshire (born 10 June 1901 in Birmingham)

21 October 1969, Tuesday (+8,932) Willy Brandt was elected Chancellor of West Germany.

19 October 1969, Sunday (+8,930) The USSR and China began talks in Beijing to settle their boundary dispute along the River Issuri.

17 October 1969, Friday (+8,928) Ernie Els, golfer, was born

15 October 1969, Wednesday (+8,926) The biggest anti-Vietnam-War demonstration to date took place in America. The war so far had cost the USA the lives of 40,000 servicemen, over 8 years.

14 October 1969, Tuesday (+8,925) The 7-sided 50p coin came into circulation in Britain, replacing the 10-shilling note.

13 October 1969, Monday (+8,924) Nancy Kerrigan, ice skater, was born.

12 October 1969, Sunday (+8,923) US President Nixon predicted that the Vietnam War would be over in 3 months.

11 October 1969, Saturday (+8,922)

10 October 1969, Friday (+8,921) (1) The Hunt Commission on Northern Ireland recommended disarming the police and disbanding the �B Specials�.

(2) Concorde 001 broke the sound barrier for the first time during a test flight over Paris.

9 October 1969, Thursday (+8,920) PJ Harvey, musician, was born.

5 October 1969, Sunday (+8,916) Monty Python was first screened.

3 October 1969, Friday (+8,914) Gwen Stefani, singer, was born.

1 October 1969, Wednesday (+8,912) The first line of the Beijing Metro, 24 km long, opened. Construction had been approved in 1965.


28 September 1969, Sunday (+8,909) Police in Belfast erected a �peace wall� between Protestant and Catholic communities.

27 September 1969, Saturday (+8,908) Purge of reformers in Czechoslovak Government.

25 September 1969, Thursday (+8,906) Heavy rains began in Tunisia. Flooding killed 700 and left 200,000 homeless.

23 September 1969, Tuesday (+8,904) Racing car driver Tapio Laukkanen was born.

22 September 1969, Monday (+8,903) Robert Kelly, footballer, died (born 16 November 1893).

20 September 1969, Saturday +8,901)

17 September 1969, Wednesday (+8,898) A week of violence between Hindus and Muslims broke out in Gujarat.

16 September 1969, Tuesday (+8,897) President Nixon announced the withdrawal of a further 36,000 troops from Vietnam by mid-December.

15 September 1969, Monday (+8,896)

14 September 1969, Sunday (+8,895) Denis Betts, rugby player, was born.

13 September 1969, Saturday (+8,894) The Talladega Superspeedway car racing venue opened in Alabama.

12 September 1969, Friday (+8,893) President Nixon continued B52 bombing raids on Vietnam.

9 September 1969, Tuesday (+8,890) Rachel Hunter, actress, was born.

5 September 1969, Friday (+8,886) Joshua Daniel White, US blues singer, died in Manhasset, New York (born 11 September 1915 in Greenville, South Carolina)

4 September 1969, Thursday (+8,885) Noah Taylor, actor, was born

3 September 1969, Wednesday (+8,884) Ho Chi Minh, President of North Vietnam during the Vietnam War, died of a heart attack aged 79.

2 September 1969, Tuesday (+8,883) ITV began broadcasting in colour.

1 September 1969, Monday (+8,882) (1) Portsmouth Polytechnic was established, one of the first under the UK�s 1966 White Paper, A Plan for Polytechnics and Other Colleges.

(2) President Gadhafi ousted King Idris of Libya in a military coup.


31 August 1969, Sunday (+8,881) Bob Dylan starred in a pop festival on the Isle of Wight, drawing in 150,000 fans.

29 August 1969, Friday (+8,879) Arab guerrillas hijacked a TWA aircraft en route from Rome to Tel Aviv and forced it to land in Damascus.

26 August 1969, Tuesday (+8,872) Robert Fulford, croquet champion, was born.

21 August 1969, Thursday (+8,671) Julie Etchingham, ITV newsreader, was born.

19 August 1969, Tuesday (+8,869) The British Army took over security and policing in Northern Ireland.

18 August 1969, Monday (+8,868) Hurricane Camille hit areas of Mississippi, Louisiana and Alabama, with 190 mph winds. 200 were killed, and a further 74 in Virginia died through flooding.

17 August 1969, Sunday (+8,867) Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, architect, died.

16 August 1969, Saturday (+8,866)

15 August 1969, Friday (+8,865) The famous American rock festival, Woodstock, began. It was attended by 400,000.

14 August 1969, Thursday (+8,864) British troops moved into Londonderry to stop rioting between Catholics and Protestants. This was known as �The Troubles�, and the police were initially welcomed by Catholics, hoping for protection from extremist Protestants. However the Catholics were to come to see the police themselves as oppressors.

10 August 1969, Sunday (+8,860)

9 August 1969, Saturday (+8,859) The Royal Ulster Constabulary used tear gas for the first time in its history. This followed nine hours of rioting by the Roman Catholics in Bogside, Londonderry. Eighty police were injured in these riots.

8 August 1969, Friday (+8,858) The French Franc was devalued by 11.1%, and Sterling came under pressure.

7 August 1969, Thursday (+8,857) Joseph Kosma, composer, died near Paris (born 22 October 1905 in Budapest)

6 August 1969, Wednesday (+8,856) Theodor Adorno, German musicologist, died in Geneva (born 11 September 1903 in Frankfurt)

4 August 1969, Monday (+8,854) US National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger began secret talks with North Vietnam in Paris.

1 August 1969, Friday (+8,851) The British pre-decimal halfpenny ceased to be legal tender.


28 July1969, Monday (+8,847) Jason Priestley, actor, was born.

27 July 1969, Sunday (+8,846) Dacian Cioloș, Prime Minister of Romania 2015-17; was born in Zalau

26 July1969, Saturday (+8,845) Tanni Grey-Thompson, athlete, was born

25 July 1969, Friday (+8,844) Otto Dix, German painter, died in Singen (born 2 December 1891 in Thuringia)

24 July 1969, Thursday (+8,843) The Apollo 11 astronauts returned successfully to earth, splashing down in the Pacific Ocean.

23 July1969, Wednesday (+8,842) The Open University was established at Milton Keynes. See 11 January 1973.

22 July1969, Tuesday (+8,841) Spanish dictator General Franco named Juan Carlos, grandson of King Alfonso XIII, as his heir apparent.

21 July1969, Monday (+8,840) In what NASA considered to be the most dangerous part of the Apollo 11 mission, Edwin Aldrin and Neil Armstrong became the first people to use rockets to lift off from somewhere other than Earth, departing the lunar surface.

20 July1969, Sunday (+8,839) (Space Exploration) Neil Armstrong became the first man on the Moon. He said, as he emerged from the Eagle lunar module, �One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind�.The Eagle had separated from the Apollo 11 spacecraft.�� See 7 October 1968 and 19 November 1969. The mission had launched from Cape Canaveral on 16 July1969, and the astronauts returned to Earth, splashing down in the Pacific, on 24 July1969.

19 July1969, Saturday (+8,838) John Fairfax became the first person to row the Atlantic when he arrived at Fort Lauderdale, Florida, after 180 days at sea.

18 July1969, Friday (+8,837) Senator Edward Kennedy crashed his car into the Chappaquidick River on the east coast of the USA. Kennedy escaped but his companion Mary Jo Kopechne drowned. Kennedy didn�t report the incident for ten hours and was found guilty of leaving the scene of an accident.

17 July 1969, Thursday (+8,836) The Soviet Union's unmanned lunar probe Luna 15 entered lunar orbit two days ahead of the crewed American Apollo 11 mission.

16 July1969, Wednesday (+8,835) The US launched Apollo 11, crewed by Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins.

15 July 1969, Tuesday (+8,834) Peter Ciavaglia, US hockey player, was born in Albany, New York

14 July1969, Monday (+8,833) Outbreak of the Football War� between El Salvador and Honduras; hostilities lasted until 18 July1969, and a ceasefire was negotiated on 20 July1969 by the Organisation of American States. In 1969 wealthy landowners controlled most of the land in El Salvador, which resulted in the migration of many poor El Salvadoran labourers into Honduras, causing social tensions there. In 1969 Honduras decided to distribute land to its own poor, thereby evicting the Salvadoran migrants. El Salvador became concerned that the returning peasants would spark demands for land reform there too, Tensions between the two countries rose during the qualifying matches for the 1970 FIFA World Cup, Salvadoran troops attacked into Honduras. The troops were ithdrawn in early August 1969, but a full peace treaty was not signed between the two combatants until 30/10.1980. The border essentially remained where it had been before the war. Both sides suffered around 2,000 casualties each.

13 July1969, Sunday (+8,832) Russia launched the Luna 15 probe towards the Moon.

12 July1969, Saturday (+8,831) William Ivy, motor cycle racing champion, died (born 27 August 1942)

11 July 1969, Friday (+8,830) Philips Records released David Bowie's song Space Oddity (about a fictional astronaut, �Major Tom� in conjunction with the expected launch of the Apollo 11 mission to the Moon. Bowie had recorded the song three weeks earlier.

10 July 1969, Thursday (+8,829) German tenor Jonas Kaufmann was born in Munich.

9 July 1969, Wednesday (+8,828) Rear Admiral Raizo Tanaka, Japanese Imperial Navy fleet commander during World War II, died aged 77.

8 July 1969, Tuesday (+8,827) A planned 25,000 man US troop withdrawal from Vietnam began as the first 814 returned to the USA. In April 1969 US troop numbers in Vietnam had peaked at 543,400. The UDS planned to gradually turn over its combat role to the South Vietnamese.

7 July1969, Monday (+8,826) The French language was given equal status to English across the country. This was under the official Languages Act, passed by Canada�s House of Commons this day.

6 July 1969, Sunday (+8,825) (Russia) One of the Soviet Central Television networks gave viewers "their first look at nude movies and sex magazines", unprecedented in the network's broadcasting and a shock to Russian society's normally prudish attitudes toward sex. Western observers concluded that the late evening show was intended for propaganda purposes, and that "Its apparent aim was to put America in a bad light by shocking puritanical Russians". Nude scenes from the recently produced off-Broadway play Oh! Calcutta! were shown, along with the recent film Che!, along with photographs of "sex magazine covers with unclad men and women" that "appeared to have been photographed through the windows of midtown bookshops in New York City". The show's narrator informed viewers that "The American public loves this.". The narrator also described Oh! Calcutta! as "the most repulsive" example of the "erotic revolution" in the United States.

5 July1969, Saturday (+8,824) (1) Tom Mboya, leader of the campaign for Kenyan independence from Britain, was assassinated in Nairobi.

(2) Sir Walter Gropius, architect, founder of the Bauhaus school of design, died.

4 July1969, Friday (+8,823) Franco offered Gibraltarians Spanish citizenship.

3 July1969, Thursday (+8,822) Elmo Jones (Lewis Brian Hopkin-Jones) of the Rolling Stones died in Sussex

2 July1969, Wednesday (+8,821) Brian Jones, member of the Rolling Stones rock group, died.

1 July1969, Tuesday (+8,820) Prince Charles was formally invested as Prince of Wales at Caernarfon Castle. This event was watched by a TV audience of some 200 million worldwide. The Daily Mail cost 5d (2p).


30 June 1969, Monday (+8,819) (1) Spain returned the enclave of Ifni to Morocco; however the towns of Ceuta and Melilla were retained.

(2) The Nigerian Government seized control of all relief for Biafra.

29 June 1969, Sunday (+8,818) Tshombe died of a heart attack, in an Algerian prison.

28 June 1969, Saturday (+8,817) (Homosexuality) A riot began when police raided the Stonewall Inn, a venue frequented by homosexuals, in Greenwich Village, New York City.

24 June 1969, Tuesday (+8,813) The 20 year old Prince Charles tackled the �awfully difficult� question of his future marriage. �You have to choose somebody very carefully, I think� said the Prince.

22 June 1969, Sunday (+8,811) Judy Garland, US actress, died.

21 June 1969, Saturday (+8,810) US tennis player Maureen Connolly died.

20 June 1969, Friday (+8.809) Rudolf Schwarzkogler, Austrian artist, died in Vienna (born 13 November 1940 in Austria)

19 June 1969, Thursday (+8,808) (1) The 2 millionth Mini was manufactured.

(2) US President Nixon suspended arms limitation talks with the USSR due to the their invasion of Czechoslovakia.

18 June 1969, Wednesday (+8,807) Milt Herth, US organist, died in New York

17 June 1969, Tuesday (+8,806) Boris Spassky became world chess champion when he beat Tigran Petrosian.

16 June 1969, Monday (+8,805) Earl Alexander of Tunis, British military commander who led the invasion of Italy in WW2, died.

15 June 1969, Sunday (+8,804) Pompidou became President of France, see 28 April 1969.

14 June 1969, Saturday (+8,803) Steffi Graf, tennis champion, was born.

13 June 1969, Friday (+8,802) In the UK, the Divorce Reform Bill received its third reading. It provided for a divorce after 2 years separation with mutual consent, or after five years without this consent.

12 June 1969, Thursday (+8,801) Alexander Deyneka: Ukrainian artist (born 1899), died.

11 June 1969, Wednesday (+8,800) John Llewellyn Lewis, US Trades Union leader (born 2 December 1880 in Lucas, Iowa), died.

10 June 1969, Tuesday (+8.799) James Earl Ray was sentenced to 99 years in Memphis, Tennessee, for the murder of Martin Luther King in April 1968.

9 June 1969, Monday (+8,798) Enoch Powell proposed voluntary repatriation of immigrants, causing a storm of protest.

8 June 1969, Sunday (+8,797) President Nixon announced that 25,000 US troops would be withdrawn from Vietnam by the end of August.

7 June 1969, Saturday (+8,796) Snape Maltings concert hall, venue for the Aldeburgh Festival, burnt down overnight after the opening night of the festival. It reopened in time for the 1970 Aldeburgh Festival.

5 June 1969, Thursday (+8,794) Vinton Freedley, US musician, died in New York (born 5 November 1891 in Philadelphia)


30 May 1969, Friday (+8,788) Rioting over low wages and unemployment broke out in Curacao. Shops were looted and burnt. From 1955 the oil refineries had begun to replace labour with automation, and began to contract out services such as cleaning and construction, and contractors paid lower wages than the refinery had done.

26 May 1969, Monday (+8,784) John Lennon and Yoko Ono began a �bed � in� at a Montreal hotel in aid of world peace. See 8 December 1980.

25 May 1969, Sunday (+8,783) The Norwegian Thor Heyerdahl set sail with seven crew from the Moroccan port of Safi in a reed boat in order to prove that The ancient Egyptians could have reached America, accounting for the Pyramids in central America. He used 12 tons of papyrus reeds, and traditional boat builders from Chad made the vessel. The boat did not sink, and Heyerdahl completed the voyage; in 1948 he successfully completed a voyage from Polynesia to Peru to prove that Pacific Islanders could have settled South America.

24 May 1969, Saturday (+8,782) The Black and White Minstrel Show at London�s Victoria Palace closed after 4,354 performances over seven years. It was the longest running musical show in Britain.

23 May 1969, Friday (+8,781) Jimmy McHugh, US composer, died in Beverly Hills, California (born 10 July1894 in Boston)

22 May 1969, Thursday (+8,780) English tenor singer Toby Spence was born in Hertford.

21 May 1969, Wednesday (+8,779) Martin Harris, swimming champion, was born.

20 May 1969, Tuesday (+8,778) United States National Guard helicopters sprayed skin-stinging powder on anti-war protesters in California.

19 May 1969, Monday (+8,777) Coleman Hawkins, US jazz saxophonist, died in New York (born 21 November 1901)

18 May 1969, Sunday (+8,776) Apollo 10 was launched, crewed by Thomas Stafford, John Young, and Eugene Cernan.

17 May 1969, Saturday (+8,775) Dubliner Tom McLean completed the first solo transatlantic crossing by rowing boat, from Newfoundland to Ireland.

16 May 1969, Friday (+8,774) The Russian spacecraft Venus 5 touched down on Venus.

15 May 1969, Thursday (+8,773) Violence in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between Malays and Chinese.

14 May 1969, Wednesday (+8,772) Abortion and contraception were legalised in Canada.

13 May 1969, Tuesday (+8,771) Post-election riots erupted in Malaysia. Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman had steered a delicate course, heading his three-Party coalition between the competing interests of the Malays, Indians and Chinese. However during 1969 the common ground between these and other groups had dwindled. In Spring 1969 the Chinese faction dropped out of the coalition, Indian support also shrank, and even some Malays refused to continue supporting him. On 10 May 1969 Rahman�s coalition won a hollow election victory, with a reduced parliamentary majority and major losses in State Legislatures. The Chinese began riots against the Malays this day, which were not suppressed until 17 May 1969, by which time 163 had bene killed and 316 injured. Also some 15,000 were made homeless, mainly Chinese.

12 May 1969, Monday (+8,770) The voting age in Britain was lowered to 18 from 21. See 2 July1928, 13 March 1970.

11 May 1969, Sunday (+8,769) The Vietcong launched ground and rocket attacks throughout South Vietnam.

10 May 1969, Saturday (+8,768) In the UK, local elections left Labour in control of only 28 of 342 borough councils in England and Wales.

8 May 1969, Thursday (+8,766) Jonathan Searle, champion rower, was born.

4 May 1969, Sunday (+8,762) F Osbert S Sitwell, poet, died.

2 May 1969, Friday (+8,760) The Queen Elizabeth II sailed from Southampton on her maiden voyage.

1 May 1969, Thursday (+8,759) Queen Elizabeth II opened the new Ordnance Survey offices in Southampton.


30 April 1969, Wednesday (+8.758)

29 April 1969, Tuesday (+8,757) Jazz supremo Duke Ellington was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the USA.

28 April 1969, Monday (8,756) General De Gaulle, 79 years old, resigned as Prime Minister of France. President Pompidou, who became French President on 15 June 1969, succeeded him.De Gaulle lost a referendum on changes to French regional institutions.De Gaulle was resented for high taxation to pay for the French military, whilst health, education, and social services were neglected, leading to French student riots in spring 1968.De Gaulle retired to Colombey.See 9 November 1970.

27 April 1969, Sunday (+8,755) Darcey Bussell, ballerina, was born.

26 April 1969, Saturday (+8,754)

25 April 1969, Friday (+8,753) 500 British troops arrived in Northern Ireland to help quell sectarian rioting.

24 April 1969, Thursday (+8,752) Ernest Blenkinsop, footballer, died (born 20 April 1902).

22 April 1969, Tuesday (+8,750) IRA bombs hit the main post office and bus station in Belfast.

18 April 1969, Friday (+8,746) Bernadette Devlin became Britain�s youngest MP for nearly 200 years when she was elected for Mid-Ulster, 6 days before her 22nd birthday.

17 April 1969, Thursday (+8,745) Alexander Dubcek was replaced as First Secretary of the Czech Communist Party.

16 April 1969, Wednesday (+8,744) Desmond Dekker became the first Jamaican artist to top the UK charts with The Israelites.

15 April 1969, Tuesday (+8,743) The Woodstock music festival began in Bethel, New York.

12 April 1969, Saturday (+8,740)

10 April 1969, Thursday (+8,738) Johnny Bannerman, rugby player, died (born 1 September 1901).

9 April 1969, Wednesday (+8,737) (1) Sikh bus drivers in Wolverhampton won the right to wear turbans.

(2) Concord�s first trial flight from Bristol to Fairford. See 21 January 1976. The French Concorde made its first flight on 2 March 1969. The Concorde project had begun in 1962 between the British and French governments to develop a supersonic aircraft. Sceptics doubted that it was possible to build a passenger aircraft with over 100 seats that travelled as fast as a military fighter. However Concorde halved flight times across the Atlantic.

8 April 1969, Tuesday (+8,736) Arab guerrillas attacked Eilat. In retaliation, Israeli jets attacked Aqaba, Jordan.

6 April 1969, Sunday (+8,734) Easter Sunday.

4 April 1969, Friday (+8,732) Denton Cooley implanted the first artificial heart.

3 April 1969, Thursday (+8,731) The US reported that total US combat deaths since 1 January 1961 in Vietnam have reached 33,641, exceeding total casualties in the Korean War (33,629)

2 April 1969, Wednesday (+8,730) Jim Morrison, of pop group �The Doors� was arrested in the USA.

1 April 1969, Tuesday (+8,729) France formally left NATO.


31 March 1969, Monday (+8,728) An airline pilots strike grounded all BOAC flights.

29 March 1969, Saturday (+8,726)

28 March 1969, Friday (+8,725) Dwight D Eisenhower, American Army Commander and Republican 34th President 1953 to 1961, died in Washington.

27 March 1969, Thursday (+8,724) Harold Wilson arrived in Nigeria for talks with General Gowon.

25 March 1969, Tuesday (+8,722) Amidst increasing separatist tension in East Pakistan, Ayub resigned, handing power to General Yahya Khan. Khan promised elections for 7 December 1970, and that 162 of the 300 seats in the National Assembly would be reserved for East Bengalis. Given the popularity of the Awami League in East Pakistan, this appeared to invite further problems of governance.

22 March 1969, Saturday (+8,719) Soccer hooligans ran riot on the London Underground, causing thousands of pounds of damage.

20 March 1969, Thursday (+8,717) Beatle John Lennon married Yoko Ono in Gibraltar.

19 March 1969, Wednesday (+8,716) British forces landed on the Caribbean island of Anguilla. The rebel government set up self-appointed President Ronald Webster offered no resistance. Many of the 6,000 islanders welcomed the British invasion force, whose arrival had already been announced by the BBC.

18 March 1969, Tuesday (+8,715) The US began heavily bombing Cambodia, the aim being to cut the Ho Chi Minh trail and thereby disrupt supplies to the Communist Vietcong. The operation was not publicised to the West, because that would have revealed Sihanouk�s complicity in the bombing of his own country. Sihanouk was pro-US because he perceived Pol Pot to be allied to Hanoi. In fact the bombing destabilised Cambodia so that within a year Sihanouk was deposed by his own ministers. The new Cambodian leader, Lon Nol, insisted that all Vietnamese troops leave Cambodian soil to the delight of the US. However Lon Nol was weak and his rule facilitated the advance of Pol Pot�s forces into rural areas, forcing Lon Nol�s troops back into the cities.

17 March 1969, Monday (+8,714) Alexander McQueen, fashion designer, was born

14 March 1969, Friday (+8,711) Ben Shahn, painter, died in New York aged 70.

12 March 1969, Wednesday (+8,709) Beatle Paul McCartney married Linda Eastman at Marylebone Registry Office, London.

11 March 1969, Tuesday (+8,708) (1) Golda Meir, aged 70, became Prime Minister of Israel after the death of Levi Eshkol. Mrs Meir remained Prime Minister until her resignation in 1974.

(2) The author John Wyndham died.

10 March 1969, Monday (+8,707) James Ray Earl pleaded guilty to the murder of civil rights leader Martin Luther King. He was sentenced to 99 years.

5 March 1969, Wednesday (+8,702) The gangland twins Ronald and Roger Kray, 35, were found guilty of murder at the Old Bailey and given life sentences. The judge said they should not be released for 30 years.

3 March 1969, Monday (+8,700) Apollo 9 was launched, manned by James McDivitt, David Scott, and Russell Schweickart.

2 March 1969, Sunday (+8,699) (1) (Aviation) The French built Concorde made its maiden flight from Toulouse Airport. See 9 January 1969.It was piloted by Andre Turcat, chief test pilot of Sud Aviation; he got the plane to 300 mph.

(2) (China, Russia) Soviet and Chinese troops clashed on their border. Chinese troops attempted to occupy Damiansky island, one of the Ussuri river islands ceded by China to Tsarist Russia in 1860. China now maintained that the concession had been unfairly extracted and revoked it. Russia drove off the Chinese invasion.

1 March 1969, Saturday (+8,698) In Laos, the Pathet Lao opposition rejected the government�s offer of talks to end the civil war.


28 February 1969, Friday (+8,697) Dwight D Eisenhower, US statesman, died aged 78.

27 February 1969, Thursday (+8,696) John Boles, US singer, died in San Amgelo, Texas (born 27 October 1900 in Greeneville, Texas).

26 February 1969, Wednesday (+8,695) Levi Eshkol, Prime Minister of Israel, died.

25 February 1969, Tuesday (+8,,694) Mariner 6 was launched from Cape Canaveral, to fly by Mars.

24 February 1969, Monday (+8,693)

23 February 1969, Sunday (+8,692) President Nixon of the USA began a tour of European capitals.

22 February 1969, Saturday (+8,691) President Nixon arrived in Britain for talks with Prime Minister Harold Wilson.

On TV a wheelchair bound detective called Ironside battled San Francisco�s crooks. Films on release included 2001: A Space Odyssey.

18 February 1969, Tuesday (+8,687) At Zurich an Israeli aircraft was attacked by four Arabs, injuring 6 passengers; one Arab was killed.

15 February 1969, Saturday (+8,684) Charles Ellsworth Russell, US jazz clarinettist, died in Alexandria, Virginia (born 27 March 1906)

13 February 1969, Thursday (+8,682) Scientists in Cambridge announced the first successful in-vitro fertilisation of a human being.

12 February 1969, Wednesday (+8,681) Ndabaningi Sithole, leader of the Zimbabwe African National Union, was convicted of incitement to murder Ian Smith.

11 February 1969, Tuesday (+8,680) In the UK, female workers at the Ford car plant won equal pay with male workers.

10 February 1969, Monday (+8,679)

9 February 1969, Sunday (+8,678) The Boeing 747 Jumbo Jet made its maiden flight. See 21 January 1970.

8 February 1969, Saturday (+8,677) A large meteorite scattered several tons of material over a large area of Chihuahua Province, Mexico. It was named the Allende meteorite, after the nearest village to the impact point.

7 February 1969, Friday (+8,676) Marvin Gaye�s I Heard It Through The Grapevine was released.

6 February 1962. Thursday (+8,675)

5 February 1969, Wednesday (+8,674) The Governor of California, Ronald Reagan, declared a state of �extreme emergency� at the university campus at Berkeley after violent struggles there between students and police. On BBC1 All Gas and Gaiters was a comedy about a young Church of England priest, Derek Nimmo.

4 February 1969, Tuesday (+8,673) Matthew Yates, athlete, was born

3 February 1969, Monday (+8,672) In Cairo, Yasser Arafat became leader of the Palestine Liberation Organisation, the PLO.

2 February 1969, Sunday (+8,671) Boris Karloff, actor, died.

1 February 1969, Saturday (+8,670) Gabriel Batistuta, Argentinean footballer, was born.


30 January 1969, Thursday (+8,668) The Beatles performed together for the last time.

27 January 1969, Monday (+8,665) In Northern Ireland, Protestant leader Ian Paisley was jailed.

25 January 1969, Saturday (+8,663) Irene Castle, US actress, died in Eureka Springs, Kansas

24 January 1969, Friday (+8,662) General Franco imposed martial law in Spain.

23 January 1969, Thursday (+8,661) The British Government rejected proposals to cut penalties for smoking cannabis.

21 January 1969, Tuesday (+8,659)

20 January 1969, Monday (+8,658) President Nixon was sworn in as US President.

19 January 1969, Sunday (+8,657) 21-year-old student Jan Palach, set himself on fire in Wenceslas Square, Prague, in protest at the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.

18 January 1969, Saturday (+8,656) Dave Bautista, US professional wrestler, was born.

17 January 1969, Friday (+8,655) Samuel Irving, footballer, died (born 28 August 1893).

16 January 1969, Thursday (+8,654) Norman Williamson, champion jockey, was born.

15 January 1969, Wednesday (+8,653) Theodor Werner, German painter, died aged 82.

14 January 1969, Tuesday (+8,652) Matt Busby resigned as head of the very successful football club Manchester United.

13 January 1969, Monday (+8,651) Stephen Hendry, snooker champion, was born.

12 January 1969, Sunday (+8,650) British hard rock band Led Zeppelin released their first album.

11 January 1969, Saturday (+8,649) Richmal Crompton, British author died (born 1890)

10 January 1969, Friday (+8,648) Sweden became the first European country to recognise North Vietnam.

9 January 1969, Thursday (+8,647) (Aviation) Concorde made its first trial flight from Bristol.

8 January 1969, Wednesday (+8,646) Albert Hill, athlete, died.

7 January 1969, Tuesday (+8,646) Lebanese Prime Minister Abdullah Yafi resigned over domestic criticism result8ing from the Israeli attack on Beirut Airport of 28 December 1968.

6 January 1969, Monday (+8,644) The Waverley Line, from Edinburgh to Carlisle, closed to passengers.

5 January 1969, Sunday (+8,643) Marilyn Manson, singer, was born.

4 January 1969, Saturday (+8,642) Violet and Daisy Hilton, English conjoined twin actresses, died.

3 January 1969, Friday (+8,641) Michael Schumacher, racing car driver, was born.

2 January 1969, Thursday (+8,640) (1) A civil rights march from Belfast to London ended in violence.

(2) Australian media magnate Rupert Murdoch bought the News of the World Group. This gave him his forst stake in Fleet Street.

1 January 1969, Wednesday (+8,639) Sir Learie Constantine became Britain�s first Black peer.


31 December 1968, Tuesday (+8,638) (1) Russia�s TU144 flew, becoming the world�s first supersonic aircraft.

(2) The �lion� ceased to be stamped on British eggs.The practice began on 30 June 1957.

30 December 1968, Monday (+8,637) Trygve Lie, Norwegian ambassador and Secretary-General to the UN, 1946 to 1952, died.

29 December 1968, Sunday (+8,636) Austin Farrer, English theological writer, died (born 1904)

28 December 1968, Saturday (+8,635) Israeli commandos in helicopters raided Beirut Airport, destroying 13 Lebanese aircraft.This was in retaliation for alleged Lebanese toleration of guerrilla raids into northern Israel.

27 December 1968, Friday (+8,634) E.C Stoner, 69, English theoretical physicist known for his discoveries in ferromagnetism, died aged 69.

26 December 1968, Thursday (+8,633) Two Arab gunmen, killing one passenger, attacked an Israeli Boeing 707 in Athens.

25 December 1968, Wednesday (+8,632) 42 Dalits were burned alive in Kilavenmani village, Tamil Nadu, India, in retaliation for a campaign for higher wages by Dalit labourers.

