Chronography of events from 1 January 1930 to 31 December 1939

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January 1930


1/1/1940. Monday (-1,954) In Britain, 2 million 19 to 27 year olds were called up. Two thirds of Britain�s houses were wired for electricity, compared to one in seventeen in 1920.


31/12/1939, Sunday (-1,955) In France, the battle lines had been quiet up to the end of 1939; bored cold soldiers dug more trenches, and the odd shot was fired between the Maginot and Siegfried Lines. In contrast to the rapid invasion of Poland, German forces hesitated as Hitler and his generals argued over the best invasion plan, and the Allies remained under-prepared. This �phoney war� or �sitskrieg� as the French termed it, led to some evacuees in Britain returning to the cities. Only at sea was the War being fought. All this changed in 1940.

30/12/1939, Saturday (-1,956) Hitler declared that the �Jewish-capitalistic world� would not survive the 20th century.

29/12/1939, Friday (-1,957) (Finland) The Soviet 163rd Division was surrounded at Suomissalmi. It broke up and fled, leaving 11 tanks, 25 guns, and 150 lorries to the victorious Finns. Soviet forces were fighting in temperatures of -35 C, but without winter uniforms. Soviet General Vinogradov was subsequently executed for this failure. After the Finns recaptured Suossalmi, they crossed into Soviet Karelia, inflicting some 27,000 casualties on the Russian forces.

28/12/1939, Thursday (-1,958) Frank McLintock, footballer, was born.

27/12/1939, Wednesday (-1,959) Finland defeated Russia in the battles of Kelja and Taipale.

26/12/1939, Tuesday (-1,960) 40,000 killed in Erzincan, Turkey, by a magnitude 8.0 quake.

25/12/1939, Monday (-1,961) Royce Applegate, US actor, was born.

24/12/1939, Sunday (-1,962) (Germany) Pope Pius XII issued a cautious call for peace, whilst striving to remain politically neutral.

23/12/1939, Saturday (-1,963) Stalin sacked General Meretzkof, as Finnish successes against Russia continued.

22/12/1939, Friday (-1,964) (Finland) The Russian attack on the Mannerheim Line, SE Finland, from the Gulf of Finland to the River Vukosi, petered out on the face of impregnable Finnish resistance. The Soviets totally lacked ski troops, whereas the Finnish Army was well trained in their use.Soviet troops found themselves cut off from supplies, and in some cases their units were surrounded and annihilated.

21/12/1939, Thursday (-1,965) Greville Starkey, champion jockey, was born.

20/12/1939, Wednesday (-1,966) (Finland) A fundraising rally in aid of Finland was held in Madison Square Gardens, New York city, USA.

19/12/1939, Tuesday (-1,967) The British Admiralty discovered that a ship could be demagnetised by means of a coil wrapped around the ship greatly reducing its susceptibility to the new German magnetic mines. To keep this discovery secret, every time a UK ship was sunk by an ordinary mine, her demise was attributed to a magnetic mine.

18/12/1939, Monday (-1,968) The RAF lost 12 out of 24 bombers sent in a raid against German shipping in the Schillig Roads. The scale of these losses forced the RAF to switch to night time bombing, but at a cost in bombing accuracy.

17/12/1939, Sunday (-1,969) The Graf Spee was scuttled in the River Plate, see 13/12/1939.The Uruguayan Government had refused to give her sanctuary.Her captain, Hans Landsdorf, shot himself, in the mistaken belief that a large British naval force was waiting for her to put to sea. Hitler sent an ultimatum, scuttle or fight; Landsdorf chose not to send his crew out to their deaths.

16/12/1939, Saturday (-1,970) The Battle of Summa, Finland, began.

15/12/1939. Friday (-1,971) Britain sent a 5th Division to reinforce the expeditionary force in France.

14/12/1939. Thursday (-1,972) The USSR was expelled from the League of Nations, for its aggression against Finland, see 30/11/1939.

13/12/1939. Wednesday (-1,973) The Battle of the River Plate began with British warships, Exeter, Ajax, and Achilles, attacking the German battleship Graf Spee. On 17/12/1939 the Graf Spee was scuttled in the River Plate.

12/12/1939, Tuesday (-1,974) Nylon, the new synthetic fibre developed by Wallace Carothers of DuPont, went into commercial production at the company�s new Seaford Plant, Delaware, USA.

11/12/1939, Monday (+1,975) Germany declared that all Jews living in German-occupied Poland were now liable for 2 years forced labour.

10/12/1939, Sunday (-1,976) The first convoy of Canadian troops departed Halifax, Nova Scotia for England.

9/12/1939, Saturday (-1,977) (Finland) Amphibious assaults and air raids in Helsinki ceased as winter set in, giving the Finnish defenders a tactical advantage over the Russians. However in NE Finland, Russians captured the town of Suomussalmi, where Finnish troops were more thinly spread.

8/12/1939, Friday (-1,978) (USA) As the UK began a naval blockade of Germany, the US protested at restrictions on international free trade.

7/12/1939, Thursday (-1,979) Britain announced it was to sell 30 fighter aircraft to Finland. There was considerable international sympathy for Finland and anger at the Soviet invasion, France gave large amounts of armaments to Finland, and many British, French and Italians travelled to Helsinki to volunteer for the fight against Russia.

6/12/1939, Wednesday (-1,980) Churchill reported British shipping losses as averaging 1 ship per 750 sailings.

5/12/1939, Tuesday (-1,981) (Finland) Russian troops invading Finland reached the Mannerheim Line, and were held there.

4/12/1939, Monday (-1,982) (Finland) The USSR rejected League of Nations intervention over its invasion of Finland, claiming it was merely �supporting the new Finnish people�s Government�, as led by Otto Kuusinen.

3/12/1939, Sunday (-1,983) RAF raids on warships at Heligoland.

2/12/1939, Saturday (-1,984) The Red Army took Petsamo.

1/12/1939, Friday (-1,985) (Finland) Russia established a pro-Soviet Finnish Government at Terijoki led by Otto Kuusinen.


30/11/1939. Thursday (-1,986) (Finland) The USSR attacked Finland. Finland had earlier refused Soviet demands to use bases on its territory against Germany. Helsinki was heavily bombed. See 12/3/1940.

29/11/1939, Wednesday (-1,987) Hitler issued Directive No. 9, Instructions for Warfare against the Economy of the Enemy. The directive focused on attacking British shipping and ports and blockading sea lanes using U-boats and naval mines.

28/11/1939. Tuesday (-1,988) (1) In reprisal for the German mining of British waters, the UK began a naval blockade of German ports.

(2) Stalin renounced the Finno-Soviet non-aggression pact. On 30/11/1939 the USSR bombed Helsinki and Vipuri, as it invaded Finland.

27/11/1939, Saturday (-1,989) Laurent-D�sir� Kabila, President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, was born in Baudouinville, Belgian Congo (died 2001);

26/11/1939, Sunday (-1,990) Tina Turner, singer, was born.

25/11/1939, Saturday (-1,991) International Olympic Committee President Henri de Baillet-Latour announced the cancellation of the 1940 Winter Olympics, which would have been held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.

24/11/1939, Friday (-1,992) The German battleship Scharnhorst sank the British armed cruiser Rawalpindi. 270 men were drowned, and there were just 38 survivors, 27 of whom were picked up by the Germans.

23/11/1939, Thursday (-1,993) (1) The deadline for British households to register for their ration books for bacon, butter and sugar rations. Delays were caused at shops because many customers had failed to write their name and address in the ration book.

(2) In the USA, Thanksgiving Day was now celebrated this Thursday, the 4th Thursday in the month, rather than the 30th,the last Thursday as previous years. The retail lobby had persuaded President Roosevelt to make the change so as to lengthen the Christmas Shopping season by a week.

(3) (Military) The first German magnetic mine was recovered intact by the British. Laid usually by aircraft, these mines had been increasingly effective against Allied shipping. The remedy was to degauss ships to remove their inherent magnetic field, by passing an electric current along a cable round the ship�s hull, and an urgent programme of degaussing was instituted.

22/11/1939, Wednesday (-1,994) (1) A German magnetic mine was dropped by plane onto the mudflats off Shoeburyness, and recovered intact from the soft mud. The Admiralty could now begin work to find an antidote to this weapon. Germany remained unaware of the British discovery.

(2) German attacks on The Shetlands began; lasted until 24/11/1939.

21/11/1939, Tuesday (-1,995) The German battlecruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau put to sea, to harry the sea routes to Britain in the North Atlantic.

20/11/1939, Monday (-1,996) (1) Bakerloo Line trains began through running to Stanmore from Baker Street.

(2) The first German aircraft to approach London ventured up the Thames estuary. It was repelled with heavy ant-aircraft fire and retreated without causing any damage.

19/11/1939, Sunday (-1,997) An official German communique announced that barricades had been erected around the Warsaw Ghetto and that Jewish districts would be placed under strict control.

18/11/1939, Saturday (-1,998) Margaret Atwood, writer, was born.

17/11/1939, Friday (-1,999) Nazi troops stormed the University of Prague, to break up demonstrations.

16/11/1939, Thursday (-2,000) Mass burning of Jewish books in Lublin, Poland.

15/11/1939, Wednesday (-2,001) The main synagogue in Lodz, Poland, was set on fire. The Nazis ordered the fire brigade to attend simply to prevent the fire spreading to neighbouring buildings.

14/11/1939, Tuesday (-2,002) First use of magnetic mines, against British shipping, by Nazi Germany. Dropped by plane, they sank merchant shipping indiscriminately. See 22/11/1939.

13/11/1939. Monday (-2,003) The first German bombs fell on Britain, on the Shetlands. There were no casualties.

11/11/1939, Saturday (-2,005)

10/11/1939, Friday (-2,006) Russell Means, actor, was born.

9/11/1939, Thursday (-2,007) In Poland, the Nazis arrested and shot some one thousand Polish intellectuals, writers, journalists and artists.

8/11/1939. Wednesday (-2,008) Hitler narrowly avoided an assassination attempt at a Munich beer cellar. The Nazi leader was making a speech on the anniversary of the failed 1923 beer-hall putsch, in which he had tried to seize the city. Hitler left straight after his speech, which was much shorter than usual. Eight minutes later a bomb exploded behind the pillar where he was speaking, killing 7 people and injuring 60. It was planted by the anti-war activist and Communist Johann Georg Elser, who was sent to a concentration camp. He was shot on 9 April1945, on Hitler�s orders, to prevent his release by the advancing Russians.

7/11/1939, Tuesday (-2,009) The monarchs of Belgium and The Netherlands offered to act as mediators in the War, and emphasised their neutrality, but both sides rejected this offer,

6/11/1939, Monday (-2010)

5/11/1939, Sunday (-2,011) All 167 professors and lecturers at Cracow University were arrested by the Nazis and sent to Sachsenhausen concentration camp, north of Berlin.

4/11/1939. Saturday (-2,012) President Roosevelt announced he would amend the Neutrality Act to allow Britain and France to buy arms from the USA. Roosevelt hoped this would avoid direct US involvement in the war.

3/11/1939, Friday (-2,013) The Gestapo executed 96 Polish schoolteachers at Rypin.

1/11/1939, Wednesday (-2,015)


31/10/1939, Tuesday (-2,016) First dogfight between British and German aircraft over France.

30/10/1939. Monday (-2,017) London published the horrors of the German concentration camps.

29/10/1939, Sunday (-2,018) Albert, Duke of Wurttemberg, German military commander (born 23/12/1865) died.

28/10/1939. Saturday (-2,019) All German Jews had to wear a yellow Star of David.

27/10/1939, Friday (-2,020) John Cleese, English comedy actor, was born in Weston Super Mare.

26/10/1939, Thursday (-2,021) The Republic of Slovakia was established as a German protectorate with Tiso as President, see 14/3/1939 and 22/5/1945.

24/10/1939, Tuesday (-2,023)

23/10/1939, Monday (-2,024) George Cohen, footballer, was born

18/10/1939, Wednesday (-2,029) Lee Harvey Oswald, American assassin, was born in New Orleans.

17/10/1939, Tuesday (-2,030) In Britain, the price of petrol rose from 1s 6d (7.5p) to 1s 8d (8p0 per gallon (4d, 1.7p, to 4.4d, 1.8p per litre).

16/10/1939, Monday (-2,031) German air raid on the Firth of Forth, causing naval casualties.

15/10/1939, Sunday (-2,032) New York Municipal Airport (later renamed LaGuardia Airport) was formally dedicated in New York. Nearly 100,000 people turned out to watch almost 60 military aircraft perform a flypast.

14/10/1939, Saturday (-2,033) The Royal Navy battleship Royal Oak was torpedoed and sunk by a German U-boat in Scapa Flow, with the loss of 810 lives.

13/10/1939, Friday (-2,034) Hitler made an unsuccessful attempt to persuade US President Roosevelt to mediate a peace between Germany, France and Britain.

12/10/1939. Thursday (-2,035) Hitler made a peace proposal to Britain, which was rejected.

11/10/1939. Wednesday (-2,036) The USSR signed a pact ceding the former Polish city of Vilna to Lithuania.

10/10/1939. Tuesday (-2,037) Nazis deported Polish Jews to the Lublin ghetto.

9/10/1939, Monday (-2,038) Hitler issued Directive No. 6 ordering preparations for an offensive in the west with an initial date set for November 12. However protests from his service chiefs and very cold weather caused the date of the attack to be postponed repeatedly.

8/10/1939. Sunday (-2,039) Hitler made western Poland part of the Third Reich.

7/10/1939, Saturday (-2,040) Clive James, TV broadcaster, was born in Sydney.

6/10/1939. Friday (-2,041) Britain and France rejected Hitler's peace bid. Hitler claimed to be satisfied with his occupation of western Poland, as Russia took the eastern half, and maintained he had no wish to fight Britain.

5/10/1939, Thursday (-2,042) German troops held a victory parade in Warsaw in front of Hitler.

4/10/1939, Wednesday (-2,043) Adolf Hitler issued a secret decree granting an amnesty to all crimes committed by German military and police personnel in Poland between September 1 and October 4. The decree justified the crimes as being natural responses to "atrocities committed by the Poles�.

3/10/1939, Tuesday (-2,044) Fay Templeton, US actress, died aged 73.

2/10/1939, Monday (-2,045) The last Polish resistance ceased. Troops under Admiral Unruh on the Pubwysep Hela Peninsula, north of Danzig, surrendered.

1/10/1939, Sunday (-2,046) Hitler entered Warsaw. The RAF dropped propaganda leaflets on Berlin.


30/9/1939. Saturday (-2,047) (1) Identity cards were issued in Britain.

(2) Germany and the USSR signed a pact agreeing on the partition of Poland.

29/9/1939, Friday (-2,048) (Russia) Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania signed �mutual assistance� pacts with the USSR.

28/9/1939, Thursday (-2,049) Polish troops holding out at the fortress of Modline fortress, 36 km from Warsaw, finally surrendered after an 18-day siege.

27/9/1939. Wednesday (-2,050) (1) German forces occupied Warsaw; the city capitulated from the siege (see 8/9/1939), having run out of food, water, and ammunition.

(2) In the UK, Sir John Simon�s budget raised Income Tax from 25% to 27.5%. there was also a 6pm curfew on most shops, except tobacconists, confectioners and newsagents, which hit small grocers that had done much of their trade in the evening as customers retuned from work.

26/9/1939, Tuesday (-2,051) Ricky Tomlinson, actor, was born.

25/9/1939, Monday (-2,052) French artillery began bombarding German fortifications on the Rhine.

24/9/1939, Sunday (-2,053) All-day German air raids on Warsaw.

23/9/1939. Saturday (-2,054) (1) All wireless sets owned by Jews in Germany were confiscated.

(2) Sigmund Freud, Austrian psychiatrist, born 6/5/1856, died in Hampstead aged 83.He had moved to London in 1938 following Hitler�s annexation of Austria.

22/9/1939, Friday (-2,055) Russian forces took Lvov, Poland.

21/9/1939, Thursday (-2,056) Germany and Russia declared that Poland no longer existed.

20/9/1939, Wednesday (-2,057) The first German aircraft, a Messerschmitt, was shot down, by gunner Sergeant Letchford.

19/9/1939. Tuesday (-2,058) Britain's RAF began leaflet raids on Germany.

18/9/1939, Monday (-2,059) The city of Lublin fell to the Germans.

17/9/1939. Sunday (-2,060) Soviet troops invaded Poland. The German army reached Brest Litovsk in Poland. De Valera said Ireland would remain neutral in the War. Australia and New Zealand took sides with Britain straightaway. The Canadian debated the issue for three days then voted to join the War with one vote against. In South Africa the prime Minister General Hertzog wanted to stay out of the war; he was forced to resign and replaced by General Smuts who immediately took Britain�s side.

16/9/1939, Saturday (-2,061) (Road) In Britain, car headlight masks were introduced to assist the Blackout, Road accidents rose to a record in 1940, when 8,609 people were killed.

15/9/1939, Friday (-2,062) Bulgaria declared its neutrality and attempted to remain out of the Second World War.

14/9/1939, Thursday (-2,063) The Germans entered Gdynia.

13/9/1939, Wednesday (-2,064) (1) German troops crossed the Vistula at Annopol.

(2) French War cabinet formed under Daladier (see 20/3/1940).

12/9/1939Tuesday (-2,065) German troops reached Lvov.

11/9/1939, Monday, (-2,066) The Battle of Jarosław ended with a successful Polish delaying action.

10/9/1939. Sunday (-2,067) (1) The British Expeditionary force arrived in Cherbourg, France. Four divisions, comprising 158,000 men and 25,000 vehicles crossed the Channel with no interference from U-boats or the Luftwaffe.

The Dunkirk evacuation was completed on 4/6/1940.

(2) Canada declared war on Germany.

9/9/1939Saturday (-2,068) In response to the War, Britain re-established a Ministry of Food.

8/9/1939, Friday (-2,069) The Germans began a siege of Warsaw (see 27/9/1939).

7/9/1939Thursday (-2,070) Saar Offensive: the French Army began a ground operation in the Saarland against light German defences.

6/9/1939. Wednesday (-2,071) Cracow fell to the Germans.

5/9/1939. Tuesday (-2,072) President Roosevelt declared the USA neutral.

4/9/1939. Monday (-2,073) (1) French troops crossed the German border into Saarland.

(2) The British liner Athenia sank the day after being torpedoed by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland. 93 lives were lost. She had sailed from Liverpool on 2/9/1939 on her way to Montreal, and was informed about the outbreak of war at on the 3rd. She sank with the loss of 19 crew and 93 passengers. This was the start of the Battle of the Atlantic. The last ship sunk was the British Avondale Park on 7/5/1945. The German fleet was attacked by the RAF.

(3) Romania, alarmed by the German invasion of Poland and unable to help the Poles, declared its neutrality.

(4) The RAF dropped 6 million leaflets over Germany. It also bombed Wilhelmshaven.

3/9/1939. Sunday (-2,074) The Polish town of Bydgoszcz (German, Bromberg), fell to the Nazis.

2/9/1939. Saturday (-2,075) Men aged 18-41 were conscripted in Britain under the National Service Bill.

1/9/1939. Friday (-2,076) (1) Germany invaded Poland. Without a declaration of war, 1.25 million German troops invaded Poland under Operation Fall Weiss (White Plan) as the Luftwaffe destroyed the Polish rail system and its airforce. Some 60,000 Poles were killed, 200,000 wounded, and 700,000 taken prisoner. Germany here eschewed the static trench warfare of World War One, and the English language acquired a new word � blitzkrieg, meaning lightning war. Warsaw was bombed at On 3/9/1939 Britain declared war on Germany because of this invasion. For the first time in history the King went to Downing Street rather than the Prime Minister going to the Palace, because Neville Chamberlain needed to stay near his phone. On the same day, 3/9, New Zealand, Australia, and France, at also declared war on Germany. See 28/3/1939.

(2) In Germany, Jews were put under a curfew from 8pm in winter and 9pm in summer.

(3) The BBC Home Service, later to become Radio 4, began broadcasting.

(4) TV broadcasting in the UK was switched off. This was partly because the BBC aerial at Alexandra Palace London, broadcasting on 45 MHz, would have made a useful beacon for German bombers, and partly because TV engineers were needed to operate the radar installations.


31/8/1939, Thursday (-2,077) In Gleiwitz, a small German town close to the border with Poland, a small force of Nazi agents, dressed in Polish Army uniforms, took over the local radio station and broadcast anti-German propaganda in Polish. They then took bodies from Dachau concentration camp, dressed these in Polish Army uniforms, and mutilated the corpses to make identification impossible. Within a few hours Adolf Hitler was denouncing the �Gleiwitz Incident� in the German Reichstag and using it as a pretext to invade Poland.

30/8/1939. Wednesday (-2,078) The great evacuation of children from British cities began, to avoid anticipated German bombing. In September 1939, 827,000 children and 535,000 pregnant women were sent to rural areas. �Billeters� were paid 10s 6d for the first child and 8s 6d for each subsequent child, per week.

29/8/1939, Tuesday (-2,079) Jozef Tiso declared martial law in Slovakia. Articles were posted ordering Slovaks to accept German currency and furnish food to the German soldiers "here to protect our young state against the threatening Polish danger.

28/8/1939, Monday (-2,080) The Tarnow rail station bomb attack was carried out in southern Poland. A time bomb left by a German agent exploded, killing 20 and wounding 35.

27/8/1939, Sunday (-2,081) The world�s first jet-propelled aeroplane, the Heinkel 178, engines designed by Dr Von Ohain, made its first flight at Marienehe, northern Germany.

26/8/1939, Saturday (-2,082) Daladier and Chamberlain attempted to negotiate with Hitler, but nothing was achieved.

25/8/1939, Friday (-2,083) (1) Moveable treasures from London�s art galleries and museums were taken away for safety.

(2) (France-Germany) Britain signed an assistance pact with Poland, the Anglo-Polish Alliance. Britain had seen Hitler seize Czechoslovakia, in breach of the Munich Agreement; Hitler was now demanding the return of Gdansk (Danzig) and the coastal strip of land linking Germany to East Prussia (depriving Poland of its Baltic coast).Britain therefore abandoned its policy of appeasement with Germany.

(3) An IRA bomb exploded without warning in the centre of Coventry, killing 5 and injuring 25.

24/8/1939, Thursday (-2,084) Germany tested the first turbojet aircraft, at Rostock. A longer flight took place on 27/8/1939.

23/8/1939. Wednesday (-2,085) (1) Hitler and the USSR concluded a 20 year non-aggression pact, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. This left Hitler free to invade Poland.Hitler believed the German-Soviet pact would lead France and Britain to withdraw their guarantees of assistance to Poland.When instead Britain reaffirmed its support for Poland on 25/8/1939, Hitler postponed the attack on Poland, originally scheduled for the night of 25-26/8/1939.�� Diplomatic moves with Britain failed to dislodge UK support for Poland, and Hitler invaded on 1/9/1939.

(2) John Cobb, British motorist, set a new speed record of 368.85 mph at Bonneville salt flats, Utah, USA.

22/8/1939, Tuesday (-2,086) Hitler gave the Obersalzberg Speech to commanders of the Wehrmacht, detailing the pending invasion of Poland and plans for extermination of the Poles.

21/8/1939. Monday (-2,087) Civil Defence started in Britain.

20/8/1939. Sunday (-2,088) (China) At Khalikhin Gol (see 5/6/1939) Zhukov launched a surprise attack against the Japanese, having mounted an elaborate deception that he intended to merely reinforce existing battle lines and dig in.Both sides fought hard and suffered heavy losses. The Japanese sustained 61,000 casualties and the Soviets saw 7.974 killed and 15,251 wounded. By 31/8/1939 the battle was over. Germany had signed a pact with Russia, and was poised to invade western Poland. It was in both the Soviet and Japanese interests to agree a ceasefire, which Japan now requested. Zhukov was now a Soviet hero, and the Japanese resolved to conquer south and east, not north towards Russian territory.

19/8/1939, Saturday (-2,089) John Patrick Harrington, British composer, died in London (born 1/5/1865 in London).

16/8/1939, Wednesday (-2,092) Sir Trevor McDonald, broadcaster, was born.

11/8/1939, Friday (-2,097) The Axis Conference opened at Salzburg.

10/8/1939, Thursday (-2,098) Kate O�Mara, actress, was born

9/8/1939,Wednesday (-2,099) Romano Prodi, Prime Minister of Italy, was born.

7/8/1939, Monday (-2,101)

5/8/1939, Saturday (-2,103) Roger Clark, rally driver, was born.

4/8/1939, Friday (-2,104) A British transatlantic air mail service was inaugurated by BOAC between Southampton and Montreal / New York.Two flying boats maintained a weekly service.

3/8/1939, Thursday (-2,105) Eugust Enna, composer, died aged 80.

2/8/1939, Wednesday (-2,106) Albert Einstein wrote to US President Franklin D Roosevelt urging him to commit to research into the possibility of atomic bombs.

1/8/1939, Tuesday (-2,107) The UK Government announced that if war broke out, petrol would immediately be rationed. This did not encourage people to travel on holiday, despite assurances by some hoteliers that bookings cancelled because of a national Emergency need not be paid for.


31/7/1939, Monday (-2,108) Susan Flannery, soap opera actress, was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, USA.

30/7/1939, Sunday (-2,109) Peter Bogdanovich, film director, was born.

29/7/1939. Saturday (-2,110) Britain began a big round-up of IRA suspects as new anti-terrorist laws came into force.

28/7/1939, Friday (-2,111) William James Mayo, US surgeon and co-founder of the Mayo Clinic, died aged 78.

27/7/1939, Friday (-2,111) William Longley, poet, was born in Belfast.

26/7/1939, Wednesday (-2,113) John Howard, Australian Prime Minister, was born.

25/7/1939, Tuesday (-2,114) Richard Akre Trythall, US composer, was born in Knoxville, Tennessee

24/7/1939, Monday (-2,115) Normal Gale, rugby player, was born (died 31/1/2005).

23/7/1939, Sunday (-2,116) Nicolas Gage, writer., was born

22/7/1939, Saturday (-2,117) Gila Almagor, Israeli actress, was born

21/7/1939, Friday (-2,118) Helmut Haller, West German footballer, was born.

20/7/1939, Thursday (-2,119) Daniel Eyers Godfrey, British musician, died (born 20/6/1868).

19/7/1939, Wednesday (-2,120) Thomas Hayward, cricketer, died.

18/7/1939, Tuesday (-2,121) Dion DiMucci, singer, was born in the Bronx, New York

17/7/1939, Monday (-2,122) Valery Voronin, Russian footballer, was born.

16/7/1939, Sunday (-2,123) Colin Redgrave, actor, was born.

13/7/1939. Thursday (-2,126) Frank Sinatra made his first record, �From the Bottom of my Heart� with the Harry James band.

10/7/1939, Monday (-2,128) John Dunlop, racehorse trainer, was born.

8/7/1939. Saturday (-2,131) (Aviation) Birmingham Airport was officially opened by the Duke of Kent. In 1929 Birmingham City Council decided the city should have an airport, and in 1933 a site at Elmdon, 8 miles from the city centre, was chosen. After the opening in 1939 services to Croydon, Glasgow, Liverpool, Ryde, Manchester, and Southampton began. However just 2 months after opening the airport was requisitioned by the Air Ministry as World War Two began. In July 1946 civilian flights resumed from Birmingham and 1949 saw its first overseas flight, to Paris. In the 1950s flights began to Zurich, Dusseldorf, Palma, and Amsterdam. By the early 1970s the terminal was suffering from congestion as over one million passengers used the airport each year. The main runway was extended, and there was further expansion when the National Exhibition Centre opened in 1974. Concorde landed there in 1981 and the Queen opened a new passenger terminal in 1984. In 1999, 7 million passengers used the airport.

6/7/1939, Thursday (-2,133) Mary Peters, athletics (pentathlon) was born.

3/7/1939, Monday (-2,136) Brigitte Fassbaender, mezzo-soprano singer, was born.

1/7/1939, Saturday (-2,138) (Chemicals) Teflon was patented by Roy Plunkett, USA.


30/6/1939, Friday (-2,139) The Mersey Ferry, between Liverpool and Rock ferry, was discontinued.

29/6/1939, Thursday (-2,140) Amarildo Tavares Silveira, Italian footballer, was born.

28/6/1939, Wednesday (-2,141) Harry Leon Wilson, USnovelist, died aged 72

27/6/1939, Tuesday (-2,142) The first transatlantic air service began.Pan American Airways flying boat Yankee Clipper flew between Botwood, Newfoundland, and Southampton, UK, seating 19 passengers on the 18 � hour flight. The fare was �140 return, for luxurious accommodation including separate passenger cabins, ladies dressing rooms, a recreation lounge, sleeping berths and a bridal suite.

26/6/1939. Monday (-2,143) The first National Serviceman, Private Rupert Alexander, number 10000001, signed up with the Middlesex Regiment. The Military Training (Conscription) Act had received Royal Assent on 26/5/1939.

25/6/1939, Sunday (-2,144) Richard Seaman, motor racing champion, died.

24/6/1939, Saturday (-2,145) Turkey concluded a pact of mutual assistance with France, see 12/5/1939.Turkey endeavoured to remain neutral in the unfolding conflict.Its army was poorly equipped.

23/6/1939. Friday (-2,146) Hatay, formerly the Syrian town of Alexandretta, was incorporated into Turkey. It had been part of Ottoman territory until 1919, and had been the subject of a Franco-Turkish dispute which was settled at the League of Nations in 1937. This said that Alexandretta was to be its own entity controlling its own internal affairs, with Syria controlling its foreign policy. Iskenderun is the Turkish name; a city near this site was established by Alexander the Great in 333 BC to commemorate his victory over the Persians at Issus.

22/6/1939, Thursday (-2,147) David Blackburn, artist, was born in Huddersfield, UK (died 2016);

21/6/1939, Wednesday (-2,148) Baseball player Lou Gehrig retired from the game, forced to stop playing due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a wasting disease that would later be named after him.

20/6/1939, Tuesday (-2,149) Derek Rogers, rugby player, was born.

19/6/1939, Monday (-2,150) A market in Haifa was bombed, killing 18 Arabs and wounding 24. A Jew in a nearby street was stabbed to death minutes later.

18/6/1939, Sunday (-2,151) (Electrical) Arthur Edwin Kennelly, British-US electrical engineer, died in Boston, Massachusetts.

17/6/1939. Saturday (-2,152) The last public execution in France. The German multiple-murderer, Eugen Wiedman, was publicly guillotined outside Versailles gaol, near Paris. See 25/4/1739 and 10/9/1977.

16/6/1939. Friday (-2,153) Chick Webb, US composer, died in Baltimore (born 10/2/1909 in Baltimore)

13/6/1939, Tuesday (-2,156)

12/6/1939, Monday (-2,157) Geoff Griffin, South African cricketer, was born (died 16/11/2006)

11/6/1939, Sunday (-2,158) Rachel Heyhoe Flint, cricketer, was born.

9/5/1939, Friday (-2,160)

7/6/1939, Wednesday (-2,162) HM King George V1, along with Queen Elizabeth,crossed the border from Canada into the USA at Niagara Falls, on his way to visit the World Fair in New York.He was the first British monarch to visit the USA.He and Queen Elizabeth also became the first British monarch to eat hot dogs.

6/6/1939, Tuesday (-2,163) Giacomo Aragall, tenor singer, was born

5/6/1939, Monday (-2,164) (China) Soviet military commander Zhukov arrived at the Khalkhin Gol military conflict between Soviet-Mongolian forces and Japanese-Manchurian forces. On 12//5/1939 a Mongolian cavalry regiment had crossed the Khalkhin Gol River (regarded by Manchuria as the frontier) and grazed their horses on the steppe as far as the large village of Nomonchan, 20 kilometres from the river; Mongolia regarded this village as the frontier.

See for more details.

The nearest Mongolian railway station was 650 km away, meaning any Soviet reinforcements faced a 5-day round trip along poor dirt roads; the Japanese underestimated the strength of forces that Zhukov could muster. See 20/8/1939.

4/6/1939, Sunday (-2,165) George Reid, Presiding Officer of the Scottish Parliament, was born

2/6/1939, Friday (-2,167)

1/6/1939, Thursday (-2,168) The British naval submarine Thetis sank whilst on trials in Liverpool Bay, with the loss of 99 lives. She was later raised and put back into service as HMS Thunderbolt.


31/5/1939, Wednesday (-2,169) (1) Britain interned Oswald Moseley and other fascists as the Government consolidated emergency powers.

(2) Terry Waite, envoy of the Archbishop of Canterbury, was born.

30/5/1939, Tuesday (-2,170) Tim Waterstone, bookseller, was born.

28/5/1939, Sunday (-2,172)

27/5/1939, Saturday (-2,173) Don Williams, country singer, was born.

26/5/1939, Friday (-2,174) Charles H Mayo, founder of the Mayo Clinic, died.

25/5/1939, Thursday (-2,175) (1) An Anglo-Polish treaty was signed in London.

(2) Sir Frank Dyson, British astronomer and director of Greenwich Observatory, died.

24/5/1939, Wednesday (-2,176)

23/5/1939. Tuesday (-2,177) The British Parliament agreed a plan for the independence of Palestine by 1949. This plan was denounced by both Arabs and Jews.

22/5/1939. Monday (-2,178) Hitler and Mussolini signed the 'Pact of Steel' in Berlin.

19/5/1939, Friday (-2,181) The TUC decided not to oppose the UK Government�s conscription plans.

17/5/1939. Wednesday (-2,183) (1) In the UK government, MacDonald attempted to limit Jewish migration to Palestine. Jewish numbers were to be limited to 10,000 a year for five years, with an additional 25,000 in the first year; 75,000 in all. No further migration was to be allowed without Arab consent. A year earlier MacDonald had talked of Jewish migration of 400,000 but the UK Foreign Office had steadily reduced the number. Britain knew that in a war with Germany, UK Jews were bound to side with Britain but the Arabs had to be persuaded.

(2) George VI and Queen Elizabeth began a short visit to North America to strengthen Anglo-Saxon solidarity.

13/5/1939, Saturday (-2,187) A ship with 937 Jews left Hamburg, many of them former concentration camp inmates, to seek asylum in Cuba. However the Cuban Government declined to take them as did the USA and Dominica. Eventually the ship was ordered back to Germany, and arrived at Antwerp on 17/6/1939. Belgium took 214 of the refugees, France 224, The Netherlands 1821 and the UK 288. The British and French contingents left aboard the cargo ship Rhakotis for Boulogne and Southampton. Only the British bound Jews survived the war.

12/5/1939, Friday (-2,188) Turkey concluded a pact of mutual assistance with Britain.See 24/6/1939.

8/5/1939. Monday (-2,192) Spain left the League of Nations.

4/5/1939, Thursday (-2,196) Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov succeeded Litvinov as Soviet Foreign Minister.

3/5/1939, Wednesday (-2,197) British farmers were urged to plough up grassland to increase food production.

2/5/1939, Tuesday (-2,198) Slovakia deprived 30,000 Jews of their citizenship.

1/5/1939, Monday (-2,199) Judy Collins, US folk singer, was born in Denver, Colorado.


30/4/1939, Sunday (-2,200) (USA, Comms)The World Fair in New York opened. It was opened by President Franklin D Roosevelt, who became the first US President to appear on TV, as NBC began their TV news service this day.

29/4/1939, Saturday (-2,201) Charles Dixon, tennis champion, died (born 7/2/1873).

28/4/1939, Friday (-2,202) (Germany) Hitler denounced his earlier non-aggression pact with Poland, and demanded the incorporation of Danzig with Germany.

27/4/1939. Thursday (-2,203) Britain announced that men aged 20 would be conscripted. This was the first time conscription had been used since World War One. 6 months military service was required from men reaching age 20.

26/4/1939, Wednesday (-2,204) (Aviation) F Wendell, Germany, set a new aviation speed record of 469.22 mph.

25/4/1939, Tuesday (-2,205) Ted Kooser, US poet, was born.

24/4/1939, Monday (-2,206) John Menzies became Prime Minister of Australia (United Australia Party).

23/4/1939, Sunday (-2,207) Lee Majors, actor, was born in Wyandotte, Michigan.

22/4/1939, Saturday (-2,208) Alexander Murphy, rugby player, was born.

21/4/1939, Friday (-2,209) Edna Savage, UK singer, was born (died 31/12/2000).

20/4/1939, Thursday (-2,210) Ray Brooks, actor, was born.

18/4/1939, Tuesday (-2,212) (Russia) The USSR proposed a 10-year alliance with Britain and France. Negotiations on this continued through the summer of 1939, but Polish-Soviet antipathy was a major stumbling block.

16/4/1939, Sunday (-2,214) Dusty Springfield (Mary O�Brien), British singer, was born in Hampstead, London

15/4/1939, Saturday (-2,215) US President Roosevelt asked Hitler and Mussolini for assurances that they would not attack 31 named States.

14/4/1939, Friday (-2,216) John Steinbeck�s The Grapes of Wrath was published.

13/4/1939, Thursday (-2,217) Britain and France guaranteed the independence of Romania and Greece.

12/4/1939, Wednesday (-2,218) Alan Ayckbourn, English playwright, was born.

11/4/1939. Tuesday (-2,219) Hungary left the League of Nations.

10/4/1939, Monday (-2,220) Glen Miller recorded Little Brown Jug.

9/4/1939, Sunday (-2,221) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1939, Saturday (-2,222) King Zog fled Albania to Greece as Italian forces entered Tirana.

7/4/1939. Friday (-2,223) (1) Italy mounted a surprise invasion of Albania, seeing it as a bridgehead for an invasion of the Balkans. King Zog fled the country. They began an invasion of Greece from Albania on 28/10/1940. They were driven back by the Greeks who occupied most of southern Albania. However the Greeks were beaten back in April 1941 when the Germans occupied Yugoslavia, Albania, and Greece. From 1944 on local partisans, aided by the British, drove Axis forces from much of Albania, also eliminating anti-communist forces. See 11/1/1946.

(2) David Frost, TV presenter, was born in Tenterden, Kent.

5/4/1939, Wednesday (-2,225)

4/4/1939, Tuesday (-2,226) (1) Hungary annexed further territory in eastern Slovakia, giving it a common frontier with Poland.

(2) King Ghazi of Iraq died in a motorcycle accident, leaving his four old son to become King Faisal II.

3/4/1939, Monday (-2,227) Hitler ordered his generals to prepare plans for invading Poland.

2/4/1939, Sunday (-2,228) Marvin Gaye, soul singer, was born.

1/4/1939, Saturday (-2,229) The USA recognised Franco�s government in Spain.


31/3/1939. Friday (-2,230) (1) Japan annexed the Spratly Islands, formerly a French possession though in fact of no utility to France. France did not contest the action. However Japan then commenced improving the naval facilities on the Islands, which were just 700 miles from Singapore.

(2) The British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, pledged to defend Poland, if attacked by Germany; so did France.

30/3/1939, Thursday (-2,231) (Aviation) H Dieterle, Germany, set a new aviation speed record of 463.92 mph.

29/3/1939, Wednesday (-2,232) Franco was named �Caudillo�, or �Leader of the Nation�.

28/3/1939. Tuesday (-2,233) (1) Spanish Civil War ended. Franco entered Madrid, after a siege of almost three years.

(2) Hitler�s deputy Von Ribbentrop signed an agreement with the USSR that they would both invade Poland. See 31/3/1939 and 1/9/1939.

27/3/1939, Monday (-2,334) Nazi Germany began an anti-Polish propaganda campaign against "oppression of Germans in German lands now controlled by Poles.

26/3/1939, Sunday (-2,235) The Nationalists launched the Final offensive of the Spanish Civil War.

25/3/1939, Saturday (-2,236) Italy gave Albania an ultimatum demanding that a protectorate be established over the country and Italian troops be stationed within Albanian borders.

24/3/1939, Friday (-2,237) Erith Nicholls, rugby player, died (born 15/7/1874).

23/3/1939, Thursday (-2,238) Between 5 and 7 a.m. German troops crossed into Memel. 31 ships of the German fleet arrived at the port at 10:20 a.m. Aboard the Deutschland, Hitler signed the decree formally turning the Territory over to Germany.

22/3/1939. Wednesday (-2,239) Memel, part of Lithuania, was ceded to Germany, see 20/3/1939.

21/3/1939, Tuesday (-2,240) Nazi-Germany demanded Gdansk (Danzig) from Poland

20/3/1939, Monday (-2,241) (1) Germany issued an ultimatum to Lithuania demanding the return of Memel, ceded by Germany in 1919.

(2) The Nazis burnt �degenerate� art works in Berlin.

19/3/1939, Sunday (-2,242) Ron Atkinson, athlete, was born.

18/3/1939, Saturday (-2,243) Henry Lunn, champion skier, died (born 30/7/1859).

17/3/1939, Friday (-2,244) The French Parliament granted Edouard Daladier extensive powers to accelerate rearmament/

16/3/1939, Thursday (-2,245) Slovakia became a German protectorate.Hungary annexed Ruthenia, another part of Czechoslovakia.

15/3/1939. Wednesday (-2,246) Germany occupied the remainder of Czechoslovakia (Bohemia and Moravia). The Sudetenland had already been occupied by Germany. Hitler described this as his last territorial claim in Europe. See 6/6/1938.

14/3/1939, Tuesday (-2,247) Josef Tiso proclaimed the independent people�s republic of Slovakia, see 26/10/1939.

13/3/1939, Monday (-2,247) Neil Sedaka, singer and composer, was born.

11/3/1939, Saturday (-2,250)

10/3/1939, Friday (-2,251) Robert McCoig, badminton champion, was born.

9/3/1939. Thursday (-2,252) President Hacha of Czechoslovakia sacked his pro-German prime Minister. Germany invaded a week later.

8/3/1939, Wednesday (-2,253) London Transport collected four million used tickets, which were then analysed manually to see which were the most and least used routes, in order to plan for future development.

6/3/1939, Tuesday (-2,254)

5/3/1939, Sunday (-2,256) Judith Grinham, champion swimmer, was born.

4/3/1939, Saturday (-2,257) The Cartagena Uprising (Spanish Civil War) began.

3/3/1939, Friday (-2,258) In the USA, Szilard bombarded beryllium with alpha particles emitted from radium which produced neutrons and theexposed uranium to these neutrons. This demonstrated that an atom bomb was feasible.

2/3/1939, Thursday (-2,259) Pope Pius XII took office.

1/3/1939. Wednesday (-2,260) Leo Brouwer, composer and guitarist, was born in Havana, Cuba


28/2/1939. Tuesday (-2,261) Britain and France recognised Franco�s regime in Spain.

27/2/1939, Monday (-2,262) (Spain) British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain recognised the Franco Government in Spain.

26/2/1939, Sunday (-2,263) 1,000 demonstrators marched from Trafalgar Square to Downing Street to protest at the British government's imminent recognition of Franco�s regime in Spain.

25/2/1939. Saturday (-2,264) The first Anderson bomb shelter was erected in Britain, in a garden in Islington.

24/2/1939, Friday (-2,265) Hungary joined the Anti-Comintern Pact.

23/2/1939. Thursday (-2,266) The Nazis confiscated jewels and precious metals from the Jews.

22/2/1939, Wednesday (-2,267) The Netherlands recognised Franco�s Government in Spain.

21/2/1939, Tuesday (-2,268) Richard Beymer, US actor was born in Avoca , Iowa.

20/2/1939. Monday (-2,269) The first washing machine went on show in London at the British Industries Fair.

19/2/1939, Sunday (-2,270) Batman was first drawn by Bob Kane for a �Detective Comic� to be issued in May 1939.

16/2/1939, Thursday (-2,273) David Griffiths, portrait painter, was born

14/2/1939.Tuesday (-2,275) The German battleship Bismarck was launched.

13/2/1939, Monday (-2,276) (France, Spain) France closed its border with Spain.

12/2/1939, Sunday (-2,277) (Chemistry) Soren Peter Lauritz Sorensen, Danish chemist, died in Copenhagen.

11/2/1939, Saturday (-2,278) Gerry Goffin, US singer, was born in New York.

10/2/1939. Friday (-2,279) Death of Pope Pius XI. Pope Pius XII was crowned on 2/3/1939.

9/2/1939, Thursday (-2,280) (France, Spain) In Spain, Franco�s army, pursuing the fleeing Republicans north from Barcelona, reached the French border. France had given refuge to the Republican forces, having confiscated their vehicles and weapons.

5/2/1939, Sunday (-2,284) (Spain) Large numbers of Spanish Republican refugees started crossing the border into France.

3/2/1939, Friday (-2,286) The UK police hunted IRA extremists after bombs exploded at London tube stations.


30/1/1939, Monday (-2,290) (France, Spain) France opened refugee camps for Republican women and children fleeing Barcelona after the defeat of the Republicans there on 26/1/1939. By March 1939, these camps at Argeles and other locations in SE France housed 250,000 refugees. This population movement was known as the Retirada (withdrawal).

29/1/1939, Sunday (-2,291) Germaine Greer, Australian writer, was born in Melbourne.

28/1/1939, Saturday (-2,292) W B (William Butler) Yeats, Irish poet, playwright, and Nobel Prize winner in 1923, died in the south of France.

27/1/1939, Friday (-2,293) Hitler approved Plan Z, an ambitious naval construction program that would give the Kriegsmarine some 800 ships by 1948.

26/1/1939. Thursday (-2,294) Barcelona fell without resistance to the Nationalists under Franco, with help from Italy. This doomed the Republican cause, which finally surrendered on 28/3/1939. Barcelona had been the seat of an autonomous Catalan government, established on 2/8/1936.

25/1/1939, Wednesday (-2,295) The Juan Negr�n government fled Barcelona. Another capital was set up in Figueres the following day.

24/1/1939. Tuesday (-2,296) In Chile, a major earthquake killed 30,000 in two cities.

20/1/1939, Friday (-2,300)

19/1/1939, Thursday (-2,301) Phil Everly, musician, was born.

17/1/1939. Tuesday (-2,303) In Germany, Jews were banned from driving.

16/1/1939, Monday (-2,304) Lithuania and Germany signed a non-aggression pact. However in March 1939 Germany seized the Lithuanian territory of Memel-Klaipeda, where many ethnic Germans lived.

13/1/1939, Friday (-2,307) The Belgian Prime Minister signed a trade deal with Franco�s Spain (Burgos Treaty).

11/1/1939. Wednesday (-2,309) Neville Chamberlain visited Mussolini to discuss recognition of the Franco regime in Spain.

9/1/1939, Monday (-2,311) Johan III Strauss, musician, died in Berlin (born 16/2/1866 in Vienna)

7/1/1939, Saturday (-2,313) Thomas Kiernan, rugby player, was born in Cork, Ireland.

4/1/1939. Wednesday (-2,316) The fascist Baron Hiranuma became Prime Minister of Japan.

3/1/1939, Tuesday (-2,317) The Battle of the Segre ended in Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War.

2/1/1939, Monday (-2,318) Howard Carter, British Egyptologist who discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922, died.

1/1/1939, Sunday (-2,319) Hewlett-Packard was founded in Palo Alto, California.


31/12/1938. Saturday (-2,320) In Indianapolis, police began breath-testing drivers.

30/12/1938, Friday (-2,321) The Spens Committee, in a report to the Board of Education, advocated raising the school leaving age to 16. See 17/2/1944.

29/12/1938, Thursday (-2,322) Robert Harvey Smith, champion jockey (show jumping), was born.

28/12/1938, Wednesday (-2,833) Florence Lawrence, the �Biograph Girl�, committed suicide by drinking poison. A movie star, she also developed mechanical car innovations such as the mechanical brake light, mechanical turn signals and windscreen wipers, none of which she ever received royalties for.

27/12/1938, Tuesday (-2,324) Ron Greene, US basketball player, was born in Terre Haute, Indiana (died 2021)

26/12/1938, Monday (-2,325) The Lima Declaration was issued.A Pan-American conference in Peru issued a declaration of solidarity and adherence to democratic ideals, in the face of rising totalitarianism and tension in Europe and Asia.

25/12/1938, Sunday (-2,326) Czech writer Karel Kapek died.

24/12/1938, Saturday (-2,327) Hangzhou fell to the Japanese.

23/12/1938, Friday (-2,328) Spanish Nationalist forces launched the Catalonia Offensive.

22/12/1938. Thursday (-2,329) The coelacanth, a fish though to have been extinct for 65 million years, was caught off the coast of South Africa.

21/12/1938, Wednesday (-2,330) The UK Government allocated �200,000 to the building of air-raid shelters.

20/12/1938, Tuesday (-2,331) John Harbison, composer, was born in Orange, New Jersey.

19/12/1938, Monday (-2,332) Janet Ackland, bowls player, was born.

18/12/1938, Sunday (-2,333) Nuclear fission first achieved. German chemist Otto Hahn succeeded in splitting the uranium atom, releasing energy.

17/12/1938, Saturday (-2,334) Italy denounced the Franco-Italian agreement of 1935.

16/12/1938, Friday (-2,335) The foundation stone of the Voortrekker Memorial was laid in Pretoria, see 16/12/1949.

14/12/1938, Wednesday (-2,337) The Italian Parliament was replaced by a Fascist Chamber.

12/12/1938, Monday (-2,339) Connie Francis, singer, was born.

11/12/1938, Sunday (-2,340) Reg Livermore, entertainer, was born

10/12/1938, Saturday (-2,341) Billy Dunk, golfer, was born.

6/12/1938, Tuesday (-2,345)

5/12/1938, Monday (-2,346) JJ Cale, musician, was born.

4/12/1938, Sunday (-2,347) Richard Meade, equestrian champion, was born.

3/12/1938, Saturday (-2,348) Heinrich Himmler ordered all driver's licenses of German Jews invalidated.

2/12/1938, Friday (-2,349) 206 German-Jewish schoolchildren arrived in Britain as refugees. This was the so-called Kindertransport: by the end of August 1939 9,354 such children had arrived by boat-train at Harwich from Germany and Austria. For many, their adult families remained. probably to die in the concentration camps. A few adults did manage to obtain visas for England or the USA.