24 December 1968, Tuesday (+8,631) The Apollo 8 astronauts became the first humans to orbit the Moon, flying 110 km above its surface.

23 December 1968, Monday (+8,630) Quincy Jones III, Swedish-US musician, was born in Wimbledon, London.

22 December 1968, Sunday (+8,629) The captain and crew of the Pueblo were released by the North Koreans at Panmunjom.

21 December 1968, Saturday (+8,628) The first flight of a man around the Moon, when Apollo 8 was launched.It was crewed by Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders.

20 December 1968, Friday (+8,627) (1) Franco banished Prince Carlos from Spain.

(2) John Steinbeck, American author who wrote The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and Men, Nobel Prize Winner in 1962, died in New York City.

19 December 1968, Thursday (+8,626) John Jarvis, horse racing champion, died (born 28 December 1887).

18 December 1968, Wednesday (+8,625) The UN passed a Directive requiring the UK to return Gibraltar to Spain by 67 to 18 votes with 34 abstentions. The UK rejected the call, saying that Gibraltarians had voted to remain with the UK.

17 December 1968, Tuesday (+8,624) Paul Tracy, Canadian racing car driver, was born.

16 December 1968, Monday (+8,623) World premiere of the film Chitty Chitty Bang Bang.

15 December 1968, Sunday (+8,622) Colin Sturgess, champion cyclist, was born.

12 December 1968, Thursday (+8,619) Walter Robins, cricketer, died (born 3 June 1906)

4 December 1968, Wednesday (+8,611) On TV Bill and Ben the Flowerpot Men still entertained children 16 years after their initial appearance. The weak willed pair still lived in fear of the gardener and were mercilessly bullied by Weed.

3 December 1968, Tuesday (+8,610) Brendan Fraser, actor, was born.

2 December 1968, Monday (+8,609) Lucy Liu, actress, was born.

1 December 1968, Sunday (+8,608) Henry Nadler first used amniocentesis to diagnose Down�s Syndrome prenatally.


30 November 1968, Saturday (+8,607) The Trades Descriptions Act came into force.

29 November 1968, Friday (+8,606) (1) Arab guerrillas attacked a potash plant on the Dead Sea. Israeli jets retaliated by blowing up two bridges in Jordan.

(2) In Britain, Telford new town was designated.

28 November 1968, Thursday (+8,605) Enid Blyton, creator of Noddy and Big Ears, died. She was born on 11 August 1897 in East Dulwich. In the mid-1930s she began writing her stories, which featured Noddy, the Famous Five, and the Secret Seven.

27 November 1968, Wednesday (+8,604) Gino Roncaglia, Italian composer, died aged 85

26 November 1968, Tuesday (+8,603) In Britain the Race Relations Act came into force, banning racial discrimination at work.

25 November 1968, Monday (+8,602) Upton Sinclair, writer, died.

23 November 1968, Saturday (+8,600) Kirsty Young, broadcaster, was born

21 November 1968, Thursday (+8,598) Baby Sheri Schroder was born with several birth defects, in Love Canal, a residential area of Niagara Falls. Her birth spurs on an investigation which uncovered one of the worst pollution svcandals in US history.

17 November 1968, Sunday (+8,594) Mervyn Peake, British artist died in Burcot, Oxfordshire 9born 9 July 1911)

15 November 1968, Friday (+8,592) Cunard�s flagship liner the Queen Elizabeth docked at Southampton for the last time. Launched in September 1938, she was used during the War as a troopship based in Sydney, Australia. Her first commercial voyage was from Southampton in 1946. She was replaced by the Queen Elizabeth II.

12 November 1968, Tuesday (+8,589) One thousand people attended the first public meeting of the Greater London Council. Ideas discussed included a monorail down Oxford Street by 1972 and an �end to the architecture of totalitarianism�. The Milton Keynes Development Corporation announced that the first blueprint for the new city would be available by February 1969. On TV Z Cars patrolled Merseyside whilst Trumpton kept watch at the Fire Station.

10 November 1968, Sunday (+8,587) Novelist John Steinbeck died.

5 November 1968, Tuesday (+8,582) (1) Richard Milhous Nixon, born 9 January 1913, won the 37th Presidency of the USA by a narrow majority.He had stood for election in 1960 but was defeated by John F Kennedy. J F Kennedy was born on 29 May 1917.

(2) The first Black woman was elected to the US House of Representatives.

3 November 1968, Sunday (+8,580) Severe storms and floods in northern Italy killed over 100 people.

1 November 1968, Friday (+8,578) Georgios Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece, died.


31 October 1968, Thursday (+8,577) President Johnson of the USA ordered a total halt to US bombing of North Vietnam. This was a move intended to help Humphrey (see 29 August 1968) win the Presidential election, as it could make the Vietnam War more acceptable to US voters. However the voters were too much against the War for this, and Republican Nixon won.

30 October 1968, Wednesday (+8,576) Rose Wilder Lane, US journalist, died.

29 October 1968, Tuesday (+8,575)

28 October 1968, Monday (+8,574) Ben Harper, musician, was born.

27 October 1968, Sunday (+8,573) Violent anti-Vietnam war protests outside the US Embassy in Grosvenor Square, London.

22 October 1968, Tuesday (+8,568) Apollo 7, having orbited the Earth 163 times, splashed down safely in the Atlantic Ocean.

20 October 1968, Sunday (+8,566) Bud Flanagan, British singer, died in London (born 14 October 1896 in London)

18 October 1968, Friday (+8,564) Bob Beamon, 22, US athlete, shattered the world long jump record by 53 cm (21 inches), attaining a jump of 8.9 metres (29 ft, 2.5 inches), a record that stood until 1991 when Mike Powell jumped 8.95 metres (29 ft 4.5 inches).

17 October 1968, Thursday (+8,563) Ziggy Marley, musician, was born.

16 October 1968, Wednesday (+8,562) (1) In Britain, the Foreign and Commonwealth Offices merged.

(2) The Czechoslovak Government signed, under duress, an agreement that Warsaw Pact troops would remain in the country indefinitely.

15 October 1968, Tuesday (+8,561) Craig Chalmers, rugby player, was born in Galashiels, Scotland.

14 October 1968, Monday (+8,560) (1) (Railways) The new Euston Station in London was opened by the Queen.Work had begun in 1963.

(2) US athlete James Hines ran the 100 metres in under 11 seconds, a record that stood until 1983.

13 October 1968, Sunday (+8,559) The Chinese Cultural Revolution ended when President Liu was dismissed from his posts in the Party and the Republic.The Cultural Revolution (see 3 September 1965), encouraging a return to basic Maoist principles, but also public criticism of all party members, had been too disruptive to China�s government and economy.

12 October 1968, Saturday (+8,558) (1) Equatorial Guinea became independent.

(2) The 19th Olympic Games opened in Mexico City.

11 October 1968, Friday (+8,557) The USA�s Apollo 7 spacecraft was launched flawlessly by its 700 ton Saturn 1B rocket and began 10 days and 21 hours in space. It was crewed by Walter Schirra, Don Eiselle and Walter Cunningham.

10 October 1968, Thursday (+8,556) Enoch Powell warned that immigration might �change the character of England�

9 October 1968, Wednesday (+8,555) Harold Wilson, British PM, met Ian Smith for further talks about Rhodesian independence aboard HMS Fearless moored off Gibraltar.The talks failed to resolve the situation.

8 October 1968, Tuesday (+8,554) Emily Procter, actress, was born

7 October 1968, Monday (+8,553) Rhodesia�s leader Ian Smith announced that there would be no majority rule in Rhodesia in his lifetime. He continued with talks between himself and Prime Minister Harold Wilson; but Mr Smith said that �ordinary Africans were incapable of answering the simplest question regarding a constitution�.

Films on release included 2001: A Space Odyssey.

6 October 1968, Sunday (+8,552) Phyllis Nicolson, English mathematician, died.

5 October 1968, Saturday (+8,551) Police in Londonderry broke up a Protestant civil rights march using water cannon and batons.

3 October 1968, Thursday (+8,549)

2 October 1968, Wednesday (+8,548) Large demonstration by tens of thousands, mostly students, in Tlatelolco Plaza, Mexico City, against police brutality, political corruption and economic hardship. The army responded with force, shooting at least 300 civilians. This was ten days before the Olympic games began in Mexico City; athletes and visitors could see tanks deployed on the city streets.

1 October 1968, Tuesday (+8,547) The University of Ulster, at Coleraine, opened.


30 September 1968, Monday (+8,546)

29 September 1968, Sunday (+8,545) 5Paul Radmilovic, swimming champion, died (born 5 March 1886).

28 September 1968, Saturday (+8,544) Naomi Watts, actress, was born.

27 September 1968, Friday (+8,543) (1) The French again vetoed UK membership of the EEC.

(2) Antonio Salazar resigned as Prime Minister of Portugal, after holding the office for 36 years and 84 days, the longest term of office of any politician.

(3) The Rock musical Hair with 13 naked actors opened at the Shaftesbury Theatre, London, the day after the Theatres Act lifted censorship of it.

26 September 1968, Thursday (+8,542) (Morals) In the UK, the Theatres Act was passed, ended the role of Lord Chancellor as censor of plays, giving theatres much more freedom in what they could put on.

25 September 1968, Wednesday (+8,541) Will Smith, actor, was born

24 September 1968, Tuesday (+8,540)

21 September 1968, Saturday (+8,537) Ricki Lake, actress, was born.

20 September 1968, Friday (+8,536) Leah Pinsent, Canadian TV and film actress; was born in Toronto

19 September 1968, Thursday (+8,535) (1) Death of Chester Carlson, US inventor of the Xerox photocopier.

(2) The TV Times, a weekly magazine for British independent TV, was first published.

18 September 1968, Wednesday (+8,534) (Indonesia, Malaysia) Indonesia claimed sovereignty over most of Sabah. On 19 September 1968 Malaysia withdrew its diplomats from Manila.

17 September 1968, Tuesday (+8,533) Marie-Chantal, Crown Princess of Greece, was born

16 September 1968, Monday (+8,532) Britain adopted a two tier postal system, stamps cost 5d or 4d.

15 September 1968, Sunday (+8,531) Severe flooding in south east England, the worst since 1953.

14 September 1968, Saturday (+8,530) (Space exploration) The USSR launched the Zond-5 spacecraft, which carried animals around the Moon.

13 September 1968, Friday (+8,529) (1) British banks announced plans to cease Saturday opening.

(2) Press censorship was re-imposed in Czechoslovakia.

12 September 1968, Thursday (+8,528) Albania was ejected from the Warsaw Pact. Foreign travel from Albania was banned, and many killed in political purges.

11 September 1968, Wednesday (+8,527) India announced plans to create Meghalaya out of the southwestern hill country of the State of Assam. Meghalaya became the 20th state of India in 1972.

10 September 1968, Tuesday (+8,526) Guy Ritchie, film director, was born.

9 September 1968, Monday (+8,525) Julia Sawalha, actress, was born

8 September 1968, Sunday (+8,524) Louise Minchin, English morning news show host for BBC One, was born in British Hong Kong

7 September 1968, Saturday (+8,523) Protests by the New York Radical Women (NYRW) Group disrupted the Miss World competition in New York.�����������������������������

6 September 1968, Friday (+8,522) Swaziland became independent from Britain.

3 September 1968, Tuesday (+8,519) (Brazil) Student riots in Sao Paulo, Brazil, inspired by similar riots in France and Mexico. They were protesting against the military dictatorship that had ruled Brazil since 1964.


31 August 1968, Saturday (+8,516) (Earthquake, Iran) A major earthquake in Iran killed over 20,000 people.

30 August 1968, Friday (+8,515) The single Hey Jude was released by The Beatles.

29 August 1968, Thursday (+8,514) At a controversial meeting in Chicago, USA, there was a heated televised debate between Eugene McCarthy, who favoured pulling out of the Vietnam War, and Hubert Humphrey who wanted to continue the battle. Anti-War protestors gathered in Chicago where they fought with backers of the war effort, the latter faction sanctioned by the Mayor of Chicago. The Democrats chose Humphrey as their Presidential candidate.

28 August 1968, Wednesday (+8,513) Billy Boyd, Scottish actor known for the Lord of the Rings trilogy, was born.

27 August 1968, Tuesday (+8,512) Russian patrols watched the streets of Prague after a failed anti � Communist uprising. Tanks had first entered Czechoslovakia on 20 August 1968. The Soviets overthrow President Dubcek, and 175,000 troops, mostly Russian, occupied the major cities of Czechoslovakia. Prague was put under curfew. 20 people were reported dead and at least 200 injured, many of them students, after the anti-Soviet protests.

26 August 1968, Monday (+8,511) Byron Lawson, Canadian actor, was born.

25 August 1968, Sunday (+8,510) The French exploded their first Hydrogen Bomb.

24 August 1968, Saturday (+8,509) James Toney, US boxer, was born.

23 August 1968, Friday (+8,508) (Computing) Computer Aided Tomography was patented by Godfrey Hounsfield for EMI in London, UK.

22 August 1968, Thursday (+8,507) Soviet tanks entered Prague.

21 August 1968, Wednesday (+8,506) President Dubcek was arrested and taken to Moscow. He returned to Czechoslovakia on 27 August 1968, having agreed to Soviet demands.

20 August 1968, Tuesday (+8,505) Russia sent tanks into Czechoslovakia. Dubcek had said on 18 July1968 he would not go back on his progressive policies, see 5 April 1968.

19 August 1968, Monday (+8,504) (Science) George Gamow, Russian-US physicist, died in Boulder, Colorado.

18 August 1968, Sunday (+8.,503) The US Ambassador to Guatemala was killed in Guatemala City by Communist guerrillas as he resisted a kidnap attempt.

17 August 1968, Saturday (+8.,502) Clessie Cummins, founder of Cummins Engines Company, died in California.

16 August 1968, Friday (+8,501) Donovan Leitch Jr, US actor, was born in London, England.

15 August 1966, Thursday (+8,500) Debra Messing, actress, was born.

14 August 1968, Wednesday (+8,499) Heavy rain in India caused severe flooding, killing over 1,000.

13 August 1968, Tuesday (+8,498) Tony Jarrett, English sprinter, was born.

12 August 1968, Monday (+8,497) Race riots in Watts, Los Angeles.

11 August 1968, Sunday (+8,496) The last main line passenger steam train ran on British Railways. Called the Fifteen Guinea Special, it ran from Manchester to Carlisle.

9 August 1968, Friday (+8,494) Gillian Anderson, actress, was born.

5 August 1968, Monday (+8,490) Finland reopened the Saimaa Canal, between Saimaa Lake and the Gulf of Finland, which had been closed since the 1939-40 war with Russia.

4 August 1968, Sunday (+8,489) Israeli aircraft bombed Palestinian bases in Jordan.

3 August 1968, Saturday (+8,488) (1) The last scheduled normal service steam train ran on British Railways. It ran from Preston to Liverpool.

(2) The Countryside Act allowed local authorities to designate National Parks.

2 August 1968, Friday (+8,487) Michael Stanco, American professional wrestler, was born (died 2014).

1 August 1968, Thursday (+8,486) The Princess Margaret inaugurated the hovercraft service between Dover and Boulogne.


31 July1968, Wednesday (+8,485)

29 July1968, Monday (+8,483) (1) The Pope condemned all forms of birth control.

(2) President Dubcek met with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev in the village of Cierna nad Tisou (on the Czech-USSR border). Brezhnev agreed that Czechoslovakia could follow �its own road to Socialism� and Dubcek promised �Socialist solidarity�. The meeting closed on 1 August 1968.

28 July1968, Sunday (+8,482) (Chemistry) Otto Hahn, German physical chemist, died in Gottingen.

26 July1967, Friday (+8,480)

24 July1968, Wednesday (+8,478) A conference of Spanish bishops asserted the right of Spanish workers right to strike and form independent trades unions.

23 July1968, Tuesday (+8,477) An Israeli Boeing 707, flying from Rome to Tel Aviv, was hijacked and flown to Algeria.

21 July1968, Sunday (+8,475) Ernest Barry, rower, died.

18 July1968, Thursday (+8,472) Dubcek said he would not go back on his progressive policies, see 20 August 1968.

17 July 1968, Wednesday (+8,471) In Iraq the Arab Socialist Baath Party staged a bloodless coup. General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr became President, but Saddam Hussein was recognised as the strongman of the regime, controlling internal security.

16 July1968, Tuesday (+8,470) Other Warsaw Pact leaders, from East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria, declared the Czechoslovak reforms unacceptable.

15 July1968, Monday (+8,469) Shirley Robertson, rower, was born

14 July1968, Sunday (+8,468) Soviet troops failed to leave Czechoslovakia after Warsaw Pact exercises.

9 July1968, Tuesday (+8,463) Czechoslovakia rejected a demand by Russia for a meeting of Communist Party leaders.

2 July1968, Tuesday (+8,456) Britain offered famine relief to both Nigeria and Biafra. Biafra refused it whilst the Uk was still supplying arms to Nigeria.

1 July1968, Monday (+8,455) The USA and the USSR signed the Non-Proliferation treaty regarding nuclear weapons (see 5 August 1963). This bound its signatories not to transfer nuclear weapons or knowledge to non-nuclear countries. This was a recognition that both the USA and the USSR had interests in not assisting China to become nuclear.


30 June 1968, Sunday (+8,454) De Gaulle won massive support in French elections.

28 June 1968, Friday (+8,452)

27 June 1968, Thursday (+8,451) The Czechoslovak National Assembly passed laws abolishing censorship and rehabilitating political prisoners.

26 June 1968, Wednesday (+8,.450) Earl Warren announced his resignation as Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court.

25 June 1968, Tuesday (+8,449) Comedian Tony Hancock killed himself in a hotel bathroom in Sydney, Australia.

20 June 1968, Thursday (+8,444) Total US war deaths in Vietnam now exceeded 25,000.

15 June 1968, Saturday (+8,439) Wes Montgomery, US jazz guitarist, died in Indianapolis (born 6 March 1925 in Indianapolis)

12 June 1968, Wednesday (+8,436) The French Government banned demonstrations and dissolved 11 student organisations,

11 June 1968, Tuesday (+8,435) East Germany began requiring visas for West Germans to cross its territory.

10 June 1968, Monday (+8,434) NHS prescription charges were reintroduced. See 1 February 1965.

8 June 1968, Saturday (+8,432) Bermuda achieved internal self-government.

5 June 1968, Wednesday (+8,429) A Jordanian-Arab called Sirhan Bishara Sirhan shot Robert Kennedy, US Senator (born 1925), in the Hotel Ambassador, Los Angeles. Kennedy, younger brother of President Kennedy, died 25 hours later. Sirhan was arrested. He was protesting against Kennedy�s outspoken support for Israel, on the first anniversary of the Six Day War.

4 June 1968, Tuesday (+8,428) Dorothy Gish, actress, died.

3 June 1968, Monday (+8,427)

1 June 1968, Saturday (+8,425) Helen Keller, US author, died aged 87.


31 May 1968, Friday (+8,424) Nigerian � Biafran peace talks in Kampala, Uganda, broke down.

30 May 1968, Thursday (+8,423) French President De Gaulle announced he would not resign, and called a General Election.

29 May 1968, Wednesday (+8,422)

28 May 1968, Tuesday (+8,421) Kylie Minogue, singer, was born.

27 May 1968, Monday (+8,420) The trial of the executives of the Chemie-Grunenthal company, responsible for the Thalidomide disaster that killed 80,000 babies and maimed 20,000 more, opened in Alsdorf, near Aachen. The trail was expected to last at least three years, but was shut down on 18 December 1970. All defendants were granted immunity from prosecution. The German Government and Grunenthal agreed a compensation scheme that many parents regarded as inadequate. Thalidomide was launched as a wonder cure for morning sickness on 1 October 1957; it was withdrawn on 27 November 1961. It was sold as Distaval in the UK, as Contergan in Germany. It emerged that no tests were done for effects on embryos; the executives claimed nobody in the 1950s realised that drugs taken by the mother could affect the foetus, which claim was untrue even then. Adults who took thalidomide as a sedative in 1959 had suffered serious nerve damage.

26 May 1968, Sunday (+8,419)

25 May 1968, Saturday (+8,418) Riots continued in Paris. Demonstrators erected barricades and students stormed the Bourse and set fire to the interior. In London a demonstration of support for the rioters was made outside the French Embassy; the police moved in and arrests were made, resulting in fines totalling �145 for 17 people. In north London, students at Hornsey College of Art continued a sit in of the main building, demanding �a change to the college�s educational system�.

24 May 1968, Friday (+8,417) The Rolling Stones hit, Jumpin� Jack Flash was released.

23 May 1968, Thursday (+8,416)

22 May 1968, Wednesday (+8,415) Striking French workers now numbered 9 million.

21 May 1968, Tuesday (+8,414) The US Navy lost contact with the nuclear submarine Scorpion, with 99 men on board. The wreck of the vessel was subsequently located on the ocean floor 640 km southwest of the Azores.

19 May 1968, Sunday (+8,412) (1) Nigerian forces captured Port Harcourt in the civil war against the breakaway region of Biafra.

(2) Two million workers in France were on strike.

17 May 1968, Friday (+8,410) French president Georges Pompidou appealed to ordinary Parisians to help stop the anarchy as student riots continued in Paris. However the Cannes Film Festival collapsed in chaos as striking technicians and directors caused film screenings to be cancelled, and three days later the number of striking French workers had risen to about six million. Three people died in east London when 22 floors of a block of flats collapsed at Ronan Point, Newham, following a gas explosion. Council officials met with solid resistance when they suggested that the 80 families evacuated after the disaster should return to their flats. The director of the Transport studies centre predicted that in the future people would be �piped� in high speed pneumatic trains like oil and gas. TV viewers could watch The Saint, Danger Man, or The Avengers.

16 May 1968, Thursday (+8,409) The Ronan Point block of flats collapsed in London�s East End.Three died when the 22-storey flats in Butcher�s Road, Plaistow, were brought down by a gas explosion in a flat on the 18th floor. The pre-fabricated �system building� technique used to construct the flats meant that every flat on that corner then collapsed.

15 May 1968, Wednesday (+8,408) Sophie Raworth, broadcaster, was born.

14 May 1968, Tuesday (+8,407) French workers called a one-day strike to support the students. The French Franc plummeted.

13 May 1968, Monday (+8,406) US and North Vietnamese negotiators began peace talks in Paris.

10 May 1968, Friday (+8,403) (1) Student clashes with police continued in Paris, with 30,000 people involved in a day and a night of violence. Students at The Sorbonne were locked out of campus, causing further unrest; the demonstrations were against the Vietnam War.

(2) Peace talks began between the USA and North Vietnam in Paris. The talks failed because North Vietnam wanted the country unified under the Vietcong, whilst the United States wanted North Vietnam to withdraw from the South which would remain an independent state. Eventually the North agreed to Southern independence and the US agreed not to demand the withdrawal of Communist forces from the North. However the North was to invade the South two years later as US forces withdrew from the South.

6 May 1968, Monday (+8,399) (1) An opinion poll suggested 74% of Britons supported Enoch Powell�s views on immigration. Enoch Powell made his famous �Rivers of Blood� speech, see 20 April 1968.

(2) The Vietnam War continued with house to house fighting in Saigon. The Kray Twins were charged with ten offences including two of conspiracy to murder. The Home Secretary James Callaghan told the Ministry of Public Building and Works that he had no power to deport Tariq Ali back to his native Pakistan. Mr Ali was a member of the Vietnam Solidarity campaign in Britain. Ironside was on TV, and the films 2001: A Space Odyssey and Planet of the Apes were showing.

(3) Spain closed its border with Gibraltar to all but Spaniards.

3 May 1968, Friday (+8,396) (1) French police evicted striking students from campus, sparking large street demonstrations.

(2) Britain�s first heart transplant.

2 May 1968, Thursday (+8,395) Students rioted in Paris.

1 May 1968, Wednesday (+8,394) Legoland Family Park, the Danish toy maker�s answer to Disneyland, opened at Billund in Denmark.


30 April 1968, Tuesday (+8,393) Frankie Lymon, US pop star, died of a heroin overdose.

28 April 1968, Sunday (+8,391)

27 April 1968, Saturday (+8,390) Abortion was legalised in Britain, as the 1967 Abortion Act became Law. The Liberal MP David Steel had introduced the Abortion Act to Parliament.

26 April 1968, Friday (+8,389) John Heartfield, German artist, died in Berlin (born 19 June 1891 in Berlin)

23 April 1968, Tuesday (+8,386) First decimal coins, the 5p and 10p coins, appeared in Britain, see 15 February 1971.On 14 October 1969, 50 pence pieces replaced ten shilling notes; these notes ceased to be legal tender on 21 November 1970.

21 April 1968, Sunday (+8,384) Pierre Trudeau succeeded Lester Pearson as Prime Minister of Canada.

20 April 1968, Saturday (+8,383) Enoch Powell, Conservative MP for south-west Wolverhampton, made his famous �Rivers of Blood� speech about the dangers of immigration at a hotel in Birmingham. See 6 May 1968.

19 April 1968, Friday (+8,382) (1) (Vietnam) The USA began Operation Delaware to oust the North Vietnamese from the A Shau Valley, 50 km SW of Hue, which they had occupied in March 1968 and made into a logistics base to support the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The US succeeded in taking the Valley, but with heavy casualties. However they could not hold it whilst large forces were tied up defending the Vietnamese Lowlands against the North.

(2) Josef Smirnovsky, chairman of the Czechoslovak National Assembly, promised freedom of press, assembly and religion.

18 April 1968, Thursday (+8,381) London Bridge was sold for �1million to oil tycoon Robert McCullough.He had it rebuilt at Lake Havasu in the USA. It was rumoured that he thought he was buying Tower Bridge.

16 April 1968, Tuesday (+8,379)

15 April 1968, Monday (+8,378) Ben Clarke, rugby player, was born.

14 April 1968, Sunday (+8,377) Easter Sunday.

12 April 1968, Friday (+8,375)

9 April 1968, Tuesday (+8,372) In Britain, the Race Relations Bill was published.

8 April 1968, Monday (+8,371) New Czechoslovak government took office, under Oldrich Cernik.

7 April 1968, Sunday (+8,370) US President Johnson ordered a slowdown in the bombing of North Vietnam.

6 April 1968, Saturday (+8,369) In East Germany, 94.5% of voters approved the new socialist constitution.

5 April 1968, Friday (+8,368) In Czechoslovakia, Dubcek began a programme of reform which was to lead to a measure of political democracy and restoration of personal freedoms, see 5 January 1968 and 20 August 1968.

4 April 1968, Thursday (+8,367) Martin Luther King, 39, was assassinated, shot dead by James Earl Ray on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis. He was on a trip to support striking sanitation workers in Memphis. The funeral was attended by Jacqueline Kennedy. White and Black were briefly united in anger, and there were riots in hundreds of towns across America. Martin Luther King had campaigned on civil rights for Black people, and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1964.

3 April 1968, Wednesday (+8,366) The US and North Vietnam agreed to establish direct contact as a first step towards peace.

2 April 1968, Tuesday (+8,365) Two West German terrorists, Baader and Ensslin, firebombed a Frankfurt department store, in protest against the bombs being dropped by the US on Vietnam.

1 April 1968, Monday (+8,364) Speculation in the gold market; gold was US$ 38 in London.


31 March 1968, Sunday (+8,363) Democrat President Johnson of the USA, discouraged by Liberal anti-Vietnam War Senator Eugene McCarthy�s performance against him (see 29 August 1968), pulled out of the race to secure Democrat nomination for the upcoming Presidential election.

30 March 1968, Saturday (+8.362) Celine Dion, singer, was born.

29 March 1968, Friday (+8.361) Lucy Lawless, New Zealand television actress, was born

28 March 1968, Thursday (+8,360) Nasser Hussain, cricketer, was born.

27 March 1968, Wednesday (+8,359) (1) The UK foreign secretary said the Falklands will stay British.

(2) Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space in 1961, was killed in a plane crash near Moscow, on a routine training flight.

26 March 1968, Tuesday (+8,358) Chris Ward, chess player, was born.

25 March 1968, Monday (+8,357)

23 March 1968, Saturday (+8,355) President Dubcek was summoned to an emergency Warsaw Pact meeting to try and stop his liberal policies in Czechoslovakia.

22 March 1968, Friday (+8,354) Student �anarchists� rioted and occupied an administration building at Nanterre University, France. The riots soon spread to other universities.

21 March 1968, Thursday (+8.353) In Britain, road deaths fell 23% in the three months after introduction of breath tests. See 8 October 1967.

20 March 1968, Wednesday (+8,352) Six French students were arrested in Paris during an anti-Vietnam War demonstration.

19 March 1968, Tuesday (+8,351)

17 March 1968, Sunday (+8,349) (Britain, USA, Vietnam) Violent anti-Vietnam War demonstrations outside the US Embassy in London. 25,000 Vietnam Solidarity Campaign (VSC) marchers fought with police. The VSC, which wanted a victory for North Vietnam, had been organised by the Trotskyist International Marxist Group, whose members included Pat Jordan, Tariq Ali and David Horowitz.

16 March 1968, Saturday (+8,348) The My Lai massacre; US soldiers massacred 700 Vietnamese civilians in a raid on hamlets in Son My district, where Communist Vietcong rebels were suspected to be hiding out. US forces believed that 250 Vietcong guerrillas were hiding in My Lai and that all civilians would have left for market. As the 30 US troops went in under the command of Lieutenant William Calley they threw grenades and deployed flamethrowers on the thatched roof huts; it was soon clear that only women, children and the elderly were present. There was no counter fire. However a �contagion of slaughter� had set in and the rape and murder continued. Senior US army officials turned a blind eye to the event; only five people were ever court-martialled, with just one, Lieutenant Calley, found guilty. He was sentenced to life imprisonment but served 3 � years before release on parole. This event turned many civilians within the US against the Vietnam War. See 12 November 1969 (USA).

15 March 1968, Friday (+8,347) The USA�s highest road tunnel, the Eisenhower-Johnson Memorial Tunnel, 2.72 km long and 3401 metres above sea level, opened.

14 March 1968, Thursday (+8,346) Erwin Panofsky, art historian, diedin Princeton, USA (born 30 March 1892 in Hanover)

13 March 1968, Wednesday (+8,345) Dubcek abolished press censorship in Czechoslovakia.

12 March 1968, Tuesday (+8,344) Mauritius, a volcanic island in the Indian Ocean, became independent from the UK, and joined the Commonwealth. It had been a British colony since 1810.

8 March 1968, Friday (+8,340) Student unrest in Poland intensified. On 30 January 1968 a play by Mickiewicz, Dziady (The Forefathers) was shown at the Warsaw National Theatre for the last time; the authorities were concerned that the play provoked anti-Soviet sentiments in its audience. On the occasion of its last showing, Warsaw University students staged a street demonstration. The organisers of the demonstration were arrested; meanwhile the Warsaw branch of the Writers Union, supported by well-known personalities such as Slonimski, Jastrun, Andrzejewksi, Kolakowski and Jasienica protested the decision to close Dziady as Party censorship curtailing creativity. On 8 March 1968 a student protest meeting was brutally broken up by police and paramilitaries. Unrest spread onto the streets of Warsaw and to other Polish universities. The intelligentsia supported the students but the workers, influenced by official propaganda, opposed them. Around 1,200 students were arrested but only a small number were tried and received jail terms. Some were temporarily suspended from their university, Some academics also lost their posts, entire university departments were closed, new academic appointments were made on political grounds not ability, and overall, academic freedom was replaced by repression and suspicion, at least while Gomulka held power in Poland.


29 February 1968, Thursday (+8,332) In Poland, the Writer�s Union called for an end to censorship and resumption of performances of the play Dziady.

26 February 1968, Monday (+8,329) London�s first bus lane, across Vauxhall Bridge, opened.

24 February 1968, Saturday (+8,327) Allison Fisher, snooker champion, was born.

23 February 1968, Friday (+8,326) Tom Jones released his song Delilah.

22 February 1968, Thursday (+8,325) The UK Government was concerned at the level of immigration of Asians from East Africa.

21 February 1968, Wednesday (+8,324) Lord Florey, Australian-born British pathologist who made possible the large-scale production of penicillin, died.

20 February 1968, Tuesday (+8,323) In Britain, the provision of free school milk at secondary schools ceased.

19 February 1968, Monday (+8,322)

18 February 1968, Sunday (+8,321) Molly Ringwald, actress, was born.

17 February 1968, Saturday (+8,320) British actor Sir Donald Wolfit died.

16 February 1968, Friday (+8,319) (USA) The first 911 emergency phone service was inaugurated in the USA, at Haleyville, Alabama. It was free; other phone calls cost 10 cents.

14 February 1968, Wednesday (+8,317) Chris Lewis, cricketer, was born

11 February 1968, Sunday (+8,314) Howard Lindsay, US musician, died in New York (born 29 March 1889 in Waterford, New York)

5 February 1968, Monday (+8,308) Charles Roberts, US composer, died in New York (born 7 August 1887 in Philadelphia)

4 February 1968, Sunday (+8,307) (Maritime) The world�s largest hovercraft, 165 tonnes, was launched at Cowes.

2 February 1968, Friday (+8,305)

1 February 1968, Thursday (+8,304) The execution of Viet Cong officer Nguyen Van Lem by South Vietnamese National Police Chief Nguyen Ngoc Loan was filmed by Eddie Adams. This footage helped swing public opinion against the Vietnam War.


31 January 1968, Wednesday (+8,303) Nauru became independent from Britain.

30 January 1968, Tuesday (+8,302) (1) The Vietcong launched the great Tet Offensive against South Vietnam, named after the Tet holiday of January 31, when south Vietnamese soldiers would be off-guard. Militarily the Tet offensive was disastrous for the North; they held none of the towns they captured. The last town, Hue, was recaptured by US Marines three weeks after the Tet Offensive began. However the North won the propaganda war, with massive damage inflicted on the South during the Offensive, much of it by US forces whilst evicting the Communists. Martial law was proclaimed in Vietnam. US casualties now amounted to 1,000 per day. Questions were asked why the US and South were suffering so many losses without obvious success in the war.

(2) Student demonstrations in Poland when the play, Dziady, by 19th century playwright Adam Mickiewicz, was withdrawn from theatres. Anti-Russian passages in the play had been enthusiastically applauded.

29 January 1968,Monday (+8,301) Edward Burns, actor, was born.

28 January 1968, Sunday (+8,300) Sarah McLachlan, singer, was born.

26 January 1968, Friday (+8,298) The two British banks, the National Provincial and the Westminster, merged to form the National Westminster Bank.

24 January 1968, Friday (+8,296) The Czech Writers Union appointed Edward Goldstucker, a Liberal, as its chairman. Censorship was suspended and more open reporting began in the press, radio and TV.

23 January 1968, Tuesday (+8,295) The USS Pueblo, an intelligence ship, and its 89 man crew was seized by the North Koreans in the Sea of Japan.

22 January 1968, Monday (+8,294) The TV comedy Rowan & Martin�s Laugh-In premiered on NBC in the USA.

21 January 1968, Sunday (+8,293) North Korean commandos made an assassination attempt upon President Park of South Korea, getting within 300 metres of the Presidential Palace.

20 January 1968, Saturday (+8,292) Melissa Rivers, actress, was born.

18 January 1968, Thursday (+8,290)

17 January 1968, Wednesday (+8,289) British Leyland was formed by Leyland Motors (commercial vehicle manufacturer, formed in 1898) absorbing Rover and the British Motor Corporation. This company was created by the UK Labour Government as a �national champion�. However it inherited 48 separate plants, a large and uncoordinated model range and an unwieldy management structure. It focussed on smaller cars but the UK market was shifting to larger executive cars, which Ford excelled in, such as the Escort and Cortina. |BL offered the Allegro and Marina, which were not market successes. In 1975 the company was close to collapse and was bailed out by the Government; due to poor industrial relations it continued to lose money until privatised in the 1980s.

16 January 1968, Tuesday (+8,288) (1) The UK government announced public expenditure cuts of �700 million. This included postponing a rise in the school-leaving age, and re-imposing prescription charges. There would also be a withdrawal of the military from all bases east of Suez, except for Hong Kong.

(2) Communist guerrillas in Guatemala shot dead two US Embassy military attaches.

14 January 1968, Sunday (+8,286) LL Cool, rap singer, was born.

12 January 1968, Friday (+8,284) Soviet dissidents Yuri Galanskov and Alexander Ginsburg were sentenced in Moscow to hard labour.

11 January 1968, Thursday (+8,283) Emigration from Britain exceeded immigration by 30,000 in the second quarter on 1967. The world�s fifth heart transplant was performed in New York. A new magazine, Student, hit Britain�s newsstands. Its publisher, Richard Branson, hoped the new magazine would become the voice of Britain�s youth.

Children were entertained on TV by The Magic Roundabout and Blue Peter.

10 January 1968, Wednesday (+8,282) (Australia) John Grey Gorton became 20th Prime Minister of Australia.

9 January 1968, Tuesday (+8,281) (Space exploration) The space probe Surveyor 7 landed near the lunar crater Tycho.

7 January 1968, Sunday (+8,279) NASA launched the surveyor 7 probe towards the Moon.

5 January 1968, Friday (+8, 277) Alexander Dubcek became the Czech leader, replacing Novotny.Czech discontent at oppressive government from Prague and economic exploitation by the USSR led to criticism of the Communist leader of Czechoslovakia, Novotny (see 25 February 1948), at a Workers Union Congress in June 1967, and to student demonstrations in October 1967.See 5 April 1968.

4 January 1968, Thursday (+8,276) The US now had 486,000 troops in Vietnam.

3 January 1968, Wednesday (+8,275) Kent Carlsson, Swedish tennis champion, was born.

2 January 1968, Tuesday (+8,274) Christiaan Barnard performed a second heart transplant; the recipient Philip Blaiberg survived 594 days, proving the technique was feasible.

1 January 1968, Monday (+8,273) Colour TV began in The Netherlands.


31 December 1967, Sunday (+8,272) Hippies embraced love, flower power, LSD and the Rolling Stones as a cure for the world�s ills.

30 December 1967, Saturday (+8,271) Vincent Massey, Canadian lawyer and diplomat, died aged 80.

29 December 1967, Friday (+8,270) Hyundai Motor Company was founded in South Korea.

26 December 1967, Tuesday (+8,267)The South Vietnamese threatened to pursue and attack Communist troops in Cambodia. China assured Cambodia of its support against this. Chinese workers had already been repairing bomb-damaged parts of the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

21 December 1967, Thursday (+8,262) Mikheil Saakashvili, President of Georgia, was born.

19 December 1967, Tuesday (+8,260) Second French veto by De Gaulle on British membership of the E.E.C. The pound was devalued, and Harold Wilson made his �pound in your pocket� television speech.

17 December 1967, Sunday (+8,258) Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt disappeared whilst swimming at Cheviot Beach, Victoria. His body was never found; most believed he had been carried off by strong currents but some speculated that he had faked his own death.

16 December 1967, Saturday (+8,257) Miranda Otto, actress, was born.

15 December 1967, Friday (+8,256) The Silver Bridge, between Point Pleasant, West Virginia and Gallipolis, hio, collapsed, killing 46 people.

13 December 1967, Wednesday (+8,254) King Constantine II fled Greece after an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the military junta, see 21 April 1967, and 1 June 1973.

11 December 1967, Monday (+8,252) The prototype of the world�s first supersonic airliner, Concorde, was revealed in Toulouse, France. It first flew from Bristol on 9 January 1969.

10 December 1967, Sunday (+8,251) Otis Redding, US singer, died.

9 December 1967, Saturday (+8,250) Nicolae Ceausescu became President of Romania.

7 December 1967, Thursday (+8,258)

5 December 1967, Tuesday (+8,246) The Beatles opened their Apple store on Baker Street.

4 December 1967, Monday (+8,245) Bert Lahr, US stage and film actor, died aged 72.

3 December 1967, Sunday (+8,244) Professor Christian Barnard, born 1923, performed the world�s first heart transplant in Cape Town. The recipient, a 53-year old grocer called Waskansky, who received the heart of a 25 year old traffic casualty, died 18 days later of pneumonia. The drugs given to suppress rejection compromised Waskansky�s immune system. A second heart transplant patient (see 2 January 1968) survived much longer.

2 December 1967, Saturday (+8,243) Phyllis Johnson, figure skating champion, died.

1 December 1967, Friday (+8.,242) Nestor Carbonell, TV actor, was born.


30 November 1967, Thursday (+8,241) The British withdraw from Aden, and the Republic of South Yemen was formed.

29 November 1967, Wednesday (+8,240) Roy Jenkins succeeded James Callaghan as Chancellor.

28 November 1967, Tuesday (+8,239) (1) Horseracing was suspended in Britain because of an outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease.

(2) The first pulsar was discovered by radio astronomers at Cambridge, England. The regular radio pulses were initially thought to be signals from intelligent aliens.

27 November 1967, Monday (+8,238) De Gaulle vetoed Britain�s entry into the EEC.

26 November 1967, Sunday (+8,237) Ridley Jacobs, West Indian cricketer, was born.

25 November 1967, Saturday (+8,236) Heavy rain in Lisbon, Portugal flooded 350 square miles and killed 475.

24 November 1967, Friday (+8,235) Salli Richardson, actress, was born.

23 November 1967, Thursday (+8,234) The UK government was about to ban meat imports from Europe because of the outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease there. TV shows included a debate on The Roman Catholic Church has no place in the 20th Century and The Man from UNCLE.

22 November 1967, Wednesday (+8,233) The UN passed the famous Resolution 242. It promised secure Israeli borders in exchange for an Israeli withdrawal from the occupied territories, and stated the need for a solution to the Palestinian refugee problem. However no timetable was given for achieving these aims.

21 November 1967, Tuesday (+8,232) US racing car driver Ken Block was born.

18 November 1967. Saturday (+8,229) Devaluation of Sterling. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr James Callaghan, announced a 14.3% devaluation, from $2.79 to $2.40 to the pound. He resigned the Chancellorship eleven days later.

13 November 1967, Monday (+8,224) George Beamish, rugby player, was born.

10 November 1967, Friday (+8,221) The Moody Blue�s single, Nights in White Satin was released.

9 November 1967, Thursday (+8,220) (Space exploration) US space probe Surveyor VI soft-landed on the Moon.

8 November 1967, Wednesday (+8,219) The first local radio station in the UK, Radio Leicester, went on the air.It was opened by the Postmaster-General, Edward Short.

7 November 1967, Tuesday (+8,218) The Corporation for Public Broadcasting was established in the USA

6 November 1967, Monday (+8,217) Rebecca Schaeffer, US actress, was born in Eugene, Oregon (died 1989)

5 November 1967, Sunday (+8,216) 49 people were killed at a rail crash at Hither Green, south London.

4 November 1967, Saturday (+8.,215) Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser told former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Robert B. Anderson that he was willing to agree to many of the requests of Israel to end the state of belligerence between the two nations following the recent Six-Day War but to do so officially would be suicide for any Arab leader.

3 November 1967, Friday (+8,214) Alexander Aitken., mathematician, died.

2 November 1967, Thursday (+8,213) The first Scottish Nationalist Party candidate took their seat at Westminster. In the by-election at Hamilton, Winifred Ewing took the seat for the SNP, a party formed in 1934.

1 November 1967, Wednesday (+8,212) Rolling Stone Magazine started publication, the first Rock�n�Roll periodical in the USA.


31 October 1967, Tuesday (+8,211) Nguyen Van Thieu was sworn into office as the 4th President of South Vietnam. In his inaugural address, President Thieu said, "I will make a direct proposal to the North Vietnamese government to sit down at the conference table" to seek a way of ending the Vietnam War.

30 October 1967, Monday (+8,210) Statistics showed that the number of Britain�s drug addicts under 20 rose from 145 in 1965 to 329 in 1966. Captain Scarlet merchandise hit the shops. TV showed Bewitched, Dr Finlays Casebook, The Saint, and Z Cars.

29 October 1967, Sunday (+8,209) Expo 67 closed in Montreal, after having attracted more than 50,306,648 visitors in six months, a record attendance for any world's fair. It had opened on 27 April 1967.

28 October 1967, Saturday (+8,208) Julia Roberts, actress, was born.

27 October 1967, Friday (+8,207) The UK�s Abortion Act received Royal Assent.

26 October 1967, Thursday (+8,206) The Shah of Iran and his wife were crowned in Tehran.

25 October 1967, Wednesday (+8,205) UK Parliament passed the Abortion Act, decriminalising abortion.

24 October 1967, Tuesday (+8,204) Israeli artillery destroyed a petrol refinery at Port Suez.

22 October 1967, Sunday (+8,202)

21 October 1967, Saturday (+8,201) The Israeli destroyer Eilat was sunk by Egyptian missiles

20 October 1967, Friday (+8,200) Roger Patterson and Robert Gimlin filmed �Bigfoot�, on an expedition in northern California to search for the creature.

19 October 1967, Thursday (+8,199)

18 October 1967, Wednesday (+8,198) The Soviet space probe Venera 4 made the first soft landing on Venus.

17 October 1967, Tuesday (+8,197) The Rock Musical Hair by James Rado and Gerome Ragni opened on Broadway.

15 October 1967, Sunday (+8,195) Henry Pu Yi, the last emperor of China from the age of 2, died in Beijing aged 61. The Guardian offered its readers �the first binary computer kit� called Digi-Comp 1, for �3 10 shillings. Meanwhile in Tokyo the Nippon Electric Co was offering the world�s first commercial television telephone. TV viewers saw Steptoe and Son, whilst Patrick McGoohan was unable to accept his lot in North Wales as The Prisoner. Ironside the wheelchair bound detective propelled himself around the streets of San Francisco.

10 October 1967, Tuesday (+8,190) The Outer Space Treaty came into effect, detailing guidelines for the exploration of outer space and banning the stationing of weapons of mass destruction there. It stated that no other planet or moon could be claimed by any one nation or company.

9 October 1967, Monday (+8,189) The revolutionary Marxist leader Che Guevara was captured in Bolivia and shot. Bolivian troops killed Ernesto �Che� Guevara and six other guerrillas they had cornered in the village of La Higuera near Vallegrande. The Argentine born hero of Latin American revolutionaries, Guevara was a prominent figure in Fidel Castro�s successful Cuban Revolution of the 1950s and 60s. Guevara then decided to join other struggles of �liberation�. Guevara came from a middle class family and his travels convinced him that only violent revolution would solve the economic, political, and poverty problems facing many Latin American countries. The French philosopher Jean Paul Satre described him as �the most complete human being of our age�.

8 October 1967, Sunday (+8,188) (1) A motorist in Flax Bourton, Somerset became the first person to be breathalysed in Britain. See 21 March 1968.

(2) Clement Atlee, British Prime Minister 1945-51, died aged 84.

7 October 1967, Saturday (+8,187) Norman Angell, English author and politician, died aged 92.

6 October 1967, Friday (+8,186) The South Vietnamese Government began its new policy of curbing student protesters by drafting 12 of them into the South Vietnamese Army.

5 October 1967, Thursday (+8,185) The first majority verdict was recorded in a UK court, 10 to 2, at Brighton Quarter Sessions.

4 October 1967,Wednesday (+8,184) Enugu, the Biafran capital, was taken by Nigerian forces.

3 October 1967, Tuesday (+8,183) US Air Force pilot Major Peter Knight flew a rocket-powered research aircraft at 4,534 mph (7,254 kph).

2 October 1967, Monday (+8,182) US Jurist Thurgood Marshall was sworn in as the first African-American Justice of the US Supreme Court.

1 October 1967, Sunday (+8,181) Colour TV broadcasting began in France. At this time there were only 1,500 colour TV sets in France, but within 12 months that number had grown to 200,000.


30 September 1967, Saturday (+8,180) BBC Radio was reorganised. BBC Radio 1, 2, 3, and 4 began broadcasting, with Tony Blackburn introducing The Breakfast Show. His first record was Flowers In The Rain by The Move.

29 September 1967, Friday (+8,179) The classic sci-fi TV series Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons was broadcast for the first time, on ITV.

28 September 1967, Thursday (+8,178) Mira Sorvino, actress, was born.

27 September 1967, Wednesday (+8,177) The liner Queen Mary arrived at Southampton, at the end of her last transatlantic voyage.

24 September 1967, Sunday (+8,174)

21 September 1967, Thursday (+8,171) Faith Hill, singer, was born.

20 September 1967, Wednesday (+8,170) The Queen launched the Cunard liner Queen Elizabeth II, at Clydebank, Scotland.

18 September 1967, Monday (+8,168) Sir John Cockroft, British scientist who along with Ernest Walton split the atom, died.

14 September 1967, Thursday (+8,164) Michael Johnson, athlete, was born.

12 September 1967, Tuesday (+8,162) Governor Reagan called for an escalation of the Vietnam War.

11 September 1967, Monday (+8,161) Harry Connick Jr., singer, was born.

9 September 1967, Saturday (+8,159)

8 September 1967, Friday (+8,158) Uganda became a republic, with Milton Obote as the first President.

7 September 1967, Thursday (+8,157) Rex Stewart, US jazz cornettist, died in Los Angeles (born 22 February 1907 in Philadelphia)

5 September 1967, Tuesday (+8,155) Janet Sixsmith, champion hockey player, was born.

3 September 1967, Sunday (+8,153) (1) Sweden switched over from driving on the left to driving on the right. All traffic was banned from Sweden�s roads between and that day. This reduced accidents since neighbouring Norway and Denmark already drove on the right. An earlier referendum, in 1955, had rejected the switchover but the Swedish Government finally approved the change in 1963.

(2) General Nguyen Van Thieu was elected President of South Vietnam.

1 September 1967, Friday (+8,151) (1) At a meeting in Khartoum, the Arabs decided to lift the oil embargo that had been imposed on the West since the Six Day War.

(2) Chinese civilians, including the Red Guards, were ordered to surrender their weapons to the Chinese Army, which would now be sole peacekeeper. Factory workers were to return to their jobs, and rural peasants were forbidden from going into the cities to foment revolution. Schools, suspended since May 1966, would re-open.


31 August 1967, Thursday (+8,150) Ilya Ehrenburg, Soviet author, died aged 75.

30 August 1967, Wednesday (+8,149) Ad Reinhardt, US painter, died in new York (born 24 December 1913 in Buffalo, New York)

29 August 1967, Tuesday (+8,148) The Arab Summit opened at Khartoum attended by most of the Arab nations with the exception of Syria. On the first day, they voted to lift an embargo against exports to the United States and the United Kingdom. The bar had been imposed less than three months earlier following the outbreak of the Six-Day War with Israel.

28 August 1967, Monday (+8,147) Death of Charles Darrow, US inventor of the board game Monopoly.

27 August 1967, Sunday (+8,146) Brian Epstein, who managed The Beatles rise to rock stardom, died in a swimming pool accident.

26 August 1967, Saturday (+8,145) Andres Sas, Belgian-Peruvian composer, died aged 67

25 August 1967, Friday (+8,144) John Patler killed the head of the American Nazi Party, George Lincoln Rockwell. Patler had been a Party member until his expulsion shortly before the murder.

24 August 1967, Thursday (+8,143) Car company executive henry J Kaiser died this day aged 85.

23 August 1967, Wednesday (+8,142) Race riots in Detroit.

22 August 1967, Tuesday (+8,141) Red Guards set fire to the British Embassy in Beijing.

21 August 1967, Monday (+8,140) Carrie Anne Moss, actress, was born.

17 August 1967, Thursday (+8,136) West-Indian born civil rights activist Stokely Carmichael rejected the non-violent principles of Martin Luther King Jr, and called on African-Americans to mount an armed revolution.

15 August 1967, Tuesday (+8,134) The Marine Broadcasting Act came into force in the UK, outlawing pop pirate radio stations.

10 August 1967, Thursday (+8,129) Riddick Bowe, boxer, was born.

9 August 1967, Wednesday (+8,128) Joe Orton, English author and playwright, died aged 34.

8 August 1967, Tuesday (+8,127) ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) was founded. The original members were Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei joined in 1984, Vietnam in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997,and Cambodia in 1999. East Timor attempted to join, post-independence, but was blocked by Indonesia.

6 August 1967, Sunday (+8,125)

4 August 1967, Friday (+8,123) The Tagus Road Bridge at Lisbon opened.

3 August 1967, Thursday (+8,122) Siegfried Sassoon, British poet, died.

2 August 1967, Wednesday (+8,121) The second Blackwall road tunnel, London, opened (first tunnel opened 22 May 1897).

1 August 1967, Tuesday (+8,120) (Education-University) The University of Dundee received its Charter. For 70 years before this, it was linked to the University of St Andrews, as University College Dundee, founded 1881.


30 July1967, Sunday (+8,118)

29 July1967, Saturday (+8,117) An earthquake in Caracas, Venezuela killed 240.

28 July1967, Friday (+8,116) The UK steel industry was nationalised.

27 July1967, Thursday (+8,115) (1) In the UK, the Sexual Offences Act partially decriminalised homosexuality. Two men could have sex together if they were above the age of 21.

(2) Robin Scott, the man in charge of the brand new Radio One, announced that should pop music prove to be a passing fad, he would devote the station�s output to �sweet music�.

26 July1967, Wednesday (+8,114)

25 July1967, Tuesday (+8,113) (1) In the UK, the Sexual Offences Act partially decriminalised homosexuality. Two men could have sex together if they were above the age of 21.

(2) During a State visit to Canada, General Charles de Gaulle of France encouraged French-speaking Quebec citizens to break away; he was rebuked for this breach of etiquette by the Canadian Prime Minister and returned to France.

24 July1967, Monday (+8,112) Graham Greene, Francis Crick, and The Beatles were among those who signed a full-page advertisement in The Times, saying the law against marijuana was �immoral in principle and unworkable in practice�.

23 July1967, Sunday (+8,111) Riots broke out in Detroit after police raided a �blind pig�, an unlicensed bar, in the 12th street area of Detroit. In 5 days of disorder, 43 people were killed and 467 injured. 7,200 were arrested and almost 3,000 buildings burnt or looted. The US Army had to go in with tanks and machine guns. The root cause of the riots was credit discrimination by banks against addresses in districts that were mainly Black.

22 July1967, Saturday (+8,110) The US poet Carl Sandburg died in North Carolina.

21 July1967, Friday (+8,109) Majority verdicts were now allowed in UK courts.

20 July1967, Thursday (+8,108)

18 July1967, Tuesday (+8,106) British forces were to withdraw from areas east of Suez by the mid-1970s,

17 July1967, Monday (+8,105) London Street, Norwich, became the UK�s first pedestrianised road.

16 July1967, Sunday (+8,104) Will Ferrell, comedian and actor, was born.

15 July1967, Saturday (+8,103) Israel said it would not comply with the UN request to withdraw from east Jerusalem (4 July1967) and also would not give up the strategically-important Golan Heights.

14 July1967, Friday (+8,102) Parliament in the UK voted to legalise abortion. This was after a record 64 hour debate. This was after a record 64 hour debate. The 1967 Abortion Act allowed for the legal termination of pregnancy if two registered doctors believed that continuation of the pregnancy could damage the physical or mental health of the woman, or of members of her family, or where there was substantial risk of the baby being born with physical or mental abnormalities.

13 July1967, Thursday (+8,101) Thomas Simpson, champion cyclist, died (born 30 November 1937).

12 July1967, Wednesday (+8,100) Five days of race riots, lasting until 17 July1967, broke out in Newark, USA, after an African-American was beaten by police for a traffic offence.

11 July 1967, Tuesday (+8,099) Australian guitarist Craig Ogden was born in Perth.

10 July1967, Monday (+8,098)

8 July1967, Saturday (+8,096) Fatima Jinnah, Pakistani politician, died.

7 July1967, Friday (+8,095) (1) Nigerian troops invaded the breakaway region of Biafra, see 30 May 1967. The Biafrans had, initially, the main oil reserves and the refinery at Port Harcourt, so were able to secure help and weapons from abroad. However they faced an overwhelmingly larger Federal Nigerian Army. The ruler of Nigeria, Gowon, faced the threat of regional secession and was determined to maintain the unity of his country.

(2) Using Sir Francis Drake�s sword, the Queen knighted Sir Francis Chichester, who had sailed solo around the world in Gypsy Moth IV.

6 July1967, Thursday (+8,094)

4 July1967, Tuesday (+8,092) The United Nations asked Israel to withdraw from Arab East Jerusalem.

3 July1967, Monday (+8,091) In Britain, ITV launched News at Ten.

2 July1967, Sunday (+8,090)

1 July1967, Saturday (+8,089) BBC 2 began colour broadcasting in Britain. Wimbledon was covered in colour for the first time.


30 June 1967, Friday (+8,088) Moise Tshombe, former President of Katanga and former prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, was kidnapped to Algeria.

29 June 1967, Thursday (+8,087) American child psychologist Dr Benjamin Spock led a march of nearly 5,000 people in London in protest against the Vietnam War. Eighteen people were arrested as the march headed towards the US Embassy in Grosvenor Square. The Magic Roundabout continued on TV, as did The Man from UNCLE as he battled with the evil THRUSH organisation.

28 June 1967, Wednesday (+8,086) Israel declared the annexation of East Jerusalem.

27 June 1967, Tuesday (+8,085) Barclay�s Bank, in Enfield, north London, opened Britain�s first cash dispenser.

25 June 1967, Sunday (+8,083) The first worldwide TV show was broadcast; via satellite link it reached 26 countries. The programme, Our World, had an estimated audience of 400 million. It concluded with a live Beatles performance of All You Need is Love.

20 June 1967, Tuesday (+8,078) Nicole Kidman, actress, was born.

17 June 1967, Saturday (+8,075) China exploded its first hydrogen bomb. This raised tensions between China and the USSR.

16 June 1967, Friday (+8,074) Reginald Denny, English actor died aged 75.

15 June 1967, Thursday (+8,073) (1) Race riots shook New Jersey, USA, following the arrest of a black taxi driver for a traffic offence. The riots lasted for four nights 1,600 people were arrested, 1,100 were injured, and 22 died.

(2) In Britain the Latey Commission reported that the voting age should be lowered to 18. Films included The Further Perils of Laurel and Hardy. The Guardian TV critic complained that �with the basically green and white Wimbledon being followed by Late Night Line Up with everyone wearing basically black and white� people paying nearly �2 a week to rent the colour sets should be getting �the occasional dazzle�. Whickers World and Till Death do us Part formed part of the TV schedules.

14 June 1967, Wednesday (+8,072) (1) At a telecommunications conference in London, the Postmaster General predicted shopping by picture television and news reports by computer before the end of the century. He went on to discuss the imminent arrival of household robots. Australian and New Zealand woolgrowers expressed concern over the effects of the mini skirt on wool prices, which were down 6d a pound on the last season. On TV, �Games without Frontiers� was on. It�s a Knockout and The Likely Lads was also on.

(2) Gibraltar voted overwhelmingly to stay British. 12,318 voted for Britain, and 44 for Spanish rule. In 2002 the British government was considering sharing sovereignty with Spain but the Gibraltarian governor was to hold an unauthorised referendum, which he believed would show the majority wished to stay British.

13 June 1967, Tuesday (+8,071) Solicitor General Thurgood Marshall was nominated as the first Black American Justice of the US Supreme Court, He served until 1991.

12 June 1967, Monday (+8,070) Venera 4 was launched toward Venus by the Soviet Union.

11 June 1967, Sunday (+8,069) (Medical) Wolfgang Kohler, Russian-German-US psychologist, died in Enfield, New Hampshire, USA.

10 June 1967, Saturday (+8,068) The White House, Washington, received a threat from the USSR over the �hotline� that Russia would get involved in the Israel-Arab conflict to prevent a total Israeli victory. Moscow, ally of Egypt, had moved naval forces from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean and was planning an invasion of Israel from the coast. The world was in danger of a new World War between the USSR and USA, Israel�s ally. Russia�s ultimate failure to intervene caused it to lose some credibility with its other allies such as Cuba. This day Moscow severed diplomatic relations with Israel.

9 June 1967, Friday (+8,067) As Egypt was heavily defeated in the Six Day War, Nasser resigned.

8 June 1967, Thursday (+8,066) The Israeli Air Force, during the Six-Day War, attacked and severely damaged a US research ship, the USS Liberty. Israel maintained that the attack was an accident, the ship having been mistaken for an Egyptian one.