1/12/1938, Thursday (-2,350) Britain started a National Register for war service.


30/11/1938, Wednesday (-2,351) Speeches in the Italian Chamber claimed Nice and Corsica for Italy.

23/11/1938, Wednesday (-2,358) The Most Reverend Patrick Kelly, Archbishop of Liverpool, was born

18/11/1938, Friday (-2,363) Twenty people were trampled to death at the funeral of Kemal Ataturk.

14/11/1938. Monday (-2,367) In Germany, Jews were expelled from colleges.

12/11/1938, Saturday (-2,369) The Jewish community was ordered to pay a collective fine of 1,250 million Marks, and in addition pay for all the damage resulting from the Kristallnacht of a few days earlier.

11/11/1938. Friday (-2,370) Ismet Inonu succeeded Kemal Ataturk, who died the day before, as President of Turkey.

10/11/1938. Thursday (-2,371) (1) Anti-Semitic laws passed in Italy.

(2) Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Turkish Republic in 1923, died aged 57. Ismet Inonu, 54, was elected to succeed him.

9/11/1938, Wednesday (-2,372) The British Government called a conference on the future of Palestine.

8/11/1938, Tuesday (-2,373) Kristallnacht in Germany, when the Nazis burned 267 synagogues and destroyed 7,000 Jewish homes and businesses. 35,000 Jews were arrested throughout Germany, and 36 people killed. The Nazis prohibited insurance payments to the affected premises; however the glass had to be repaired, and much was sourced from abroad, draining German foreign currency reserves.

7/11/1938, Monday (-2,374) A half-crazed young Jew whose parents of Polish origin had just been deported from Germany fatally shot the Third Secretary of the German Embassy in Paris. This provided Germany with a pretext to further mistreat the Jews.

6/11/1938, Sunday (-2,375) PJ Proby, singer, was born

4/11/1938, Friday (-2,376)

2/11/1938. Wednesday (-2,379) The First Vienna Award returned 12,000 square kilometres of Slovakia, a strip along the Hungarian-Slovakian frontier, to Hungarian rule (see 20/9/1938). There was, however, disappointment in Hungary that a common frontier with Poland had not been attained.

1/11/1938, Tuesday (-2,380) (Britain, Germany) In Britain, Balloon Command was formed, under Fighter Command, to establish barrage balloon protection for 12 cities including Bristol and Cardiff. Experiments with barrage balloons had been carried out by the Germans back in 1917; the Allies also used them to protect Venice in 1918. The idea was to hoist a �barrage� of cables to prevent bomber aircraft diving low, so their accuracy was impaired. With the balloons, they could still dive but could not pull out afterwards without hitting a cable and crashing. The balloon wincher faced danger from lightning bolts, and from the static electric charge built up on the wincher, especially in wet weather. An operator had to jump away from the winch when leaving to avoid electrical conductance between his body and the winch and earth.


31/10/1938. Monday (-2,381) A radio broadcast of H G Well�s War of the Worlds caused widespread panic because of its vivid realism. The adaptation of the play carried a warning that it was not for real but this warning was not broadcast until 40 minutes after the play had begun. Terrified Americans packed the roads, hid in cellars, loaded guns, and wrapped their heads in wet towels to protect themselves against Martian poison gas. The event proved both the power of mass media and the American capacity for hysteria.

30/10/1938, Sunday (-2,382) The Mitteland Canal in Germany, linking the Rhine to the Elbe, was opened.

29/10/1938, Saturday (-2,383) Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, President of Liberia, was born.

28/10/1938. Friday (-2,384) 17,000 Polish Jews domiciled in Germany were expelled.

27/10/1938, Thursday (-2,385) DuPont announced that its new synthetic fibre was to be called "nylon".

25/10/1938. Tuesday (-2,387) Libya was incorporated into Italy.

24/10/1938, Monday (-2,388) Hitler demanded the return from Poland to Germany of Danzig.Poland refused.

23/10/1938, Sunday (-2,389) Derek Jacobi, actor, was born.

22/10/1938, Saturday (-2,390) Chester F Carlson made the first photocopy image.

21/10/1938. Friday (-2,391) The Japanese occupied Canton.

20/10/1938, Thursday (-2,392) Emidio Greco, Italian director and screenwriter, was born.

19/10/1938, Wednesday (-2,393) British troops stormed Old Jerusalem, evicting the Arabs who had been occupying it. The UK abandoned plans to partition Palestine between Jews and Arabs.

18/10/1938, Tuesday (-2,394) As terrorist violence escalated in Palestine, British troops imposed martial law.

17/10/1938, Monday (-2,395) Evel Kneivel, US stunt motorcyclist, was born in Butte, Montana.

15/10/1938, Friday, (-2,397)

12/10/1938, Wednesday (-2,400) Japanese troops landed in force on the Chinese mainland, and advanced swiftly on Canton.

11/10/1938, Tuesday (-2,401) (Science) Leroy Hood, scientist, was born.

10/10/1938, Monday (-2,402) A meeting of Latin American Presidents awarded most of the Chaco Boreal to Paraguay, whilst providing that Bolivia should have a trade route to the Atlantic via the Paraguay River.

9/10/1938, Sunday (-2,403) John Sutherland, English author, was born.

8/10/1938. Saturday (-2,404) Ruthenia granted autonomy.

7/10/1938, Friday (-2,405) BBC Radio began its first soap opera, the English Family Robinson.

6/10/1938. Thursday (-2,406) Slovakia granted autonomy. In Britain 30 Tory MPs protested at Chamberlain�s appeasement, uneasy that one country had been allowed to win by force against another.

5/10/1938, Wednesday (-2,407) (1) President Benes of Czechoslovakia resigned.

(2) In Germany, passports held by Jews had to have the letter J stamped in them.

4/10/1938, Tuesday (-2,408) Cholpon, Uzbek poet, was killed in the Great Stalinist Purge.

3/10/1938, Monday (-2,409) Eddie Cochran, US singer, was born.

2/10/1938, Sunday (-2,410) Poland annexed Trans-Olza, taking over from Czechoslovakia that portion of Austrian Silesia to which Poland had laid claim since 1920.

1/10/1938. Saturday (-2,411) Germany annexed the Sudetenland, see 6/6/1938.


30/9/1938, Friday (-2,412) Chamberlain told a crowd �I believe it is peace in our time and waved the agreement he had made with Hitler at Munich, bearing Hitler�s signature.Chamberlain said �How horrible, fantastic, incredible, it is that we should be digging trenches and trying on gas masks here because of a quarrel in a far-away country between people of whom we know nothing�.

29/9/1938. Thursday (-2,413) In Munich, Chamberlain appeased Hitler over Sudetenland.Under the Munich Agreement, an agreement between Germany, Britain, France, and Italy, the Sudetenland was surrendered to Nazi Germany.No Czech representative was present.

28/9/1938, Wednesday (-2,414) The British navy was mobilised.

27/9/1938. Tuesday (-2,415) (1) The League of Nations denounced Japanese aggression in China.

(2) The 80,000 ton liner Queen Elizabeth, the largest passenger vessel ever built, was launched at John Brown�s yard at Clydebank, Glasgow.

26/9/1938, Monday (-2,416) The Ditton Priors branch closed to passengers.

24/9/1938, Saturday (-2,418)

21/9/1938, Wednesday (-2,421) A hurricane hit New England, killing 682 and injuring over 1,500.

20/9/1938, Tuesday (-2,422) The Hungarian leaders, Imredy and Kanya, were summoned to Germany. Hitler told them he had no objections to Hungary�s desires to regain Slovakia and Ruthenia, so long as Hungary actively took part in the destruction of Czechoslovakia.

18/9/1938, Sunday (-2,424)

16/9/1938, Friday (-2,426) In the USA, British driver George Eyston set a new land speed record of 357 mph.

15/9/1938. Thursday (-2,427) Neville Chamberlain visited Hitler at the Berchtesgarten, over the Czech crisis. Hitler declared he only wanted the Sudetenland.

14/9/1938, Wednesday (-2,428) The largest rigid airship ever built, the 803 foot German Graf Zeppelin II, made her maiden flight.She was dismantled in April 1940.

13/9/1938, Tuesday (-2,429) John Smith, leader of the UK Labour Party 1992-94, was born in Dalmally, Argyllshire.

12/9/1938, Monday (-2,430) Hitler made a bombastic speech in Nuremberg demanding an end to the oppression of Sudeten Germans. The British Cabinet held a meeting after Hitler had finished speaking. They were relieved that Hitler had only demanded �justice� for Sudeten Germans and had not committed himself to war.

11/9/1938, Sunday (-2,431) Lord Eddie George, Governor of the Bank of England, 1993-2003, was born.

10/9/1938. Saturday (-2,432) Death of the dog show founder Charles Cruft.

9/9/1938, Friday (-2,433) The Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS), the women�s branch of the Army, was formed by Royal Warrant.

8/9/1938, Thursday (-2,434) (Innovation, Light) Chester Carlson patented the first photocopier.

7/9/1938. Wednesday (-2,435) Sudetenland gained autonomy from Czechoslovakia, see 6/6/1938.

1/9/1939, Thursday (-2,441) Lily Tomlin, actress, was born.


31/8/1938, Wednesday (-2,442)

30/8/1938, Tuesday (-2,443) Max Factor, cosmetics entrepreneur, died.

29/8/1938, Monday (-2,444) Elliott Gould, actor, was born.

27/8/1938, Saturday (-2,446) Jose Altafini, Italian footballer, was born.

25/8/1938, Thursday (-2,448) Frederick Forsyth, writer, was born.

23/8/1938, Tuesday (-2,450) Roger Greenaway, British author, was born in Southmead, Bristol

22/8/1938. Monday (-2,451) In the UK, the first �automatic� car was tested.

21/8/1938, Sunday (-2,452) Michael Weston, rugby player, was born.

20/8/1938, Saturday (-2,453) In London, athlete Briton Shirley Wooderson set a new world record, running the half mile in 1 minute 49.2 seconds.

18/8/1938, Thursday (-2,455)

16/8/1938, Tuesday (-2,457) Robert Johnson, US blues singer, died in Greenwood, Missouri (born 8/5/1911 in Hazlehurst, Missouri)

15/8/1938. Monday (-2,458) Chamberlain visited Hitler for crisis talks.

14/8/1938, Sunday (-2,459) Hugh Trimble, cricketer, died.

13/8/1938, Saturday (-2,460) Bill Masterton, ice hockey player, was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (died 1968)

12/8/1938. Friday (-2,461) Germany mobilised its forces.

11/8/1938, Friday (-2,462) Anna Massey, actress, was born

10/8/1938, Wednesday (-2,463) The synagogue in Nuremberg was destroyed.

9/8/1938, Tuesday (-2,464) Rod Laver, Australian tennis player, was born.

8/8/1938, Monday (-2,465) Otto Rehhagel, footballer, was born in Essen, Germany

7/8/1938, Sunday (-2,466) Dewi Bebb, Welsh rugby player, was born.

6/8/1938, Saturday (-2,467) Professor Sir Rees Davies, mediaeval historical writer, was born (died 16/5/2005).

5/8/1938, Friday (-2,468) Hayes Jones, US athlete, was born in Sturksville, Mississippi

4/8/1939, Thursday (-2,469) (1) BOAC began a weekly airmail service between Southampton and Montreal, New York. War halted the service in September 1939.

(2) Arsenal paid a record �14,000 transfer feefor Wolverhampton�s Bryn Jones.

3/8/1938, Wednesday (-2,470) Terry Wogan, TV broadcaster, was born in Limerick, Ireland.

2/8/1938, Tuesday (-2,471) Bjarni Thorsteinsson, Icelandic composer, died aged 76

1/8/1938, Monday (-2,472) The 1938 Holidays With Pay Act increased the number of British workers entitled to paid holiday from 3 million to 11 million. Holiday entitlement was usually one week. Resorts such as Blackpool had boomed with charabancs bringing in crowds of vacationers, and in 1937 a Butlin�s holiday camp opened at Skegness.


31/7/1938. Sunday (-2,473) Bulgaria signed a non-aggression pact with Greece.

30/71938, Saturday (-2,474) Rob Derbyshire, champion swimmer, died (born 29/11/1878).

29/7/1938. Friday (-2,475) The first edition of The Beano comic was published.

28/7/1938, Thursday (-2,476) Robert Hughes, writer, was born.

27/7/1938, Wednesday (-2,477) James Thornton, composer, died in Astoria, New York (born 5/12/1861 in LiverpoolUK)

24/7/1938, Sunday (-2,480)

22/7/1938, Friday (-2,481) Terence Stamp, actor, was born.

21/7/1938, Thursday (-2,482) The Peace Treaty of Buenos Aires formalised the end of the Chaco War. Paraguay retained mpost of the Chaco region, and Bolivia was given access to the Atlantic via the Paraguay and Parana Riversand the use of Puetrto Casada as a free port.

20/7/1938, Wednesday (-2,484) Roger Hunt, footballer, was born.

19/7/1938, Tuesday (-2,485) King George VI of Britain visited Paris.

18/7/1938, Monday (-2,486) Marie, Queen of Romania, died.

17/7/1938, Sunday (-2,487) Anita Brookner, historian, writer, was born.

16/7/1938, Saturday (-2,488) (Aviation) Luton Airport, Bedfordshire, was opened.

15/7/1938, Friday (-2,489) The UK Government ordered 1,000 Spitfire fighters.

14/7/1938. Thursday (-2,490) Italy officially adopted anti-Semitism.

11//7/1938. Monday (-2,493) (1) The last British troops left Spike Island, Ireland, and handed the base over to the Dublin Government, in a friendly ceremony. See 25/4/1938.

(2) Soviet and Japanese troops clashed on the Manchukuo border.

9/7/1938. Saturday (-2,495) Gas masks were issued to the British population, in anticipation of war with Germany. 35 million of them were ordered by the British Government.

6/7/1938, Wednesday (-2,498) Tony Lewis, cricketer, was born.

5/7/1938, Tuesday (-2,499) Spanish Republican supporters agreed to the non-intervention plan and withdrew their forces from Spain; however the Nationalist supports did not agree or withdraw. Defeat for the Republicans was now only a matter of time.

4/7/1938, Monday (-2,500) Suzanne Lenglen, tennis player, died.

3/7/1938, Sunday (-2,501) (1) The Mallard achieved a world record speed for a steam locomotive, 126 mph, southbound between Grantham and Peterborough at Stoke Bank.

(2) By agreement with France, the district of Alexandretta was established as an autonomous part of Syria, but with a legal system conforming mainly to Turkey.It was called Hatay, after the Hittites, which Turkey considered its ancestors.Within ayear, Hatay was ceded to Turkey.

2/7/1938, Saturday (-2,502) David Owen, British politician and first leader of the Social Democratic Party, was born in Plympton, Devon.


29/6/1938, Wednesday (-2,505)

27/6/1938. Monday (-2,507) All Austrian-Jewish employees given 2 weeks notice to quit by their employers.

26/6/1938, Sunday (-2,508) James Weldon Johnson, Black civil rights leader, died.

25/6/1938, Saturday (-2,509) The USA set a Minimum Wage, at 25 cents per hour.

21/6/1938, Tuesday (-2,513) Don Black, singer, was born.

16/6/1938, Thursday (-2,518) Joyce Carol Oates, writer, was born.

15/6/1938, Wednesday (-2,519) US Congress passed the Fair Labor Standards Act, limiting the working week to 40 hours to be enforced by 1941, and fixing a Minimum Wage of 60 cents an hour.

14/6/1938, Tuesday (-2,520)

13/6/1938, Monday (-2,521) Gwynne Howell, opera singer, was born

12/6/1938, Sunday (-2,522) Ian Partridge, tenor singer, was born.

11/6/1938, Saturday (-2,523)

9/6/1938, Thursday (-2,525) (1) The British Government ordered 400 warplanes from the USA.

(2) The synagogue in Munich was destroyed.

8/6/1938, Wednesday (-2,526) US President Franklin D Roosevelt requested a report on the utility of a national tolled road network.

7/6/1938, Tuesday (-2,527) Ian StJohn, footballer, was born.

6/6/1938. Monday (-2,528) President Benes of Czechoslovakia offered self-government to the Sudetenland. However on 27/9/1938 Hitler stated his intention to annex the Sudetenland. On 21/9/1938 Prague agreed to Anglo-French proposals to cede the Sudetenland to Germany. Czechs protested. German troops entered the Sudetenland on 1/10/1938, as Teschen, in Czech Silesia, was annexed by Poland. On 5/10/1938 President Benes of Czechoslovakia resigned.

5/6/1938, Sunday (-2,529) Moira Anderson, Scottish singer, was born in Kirkintilloch.

4/6/1938, Saturday (-2,530)

2/6/1938. Thursday (-2,532) Robert and Edward Kennedy, youngest sons of the American Ambassador to London, opened the Children�s Zoo at Regents Park. Children were charged 6d to watch the chimp�s tea party.

1/6/1938, Wednesday (-2,533) Khawar Rizvi, poet, was born in the Punjab, British India.


31/5/1938, Tuesday (-2,534) (TV shows) The first TV panel game, Spelling Bee, was broadcast.

29/5/1938, Sunday (-2,536)

26/5/1938, Thursday (-2,539) (1) The Dies Committee was established by the US House of Representatives. Named after its Chairman, Martin Dies, its remit was to investigate �Un-American� activities by Nazis and Communists within the USA. See 3/1/1945.

(2) The first Volkswagen came off the assembly line at the factory at Wolfsburg, Germany.

25/5/1938, Wednesday (-2,540) Alicante was bombed by General Franco�s aircraft in the Spanish Civil War.

24/5/1938, Tuesday (-2,541)

23/5/1938, Monday (-2,452) Peter Preston, editor of The Guardian, was born.

22/5/1938, Sunday (-2,543) Painter William Glackens died in Westport, Connecticut, aged 68.

20/5/1938. Friday (-2,545) Czechoslovakia ordered 400,000 troops to the Austro-German border.

17/5/1938, Tuesday (-2,548) London Underground train crash at Charing Cross, 6 killed.

16/5/1938, Monday (-2,549) The WVS (Women�s Voluntary Service) was started in Britain by the Marchioness of Reading. It became �Royal� in 1966.

13/5/1938, Friday (-2,552)

12/5/1938, Thursday (-2,553) Terry Farrell, architect, was born.

10/5/1938. Tuesday (-2,555) Thomas Cook, (see 5/7/1841), travel agents, introduced 8 day packages to the French Riviera from Britain for �8 7s 6d.

9/5/1938, Monday (-2,556) Scotland Yard announced they were to use police dogs.

7/5/1938, Saturday (-2,558) John Caldwell, boxer, was born.

4/5/1938. Wednesday (-2,561) The Vatican recognised Franco as leader of Spain.

3/5/1938. Tuesday (-2,562) (1) King George VI opened the Glasgow exhibition.

(2) Hitler and Mussolini met in Rome.

(3) The Vatican recognised Franco�s Government in Spain.

2/5/1938, Monday (-2,563) King Moshoeshoe II of Lesotho was born.

1/5/1938, Sunday (-2,564) Presidential elections were held in Colombia. Eduardo Santos ran unopposed and received 100% of the vote.


30/4/1938, Saturday (-2,565) In Britain, the FA Cup Final was televised for the first time.

29/4/1938, Friday (-2,566) Klaus Voormann, rock bassist, was born in Berlin, Germany

28/4/1938. Thursday (-2,567) Anglo-French talks on the Sudeten question. President Benes was urged to make concessions.

27/4/1938. Wednesday (-2,568) A friendship treaty was signed between Greece and Turkey.

26/4/1938, Tuesday (-2,569) William Wood, bowls champion, was born.

25/4/1938, Monday (-2,570) (1) De Valera persuaded Britain to return the naval bases they had retained under the 1921 Treaty, at Berehaven, Cobh, Lough Swilly, Haulbowline and Rathmullen (see 6/12/1921). Neville Chamberlain saw this as an act of reconciliation, believing the bases could be used by Britain again if war broke out (see 11/7/1938). De Valera saw the move as reinforcing Irish neutrality. Winston Churchill was furious, Other matters were settled; the land annuities were consolidated into a single lump sum ;payment, and import duties against each other were reduced. This was important for Ireland, given that 96% of its exports went to Britain. De Valera�s reputation soared.

(2) Postal workers, tradesmen and Baptists joined forces against the growing popularity of football pools. Baptists disapproved of them on moral grounds, as a form of gambling. Post offices wanted extra payments for handling the rapidly growing volume of pools traffic. Meanwhile a butcher in Worthing claimed his customers were buying cheaper cuts of meat to save up for the pools.

24/4/1938, Sunday (-2,571) Sudeten German leader Konrad Henlein presented a list of demands in a speech in Karlsbad. The principal demand was the creation of an autonomous German state within Czechoslovakia. Though left unsaid, it was readily inferred that this state could then vote to secede and join Germany.

23/4/1938. Saturday (-2,572) Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia demanded total self-government.

22/4/1938, Friday (-2,573) Nazi Germany decreed that Jewish-owned businesses were forbidden from changing their names.

21/4/1938, Thursday (-2,574).Allama Iqbal, philosopher, died.

20/4/1938, Wednesday (-2,575) Peter Snow, radio and television presenter and historian, was born in Dublin, Ireland

19/4/1938, Tuesday (-2,576) Henry Newbolt, English poet, died aged 75.

18/4/1938, Monday (-2,577) The Superman hero first appeared in print in the US.

17/4/1938, Sunday (-2,578) Easter Sunday.

16/4/1938, Saturday (-2,579) Chamberlain, British PM, sought to dissuade Italy from allying with Germany.

15/4/1938, Friday (-2,580) In Spain, Nationalist forces took the Mediterranean coastal town of Vinaroz, splitting the Republican forces in Catalonia from those in south east Spain.

14/4/1938, Thursday (-2,581) Gillis Grafstrom, Swedish figure skater, died aged 44/

13/4/1938, Wednesday (-2,582) Grey Owl, conservationist, died. He had styled himself as an indigenous Canadian, but was in fact English.

10/4/1938. Sunday (-2,585) A plebiscite in Austria indicated that 99.75% were in favour of Hitler�s annexation of Austria.

8/4/1938, Friday (-2,587) Kofi Annan, UN Secretary-General, was born.

7/4/1938. Thursday (-2,588) The Nazis seized Baron Rothschild�s bank, and arrested him.

6/4/1938. Wednesday (-2,589) (1) Teflon was accidentally invented by US lab assistant Jack Rebok. He opened a gas cylinder of freon (tetra-fluoro-ethylene) and no gas came out; however the cylinder was still heavy. Upon inspection, the gas had polymerised into a greasy white powder. During World war Two, Teflon, being extremely inert, was found to be the only material that would resist the corrosive effects of uranium hexafluoride, a key chemical in the construction of the atom bomb; hence Teflon became a military secret. In 1960 it began to be used on non-stick pans, although initial problems with the non-stick coating not adhering to the pan had to be overcome. It now has uses in coating buildings to prevent corrosion, as electrical insulation, a flame retardant, and in artificial body joints.

(2) Leading Jewish figures in Austria were sent to Dachau concentration camp.

3/4/1938. Sunday (-2,592) Franco took Lerida, a key town in Catalonia.


31/3/1938, Thursday (-2,595) David Steel, Liberal Party leader, was born.

30/3/1938, Wednesday (-2,596) The UK Government announced it was to spend �11 million on new RAF airfields.

29/3/1938, Tuesday (-2,597) The BBC began foreign language broadcasts in German.

28/3/1938, Monday (-2,598) Psychiatrists Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini used electric shock treatment on a patient for the first time. The subject was a man found wandering in a railway station and mumbling to himself.

24/3/1938. Thursday (-2,602) The British Prime Minister, Chamberlain, announced that Britain would not oppose the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, in the interests of peace. However Britain would fight for France and Belgium.

18/3/1938, Friday (-2,608) PEMEX, Petroleos Mexicanos, was created by President Lazaro Cardenas. He seized the assets of foreign (mainly British) companies to create PEMEX, the companies being compensated in Mexican Government Bonds, after they failed to implement a Mexican wage agreement. PEMEX was virtually autonomous within Mexico until the 1982 Debt Crisis.

17/3/1938. Thursday (-2,609) Russian dancer Rudolf Nureyev born in Irkutsk, Siberia.

16/3/1938, Wednesday (-2,610) The Aviazione Legionaria began bombing Barcelona.

15/3/1938, Tuesday (-2,611) Stalin�s purges reached a crescendo with the execution of 18 senior statesmen, many of them friends of Lenin. Amongst those confessing, at Lubyanka Prison, to improbable plots to overthrow the Soviet State was Nikolai Bukharin.

14/3/1938, Monday (-2,612) British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain made a speech in the House of Commons on the Austrian situation, saying the government "emphatically" disapproved of Germany's deed but that "nothing could have prevented this action by Germany unless we and others with us had been prepared to use force to prevent it."