7 June 1967, Wednesday (+8,065) Israeli forces captured Arab East Jerusalem.

6 June 1967, Tuesday (+8,064) Paul Giamatti, US actor, was born.

5 June 1967, Monday (+8,063) 8.00 am local time; The Six Day War began between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq. Israel routed the armies of three Arab nations and occupied an area larger than the entire State of Israel in just six days. The war began after Colonel Nasser, having formed a pact with Syria and Jordan, moved his forces into Sinai and closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. Early on the morning of 5 June 1967 Israel made lightning strikes against Arab airbases, and within 24 hours the Egyptian and other Arab air forces were destroyed. Three Israeli tank divisions moved into the Sinai Desert. The Sinai capital El Arish fell on 6 June 1967 and by then the Egyptian army was in total disarray. By 7 June 1967 King Hussein's Jordanian forces were also routed and most of the West bank, including the Old City of Jerusalem, was in Israeli hands. On 9 June 1967, amid calls for a ceasefire, Israeli forces pressed on to the Suez Canal. Israel also launched an attack on the Golan Heights and by 10 June 12967 had taken these from Syria.

4 June 1967, Sunday (+8,062) British Midland flight G-ALHG crashed in Hopes Carr, Stockport, Manchester, killing 72 passengers and crew.

3 June 1967, Saturday (+8,061)

2 June 1967, Friday (+8,060) Rioting in West Berlin against the visit of the Shah of Iran, in which Benno Ohnesorg was killed by a police officer. His death resulted in the founding of the terrorist group Movement 2 June.

1 June 1967, Thursday (+8,059) (1) Moshe Dayan appointed the Israeli Defence Minister.

(2) the Beatles released their famous album, Sgt Pepper�s Lonely Hearts Club Band.


31 May 1967, Wednesday (+8,058) The President of Iraq stated, �The existence of Israel is an error that must be rectified. This is our opportunity to wipe out the ignominy that has been with us since 1948. Our goal is clear � to wipe Israel off the map�.

30 May 1967, Tuesday (+8,057) Biafra, 44,000 square miles, seceded from Nigeria under the military commander of the Eastern Ibo region, Odumegwu Ojukwu, starting a civil war. See 7 July1967, 19 May 1968, and 12 January 1970. Nigeria at independence in 1960 had a population of around 50 million, consisting mainly of Muslim Hausa and Fulani in the north, Catholic Ibos in the east, and Muslim Yorubas in the west. There was considerable enmity between the Ibos and the Muslims. In January 1966 a coup by Major-General Johnson Ironsi, an Ibo, replaced the civilian post-independence government, This coup provoked a massacre of Ibos in the northern Muslim regions. At end July 1966 a second coup, by northern Army officers, deposed Ironsi, who was then tortured and murdered. General Yakubu Gowon, a Christian from a minority tribe, now came to power. He tried to reassure the Ibos but hundreds of thousands of them fled to the eastern Ibo region for safety. Gowon planned to institute a 12-region federal structure for Nigeria, but the military Governor of the eastern region, Colonel Chukwuemeka Ojukwu, refused to accept this. Ojukwu was a wealthy Ibo, Oxford-educated, who declared the oil-rich Eastern Region independent on 30 May 1967 as Biafra, hoping for support from the oil multinationals. However Nigerian troops overran Biafra, over an extended time period, making Biafra a byword for mass starvation.

Biafran-controlled territory shrank, by September 1968, to a landlocked enclave 100km by 50 km. Ojukwu hired a Swiss public relations firm, Markpress, to plead his cause to the world. Markpress played the religious factor, painting (to the West) Ojukwu as a Christian under Muslim threat; Gowon countered that many on the Nigerian side, including Gowon himself, were also Christian. From August 1968 aid agencies began sending food aid to the starving Biafrans. France backed the Biafran side and sent military aid via Gabon and Cote D�Ivoire. Britain and Russia both backed the Nigerian side. Mercenaries under Colonel Rolf Steiner arrived to bolster the Biafran forces; this held back the Nogerian forces, however only prolonging the suffering of the Biafran people. Nigeria, unable to overcome Steiner�s men, settled upon bombing raids and blockade. Gowon blocked food aid, arguing it was being used as a cover for arms shipments.

29 May 1967, Monday (+8,056) Geronimo Baqueiro Foster, composer, died aged 69.

28 May 1967, Sunday (+8,055) Sir Francis Chichester arrived in Plymouth after a solo voyage around the world in his yacht, Gypsy Moth IV.See 27 August 1966.

27 May 1967, Saturday (+8,054) President Nasser, nine days before the Six Day War began, declared, �Our objective will be the destruction of Israel�.

26 May 1967, Friday (+8,053) Philip Treacy, fashion designer, was born.

25 May 1967, Thursday (+8,052) Johannes Itten, Swiss painter, died in Zurich 9born 11 November 1888 in Sudern Linden)

22 May 1967, Monday (+8,049) (Israel) Egypt began to blockade the Straits of Tiran, the only sea access to the Israeli port of Eilat.

19 May 1967, Friday (+8,046) (Israel) The UN began to withdraw its peacekeeping forces from the Gaza Strip, at the request of Egypt.

17 May 1967, Wednesday (+8,044) Henry Allen, US jazz trumpeter, died in New York (born Algiers, Louisiana, 7 January 1908)

15 May 1967, Monday (+8,042) In the village of Naxalbari, West Bengal, peasants rebelled against landowners. This was the start of the Maoist rebel Naxalite movement in eastern India.

14 May 1967, Sunday (+8,041) Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King was consecrated.

12 May 1967, Friday (+8,039) The British Government chose Stansted as the site for London�s third airport. Protestors won another enquiry, scheduled for February 1968.

8 May 1967, Monday (+8,035) Laverne Andrews, US musician, died (born 6 July1915 in Minneapolis).

4 May 1967, Thursday (+8,031) NASA launched the Lunar Orbiter 4 probe towards the Moon. It took the first photographs of the lunar south pole before crashing.


27 April 1967, Thursday (+8,024) The Expo �67 exhibition opened in Montreal. It closed on 31 October 1967.

26 April 1967, Wednesday (+8,023) William Davies, rugby player, died (born 21 June 1890).

25 April 1967, Tuesday (+8,022) Colorado became the first US State to liberalise its abortion laws. Abortion was now permissible in the case of rape or incest, where the woman�s physical or mental health was in danger, or was likely to result in a child with severe mental or physical issues. The abortion had to be performed in a licenced hospital with the approval of three physicians.

24 April 1967, Monday (+8,021) The first space casualty occurred when Vladimir Komarov was killed as the Russian spacecraft Soyuz I crashed to earth after leaving orbit. It came to earth on the Steppes of Orenburg.

22 April 1967, Saturday (+8,019)

21 April 1967, Friday (+8,018) Colonels in Greece under Papadopolous took power in a military coup; parliamentary democracy was suspended. King Constantine II initially collaborated with the colonels until 13 December 1967 but then unsuccessfully attempted a counter coup.He later fled to Rome.

20 April 1967, Thursday (+8,017) A Swiss Global Air Britannia airliner was hit by lightning and crashed at Nicosia Airport, Cyprus, killing 126.

19 April 1967, Wednesday (+8,016) Konrad Adenauer, West German Chancellor from 1949 to 1963, died.

17 April 1967, Monday (+8,014) NASA launched the Surveyor 3 probe towards the Moon

15 April 1967, Saturday (+8,012) 100,000 protested against the Vietnam War in New York.

12 April 1967, Wednesday (+8,009) The UK� reached parity with the US$.

5 April 1967, Wednesday (+8,002) Mischa Elman, Russian-US violinist, died in New York (born 20 January 1891 in Talnoye, Russia).

4 April 1967, Tuesday (+8,001) Martin Luther King denounced the Vietnam War.

3 April 1967, Monday (+8,000)

1 April 1967, Saturday (+7,998) (1) The Territorial and Army Volunteer Reserves formed.

(2) Britain�s first Ombudsman was created, Sir Edmund Compton.

(3) Front seat seatbelts became compulsory on all UK cars registered from this date.


31 March 1967, Friday (+7,997) The Supreme Headquarters of NATO moved from France to Casteau, Belgium.

30 March 1967, Thursday (+7,996) The Torrey Canyon was finally destroyed by RAF bombing.

28 March 1967, Tuesday (+7,994)

27 March 1967, Monday (+7,993) (Chemistry) Jaroslav Heyrovsky, physical chemist, died in Prague.

26 March 1967, Sunday (+7,992) Easter Sunday. 10,000 hippies held a rally in New York's Central Park.

23 March 1967, Thursday (+7,989) Pete Johnson, US pianist, died in Buffalo, New York (born 24 March 1904 in Kansas City)

21 March 1967, Tuesday (+7,987)

19 March 1967, Sunday (+7,985) French Somaliland (now Djibouti) rejected independence in areferendum.

18 March 1967, Saturday (+7,984) The Torrey Canyon ran aground on the Seven Stones reef off Lands End. The 975 foot tanker spilled 117,000 tons of Kuwaiti crude oil that was bound for Milford Haven. Within six days 30,000 tons of oil had escaped producing a 260 square mile slick. Thousands of gallons of detergent were dumped on the slick, but two days later the tanker broke her back during a salvage attempt, releasing a further 30,000 tons of oil. On 28 and 29 March the RAF took emergency action, and tried to burn off the oil. They dumped aviation fuel, high explosive bombs, rockets, and napalm onto the slick. The six hour bombardment was a success but by then the oil had fouled 100 miles of Cornish coastline.

15 March 1967, Wednesday (+7,981)

12 March 1967, Sunday (+7,978) Mrs Ghandi re-elected Prime Minister of India.

11 March 1967, Saturday (+7,977) Geraldine Farrar, US opera singer, died in Ridgefield, Connecticut (born in Melrose, Massachusetts, 28 February 1882).

10 March 1967, Friday (+7.976) The US bombed industrial targets in North Vietnam.

9 March 1967, Thursday (+7,975) Svetlana Alliluyeva, daughter of Joseph Stalin, defected to the West, requesting political asylum at the US Embassy in India.

8 March 1967, Wednesday (+7,974)

7 March 1967, Tuesday (+7,973) The first North Sea gas was brought ashore in Britain.

6 March 1967, Monday (+7,972) Hungarian composer Zoltan Kodaly died.

5 March 1967, Sunday (+7,971)

3 March 1967, Friday (+7,969) US President Lyndon B Johnson announced his plan to establish a draft lottery to send troops to Vietnam.

2 March 1967, Thursday (+7,968) Thailand gave permission to the USA for its bombers to operate from Thai air bases.

1 March 1967, Wednesday (+7,967) The Queen Elizabeth Hall, London (conference centre) opened.


26 February 1967, Sunday (+7,964) The US stepped up the Vietnam war with an attack on the Vietcong HQ.

24 February 1967, Friday (+7,962) Franz Waxman, composer, died in Los Angeles (born 24 December 1906 in Konigshutte, Germany)

22 February 1967, Wednesday (+7,960) Suharto replaced Sukarno as President of Indonesia.

20 February 1967, Monday (+7.958) Kurt Cobain, guitarist, was born.

18 February 1967, Saturday (+7,956) Robert Oppenheiner, American scientist who developed the US atom bomb, died in Princeton, New Jersey.

17 February 1967, Friday (+7,955) The Beatles� hit, Penny Lane/Strawberry Fields Forever single was released.

15 February 1967, Wednesday (+7,953)

14 February 1967, Tuesday (+7,952) 100 Labour MPs in Westminster condemned the US bombing of Vietnam. On 26 February 1967 the US stepped up the war by attacking the Vietcong's HQ.

13 February 1967, Monday (+7,951) The Kirkham to Blackpool South (direct) railway closed.

12 February 1967, Sunday (+7,950) Francis Joseph Spanier, US jazz cornetist, died in Sausalito, California (born 9 November 1906 in Chicago)

10 February 1967, Friday (+7,948) Laura Dern, actress, was born.

8 February 1967, Wednesday (+7,946) Rachel Cusk, author, was born

7 February 1967, Tuesday (+7,945) In Britain the Far Right anti-immigration National Front party was formed. It was founded by AK Chesterton, cousin of the famous author.

5 February 1967, Sunday (+7,943) Somoza�s son, Anastasio, became President of Nicaragua.

3 February 1967, Friday (+7,941) In Australia, Ronald Ryan became the last person to be hanged, at Penkridge Prison, Melbourne, for murdering a prison guard when he escaped from prison in December 1965.


29 January 1967, Sunday (+7,936) President Julius Nyerere of Tanzania issued the Arusha Declaration. It set out principles of �African Socialism� which proved to be politically popular but economically disastrous.

27 January 1967, Friday (+7,934) Fire broke out on the spacecraft Apollo I during ground tests at Cape Kennedy. Virgil Grissom, Edward White, and Roger Chaffee were killed. Normally fire-resistant plastics ignited in the pure oxygen used by the astronauts.

26 January 1967, Thursday (+7,933) Red Guards besieged the Soviet Embassy in Beijing, alleging mistreatment of Chinese students in Moscow.

25 January 1967, Wednesday (+7,932) David Ginola, footballer, was born

24 January 1967, Tuesday (+7,931)

23 January 1967, Monday (+7,930) (Britain) Milton Keynes was inaugurated as a New Town.

22 January 1967, Sunday (+7,929) Nicholas Gillingham, champion swimmer, was born.

18 January 1967, Wednesday (+7,925) Jeremy Thorpe, born on 29 April 1929, became leader of the Liberal Party, replacing Joe Grimond. Thorpe resigned on 10 May 1976.

15 January 1967, Sunday (+7,922) Albert Sirmay, composer, died in New York (born 2 July1918 in Budapest)

14 January 1967, Saturday (+7,921) Emily Watson, actress, was born.

13 January 1967, Friday (+7,920) Coup in Togo. Army Chief of Staff Lieutenant Colonel Etienne Eyadema deposed President Nicolas Grunitzky.

12 January 1967, Thursday (+7,919) Plans were announced for a new city at Milton Keynes.

11 January 1967, Wednesday (+7,018) In Britain, the Society for the Protection of Unborn Children was formed.

10 January 1967, Tuesday (+7,917) Charles Burchfield, US painter, died in Seneca, New York (born 9 April 1893 in Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio)

9 January 1967, Monday (+7,916) Claudio Cabiggia, Argentinean footballer, was born.

8 January 1967, Sunday (+7,915) Rioting in Shanghai, China, as workers went on strike.

6 January 1967, Friday (+7,914)

5 January 1967, Thursday (+7,911) The BBC TV show Gardener�s World was firs broadcast.

4 January 1967, Wednesday (+7,911) Donald Campbell died attempting to break his own water speed record of 276.33 mph on Coniston Water in the Lake District. He had made one run, then turned for another run too soon, and his boat hit its own wake and catapulted out of the water. His boat was called Bluebird K 7.

3 January 1967, Tuesday (+7,910) Jack Ruby, who shot Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of President Kennedy, died of natural causes at a Dallas hospital. Mr Ruby was awaiting the retrial of his murder case.

2 January 1967, Monday (+7,909) Groombridge to Three Bridges railway closed. Stopping services withdrawn Ipswich to Norwich via Stowmarket.

1 January 1967, Sunday (+7,908) Maurice Leyland, cricketer, died (born 20 July1900).


31 December 1966, Saturday (+7,907)

29 December 1966, Thursday (+7,905) Martin Offiah, rugby player, was born.

28 December 1966, Wednesday (+7,904) Westminster Abbey celebrated its 900th anniversary.

26 December 1966, Monday (+7,902) The US now had 389,000 troops in South Vietnam.

25 December 1955, Sunday (+7,901)

23 December 1966, Friday (+7,899) Heimito von Doderer, Austrian novelist (born 5 November 1896 in Vienna) died in Vienna.

22 December 1966, Thursday (+7,898) Rhodesia left the Commonwealth.

21 December 1966, Wednesday (+7,897) Kiefer Sutherland, actor, was born.

18 December 1966, Sunday (+7,894)

15 December 1966, Thursday (+7,891) Walt Disney, US film producer and leader in animation, died aged 65.

13 December 1966, Tuesday (+7,889) Russia launched the Luna 13 probe towards the Moon.

8 December 1966, Thursday (+7,884) Sinead O�Connor, singer, was born.

6 December 1966, Tuesday (+7,882) Ian Smith of Rhodesia refused UK government proposals to end UDI. Rhodesia left the Commonwealth on 22 December 1966.

5 December 1966, Monday (+7,881) Jiang Qing, wife of Chairman Mao, encouraged the Red Guards, the Chinese Army, to join the struggle of the Cultural Revolution. However the military was about the only organised tool of government still functioning in an orderly manner. Despite her best efforts., most units of the People�s Liberation Army continued to maintain a degree of law and order. Otherwise, China was teetering on the brink of anarchy and civil war.

4 December 1966, Sunday (+7,880)

2 December 1966, Friday (+7,878) British Prime Minister Harold Wilson met Ian Smith on HMS Tiger off Gibraltar, for talks on the independence of Rhodesia.

1 December 1966, Thursday (+7,877) Britain�s Post Offices issued the first Christmas Stamps.


30 November 1966, Wednesday (+7,876) Barbados proclaimed full independence.

29 November 1966, Tuesday (+7,875)

27 November 1966, Sunday (+7,873) Richard Corsie, bowls champion, was born.

26 November 1966, Saturday (+7,872) Charles De Gaulle in Brittany opened the world�s first tidal power station.It was in the Rance Estuary, in the Golfe de St Malo. The station, first planned in 1955, cost French Francs 420 million (UK� 42 million) to build.

24 November 1966, Thursday (+7,870) English singer Russell Watson was born in Salford.

19 November 1966, Saturday (+7.,865) Ivan Lawler, canoeing champion, was born.

17 November 1966, Thursday (+7,863) Jeff Buckley, musician, was born.

15 November 1966, Tuesday (+7,861) William Zorach, sculptor, died in Bath, Maine, USA (born in Yurbarkas, Lithuania)

14 November 1966, Monday (+7,860) Desmond Cox, British composer, died in London.

13 November 1966, Sunday (+7,859)

12 November 1966, Saturday (+7,858) David Schwimmer, actor, was born.

11 November 1966, Friday (+7,857) (Space exploration) Final mission of the Gemini series. James A Lovell and Edwin E Aldrin completed 5 hours of extra-vehicular activity.

10 November 1966, Thursday (+7,856) The UK held discussions about entry to the EEC.

9 November 1966, Wednesday (+7,855) Severe flooding hit Florence, ruining many art treasures. The River Arno burst its banks after heavy rain upstream from the city which was situated in a narrow valley, and 100 people died.

8 November 1966, Tuesday (+7,854) Edward Brooke became the USA�s first black senator.

6 November 1966, Sunday (+7,852) NASA launched the Lunar Orbiter 2 probe towards the Moon

4 November 1966, Friday (+7,850) Gary Havelock, speedway champion, was born.


31 October 1966, Monday (+7,846)

27 October 1967, Thursday (+7,842) China succeeded in launching a nuclear warhead froma guided missile.

26 October 1966, Wednesday (+7,841) US President Johnson visited US troops in Vietnam.

25 October 1966, Tuesday (+7,840) A military court in Jakarta sentenced Indonesia's ex-foreign minister Subandrio to death, on charges of being involved in the 30 September Movement. The sentence was reduced to life imprisonment on the intervention of the British government.

24 October 1966, Monday (+7,839) Sam Hardy, footballer, died (born 26 August 1883).

23 October 1966, Sunday (+7,838) BP announced the discovery of large gas fields in the North Sea.

22 October 1966, Saturday (+7,837) KGB master spy George Blake escaped from Wormwood Scrubs, using a home-made rope ladder to scale the high perimeter wall,He had been serving a 42-year sentence for espionage meted out in 1962, one year for each of the lives his treachery was estimated to have cost. On 20 November 1966 he arrived in East Berlin.

21 October 1966, Friday (+7,836) The Aberfan disaster. A coal waste tip collapsed at 9.30am, burying a school in the Welsh Valleys, shortly after the children had arrived for morning assembly. It was a half day and by midday the schools would have been empty again for the half term holiday. 2 million tons of rock and sludge engulfed both the infants and junior schools. Also engulfed were a row of cottages and a farm; 147 people, 116 of them children, were killed. Aberfan was a close-knit community, and now had just five surviving children. The National Coal Board was blamed for siting the colliery waste tip on top of a natural spring; heavy rain had further destabilised the waste heap.

20 October 1966, Thursday (+7,835) Mohamed Fawzi, Egyptian composer who wrote the music adopted in 1963 as the National Anthem of Algeria, died aged 48.

19 October 1966, Wednesday (+7,834) US President Johnson began a tour of SW Pacific countries to bolster support against North Vietnam. By end 1966, there were some 390,000 US troops in South Vietnam.

18 October 1966, Tuesday (+7,833) (1) Death of the cosmetic company founder, Elizabeth Arden.

(2) The hanged Timothy Evans won a posthumous Royal Pardon, see 15 July1953.

17 October 1966, Monday (+7,832) Shaun Edwards, rugby player, was born in Wigan.

15 October 1966, Saturday (+7,830) (1) In the USA, the Endangered Species Preservation Act came into force. Initially, 78 species in danger were listed. By April 1999, some species, such as the bald eagle and the black footed ferret, have come off the critical list but a further 925 species remained listed.

(2) The US Department of Transportation was created, and began operations in 1967.

13 October 1966, Thursday (+7,828) John Regis, athlete (sprinting), was born.

11 October 1966, Tuesday (+7,826) Luke Perry, actor, was born.

10 October 1966, Monday (+7,825) Simon and Garfunkel released their album Parsley Sage Rosemary and Thyme.

9 October 1966, Sunday (+7,824) David Cameron, UK Conservative Prime Minister 2010 - 2016, was born in Marylebone, London.

8 October 1966, Saturday (+7,823) Kevin Fleming O'Brien, US writer, was born.

7 October 1966, Friday (+7,822) The USSR expelled all Chinese students.

6 October 1966, Thursday (+7,821) (1) The EEC published an adverse report on the UK economy; the UK was trying to join the EEC.

(2) California made possession of LSD illegal.

5 October 1966, Wednesday (+7,820) Spain closed the frontier with Gibraltar to all but pedestrian traffic.

4 October 1966, Tuesday (+7,819) Lesotho became independent. It had been formerly known as Basutoland, and had been a British Protectorate since 1868.

3 October 1966, Monday (+7,818)

1 October 1966, Saturday (+7,716) Albert Speer, Hitler�s architect, was released from Spandau prison, West Berlin, along with Nazi Baldur von Shirach, having completed their 20 year sentences. Rudolf Hess, serving a life sentence, was now the sole inmate.


30 September 1966, Friday (+7,815) Botswana became independent. It had formerly been called Bechuanaland.Sir Setese Khama was its first President.

29 September 1966, Thursday (+7,814) Argentina raided the Falkland Islands.

28 September 1966, Wednesday (+7,813) Andre Breton, French poet, died.

26 September 1966, Monday (+7,811)

24 September 1966, Saturday (+7,809) Michael J Varhola, author, was born.

23 September 1966, Friday (+7,808) USA planes dropped tons of herbicides on Vietnam turning the demilitarised zone between North and South Vietnam into a barren wasteland.

Mr Joe Kagan, raincoat maker to Mr Harold Wilson, suggested that by the 1980s men would be wearing something like a mini skirt with a toga over it in cold weather. On TV Emergency Ward Ten was on as Patrick Mc Goohan�s Danger Man was about to give way to The Prisoner.

22 September 1966, Thursday (+7,887) (Science) Vladimir Iosofovich, Soviet physicist, died in Moscow.

20 September 1966, Tuesday (+7,805) NASA launched the Surveyor 2 probe towards the Moon

17 September 1966, Saturday (+7,802) German tenor singer Fritz Wunderlich died in Berlin.

16 September 1966, Friday (+7,801) Britain�s first Polaris nuclear submarine, the Resolution, was launched by the Queen Mother.

15 September 1966, Thursday (+7,800) Responding to a sniper gun attack at the University of Texas, US President Lyndon Johnson called on US Congress to enact gun control legislation.

14 September 1966, Wednesday (+7,799) Aamer Sohail, Pakistani cricketer, was born in Lahore

13 September 1966, Tuesday (+7,798) Johannes Vorster was sworn in as President of South Africa.

12 September 1966, Monday (+7,797) In Mississippi, USA, White parents rioted, attacking Black schoolchildren who were attending racially-integrated schools.

11 September 1966, Sunday (+7,796) Race riots in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

10 September 1966, Saturday (+7,795) (1) Ireland said it would introduce free post-primary education from 1967.

(2) Sir Seretse Khama became President of the new Republic of Ghana.

9 September 1966, Friday (+7,794) (1) (Universities) The University of Surrey, Guildford, was founded.

(2) In the USA, the sci-fi drama Star Trek premiered on NBC TV.

8 September 1966, Thursday (+7,793) Queen Elizabeth II opened the Severn Bridge. The career of ferryman Enoch Williams, who had carried passengers and cars across the Severn estuary since starting his business on the first day of the General Strike 1926, ended.

7 September 1966, Wednesday (+7,792) Toby Jones, English film actor, was born in Hammersmith, London

6 September 1966, Tuesday (+7,791) South African Prime Minister Dr Hendrik Voerwoerd, aged 65, was assassinated, stabbed four times in the chest by a White Parliamentary messenger, with a stiletto, because �his Government didn�t do enough for Whites�. Voerwoerd had, since 1950, created semi-independent and poverty stricken �homelands� for South Africa�s 73% Black majority, covering just 13% of South African territory; effectively creating a White majority in the remainder of the country.

5 September 1966, Monday (+7,790) Antony Ringer, shooting champion, was born.

4 September 1966, Sunday (+7,789) Bireli Lagrene, French jazz guitarist, was born in Alsace, France.

3 September 1966, Saturday (+7,788) Captain Ridgeway and Sergeant Blyth became the first Britons to row across the Atlantic.The journey, in English Rose III, took 91 days.

2 September 1966, Friday (+7,787) Governor George Wallace of Georgia, USA, forbade the State�s schools from complying with Federal US desegregation requirements.


29 August 1966, Monday (+7,783) The Beatles gave their last live concert performance in Candlestick Park, San Francisco.

27 August 1966, Saturday (+7,781) Francis Chichester left Plymouth on his solo round the world voyage in the yacht Gypsy Moth IV.He arrived back in Plymouth on 28 May 1967.

26 August 1966, Friday (+7,780) Michael McTigue, boxer, died.

25 August 1966, Thursday (+7,779)

23 August 1966, Tuesday (+7,777) The Cotswolds were designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

22 August 1966, Monday (+7,776) GZA, rapper, was born,

21 August 1966, Sunday (+7,775)

20 August 1966, Saturday (+7,774) Dimebag Durrell, musician, was born.

19 August 1966, Friday (+7,773) Earthquake in eastern Turkey killed 2,000.

18 August 1966, Thursday (+7,772) The Queen Mother opened the Tay Road Bridge.

17 August 1966, Wednesday (+7,771) William E Dudley, poet, was born.

16 August 1966, Tuesday (+7,770)

14 August 1966, Sunday (+7,768) Halle Berry, actress, was born.

13 August 1966. Saturday (+7,767) Chairman Mao of China announced a 'cultural revolution'. On 18 August 1966 Mao appeared on the gallery of the Tiananmen Gate in Peking to a crowd of over a million Red Guards. Then the student Red Guards spread out into China to radicalise the towns and countryside.

12 August 1966, Friday (+7,766) Les Ferdinand, footballer, was born

11 August 1966, Thursday (+7,765) Malaysia and Indonesia ended a 3 year war.

10 August 1966, Wednesday (+7,764) America�s first Moon satellite, Orbiter 1, was launched.

9 August 1966, Tuesday (+7,763) Giorgi Leonidze, Georgian poet and author, died aged 66.

8 August 1966, Monday (+7,762) Christopher Eubank, boxer, was born in Dulwich, London.

7 August 1966, Sunday (+7,761) Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Wikipedia, was born

6 August 1966, Saturday (+7,560) Portugal opened what was then Europe�s longest suspension bridge, the Ponte Salazar, 7,427 feet long across the River Tagus near Lisbon. The main span was 3,323 feet long.

5 August 1966, Friday (+7,559) Groundbreaking took place for the World Trade Centre in New York City, as jackhammers began breaking pavement at the former site of Radio Row.

4 August 1966, Thursday (+7,758) John Lennon suggested that The Beatles were �more popular than Jesus�. Within days US radio stations had banned their music and there were public bonfires of their records.

3 August 1966, Wednesday (+7,757) US nightclub comedian Lenny Bruce was found dead at his Hollywood house.

2 August 1966, Tuesday (+7,756) Hristo Stoichkov, Bulgarian footballer, was born.

1 August 1966, Monday (+7,755) (1) In Austin, USA, Charles Whitman shot dead 12 people at Texas University before being shot dead himself by policemen.

(2) The Minitz to St Erhard line, Austria, closed.


31 July1966, Sunday (+7,754) In the US, there were race riots in Chicago, New York, and Cleveland.

30 July1966, Saturday (+7,753) England beat West Germany 4 � 2 in extra time (towards the end of normal time England were 2-1 ahead, but Germany secured a last-minute equaliser) to win the World Cup at Wembley Stadium, London.

29 July1966, Friday (+7,752) General Yakubu Gowon succeeded General Ironsi as ruler of Nigeria, after an army mutiny.

28 July1966, Thursday (+7,751) Florence Nagle, 70,became the first woman racecourse trainer.

27 July1966, Wednesday (+7,750) In the USA, cigarette packets had to carry labels warning of the health risks.

26 July1966, Tuesday (+7,749)

24 July1966, Sunday (+7,747) Martin Keown, footballer, was born.

23 July1966, Saturday (+7,746) Montgomery Clift, actor, died.

22 July1966, Friday (+7,745)

21 July1966, Thursday (+7,744) The first Welsh Nationalist MP, Gwynfor Evans, took his seat in Parliament after a by-election.

20 July1966, Wednesday (+7,743) (1) Harold Wilson imposed a wages freeze in the UK. Inflation was high.

(2) Racial unrest continued in Brooklyn, New York, resulting in the fatal stabbing of an 11 year old boy. There were other racial tensions across the USA.

(3) Reverend Ian Paisley was jailed for breaching the peace at a church assembly in June.

18 July1966, Monday (+7,741) The US launched the Gemini 10 spacecraft, crewed by John Young and Michael Collins.

16 July1966, Saturday (+7,739) Race riots in Chicago caused Governor Kerner to call out 3,000 men from the Illinois National Guard who supplemented 900 police facing 5,000 rioters.

The Home Secretary Roy Jenkins decided that the drug LSD-25 should be controlled under the Drugs (Prevention of Misuse) Act, following a rise in use of the drug by young people.

Doctor Who continued to entertain on TV, and scare kids into hiding behind the sofa so the Daleks wouldn�t get them.

14 July1966, Thursday (+7,737) The Welsh Nationalists won their first by-election, at Carmarthen

5 July1966, Tuesday (+7,728) Dozens of captured USA airmen in the Vietnam War were paraded through the streets of Hanoi to shouts of �death to the American air pirates�.

4 July1966, Monday (+7,727) Start of a 3-day Warsaw Pact meeting in Bucharest where Nicolae Ceausescu craftily suggested that both the Warsaw Pact and NATO be disbanded, knowing that this would leave western Europe more vulnerable to Russia.

3 July1966, Sunday (+7,726) Anti-Vietnam war protests outside the US Embassy, London.

2 July1966, Saturday (+7,725) France exploded its 5th atomic bomb at Mururoa Atoll.

1 July1966, Friday (+7,724) (1) In the UK, the average wage for teachers was �1,400 per year (152% of average pay). A top league footballer earned �5,200, and a manual worker was on �1,040 a year, 112% of average. A GP earned �2,964, 320% of average. A train driver earned �884, 95% of average pay. Average pay in 1966 was �1,220 for men, and �630 for women. The average annual wage was �926. A pint of beer cost 2 shillings (10p). A two bedroom terraced house in Northampton cost �1,150. A gallon of petrol cost 5s 3d (26p). An off-the-peg Burton�s suit cost �15.

(2) France withdrew its armed forces from NATO.


30 June 1966, Thursday (+7,723) Mike Tyson, boxer, was born.

29 June 1966, Wednesday (+7,722) Barclaycard, the first British credit card, was introduced.

28 June 1966, Tuesday (+7,721) John Cusack, actor, was born.

27 June 1966, Monday (+7,720) JJ Abrams, TV producer, was born.

21 June 1966, Tuesday (+7,714)

19 June 1966, Sunday (+7,712) Ed Wynn, US actor, died in Beverly Hills, California (born 9 November 1886 in Philadelphia)

18 June 1966, Saturday (+7,711) Sharon Rendle, judo champion, was born.

17 June 1966, Friday (+7.710) Jean Arp, painter, died in Basel aged 78.

14 June 1966, Tuesday (+7,707) Pope Paul VI abolished the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, the list of books that Catholics were forbidden from reading.

10 June 1966, Friday (+7,703) David Platt, footballer, was born.

7 June 1966, Tuesday (+7,700) Demonstrations in East Pakistan, demanding greater autonomy.

6 June 1966, Monday (+7,699) (1) Britain outlawed the Ulster Volunteer Force.

(2) On British TV the first episode of Till Death Us Do Part was showing, with Warren Mitchell as Alf Garnett.

5 June 1966, Sunday (+7,698)

4 June 1966, Saturday (+7,697) Cecelia Bartoli, mezzo-soprano singer, was born.

3 June 1966, Friday (+7,696) Gemini 9 was launched, with 2 astronauts on board.

2 June 1966, Thursday (+7,695) (1) Eamon de Valera was re-elected president of Eire, now aged 83.

(2) The US unmanned spacecraft Surveyor made the first soft landing on the Moon.

(3) Philips Petroleum found a large gas field off the Humber estuary.

1 June 1966, Wednesday (+7,694) Folk music fans at the Albert Hall booed Bob Dylan for performing with an electric guitar.


31 May 1966, Tuesday (+7,693) In South Vietnam, anti-Government Buddhist protestors set fire to the US Consulate in Hue.

30 May 1966, Monday (+7,692) NASA launched the Surveyor 1 probe towards the Moon

26 May 1966, Thursday (+7,688) Guyana became independent, under President Burnham. It was formerly known as British Guyana.

24 May 1966, Tuesday (+7,666) Eric Cantona, French footballer, was born,

23 May 1966, Monday (+7,685) In Britain, a State of Emergency was declared in response to the Seamen�s strike.

22 May 1966, Sunday (+7,684) Thomas Goddard, cricketer, died.

20 May 1966, Friday (+7,682)

17 May 1966, Tuesday (+7,679) Randolph Turpin, boxer, died.

16 May 1966, Monday (+7,678) Post Office Tower, London, opened to the public.

13 May 1966, Friday (+6,765)

10 May 1966, Tuesday (+7,672) Jonathan Edwards, triple jump athlete, was born.

9 May 1966, Monday (+7,671) Alfred Mendelsohn, composer, died.

8 May 1966, Sunday (+7,670) China exploded a third thermonuclear bomb.

6 May 1966, Friday (+7,668) The Moors murderers Ian Brady, 28, and Myra Hindley, 24, were found guilty of murder at Chester Crown Court and jailed for life.

4 May 1966, Wednesday (+7,666) Amedee Ozenfant, French painter, died in Cannes (born 15 April 1886 in Saint Quentin)

2 May 1966, Monday (+7,664) The Times carried news headlines on its frontpage instead of advertising for the first time.

1 May 1966, Sunday (+7,663) (Cambodia) The US shelled Cambodia after US forces on the Vietnamese side of the Calibac River came under fire from the Cambodian side. This was the first time US forces had targeted Cambodian soil.


30 April 1966, Saturday (+7,662) A regular hovercraft service began across the English Channel between Calais and Ramsgate.

29 April 1966, Friday (+7,661) William Eccles, physicist, died.

28 April 1966, Thursday (+7,660) John Daly, golf player, was born.

24 April 1966, Sunday (+7,656) Alessandro Costacurta, Italian footballer, was born.

21 April 1966, Thursday (+7,653) The opening of the UK Parliament was televised for the first time.

19 April 1966, Tuesday (+7,651) (Education, University) Loughborough University of Technology became Britain�s first technological university.

18 April 1966, Monday (+7,650) The Metropolitan Opera House, New York, closed after 83 years.

17 April 1966, Sunday (+7,649)

16 April 1966, Saturday (+7,648) General Abdul Rahman Arif succeeded his brother as President of Iraq.

15 April 1966, Friday (+7,647) Time Magazine declared London �the city of the decade�, for its fashion, and opportunities for young people.

14 April 1966, Thursday (+7,646) The South Downs was designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

13 April 1966, Wednesday (+7,645) Carlo Carra, Italian painter, died in Milan (born 11 February 1881 in Piedmont)

12 April 1966, Tuesday (+7,644)

10 April 1966, Sunday (+7,642) Easter Sunday. British author Evelyn Waugh died.

9 April 1966, Saturday (+7,641) The UN authorised Britain to seize by force any oil being shipped to Rhodesia.

8 April 1966, Friday (+7,640) Mazinho, Brazilian footballer, was born.

7 April 1966, Thursday (+7,639) The US recovered an atom bomb that had been accidentally dropped into the Atlantic ocean after a mid-air collision.

6 April 1966, Wednesday (+7,638) Increased ferry tolls sparked riots in Hong Kong.

5 April 1966, Tuesday (+7.637) (1) Shell announced the discovery of oil off Great Yarmouth.

(2) Canada�s House of Commons voted to retain the death penalty.

4 April 1966, Monday (+7,636) Soviet spacecraft orbited the Moon.

3 April 1966, Sunday (+7,635) Miina Tominaga, Japanese actress, was born in Hiroshima, Japan.

2 April 1966, Saturday (+7,634) Protests in Saigon as demonstrators demanded an end to military rule.

1 April 1966, Friday (+7,633) The newly-created British Airports Authority took responsibility for London�s� Gatwick and Heathrow Airports.


31 March 1966, Thursday (+7,632) General Election in the UK. Labour under Harold Wilson won a landslide victory, gaining a majority of 66. Labour won 363 seats, the Conservatives won 253 seats, and the Liberals won 12.

30 March 1966, Wednesday (+7,631) In South Africa, the National Party won a large majority in elections.

27 March 1966, Sunday (+7,628) The football World Cup, which had been stolen a few days earlier, was discovered in a south London garden by a sniffer dog.

23 March 1966, Wednesday (+7,624) (1) In Rome the first official meeting for 400 years between the heads of the Catholic and Anglican Churches took place, Pope Paul VI met with Dr Michael Ramsey, Archbishop of Canterbury.

(2) In New York, 20,000 people marched down Fifth Avenue demanding an end to the Vietnam War.

17 March 1966, Thursday (+7,618) US astronauts docked in space.

16 March 1966, Wednesday (+7,617) Anti-communist demonstrations in Indonesia.

15 March 1966, Tuesday (+7,616) The US spacecraft Gemini 8 was launched, with Neil Armstrong and David Scott.

14 March 1966, Monday (+7,615) Britain�s first Asian policeman, Muhammad Yusuf, was sworn in to the Coventry force.

13 March 1966, Sunday (+7,614) (Sports) Akira Nogami, wrestler, was born.

12 March 1966, Saturday (+7,613) (Indonesia) General Suharto assumed power in an army coup in Indonesia. He forced Sukarno, held under armed guard in the Presidential Palace, to sign an order giving him executive authority Suharto swiftly moved to annihilate the Communist Party, resulting in a massacre of between 250,000 and 500,000 people. Not only Communists were killed, but also many ethnic Chinese, who had gained a powerful economic position in Indonesia.

11 March 1966, Friday (+7,612) De Gaulle announced that France was to withdraw from NATO and that NATO must remove its bases from France by the end of 1966.

10 March 1966, Thursday (+7,611) Anti-Government demonstrations in South Vietnam by Buddhists after the dismissal of Buddhist General Thi.

9 March 1966, Wednesday (+7,610) Tony Lockett, Australian footballer, was born.

8 March 1966, Tuesday (+7,609) Australia tripled its force in Vietnam to 4,500 troops.

7 March 1966, Monday (+7,608) Joy Tanner, US actress, was born.

6 March 1966, Sunday (+7,607) Food riots in West Bengal, India, spreading to Kolkata and Delhi.

5 March 1966, Saturday (+7,606) The IRA destroyed the Nelson Column in Dublin by a bomb.

4 March 1966, Friday (+7,605) John Lennon asserted that The Beatles were more popular than Jesus Christ. In response, Beatles records were burnt in the US Bible Belt.

3 March 1966, Thursday (+7,604) Fernando Colunga, actor, was born.

2 March 1966, Wednesday (+7,603) Britain protested to Portugal about oil supplies reaching Rhodesia via Mozambique.

1 March 1966, Tuesday (+7,602) The Russian spacecraft Venus III became the first man-made object to land on another planet when it made a hard landing on Venus. It had been launched on 16 November 1965.


28 February 1966, Monday (+7,601) The Cavern Club, where The Beatles first played, went into liquidation.

27 February 1966, Sunday (+7,600) Donal Logue, Canadian actor, was born

26 February 1966, Saturday (+7,599) The last scheduled steam train left Scunthorpe railway depot. It was a freight train to west Yorkshire. All subsequent scheduled trains were diesel hauled, although some steam services from the Yorkshire area ran to Scunthorpe until Spring 1967.

25 February 1966, Friday (+7,598) Alexis Denisof, US actor, was born.

24 February 1966, Thursday (+7,597) Kwame Nkrumah, President of Ghana since its independence in 1957, was overthrown by an army coup and went into exile in Guinea.

23 February 1966, Wednesday (+7,596) A military junta seized power in Syria.

22 February 1966, Tuesday (+7,595) Rachel Dratch, US actress, was born

21 February 1966, Monday (+7,594) Saudi King Faisal said he had ended aid to the Yemeni Royalists, and called on Nasser to withdraw his Egyptian troops, who were helping the Yemeni Republicans. However Nasser said the 60,000 UAR troops would s remain in Yemen until a plebiscite. Fighting between Royalists and Republicans restarted.

20 February 1966, Sunday (+7,593) Chester Nimitz, American General and Pacific Fleet Commander in World War II, died in San Francisco, four days before his 81st birthday.

19 February 1966, Saturday (+7,592) A 26 year old man was gassed as he attempted to cook a dinner for his wife. He had failed to realise that you had to ignite the gas. Lord Silkin�s Bill to legalise abortion ran into difficulties in the House of Lords. The Ministry of Public Works revealed plans to build an underground cafe, ticket office, and sales room, beneath Stonehenge. Statistics in the Ministry of Labour Gazette revealed the weekly average income for a British household as �24 2s 11d.

TV shows included Bewitched and Dixon of Dock Green. Thunderbirds was on at 6pm, and The Morecambe and Wise Show at 9.20 pm.

18 February 1966, Friday (+7,591) Dean Rusk stated that the USA had exhausted all possibilities for bringing peace to Vietnam.

17 February 1966, Thursday (+7,590) The UK protested to South Africa about petrol supplies to Rhodesia.

14 February 1966, Monday (+7,587)

10 February 1966, Thursday (+7,583) Consumer activist and safety campaigner Ralph Nader began testifying before US Congress about the reluctance of the US car industry to invest in safety features.

9 February 1966, Wednesday (+7.582) Sophie Tucker, last of the �red hot mamas�, died.

8 February 1966, Tuesday (+7,581) (Aviation) Freddie Laker formed a cut-price transatlantic airline.

7 February 1966, Monday (+7,580) Kristrin Otto, swimmer, was born.

6 February 1966, Sunday (+7,579) Rick Astley, singer, was born.

5 February 1966, Saturday (+7,578) Jose Maria Olazabat, golfer, was born

4 February 1966, Friday (+7,577) A Japanese airliner crashed into Tokyo Bay, killing 133 people.

3 February 1966, Thursday (+7,576) (Space exploration) The Soviet unmanned spacecraft, Luna IX, made the first soft landing on the Moon.

2 February 1966, Wednesday (+7,575) Go-Set, Australia's first pop music newspaper, was launched in Melbourne.

1 February 1966, Tuesday (+7,574) The silent film comedian Buster Keaton died.


31 January 1966, Monday (+7,573) Britain banned all trade with Rhodesia.

30 January 1966, Sunday (+7,572) Daphne Ashbrook, US actress, was born in Long Beach, California

29 January 1966, Saturday (+7,571) Romario da Souza Paria, Brazilian footballer, was born.

28 January 1966, Friday (+7,570) US Senator J William Fulbright challenged the legality of US involvement in Vietnam.

26 January 1966, Wednesday (+7,568)

25 January 1966, Tuesday (+7,567) Harold Holt became Prime Minister of Australia, succeeding Robert Menzies.

24 January 1966, Monday (+7,566) An Air India Boeing 707 crashed into Mont Blanc, killing all 117 passengers on board.

23 January 1966, Sunday (+7,565) Haywoode Workman, US basketball player, was born.

22 January 1966, Saturday (+7,564) Martin Luther King moved to a tenement flat in a deprived part of Chicago to draw attention to Black urban poverty.

21 January 1966, Friday (+7,563) General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi proclaimed himself the President of Nigeria.

20 January 1966, Thursday (+7,562) Robert Menzies retired as Prime Minister of Australia.

19 January 1966, Wednesday (+7,561) Indira Ghandi (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi) became prime Minister of India. She succeeded her father Jawaharlal Nehru. She had been leader of the National Congress Party since 1959.

18 January 1966, Tuesday (+7,560) Kathleen Norris, US writer, died (born 1880)

17 January 1966, Monday (+7,559) A US bomber aircraft on exercises was attempting to refuel mid-air over Spain when an error resulted in the fuel boom from the other aircraft clipping the bomber�s wing. The bomber crashed in flames; its crew parachuted to safety. However the bomber was carrying four Hydrogen Bombs. The Bombs were not armed so the electrical sequence necessary to detonate the fission bomb that would have set off the Hydrogen bomb never initiated. In other fortunate events, the parachutes on the bombs failed so they buried themselves deep in the soil, limiting radiation dispersal, and a breeze carried much of the radiation out to sea as flaming bits of aircraft rained down in the area.

16 January 1966, Sunday (+7,558) Clarice Mayne, British singer, died in London (born 21 June 1886 in London)

15 January 1966, Saturday (+7,557)

13 January 1966, Thursday (+7,555) Robert C Weaver became the first Black person selected for Cabinet office by US President Lyndon Johnson (Housing and Urban Development)

12 January 1966, Wednesday (+7.554) US President Lyndon Johnson said that US forces should remain in South Vietnam until Communist aggression ceased.

11 January 1966, Tuesday (+7,553) Barclays announced plans to go into the credit card business with its Barclaycard, available free to both customers and non-customers of the bank. The card would have a limit of �25, and higher amounts could be spent following a telephone check. Hoteliers objected vigorously since promoters make their profit by taking a discount from the amount charged to the card, typically 5% to 10%. Barclays announced that the discount would be 3% to 5%.

8 January 1966, Saturday (+7,550) US launched biggest offensive to date in Vietnam.

5 January 1966, Wednesday (+7,547) George Duckworth, cricketer, was born.

4 January 1966, Tuesday (+7,546) Under the Tashkent Agreement, the Indo-Pakistan War ended. Both sides withdrew from Kashmir.

3 January 1966, Monday (+7,545) Chile outlawed the traditional 2-hour siesta for Government workers.

2 January 1966, Sunday (+7,544) Tia Carrere, actress, was born.

1 January 1966, Saturday (+7,543) Bokassa took over as leader of the Central African Republic. In 1977 he organised a lavish coronation ceremony., appointing himself �emperor�, which cost US$20million, a quarter of his country�s annual income.


31 December 1965, Friday (+7,542) The executives of the European Economic Community, Euratom, and the European Coal and Steel Community were merged into one executive authority.

30 December 1965, Thursday (+7,541) In the Philippines, Ferdinand E Marcos became President.

29 December 1965, Wednesday (+7,540) North Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh rejected US peace talks.

28 December 1965, Tuesday (+7,539) (1) A British magistrate who was also a rally driver said he would refuse to sit on the bench when motorists were charged with exceeding the speed limit unless injury or damage was also alleged.

(2) On TV, Phil Silvers starred in Sergeant Bilko.

27 December 1965, Monday (+7,538) The North Sea oilrig Sea Gem collapsed into the sea, killing 13 people.

26 December 1965, Sunday (+7,537)

24 December 1965, Friday (+7,535) A cluster of meteorites fell in the Barwell, Leicestershire, UK area after a brilliant fireball. The original meteorite is estimated to have weighed around 200 lbs.

23 December 1965, Thursday (+7,534) Eddie Vedder, rock singer (Pearl Jam) was born.

22 December 1965, Wednesday (+7,533) (Road Traffic)The UK introduced a national 70mph speed limit. See 24 November 1965. This was brought in for an initial experimental period of four months by Transport Minister Tom Fraser. The 70mph limit was made permanent by Fraser�s successor, Barbara Castle, in July 1967.

21 December 1965, Tuesday (+7,532) The United Nations General Assembly voted 106 to 0 to adopt the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. After ratification by 27 nations, it would come into effect on 4 January 1969.

20 December 1965, Monday (+7,531) (TV broadcasts) The Belmont TV transmitter, Lincolnshire, began operations,

19 December 1965, Sunday (+7,530) De Gaulle was re-elected president of France.

18 December 1965, Saturday (+7,529) Nine African States broke off relations with the UK for not using force against Rhodesia.

17 December 1965, Friday (+7,528) Britain imposed an oil embargo on Rhodesia.

16 December 1965, Thursday (+7,527) Somerset Maugham, author, died this day.

15 December 1965, Wednesday (+7,526) (1) (Vietnam) The USA mounted its first major bombing raid on North Vietnam, dropping 12 tons of bombs on the Haiphong power plant. Haiphong had been spared until now because of the significant numbers of Soviet ships there.

(2) US astronauts achieved the first rendezvous of two vehicles in space. Gemini 6, crewed by Walter P Shirra and Thomas P Stafford, met alongside Gemini 7, crewed by Frank Borman and James A Lovell. The two craft then orbited together, about 3 metres apart, completing two earth orbits at an altitude of 315 kilometres. This exercise was vital in planning the manned lunar programme, where a lunar module would detach from the command ship to land on the Moon, then rejoin the main ship to return to Earth.

14 December 1965, Tuesday (+7,525) )Ireland) An Anglo-Irish trade agreement was signed.

12 December 1965, Sunday (+7,523) Will Carling, rugby player, was born.

7 December 1965, Tuesday (+7,518)

6 December 1965, Monday (+7,517) The Redundancy Payments Act came into force; it was described as a major step in the modernisation of British industry. General De Gaulle failed to win the French presidential Election outright, necessitating a second ballot between him and Monsieur Mitterand. The Governor of California received a report on the necessity of stimulating employment and education among the Black population as a means of avoiding race riots.

5 December 1965, Sunday (+7,516) The Organisation of African Unity demanded the UK use military force against Rhodesia. However the UK did not have the military capability to do this unless the Portuguese colonies or South Africa provided bases, which were not forthcoming.

4 December 1965, Saturday (+7,515) The US spacecraft Gemini 7 was launched, crewed by Frank Borman and James Lovell.

3 December 1965, Friday (+7,514) Russia launched the Luna 8 probe towards the Moon.

2 December 1965, Thursday (+7,513)

1 December 1965, Wednesday (+7,512) (Cuba) The USA airlifted refugees from Cuba who wanted to leave the island.


30 November 1965, Tuesday (+7,511) Ben Stiller, actor, was born.

29 November 1965, Monday (+7,510) Mary Whitehouse began her clean up campaign concerning TV broadcasts, by setting up the National Viewers and Listeners Association to tackle �bad taste and irresponsibility�.

27 November 1965, Saturday (+7,508)

26 November 1965, Friday (+7,507) (Space exploration) France launched a satellite, A-1 Asterix.

25 November 1965, Thursday (+7,506) In the Congo Republic (Zaire), General Sese Sese Mobuto deposed President Kasavubu.

24 November 1965, Wednesday (+7,505) (Road Traffic)The UK government imposed an experimental 70mph speed limit on the motorways (see 22 December 1965). UK motorways, the first of which was a stretch of the M6 known then as the Preston by-pass, had had no speed limits since their inception in 1958. However early one morning in June 1964 the makers of the AC Cobra sports car decided to take their Le Mans contender out for a spin on the M1 and got it up to 185 mph. This led to questions in Parliament and the 70 mph national speed limit. There were also issues of pile ups on motorways in snow, ice or foggy conditions, and a 30mph limit was considered for motorways in these conditions. The 30mph limit was not implemented but the 70mph limit became permanent in 1967.

21 November 1965, Sunday (+7,502) Bjork Gudmundsdottir, singer, was born.

19 November 1965, Friday (+7,500) Laurent Blanc, French footballer, was born.

18 November 1965, Thursday (+7,499) The UK�s National Coal Board announced that 150 pits were to close over the next thre years, with some 120,000 job losses.

17 November 1965, Wednesday (+7,498)

16 November 1965, Tuesday (+7,497) The Russians launched Venus III on a voyage to Venus, see 1 March 1966.

15 November 1965, Monday (+7,496) In the USA, Craig Breedlove set a new land speed record of 613 mph at Bonneville salt flats.

13 November 1965, Saturday (+7,494)

12 November 1965, Friday (+7,493) The UN called for all nations to refuse to recognise Rhodesian independence under Ian Smith.

11 November 1965, Thursday (+7,492) Rhodesia declared UDI from Britain under Ian Smith, the Prime Minister. The opposition leaders Joshua Nkomo and Robert Mugabe were in jail. The British Prime Minister Harold Wilson imposed trade sanctions and an oil embargo. However South Africa, and the neighbouring Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola, assisted Mr Smith in overcoming sanctions, and large multinationals evaded them anyway. However the end of Portuguese rule in Angola and Mozambique in 1975 undermined Mr Smith�s regime and assisted the transfer to Black majority rule there.

10 November 1965, Wednesday (+7,491) Robert Jones, rugby player, was born.

9 November 1965, Tuesday (+7,490) (1) A transmission relay in New York City failed, sparking a domino effect that led to a blackout across New York State, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New England, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, and parts of Pennsylvania and Ontario.

(2) The Act legally suspending capital punishment in the UK for 5 years came into force. This Act was largely due to the efforts of Sidney Silverman MP.

8 November 1965, Monday (+7,489) In Canadian elections, the Liberals under Lester B Pearson became the largest Party with 131 seats, but without an overall majority. The Progressive Conservatives secured 97 seats, Others won 37 seats.

7 November 1965, Sunday (+7,488)

6 November 1965, Saturday (+7,487) US composer Edgar Varese died.

5 November 1965, Friday (+7,486) (Clothes) The current fashion for mini-skirts caused new Customs rules. Women had been buying children�s clothes to avoid taxes.

4 November 1965, Thursday (+7,485) Malandra Burrows, actress, was born


31 October 1965, Sunday (+7,481) Cork Opera House, which had burnt down in 1955, reopened.

28 October 1965, Thursday (+7,478) The Moors Murderers, Ian Brady and Myra Hindley, were charged with murdering a 13-year old girl, Lesley Ann Downey, whose body had been found on the moorson 15 October 1965.

26 October 1965, Tuesday (+7,476) The Beatles went to Buckingham Palace to be presented with their MBE�s.

25 October 1965, Monday (+7,475) Harold Wilson went to Rhodesia for talks with Ian Smith. But see 11 November 1965.

19 October 1965, Tuesday (+7,469) In the USA, the Un-American Activities Committee of the House of Representatives began a public hearing on the Klu Klux Klan.

17 October 1965, Sunday (+7,467) Anti-Vietnam War protests in the UK and USA.

16 October 1964, Saturday (+7,466) China exploded its first nuclear bomb, near Lop Nor, Sinkiang.

14 October 1964, Thursday

13 October 1965, Wednesday (+7,463) In the Congo (Zaire), President Tshombe was ousted by Kasavubu.

12 October 1965, Tuesday (+7,462) Paul Muller, the Swiss chemist who formulated the insecticide DDT in 1939, died in Basle.

10 October 1965, Sunday (+7,460)

8 October 1965, Friday (+7,458) (1) Edward Heath said he would take Britain into the European Community.

(2) The Prime Minister Harold Wilson made the first telephone call as the �2 million, 620 foot tall, Post Office Tower in London�s Tottenham Court Road opened.

7 October 1965, Thursday (+7,457) Ian Smith met Harold Wilson for talks at 10 Downing Street; the talks failed to avert UDI by Rhodesia on 11 November 1965.

6 October 1965, Wednesday (+7,456) Jurgen Kohler, West German footballer, was born.

5 October 1965, Tuesday (+7,455) Gustaf Adolf Tiburtius Bengtsson, composer, died aged 79.

4 October 1965, Monday (+7,454) Pope Paul VI visited New York City; the first Papal visit to America.

3 October 1965, Sunday (+7,453) US President Johnson ditched the immigration quota system under the 1965 Immigration Act. Educated skilled migrants could now enter the USA so long as they did not threaten the livelihood of a US citizen.

2 October 1965, Saturday (+7,452) Oskar R. Lange, Polish economist and diplomat, died aged 61.

1 October 1965, Friday (+7,451) (Indonesia) General Suharto quickly took control of the insurrection and now proclaimed the Communist Party (which Sukarno had relied on as a counterweight to the Army) as guilty for the rebellion. Within a few weeks the extermination of the PKI (Communists) had begun. The PKI had been the largest Communist Party in the world outside Russia and China, with 3 million members.


30 September 1965, Thursday (+7,450) (1) (Indonesia) A group of middle-ranking Army officers in Indonesia seized power, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Untung of Sukarno�s Presidential Guard. They killed several top Generals and took President Sukarno to an airbase near Jakarta where they proclaimed a Revolutionary Council.

(2) The first episode of Thunderbirds was broadcast in the UK.

(3)(Women�s Rights) Elizabeth Lane was sown in as Britain�s first female High Court Judge.

29 September 1965, Wednesday (+7,449) The USSR admitted supplying weapons to North Vietnam.

28 September 1965, Tuesday (+7,448) In Cuba, Castro announced that Cubans wishing to leave for America in small boats may now do so; he cited a severe housing shortage in Cuba.

27 September 1965, Monday (+7,447) Sandor Ronai, President of Hungary from 1950 to 1952, died aged 72.

26 September 1965, Sunday (+7,446) Clara Bow, actress, was born

25 September 1966, Saturday (+7,445) Ada Reeve, British actress, died in London (born 3 March 1874 in London)

24 September 1965, Friday (+7,444) Mark Woodforde, tennis player, was born

23 September 1965, Thursday (+7,443) Aleqa Hammond, first female Prime Minister of Greenland, was born in Narsaq.

22 September 1965, Wednesday (+7,442) India and Pakistan halted fighting in Kashmir.

21 September 1965, Tuesday (+7,441) BP (British Petroleum) became the first company to discover oil in the North Sea.

20 September 1965, Monday (+7,440) (Geology) Arthur Holmes, English geologist, died in London.

18 September 1965, Saturday (+7,438)

15 September 1965, Wednesday (+7,435) The 10 millionth Volkswagen Beetle was manufactured.

14 September 1965, Tuesday (+7,434) The comprehensive school in Market Drayton, Shropshire, opened, replacing the town�s old secondary modern and grammar schools.

13 September 1965, Monday (+7,433) In Norwegian elections, the Labor Party lost power. They had governed for the past 30 years, apart from 3 weeks in 1963.

12 September 1965, Sunday (+7,432) John Norwood Fisher, American ska-funk bassist (Fishbone), was born in California

11 September 1965, Saturday (+7,431) Douglas Graeme Obree, champion cyclist, was born.

10 September 1965, Friday (+7,430) (USA) Yale University published a map showing that the Vikings discovered America in the 11th century.

9 September 1965, Thursday (+7,429) (USA) The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) was established

8 September 1965, Wednesday (+7,428) (Chemistry) Hermann Staudinger, German chemist, died in Freiburg am Breisgau.

7 September 1965, Tuesday (+7,427) John Polson, actor, was born.

6 September 1965, Monday (+7,426) India invaded West Pakistan. A three-pronged attack threatened the Pakistani city of Lahore. Pakistan parachuted troops in behind Indian lines. The conflict in Kashmir escalated.