13/3/1938 Sunday (-2,613) Austria was declared to be part of the German Third Reich (the Anschluss, or �joining�); a province of Germany called Ostmark.A Nazi-controlled referendum gave a �vote� of 99.75% in favour of unification. The Anschluss had been expressly forbidden by the Treaties of Versailles and St Germain, 1919, and a proposed customs union between the two countries in 1931 had been vetoed by France and Czechoslovakia. However after Austrian Chancellor von Schuschnigg was forced to resign in early 1938, the Germans occupied Austria and formally declared a union anyway.

12/3/1938. Saturday (-2,614) Germany invaded Austria.This was 24 hours before an Austrian plebiscite was to have been held concerning closer relations with Germany.At 10.00 am German troops crossed into Austria, thereby tearing up Article 88 of the Treaty of Versailles, which forbade union of Germany and Austria.

11/3/1938, Friday (-2,615) Hitler demanded the resignation of Chancellor Kurt von Schusnigg, after Schusnigg tried to forestall Hitler�s demands for unification with Germany by a referendum.

10/3/1938, Thursday (-2,616) In France, the Chautemps Government collapsed, weakening the French administration.

9/3/1938, Wednesday (-2,217) Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg announced a referendum for March 13 to determine the question of unification with Germany.

8/3/1938, Tuesday (-2,618) Edgar McPhail Smith, US actor, died in Bayside, New York (born 9/12/1857 in Brooklyn, New York)

7/3/1938, Monday (-2,619) David Baltimore, US biologist, was born.

6/3/1938, Sunday (-2,620) The Japanese advanced along the Hangchow Railway through Shansi Province towards the Yellow River.

3/3/1938, Thursday (-2,623) Mark Barty-King, book publisher, was born (died 25/3/2006)

1/3/1938, Tuesday (-2,625) (Germany) Field Marshal Hermann Goering was named Chief of Staff of Germany�s Luftwaffe.


28/2/1938, Monday (-2,626) Terence Spinks, boxer, was born.

27/2/1938, Sunday (-2,627) Pascale Petit, French actress, was born in Paris, France.

26/2/1938, Saturday (-2,628) Brian Kilby, marathon runner, was born m Coventry, UK.

25/2/1938, Friday (-2,629) Herb Elliott, runner, was born in Subiaco, Western Australia.

24/2/1938, Thursday (-2,630) Manufacture began of the first commercially produced nylon product, toothbrush bristles, by DuPont in their Arlington, New Jersey, plant. Previously, toothbrushes had been made from animal hair.

23/2/1938, Wednesday (-2,631) Oil was discovered in Kuwait.

22/2/1938, Tuesday (-2,632) In Spain, Nationalist forces recaptured Teruel.

21/2/1938. Monday (-2,633) Churchill led a protest against Chamberlain�s policy of appeasement.

20/2/1938. Sunday (-2,634) Anthony Eden resigned as British Foreign Secretary. He was unable to support the policy of appeasement of the Prime Minister Chamberlain, who had held talks with Mussolini.

19/2/1938, Saturday (-2,635)

17/2/1938, Thursday (-2,637) John Logie Baird demonstrated a prototype colour television.

16/2/1938, Wednesday (-2,638) John Corigliano, US composer, was born.

15/2/1938, Tuesday (-2,639)

14/2/1938, Monday (-2,640) The British Naval base at Singapore opened.

13/2/1938, Sunday (-2,641) Oliver Reed, actor, was born.

12/2/1938. Saturday (-2,642) Hitler insisted that Austria released Nazi prisoners.

11/2/1938, Friday (-2,643) Manuel Noriega was born.

10/2/1938, Thursday (-2,644) Richard A Whiting, US composer, died in Beverly Hills, California (born 12/11/1891 in Peoria)

7/2/1938, Monday (-2,647) Harvey Firestone, tyre manufacturer, died in Miami, Florida.

4/2/1938. Friday (-2,650) Hitler took over as War Minister in Germany. Joachim Von Ribbentrop became Foreign Minister.

1/2/1938, Tuesday (-2,653) Jacky Cupit, golfer, was born.


31/1/1938. Monday (-2,654) Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands was born. She was the eldest daughter of Queen Juliana.

25/1/1938. Tuesday (-2,660) The aurora borealis, or northern lights, were seen as far south as London�s West End and throughout Western Europe. It was due to intense sunspot activity.

22/1/1938, Saturday (-2,663) Brook Williams, actor, was born (died 29/4/2005).

21/1/1938, Friday (-2,664) Lord Phillips of Worth Maltravers, UK Lord Chief Justice, was born

17/1/1938, Monday (-2,668) David Bickers. Moto Cross champion, was born

14/1/1938, Friday (-2,671) Walt Disney�s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first full length colour and sound animated cartoon, went on general release across the USA.

13/1/1938, Thursday (-2,672) The Church of England accepted the Theory of Evolution.

10/1/1938, Wednesday (-2,673)

11/1/1938, Tuesday (-2,674) Arthur Scargill, President of the National Union of Mineworkers, was born.

10/1/1938, Monday (-2,675) Japan captured the Chinese port of Qingdao.

7/1/1938, Friday (-2,678)

6/1/1938. Thursday (-2,679) Sigmund Freud arrived in London, fleeing Nazi persecution.

5/1/1938. Wednesday (-2,680) King Juan Carlos I of Spain, who succeeded General Franco as Head of State, born.

4/1/1938. Tuesday (-2,681) Britain postponed plans to partition Palestine.

3/1/1938. Monday (-2,682) (1) The BBC began its first foreign language service, in Arabic.

(2) In the UK, the government announced that all schoolchildren would be issued with gas masks.

2/1/1938, Sunday (-2,683) David Bailey, photographer, was born.

1/1/1938, Saturday (-2,684) The Netherlands railways were nationalised, having gone bankrupt in 1937.


31/12/1937, Friday (-2,685) Anthony Hopkins, actor, was born.

30/12/1937, Thursday (-2,686) Gordon Banks, footballer, was born.

28/12/1937, Tuesday (-2,688) Maurice Ravel, composer, died.

24/12/1937. Friday (-2,692) Japanese troops captured Hankow, China.

22/12/1937, Wednesday (-2,694) Britain protested to Japan about attacks on Royal Navy ships on the Yangtse River.

21/12/1937. Tuesday (-2,695) (1) Republicans captured Franco�s stronghold of Teruel.

(2) Walt Disney�s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first full length colour and sound animated cartoon was premiered in Los Angeles, USA.

20/12/1937, Monday (-2,696) Erich Ludendorff, German General who helped formulate strategy in World War One, died.

17/12/1937, Friday (-2,699) Kerry Packer, Australian media and sports magnate, was born.

16/12/1937, Thursday (-2,700)

14/12/1937, Tuesday (-2,702)

12/12/1937, Sunday (-2,704) Japan captured Nanjing, China, see 7/12/1937.

11/12/1937. Saturday (-2,705) Italy left the League of Nations.

9/12/1937, Thursday (-2,707)

8/12/1937, Wednesday (-2,710) Laddie Cliff, British actor, died in Montana, Switzerland (born 3/9/1891 in Bristol)

7/12/1937. Tuesday (-2,709) Japan attacked Nanjing, bitter fighting followed. Japan occupied Nanjing on 12/12/1937. Defeated Chinese soldiers who surrendered were nevertheless killed, and women and children were raped and murdered.

6/12/1937, Monday (-2,710) Pedro Alberto Spencer, Ecuadorian footballer, was born.

5/12/1937, Sunday (-2,711) Spanish Republican forces launched a major attack on Aragon.

4/12/1937. Saturday (-2,712) The Dandy was first published, featuring Desperate Dan.

2/12/1937, Thursday (-2,714)

1/12/1937, Wednesday (-2,715) Japan recognised Franco�s government in Spain.


30/11/1937, Tuesday (-2,716) Thomas Simpson, champion cyclist, was born (died 13/7/1967).

29/11/1937, Monday (-2,717) Sudeten Germans walked out of the Czech Parliament following a ban on political meetings.

28/11/1937. Sunday (-2,718) Franco ordered the Spanish Republican government forces to surrender by 12/12/1937 or face a massive offensive.

27/11/1937, Saturday (-2,719) Rodney Bewes, actor, was born

26/11/1937, Friday (-2,720)

25/11/1937, Thursday (-2,721) The first British quiz programme, an inter-regional spelling competition, was broadcast.

24/11/1937, Wednesday (-2,722) In Germany, Walter Funk replaced Dr Schacht as Minister of Economics.

23/11/1937, Tuesday (-2,723) (Science) Sir Jagadischandra Bose, Indian physicist, died in Giridh.

22/11/1937, Monday (-2,724)

19/11/1937, Friday (-2,727) George Eyston set a new world land speed record of 311 mph.

18/11/1937, Thursday (-2,728) A Fascist plot was discovered in Paris.

17/11/1937, Wednesday (-2,729) Lord Halifax arrived in Berlin for talks with Hitler on the Sudetenland; this was the first step in the process of appeasement.

16/11/1937, Tuesday (-2,730) MPs in Westminster voted in favour of constructing air-raid shelters in towns and cities.

15/11/1937, Monday (-2,731)

10/11/1937, Wednesday (-2,736) The Senzan rail tunnel, Japan, 5.4 km long, opened.

9/11/1937. Tuesday (-2,737) Ramsay MacDonald, British Labour Prime Minister in 1924, died at sea whilst on a cruise for his health.

8/11/1937, Monday (-2,738) Japan captured Shanghai.

7/11/1937, Sunday (-2,739) Mary Allin, pop-folk musician, was born.

6/11/1937. Saturday (-2,740) Italy joined the anti-Communist pact between Germany and Japan.See 25/11/1936.

5/11/1937. Friday (-2,741) The Air Raid Precautions Bill was introduced in the Commons. Passed on 16/11/1937, it allowed the construction of air raid shelters in UK towns and cities. Winston Churchill said they were �indispensable� but Labour opposed them, saying they would mean a big increase in the rates.

4/11/1937, Thursday (-2,742) Loretta Swit, actress, was born.

2/11/1937, Tuesday (-2,744)


31/10/1937, Sunday (-2,746) Ronald Rhodes, canoeing champion, was born (died 12/1/1962)

30/10/1937. Saturday (-2,747) The 500,000 ton asteroid Hermes missed the earth by 485,000 miles.

29/10/1937, Friday (-2,748) The first truly national electricity grid was created in Britain. Before 1926 private generating companies supplied power, all at different standards and voltages. A standard national system would have been better, but the Conservative Government pf the time was against �socialist� nationalisation, so a compromise was reached. A �National Gridiron� of power lines was to be created, connecting up the most reliable power companies; in fact several regional �grids� were established, with emergency connections if needed. This �gridiron� was set up under the Electricity Supply Act of 1926, and the regional Grids were completed by September 1933. On this day in October 1937 electricity engineers, without authorisation, connected up all the Grids to make one national grid. Everything worked fine, and the Grid has remained National ever since.

28/10/1937. Thursday (-2,749) The Spanish Government moved from Valencia to Barcelona.

27/10/1937, Wednesday (-2,750) Japan announced the capture of Pingding, Shanxi Province after a three-day battle.

26/10/1937, Tuesday (-2,751) Joyce Smith, marathon runner, was born.

25/10/1937, Monday (-2,752) Celal Bayar became Prime Minister of Turkey.

24/10/1937, Sunday (-2,753) New Zealand aviator Jean Batten broke the record for flying from Australia to Britain, taking 5 days 18 hours and 18 minutes.

23/10/1937, Saturday (-2,754) In Australia, Labour lost in general elections to the United Australia and Country Parties.

22/10/1937. Friday (-2,755) The Duke and Duchess of Windsor arrived in Berlin to meet Hitler, study housing conditions, and hear a concert by the Nazi District Orchestra. The Duke had been advised not to go to Germany, but, having abdicated as King, he wanted to show he still had influence.

21/10/1937, Thursday (-2,756) (1) Gijon, the last Republican stronghold in northern Spain, fell to Franco�s forces.

(2) Stalin killed a further 62 in his purges.

20/10/1937, Wednesday (-2,757) The British tried to limit Jewish migration into Palestine.

19/10/1937, Tuesday (-2,758) The New Zealand born physicist Lord Rutherford died in Cambridge, England.. He is regarded as the founder of atomic energy.He won the Nobel Prize in 1908.

18/10/1937, Monday (-2,759) Rheims Cathedral was re-consecrated.

17/10/1937, Sunday (-2,760) Sudeten Nazis rioted in Czechoslovakia.

16/10/1937, Saturday (-2,761) Fascists formed a Nazi party in Hungary.

15/10/1937, Friday (-2,762) Renato Paresce, Italian painter, died aged 51.

14/10/1937, Thursday (-2,763) The first Motor Show opened at Earls Court, London.

13/10/1937, Wednesday (-2,764) The integrity of Belgium was guaranteed by Germany.

12/10/1937, Tuesday (-2,765) Robert Mangold, US minimalist artist, was born in North Tonawanda, New York.

11/10/1937, Monday (-2,766) Bobby Charlton, English footballer, was born in Ashington, County Durham.

4/10/1937, Monday (-2,773)Jackie Collins, author, was born.

2/10/1937, Saturday (-2,775) (Dominican Republic) President Trujillo of the Dominican Republic ordered a massacre of Haitians living in the north-west of the Dominican Republic. This was the so-called�Parsley Massacre�. Over 20,000 people were killed for failing to pronounce the word for parsley (perejil) correctly). The massacre was aimed at Haitian migrants who, not being native Spanish speakers, struggled to roll the letter �r�.


29/9/1937, Wednesday (-2,778) In the face of a full-scale Japanese invasion of China, Chiang Kai Shek, the Chinese leader, came to an agreement with his Communist rival, Mao Zedong.

28/9/1937, Tuesday (-2,779) The League of Nations condemned the Japanese invasion of China.

27/9/1937, Monday (-2,780)

26/9/1937, Sunday (-2,781) The British Commissioner for Galilee was murdered by Arabs.

25/9/1937, Saturday (-2,782) The Japanese bombed the Chinese Nationalist capital of Nanjing.

21/9/1937, Tuesday (-2,786) JRR Tolkien�s book The Hobbit was published, Initially just 1,500 copies were printed but the book had, by 2010, sold over 50 million copies in 38 languages.

17/9/1937, Friday (-2,790) Nigel Boocock, speedway champion, was born

14/9/1937, Tuesday (-2,793) Thomas Masaryk, the first president of Czechoslovakia when that country was formed in 1918, died aged 87.

12/9/1937, Sunday (-2,795) Wes Hall, cricketer, was born.

10/9/1937, Friday (-2,797) The TUC voted in favour of re-armament.

8/9/1937, Wednesday (-2,799) (Jewish) A Pan-Arab conference rejected the British Peel plan to partition Palestine.

7/9/1937, Tuesday (-2,800) Christopher Booker, author, was born

6/9/1937, Monday (-2,801)

5/9/1937, Sunday (-2,802) (Germany) A huge rally marked the start of the Nazi congress in Nuremberg.

4/9/1937, Saturday (-2,803) Dawn Fraser, Australian Olympic swimmer, was born.

3/9/1937, Friday (-2,804)

2/9/1937, Thursday (-2,805) (Sport-Olympics) Baron Pierre de Coubertin, reviver of the modern Olympics in 1896, died.

1/9/1937, Wednesday (-2,806) Allen Jones, artist, was born.


31/8/1937, Tuesday (-2,807) (Railways) In France, the SNCF (Societe National des Chemins de fer Francais) was formed. It took over operation of the French railways on 1/1/1938.

28/8/1937, Saturday (-2,810) (Spain) The Vatican declared support for the Franco regime in Spain

25/8/1937, Wednesday (-2,813) (Spain) Franco�s forces captured Santander.

21/8/1937, Saturday (-2,817) Kenny Rogers, US country music singer, was born in Houston

18/8/1937, Wednesday (-2,820) Robert Redford, actor, was born.

17/8/1937, Tuesday (-2,821) Arthur Rowe, athlete (shot put), was born

16/8/1937, Monday (-2,822) Harvard University, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, became the first university to offer course sin traffic engineering and administration.

14/8/1937. Saturday (-2,824) (China) Hundreds were killed in a Chinese air raid on Shanghai.1,000 died as Chinese aircraft, intending to bomb Japanese warships in the harbour, in fact bombed the International Concession; their bombs fell short of the target.Many Chinese refugees were killed, and foreign powers made urgent plans to evacuate their nationals as Japanese land forces closed in.

11/8/1937, Wednesday (-2,827) General Bake Sidiqi, dictatorial ruler of Iraq, was killed by a Kurdish assassin.

10/8/1937, Tuesday (-2,828) In the Spanish Civil War, the Regional Defence Council of Aragon was dissolved.

9/8/1937, Monday (-2,829) The Lusse rail tunnel, France, 7 km long, opened.

8/8/1937, Sunday (-2,830) Actor Dustin Hoffman was born.

7/8/1937, Saturday (-2,831) Henri Lebasque, French post-Impressionist painter, died aged 71

6/8/1937, Friday (-2,832) In Spain, Madrid came under fire from Franco�s artillery.

5/8/1937, Thursday (-2,833) Carla Lane, writer, was born.

4/8/1937, Wednesday (-2,834) Elizabeth Ann Drummond, equestrian champion, was born.

3/8/1937, Tuesday (-2,835) Steven Berkoff, actor, was born

2/8/1937. Monday (-2,836) The Zionists endorsed the British Peel plan to partition Palestine.


29/7/1937. Thursday (-2,840) Japanese troops took Beijing, see 9/7/1937.

27/7/1937, Tuesday (-2,842) Jerry Juhl , film and TV writer, was born (died 27/9/2005).

25/7/1937, Sunday (-2,844) First major battle between Chinese and Japanese forces, at Langfang, south of Beijing.

24/7/1937, Saturday (+2,845) Terry Quinlan, architect, was born.

23/7/1937, Friday (-2,846) In the UK, the Matrimonial Causes Act added new grounds for divorce (insanity and desertion) to the existing one of adultery.

22/7/1937, Thursday (-2,847)

21/7/1937. Wednesday (-2,848) Eamon De Valera was re-elected President of Eire.

20/7/1937, Tuesday (-2,849) Guglielmo Marconi, Italian scientist who pioneered the use of radio communications, died in Rome, aged 63.

19/7/1937, Monday (-2,850) In Berlin, the Germans staged an exhibition, intended as mocking, of �degenerate art�; art condemned by the Nazis.

18/7/1937, Sunday (-2,851) Hunter S Thompson, writer, was born (died 20/2/2005).

17/7/1937, Saturday (-2,852) The first London Grand Prix motor races were held, at Crystal Palace.

16/7/1937, Friday (-2,853) The Buchenwald concentration camp opened in Germany, on a plateau overlooking Weimar. The first inmates were mainly political prisoners, but most of the 238,980 prisoners ultimately sent there were Jews, of whom 56,545 died in the gas chambers.

14/7/1937, Wednesday (-2,855)

12/7/1937, Monday (-2,857) Lionel Jospin, Prime Minister of France, was born.

11/7/1937, Sunday (-2,858) The US composer George Gershwin died, aged 38.

10/7/1937, Saturday (-2,859) In China, Chiang Kai-shek made a radio address to millions announcing the Kuomintang's policy of resistance against Japan.

9/7/1937, Friday (-2,860) Japan, just two days after the outbreak of war with China, introduced a system of universal healthcare, to supplement the existing scheme which covered industrial employees only. Between end-1938 and end-1944 the number of citizens covered by this universal health insurance rose from 500,000 to 40 million. The aim was to ensure a healthy population, ready to fight in war.

8/7/1937, Thursday (-2,861) Iraq, Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan signed a non-aggression pact in Tehran.

7/7/1937. Wednesday (-2,862) ) (1) The Marco Polo Bridge Incident. Japanese soldiers were exercising near the Marco Polo Bridge, south-west of Beijing, under the Boxer Protocol of 1901 which permitted foreign troops to be stationed in the Beijing area. However they were attacked by Chinese forces. A ceasefire was arranged on 11/7/1937, however the Japanese Foreign Minister, Konoe, nevertheless announced plans to mobilise five divisions in northern China. In response Chiang Kai Shek, reversing his previous appeasement policy which he had followed in response to Japan�s efforts to remove northern China from Chinese control, now reinforced Chinese forces. Japanese forces then took control of Beijing, on 29/7/1937, starting the 1937-45 War.

(2) Britain published a plan issued by the Peel Commission to partition Palestine between Jews and Arabs. Two-thirds was to be Arab, the rest Jewish, but the cities of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth were to be under permanent British control. Trans Jordan would receive a �2million grant and Arab landowners would be compensated.Most Arabs and Jews rejected the idea.

6/7/1937, Tuesday (-2,863) Carlos Eugenio Restrepo, 7th President of Colombia, died aged 69.

5/7/1937, Monday (-2,864) (1) Spanish Civil War, the Battle of Albarrac�n began.

(2) (Meat) Hormel Foods Corporation began selling the canned meat product Spam.

4/7/1937, Sunday (-2,865) The railway to Farnham was electrified.

3/7/1937, Saturday (-2,866) Tom Stoppard, Czech-born British playwright, was born.

2/7/1937, Friday (-2,867) Aviatrix Amelia Earhart disappeared on a flight from New Guinea to Howland Island.

1/7/1937. Thursday (-2,868) (1) The 999 emergency service came into operation in Britain, the first such service in the world. The idea of setting up a joint number for the emergency services came after five people died in a fire in Wimpole Street, London. The fireman came late as the witness to the fire could not get through to the switchboard; at that time a call to the emergency services received no more priority than any other call. With the new system a light lit up on a map showing where the call had been made from and a klaxon sounded at the operator centre. The number 111 was suggested but rejected at it might have led to many false calls. The first 999 call was made seven days after the system was set up and resulted in police arresting a burglar at the house of a Mr Stanley Beard in Hampstead.

(2) Spanish Bishops declared support for Franco�s Fascists.


30/6/1937, Wednesday (-2,869) Portugal stopped co-operating with the Non-Intervention Committee patrol agreement and ordered British observers off its soil.

29/6/1937, Tuesday (-2,870) Italy and Germany opposed Anglo-French patrols around the coast of Spain.

28/6/1937, Monday (-2,871) In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin had 36 �confessed� German spies shot.

24/6/1937, Thursday (-2,875) Anita Desai, novelist, was born

21/6/1937, Monday (-2,878) Lawn tennis at Wimbledon was televised for the first time.

20/6/1937, Sunday (-2,879) (Germany) All Catholic schools in Bavaria were closed by the Nazis.

19/6/1937. Saturday (-2,880) (Spain) Franco�s forces captured Bilbao.

18/6/1936, Friday (-2,881)

16/6/1937, Wednesday (-2,883) Professor Erich Segal, writer, was born.

15/6/1937, Tuesday (-2,884) Waylon Jennings, US composer, was born in Littlefield, Texas.

14/6/1937, Monday (-2,885) (Ireland) The Irish Free State changed its name to Eire, with a directly-elected President.

13/6/1937, Sunday (-2,886) (Spain) The Nationalists came within two miles of Bilbao, capturing a range of hills east of the city.

12/6/1937. Saturday (-2,887) (Russia) Stalin�s purge extended to the Red Army; 12 top generals were executed.

11/6/1937, Friday (-2,888) Mate Zalka, Hungarian writer, died aged 41.

10/6/1937, Thursday (-2,889) Edward Harty, horse racing champion, died.

9/6/1937, Wednesday (-2,890) Sven Conrad Stayers, Guyanese cricketer, was born in Georgetown, Guyana (died 2005)

8/6/1937, Tuesday (-2,891) Norma Shaw, bowls champion, was born.

7/6/1937, Monday (-2,892) Jean Harlow, US actress, died.

6/6/1937, Sunday (-2,893)

4/6/1937. Friday (-2,895) (Food) The first supermarket trolleys were wheeled out at a Humpty Dumpty Supermarket in Oklahoma, USA. The manager, Sylvan Goldman, had noticed that business was slack because women would come in and shop until their baskets were full, then stop purchasing. He had the idea of a basket on wheels to enable shoppers to carry more, so he attached wheels to a metal chair and fitted two baskets one above the other. He then employed people to wheel it around the shop full of groceries, until shoppers got the idea.

3/6/1937, Thursday (-2,896) (Britain) The Duke of Windsor, the abdicated King Edward VIII, married Mrs Wallis Warfield Simpson in Mondis, France. Mrs Simpson was an American divorcee and the marriage both upset the Royal Family and outraged the Church of England. A constitutional solution � for King Edward to marry Mrs Simpson but for her not to attain the title of Queen � might have become acceptable to the country, but was forestalled by massive media coverage of the affair, forcing Edward to choose between romance and title.

2/6/1937, Wednesday (-2,897) (Germany, Italy) German War Minister Werner von Blomberg began a three-day visit to Italy to discuss German-Italian military ties.

1/6/1937, Tuesday (-2,898) Morgan Freeman, US actor, was born.


31/5/1937. Monday (-2,899) The German fleet bombarded the Spanish port of Almeria.

30/5/1937, Sunday (-2,900) Arthur C Jacobs, Scottish poet, was born in Glasgow (died 1994)

29/5/1937, Saturday (-2,901) Southern railways electrification reached Portsmouth, from Waterloo.

28/5/1937. Friday (-2,902) Mr Stanley Baldwin resigned as Prime Minister and was succeeded by Mr Chamberlain. A government of National Unity was formed in Britain. Born on 3/8/1867, Mr Baldwin was the son of a west Midlands industrialist and was elected Conservative MP for Bewdley in 1906. He became Prime Minister in May 1923. He faced many crises, such as the 1926 General Strike. In 1935 he replaced Ramsay MacDonald as Prime Minister, and faced criticism over his foreign policy. Mr Baldwin appeared to belittle the growing threat of Nazi Germany and he failed to intervene in the Spanish Civil War. After the abdication crisis and subsequent coronation of George VI in May 1937, Baldwin retired and was granted the title 1st Earl of Bewdley. His last act as Prime Minister was to raise the salaries of MPs from �400 a year to �600 and to give the Leader of the Opposition a salary.

27/5/1937. Thursday (-2,903) The world�s longest suspension bridge, the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, was opened. The centre span was 4,200 feet long and with the approaches the bridge was over 8 miles long. The project cost US$ 77.2 million.

26/5/1937. Wednesday (-2,904) Egypt joined the League of Nations.

25/5/1937, Tuesday (-2,905) Painter HO Tanner died in Paris aged 77.

23/5/1937, Sunday (-2,907) John D Rockefeller, American philanthropist and founder of the Standard Oil Company, died in Florida aged 97.

16/5/1937, Sunday (-2,914) Antonio Ubaldo Rattin, Argentinean footballer, was born.

15/5/1937, Saturday (-2,915) Madeleine Albright, US Secretary of State, was born.

14/5/1937, Friday (-2,916) The Governor of Puerto Ricom Blanton Winshipm signed a bill providing for sterilization of the insane and the establishment of a eugenics board.

13/5/1937, Thursday (-2,917) Trevor Bayliss, inventor of the wind up radio and torch., was born.

12/5/1937. Wednesday (-2,918) King George VI and Queen Elizabeth (the mother of Queen Elizabeth II) were crowned.

11/5/1937, Tuesday (-2,919) Viliam Figus, composer, died aged 62.

10/5/1937, Monday (-2,920) Britain�s first frozen food, asparagus, went on sale. It was produced by Smedleys of Wisbech, Cambridgeshire.

9/5/1937, Sunday (-2,921) (Aviation) Walter Mittelholzer, Swiss aviation pioneer, died in a crash.

8/5/1937, Saturday (-2,922) (Aviation) M Pezzi, Italy, set a new aviation altitude record of 51,361 feet.

7/5/1937, Friday (-2,923) The first practical pressurised aircraft cabin was used, by Lockheed.

6/5/1937. Thursday (-2,924) In Lakehurst, New Jersey, the German Zeppelin airship Hindenburg exploded in a ball of flame as it came in to land. 13 of 36 passengers and 22 of the 61 crew died, out of the 97 aboard.Survivors jumped out of the airship as it plunged 20 metres to ground from its mooring tower. The official cause of the explosion was St Elmos Fire, but the flammable silver paint used to coat the airship also contributed. Fire devoured the canvas skin of the aircraft in just over 30 seconds as the 16 bags of hydrogen gas inside ignited. The Hindenburg had first flown in March 1936. Travelling twice as fast as an ocean liner, airships were considered the height of luxury.

4/5/1937, Tuesday (-2,926) Marisa Robles, harpist, was born.

1/5/1937, Saturday (-2,929) Una Stubbs, actress, was born


30/4/1937, Friday (-2,930) Tony Harrison, poet, was born.

29/4/1937, Thursday (-2,931) American chemist Wallace Hume Carothers committed suicide just two months after he patented nylon.

28/4/1937. Wednesday (-2,932) Saddam Hussein was born in Al Awja village, near Tikrit, Iraq.

27/4/1937, Tuesday (-2,933) The National Maritime Museum, beside the Thames at Greenwich, was opened by King George VI.

26/4/1937. Monday (-2,934) The German air force destroyed the Basque city and cultural centre of Guernica, Spain. Thousands of civilians died. It was market day in Guernica when the Germans raided, in support of Franco�s Nationalists. The town was a communications centre with a munitions factory, but the bombing with incendiaries was random; aircraft also raked the town with machine gun fire. 1,000, mainly civilians, died. 43 aircraft from the German Condor Legion, under Colonel Wolfgang von Richtofen, carried out the raid.This became the scene of one of Picasso�s most famous paintings.

25/4/1937, Sunday (-2,935)

23/4/1937, Friday (-2,937) Lady Victoria Glendinning, author, was born.

22/4/1937. Thursday (-2,938) The Austrian Chancellor, Schuschnigg, met Mussolini.

20/4/1937, Tuesday (-2,940)

19/4/1937, Monday (-2,941) (Spain) Major European powers agreed again in principle to a non-intervention policy in Spain, with all foreign troops supposed to be withdrawn from there. However Germany and Italy were determined not to withdraw their troops until Franco�s victory was certain.

18/4/1937, Sunday (-2,942) Teddy Taylor, UK Conservative politician, was born

17/4/1937, Saturday (-2,943) A record attendance at a UK football match was set when England played Scotland at Hampden Park, Glasgow; 149,547 were present.

15/4/1937, Thursday (-2,945)

13/4/1937, Tuesday (-2,947) Augusto Jose Pinto de Almeida, Portuguese footballer, was born.

12/4/1937, Monday (-2,948) A test-bed run of the world�s first aircraft jet engine took place, at Cranwell, UK.

11/4/1937, Sunday (-2,949) Jill Gascoine, British TV actress, was born in London, England (died 2020)

10/4/1937, Saturday (-2,950) Stanley Mellor, horse racing champion, was born.

9/4/1937, Friday (-2,951) Albert Paine, 75, US author, died.

8/4/1937, Thursday (-2,952) William Bassett, English footballer, died (born 27/1/1869).

7/4/1937, Wednesday (-2,953) Angela Bonallack, golfer, was born.

6/4/1937, Tuesday (-2,954) Merle Haggard, US country and western singer, was born in Bakersfield, California.

5/4/1937, Monday (-2,955) Colin Powell, US Secretary of State, was born.

4/4/1937, Sunday (-2,956)

2/4/1937, Friday (-2,958) Barry Hills, racehorse trainer, was born.

1/4/1937, Thursday (-2,959) Aden, administered by the British Government in India since 16/1/1839, became a Crown Colony.Aden was useful to Britain as a coaling station on the way to India, and there was an oil refinery there.


31/3/1937, Wednesday (-2,960) Herb Alpert, US composer, was born in Los Angeles.

30/3/1937, Tuesday (-2,961) Warren Beatty, actor, was born.

28/3/1937, Sunday (-2,963) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1937, Wednesday (-2,867) Oxford finally won the Boat race, having lost 13 consecutive times to Cambridge.

20/3/1937, Saturday (-2,971) In Spain, General Franco�s forces began an offensive at Guadalajara.

26/3/1937. Friday (-2,965) Spinach growers in Crystal City, Texas, erected a statue of Popeye.

25/3/1937, Thursday (-2,966) Italy signed a pact with Yugoslavia guaranteeing existing national borders in the Adriatic.

24/3/1937, Wednesday (-2,967) Benjamin Luxon, baritone singer, was born.

23/3/1937, Tuesday (-2,968)

18/3/1937, Thursday (-2,873) Spanish Republican forces defeated the Italians at Brihuega.

17/3/1937, Wednesday (-2,874) Galina Samsova, ballet dancer, was born.

16/3/1937, Tuesday (-2,875) British statesman Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain died.

15/3/1937. Monday (-2,976) Bernard Faustus set up America�s first blood bank at Cook County Hospital, Chicago.

12/3/1937, Friday (-2,979)

9/3/1937, Tuesday (-2,982) George Orwell�s book, The Road to Wigan Pier, was published. It was about the effects of the Depression on northern England.

8/3/1937, Monday (-2,983) Battle of Guadalajara, Spanish Civil War. The Republicans defeated the Nationalists under Franco and the Italian Fascists under General Roatta.

7/3/1937, Sunday (-2,984) Parliamentary elections were held in Chile. The Liberal Party won a slim majority in the Senate and tied with the Conservative Party in the Chamber of Deputies.

6/3/1937, Saturday (-2,985) Valentino Tereshkova, Russian astronaut and first woman in space in 1963, was born.

5/3/1937, Friday (-2,986)

4/3/1937, Thursday (-2,987) Graham Dowling, cricketer, was born.

3/3/1937, Wednesday (-2,988) Britain now had 842 millionaires, and 85,449 people earning over �2,000 a week.

2/3/1937, Tuesday (-2,989) Mexico nationalised the oil industry.


25/2/1937, Thursday (-2,994) In Abyssinia, Italy executed \Ras Desta Demti, son in law of exiled leader Haile Selassie.

21/2/1937, Sunday (-2,998) Graham Collier, British jazz composer, was born in Tynemouth.

20/2/1937. Saturday (-2,999) Paraguay left the League of Nations.

19/2/1937, Friday (-3,000) Italian forces pillaged Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia.

18/2/1937, Thursday (-3,001)

16/2/1937. Tuesday (-3,003) Nylon was patented by the American chemical company E.I.Du Pont, having been developed under the direction of Dr Carothers. The material was first produced in Britain in Coventry on 23/1/1941. It was used for military needs only, mainly for parachute fabric; nylon stockings were made from December 1946.

15/2/1937, Monday (-3,004) The Balkan Entente Conference was held at Athens.

11/2/1937, Thursday (-3,008) Bill Lawry, cricketer, was born.

8/2/1937. Monday (-3,011) Malaga fell to Franco�s forces, helped by 15,000 Italians.

7/2/1937, Sunday (-3,012) Peter Jay, TV broadcaster, was born.

6/2/1937, Saturday (-3,013)

5/2/1937, Friday (-3,014) Lou Andreas Salome, writer, writer, died.

4/2/1937, Thursday (-3,015) The German Ambassador gave King George VI a Nazi salute.

3/2/1937, Wednesday (-3,016)

2/2/1937, Tuesday (-3,017) Don Everly, singer, was born.

1/2/1937, Monday (-3,018) Russia executed 13, who had been accused of being Trotskyites.


31/1/1937, Sunday (-3,019) Philip Glass, US composer, was born.

30/1/1937, Saturday (-3,020) Hitler made a speech on the 4th anniversary of the beginning of the Nazi Revolution.He spoke of having friendly relations with other European powers but also spoke of the need for �lebensraum� � living space � stating that Germany needed colonies for economic expansion. He also promised to respect the neutrality of Belgium and The Netherlands.

26/1/1937, Tuesday (-3,024)

23/1/1937, Saturday (-3,027) More �show trials� in Moscow as Stalin purged party members deemed to be disloyal.

22/1/1937, Friday (-3,028) In the USA, the Ohio River flooded, killing 16 and making 150,000 homeless.

21/1/1937, Thursday (-3,029) (Food, Television) Marcel Boulestin appeared on TV on Cook�s Night Out, demonstrating how to cook an omelette; he thereby became the first TV chef.

20/1/1937, Wednesday (-3,030) President Franklin Delano Roosevelt won an overwhelming victory, gaining every US State except Maine and Vermont. His victory was due to his New Deal Campaign of relief from the effects of the Great Depression.

19/1/1937, Tuesday (-3,031) Giovanna Marini, singer, was born in Rome, Italy

18/1/1937, Monday (-3,032) London banned horse-drawn traffic from the West End.

17/1/1937. Sunday (-3,033) The USSR refused to stop helping the Republican forces in Spain.

16/1/1937, Saturday (-3,032) The Kiel Canal was supposed to be open without restriction for all shipping. This day Germany abrogated a condition of the Treaty of Versailles by requiring that ships now obtain permission for transit from their naval command.

15/1/1937. Friday (-3,035) Austria announced an amnesty for Nazis.

14/1/1937. Thursday (-3,036) First ever Gallup opinion poll in Britain, conducted by Sir Henry Durant.

10/1/1937, Sunday (-3,040) The UK Government banned volunteers from fighting for the anti-Franco forces in Spain, introducing a two-year prison sentence for the offence.

8/1/1937, Friday (-3,042) Shirley Bassey, British singer and entertainer, was born in Cardiff, Wales.

7/1/1937, Thursday (-3,043) Juliana, Queen of The Netherlands from 1948, married Prince Bernhard.

6/1/1937, Wednesday (-3,044) In the USA, President Roosevelt forbade shipments of arms to either side in Spain.

5/1/1937, Tuesday (-3,045) Nazi Germany recommended its artists depict at least four children in illustrations of German families.

4/1/1937, Monday (-3,046) Paul Behncke, German admiral, died aged 67.

3/1/1937, Sunday (-3,047) (Railways GB) The lines from Surbiton to Guildford and Farnham were electrified.

2/1/1937, Saturday (-3,048) The UK and Italian governments made an agreement, to curb dangerous levels of friction between the two in the Mediterranean.

1/1/1937. Friday (-3,049) (1) Britain banned political uniforms under the Public Order Act, so sounding the death-knell for Oswald Mosley�s British Union of Fascists.

(2) (Road Traffic) Safety glass became compulsory in UK car windscreens.


31/12/1936, Thursday (-3,050) Doc Casey, US baseball player and manager, died aged 66,

30/12/1936, Wednesday (-3,051) Striking workers in the USA closed 7 General Motors plants.

29/12/1936, Tuesday (-3,052) Mary Tyler Moore, actress, was born.

25/12/1936, Friday (-3,056) Ismail Merchant, film director, was born (died 25/5/2005).

22/12/1936, Tuesday (-3,059)

18/12/1936, Friday (-3,063) (Geology) Andrija Mohorovicic, Croatian geologist, died in Zagreb.

17/12/1936, Thursday (-3,064) Pope Francis I was born.

15/12/1936, Tuesday (-3,066)

13/12/1936. Sunday (-3,068) Aga Khan born.

12/12/1936, Saturday (-3,069) (Ireland) The Irish Free State amended its constitution to remove the King from membership of its Parliament,

11/12/1936. Friday (-3,070) Abdication of King Edward VIII, after a reign of just 325 days. See 20/1/1936. Accession of his brother, Prince Albert, the Duke of York, who became King George VI to the British throne. The coronation of George VI (born 14/12/1895) was on 12/5/1937. King Edward VIII had abdicated because of his love for Mrs Simpson (who became the Duchess of Windsor), otherwise known as Bessie Walls Warfield. She had been born in Baltimore on 19/6/1896. See 13/11/1936. Edward VIII, as the Duke of Windsor, married Mrs Simpson on 3/6/1937 at Monts in France.

10/12/1936, Thursday (-3,071) Luigi Pirandello, Italian author, died aged 69.

8/12/1936, Tuesday (-3,073) David Carradine, actor, was born.

3/12/1936, Thursday (-3,078) In Britain the Press ended its self-imposed silence on the affair between King Edward VIII and Mrs Simpson.

2/12/1936, Wednesday (-3,079)

1/12/1936. Tuesday (-3,080) (1) In Germany the Hitler Youth Law was ratified, making membership of the Hitler Youth compulsory for children aged 10 to 18.

(2) German forces landed at Cadiz to help Franco�s nationalist rebels.


30/11/1936. Monday (-3,081) The Crystal Palace, in south London, was destroyed by fire. The blaze was seen as far away as Brighton. Wooden floorboards had been dried to tinder by the heating system, and 20,000 wooden chairs were stored under the (wooden) orchestra pit. Flames reached 500 feet, and drove swarms of rats out of the building. 438 firemen from all over London could do nothing to put out the fire.

25/11/1936. Wednesday (-3,086) Germany and Japan agreed to protect world civilization from the Bolshevik menace, and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, organised by Ribbentrop.Germany recognised the Japanese puppet state in Manchuria.See 6/11/1937.

23/11/1936, Monday (-3,088) The first edition of Life magazine appeared.

22/11/1936, Sunday (-3,089) John Bird, writer, was born

21/11/1936. Saturday (-3,090) The first gardening programme was broadcast by the BBC. It was called �In your garden with Mr Middleton�.

18/11/1936, Wednesday (-3,093) (1) King Edward VIII visited south Wales, saw several thousand unemployed, and declared �something must be done�.

(2)Hitler and Mussolini recognised Franco�s provisional government in Burgos.

15/11/1936, Sunday (-3,096) Wolf Biermann, writer, was born

14/11/1936, Saturday (-3,097) Germany denounced the clauses of the Versailles Treaty internationalising its waterways.

13/11/1936. Friday (-3,098) King Edward VIII told Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin he intended to abdicate because of his intention to marry twice-divorced Mrs Simpson. See 11/12/1936.

12/11/1936, Thursday (-3,099) The San Francisco�Oakland Bay Bridge opened.

11/11/1936, Wednesday (-3,098) Edward German, British composer, died in London (born in Whitchurch, Shropshire, 17/2/1862)

9/11/1936, Monday (-3,102)

7/11/1936. Saturday (-3,104) The Spanish Government fled to Valencia.

6/11/1936, Friday (-3,105) Franco�s forces were besieging Madrid.

5/11/1936, Thursday (-3,106) A special train took the Jarrow Marchers back home again from London. They received a hero�s welcome, and the news that their unemployment benefit had been cut as they had made themselves unavailable for work.

4/11/1936, Wednesday (-3,107) In the Spanish Civil War, the Nationalists captured Getafe, near Madrid.

3/11/1936. Tuesday (-3,108) President Roosevelt, Democrat, was re-elected.

2/11/1936. Monday (-3,109) The first daily high definition TV broadcasts in Britain were transmitted from the BBC�s aerial at Alexandra Palace, London. Only around 280 homes had TV sets, which were on sale at the Olympia Exhibition for �110.

1/11/1936. Sunday (-3,110) (1) Mussolini announced an anti-Communist �axis� with Germany, and urged France and Britain to join.

(2) Baldwin refused to meet the Jarrow Marchers.


31/10/1936, Saturday (-3,111) Deacon McGuire, US baseball player, manager and coach, died aged 72.

30/10/1936, Friday (-3,112) Michael Landon, actor, was born.

29/10/1936. Thursday (-3,113) Republican troops south of Madrid were holding back Franco�s Nationalist forces.

28/10/1936, Wednesday (3,114) In the Republican-controlled areas of Spain, agriculture was nationalised and Christian worship banned,

27/10/1936. Tuesday (-3,115) Mrs Wallace Simpson divorced her second husband Ernest, becoming free to marry King Edward VIII, see 13/11/1936.

26/10/1936, Monday (-3,116) Shelley Morrison, actress, was born in New York City

25/10/1936, Sunday (-3,117) A radio station in Berlin played the first request programme, called �You ask � We play�.

24/10/1936, Saturday (-3,118) Bill Wyman, musician, was born

23/10/1936, Friday (-3,119) Germany sent the �Condor� legion to Spain to assist Franco�s forces.

22/10/1936. Thursday (-3,120) Martial law was imposed in Belgium to control the Fascists.

21/10/1936, Wednesday (-3,121) Khennane Mahi, French-Algerian footballer, was born.

20/10/1936, Tuesday (-3,122) Hitler established closer relations with Mussolini, using the Spanish Civil war as a pretext.

19/10/1936, Monday (-3,123) Germany began a Four Year Plan for Economic Growth. This was intended to prepare the nation for war by late 1940.

16/10/1936, Friday (-3,126) Peter Bowles, actor, was born

13/10/1936, Tuesday (-3,129)

12/10/1936, Monday (-3,130) A London to Paris through train service began.

11/10/1936. Sunday (-3,131) In London, 100,000 people barricaded east London streets to prevent a march of Oswald Moseley�s Fascists. During violent clashes, 80 people were injured.

10/10/1936, Saturday (-3,132) Nana Mouskouri, Greek singer, was born in Athens.

9/10/1936, Friday (-3,133)

8/10/1936, Thursday (-3,134) David Carradine, actor, was born.

7/10/1936, Wednesday (-3,135) Aguirre was elected President of the Basque Republic (Euskadi), honouring a promise for autonomy within Spain.

6/10/1936. Tuesday (-3,136) The British Labour Party refused to affiliate with the Communists.

5/10/1936. Monday (-3,137) (1) Vaclav Havel, Czech playwright, human rights campaigner, and President, was born.

(2) The Jarrow March, of 200 unemployed ship workers, started from Jarrow, Tyneside, towards London; their petition had 11,000 signatures.Jarrow had an unemployment rate of 67%. The march was led by Labour MP Ellen Wilkinson. Jarrow had an unemployment rate of 67%. The marchers reached London on 1/11/1936, where Ellen Wilkinson presented a petition of 11,572 signatures so the Government. See 5/11/1936.

3/10/1936, Saturday (-3,139)

2/10/1936, Friday (-3,140) France devalued the Franc (see 27/9/1936). Inflation began to rise, obliterating the gains made by the French working class, causing bitter political divisions later on.

1/10/1936, Thursday (-3,141) Duncan Edwards, footballer, was born (died 21/2/1958).


30/9/1936, Wednesday (-3,142) Pinewood Film Studios opened.

29/9/1936, Tuesday (-3,143) Britain declared martial law in Palestine to counter an Arab revolt.

28/9/1936. Monday (-3,144) General Franco, 44, was made head of the rebel Nationalist forces in Spain.

27/9/1936. Sunday (-3,145) (1) Switzerland, France, and Holland came off the Gold Standard.

(2) In Spain, General Franco�s troops captured Toledo.

26/9/1936, Saturday (-3,146) Winnie Mandela, South African politician, was born.

25/9/1936, Friday (-3,147)

24/9/1936, Thursday (-3,148) Jim Henson, puppeteer, was born.

23/9/1936, Wednesday (-3,149) George Eastham, footballer, was born.

20/9/1936, Sunday (-3,152)

17/9/1936. Thursday (-3,155) Franco�s troops took Maqueda, between Madrid and Toledo.

16/9/1936, Wednesday (-3,156) Henry A Lytton, British actor, died in London (born 1860 in London)

9/9/1936, Wednesday (-3,163) (Spain) In London the first meeting of a non-Intervention Committee, regarding the Spanish Civil War, was held. Germany, Italy and Portugal agreed in principle to Anglo-French proposals for non-intervention. However in fact German and Italy continued to supply the Nationalists.

7/9/1936, Monday (-3,165) Buddy Holly, US singer songwriter, was born.

6/9/1936, Sunday (-3,166) The last thylacine (Tasmanian marsupial tiger) died in a zoo in Hobart, Tasmania.

4/9/1936, Friday (-3,168) In Spain, General Franco�s troops captured Irun and Talavera de la Reina.


31/8/1936. Monday (-3,172) Elizabeth Cowell, Britain�s first woman TV announcer, made her debut at Alexandra Palace.

29/8/1936, Saturday (-3,174) Kenneth Scotland, rugby player, was born.

26/8/1936. Wednesday (-3,177) A treaty (The Anglo-Egyptian Alliance) ended the British protectorate over Egypt and gave Britain control over the Suez Canal for the next 20 years.

25/8/1936, Tuesday (-3,178) Stalin executed 16 senior Communists.

24/8/1936, Monday (-3,179) Germany extended conscription from one year to two.

23/8/1936, Sunday (-3,180) Juliette Adam, French writer (born 4/120/1836) died.

21/8/1936, Friday (-3,182) Wilt Chamberlain, basketball player, was born.

19/8/1936, Wednesday (-3,184) Frederico Garcia Lorca, Spanish writer, died.

18/8/1936, Tuesday (-3,185) Robert Redford, actor, was born.

17/8/1938, Monday (-3,186)

16/8/1936. Sunday (-3,187) Hitler�s dreams of the proof of Aryan supremacy at the Berlin Olympics were shattered when the Black athlete Jesse Owens won four gold medals in the 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres relay, and the long jump. After Owens�s second win, Hitler stormed out of the stadium in disgust.

15/8/1936, Saturday (-3,198) (Spain) Britain instituted an embargo on arms exports to Spain.

14/8/1936, Friday (-3,189) (Aviation) G Detre, France, set a new aviation altitude record of 48,698 feet.

11/8/1936, Tuesday (-3,192) (1) Chiang Kai Shek entered Canton, China.

(2) Joachim von Ribbentrop was appointed German Ambassador to London.

7/8/1936, Friday (-3,196) Rahsaan Roland Kirk, US jazz musician, was born in Columbus, Ohio (died 5/12/1977 in Bloomington, Indiana).

5/8/1936, Wednesday (-3,198) The Greek Communist party attempted to call a General Strike.However this precipitated a Right Wing dictatorship which broke up the Communist Party.

4/8/1936. Tuesday (-3, 199) Badajoz was captured by the Spanish Nationalists under Franco as they fought northwards. This cut off the Republicans from the route to Portugal, and prepared the way for a nationalist advance on Madrid from the north and west.

3/8/1936, Monday (-3,200)

2/8/1936. Sunday (-3,201) (1) Death of the aviation pioneer Louis Bleriot.He was the first to fly across the English Channel, in 1909.

(2) An autonomous Catalan government was established in Barcelona. See 26/1/1939.

1/8/1936. Saturday (-3,202) (1) Adolf Hitler opened the 11th Olympic Games in Berlin.The Olympic flame was carried to the venue from Greece for the first time.See 16/8/1936.

(2) French designer Yves St Laurent was born in Oran, Algeria.