5 September 1965, Sunday (+7,425) The word "hippie" first appeared in print, in an article in the San Francisco Examiner by reporter Michael Fallon, who was writing a series about the Haight-Ashbury neighbourhood. "Five untroubled young 'hippies'," Fallon began, "sprawled on floor mattresses and slouched in an armchair retrieved from a debris box, flipped cigarette ashes at a seatbelt in their Waller Street flat and pondered their next move."

4 September 1965, Saturday (+7,424) Albert Schweitzer, French medical missionary, died aged 90 in Lambarene, Gabon, in the village where he had opened his hospital for natives in 1913.He was aged 90, and won the Nobel Prize in 1952.

3 September 1965, Friday (+7,423) The Cultural Revolution began in China.A reassertion of Maoist principles, it began with a speech by Marshal Lin Piao urging pupils in schools and colleges to return to the basics of the Chinese Revolution and to purge liberal and Kruschevian trends in the Chinese Communist Party.See 13 October 1968, 2 September 1965.

2 September 1965, Thursday (+7,422) (1) Chinese Defence Minister Lin Piao called for a �people�s war� in Africa, Asia and Latin America to win final victory over the USA and western Europe. This was the presage of the Cultural Revolution (see 3 September 1965) as China attempted to spread revolution abroad.

(2) Tahir Yahya was forced to resign as Prime Minister of Iraq. The vacancy was filled four days later by Arif Abd ar-Razzaq, who fled the country on September 17 after only 10 days in office

1 September 1965, Wednesday (+7,421) Pakistani troops crossed into Kashmir over the cease-fire line.


31 August 1965, Tuesday (+7,420) (Sport) Willie Watson, New Zealand cricketer, was born.

30 August 1965, Monday (+7,419) Bob Dylan released his Highway 61 Revisited album.

27 August 1965, Friday (+7,416) The Swiss architect Le Corbusier died.

24 August 1965, Tuesday (+7,413) India announced it had trapped 3,000 Pakistani troops and guerrillas.

21 August 1965, Saturday (+7,410) The US launched the spacecraft Gemini 5, crewed by Gordon Cooper and Charles Conrad. It orbited the Earth for 8 days before a safe splashdown in the Atlantic.

19 August 1965, Thursday (+7,408) US troops destroyed a suspected Vietcong stronghold near Van Tuong.

16 August 1965, Monday (+7,405) Indian troops began a major push into Pakistan, towards Lahore.

13 August 1965, Friday (+7,402) Ikeda Hayato, Prime Minister of Japan, died.

12 August 1965, Thursday (+7,401) 19 days after the US learned that North Vietnam had bases around its capital from which to fire surface-to-air missiles, the North Vietnamese revealed that they had mobile missile units that could be taken to any location, shooting down a U.S. Navy A-4 Skyhawk attack jet flying 50 miles southwest of Hanoi. Lieutenant Donald H. Brown of the USS Coral Sea was killed in the crash, becoming the first U.S. Navy flier to be downed by a SAM missile.

11 August 1965, Wednesday (+7,400) Race riots in the Watts area of Los Angeles, USA. A local Black woman, Marquette Fry, was arrested by White police officers on suspicion of drunk-driving and then beaten up. Over the next two nights rioting in the predominantly Black area spread to involve some 130 square kilometres, with cars and shops being looted and burnt. On 13 August 1965 2,000 national Guardsmen arrived to support the thousands of police in enforcing an curfew for the next three nights. The riots saw the deaths of 34 people, mostly Black civilians shot by National Guards or police.

10 August 1965, Tuesday (+7,399) The agreement between the United States and the Philippines on U.S. military bases was formally amended, returning exclusive jurisdiction over the Port of Manila and the city of Olongapo to the Philippines, and ceding more than 1,200 km2 of territory back to the Philippine government.

9 August 1965, Monday (+7,398) Singapore seceded from the Federation of Malaysia.It became an independent Republic within the Commonwealth.

8 August 1965, Sunday (+7,397) Angus Fraser, cricketer, was born.

7 August 1965, Saturday (+7,396) The Singapore Agreement was signed by Tunku Abdul Rahman, the Prime Minister of Malaysia, and Lee Kuan Yew, who had continued to lead Singapore since its merger with Malaya and other nations to create the Federation of Malaysia. The parties agreed that "Singapore shall cease to be a State of Malaysia on the 9th day of August 1965, and shall become an independent and sovereign State separate from and independent of Malaysia".

6 August 1965, Friday (+7,395) US Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, outlawing racial discrimination in voting


5 August 1965, Thursday (+7,394) The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, also referred to as the Second Kashmir War, began as Pakistan commenced Operation Gibraltar when around 10,000 armed infiltrators crossed into India and the state of Jammu and Kashmir, disguised as civilians.

4 August 1965, Wednesday (+7,393) Australian composer Richard Tognetti was born in Canberra.

3 August 1965, Tuesday (+7,392) After coming under attack by Viet Cong sniper fire, U.S. Marines burned down the South Vietnamese village of Cam Ne.

2 August 1965, Monday (+7,391) A UK White Paper limited immigration from the Commonwealth.

1 August 1965, Sunday (+7,390) (1) General Lo Jui-ching, the Chief of Joint Staff of the armed forces of the People's Republic of China, declared that the Chinese were ready to fight the United States again, as they had in the Korean War.

(2) In the UK, the cost of a TV licence rose from �4.00 to �5.00. The cost of a radio licence rose from �1.00 to �1.25


31 July1965, Saturday (+7,389) (1) The last advert for cigarettes appeared on British TV.

(2) J K Rowling, British author of the Harry Potter series, was born.

(3) Television broadcasts began in Ghana.

30 July1965, Friday (+7,388) (1) US President Lyndon Johnson signed the Medicare Bill, providing medical care for the elderly.

(2) Coronation Street was the top UK TV show

29 July1965, Thursday (+7,387) The governments of Algeria and France signed an agreement which allowed French petroleum companies to retain their concessions for the right to drill for oil in Algeria, but required also that they cooperate with Algeria's government-owned oil and gas consortium.

28 July1965, Wednesday (+7,386) (1) US President Lyndon Johnson sent a further 50,000 ground troops to Vietnam. The US now had 175,000 troops in Vietnam.

(2) Edward Heath, born 9 July1916, became leader of the Conservative Party. Sir Alec Douglas Home had resigned as leader on 22 May 1965.Heath was leader until 1975 when Mrs Thatcher became Party leader (11 February 1975). Heath received 155 votes against 133 for Reginald Maudling and 15 for Enoch Powell. At 49 Heath was the youngest leader of the Conservative Party for a century.

27 July1965, Tuesday (+7,385) The Maldives Islands became independent, having been a British Protectorate since 1887.

26 July1965, Monday (+7,384) The Post Office announced that in future UK telephone numbers would not include letters.

25 July1965, Sunday (+7,383) Frederick Mills, boxer, died (born 26 June 1919).

23 July1965, Friday (+7,381) In the USA, President Johnson signed the Coinage Bill. This eliminated all silver from quarters and dimes, and cut the silver content of half-dollars from 90% to 40%.

20 July1965, Tuesday (+7,378) (Innovation) The McLaren baby buggy was patented by Owen Findlay, Banbury, UK. It replaced much more cumbersome and heavier prams, and its easy folding made it very easy to take on board public transport.

19 July1965, Monday (+7,377) Syngman Rhee, first President of the Republic of Korea (1948-60) died in Hawaii.

18 July1965, Sunday (+7,376)

16 July1965, Friday (+7,374) The seven-mile Mont Blanc road tunnel opened, linking France with Italy. This road tunnel had first been proposed by French engineer Lepiney back in 1870. The tunnel took 6 years to build.

15 July1965, Thursday (+7,373) Mariner 4 flew by Mars, returning images of the planet�s surface. It revealed that Mars was covered with impact craters, demonstrating a lack of geological activity. A measurement of the changes in radio transmissions as the signals passed through the Martian atmosphere also showed that surface pressure was 94% less than had been predicted, showing that it was mostly carbon dioxide and that the Martian ice caps were actually frozen CO2.

14 July1965, Wednesday (+7,372) US politician Adlai Ewing Stevenson, born 5 February 1900 in Los Angeles, California, died suddenly.

11 July1965, Sunday (+7,369)

8 July1965, Thursday (+7,366) Ronald Biggs, who played a part in the Great Train Robbery in 1963, escaped from Wandsworth Prison. Whilst 2 prisoners distracted the guards in the exercise yard, accomplices parked a removals van outside the wall and threw a rope ladder over. Biggs climbed over and they escaped in a getaway car that had been hidden inside the van; the van was abandoned.

7 July1965, Wednesday (+7,365) (Saudi Arabia) An agreement was signed at al Hadda, between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, dividing up the neutral zone between them. See 18 December 1969.

6 July 1965, Tuesday (+7,364) English violinist Anthony Marwood was born in London.

5 July 1965, Monday (+7,363) In Algeria, Boumedienne, a nationalist and socialist, became President.

3 July 1965, Saturday (+7,361)

1 July1965, Thursday (+7,359) The UK Government decided to write off $450 million of the National Coal Board�s capital debt and to start a programme to close uneconomic pits.


30 June 1965, Wednesday (+7,358) India and Pakistan agreed a ceasefire.

29 June 1965, Tuesday (+7,357) The first US military ground action began in Vietnam.

28 June 1965, Monday (+7,356) Red Nichols (Ernest Loring), US jazz cornettist, died in Las Vegas (born 8 May 1905 in Ogden, Utah)

27 June 1965, Sunday (+7,355)

24 June 1965, Thursday (+7,352) South Vietnam severed relations with France.

23 June 1965, Wednesday (+7,351) The USSR rejected a Vietnam peace initiative proposed by Harold Wilson.

22 June 1965, Tuesday (+7,350) The Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea was signed in Tokyo, almost twenty years after South Korea had been liberated from the Japanese Empire.

21 June 1965, Monday (+7,349) The UK government announced that the Broad Street to Richmond railway service, earmarked for closure by Beeching, would be reprieved.

20 June 1965, Sunday (+7,348) Police in Algiers broke up demonstrations by people who had taken to the streets chanting slogans in support of deposed President Ben Bella.

19 June 1965, Saturday (+7,347) The President of Algeria, Ben Bella, was overthrown in a military coup by his Minister of Defence, Colonel Houari Boumedienne.

18 June 1965, Friday (+7,346) An alcohol limit was to be set for UK drivers.

16 June 1965, Wednesday (+7,344)

13 June 1965, Sunday (+7,341) Martin Buber, Austrian-born Israeli Jewish philosopher, died aged 87.

12 June 1965, Saturday (+7,340) The Beatles were made MBEs in the Queen�s birthday honours.A number of other holders of the medal returned theirs in disgust.

11 June 1965, Friday (+7,339) (1) President Johnson declared that the promotion of learning the English language should be a major policy in American foreign aid, and directed the Peace Corps, the United States Agency for International Development and other organizations to encourage the such study, in what was viewed as elevating "the status of English as an international language.

(2) Frenchman Michel Jazy set a new world record for running 5,000 metres of 13 minutes 29 seconds.

10 June 1965, Thursday (+7,338) A British European Airways De Havilland jet airliner flying from Paris to London made the first landing by automatic control.

9 June 1965, Wednesday (+7,337) Frenchman Michel Jazy, 28, set a new record for running 1 mile of 3 minutes 53.6 seconds.

8 June 1965, Tuesday (+7,336) US Congress authorised the use of ground troops in combat in Vietnam. By end July , 125,000 US troops were in Vietnam.

7 June 1965, Monday (+7,335) The US Supreme Court ruled that Connecticut�s State Law of 1879 prohibit8ing the sale of birth control techniques was unconstitutional..

6 June 1965, Sunday (+7,334)

4 June 1965, Friday (+7,332) The first contingent of Australian troops arrived in Vietnam.

3 June 1965, Thursday (+7,331) Gemini IV was launched, crewed by James McDivitt and Edward White. During the flight, Edward H Whitebecame the first man to walk in space, for 20 minutes.

2 June 1965, Wednesday (+7,330) (1) The second of two cyclones (first one on 11 May 1965) hit eastern Pakistan, killing 45,000 people.

(2) New York State Governor Nelson Rockerfeller abolished the death penalty, except for two classes of murder; killing a police officer, or killing a prison guard or inmate whilst attempting to escape.

1 June 1965, Tuesday (+7,329) Nigel Short, chess champion, was born.


31 May 1965, Monday (+7,328) Major US air strikes in Vietnam saved the South Vietnamese forces from annihilation, reported The Guardian.

Within a day of moving into a semi-detached house on a Staffordshire housing estate a Jamaican family was approached by the resident� association with an offer to buy them out. �We are not against coloured people� said the chairman, �but we are concerned about maintaining the value of our house�.

Duty free cigarettes went on sale at Heathrow Airport at �1 for 200. A spokesman for Tetley�s, Britain�s biggest teabag manufacturer, said they would have 25% of the market by 1975.

30 May 1965, Sunday (+7,327)

28 May 1965, Friday (+7,325) Co-founder of Volvo, Assar Gabrielsson, died aged 70.

27 May 1965, Thursday (+7,324) Pete Cash, tennis player, was born.

25 May 1965, Tuesday (+7,322)

24 May 1965, Monday (+7,321) Westminster announced that Britain was to switch to metric measurements.

23 May 1965, Sunday (+7,320) David Smith, US sculptor, died aged 59.

22 May 1965, Saturday (+7,319)

21 May 1965, Friday (+7,318) Sir Geoffrey de Havilland, British aircraft designer who was knighted n 1944, died in Stanmore, Middlesex.
20 May 1966, Thursday (+7,317) English clarinettist Emma Johnson was born in London.

19 May 1965, Wednesday (+7,316) The world�s oldest tortoise, Tui Malila, born 1773, died.

17 May 1965, Monday (+7,314) Jeremy Vine, broadcaster, was born.

15 May 1965, Saturday (+7,312) New Zealand inaugurated the North-South Island undersea cable, 354 milkes across the Cook Strait.

14 May 1965, Friday (+7,311) China exploded its second nuclear bomb.

13 May 1965, Thursday (+7,310) The Russian Luna 5 space probe, intended to explore the possibility of landing safely on the Moon, malfunctioned and crashed onto its surface.

12 May 1965, Wednesday (+7,309) West Germany established diplomatic relations with Israel.

11 May 1965, Tuesday (+7,308)

10 May 1965, Monday (+7,307) Linda Evangelista, Canadian fashion model, was born.

9 May 1965, Sunday (+7,306) Russia launched the Luna 5 probe towards the Moon.

8 May 1965, Saturday (+7,305)

7 May 1965, Friday (+7,304) Charles Sheeler, US artist, died in Dobbs Ferry, New York (born 16 July 1883 in Philadelphia)

6 May 1965, Thursday, (+7,303) The new modern mechanised colliery officially opened at Kellingly, Yorkshire, UK. It was already producing 3,000 tons of coal a week.

5 May 1965, Wednesday (+7,302) Truce in the Dominican Republic between the Leftist and Rightist warring factions.

4 May 1965, Tuesday (+7,301)

3 May 1965, Monday (+7,300) Major earthquake hit San Salvador City, El Salvador.

2 May 1965, Sunday (+7,299) The British satellite, Early Bird, began transmitting TV programmes to 300 million viewers in 24 countries.

1 May 1965, Saturday (+7,298) Spike Jones, US bandleader, died in Los Angeles (born 14 December 1911 in Long Beach, California)


30 April 1965, Friday (+7,297) Lesotho (then known as Basutoland) achieved self-rule.

29 April 1965, Thursday (+7,296) (1) Magnitude 7 earthquake hit NW America. The epicentre was just north of Seattle.

(2) Australia began contributing troops to the US war effort in Vietnam.

28 April 1965, Wednesday (+7,295) US forces invaded the Dominican Republic. This country had been in political turmoil since the death of the longstanding dictator Rafael Trujillo in 1961. Free elections in December 1962 brought the mildly left-wing Juan Bosch to power, but he was quickly deposed in a military coup. This right-wing military junta was itself deposed in a further coup led by Colonel Francisco Caama, and Bosch was invited to return from exile and restore democracy. However the US was extremely wary, after Cuba, of any more leftist regimes being established in the Caribbean. On 28/4 US troops occupied the western half of the capital, Santo Domingo, whilst in the east right-wing generals took over the San Isidro air base, which was then opened to US military flights. However the US did not want to undertake a permanent occupation of the Dominican Republic; US troops were replaced by a Pan-American force under Brazilian command, and free elections organised in 1966, won by President Joaquin Balaguer.

26 April 1965, Monday (+7,293)

25 April 1965, Sunday (+7,292) The military regime in the Dominican republic that took power in 9/1963 was overthrown by pro-Bosch military officers.

24 April 1965, Saturday (+7,291) Louise Dresser, actress, died aged 86.

23 April 1965, Friday (+7,290) (1) Heavy US air raids on North Vietnam.

(2) The Pennine Way, 250 miles from Edale in Derbyshire to Kirk Yetholm in Roxburghshire, opened. This was the first long distance footpath in Britain.

19 April 1965, Monday (+7,286) Westinghouse Broadcasting WINS, New York�s first all-news radio station began broadcasting. It was soon copied by other stations across the USA.

17 April 1965, Saturday (+7,284) US students protested against US bombing in Vietnam.

13 April 1965, Tuesday (+7,280) The 10 millionth Pontiac vehicle, a 1965 Catalina, was manufactured.

9 April 1965, Friday (+7,276) (India region) Border clashes between India and Pakistan.

8 April 1965, Thursday (+7,275) (European Union) Members of the European Coal and Steel Community, the Economic Community and Euratom signed a treaty providing for the merger of these institutions� functions into a single Commission and Council of Ministers.

7 April 1965, Wednesday (+7,274) (Christian) A new YMCA building was dedicated in Nazareth, Israel. It was intended as a symbol of unity between the various Christian denominations.

6 April 1965, Tuesday (+7,273) (Space exploration) The US launched Early Bird, a weather satellite,

5 April 1965, Monday (+7,272) 6.2 magnitude earthquake hit the western Peloponnese, Greece, killing 17 and making 26,000 homeless.

4 April 1965, Sunday (+7,271) (Vietnam) US jets shot down by North Vietnam.

2 April 1965, Friday (+7,269)

1 April 1965, Thursday (+7,268) (London) Greater London was created, from the City of London and 32 boroughs.


31 March 1965, Wednesday (+7,267) An Iberia airliner crashed into the Mediterranean Sea as it was approaching Tangier, Morocco on a flight from Malaga. 50 of the 53 people on board were killed, but three passengers were rescued.

30 March 1965, Tuesday (+7,266) A 7.3 magnitude earthquake hit the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

29 March 1965, Monday (+7,265) Eric Brook, footballer, died (born 27 November 1907).

28 March 1965, Sunday (+7,264) (Earthquakes) Major earthquake in Chile.

27 March 1965, Saturday (+7,263) (1) (Paraguay) The Friendship Bridge opened, a road bridge over the River Parana between Brazil and Paraguay. This completed a 736 mile road link between Asuncion and the Brazilian seaport of Paranagua.

(2) 14 people who had been convicting of plotting to overthrow King Hassan II were executed in Rabat, Morocco.

26 March 1965, Friday (+7,262) (1) The Elephant and Castle shopping centre, London, opened. It had 115 shops.

(2) Kirill Mazurov became the new First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union, second in governmental rank to Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin.

25 March 1965, Thursday (+7,261) (Sri Lanka) In elections in Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Mrs Srimavo Bandaranaike lost to Dudley Senanayake.

24 March 1965, Wednesday (+7,260) (1) (Britain) David Steel became Britain�s youngest MP at the age of 26.

(2) The Chiswick Flyover, London, opened.

23 March 1965, Tuesday (+7,259) (Space exploration) US spacecraft Gemini I was launched, crewed by Virgil Grissom and John Young.

22 March 1965, Monday (+7,258) The US Government admitted it had used chemical weapons against the Vietcong in the Vietnam War.

21 March 1965, Sunday (+7,257) NASA launched the lunar probe Ranger 9 towards the Moon

20 March 1965, Saturday (+7,256) US President Johnson approved an expansion of Operation Rolling Thunder, to escalate bombing of the Ho Chi Minh trail that was the supply line for the Viet Cong.

19 March 1965, Friday (+7,255) The Indonesian Government seized 3 US-owned oil companies, also an Anglo-Dutch firm and Goodyear Tyre and Rubber Company. All other Western-owned assets were seized on 24 March 1965.

18 March 1965, Thursday (+7,254) (1) The first walk in space, lasting about 10 minutes, was made by Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov, from the spaceship Voskhod 2.

(2) Farouk I, King of Egypt from 1936 to 1952, died in exile in Italy.

16 March 1965, Tuesday (+7,252)

15 March 1965, Monday (+7,251) Doctor Martin Luther King led a Freedom March in Selma, Alabama, in defiance of a court ban. State police stopped the procession with tear gas.

14 March 1965, Sunday (+7,250) The Israeli Cabinet formally approved the setting up of diplomatic relations with West Germany.

10 March 1965, Wednesday (+7,246) Eric Newton, British arts expert, died in London (born 28 April 1893 in Marple Bridge, Cheshire)

8 March 1965, Monday (+7,244) (1) The US stepped up military action in Vietnam. 3,500 American Marines, the first combat troops to arrive in Vietnam, landed, welcomed by an enthusiastic crowd. By July 1965 there were 75,000 US troops in Vietnam, by end-1965 184,000, and by early 1968, 510,000.

7 March 1965, Sunday (+7,243) US State Troopers and police attacked some 600 Civil Rights marchers with clubs, whips, and tear gas on the Selma Freedom March from Selma, Alabama, to the State capital, Alabama. 17 marchers were hospitalised and scores more injured.

6 March 1965, Saturday (+7,242) (Britain) Herbert Morrison, UK Labour politician, died aged 77.

5 March 1965, Friday (+7,241) (London) The new Hornsey Central Library, London, was opened by Princess Alexandra.

4 March 1965, Thursday (+7,240) Syria nationalised its oil companies, including some owned by Western inetersts.

3 March 1965, Wednesday (+7,239) Bechuanaland (now Botswana) became self-governing, with Seretse Khama as Prime Minister.

2 March 1965, Tuesday (+7,238) (1) (Vietnam) In response to the 6 February 1965 attack at Pleiku, and to another attack a few days later on US soldiers at Qui Nhon, the US launched Operation Rolling Thunder, a saturation bombing campaign against North Vietnam combined with the first deployment of US ground forces against the North Vietnamese.

(2) The Sound of Music went on release in the USA. It was an instant hit.


25 February 1965, Thursday (+7,233)

24 February 1965, Wednesday (+7,232) The UK Government rejected the Robbins Commission�s recommendation for creating more new universities.

23 February 1965, Tuesday (+7,231) Stan Laurel, English-born American film comedian along with Oliver Hardy, died aged 74.

22 February 1965, Monday (+7,230) Steve Hallard, archery champion, was born in Rugby.

21 February 1965, Sunday (+7,229) American Black leader Malcolm X was shot dead whilst addressing a meeting in New York. He was shot 15 times at point-blank range by three gunmen, and was dead on arrival at hospital. Born on 19 May 1925 in Nebraska, Malcolm X was the son of a Baptist minister, Earl Little, who was a supporter of the Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Little received death threats and in 1931 his body was found, mutilated. Malcolm dropped out of school and by 1942 was involved in the criminal gangs of Harlem, New York. He was imprisoned for burglary in 1946 and in the same year converted to an Islamic sect led by Elijah Mohammed. Malcolm changed his surname to X because he viewed Little as a slave name. Out on parole in 1952, Malcolm preached for the sect, supporting Black separatism and violence. He made a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1964 and then changed his views to supporting all races. He founded the Organisation of Afro-American Unity and toured many countries before he was assassinated.

20 February 1965, In Australia, Freedom Ride participants, including Charles Perkins, were ejected from the municipal swimming baths at Moree, New South Wales, after protesting against its segregationist policy of not admitting indigenous Australians.

19 February 1965, Friday (+7,227) Andrew Jameson, swimming champion, was born.

18 February 1965, Thursday (+7,226) The Gambia, the smallest country in Africa, became an independent monarchy. It had been a British colony since 1843.

17 February 1965, Wednesday (+7,225) Lunar probe Ranger 8 was launched from Cape Canaveral. The photographs it transmitted would help select landing sites for future Apollo missions.

16 February 1965, Tuesday (+7,224) British Rail published plans, based on Beeching�s, to halve the rail network.

15 February 1965, Monday (+7,223) Canada flew the newly-adopted Maple Leaf Flag for the first time.

12 February 1965, Friday (+7,220)

9 February 1965, Tuesday (+7,217) The first US combat troops arrived in South Vietnam.

8 February 1965, Monday (+7,216) The British Government, Health Minister Kenneth Robinson, announced a ban on cigarette advertising on TV, to take effect on 31 July1965.

7 February 1965, Sunday (+7,215) US aircraft bombed North Vietnam. The US hoped that by relying on a sustained air bombing campaign, US casualties would be minimised.

6 February 1965, Saturday (+7,214) (Vietnam) The Vietcong attacked a US barracks at Pleiku, killing 9 US soldiers. In retaliation, President Johnson authorised Operation Flaming Dart, bombing raids on North Vietnam.

5 February 1965, Friday (+7,213) Jeff Harding, Australian boxer, was born.

3 February 1965, Wednesday (+7,211) Spain began a blockade of Gibraltar.

2 February 1965, Tuesday (+7,210) In the UK, PM Harold Wilson announced the cancellation of three expensive defence projects. Two were for aircraft capable of vertical takeoffs and landing, the Armstrong Whitworth AW.681 was a large military transport plane, and the Hawker Siddeley P.1154 was supersonic fighter aircraft. The third, the British Aircraft Corporation TSR-2 was a high-speed attack and reconnaissance jet. Wilson said that the cost of the research and development for the TSR-2 alone had already reached �750 million, more than eight times the original forecast, and that each of the 150 planned TSR-2s would cost �4 million each.

1 February 1965, Monday (+7,209) In the UK, NHS prescription charges were removed. They were re-introduced on 10 June 1968.


31 January 1965, Sunday (+7,208) The Yugoslavian cargo ship SS Rascisce sank in the Ionian Sea, but all 30 crew were rescued

30 January 1965, Saturday (+7,207) State funeral of Sir Winston Churchill, see 24 January 1965.

29 January 1965, Friday (+7,206) (Malaysia) An attempt by the Pan Malayan Islamic Party to overthrow the Malaysian Government was thwarted.

28 January 1965, Thursday (+7,205) Alfred Freeman, cricketer, died(born 17 May 1888).

27 January 1965, Wednesday (+7,204) Alan Cumming, actor, was born.

26 January 1965, Tuesday (+7,203)

24 January 1965, Sunday (+7,201)Sir Winston Churchill died, aged 90, exactly 70 years after his father died. He was buried in Bladon churchyard, within sight of Blenheim Palace, his birthplace. He was born, on 30 November 1874, a descendant of the Duke of Marlborough, in Blenheim Palace. His funeral was on 30 January 1965, when Big Ben was silenced.

23 January 1965, Saturday (+7,200) Rioters in Hue, South Vietnam, burned down the U.S. Information Agency after South Vietnam's Prime Minister Tran Van Hương increased the Army draft to fight the Viet Cong.

22 January 1965, Friday (+7,199) (1) The M.1. between Leicester and J.22 for Burton on Trent, 18.5 miles, officially opened.

(2) The US Army announced it had developed an atomic clock capable of measuring 1,000 millionth of a second,

21 January 1965, Thursday (+7,198) Hassan Ali Mansur, 41-year old Prime Minister of Iran, was fatally shot as he stepped out of his limousine to walk into the parliament building in Tehran. Mohammed Bokhara'i, a 19-year-old student, fired five shots and struck Mansur twice; he was a member of the Islamic radical group Fada'iyan-e Islam, affiliated with Muslim clerics close to the exiled Ayatollah Khomeini.

20 January 1965, Wednesday (+7,197) (1) LB Johnson was inaugurated as US President.

(2) American disc jockey Alan Freed died in California. He created the phrase �Rock�n�Roll�.

(3) General Franco of Spain met with Jewish representatives to discuss legitimising Jewish communities in Spain,

19 January 1965, Tuesday (+7,196) The unmanned Gemini 2 was launched on a suborbital test of various spacecraft systems, in preparation for the first US mission to send two astronauts into space.

17 January 1965, Sunday (+7,194)

16 January 1965, Saturday (+7,193) Australian Ron Clarke set a new 5,000 metre record of 13 minutes 34.6 seconds in Hobart, Tasmania.

15 January 1965, Friday (+7,192) Pierre Ngendandumwe, Prime Minister of Burundi since 11 January 1965, was assassinated.

14 January 1965, Thursday (+7,191) Sean Lemass, Irish Taoiseach (Prime Minister) met the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland,Terence O�Neill, at Stormont Castle, Belfast. This meeting was the first official recognition by the Irish Republic of Northern Ireland.

12 January 1965, Tuesday (+7,189)

9 January 1965, Saturday (+7,186) Joely Richardson, actress, was born.

8 January 1965, Friday (+7,185) Further Indonesian attacks on Malaysian territory.

7 January 1965, Thursday (+7,184) (Indonesia, United Nations) Indonesia left the United Nations, under President Sukarno. This was in protest at Malaysia becoming a Security Council member.

5 January 1965, Tuesday (+7,182)

4 January 1965, Monday (+7,181) (1) Poet and playwright T S Eliot died. He was born on 26 September 1888 in Saint Loius, Missouri. After studying at Harvard University he went to Paris in 1910 to teach French literature and philosophy at the Sorbonne. Later, after the start of World War One, he went to Merton College, Oxford, to read Greek Philosophy. In 1915 he married Vivien Haigh-Wood and in 1919 became a British citizen. His first volume of poetry, Prufrock and other Observations, was published in 1917 followed by Poems in 1919. In 1922 The Waste Land, regarded as his greatest poem, reflected the discontent that followed the trauma of the Great War. In 1948 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.

3 January 1965, Sunday (+7,180) Milton Avery, US painter, died in New York (born 7 March 1885 in Altmar, New York)

2 January 1965, Saturday (+7,179) (1) In Pakistani presidential elections, President Ayub Khan gained a clear majority over Miss Fatimah Jinnah.

(2) M�sila, Algeria, was destroyed in an earthquake.

1 January 1965,Friday (+7,178) Vinnie Jones, footballer, was born.


31 December 1964, Thursday (+7,176) Donald Campbell set a new water speed record of 276.33 mph (444.71 kph) in his speedboat Bluebird in Perth, Western Australia.

30 December 1964, Wednesday (+7,176) 500 were arrested in India on suspicion of spying for China.

25 December 1964, Friday (+7,171) English tenor singer Ian Bostridge was born in London.

23 December 1964, Wednesday (+7,169) The Greek liner Lakonia caught fire whilst cruising 300 miles off Madeira with 1,020 people on board. She was taken in tow by two tugs, but then keeled over and sank. 132 lives were lost.

21 December 1964, Monday (+7,167) The UK Commons voted to end capital punishment.

19 December 1964, Saturday (+7,165) The military junta in South Vietnam dissolved the High National Council and arrested some of its members.

15 December 1964, Tuesday (+7,161) (Canada) The Canadian Parliament voted in favour of a single maple leaf design for the Canadian Flag.

14 December 1964, Monday (+7,160) In elections in British Guiana, Cheddi Jagan�s Progressive People�s Party lost its majority. Forbes Burnham of the People�s National Congress became the new Prime Minister.

13 December 1964, Sunday (+7,159) Ernesto Almirante, Italian actor, died aged 87.

12 December 1964, Saturday (+7,158) Kenya became a republic in the Commonwealth.Kenyatta continued as head of state, see 12 December 1963.

11 December 1964, Friday (+7,157) US President Johnson announced a large increase in aid to South Vietnam.

10 December 1964, Thursday (+7,156) Dorothy Hodgkin became the first British woman to win a Nobel Prize. She researched the structure of proteins such as insulin.

9 December 1964, Wednesday (+7,155) English poet Dame Edith Sitwell died, aged 77.

8 December 1964, Tuesday (+7,154) Simon Marks, successful retailer in conjunction with Thomas Spencer, knighted in 1944, and made a peer in 1961, died in London at his head office.

7 December 1964, Monday (+7,153) The US Supreme Court struck down as unconstitutional, a Florida law that prohibited cohabitation between a white man and a black woman, or a black man and a white woman, noting that Florida did not prohibit cohabitation between the same conduct by persons of the same race. The case of McLaughlin v. Florida arose when Dewey McLaughlin, a black man, and Connie Hoffman, a white woman, had been sentenced to 30 days in jail after living together in Miami. The Court avoided commenting on state laws prohibiting interracial marriage.

6 December 1964, Sunday (+7,152) Antonio Segni, Italian Prime Minister resigned for health reasons. He was succeeded on 28 December 1964 by Guiseppe Saragat.

5 December 1964, Saturday (+7,151) Remy Angenot, Flemish actor, died aged 70

4 December 1964, Friday (+7,150) Scott Hastings, rugby player, was born.

3 December 1964, Thursday (+7,149) Ernst Ginsberg, writer, died

2 December 1964, Wednesday (+7,148) Sammy H Stept, composer, died in Los Angeles (born 18 September 1897 in Odessa)

1 December 1964, Tuesday (+7,147) Salvatore Schilllaci, Italian footballer, was born.


30 November 1964, Monday (+7,146) Don Redman, US composer, died in New York (born 29 July1900 in Piedmont, West Virginia)

29 November 1964, Sunday (+7,145) Don Cheadle, US actor, was born in Kansas City, Missouri

28 November 1964, Saturday (+7,144) Mariner 4 was launched; 228 days later it passed within 9,700 kilometres of Mars.

23 November 1964, Monday (+7,139) (1) In an attempt to avert a Sterling Crisis, the Bank of England raised rates from 5% to 7%. This was merely seen by the markets as a sign of panic and the next day, a massive sell off of Sterling began.On 26 October 1964 a temporary 15% charge was placed on imports to the UK to rectify the balance of trade deficit. On 2 December 1964 the UK was forced to draw US$ 1 billion from the IMF. Further IMF funds were drawn during 1965. The import charge was reduced to 10% on 22 February 1965.

(2) The first British commercial radio station, Radio Manx, began broadcasting.

21 November 1964, Saturday (+7,137) The Verrazano Narrows suspension bridge, across the entrance to New York Harbour, opened to traffic.

19 November 1964, Thursday (+7,135) Major offensive by South Vietnam against the North began.

17 November 1964, Tuesday (+7,133) The UK imposed an arms embargo on South Africa because of its apartheid policy.

16 November 1964, Monday (+7,132) Otto Benesch, Austrian art historian, died in Vienna (born 20 June 1896 in Ebenfurth)

14 November 1964, Saturday (+7,130)

11 November 1964, Wednesday (+7,127) In the UK, the new Labour Chancellor introduced a mildly deflationary budget. Measures included 6d a gallon more tax on petrol.

10 November 1964, Tuesday (+7,126) Kenya became a one-party State after the Kenya African Democratic Union Party merged with the Kenyan Africa National Union Party.

8 November 1964, Sunday (+7,124)

7 November 1964, Saturday (+7,123) Helen Troke, badminton champion, was born.

6 November 1964, Friday (+7,122) Hans von Euler-Chelpin, German-born chemist, died aged 91.

5 November 1964, Thursday (+7,121) Zhou Enlai, Prime Minister of China, visited the USSR for a summit meeting of Communist States.

4 November 1964, Wednesday (+7,120) Lyndon B Johnson was elected 36th US President. He defeated the Republican, Senator Barry Goldman of Arizona. Goldwater was seen as too extreme in defence of �liberty�, and only received 38% of the vote, to Johnson�s 61%.

3 November 1964, Tuesday (+7,119) Eduardo Montalva was inaugurated for a 6-year term as the 29th President of Chile.

2 November 1964, Monday (+7,118) (1) King Faisal became King of Saudi Arabia, succeeding his brother.

(2) First showing of the TV serial Crossroads.

1 November 1964, Sunday (+7,119) (Vietnam) North Vietnamese attack on the airfield at Bien Hoa. Four US servicemen were killed and a large number of US aircraft damaged. This prompted the US to escalate its involvement in Vietnam. The airfield was expanded into a large US military base.


31 October 1964, Saturday (+7,114) Marco van Basten, Dutch footballer, was born.

30 October 1964, Friday (+7,115) Tran Van Huong became Prime Minister of South Vietnam

29 October 1964, Thursday (+7,114) The name of Tanzania was officially adopted, for the union this day of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.

28 October 1964, Wednesday (+7,113) Rioting in Catholic areas of Belfast after a Republican flag was removed by the police.

27 October 1964, Tuesday (+7,112) (1) Wilson warned Rhodesia that a declaration of UDI would be treason.

(2) In Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini delivered a speech attacking the extent of US involvement in Iran, saying that Iran was virtually a �colony of America�. Following this he was deported and took up residence in the Shiite city of Najaf, Iraq.

24 October 1964, Saturday (+7,109) Northern Rhodesia became the independent Republic of Zambia.Kenneth Kaunda was the first President.This ended 75 years of British rule.

22 October 1964, Thursday (+7,107) Michael Hill, athletics (javelin), was born.

20 October 1964, Tuesday (+7,105) Herbert Hoover, American Republican and 31st President from 1929 to 1933, died in New York City aged 90.

16 October 1964, Friday (+7,101) China exploded a nuclear weapon at Lop Nor.

15 October 1964, Thursday (+7,100) (1) (Britain) Labour won the UK General Election with a majority of 4. Labour had 317 seats (12,205,814 votes, 44.1%), the Conservatives 304 (12,001,396 votes, 43.4%), and the Liberals 9 (3,092,878 votes, 11.2%). Harold Wilson was the new Prime Minister, succeeding Alec Douglas Home. He inherited a balance of payments deficit of nearly �700 million. James Callaghan became Chancellor of the Exchequer.

(2) Nikita Khrushchev was replaced, in the USSR, as First Secretary of the Communist Party by Leonid Brezhnev and as Prime Minister by Alexei Kosygin.

14 October 1964, Wednesday (+7,099) Martin Luther King received the Nobel Peace Prize.

12 October 1964, Monday (+7,097) Russia launched the first three man space ship.

10 October 1964, Saturday (+7,095) (Olympic Games) The 18th Olympic Games opened in Tokyo.

9 October 1964, Friday (+7,094) (South Africa) A planned tour by the Rolling Stones to South Africa was cancelled due to the British Musician�s Union�s anti-apartheid embargo.

7 October 1964, Wednesday (+7,092)

6 October 1964, Tuesday (+7,091) (Broadcasting) The first episode of Stingray aired in UK TV. The puppet caste included Captain Troy, Tempest, Phones, and the green-haired Marina, aboard their atomic-powered submarine.

5 October 1964, Monday (+7,090) 57 people escaped from East to West Berlin through a 98 metre tunnel under the Berlin Wall.

4 October 1964, Sunday (+7,089) (London Underground) Services on the Moorgate to Finsbury Park line, north London, were cut back to Drayton Park to allow for Victoria Line trains at Finsbury Park, see 1 September 1968.

1 October 1964, Thursday (+7,086) (Railways) The �Bullet Train� was inaugurated between Tokyo and Osaka. It averaged 163 km/hr (101 mph). The Otowayama Tunnel, Japan, 5.045 km long, opened on the Tokyo-Osaka line.


28 September 1964, Monday (+7,083) Harpo Marx, the silent one who chased girls and played the harp, died aged 75.

27 September 1964, Sunday (+7,082) The Warren Report was published, stating that Lee Harvey Oswald alone was responsible for the assassination of President Kennedy. Conspiracy theorists were not satisfied.

25 September 1964, Friday (+7,080)

23 September 1964, Wednesday (+7,078) Roma Flinders Mitchell, 51, became Australia�s first woman Judge. She sat in the Supreme Court.

22 September 1964, Tuesday (+7,077) The James Bond film Goldfinger premiered in LeicesterSquare, London.

21 September 1964, Monday (+7,076) Malta became independent of Britain, after 164 years of British rule.

20 September 1964, Sunday (+7,075)

19 September 1964, Saturday (+7,074) Trisha Yearwood, singer, was born.

18 September 1964, Friday (+7,073) Playwright Sean O�Casey died.

17 September 1964, Thursday (+7,072) Karen Dixon, equestrian champion, was born.

16 September 1964, Wednesday (+7,071) Rossy de Palma, Spanish actress, was born.

15 September 1964, Tuesday (+7,070) The Sun was first published.

14 September 1964, Monday (+7,069) The British daily newspaper, The Herald, closed and was replaced by The Sun.

12 September 1964, Saturday (+7,067) The Spaghetti Western film �A Fistful of Dollars� premiered, directed by Sergio Leone, starring Clint Eastwood in his first leading role

6 September 1964, Sunday (+7,061) Ian Smith arrived in the UK for talks on independence.

4/ September 1964, Friday (+7,059) Queen Elizabeth II opened the Forth Road Bridge.It was 6,156 feet long, with a centre span of 3,300 feet. Construction began 21 November 1958.

3 September 1964, Thursday (+7,058) Britain agreed to support Malaysia against threats from Indonesia.

2 September 1964, Wednesday (+7,057) Indonesian army units landed on Malaysian territory at Labis.

1 September 1964, Tuesday (+7,056)


28 August 1964, Friday (+7,052) Race riots broke out in Philadelphia, USA.

22 August 1964, Saturday (+7,046) (TV shows, Football) BBC2 first broadcast Match of the Day, presented by Kenneth Wolstenholme; Arsenal played Liverpool at their Anfield ground, watched by a TV audience of 20,000 in black and white. Football clubs initially worried that the TV show would discourage fans from actually attending games, Over 40,000 actually attended the ground. TV audience numbers rose sharply after England won the 1966 World Cup and the show moved to BBC1. In 2014 BBC1�s Match of the Day has a TV audience of 3.6 million. In 1964 each of the Football League Clubs made �136 from the TV programme; in 2014 each Club made �3 million from the show. The famous theme tune, by Barry Stoller, was first broadcast in 1970.

21 August 1964, Friday (+7,045) In London, three women were found guilty of indecency for wearing �topless� dresses.

20 August 1964, Thursday (+7,044) South Africa was banned from the Olympics because of its apartheid policy.

19 August 1964, Wednesday (+7,043)

18 August 1964, Tuesday (+7,042) The International Olympic Committee banned South Africa from the Tokyo Games because of its policy of apartheid.

17 August 1964, Monday (+7,041) Greece withdrew its forces from NATO because of tension with Turkey over Cyprus.

16 August 1964, Sunday (+7,040)

14 August 1964, Friday (+7,038) Geoffrey Parsons, athlete (high jump), was born.

13 August 1964, Thursday (+7,037) The last hangings in Britain took place � the murderers Peter Anthony Allen at Walton Prison, Liverpool, and John Robson Walby at Strangeways Prison, Manchester.

12 August 1964, Wednesday (+7,036) (1) Ian Fleming, British author and creator of James Bond, died aged 56.

(2) Great train robber Charlie Wilson escaped from Winson Green prison, Birmingham. He was recaptured four years later in Canada.

11 August 1964, Tuesday (+7,035) A Christian-sectarian based rebellion in Zambia led by Alice Lenshina ended.

10 August 1964, Monday (+7,034) An emergency casualty station had to be set up in Brighton to deal with a constant stream of hysterical girls overcome during a performance of the Rolling Stones.

9 August 1964, Sunday (+7,033) The United Nations ordered a ceasefire in Cyprus.

8 August 1964, Saturday (+7,032) Turkish planes attacked Cyprus.

7 August 1964, Friday (+7,031) In South Vietnam, General Nguyen Khanh proclaimed a State of Emergency and ousted President Duong Vanh Minh.

5 August 1964, Wednesday (+7,029) US aircraft bombed North Vietnam in retaliation for the Maddox attack (2 August 1964).

2 August 1964, Sunday (+7,026) (1) North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked the US destroyer Maddox, which was patrolling 16 km off the North Vietnamese coast. One Vietnamese boat was sunk, another badly damaged; the Maddox was undamaged and continued her patrol. On the stormy night of 4-5 August 1964 the radar allegedly spotted five Vietnamese boats in �attack formation�; in fact these boats almost certainly did not exist. Either the radar image was misinterpreted, or were fabricated to justify further US actions in Vietnam. US President Johnson got the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution passed through Congress; authorising �any necessary measures� to repel attacks on US forces or US allies, including South Vietnam. This resolution justified a large escalation in US activity in Vietnam from 1965 onwards.

(2) US Congress passed the Civil Rights Act 1964.
1 August 1964, Saturday (+7,025) Johnny Burnette, US composer, died (born 25 March 1934 in Memphis, Tennessee)


31 July1964, Friday (+7,024) NASA succeeded in landing the Ranger 7 probe on the Moon.

30 July 1964, Thursday (+7,023)

29 July1964, Wednesday (+7,022) (Abortion) Britain�s first family planning clinic offering advice to unmarried women opened.

28 July1964, Tuesday (+7,021) NASA launched the Ranger 7 probe towards the Moon

27 July1964, Monday (+7,020) Sir Winston Churchill last appeared in the House of Commons. He died on 24 January 1965.

26 July1964, Sunday (+7,019) Sugar workers strike in British Guiana was called off.

24 July 1964, Friday (+7,017)

22 July1964, Wednesday (+7,015) Bonnie Langford, actress, was born.

21 July 1964, Tuesday (+7,014) Jean Fautrier, French painter and sculptor, died in Seine et Oise (born 16 May 1898 in Paris)

20 July 1964, Monday (+7,013)

19 July1964, Sunday (+7,012) Mark Wigglesworth, conductor, was born

18 July1964, Saturday (+7,011) Race riots in Harlem, New York; start of the �ghetto revolts�.

17 July1964, Friday (+7,010) Donald Campbell set a world land speed record of 403mph. He was driving a car called Bluebird, on the salt flats at Lake Eyre, South Australia.

16 July1964, Thursday (+7,009) (1) In the UK, the abolition of Resale Price Maintenance on most goods facilitated the subsequent growth of the supermarkets.

(2) The Rolling Stones had their first UK No.1 hitwith It�s All Over Now.

15 July1964, Wednesday (+7,008) Anastas Mikoyan succeeded Leonid Brezhnev as President of the USSR.

9 July1964, Thursday (+6,702) Tshombe returned from exile and was made Congolese (Zaire) Prime Minister. He attempted to force a peace deal on various rebel groups, and drafted White mercenaries into his army. This attracted criticism from other Communist-oriented African States. Rebels seized White hostages and held them at Stanleyville (now Kisangani) until they were rescued by Belgian paratroopers, flown in on US planes.

6 July1964, Monday (+6,999) (1) Malawi, formerly Nyasaland, became independent.It had been a British Protectorate since 1891. Scottish explorer David Livingstone named the lake, Lake Nyasa, after being told that was its name by the locals; however nyasa meant �mass of waters�. So Lake Nyasa meant �lake-lake�. On independence the name Malawi was chosen, from the former 16th century Kingdom of Maravi, believed to have ruled over the Zambesi river as far as Mombasa.

(2) Magnitude 7.4 earthquake struck Guerrero, Mexico, killing 78.

3 July1964, Friday (+6,996) Joanne Harris, novelist, was born

2 July1964, Thursday (+6,995) President Johnson of the USA signed the Civil Rights Bill prohibiting racial discrimination.

1 July1964, Wednesday (+6,994) Roscoe Pound, US legal scholar, died aged 93.


30 June 1964, Tuesday (+6,993) UN troops ceased fighting in the Congo.

29 June 1964, Monday (+6,992) Eric Dolphy, US jazz saxophonist, died in Berlin (born 20 June 1928 in Los Angeles)

26 June 1964, Friday (+6,989)

24 June 1964, Wednesday (+6,987) Stuart Davis, US painter, died in New York (born 7 December 1894 in Philadelphia)

23 June 1964, Tuesday (+6,986) The first snowfall in Johannesburg, South Africa, since records began.

22 June 1964, Monday (+6.,985) Dan Brown, writer, was born.

21 June 1964, Sunday (+6,984) Dean Saunders, footballer, was born.

20 June 1964, Saturday (+6,983)

18 June 1964, Thursday (+6,981) Giorgio Morandi, Italian painter, died in Bolohna (born 20 July 1890 in Bolohna)

17 June 1964, Wednesday (+6,980) Boris Johnson, UK Conservative PM, was born.

16 June 1964, Tuesday (+6,979) The Cygnus X-1 black hole was discovered.

15 June 1964, Monday (+6,978) Michael Laudrup, Danish footballer, was born.

14 June 1964, Sunday (+6,977) Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment and sent to Robben Island, seven miles off Cape Town. There were international protests. See 27 January 1963.

13 June 1964, Saturday (+6,976) Kathy Burke, actress, was born

12 June 1964, Friday (+6,975)

11 June 1964, Thursday (+6,974) Henry Stevenson, billiards champion, died.

10 June 1964, Wednesday (+6,973) The U.S. Senate voted closure of the Civil Rights Bill after a 75-day filibuster.

9 June 1964, Tuesday (+6,972) British newspaper tycoon Lord Beaverbrook died, aged 85.

7 June 1964, Sunday (+6,970) Meade Lewis, US jazz composer, died in Minneapolis (born 4 September 1905 in Chicago)

5 June 1964, Friday (+6,968) The first British space flight, as the Blue Streak rocket took off from Woomera in Australia.

4 June 1964, Thursday (+6,967) The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 189, condemning military incursions into Cambodia.

3 June 1964, Wednesday (+6,966) The Rolling Stones began their first US tour.

2 June 1964, Tuesday (+6,965) The PLO was created in Jerusalem.


30 May 1964, Saturday (+6,962)

27 May 1964, Wednesday (+6,959) Indian statesman 'Pandit' Nehru died, aged 74, having been the first Prime Minister of India since independence in 1947. He was succeeded by Lal Shastri.

26 May 1964, Tuesday (+6,958) Caitl�n R. Kiernan, Irish-born US science fiction and fantasy author, was born in Dublin

25 May 1964, Monday (+6,957) Adrian Moorhouse, champion swimmer, was born.

24 May 1964, Sunday (+6,956) Football stadium riot in Lima, Peru, as Peru played Argentina; 300 died.

23 May 1964, Saturday (+6,955) Staci Greason, actress, was born in Denver, Colorado.

22 May 1964, Friday (+6,954) UK troops flown to British Guiana as a state of emergency was proclaimed as unrest grew.

21 May 1964, Thursday (+6,953) US President Lyndon Johnson spoke of his vision of a �Great Society�. He intended to redistribute wealth, improve civil rights and healthcare, whilst maintaining a thriving economy.

20 May 1964, Wednesday (+6,952) Joseph :Lawson, horse racing champion, died.

19 May 1964, Tuesday (+6,951) The US lodged a complaint with Russia over microphones found at its Moscow Embassy.

18 May 1964, Monday (+6,950) Mods and Rockers clashed at UK south coast resorts.

17 May 1964, Sunday (+6,949) Bob Dylan made his first major London appearance, at the Royal Albert Hall.

14 May 1964, Thursday (+6,946) Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev and Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser opened the first stage of the Aswan Dam in Egypt. The Nile had been diverted four years earlier to build the dam, which will create a lake 6 miles wide and 350 miles long, displacing 100,000 people but irrigating a million acres of desert for farmland. Many of Egypt�s historic sites were also flooded, but the buildings were moved to safe locations.

11 May 1964, Monday (+6,943) John Parrott, snooker champion, was born.

10 May 1964, Sunday (+6,942) Mikhail Larionov, painter, died near Paris (born 1881 in Moldova)

6 May 1964, Wednesday (+6,938) In South Africa the Bantu Laws Amendment Act was passed. This attempted to control the informal settlement of Black Africans on the periphery of urban areas.

3 May 1964, Sunday (+6,935) In the Lebanese general election, Independent candidates won the majority of seats, on a voter turnout of 53.0%.

2 May 1964, Saturday (+6,934) Nancy, Lady Astor, the first woman to sit in the House of Commons in 1919, died aged 84.

1 May 1964, Friday (+6,933) John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz developed BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). This day the first BASIC programme was run on a computer at Dartmouth College. It was a multi-purpose programming language that was simple to use.


30 April 1964, Thursday (+6,932)

28 April 1964, Tuesday (+6,930) Lady Helen Taylor, daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Kent, was born,

27 April 1964, Monday (+6,929) Greville Wynne, British businessman sentenced in Moscow in 1963 for spying, was exchanged at the Berlin border for Gordon Lonsdale, KGB agent sentenced in London for espionage in 1961.

26 April 1964, Sunday (+6,928) Tanganyika and Zanzibar united as Tanzania. Julius Nyerere was the first President.

25 April 1964, Saturday (+6,927) The head of the Little Mermaid statue in Copenhagen Harbour was hacked off and stolen. The statue was in honour of the children�s� author, Hans Christian Anderson.

24 April 1964, Friday (+6,926) Gerhard Domagk, German pathologist (born 30 October 1895 in Brandenburg) died in Burgberg.

Martin Lopez-Zubero, Spanish swimmer, was born

23 April 1964, Thursday (+6,295) Gianandrea Noseda, Italian pianist, was born.

22 April 1964, Wednesday (+6,924) British businesswoman Greville Wynne who had been imprisoned in the USSR for a year on spying charges was exchanged for the Soviet agent Gordon Lonsdale.

21 April 1964, Tuesday (+6,923) BBC2 began transmission. The first programme was Play School.

20 April 1964, Monday (+6,922) Crispin Glover, actor, was born.

19 April 1964, Sunday (+6,921) Rightist coup in Laos, Suvanna Phuma remained Prime Minister

18 April 1964, Saturday (+6,920) Ford unveiled its GT40 racing car. It was built specifically to outperform Ferrari in endurance races, because Henry Ford was angry that Enzo Ferrari refused t sell his company to him. The car suffered from aerodynamic issues and became airborne in a race and crashed; however by the late 60s this car proved able to beat Ferrari�s models.

17 April 1964, Friday (+6,919) The Rolling Stones released their first LP.

16 April 1964, Thursday (+6,918) Twelve members of the Great Train Robbers were sentenced to a total of 307 years in jail.

13 April 1964, Monday (+6,915) Ian Smith became Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). He succeeded Winston Field, who had resigned.

11 April 1964, Saturday (+6,913) Marshal Humberto Castello Branco became President of Brazil,

9 April 1964, Thursday (+6,911) The first driverless trains ran on the London Underground. They were first trialled on the Central Line between Woodford and Hainault.

7 April 1964, Tuesday (+6,909) Russell Crowe, actor, was born.

5 April 1964, Sunday (+6,907) Douglas MacArthur, American General and commander in the Pacific during World War Two, died in Washington DC aged 84.

4 April 1964, Saturday (-6,906) Archbishop Makarios rejected the 1960 treaty; fighting broke out in Cyprus.

2 April 1964, Thursday (+6,904)

1 April 1964, Wednesday (+6,903) President Goulart of Brazil was overthrown in a military coup. President Johnson of the USA feared a socialist takeover.


31 March 1964, Tuesday (+6,902) Oleksandr Turchynov, Ukrainian politician, economist, was born. 31 March 1964, The Brazilian 4th Military District, disturbed at events earlier (see 15 March 1964) mounted an insurrection that was soon joined by other sections of the military. The few troops loyal to Goulart were soon overcome, and also a General Strike called by the General Confederation of Workers caused disruption but failed to prevent the military takeover.

30 March 1964, Monday (+6,901) Mods and Rockers clashed on the seafront at Clacton.

29 March 1964, Sunday (+6,900) Easter Sunday. Elle MacPherson, actress, was born.

28 March 1964, Saturday (+6,899) (1) Radio Caroline, Britain�s first private radio broadcasting station, began broadcasting from The Channel outside British waters.

27 March 1964, Friday (+6,898) (1) A UN peace force took over in Cyprus.

(2) (Earthquake, USA) Powerful earthquake, magnitude 9.2, hit Alaska, 139 died.

26 March 1964, Thursday (+6,897) You Only Live Twice, Ian Fleming's 12th James Bond novel was released by Jonathan Cape in the UK.

25 March 1964, Wednesday (+6,896) (1) Unrest in British Guiana as a strike by sugar workers continued (strike ended 26 July1964).

(2) In Brazil, 1,400 sailors seized a Trades Union building to protest against the arrest of their association�s President. They surrendered to the Army two days later and were swiftly pardoned. The top military were shocked and accused President Goulart of undermining discipline, see 31 March 1964

24 March 1964, Tuesday (+6,895) (Aviation) Stanstead, Essex, was provisionally chosen as the site of London�s third airport.

23 March 1964, Monday (+6,894) The first United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) opened at Geneva.

22 March 1964, Sunday (+6,893) Anti-Muslim violence broke out in India.

21 March 1964, Saturday (+6,892) Ieuan Evans, rugby player, was born Carmarthenshire, Wales.

20 March 1964, Friday (+6,891) Irish playwright Brendan Behan died.

19 March 1964, Thursday (+6,890) Harold Wilson presented each of The Beatles with a silver heart as joint winners of the Show Business Personality of 1963 award.

18 March 1964, Wednesday (+6,889) (Innovations, Light) The Lava Lamp was patented by David George Smith for Crestworth Ltd, Poole, UK.

17 March 1964, Tuesday (+6,888) Jacques Songo'o, Cameroonian footballer, was born.

16 March 1964, Monday (+6,887) US President Johnson called for �total victory� in a �national war on poverty�.

15 March 1964, Sunday (+6,886) Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton married in Montreal.

14 March 1964, Saturday (+6,885) Jack Ruby, aged 52, was found guilty in Dallas of killing Lee Harvey Oswald, alleged assassin of President Kennedy (see 22 November 1963). He was sentenced to death but died of a blood clot on the lung in 1967.

12 March 1964, Thursday (+6,883)

11 March 1964, Wednesday (+6,882) South Africa left the International Labour Organisation

10 March 1964, Tuesday (+6,881) Prince Edward (Edward Antony Richard Louis) was born in Buckingham Palace, the third son of Elizabeth II.

9 March 1964, Monday (+6,882) Fighting in Ktima, Cyprus.

6 March 1964, Friday (+6,877) Constantine II became king of the Hellenes, succeeding his father Paul I.


29 February 1964, Saturday (+6,871) In Sydney, Australia, Dawn Fraser set a new record of 58.9 seconds for the 100 metre freestyle.

25 February 1964, Tuesday (+6,867) Johnny Burke, US author, died in New York (born 3 October 1908 in Antioch, California)

21 February 1964, Friday (+6,863) �10 notes were issued for the first time since World War Two.

20 February 1964, Thursday (+6,862) Ceasefire in the border war between Algeria and Morocco. The French, former colonial power in both countries, had drawn the border without local consultation, and in 10/1963 a border war began. The two countires had a further border conflict in 1967, and clashed again in 1976 over the fate of Spanish Sahara.

18 February 1964, Tuesday (+6,860) Matt Dillon, actor, was born.

16 February 1964, Sunday (+6,858) Jose Roberto Gama de Oliveira, Brazilian footballer, was born.

15 February 1964, Saturday (+6,857) Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin, became leader of the West German Social Democratic Party.

13 February 1964, Thursday (+6,855)

11 February 1964, Tuesday (+6,853) Fighting broke out at Limassol, Cyprus, between Greeks and Turks.

10 February 1964, Monday (+6,852) The aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne collided with the HMAS Voyager off the coast of New South Wales, Australia. The Voyager sank, killing 82.

9 February 1964, Sunday (+6,851)

8 February 1964, Saturday (+6,850) The Beatles began their first US tour.

7 February 1964, Friday (+6,849) 25,000 fans gathered at Kennedy Airport to greet the Beatles on their first visit to America.

6 February 1964, Thursday (+6,848) Britain and France reaffirmed agreement to build a Channel Tunnel.

5 February 1964, Wednesday (+6,847) Laura Linney, actress, was born.

3 February 1964, Monday (+6,845) China challenged the USSR for leadership of the Communist world.

1 February 1964, Saturday (+6,843) The mayor of Notasulga, Alabama, turned away six black pupils from an all white school.

EMI�s managing director announced that The Beatles were making over �500,000 a month. The Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain called for unauthorised possession of amphetamines to be made an offence.


30 January 1964, Thursday (+6,841) Coup in South Vietnam; General Duong Van Minh was replaced by General Nguyen Kanh. However Minh remained as nominal head of state.