31/7/1936, Friday (-3,203) In Britain, the Education Act raised the school leaving age from 14 to 15. However this provision was not implemented until 1944.

30/7/1936, Thursday (-3,204) Thursday In Spain, General Franco and General Emilio Mola formed a Junta of National Defence, in effect a provisional Government.

28/7/1936, Tuesday (-3,206) (Spain) German aircraft arrived in Morocco to airlift General Franco�s army back to Spain. Two days later Italian aircraft also arrived to help in this task.

26/7/1936, Sunday (-3,208) (Spain) Comintern agreed to send volunteers and money to support the Spanish Republicans.

25/7/1936, Saturday (-3,209) Reverend Barry Rogerson, Bishop of Bristol, was born.

24/7/1936. Friday (-3,210) (1) The Spanish government appealed for foreign help in the Civil War.

(2) The Speaking Clock was introduced by the GPO at the suggestion of Eugene Wender of Hampstead, London.It was known as TIM from the phone dial letters.

21/7/1936, Tuesday (-3,213)

19/7/1936, Sunday (-3,215) Herbert Boyer, biotechnologist, was born.

18/7/1936, Saturday (-3,216) The Spanish Civil War began when the army, under Generals Francisco Franco and Emilio Mola, revolted against the Republican Government. The army wanted to preserve traditional values and religion. Other mutinies began across Spain. The conflict lasted three years.

17/7/1936, Friday (-3,217) France nationalised its munitions industry.

16/7/1936, Thursday (-3,218)

15/7/1936, Wednesday (-3,219) The League of Nations lifted sanctions against Italy.

14/7/1936, Tuesday (-3,220) Britain started producing gas masks.

13/7/1936, Monday (-3,221) Albert Ayler, US jazz saxophonist, was born in Cleveland (died in New York 25/11/1970)

11/7/1936, Saturday (-3,223) Austria and Germany entered closer relations.Hitler forbade the Austrian Nazis from mounting another uprising to preserve a face of legality.

9/7/1936, Thursday (-3,225) Richard Wilson, actor, was born.

7/7/1936, Tuesday (-3,227) In Japan, 17 officers implicated in a failed coup (see 26/2/1936) were executed.

6/7/1936, Monday (-3,228) Dave Allen, comedian, was born (died 10/3/2005).

1/7/1936, Wednesday (-3,233)


30/6/1936, Tuesday (-3,234) (1) The Fascist Party in France was suppressed.

(2) The German zeppelin Hindenburg set out on its Atlantic crossing, reaching Lakehurst in New Jersey on 2/7/1936.

29/6/1936, Monday (-3,235) US Congress passed the Merchant Marine Act, providing subsidies to US shipping lines who were facing higher costs than foreign shipping operators.

23/6/1936, Tuesday (-3,241)

22/6/1936, Monday (-3,242) Kris Kristofferson, US country singer, was born in Brownsville, Texas.

21/6/1936. Sunday (-3,243) British planes hit Palestinian Arabs who had ambushed British troops.

19/6/1936, Friday (-3,245)

18/6/1936, Thursday (-3,246) (Ireland) In the Irish Free State, the IRA was declared illegal.

17/6/1936, Wednesday (-3,247) (Spain) Army garrisons in Spanish Morocco rebelled against the Spanish Government.

16/6/1936, Tuesday (-3,248) (Road Traffic) Norway set the world�s first drunk-driving law based on a specific blood alcohol content rather than an ability test such as inability to walk in a straight line. Exceeding the limit of 0.05% in Norway now resulted in a prison sentence. In 1941 Sweden became the second country to define drink-driving by a set alcohol limit.

15/6/1936, Monday (-3,249)

14/6/1936, Sunday (-3,250) G K Chesterton, British poet and novelist, died.

13/6/1936, Saturday (-3,251) (Aviation) Shoreham Airport opened.

12/6/1936, Friday (-3,252) France instituted a 40-hour working week.

11/6/1936. Thursday (-3,253) Leslie Mitchell became the BBC�s first television announcer.

9/6/1936, Tuesday (-3,255)

7/6/1936, Sunday (-3,257) Jobyana Howland, US actress, died in Los Angeles (born 31/3/1880 in Indianopolis).

6/6/1936. Saturday (-3,258) (1) Gatwick Airport opened. It was reopened as an international airport on 9/6/1958.

(2) The German airship Hindenburg crossed the Atlantic in 46 hours.

5/6/1936, Friday (-3,259)

4/6/1936, Thursday (-3,260) In France, Leon Blum formed a Leftist Popular Front government.

3/6/1936, Wednesday (-3,261) Emperor Haile Selassie arrived in London in exile, after the Italian invasion.

2/6/1936, Tuesday (-3,262) General Somoza, in Nicaragua, led a coup that deposed President Sacasa.

1/6/1936, Monday (-3,263) Gerald Scarfe, British cartoonist and illustrator, was born.


30/5/1936, Saturday (-3,265) Slava Metreveli, Russian footballer, was born.

28/5/1936, Thursday (-3,267) Alan Turing submitted �On Computable Numbers� for publication, in which he set out the theoretical basis for modern computers.

27/5/1936. Wednesday (-3,268) (1) Aer Lingus made its first commercial flight, from Dublin to Bristol.

(2) The first open prison in Britain was opened at New Hall, near Wakefield, Yorkshire.

26/5/1936, Tuesday (-3,269)

25/5/1936, Monday (-3,270) Tom Hall, US country singer, was born in Olive Hill, Kentucky.

24/5/1936. Sunday (-3,271) Rexists, Belgian Fascists, won 21 seats in the General Election.

23/5/1936, Saturday (-3,272)

22/5/1936, Friday (-3,273) In Britain, J H Thomas, Colonial Secretary, resigned over his leakage of Budget information.

21/5/1936, Thursday (-3,274) In Austria, Kurt Schusnigg was made leader of the Fatherland Front, the only permitted Party.

20/5/1936, Wednesday (-3,275) Rufus Harley, musician, was born (died 1/8/2006)

19/5/1936, Tuesday (-3,276)

18/5/1936, Monday (-3,277) Jasmine Bligh and Elizabeth Cowell became the BBC�s first women announcers.

17/5/1936, Sunday (-3,278) Dennis Hopper, actor, was born.

16/5/1936, Saturday (-3,279) Roy Hudd, actor, was born.

15/5/1936. Friday (-3,280) Amy Johnson arrived in England after a record-breaking 12 day, 15 hour flight from London to Cape Town and back.

14/5/1936, Thursday (-3,281) Viscount Allenby, British Army Commander in Palestine in World War One, died.

12/5/1936, Tuesday (-3,283)

10/5/1936, Sunday (-3,285) Manuel Azana was elected President of Spain.

9/5/1936. Saturday (-3,286) Italy annexed Abyssinia (now Ethiopia), having completed the invasion begun on 3/10/1935.

8/5/1936, Friday (-3,287) Oswald Spengler, German historian, died aged 55.

7/5/1936, Thursday (-3,288) Anthony O�Reilly, rugby player, was born.

6/5/1936, Wednesday (-2,289) Marshal Pietro Badoglio nominated Giuseppe Bottai as the first Italian Governor of Addis Ababa.

5/5/1936. Tuesday (-3,290) The Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa fell to Italian troops under General Badoglio.The League of Nations had signally failed in its efforts to prevent the war.

4/5/1936, Monday (-3,291) Ludwig von Falkenhausen, German General, died aged 91.

3/5/1936, Sunday (-3,292) The Left won in French elections.

2/5/1936, Saturday (-3,293) (1) General election in Egypt, victory for the Wafd Nationalists. Nahas Pasha formed a Wafd Government.

(2) Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie fled Addis Ababa as Italian troops closed in, bombing Ethiopian villages with mustard gas. 100,000 Italian troops under Mussolini began an invasion of Ethiopia in October 1935, in revenge for an Ethiopian defeat of Italian forces at Adawa in 1896. Ethiopia has asked the League of Nations to apply sanctions to Italy but the UK and France wavered on denying oil to Italy; the League of Nations lost all credibility.

1/5/1936, Friday (-3,294) Starting on this day, every newlywed couple in Nazi Germany was to receive a copy of Mein Kampf from the registrar.


30/4/1936, Thursday (-3,295) The UK Government announced plans to build 38 warships.

29/4/1936, Wednesday (-3,296) The first professional baseball game in Japan. Nagoya defeated Dai Tokyo 8-5.

28/4/1936, Tuesday (-3,297) Farouk, aged 16, became King of Egypt on the death of his father, King Fuad (aged 68). Fuad had become monarch in 1922 when Britain granted limited independence to Egypt.

27/4/1936, Monday (-3,298) (Mathematics) English mathematician Karl Pearson died in Coldharbour, Surrey.

25/4/1936, Saturday (-3,300) The Arab Higher Committee was formed to co-ordinate Arab resistance in Palestine.

23/4/1936, Thursday (-3,302) Roy Orbison, singer, was born.

22/4/1936, Wednesday (-3,303) Glen Campbell, US country singer, was born in Delight, Arkansas.

21/4/1936, Tuesday (-3,304) James Dobson, Christian evangelist., was born.

17/4/1936, Friday (-3,308)

13/4/1936, Monday (-3,312) After the inconclusive Greek general elections of 26/1/1936, a period of uncertainty, and the death of Prime Minister Demerdjis, General John Metaxas became Greek Prime Minister.

12/4/1936, Sunday (-3,313) Easter Sunday.

11/4/1936, Saturday (-3,314) Isabella Robertson, golf champion, was born.

10/4/1936, Friday (-3,315) The Spanish Parliament dismissed President Zamora.

7/4/1936, Tuesday (-3,318) Marilyn Miller, US actress, died in New York (born 1/9/1898 in Evansville, Indiana)

5/4/1936, Sunday (-3,320)

1/4/1936. Wednesday (-3,324) Austria introduced conscription.


31/3/1936, Tuesday (-3,325) Haile Selassie, Ethiopian Emperor, made a determined last attack against the invading Italians at the Battle of Mai Ceu. However the Italian lines held and Abyssinian forces were forced to retreat, under fire from Italian aircraft.

29/3/1936. Sunday (-3,327) Hitler won 99% of the vote in German 'elections'.

26/3/1936, Thursday (-3,330) New Zealand began radio broadcasts of its Parliamentary sessions.

24/3/1936, Tuesday (-3,332) David Suzuki, environmentalist, was born.

23/3/1936, Monday (-3,333) Oscar Asche, Australian actor, died in London (born in Geelong, 16/1/1871)

22/3/1936, Sunday (-3,334) Roger Whittaker, British singer, was born in Nairobi, Kenya (son of an emigrant Staffordshire grocer)

21/3/1936, Saturday (-3,335)

19/3/1936, Thursday (-3,337) Ursula Andress, actress, was born.

18/3/1936, Wednesday (-3,338) Eleutherios Venizelos, Greek politician, died.

17/3/1936, Tuesday (-3,339) Patty Maloney, actress, was born in Perkinsville, New York.

16/3/1936, Monday (-3,340) Thelma Hopkins, athlete (high jump), was born.

15/3/1936, Sunday (-3,341) Howard Greenfield, songwriter, was born in Brooklyn, New York (died 1986)

14/3/1936, Saturday (-3,342) An air service from London to Hong Kong was inaugurated.

13/3/1936, Friday (-3,343) Sir Francis Bell, who was Prime Minister of New Zealand for only 16 days, died aged 84.

12/3/1936, Thursday (-3,344) Germany threatened to enter a state of "honourable isolation" and increase its military presence in the Rhineland if France and Belgium continued to mass troops on their eastern borders.

11/3/1936. Wednesday (-3,345) Paraguay set up America�s first Fascist regime.

9/3/1936, Monday (-3,347)

7/3/1936. Saturday (-3,349) The German Army re-entered the Rhineland, supposedly a demilitarised area. A token force of 22,000 troops marched into the 50-kilometre wide strip of territory bordering the Rhine, goose-stepping through Essen, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt and Cologne. France wanted action but Britain did not object. This was in breach of the Treaties of Versailles and Locarno. Germany justified its move by saying the French-Soviet pact, concluded in 1934 and ratified by the French government in early 1936, was against the Locarno Treaty.

6/3/1936, Friday (-3,350) Yugoslavian Prime Minister Milan Stojadinović survived an assassination attempt when a Macedonian deputy shot at him on the floor of the Chamber. Stojadinović was unhurt as another deputy struck the assailant's arm and caused the shots to go wild.

5/3/1936. Thursday (-3,351) The Spitfire fighter plane made its first flight from Eastleigh Aerodrome, near Southampton. It was flown by Captain J Summers. The RAF wanted a counter to the German Messerschmitt 109.

4/3/1936, Wednesday (-3,352) The airship LZ 129 Hindenburg had its first flight.

3/3/1936. Tuesday (-3,353) Mussolini nationalised the Italian banks.

1/3/1935, Sunday (-3,355)


29/2/1936. Saturday (-3,356) President Roosevelt signed a second neutrality bill, banning loans to countries at war.

28/2/1936, Friday (-3,357) The Interstate Commerce Commission ordered a reduction in basic rail passenger fares from 3.6 to 2 cents per mile everywhere in the United States.

27/2/1936, Thursday (-3,358) Death of Ivan Pavlov (born 14/9/1849 in Ryazan, Russia). He is famous for his work on conditioned reflexes in dogs.

26/2/1936. Wednesday (-3,359) (1) The Volkswagen car factory in Saxony was opened by Adolf Hitler. The Volkswagen or �people�s car� was designed by Ferdinand Porsche of Auto Union.

(2) An attempted coup in Tokyo, Japan. A group of Army officers killed the Prime Minister, Saiko Makoto, and the Finance Minister, Takahashi Korekiyo. The coup was thwarted.

23/2/1936, Sunday (-3,362)

19/2/1936, Wednesday (-3,366) The Spanish Republic announced an amnesty for the rebels in the 1934 Asturian revolt.

18/2/1936, Tuesday (-3,367) Charlie Chaplin�s film, Modern Times, was banned in Nazi Germany because it had �Communist tendencies�. Many suspected the real reason for the ban was the resemblance of Charlie Chaplin to Hitler in the film.

17/2/1936, Monday (-3,368) A trade pact was agreed between Britain and Ireland, ending their trade war.

16/2/1936. Sunday (-3,369) Victory for the Left in Spanish elections. The Left won 256 seats against 165 for the Right and 52 for the Centre Parties. Manuel Azana became Prime Minister; he restored the 1931 Spanish Constitution. Churches in Spain were attacked and their land seized.

15/2/1936, Saturday (-3,370) Hitler announced that every German household would have a Volkswagen car.

13/2/1936, Thursday (-3,372)

11/2/1936, Tuesday (-3,374) Burt Reynolds, US actor, was born.

10/2/1936, Monday (-3,375) Major offensive by the Italians in Ethiopia. Up to this point the mountainous terrain had favoured the Ethiopian defenders against the superior Italian military equipment, and monopoly of tanks and aircraft, and Italian use of mustard gas. However the Italians now shattered the Ethiopian Army and by mid-March 1936 held all of northern Abyssinia (Ethiopia).

9/2/1936, Sunday (-3,376) William Rimmer, British composer, died in Southport (born 2862 in Southport)

8/2/1936, Saturday (-3,377) Jawaharlal Nehru was elected President of the India National Congress.

7/2/1936, Friday (-3,378) Keith Rowlands, rugby player, was born (died 18/11/2006)

6/2/1936. Thursday (-3,379) Hitler opened the Winter Olympic Games in Germany.

5/2/1936, Wednesday (-3,380) Charlie Chaplin released the last ever silent film, Modern Times.

3/2/1936, Monday (-3,382) Bobby Simpson, Australian test cricketer, was born.

1/2/1936, Saturday (-3,384) Alex Hill, US composer, died in Little Rock, Arkansas (born 19/4/1906 in Little Rock, Arkansas)


29/1/1936, Wednesday (-3,387) Patrick Caulfield, painter, was born (died 29/9/2005)

28/1/1936, Tuesday (-3,388) The funeral of King George V.General Franco from Spain attended.

27/1/1936, Monday (-3,389) (Atomic) Samuel Chao Chung Ting was born in Arbor, Michigan. In 1974 he discovered a new subatomic particle, the J/psi particle.

25/1/1936, Saturday (-3,391)

23/1/1936, Thursday (-3,393) In France, Prime Minister Pierre Laval resigned after criticism of the Hoare-Laval pact. This was a secret pact between the British Foreign Secretary, Samuel Hoare, and the French Prime Minister, Pierre Laval, to allow Italy to retain its conquest of Abyssinia, so as not to drive Italy closer to Germany.

22/1/1936, Wednesday (-3,394) (Clothing) The patent was granted for the first modern rucksack, in which the metal frame was incorporated in the material rather than being external.

21/1/1936, Tuesday (-3,395)

20/1/1936. Monday (-3,396) Accession of King Edward VIII. He succeeded his late father, George V, who died at Sandringham this day. See 11/12/1936. George V, Grandson of Queen Victoria, had reigned for 26 years; he changed the surname of the Royal Family from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor during World War One to distance himself from his German cousins.

19/1/1936, Sunday (-3,397) The Aga Khan III, leader of the Ismaili community, was given his weight in gold, 16 stone, worth about �25,000 to mark his Golden Jubilee (�3.5 million in 2016) to use on social projects.

18/1/1936, Saturday (-3,398) Rudyard Kipling, English novelist who won the Nobel Prize in 1907, died.

16/1/1936, Thursday (-3,400) Michael White, film producer, was born.

11/1/1936, Saturday (-3,405)

7/1/1936, Tuesday (-3,409) Guy d�Hardelot, French singer, died in Shepperton, Middlesex (born 1858 at Chateau d�Hardelot, Boulogne sur Mer.

4/1/1936, Saturday (-3,412) The first pop music chart was compiled, based on record sales published in New York in The Billboard.

3/1/1936, Friday (-3,413) Michael Davies, tennis champion, was born in Swansea.

2/1/1936, Thursday (-3,414) Sir Francis Newdegate, Governor of Tasmania, died aged 73.

1/1/1936, Wednesday (-3,415) The number of full-time university students in the UK stood at 40,465, up from 12,778 at 1/1/1909.


31/12/1935, Tuesday (-3,416) King Salman of Saudi Arabia was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

30/12/1935, Monday (-3,417) Omar Bongo, President of Gabon, was born.

26/12/1935, Thursday (-3,421) Gnassingbe Eyadema, President of Togo, was born (died 5/2/2005).

24/12/1935, Tuesday (-3,423) Alban Berg, composer, died in Vienna.

22/12/1935. Sunday (-3,425) In the UK, Anthony Eden was appointed Foreign Secretary.

21/12/1935, Saturday (-3,426) Geoff Lewis, horse racing champion, was born.

18/12/1935, Wednesday (-3,429) (1) The Huey P Long Bridge in Mentaine, Louisiana, opened.It was the world�s longest railway bridge.

(2) In response to League of Nations sanctions, Mussolini appealed to Italians to donate their gold wedding rings to the government, in exchange for steel ones, also other gold, to help the invasion effort. Many Italians responded, and a total of 33,622 metric tonnes of gold was handed in.

(3) President Gomez of Venezuela died, aged 78. He had been dictator for 26 years, over which period Venezuela had become a major oil producer.

14/12/1935, Saturday (-3,433) Thomas Masaryk, first President of Czechoslovakia, resigned aged 85. He was succeeded by Edward Benes.

13/12/1935, Friday (-3,434) (Chemistry) French chemist Francois Auguste Victor Grignard died in Lyons.

11/12/1935, Wednesday (-3,436)

10/12/1935, Tuesday (-3,437) The Huey Long Bridge was completed in Metairie, Louisiana.

9/12/1935, Monday (-3,438) Thousands of Chinese students demonstrated in Beijing against the ineffectiveness of the Kuomintang response to Japanese encroachment into China.

8/12/1935, Sunday (-3,439) C Hayden Coffin, British actor, died in London (born 22/4/1862 in Manchester)

6/12/1935, Friday (-3,441)

5/12/1935, Thursday (-3,442) Richard Little, US rock singer, was born in Macon, Georgia.

4/12/1935. Wednesday (-3,443) The game of monopoly was born, invented by unemployed engineer Charles Darrow. It is the world�s most successful box game, having sold over 500 million sets.

3/12/1935, Tuesday (-3,444) (Medical) Charles Robert Richet, French physiologist, died in Paris.

2/12/1935, Monday (-3,445)

1/12/1935, Sunday (-3,446) (Science) Russian-German optician Bernhardt Voldemar Schmidt died in Hamburg.


30/11/1935. Saturday (-3,447) (Germany) Non-belief in Nazism was made legal grounds for divorce in Germany.

25/11/1935, Monday (-3,452) (Greece) The monarchy was restored in Greece.

22/11/1935, Friday (-3,455) Robert Wilson, tennis champion, was born.

21/11/1935, Thursday (-3,346) Mussolini redeployed 100,000 soldiers from the army to work in agriculture and industry for 3 months to counter the effects of sanctions.

20/11/1935, Wednesday (-3,457) Lord Jellicoe, Admiral of the Fleet in WW I and naval commander at the Battle of Jutland, died in London.Created an Earl in 1925, he was buried in St Paul�s Cathedral, next to Lord Nelson.

19/11/1935, Tuesday (-3,458) The University of Budapest closed for a day due to anti-Semitic rioting.

18/11/1935. Monday (-3,459) The League of Nations imposed sanctions on Italy, because of its invasion of Ethiopia.The sanctions ended on 15/7/1936.

16/11/1935, Saturday (-3,461) Sir Magdi Yacoub, cardiothoracic surgeon, was born.

14/11/1935, Thursday (-3,463) King Hussein of Jordan was born in Aman, son of King Talal.

13/11/1935, Wednesday (-3,464) George Carey, Archbishop of Canterbury 1991-2002, was born.

12/11/1935, Tuesday (-3,465) William Knight, tennis champion, was born.

11/11/1935, Monday (-3,466) US balloonists Anderson and Stevens reached 74,000 feet.

10/11/1935, Sunday (-3,467) Roy Scheider, actor, was born

9/11/1935, Saturday (-3,468) Bob Gibson, baseball player, was born in Omaha, Nebraska (died 2020)

8/11/1935. Friday (-3,469) The Italians completed the invasion of Tigre Province, Ethiopia, occupying the capital, Makale. Both France and Britain could have opposed the invasion by closing the Suez Canal. However France was bound by treaty to Italy not to oppose the invasion, and Britain did not wish to drive Mussolini into the arms of Hitler. Events in Ethiopia seemed largely irrelevant to many Britons, although some saw ominous warnings in the invasion of a poor African country by a well-armed European state.

7/11/1935, Thursday (-3,470) Germany introduced a new Reichskriegsflagge (Reich war flag). It resembled the national swastika flag, with elements of the old Imperial war flag included.

6/11/1935. Wednesday (-3,471) The RAF�s first monoplane fighter, the Hawker Hurricane, made its maiden flight. It was the fastest fighter aircraft in the world, with a top speed of 325 mph at 20,000 feet.

5/11/1935, Tuesday (-3,472) In Czechoslovakia, Milan Hodza, Agrarian Party, formed a government.

4/11/1935, Monday (-3,473) Lester Piggott, jockey, was born.

3/11/1935, Sunday (-3,474) Plebiscite in Greece favoured the restoration of King George II, with 97% voting in favour.

1/11/1935, Friday (-3,476) Gary Player, South African golfer, was born.


30/10/1935, Wednesday (-3,478) Michael Winner, film director, was born

29/10/1935, Tuesday (-3,479) Michael Jayston, actor, was born

24/10/1935, Thursday (-3,484) Sir Mark Tully, broadcaster, was born

20/10/1935. Sunday (-3,488) Mao Zedong�s troops completed their �Long March� and arrived in the comparative safety of Yan�an in remote north-west China (Shenxi province). Of the 100,000 that set out from Kiangsi province 364 days and 6,000 miles earlier, only 10,000 battered and emaciated survivors remained. They had fought all the way, broken through ten encircling armies, crossed 11 provinces and 24 rivers.The Communists could now regroup to fight Chinese Nationalists and the Japanese occupiers.

19/10/1935. Saturday (-3,489) After Italy�s invasion of Abyssinia, the League of Nations imposed economic sanctions on Italy. Meanwhile it was apparent that Italy�s African possessions could not provide economic self-sufficiency for Italy, and the country would never be self-reliant in key raw materials sources such as oil, coal and metals. This pushed Italy into a closer partnership with stronger, industrialised, Germany.

18/10/1935, Friday (-3,490) Gaston Lachaise, painter, died in New York aged 53.

15/10/1935, Tuesday (-3,493) Richard McTaggart,boxer, was born.

13/10/1935, Sunday (-3,495) Michael heath, cartoonist, was born

12/10/1935, Saturday (-3,496) Hitler banned American jazz from German radio, calling it decadent.

10/10/1935, Thursday (-3,498) David Charnley, boxer, was born.

8/10/1935. Tuesday (-3,500) Clement Attlee was appointed stopgap leader of the Labour Party.

7/10/1935, Monday (-3,501) Adowa, Ethiopia, fell to the Italians after minimal resistance.

6/10/1935, Sunday (-3,502) Bruno Sammartino, professional wrestler, was born.

5/10/1935, Saturday (-3,503)

2/10/1935. Wednesday (-3,506) The Italian army invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia) after Mussolini�s forces pounded border towns. See 9/5/1936, and 5/12/1934.

1/10/1935, Tuesday (-3,507) Julie Andrews, star in The Sound of Music and Mary Poppins, was born in Walton on Thames.


30/9/1935, Monday (-3.508) Janet Reger, lingerie designer, was born (died 14/3/2005).

29/9/1935, Sunday (-3,509) Bruce Tulloh, athlete (runner), was born.

23/9/1935, Monday (-3,515) William de Wolf Hopper, US actor, died in Kansas City Missouri (born 30.3.1858 in New York)

21/9/1935, Saturday (-3,517) Jimmy Armfield, English footballer, was born.

18/9/1935, Wednesday (-3,520) John Spencer, snooker champion, was born.

17/9/1935, Tuesday (-3,521) Ken Kesey, author, was born.

16/9/1935, Monday (-3,522) Carl Andre, US artist, was born.

15/9/1935. Sunday (-3,523) (Germany) Germany passed the Nuremberg Laws, depriving Jews of German citizenship. The Swastika was made the official flag of Germany. Marriages between Jews and non-Jews were forbidden. On 14/11/1935 the definition of a �Jew� was extended to include the children of Jewish and a non-Jewish parents, these offspring known as �mischlinges�

12/9/1935, Thursday (-3,526) Jan Popluhar, Czech footballer, was born.

10/9/1935, Tuesday (-3,528) Huey Pierce Long, Louisiana politician, was shot dead in Baton Rouge.He had opposed �lying newspapers� and got the Louisiana legislature to impose a tax on any newspaper with a circulation of over 20,000.

9/9/1935, Monday (-3,529) The Duke of Kent was born.

8/9/1935, Sunday (-3,530) Maurice Cockrill, artist, was born

5/9/1935, Thursday (-3,533)

3/9/1935. Tuesday (-3,535) Sir Malcolm Campbell set a new world land speed record, in Utah, of 301.337 mph.

2/9/1935, Friday (-3,546) A small but intense storm hit the Florida Keys, killing 408 out of 760 people living there.

1/9/1935. Sunday (-3,537) Mexico announced it would give women workers the vote.


31/8/1935, Saturday (-3,538) In the USA, President Roosevelt banned arms sales to warring countries.

30/8/1935, Friday (-3,539) The USA passed the Revenue Act, redistributing some wealth and taxing gifts and inheritances. The US Inland revenue service reported that 0.1% of US corporations owned 52% of all corporate assets and less than 5% owned 87% of all corporate assets.

29/8/1935, Thursday (-3,540) Queen Astrid of Belgium was killed in a car crash.

28/8/1935, Wednesday (-3,541) Harold Snoad, English television producer, was born

27/8/1935, Tuesday (-3,542) Michael Holroyd, author, was born.

26/8/1935, Monday (-3,543) Geraldine A Ferraro, first woman to be nominated for Vice Presidency of the US (with Walter Mondale, Democrats, in 1984) was born.

25/8/1935. Sunday (-3,544) Ethiopia was put on a war footing in anticipation of an Italian invasion. Mussolini did invade Ethiopia on 2/10/1935.

24/8/1935, Saturday (-3,545) Paul Barker, writer, was born.

23/8/1935, Friday (-3,546) The USA established Fort Knox as its gold bullion repository.

20/8/1935, Tuesday (-3,549) In the US, H McLean announced the isolation of Vitamin E.

18/8/1935, Sunday (-3,551) Sir Howard Morrison, entertainer, was born.

15/8/1935. Thursday (-3,554) Hitler decreed that the Swastika was to be Germany�s national flag, and banned German-Jewish marriages.

14/8/1935. Wednesday (-3,555) President Roosevelt signed the Social Security Bill, introducing welfare for the old, sick, and unemployed.

11/8/1935, Sunday (-3,558)

8/8/1935, Thursday (-3,561) John Laws, radio presenter, was born.

7/8/1935, Wednesday (-3,562) The one millionth General Motors vehicle was manufactured.

6/8/1935, Tuesday (-3,563) Mario Esteves Coluna, Portuguese footballer, was born,

3/8/1935, Saturday (-3,566) A Soviet miner, Aleksei Stakhanov, mined a record 102 tonnes of coal in 6 hours. His name became a celebrity, with towns named after him and an entire Soviet cult of exemplary �Stakhanovite� labour for the State being built around him.


30/7/1935. Tuesday (-3,570) Penguin paperbacks went on sale in Britain. The first such book on sale was a biography of Shelley. They cost 5d each, and had distinctive orange and white covers. Later, non-fiction Penguins were coloured blue and white, fiction was still orange and white, and miscellaneous were yellow and white.

28/7/1935, Sunday (-3,572) The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bomber made its first flight at Seattle.

27/7/1935. Saturday (-3,573) Anti-Catholic riots in Belfast.

24/7/1935. Wednesday (-3,576) Greetings telegrams were introduced by the GPO. If they were in a gold envelope they cost an extra 3d.

21/7/1935, Sunday (-3,579) Julian Pettifer, broadcaster, was born.

17/7/1935. Wednesday (-3,583) Donald Sutherland, actor, was born.

16/7/1935. Tuesday (-3,584) The world�s first parking meters went into service in Oklahoma City. They were devised by the newspaper editor Carlton Magee.

15/7/1935, Monday (-3,585) Pieter Cort van der Linden, Dutch politician, diedat the Hague.

14/7/1935, Sunday (-3,586) In Britain the Peace Pledge Union was formed, after a meeting at the Albert Hall, to oppose re-armament and war.

13/7/1935, Saturday (-3,587) The USSR and USA made a trade pact.

12/7/1935, Friday (-3,588) Alfred Dreyfus, French Army Officer who was accused of selling military secrets to Germany, then imprisoned and later pardoned, died aged 75.

11/7/1935, Thursday (-3,589) Oliver Napier, politician, was born in Belfast, Northern Ireland (died 2011)

10/7/1935, Wednesday (-3,590) Paul Hines, US baseball player, died aged 80.

9/7/1935. Tuesday (-3,591) Engineers building the Moscow Underground discovered Ivan the Terrible�s torture chamber.

8/7/1935, Monday (-3,592) Guy Nickalls, rowing champion, died.

7/7/1935, Sunday (-3,593) George Keller, Irish-born US architect, died aged 92

6/7/1935, Saturday (-3,594) The Dalai Lama was born.

5/7/1935. Friday (-3,595) The US Labor Relations Act allowed workers to join unions.

4/7/1935, Thursday (-3,596) Austria, encouraged by Mussolini, abolished anti-Hapsburg laws and restored some imperial property.

3/7/1935. Wednesday (-3,597) Death of the French engineer Andre Citroen.

2/7/1935. Tuesday (-3,598) Eva Lambert, artist, was born

1/7/1935, Monday (-3,599)


28/6/1935. Friday (-3,602) The first Rupert Bear cartoon appeared in The Daily Express. It was drawn by Albert Bestall, who had taken over from Rupert�s creator Mary Tourtel.

27/6/1935, Thursday (-3,603) The US Supreme Court ruled the Railways Pensions Act (1934) unconstitutional. US Congress then passed the Railway Retirement Act to achieve the same effect. Rail companies and their employees had to pay 3.5% of the first $300 earned each month to provide for a pension.

26/6/1935, Wednesday (-3,604) A 3-day meeting in Rome between British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden and Mussolini ended. Britain was now concerned that Italy should not invade Ethiopia. Eden proposed that in exchange for Ethiopia ceding the Ogaden region to Italy, Italy would hand over the Gulf of Aden port of Zeila to Ethiopia, and a corridor of land connecting it to Ethiopia. Mussolini completely rejected this suggestion.

24/6/1935, Monday (-3,606) Carlos Gardel, Uruguayan singer, died in Medellin, Colombia (born 11/12/1887 in Tacuarembo)

18/6/1935. Tuesday (-3,612) France was angry at an Anglo-German naval deal that allowed Germany to build up its naval strength, albeit to only 35% of the Royal Navy. This was in contravention of the Treaty of Versailles.

17/6/1935, Monday (-3,613) G W Russell, Irish writer, died aged 68.

15/6/1935, Saturday (-3,615)

13/6/1935, Thursday (-3,617) Christo Javachev and his partner Jean Claude, artists, were born.

12/6/1935. Wednesday (-3,618) Bolivia and Paraguay signed an armistice to end their 3 year war over the disputed Chaco area. This war had claimed 35,000 lives for the Chaco Boreal, a wasteland of some 100,000 square miles west of the Paraguay River, the subject of a dispute between Paraguay and Bolivia since 1825. Bolivia, deprived of its coastal territories since the Pacific War with Chile, wanted to use the Chaco as a shipping route for its oil exports, and to exploit the oil reserves of the Chaco itself. Bolivian troops invaded in 1928; skirmishes continued until Paraguay launched a major offensive in 1932 and formally declared war in May 1933. Initially the larger and better-trained Bolivian army had success but in 1934 Paraguay gained the upper hand, capturing much Bolivian land. By 1935 both sides were weary of war, so agreed an armistice.

11/6/1935, Tuesday (-3,619) Gene Wilder, actor, was born.

10/6/1935, Monday (-3,620)Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in the United States by Bill Wilson and Dr Robert Smith.

9/6/1935, Sunday (-3,621) General election in Greece. The Populists (Monarchists) won 243 seats, although the Liberal party boycotted the election,

8/6/1935, Saturday (-3,622)

7/6/1935. Friday (-3,623) Stanley Baldwin became British Prime Minister. Ramsay McDonald retired.

6/6/1935, Thursday (-3,624) George Grossmith Jr, British actor, died in London (born 11/5/1874 in London)

5/6/1935, Wednesday (-3,635)

4/6/1935, Tuesday (-3,626) In France, Pierre Laval formed a government.

3/6/1935, Monday (-3,627) The new French Line passenger liner Normandie arrived in New York, having crossed the Atlantic on her maiden voyage in four days 11 hours. She was 340 metres long, and weighed 79,000 tons.

2/6/1935, Sunday (-3,628) Roger Brierley, actor, was born (died 23/9/2005)

1/6/1935, Saturday (-3,629) Leslie Hore Belisha introduced driving tests in Britain, and made L plates for learners compulsory.


31/5/1935, Friday (-3,630) In France, politician Pierre Flandin lost power.

30/5/1935. Thursday (-3,631) More than 50,000 died in a magnitude 7.6 quake in Quetta (then India, now Pakistan).

28/5/1935, Tuesday (-3,633)

25/5/1935. Saturday (-3,636) The US athlete Jesse Owens broke 5 world records in one day.

24/5/1935. Friday (-3,637) Pope Pius XI condemned the German sterilisation of 56,244 �inferior� German citizens.

23/5/1935, Thursday (-3.638) Laase Stromstedt, Swedish author, was born (died 2009).

22/5/1935, Wednesday (-3,639) The day after Hitler had made a speech claiming that German rearmament offered no threat to peace, Attlee asserted that Hitler's speech gave "a chance to call a halt in the armaments race". However Britain announced plans to treble the size of the RAF in the next two years, to make it equal to Germany�s.

21/5/1935, Tuesday (-3,640) Death of Jane Addams (born 6/9/1860). She founded Hull House, a mission to help poor immigrants in the US. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her efforts to promote pacifism after World War One.

20/5/1935, Monday (-3,641) Mickey Rose, US actor, was born (died 2013).

19/5/1935. Sunday (-3,642) (1) T.E. (Thomas Edward) Lawrence, or Lawrence of Arabia, died six days after a motorcycle accident in a country lane in Moreton, Dorset; he swerved to avoid two boys on bicycles, and crashed. Colonel Lawrence was sent to Saudi Arabia to gain information about an Arab revolt in the Arabian desert. Lawrence realised this revolt could be used to disrupt the Turkish war effort. He persuaded the British Army in Egypt to supply guns, armoured cars, and even aircraft. With these, Lawrence led the Arabs on strategic attacks on railways and captured the town of Aqaba. The Arabs then supported the British advance in Palestine. Lawrence was furious when after the War, the Arabs were not given independence.

(2) The Nazi Party made gains in elections in the Sudetenland.

17/5/1935, Friday (-3,644) Dennis Potter, writer, was born.

15/5/1935, Wednesday (-3,646) (1) The Moscow Metro railway was opened by Joseph Stalin.

(2) The world�s first TV quiz programme was broadcast, in Canada.

13/5/1935, Monday (-3,648) (Road Traffic) The parking meter was patented in Oklahoma City by Carl Magee.

12/5/1935, Sunday (-3,649) (1) (Poland) Pilsudski, Polish leader, died.

(2) A chance meeting between two alcoholics, Dr Robert Smith and William Wilson, which led to the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous.

10/5/1935, Friday (-3,651) Larry Williams, US rhythm and blues singer, was born in New Orleans (died 2/1/1980 in Los Angeles)

8/5/1935, Wednesday (-3,653) The UK Cabinet heard that it was estimated that the RAF was inferior to the Luftwaffe by 370 aircraft and that in order to reach parity the RAF must have 3,800 aircraft by April 1937�an extra 1,400 on the existing air programme. It was learnt that Germany was easily able to outbuild this revised programme as well. On 21 May 1935, the Cabinet agreed to expanding the home defence force of the RAF to 1,512 aircraft (840 bombers and 420 fighters).

7/5/1935, Tuesday (-3,654) Jack Charlton, footballer, was born.

4/5/1935, Saturday (-3,657) London�s Leicester Square tube station opened.

2/5/1935. Thursday (-3,659) (1) France and the USSR signed a mutual defence pact in case of attack.See 7/3/1936.

(2) Faisal II, King of Iraq, was born.

(3) In the Philippines, the Sakdalista Movement began, to combat unequal land distribution and heavy taxes. The movement was quickly suppressed.

1/5/1935, Wednesday (-3,660) Julian Mitchell, writer, was born


29/4/1935. Monday (-3,662) (Road Traffic) �Cats eye� reflectors were used on British roads for the first time.

24/4/1935, Wednesday (-3,667) Dan Stuart Godfrey, British musician, died (born 21/5/1893)

21/4/1935, Sunday (-3,670) Easter Sunday.

19/4/1935, Friday (-3,672) British comedian Dudley Moore was born.

15/4/1935, Monday (-3,676) (Chemistry) Charles Frederick Cross, English chemist, died in Hove, Sussex.

14/4/1935. Sunday (-3,677) Britain, France, and Italy agreed to form a united front against German re-armament.

13/4/1935. Saturday (-3,678) The London to Australia air service began. The route was operated by Imperial Airways and QANTAS.

11/4/1935. Thursday (-3,680) Severe dust storms hit Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Texas, and New Mexico, destroying crops and making many homeless. Dust storms covering up to five states at a time developed because US farmers had ploughed up areas unsuitable for this. A run of wet summers had made large areas of prairie seem suitable for the plough, but when normal drier conditions returned, the ploughing had broken up the roots of the prairie grasses that held the soil in place. Topsoil blew away, farmers were ruined, and diseases such as dust-pneumonia struck many, especially children and livestock.

7/4/1935. Sunday (-3,684) In the free city of Danzig, the Nazis won 60% of the vote.

6/4/1935, Saturday (-3,685) Luis del Sol Cascajares, Spanish footballer, was born.

4/4/1935, Thursday (-3,687) Trevor Griffiths, playwright, was born.

2/4/1935, Tuesday (-3,689) Bennie Moten, US composer, died in Kansas City (born 13/11/1894 in Kansas City)

1/4/1935, Monday (-3,690) The Green Belt Scheme for the environs of London came into force.


31/3/1935, Sunday (-3,601) Richard Chamberlain, actor, was born.

30/3/1935, Saturday (-3,602)

29/3/1935, Friday (-3,693) Stalin and Eden met in Moscow to discuss German re-armament.

28/3/1935, Thursday (-3,964) Michael Parkinson, TV broadcaster, was born.

27/3/1935, Wednesday (-3,965) Julian Glover, actor, was born.

24/3/1935, Sunday (-3,698)


21/3/1935, Thursday, (-3,701) (Iran) Persia officially changed its name to Iran.

20/3/1935, Wednesday (-3,702) Following elections in Norway, Labour formed a government with Johan Nygaardsvold as Prime Minister.

18/3/1935, Monday (-3,704)

17/3/1935, Sunday (-3,705) Abyssinia appealed to the League of Nations a second time for mediation over the threat to it from Italy. However by now the League was more preoccupied with the threat from Germany.

16/3/1935, Saturday (-3,706) Germany announced it was reintroducing conscription, for one year (see 24/8/1936), with a view to building a peacetime army of 35 divisions.This was in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles; other Europeanpowers protested but did nothing else.

15/3/1935. Friday (-3,707) France extended compulsory military service to two years.

14/3/1935, Thursday (-3,708) Anton Rintelen was sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in the July Putsch.

13/3/1935. Wednesday (-3,709) (Road Traffic) Driving tests were introduced to the UK by Mr Leslie Hore-Belisha; see 10/3/1899, France. The tests were at first voluntary, but became compulsory from 1/6/1935. They only applied to those who had taken out their driving licence since 1/4/1934 � see 14/8/1903. Britain was one of the last European countries to bring in a driving test. �L� plates and provisional licences also became compulsory on 1/6/1935.

12/3/1935, Tuesday (-3,710) (Science) Michael Idvorsky Pupin, Yugoslav-US physicist, died in New York.

11/3/1935. Monday (-3,711) In Germany, Hermann Goering announced the creation of the Luftwaffe, or German air force.

10/3/1935, Sunday (-3,712) The Bill Holman comic strip Smokey Stover ran for the first time in the Chicago Tribune.

9/3/1935. Saturday (-3,713) In the USSR, Nikita Krushchev was elected chief of the Communist Party.

6/3/1935, Wednesday (-3,716) Oliver Wendell Jr, US Supreme Court Justice, died in Washington DC.

4/3/1935, Monday (-3,718) Kenneth Harry Zucker, UK Circuit Judge, was born.

2/3/1935, Saturday (-3,720) King Rama VII of Siam abdicated after a 10-year reign during which absolute royal power was abolished. He was succeeded by his 10-year-old nephew who ruled as Rama VIII (Ananda Mahidol) until he was assassinated in 1946.

1/3/1935, Friday (-3,721) The Saar returned to Germany, after a plebiscite, see 13/1/1935.


28/2/1935, Thursday (-3,722)

27/2/1935, Wednesday (-3,723) Lilian Gish, actress, was born.

26/2/1935. Tuesday (-3,724) Radar (Radio Detection And Ranging) was tested at Daventry. Engineers had reported that passing aircraft distorted radio transmissions. The BBC transmitter at Daventry was used this day by Robert Watson Watt to detect a bomber 8 miles away at 10,000 feet. See 20/3/1934.

25/2/1935, Monday (-3,725) Sally Jessy Raphael, TV talk show host, was born.

23/2/1935. Saturday (-3,727) Italian troops set sail for Ethiopia as the border dispute over the Italian post at Wal-Wal inside Ethiopia escalated.

16/2/1935, Saturday (-3,734) Sonny Bono, US Congressman, was born.

15/2/1935, Friday (-3,735) BMW launched the 326 model.

14/2/1935, Thursday (-3,736)

12/2/1935, Tuesday (--3,738) The airship Macon crashed in America.

11/2/1935, Monday (-3,739) The UK Government passed the 1935 Government of India Act, giving the colony of India more autonomy; Britain retained control of external affairs and defence.

10/2/1935, Sunday (-3,340)

9/2/1935, Saturday (-3,741) Randolph Lycett, tennis champion, died (born 27/8/1886).

8/2/1935, Friday (-3,742) Max Leibermann, painter, died in Berlin aged 87.

7/2/1935, Thursday (-3,743) Clifford Jones, footballer, was born.

5/2/1935, Tuesday (-3,745)


29/1/1935, Tuesday (-3,752) The London County Council approved the Green Belt scheme.

28/1/1935. Monday (-3,753) Iceland became the first country to legalise abortion, on medical grounds, under Law no.38, allowing abortion at up to 28 weeks if there was a threat to the mental or physical health of the mother. Most subsequent abortion laws followed this pattern. However in Ireland the import or sale of contraceptives became illegal.

24/1/1935. Thursday (-3,757) (1) Beer was first sold in cans, in Richmond, Virginia, by the Krueger Brewing Company.

(2) Bamber Gasgoigne, UK TV presenter, was born in London.

(3) Mussolini dismissed the Italian Cabinet.

22/1/1935, Tuesday (-3,759) Sam Cooke, US composer, was born in Chicago (died 11/12/1964 in Los Angeles)

21/1/1935, Monday (-3,760) Snowdonia, Wales, was designated a National Park.

18/1/1935, Friday (-3,763)

15/1/1935. Tuesday (-3,766) Mussolini united Eritrea and Somaliland as Italian East Africa.

14/1/1935, Monday (-3,767) The Iraq � Mediterranean (Kirkuk to Haifa)oil pipeline was inaugurated.

13/1/1935. Sunday (-3,768) A plebiscite in the Saar indicated a desire to return to Germany.The vote was 90.36% in favour of joining Germany, with an almost-100% turnout.The Saar rejoined Germany on 1/3/1935.2,000 refugees fled the Saar for France.

11/1/1935, Friday (-3,770)

9/1/1935, Wednesday (-3,772) Bob Denver, actor, was born.

8/1/1935. Tuesday (-3,773) Elvis Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, the surviving brother of twins.

7/1/1935, Monday (-3,774) William Mulcahy, rugby player, was born.

6/1/1935, Sunday (-3,775) Queen Margarita of Bulgaria was born, in Madrid, Spain

5/1/1935, Saturday (-3,776) New York�s Municipal Airport 2 opened. It was the predecessor of La Guardia Airport.

4/1/1935, Friday (-3,777) Floyd Patterson, US professional boxer, was born.

3/1/1935, Thursday (-3,778) Abyssinia demanded international arbitration between itself and Italy, and appealed to the League of Nations. Italy appeared to agree to this arbitration but meanwhile strengthened its garrison in Eritrea.

2/1/1935, Wednesday (-3,779) The Anglo-Irish Trade War eased up when Britain agreed to buy more cattle from the Irish Free State in exchange for selling more coal.

1/1/1935. Tuesday (-3,780) (1) The Italian colonies of Cyrenaica, Tripoli, and Fezzan were renamed Libya.

(2) Mustafa Kemal changed his name to Kemal Ataturk.

(3) The rail terminus at Parakou, Benin, opened.


31/12/1934, Monday (-3,781) Helen Richey became the first woman airline pilot in the USA. She flew Central Airline�s Washington DC to Detroit flight.

30/12/1934, Sunday (-37,782) Mussolini ordered his forces to prepare for a full attack on Abyssinia, scheduled to begin in autumn 1935 after the rainy season had ended.

29/12/1934, Saturday (-3,783) Japan repudiated all previous treaties that limited the strength of its naval power.

d Flanders, actor, was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota (died 1995)

28/12/1934, Friday (-3,784) First women�s cricket test match held in Australia.

27/12/1934. Thursday (-3,785) In Tehran, the government declared that �Persia� would now be known as Iran.

21/12/1934, Friday (-3,791) Josephine Baker became the first Black woman to star in a major motion picture, �Zouzou�, in Paris.

17/12/1934, Monday (-3,795) Ramon Wilson, footballer, was born.

9/12/1934, Sunday (-3,803) Dame Judi Dench, actress, was born.

8/12/1934, Saturday (-3,804) The London to Australia airmail service was inaugurated.

7/12/1934, Friday (-3,805) The first artificially-made hormone, testosterone, was created by Us scientists.

6/12/1934, Thursday (-3,806) Turkey gave universal suffrage to all men and women over 21.

5/12/1934. Wednesday (-3,807) Italy and Ethiopia clashed on the Somaliland border.At the oasis of Walwal, 100 Ethiopians were killed by an Italian Expeditionary Force, which had penetrated some 50 miles beyond the borders of Italian Somaliland; the Italians suffered some 50 casualties.Mussolini wanted to establish an Italian east African Empire, consisting of Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia, and to avenge the defeat of the Italians by the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik in March 1896.See 2/10/1935.

3/12/1934, Monday (-3,809)

1/12/1934, Saturday (-3,811) The Tanna rail tunnel, Japan, 7 km long, opened.


30/11/1934, Friday (-3,812) The Flying Scotsman set a new rail speed record of 97 mph.

29/11/1934, Thursday (-3,813) Marriage of George Duke of Kent and Princess Marina of Greece.

28/11/1934. Wednesday (-3,814) Churchill warned of growing German air strength.

27/11/1934, Tuesday (-3,815) Ammo Baba, Iraqi footballer and coach, was born in Baghdad (died 2009)

26/11/1934, Monday (-3,816) Suzanne Allday, athletics (shot) champion) was born.

25/11/1934. Sunday (-3,817) Mustapha Kemal told all Turks to adopt a surname by 1/1/1935. His was to be �Ataturk�, or �Father of the Turks�. He also banned hereditary titles in Turkey.