29 January 1964, Wednesday (+6,840) Alan Ladd, actor, died.

27 January 1964, Monday (+6,,838) France recognised Communist China.

23 January 1964, Thursday (+6,834) Dr James Hardy, at the University of Mississippi, USA, attempted the first animal to human heart transplant. He implanted the heart of a chimpanzee named Bino into the chest of Boyd Rush, aged 68. Rush died 90 minutes later.

22 January 1964, Wednesday (+6,833) Kenneth Kaunda, leader of the United National Independence Party, became the first President of Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia).

21 January 1964, Tuesday (+6,832) Joseph Schildkraut, Austrian-born American stage and film actor, died aged 67.

20 January 1964, Monday (+6,831) In the UK, the trial of the Great Train Robbers began.

19 January 1964, Sunday (+6,830) Firmin Lambot, Belgian racing cyclist, died aged 77.

18 January 1964, Saturday (+6,829) Richard Dunwoody, champion horse racer, was born.

17 January 1964, Friday (+6,828) The top UK TV programme was Steptoe and Son.

16 January 1964, Thursday (+6,827) Arab leaders announced a plan to divert the headwaters of the River Jordan away from Israel. Israel had previously announced its National Water Carrier Plan to make greater use of the Jordan waters. The issue threatened another Arab-Israeli war., until the Arabs dropped their diversion plan in May 1964.

15 January 1964, Wednesday (+6,826) George Duncan, golfer, died (born 16 September 1883).

14 January 1964, Tuesday (+6,825) In China, the nuclear processing facility at Lanzhou made its first delivery of enriched uranium, 90% uranium-235; China exploded its first atom bomb, 22-kilotons, on 16 October 1964.

13 January 1964, Monday (+6,824) (1) In Calcutta, 200 died in Muslim-Hindu riots.

(2) The Beatles entered the US Charts at no. 45 with I Wanna Hold Your Hand.

12 January 1964, Sunday (+6,823) (Africa) 24 days after Zanzibar became independent from the UK as a constitutional monarchy, its Sultan was overthrown; Zanzibar was proclaimed a Socialist Republic. The Arab Sultan of Zanzibar was banished from the country, and an African-led government took control. A few months later it united with Tanganyika to form Tanzania.

11 January 1964, Saturday (+6,822) (Medical) Health experts in America published the first warnings that cigarettes could be dangerous for your health.

10 January 1964, Friday (+6,821) A Marja, Dutch author, died.

9 January 1964, Thursday (+6,820) Rioting in the Panama Canal Zone over the issue of whether the Panamanian Flag couldbe flown alongside the US Flag. 22 Panamanians and 4 US citizens died. The event is now commemorated as Martyr�s Day.

8 January 1964, Wednesday (+6,819) (USA) In the US, President Johnson proposed a reduction in defence spending. He wanted to reprioritise spending towards alleviating poverty.

7 January 1964, Tuesday (+6,818) In a drive to improve trade links with Europe, Cuba ordered 400 British buses.

6 January 1964, Monday (+6,817) Pope Paul VI finished a three-day tour of the Holy Land, the first Pope to visit there since Christianity began. He was also the first Pope to leave Italy for over 150 years. On 5 January 1964 Pope Paul VI met the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople in Jerusalem, the first meeting between the heads of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches for 500 years.

5 January 1964, Sunday (+6,816) (1) (Christian) Pope Paul VI met with the Primate of Eastern Orthodoxy, Athenagoras I, Patriarch of Constantinople, in Jerusalem.

(2) (London Underground) The first automatic ticket barrier on the London Underground was installed, at Stamford Brook station.

4 January 1964, Saturday (+6,815) (Jewish) Michael Brenner, German-Jewish historian, was born.

1 January 1964, Wednesday (+6,812) The first Top of the Pops was broadcast, with Jimmy Savile as its presenter.


30 December 1963, Monday (+6,810) German-born composer Paul Hindemith died.

28 December 1963, Saturday (+6,808) German composer Paul Hindemith died in Frankfurt

22 December 1963, Sunday (+6.802) Violent clashes between Greeks and Turks in Cyprus; UN Peace Forces intervened.

21 December 1963, Saturday (+6,801) Leeds Rugby Club, the first with undersoil heating, used it during a game with Dewsbury.

20 December 1963, Friday (+6,800)

18 December 1963, Wednesday (+6,798) Brad Pitt, actor., was born.

17 December 1963, Tuesday (+6,797) The USA passed the Clean Air Act, forerunner to the 1970 Clean Air Act which required major cuts in car emissions.

16 December 1963, Monday (+6,796) Benjamin Bratt, actor, was born.

15 December 1963, Sunday (+6,795) In the UK, the CEGB's 400 kV Supergrid was first tested when High Marnham Power Station was connected to Monk Fryston substation, near Selby.

14 December 1963, Saturday (+6,794) Dinah Washington, US singer, died in Detroit (born 29 April 1924 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama)

13 December 1963, Friday (+6,793) The UN approved Resolution 1962 (XVIII), The Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space, the first of five declarations governing the nations' exploration of outer space. Among the nine principles contained in the declaration were that no nation could lay claim to sovereignty of any portion of space or celestial bodies, but that each nation would have jurisdiction over its own objects in outer space regardless of where they returned to Earth, and that exploration would be "in the interests of all mankind" and nations would regard astronauts as �envoys of mankind� to be rendered aid in the event of an emergency, regardless of nationality.

12 December 1963, Thursday (+6,792) Kenya became independent, with Kenyatta as President.

11 December 1963, Wednesday (+6,791) In Los Angeles, Frank Sinatra Jr was set free after his father paid kidnappers a US$ 240,000 ransom.

10 December 1963, Tuesday (+6,790) Zanzibar became independent.It had been a British Protectorate since 1890.

9 December 1963, Monday (+6,789) Royal Jordanian Airlines was established, on decree by King Hussein,

8 December 1963, Sunday (+6,788) Sarit Dhanarajata, Prime Minister of Thailand, died.

5 December 1963, Thursday (+6,785) Lynn Udall, US composer, died in Downey, California (born 4 February 1870 in Council Bluffs, Iowa)

3 December 1963, Tuesday (+6,783)

1 December 1963, Sunday (+6,781) Arjuna Ranatunga, Sri Lankan cricketer, was born.


30 November 1963, Saturday (+6,780) Phil Baker, US musician, died in Copenhagen (born 24 August 1896 in Philadelphia).

29 November 1963, Friday (+6,779) US President Lyndon Johnson set up the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of John F Kennedy

28 November 1963, Thursday (+6,778)

26 November 1963, Tuesday (+6,776) Joe Lydon, rugby player, was born.

25 November 1963, Monday (+6,775) State funeral of President Kennedy.

24 November 1963, Sunday (+6,774) Lee Harvey Oswald, assassin of President Kennedy, was himself shot dead by Jack Ruby.

23 November 1963, Saturday (+6,773) The BBC screened the first episode of Dr Who. The doctor was played by William Hartnell.

22 November 1963, Friday (+6,772) John F Kennedy was assassinated, in Dallas, Texas, during the run up to the 1964 USA presidential election. He had become President of the USA in 1960, defeating Richard M Nixon. Lee Harvey Oswald, the man charged with the killing, was shot on 24 November 1963 by club owner Jack Ruby at Dallas Police headquarters. Vice President Lyndon Johnson completed the remainder of his term. See 14 March 1964.

20 November 1963, Wednesday (+6,770)

19 November 1963, Tuesday (+6,769) John Potter, hockey champion, was born.

18 November 1963, Monday (+6,768) (1) The Dartford Tunnel was opened. Initial construction works had begun in 1936, when a pilot tunnel was dug (completed 1938). However further works were delayed due to World War Two, and further tunnel works only resumed in 1959.

(2) The push button phone was introduced.

(3) Anti-Ba�ath Party coup in Iraq.

14 November 1963, Thursday (+6,764) The island of Surtsey, off Iceland, was born as an undersea volcano erupted.

7 November 1963, Thursday (+6,757) John Barnes, footballer, was born.

5 November 1963, Tuesday (+6,755) US Vice President Lyndon Johnson visited The Netherlands

3 November 1963, Sunday (+6.753) Ian Wright, footballer, was born.

2 November 1963, Saturday (+6,752) The first President of Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem, was assassinated, along with his brother, in a military coup encouraged by the CIA.

1 November 1963, Friday (+6,751) In South Vietnam, a coup organised by General Duong Van Minh overthrew President Ngo Dinh Diem.


31 October 1963, Thursday (+6,750) Britain suspended aid to Indonesia.

30 October 1963, Wednesday (+6,749) Brendan Mullin, rugby player, was born.

28 October 1963, Monday (+6,747) Lauren Holly, actress, was born.

26 October 1963, Saturday (+6,745) Khrushchev said the USSR would not race the US to get a man on the Moon.

25 October 1963, Friday (+6,744) Michael Lynaugh, rugby player, was born

23 October 1963, Wednesday (+6,742) In the UK, the Robbins Report called for a huge expansion of higher education; 17 new universities were created.

19 October 1963, Saturday (+6,738) Sir Alec Douglas-Home, Conservative, became Prime Minister.Harold Macmillan resigned as Prime Minister on 18 October 1963.

17 October 1963, Thursday (+6,736) Sergio Javier Goycochea, Argentinean footballer, was born.

16 October 1963, Wednesday (+6,735) The trans-Atlantic cable USA to UK opened from Tickerton, New Jersey, to Cornwall.

15 October 1963, Tuesday (+6,734) Herbert von Karajan conducted the inaugural concert at Berlin�s new Philharmonie.

13 October 1963, Sunday (+6,732) The Beatles (John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr) appeared on British TV in Saturday Night at the Palladium. Their popularity soared.

11 October 1963, Friday (+6,730) Jean Cocteau, French artist (born 1889) died.

10 October 1963, Thursday (+6,729) Harold Macmillan announced he would resign as Prime Minister, due to ill-health and the Profumo Affair; see 5 June 1963 and 19 October 1963.

9 October 1963, Wednesday (+6,728) Three thousand were killed as the Vaijont Dam burst in the Italian Alps. Despite warnings that the valley sides were being destabilised as the dam filled, work continued until a rock slide hit the site.

8 October 1963, Tuesday (+6,727)

7 October 1963, Monday (+6,726) Hurricane Flora killed 7,190 people in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

6 October 1963, Sunday (+6,725) Elisabeth Shue, actress, was born.

5 October 1963, Saturday (+6,724) Laura Davies, golf champion, was born.

3 October 1963, Thursday (+6,722) A further military coup in Honduras. Morales was deposed a second time. Colonel Osvaldo Lopez Arellano headed a new military regime; military rule lasted until 1981.

1 October 1963, Tuesday (+6,720) Nigeria became a republic within the Commonwealth.


30 September 1963, Monday (+6,719) J Russell Robinson, US composer, died in Palmdale, California (born 8 July1892 in Indianapolis)

28 September 1963, Saturday (+6,717)

26 September 1963, Thursday (+6,715) Lord Denning�s report on the Profumo affair was published. He said there was no breach of security and government ministers were not involved in promiscuous behaviour.

25 September 1963, Wednesday (+6,714) The Bosch administration in the Dominican Republic was overthrown in a bloodless coup by the military, who alleged that Bosch was too pro-Communist.

24 September 1963, Tuesday (+6,713) Peter Craven, speedway driver, died (born 21 June 1934).

23 September 1963, Monday (+6,712) The College of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, was founded. It gained university status in 1975 as the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals.

22 September 1963, Sunday (+6,711) South Korea began sending the first of a total of 312,853 soldiers to fight the North Vietnamese.

21 September 1963, Saturday (+6,710) Vilian Siroky, Czechoslovak Prime Minister, was dismissed. Jozef Lenart became Prime Minister. Lenart was a pragmatic reformer who succeeded in boosting the Czechoslovak economy. However he became less in favour of political reform and was dismissed when the 1968 Prague Spring began.

20 September 1963, Friday (+6,709) The first pre-natal blood transfusion was performed at the National Women�s hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, by Professor George Green, on a child born to Mrs E McLeod.

19 September 1963, Thursday (+6,708) France and Britain agreed to build a Channel Tunnel.

18 September 1963, Wednesday (+6,707) The UN Special Committee on Apartheid in South Africa called for prohibition of arms and petroleum traffic with South Africa.

17 September 1963, Tuesday (+6,706) Haiti was officially made a One Party State, with all civil rights suspended. In fact there were very few civil rights anyway, but this move cemented the Party of |National Unity as another support mechanism for Duvalier.

16 September 1963, Monday (+6,705) Malaysia was formed; a mob of over 100,000 burned down the British Embassy.The name Malaysia was adopted, from the previous name, Federation of Malaya, when joined by Singapore and Sarawak.

15 September 1963, Sunday (+6,704) During race violence in the US, an African-American church in Birmingham, Alabama, was blown up.

14 September 1963, Saturday (+6,703) The first issue of The Hornet, boy�s comic, was published.

13 September 1963, Friday (+6.702) Robin Smith, cricketer, was born.

12 September 1963, Thursday (+6,701)

10 September 1963, Tuesday (+6,699) The people of Gibraltar voted overwhelmingly to remain under British rule.

9 September 1963, Monday (+6,698) Roberto Donadoni, Italian footballer, was born

8 September 1963, Sunday (+6,697) A new Constitution in Algeria established Ben Bella as President.

7 September 1963, Saturday (+6,696) Fred Vine and Drummond Matthews confirmed Harry Hess�s theory of sea floor spreading.

6 September 1963, Friday (+6,695)

5 September 1963, Thursday (+6,694) Christine Keeler, one of the women at the centre of the Profumo scandal, was arrested and charged with perjury. She was sentenced to nine months on 6 December 1963. See 5 June 1963.

4 September 1963, Wednesday (+6,693) (1) Desegregation riots in Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

(2) Robert Schuman, French Prime Minister, died.

3 September 1963, Tuesday (+6,692) Poet Louis MacNeice died.

2 September 1963, Monday (+6,691) George Wallace, Governor of Alabama, halted integration of Black and White students by surrounding Tuskegee High School with state troopers. See 15 May 1972.

1 September 1963, Sunday (+6,690) About 100,000 people in two Japanese cities demonstrated against the presence of American nuclear submarines.


31 August 1963, Saturday (+6,689) The �hot line�, linking the Kremlin and the White House, went into operation.

30 August 1963, Friday (+6,688) Guy Burgess, Cambridge spy who worked for the Soviet Union, died.

29 August 1963, Thursday (+6,687) Gulzarilal Nanda replaced Lal Bahadur Shastri as Indian Minister for Home Affairs.

28 August 1963, Wednesday (+6,686) Black civil rights leader Martin Luther King made his famous speech, �I have a dream�� to a rally of 200,000 people in Washington DC, demonstrating for civil rights for Blacks. On 4 September 1963 there were desegregation riots at Birmingham, Alabama.

27 August 1963, Tuesday (+6,685) Du Bois, fighter for Black equality (born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, 23 February 1868), died in Accra, Ghana. He founded the Niagara Movement, an association of Black intellectuals, in 1905, which became part of the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) in 1909. Du Bois also participated on the conferences that led to the founding of the United Nations, moving to Ghana in 1961.

26 August 1963, Monday (+6,684) Ludger Beerbaum, showjumper, was born.

25 August 1963, Sunday (+6,683) Karl Probst, US automobile engineer, died aged 79

24 August 1963, Saturday (+6,682) Jonathan Webb, rugby player, was born.

23 August 1963, Friday (+6,681) The Beatles single She Loves You was released.

22 August 1963, Thursday (+6,680) Lord Nuffield, founder of Morris Motors, died, aged 84.

21 August 1963, Wednesday (+6,679) Martial law was declared in South Vietnam.

20 August 1963, Tuesday (+6,678) Joan Voute, Dutch astronomer, died aged 84.

19 August 1963, Monday (+6,677) Welsh soprano singer Rebecca Evans was born near Neath.

18 August 1963, Sunday (+6,676) James Meredith became the first African American to graduate from the University of Mississippi.

17 August 1963, Saturday (+6,675) Richard Barthelmess, US silent film actor, died aged 68.

16 August 1963, Friday (+6,674) Joan Eardley, British painter, died in Glasgow (born 18 May 1921 in Warnham, Sussex)

15 August 1963, Thursday (+6,673) Lisa Opie, squash champion, was born.

12 August 1963, Monday (+6,670)

9 August 1963, Friday (+6,667) Whitney Houston, US singer, was born.

8 August 1963, Thursday (+6,666) The Great Train Robbery took place at Sear�s Crossing, Mentmore, near Cheddington, Bletchley, Buckinghamshire. A gang of 15 men stole over �2.5million. Their haul was �2.5 million in banknotes scheduled for destruction.The robbery was well planned. They used batteries and a light to simulate a red stop signal for the Glasgow to London mail train. When the train stopped they coshed the driver, Jack Mills, decoupled the engine and some of the carriages, and drove them to Bridego bridge further up the line. Here the loot was loaded onto a lorry and taken to a farm nearby, which the police quickly found. Charlie Wilson, the first of the robbers, was arrested and charged later the same month. The train driver was coshed on the head and died six years later, never fully regaining his health.

5 August 1963, Monday (+6,663) (1) President Kennedy signed a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in Washington. This treaty forbade testing in the atmosphere, outer space, or underwater, and was aimed at preventing other nations than the USA or USSR developing nuclear weapons. However to allow America and Russia to develop their nuclear weapons, underground testing was allowed under this treaty (see 1 July1968).

(2) Haitian exiles attempted to overthrow Papa Doc Duvalier, mounting an invasion of Haiti from the Dominican Republic. However they were driven out of Haiti after 2 days fighting.

3 August 1963, Saturday (+6,661) The Beatles played in The Cavern, Liverpool, for the last time.

1 August 1963, Thursday (+6,659) The minimum age for prison in the UK was raised to 17 by the Criminal Justice Act.


31 July1963, Wednesday (+6,658) In Britain, Mr A N Wedgwood Benn, who had become 2nd Viscount Stansgate, renounced his peerage as he was now allowed to do under the Peerage Act 1963. This made them eligible to become MPs in the House of Commons. He changed his name to Tony Benn in 1972.

30 July1963, Tuesday (+6,657) The �third man�, Kim Philby, turned up in Moscow after escaping arrest in Britain for spying. He had defected to Russia on 23 January 1963.

29 July 1963, Monday (+6,656) Russian mezzo-soprano singer Olga Borodina was born in Leningrad.

28 July1963, Sunday (+6,655)

26 July1963, Friday (+6,653) Big earthquake hit Skopje, Yugoslavia, killing 1,100. 150,000 were left homeless.

25 July1963, Thursday (+6,652) Ugo Cerletti, neurologist, died.

23 July1963, Tuesday (+6,650)

22 July1963, Monday (+6,649) In Britain, a commission into slum housing was set up.

21 July1963, Sunday (+6,648) In Britain, Prime Minister Harold MacMillan appointed Lord Denning to investigate the security aspects of the Profumo affair.

16 July1963, Tuesday (+6,643)

14 July1963, Sunday (+6,641) Paul Eddery, jockey, was born

13 July1963, Saturday (+6,640) Fatboy Slim, musician, was born.

11 July1963, Thursday (+6,638) Dean Richards, rugby player, was born.

9 July 1963, Tuesday (+6,636) English tenor John Mark Ainsley was born in Cheshire.

8 July1963, Monday (+6,635) The Fred Bassett cartoon first appeared in The Daily Mail.

6 July1963, Saturday (+6,633) France declared its first National Park, the Vanoise Park in Savoy.

4 July1963, Thursday (+6,631) Henri Leconte, tennis player, was born.

3 July1963, Wednesday (+6,630) The Clyde Road Tunnel, Glasgow, opened; construction began in 1957.

2 July1963, Tuesday (+6,629) (Astronomy) Seth Barnes Nicholson, US astronomer, died in Los Angeles, California.

1 July1963, Monday (+6,628) Kim Philby, British spy, was revealed as the �third man�.


30 June 1963, Sunday (+6,627) Coronation of Giovanni Batista Montini as Pope Paul VI.

29 June 1963, Saturday (+6,626) Anne Sophie Mutter, violinist, was born.

28 June 1963, Friday (+6,625) Ahmed Hilmi Pasha, Palestinian leader and one time Prime Minister of the All-Palestine Government, died aged 84.

27 June 1963, Thursday (+6,624) Meera Syal, writer, was born.

26 June 1963, Wednesday (+6,623) President Kennedy made his famous �Ich bin ein Berliner� speech. He meant to say �I am a Berliner�, to indicate US support for the freedom of West Germany. However what he actually said translated as �I am a doughnut�.

25 June 1963, Tuesday (+6,622) George Michael, British pop musician, was born.

24 June 1963, Monday (+6,621) Anatoly Borisovich Jurkin, Russian writer, was born.

23 June 1963, Sunday (+6,620) US President Kennedy began a five-day tour of West Germany, including West Berlin. He promised, �we shall risk our cities to defend yours�.

22 June 1963, Saturday (+6,619) Maria Tanase, Romanian folk singer, died aged 49.

21 June 1963, Friday (+6,618) (1) France withdrew its navy from NATO.

(2) Giovanni Battista Montini was elected as Pope Paul VI.

20 June 1963, Thursday (+6,617) The White House and the Kremlin agreed to set up a �hot line�.

19 June 1963, Wednesday (+6,616) Rory Underwood, rugby player, was born.

18 June 1963, Tuesday (+6,615) Pedro Armendariz, Mexican actor, died aged 51.

17 June 1963, Monday (+6,614) The USSR achieved the first link-up of two spacecraft in space. Valentina Tereshkova (26) aboard the Vostok 6 rocket met with Valery Bykovsky (28) who had been orbiting Earth aboard Vostok 5 for two days. Crowds celebrated in the streets of Moscow.

16 June 1963, Sunday (+6,613) (1) Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman to travel into space. She was born to a peasant family in Maslennikovo, Russia, in 1937, and made her first parachute jump aged 22 with a local aviation club. Her enthusiasm for skydiving brought her to the attention of the soviet space programme, which wanted a woman in space in the early 1960s. Tereshkova was launched into space on 16 June 1993 from Tyaturum aboard Vostok 6, guided by an automatic control system. After just under 3 days in space, and 48 Earth orbits, Vostok 6 re-entered the atmosphere and Tereshkova successfully parachuted to Earth after ejecting at 20,000 feet. She later received the Order of Lenin and Hero of the Soviet Union awards.

(2) Ben Gurion, Israeli Prime Minister, resigned aged 76. He was replaced by Levi Eshkol.

15 June 1963, Saturday (+6,612) The French retailing chain Carrefour opened the first hypermarket in Europe. With 2,500 square meters of floor space for a grocery store and department store, parking space for 350 cars, and its own gasoline station, the first Carrefour hypermarket was opened at the Paris suburb of Sainte-Genevi�ve-des-Bois, Essonne.

14 June 1963, Friday (+6,611) Carl Skottsberg, Swedish Antarctic explorer, died aged 82.

13 June 1963, Thursday (+6,610) Edward Sturing, Dutch footballer, was born in Apeldoorn, Netherlands

12 June 1963, Wednesday (+6,609) Civil Rights lawyer Medgar Evers was murdered by Whitesegregationists in Mississippi.

11 June 1963, Tuesday (+6,608) George C Wallace, Governor of Alabama, barred the path of two Black students, James A Hood and Vivian J Malone, who were attempting to enrol at the University of Alabama.

10 June 1963, Monday (+6,607) (Women�s Rights) The USA passed the Equal Pay Act, forcing employers to pay the same rate to men and women doing the same-skilled job for the same number of hours.

9 June 1963, Sunday (+6,606) Johnny Depp, actor, was born.

7 June 1963, Friday (+6,604) French tenor singer Roberto Alagna was born in Clichy sous Bois.

5 June 1963. Wednesday (+6,602) (Britain) War Minister John Profumo resigned, admitting he misled the Commons about his relationship with a call girl called Christine Keeler, who had links to a Russian diplomat. See 5 September 1963.

4 June 1963, Tuesday (+6,601) (Food) At the World Food Congress, John F Kennedy said �The war against hunger is truly mankind�s war of liberation�.

3 June 1963, Monday (+6,600) (Christian) Pope John XXIII, Angelo Guiseppe Roncalli, died.

1 June 1963, Saturday (+6,598) Jomo Kenyatta became the first Prime Minister of a self-governing Kenya.


28 May 1963, Tuesday (+6,594) Chris Camden, English footballer, was born.

25 May 1963, Saturday (+6,591) The OAU (Organisation of African Unity) was founded at Addis Ababa.

18 May 1963, Saturday (+6,584) In Indonesia, Sukarno was confirmed as President for Life by the 600-member Congress, its delegates appointed by Sukarno.

15 May 1963, Wednesday (+6,581) (Space exploration) US astronaut Gordon Cooper, launched in an Atlas rocket, made 22 orbits of the Earth.

14 May 1963, Tuesday (+6,580) Kuwait was admitted to the United Nations.

13 May 1963, Monday (+6,579) Penny Lumley, real tennis champion, was born.

12 May 1963, Sunday (+6,578)

11 May 1963, Saturday (+6,577) Natasha Richardson, actress, was born.

10 May 1963, Friday (+6,576) African-Americans were finally allowed to use the shops and public services in Birmingham, Alabama, after the �Birmingham Campaign� led by Martin Luther King.

9 May 1963, Thursday (+6,575) A state of emergency was proclaimed in British Guiana by the governor, at the request of Prime Minister Cheddi Jagan. The country was in the midst of a general strike, with some violence, in protest at Government interference as to which Trades Unions would be considered �legitimate�.

8 May 1963, Wednesday (+6,574) British comedian Max Miller died.

6 May 1963, Monday (+6,572) Ted Weems, US bandleader, died in Tulsa, Oklahoma (born 26 September 1901 in Pitcairn, Pennsylvania)

3 May 1963, Friday (+6,569) Martial law was declared in Haiti.

2 May 1963, Thursday (+6,568) Jack Crawford,cricketer, died (born 1 December 1886).

1 May 1963, Wednesday (+6,567) Indonesia took control of the Netherlands New Guinea province from UN administration, and renamed it Irian Jaya, and also announced a policy of �konfrontasi� with Malaysia.


30 April 1963, Tuesday (+6,566)

28 April 1963, Sunday (+6,564) Cuban President Fidel Castro visited the USSR.

26 April 1963, Friday (+6,652) Jet Li, actor, was born.

25 April 1963, Thursday (+6,651) (Chemistry) Kevlar, a very strong substance termed liquid crystalline polymers, that can make bullet-proof vests, was patented by Du Pont, USA.

22 April 1963, Monday (+6,558) A general strike began in British Guiana (Guyana), with rioting and terrorism. The strike lasted until 8 July1963.

20 April 1963, Saturday (+6,556) Rachel Whiteread, sculptor, was born.

19 April 1963, Friday (+6,555) English composer Graham Fitkin was born in Cornwall.

18 April 1963, Thursday (+6,554) The first human nerve transplant was carried out by Dr James Campbell at New York University Medical Centre.

17 April 1963, Wednesday (+6,553) The Royal Navy�s first nuclear powered submarine, Dreadnought, was commissioned.

16 April 1963, Tuesday (+6,552) Jimmy Osmond, US singer, was born.

15 April 1963, Monday (+6,551) In Britain, disorder broke out during the last stages of the Aldermaston March, organised by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND).

14 April 1963, Sunday (+6,550) Easter Sunday.

13 April 1963, Saturday (+6,549) Gary Kasparov, Russian world chess champion, was born.

12 April 1963, Friday (+6,548) (1) Using the 100-inch reflecting telescope on Mount Palomar, astronomers detected minute amounts of water vapour in the Martian atmosphere, perhaps just .0075 millimetres of water if precipitated.

(2) Indonesian forces attacked Malaysia.

11 April 1963, Thursday (+6,547) Nigel Pulsford, English guitarist, was born.

10 April 1963, Wednesday (+6,546) The nuclear-powered submarine USS Thresher sank in the Atlantic with the loss of all 129 men on board.

9 April 1963, Tuesday (+6,545) Winston Churchill was given honorary US citizenship.

8 April 1963, Monday (+6,544) General election in Canada was won by the Liberals with 129 seats. The Progressive Conservatives won 95 seats, Others won 41 seats.

7 April 1963, Sunday (+6,543) (Football) Bernard Lama, French Guianese footballer, was born.

6 April 1963, Saturday (+6,542) Anglo-US Polaris weapons agreement signed.

5 April 1963, Friday (+6,541) Bradwell nuclear power station opened in the UK.

4 April 1963, Thursday (+6,540)

2 April 1963, Tuesday (+6,538) A Black Civil Rights campaign began in the USA.

1 April 1963, Monday (+6,537) Joshua Nkomo was jailed in Southern Rhodesia.


31 March 1963, Sunday (+6,536) Harry Akst, US composer, died in Hollywood (born in New York, 15 August 1894)

30 March 1963, Saturday (+6,535) Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, President of Mongolia 2009-2017, was born in Zereg

29 March 1963, Friday (+6,534) The US assured King Hassan of Morocco that it would close its military bases in his country by end-1963.

28 March 1963, Thursday (+6,533) Alec Templeton, composer, died in Greenwich, Connecticut (born in Cardiff, Wales, 4 July1909)

27 March 1963, Wednesday (+6,532) Beeching published his report, recommending extensive cuts to the UK rail network. He proposed closing a quarter of the rail network, closing 2,128 stations, scrapping 8,000 rail coaches, and axing 67,700 jobs. There would be no rail service north of Inverness, and most branch lines in north and central Wales and the West Country would close.

26 March 1963, Tuesday (+6,531) Connie Culp, US crime victim who, in 2008, became the first US recipient of a face transplant, was born (died 2020)

25 March 1963, Monday (+6,530) The Co-op on Frodingham Road, Scunthorpe, converted from counter service to self service. Now 24 of the 35 Co-ops in the area were self-service, and just three remained offering counter service in Scunthorpe itself.

24 March 1963, Sunday (+6,529) Neil Smith, rackets player, was born.

23 March 1963, Saturday (+6,528) Jose Miguel Gonzalez Maria del Campo, Spanish footballer, was born.

22 March 1963, Friday (+6,527) In the British House of Commons, John Profumo, Secretary of State for War, denied that he had sexual relations with Miss Christine Keeler, an attach� of the Soviet Embassy in London.

21 March 1963, Thursday (+6,526) (1) Alcatraz, the notorious prison in San Francisco Bay, was closed. It had been a maximum-security prison since 1934.