24/11/1934, Saturday (-3,818) Alfred Schnittke, German composer, was born (died 1998).

23/11/1934, Friday (-3,819) Arthur Wing Pinero, English actor, died aged 79.

22/11/1934, Thursday (-3,820) Harry Steppe, US vaudeville performer, died aged 46

21/11/1934, Wednesday (-3,821) Beryl Bainbridge, writer, was born

20/11/1934, Tuesday (-3,822) Plans for numbered postal districts in British towns were introduced.

19/11/1934, Monday (-3,823) Kurt Hamrin, Swedish footballer, was born.

17/11/1934, Saturday (-3,825) Paraguay captured the key Bolivian fort of Ballivian.

14/11/1934, Wednesday (-3,828) Dave Mackay, footballer, was born.

13/11/1934, Tuesday (-3,829) The ten millionth Chevrolet was manufactured.

12/11/1934, Monday (-3,830) Edvaldo Izidio Neto, Brazilian footballer, was born.

9/11/1934, Friday (-3,833) (Astronomy) Carl Sagan, US astronomer, was born in New York.

2/11/1934, Friday (-3,840) Ken Rosewall, tennis player, was born

1/11/1934, Thursday (-3,841) The USSR exiled 12,000 �enemies of the State� to Siberia.


31/10/1934, Friday (-3,842)

25/10/1934, Thursday (-3,848) Joseph Mercer, horse racing champion, was born.

24/10/1934. Wednesday (-3,849) (1) (India) Ghandi left the Congress Party.

(2) (Germany) Nazi labour movement formed.

23/10/1934, Tuesday (-3,850) (Aviation) P Agello, Italy, set a new aviation speed record of 440.69 mph.

20/10/1934. Saturday (-3,853) (Aviation) An air race began at Mildenhall, Suffolk, at 6.30am. A prize of �10,000 and a �500 gold cup went to the fastest flight to Australia. It was won by Britons, Mr T Campbell-Black and Mr C W a Scott, who flew a De Havilland Comet to Australia in 2 days, 22 hours, and 58 minutes.

17/10/1934, Wednesday (-3,856) John Haynes, footballer, was born in Kentish Town, London.

16/10/1934. Tuesday (-3,857) (China) Mao Tse Tung's 'Long March' began.See 20/10/1935.

15/10/1934, Monday (-3,858) (France) Raymond Poincare, French statesman, died aged 74.

14/10/1934, Sunday (-3,859) George Bowman, equestrian, was born.

13/10/1934, Saturday (-3,860) Nana Mouskouri, singer, was born in Chania, Crete, Greece.

12/10/1934, Friday (-3,861) (Railways) The Association of American Railroads was set up. Almost all significant railway companies in the US, Canada and Mexico are members.

11/11/1934, Thursday (-3,862) Elzbieta Krzesinska, Polish long jumper, was born in Warsaw (died 2015)

10/10/1934, Wednesday (-3,863) Lucien Bianchi, Italian racing car driver, was born (died 1969).

9/10/1934, Tuesday (-3,864) (France-Germany, Yugoslavia) Alexander (1888 � 1934), King of Yugoslavia since 1921, was assassinated by Croatian terrorists from the Ustase Movement in Marseilles. The French Foreign Minister, Louis Barthou, was also killed. Alexander I was succeeded by his 11-year old son Peter II (1923-1970). Alexander�s cousin, Paul (1893-1976) acted as Regent until 27/3/1941; however just a fortnight after this, Peter II was forced into exile by invading German forces.

8/10/1934. Monday (-3,865) (Spain) Despite martial law, there was fierce fighting in Spain and Catalonia was trying to set up its own government, with Barcelona as the capital.

5/10/1934, Friday (-3,868) Catalonia attempted to declare independence from Spain.

2/10/1934, Tuesday (-3,871) (Earthquake) A magnitude 6 earthquake hit San Francisco, USA.


28/9/1934, Friday (-3,875) Brigitte Bardot, actress, female role model, was born in Paris.

26/9/1934. Wednesday (-3,877) The liner Queen Mary was launched at John Brown�s yard in Clydebank, Glasgow.

21/9/1934, Friday (-3,882) The most powerful storm for 40 years hit Japan. 3,066 people were killed, and 45,600 houses destroyed.

20/9/1934, Thursday (-3,883) Sophia Loren, actress, was born.

19/9/1934, Wednesday (-3,884) Brian Epstein, manager of The Beatles, was born.

18/9/1934. Tuesday (-3,885) (1) Mussolini said all Italians from the age of 8 must have military training.

(2) The USSR joined the League of Nations in an anti-Nazi move.

(3) Britons first heard Lord Haw Haw (Irishman William Joyce) make a pro-Nazi broadcast.

17/9/1934, Monday (-3,886) Maureen Connolly, tennis champion, was born.

13/9/1934, Thursday (-3,890)

9/9/1934. Sunday (-3,894) Fascists and their opponents clashed in London.

8/9/1934, Saturday (-3,895) The luxury liner Morro Castle caught fire off New Jersey, killing 134.

4/9/1934. Tuesday (-3,899) In Germany, 750,000 attended the opening of the Nazi Party Conference.

2/9/1934, Sunday (-3,901) Allen Carr, British anti-smoking campaigner, was born (died 29/11/2006).


24/8/1934, Friday (-3,910) Barbara Eden, actress, was born.

22/8/1934, Wednesday (-3,912) Norman Schwarzkopf, US General, was born.

20/8/1934. Monday (-3,914) The USA joined the International Labour Organisation.

19/8/1934. Sunday (-3,915) A plebiscite in Germany gave sole power to the Fuhrer; agreeing to his merging the offices of President and Chancellor, Adolf Hitler. Of 45.5 million voters, 38m voted for Hitler, 4.25m voted against him, and 870,000 spoilt their ballot papers.

16/8/1934, Thursday (-3,918) Angela Buxton, tennis player, was born.

11/8/1934, Saturday (-3,923) The first batch of prisoners, classified �most dangerous�, arrived at the new Alcatraz high-security prison in San Francisco Bay.

8/8/1934, Wednesday (-3,926) Keith Barron, actor, was born.

7/8/1934, Tuesday (-3,927) A US Appeal Court upheld a judge�s ruling to allow James Joyce�s work, Ulysses, to be sold in the USA.

6/8/1934, Monday (-3,928) US Marines withdrew from Haiti, ending 19 years of military occupation.

5/8/1934, Sunday (-3929)

3/8/1934, Friday (-3,931) Following the death of Hindenberg, the German Cabinet merged the offices of President and Chancellor, and made Hitler �Der Fuhrer�.

2/8/1934. Thursday (-3,932) (1) A Nazi rally in New York attracted a crowd of 9,000.

(2) Paul von Hindenburg, German military leader and President from 1925, died aged 86.

1/8/1934, Wednesday (-3,933) Kurmanbek Bakiyev, President of Kyrgyzstan, was born.


31/7/1934, Tuesday (-3,934) The murderers of Chancellor Dolfuss were executed.

30/7/1934, Monday (-3,935) Kurt von Schuschnigg was appointed Chancellor of Austria.

29/7/1934, Sunday (-3,936) Alfred Scott, West Indian cricketer, was born.

28/7/1934, Saturday (-3,937) Marie Dressler, US film star, died at Santa Barbara, California (born 9/11/1860, Coburg, Ontario, Canada).

27/7/1934, Friday (-3,938) Louis HG Lyautey, French Minister of Defence 1916-17, died aged 79

26/7/1934. Thursday (-3,939) Following the murder of Chancellor Dollfus in Austria, on 25/7/1934 in a failed Nazi coup, the Austrian government ordered the round up of all Nazis. Over 150 Austrian Nazis were arrested. The Nazis in Austria had attempted an unsuccessful coup against the Dollfus administration; Dollfus was a devout Catholic and violently anti-Socialist. He had used the army to crush the schutzbund, the big socialist defence force established in the housing estates outside Vienna. The workers held out against the army for five days. A Nazi gang broke into the Austrian Chancellery; Dollfus was shot in the throat and left to bleed to death for four hours. When it was clear the Nazi coup was going to fail the gang took other government ministers hostage and negotiated a promise of safe conduct to the German border. This promise was withdrawn when it was discovered that Dollfus was dead. Three police and two Nazis died in a three hour battle for the radio station.

25/7/1934, Wednesday (-3,940) Engelbert Dolfuss (1892-1934), Chancellor of Austria, was assassinated in Vienna by rebel Austrian Nazis.Otto Planetta was convicted of the crime and hanged.

24/7/1934, Tuesday (-3,941)

22/7/1934, Sunday (-3,943) Bank robber John Dillinger was killed in an FBI ambush in Chicago.

21/7/1934, Saturday (-3,944) Sir Jonathan Miller, actor and film director, was born.

20/7/1934, Friday (-3,945) In Germany, the SS was constituted an independent organisation within the Nazi Party.

19/7/1934. Thursday (-3,946) The UK government announced that the RAF would receive another 500 planes.

18/7/1934. Wednesday (-3,947) King George V opened the Mersey Tunnel. It was 2.13 miles long and had a diameter of 44 feet, allowing for 4 traffic lanes. See 18/12/1925.

17/7/1934, Tuesday (-3,948) Philippe Capdenat, French composer, was born in Bordeaux, France

16/7/1934, Monday (-3,949) First General Strike in the USA began in San Francisco. It was called in support of the stevedore�s strike led by Union leader Harry Bridges.

15/7/1934, Sunday (-3,950) Sir Harrison Birtwistle, composer, was born

14/7/1934, Saturday (-3,951) The oil pipeline from Mosul, Iraq, to Tripoli, Lebanon, opened.

13/7/1934. Friday (-3,952) Heinrich Himmler (33) was put in charge of Germany�s concentration camps.

12/7/1934, Thursday (-3,953) Belgium banned uniformed political parties.

11/7/1934, Wednesday (-3,954) Giorgio Armani, fashion designer, was born.

10/7/1934, Tuesday (-3,953)

8/7/1934, Sunday (-3,957) Jacques Anquetil, French professional racing cyclist, was born. In 1963 he became the foirst person ever to win te Tour de France four times.

7/7/1934, Saturday (-3,958) David Rollo, rugby player, was born.

6/7/1934, Friday (-3,959)

4/7/1934. Wednesday (-3,961) (Atomic) French physicist, Marie Curie, died of leukaemia. She contracted the disease from the radiation she was exposed to, before its dangers were properly understood.. She was born in Poland in 1867 (nee Sklodowska) married to Pierre Curie in 1895, and pioneered the medical uses of radioactivity.

3/7/1934. Tuesday (-3,962) The German Vice-Chancellor Von Papen resigned.

2/7/1934, Monday (-3,963) Lazaro Cardenas was elected President of Mexico.


30/6/1934. Saturday (-3,965) Hitler�s rival Ernst Rohm and hundreds of influential Nazis were murdered by the SS in the �night of the long knives�. Hitler justified this by claiming the SS were planning to overthrow him. The Army probably also threatened to take over unless Hitler got rid of the brownshirt thugs and stopped talk of socialist revolution. So they were crushed and the blackshirts, or SS, emerged triumphant.

28/6/1934, Thursday (-3,967) The USA passed the Farms Bankruptcy Act, postponing foreclosures for 5 years. On 23/2/1934 the USA had passed the Crop Loan Act, granting loans to farmers to tide them over until the harvest arrived.

23/6/1934, Saturday (-3,972) In New Zealand, William Bayley was convicted, and later hanged, on possibly the first use of forensic evidence, for the murder of Sam and Christobel Lakey. Bayley protested his innocence to the end but forensic evidence strongly linked him to the crime.

21/6/1934, Thursday (-3,974) Peter Craven, speedway driver, was born (died 24/9/1963).

20/6/1934, Wednesday (-3,975) Samuel Zoll, US politician, was born in Peabody, Massachusetts (died 2011)

18/6/1934, Monday (-3,977)

16/6/1934, Saturday (-3,979) Dame Eileen Atkins, actress, was born.

15/6/1934. Friday (-3,980) Dictators Hitler and Mussolini met for the first time, in Venice.

14/6/1934, Thursday (-3,981) Arnaud Marquesuzaa, French sports champion, was born.

13/6/1934, Wednesday (-3,982) Adolf Hitler and Mussolini met for the first Venice, Italy. Hitler frequently quoted from his book Mein Kampf, and Mussolini later referred to him as a �silly little monkey�.

12/6/1934, Tuesday (-3,983) In London, pedestrian crossings were installed to cut road casualties.

11/6/1934, Monday (-3,984) The League of Nations Disarmament Conference at Geneva ended in failure.

10/6/1934, Sunday (-3,985) British composer Frederick Delius died in France.

9/6/1934. Saturday (-3,986) Donald Duck was created, in Walt Disney�s cartoon The Little Wise Hen. Walt Disney was born in Chicago on 5/12/1901.

8/6/1934, Friday (-3,987) Fierce fighting broke out at a fascist rally staged by Oswald Moseley at London�s Olympia.

4/6/1934, Monday (-3,991) Seamus Elliott, champion cyclist, was born in Dublin.


29/5/1934, Tuesday (-3,997) The railway from Pointe Noir on the Atlantic coast to Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, 515 km, opened.

28/5/1934, Monday (-3,998) The first Glyndebourne Festival began in Sussex, with Mozart�s opera Le Nozze di Figaro. The festival was begun by John Christie, husband of the opera singer Audrey Mildmay.

27/5/1934, Sunday (-3,999) Bryan Douglas, footballer, was born.

26/5/1934, Saturday (-4,000)

25/5/1934. Friday (-4,001)The composer Gustav Holst, who wrote The Planets, died aged 59. He was buried in Chichester Cathedral.

24/5/1934, Thursday (-4,002) Colombia and Peru negotiated over the disputed Amazonian port of Leticia, claimed by both countries.

23/5/1934. Wednesday (-4,003) Bank robbers Bonnie Parker (23) and Clyde Barrow (25) were shot dead in an ambush by Texas rangers near Gibland, Alabama. Clyde met Bonnie in the caf� where she worked. She chose a life of excitement, drama, and danger, when she married the convict Clyde. She drove his getaway car as he robbed banks. A total of 12 people had died in their raids across the south western USA over the past 4 years. In 1930 Clyde was arrested but he escaped with Bonnie�s help and returned to bank robbery. After the death of the pair, people paid to see their bodies in the State morgue.

22/5/1934, Tuesday (-4,004)

20/5/1934, Sunday (-4,006) A brief war between Saudi Arabia under Prince Faisal and Yemen under Imam Yahya over possession of Asir province ended with victory to Saudi Arabia. The moderate terms of the peace treaty imposed by Faisal ensured friendly relations between him and Yahya for life.

19/5/1934. Saturday (-4,007) In Bulgaria, Fascists seized power in a coup aided by King Boris.

18/5/1934, Friday (-4,008) Dudley Zoo, Birmingham, opened.

17/5/1934, Thursday (-4,009) Cass Gilbert, the US architect who designed many of New York�s skyscrapers, including the Woolworth Building, died.

16/5/1934, Wednesday (-4,010) Officials at Wimbledon first allowed women competitors to wear shorts.

15/5/1934, Tuesday (-4,011) Karlis Ulmanis became dictator of Latvia.

14/5/1934, Monday (-4,012) Sian Phillips, actress, was born.

13/5/1934, Sunday (-4,013) An armistice was signed in the Saudi�Yemeni War.

12/5/1934, Saturday (-4,014) Fighting broke out at the University of Madrid between socialists and fascists shortly after a 48-hour general strike by students went into effect. Riot police moved in to break up the clashes.

11/5/1934, Friday (-4,015) Mark Boyle, artist, was born (died 2/5/2005)

10/5/1934, Thursday (-4,016) The Police Training College in Hendon, London, was opened by the Prince of Wales.

9/5/1934, Wednesday (-4,017) Alan Bennett, British playwright, was born.

6/5/1934. Sunday (-4,020) Saudi Arabian forces captured the Yemeni city of Hodeida. On 13/5/1934 Saudi Arabia signed a truce with Yemen in Jeddah.

3/5/1934. Thursday (-4,023) The author H G Wells predicted there would be a major world war by 1940.

2/5/1934, Wednesday (-4,024) Philip Braham, British composer, died in London.

1/5/1934, Tuesday (-4,025) Shirley Horn, jazz pianist, was born (died 20/10/2005)


30/4/1934, Monday (-4,026) Chancellor Dollfuss became dictator of Austria.

29/4/1934, Sunday (-4,027) Otis Rush, musician, was born.

28/4/1934, Saturday (-4,028) Lois Duncan, US novelist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (died 2016)

27/4/1934, Friday (-4,029) Britain and France warned Germany not to default on reparations payments.

26/4/1934, Thursday (-4,030) US railway companies averted a strike by reaching a settlement to gradually roll back the 10% pay cut imposed on the workers two years earlier.

25/4/1934. Wednesday (-4,031) Martial law was declared in Spain as the government resigned.

24/4/1934, Tuesday (-4,032) Laurens Hammond filed a patent for an "electrical musical instrument" known today as the Hammond organ.

23/4/1934, Monday (-4,033) Berlin police prohibited fortune-telling.

22/4/1934, Sunday (-4,034) The Apennine rail tunnel, Italy, 19 km long, opened. The Monte Adone rail tunnel, Italy, 7 km long, opened.

20/4/1934, Friday (-4,036)

18/4/1934. Wednesday (-4,038) The first launderette opened in Fort Worth, Texas, by J F Cantrell. It was called a washeteria.

17/4/1934, Tuesday (-4,039) Japan issued a statement claiming it alone had responsibility for po;litical relations and military security in the western Pacific region.

12/4/1934, Thursday (-4,044)

7/4/1934. Saturday (-4,049) (India) Ghandi suspended his campaign of civil disobedience.

6/4/1934, Friday (-4,050) In the last decade 1,900,000 new houses have been built in Britain.In new estates on the fringes of big cities, semi-detached houses could be bought for �450.

5/4/1934, Thursday (-4,051) Joan Meakin became the first female glider pilot to fly over the English Channel.

4/4/1934, Wednesday (-4,052) The first �cat�s eye� studs were laid in the road at an accident black spot, a crossroads near Bradford, Yorkshire, UK.

3/4/1934, Tuesday (-4,053) Jane Goodall, British zoologist who studied gorillas in Tanzania in the 1960s, was born.

1/4/1934, Sunday (-4,055) Easter Sunday.


29/3/1934, Thursday (-4,058) Germany published its defence estimates' which showed a total increase of one-third and an increase of 250% in its air force.

28/3/1934, Wednesday (-4,059) Austria banned jokes about the small size of Chancellor Dolfuss.

27/3/1934, Tuesday (-4,060)

26/3/1934. Monday (-4,061) The speed limit in urban areas was set at 30 mph.

25/3/1934, Sunday (-4,062) The threatened US car workers' strike was averted when the Roosevelt administration created a National Automotive Labor Board to help resolve disputes

24/3/1934. Saturday (-4,063) The USA promised it would grant independence to the Philippines.

23/2/1934, Friday (-4,064)

22/3/1934, Thursday (-4,065) Major fire in Hakodate, Japan, killed 1,500 people.

21/3/1934, Wednesday (-4,066) The slimming craze was blamed for a fall in UK potato sales.

20/3/1934, Tuesday (-4,067) Radar was first demonstrated in Kiel Harbour, Germany. See 26/2/1935.

17/3/1934, Saturday (-4,070)

16/3/1934, Friday (-4,071) French campaign against Berbers in Morocco concluded.

15/3/1934, Thursday (-4,072) (Biology) Davidson Black, Canadian anthropologist, died in Beijing, China.

14/3/1934, Wednesday (-4,073) (Space Exploration) Eugene Cernan, one of the sixth pair of US astronauts to land on the Moon, was born in Chicago, Illinois.

12/3/1934, Monday (-4,075)

11/3/1934, Sunday (-4,076) John D Burgess, piper, was born (died 29/6/2005)

10/3/1934, Saturday (-4,077) Belfast Zoo (Bellevue) opened.

9/3/1934. Friday (-4,078) Yuri Gagarin, first man in space, was born near Smolensk, son of a collective farmer.

8/3/1934. Thursday (-4,079) The new Volkswagen was unveiled at the Motor Show in Germany, priced at �61.

7/3/1934, Wednesday (-4,080) John Campbell Aberdeen, British politician, died (born 3/8/1847).

3/3/1934, Saturday (-4,084) Josephine Grace Johanna Scoglio, actress, was born (died 30/4/1972),

1/3/1934, Thursday (-4,086)


27/2/1934, Tuesday (-4,088) Ralph Nader, author and consumer activist, was born.

24/2/1934, Saturday (-4,091) Renata Scotto, soprano singer, was born

23/2/1934. Friday (-4,092) (1) King Leopold III succeeded to the throne of Belgium.

(2) Sir Edward Elgar, English composer, (born 2/6/1857), died of pneumonia in Worcester. On 10/11/1910 he conducted the first performance of his violin concerto, played by Fritz Kreisler, at the Queen�s Hall, London Applause was described as worthy of the Battle of Trafalgar.

22/2/1934, Thursday (-4,093) General Augusto Sandino of Nicaragua was executed by rival USA-backed leader General Anastazio Somoza. Sandino�s guerrilla forces had opposed a US occupation of Nicaragua from 1912; the US withdrew in 1933 after Sandino agreed a ceasefire.

21/2/1934, Wednesday (-4,094) Cesar Sandino, Nicaraguan revolutionary, died aged 40.

20/2/1934, Tuesday (-4,095)

19/2/1934, Monday (-4,096) (Food) Death of Caleb Bradham, inventor of Pepsi Cola.

18/2/1934, Sunday (-4,097) Yoko Ono, the widow of Jon Lennon, was born.

17/2/1934. Saturday (-4,098) (1) A Socialist revolt in Austria was brutally crushed.

(2) Albert I, King of Belgium, aged 58, was killed in a climbing accident near Namur, after a 25-year reign. He was succeeded by his son, Leopold III, aged 32, who ruled until 1950.

15/2/1934, Thursday (-4,100)

14/2/1934, Wednesday (-4,101) Florence |Henderson, actress, was born.

13/2/1934, Tuesday (-4,102) George Segal, actor, was born.

12/2/1934, Monday (-4,103) General Strike in France began (until 13/2/1934) in protest at the dangers of Fascism.

11/2/1934, Sunday (-4,104) Mary Quant, English fashion designer who invented the mini-skirt, was born in Blackheath, London.

10/2/1934, Saturday (-4,105) Fleur Adcock, poet, was born.

8/2/1934, Thursday (-4,107)

6/2/1934, Tuesday (-4,109) Riots in Paris between Far Right and Communist factions. These riots continued until 9/2/1934. They had been sparked by the suicide, on 3/1/1934, of the Russian-born Serge Stavisky, a dubious speculator who had been protected from prosecution by corrupt government officials. There were allegations that he had in fact been killed to protect these officials, and both Far Right and Communist factions protested over the inefficiency and corruption of the French administration. Civil war loomed in France, until the establishment of a group of new government officials who were innocent of any corruption allegations.

5/2/1934, Monday (-4,110) Rioting broke out in the streets of New York over the cab driver strike as strikers fought with police and burned independent cabs.

4/2/1934, Sunday (-4,111) Hungary established diplomatic relations with the USSR.

3/2/1934, Saturday (-4,112) The first regular transatlantic mail service was begun by Deutsche Lufthansa between Berlin and Buenos Aires via Stuttgart, Seville, Bathurst and Natal.

1/2/1934, Thursday (-4,114)


30/1/1934. Tuesday (-4,116) All Austrian political parties were banned except the 'Fatherland Front'.In Germany the regional Lander Diets were abolished and power centralised.

29/1/1934, Monday (-4,117) (Chemistry) Fritz Haber, German chemist, died in Basel, Switzerland.

26/1/1934. Friday (-4,120) Germany signed a non-aggression pact with Poland.

22/1/1934, Monday (-4,124) Bill Bixby, actor, was born.

21/1/1934. Sunday (-4,125) The British Union of Fascists, led by Sir Oswald Moseley, held its biggest rally ever in Birmingham. Moseley called for a Fascist dictatorship in Britain.

20/1/1934, Saturday (-4,126) Cecil Pedlow, rugby player, was born.

19/1/1934, Friday (-4,127) Patsy Rowlands, actress, was born (died 22/1/2005).

18/1/1934. Thursday (-4,128) British police made their first arrest using pocket radios. They caught a thief in Brighton three minutes after he had stolen three overcoats from a shop.

16/1/1934, Tuesday (-4,130)

14/1/1934, Sunday (-4,132) (Spain) In Spain, the Left won in the Barcelona area but the Right won in all other regions of Spain.

13/1/1934, Saturday (-4,133) (Science) Paul Ulrich Villard, French physicist, died in Bayonne.

12/1/1934, Friday (-4,134) Michael Sullivan, rugby player, was born.

11/1/1934, Thursday (-4,135) (Canada) Jean Chretien, Canada�s 20th Prime Minister, was born.

9/1/1934, Tuesday (-4,137)

7/1/1934, Sunday (-4,139) The comic book hero Flash Gordon made his debut in the USA.

6/1/1934, Saturday (-4,140) Herbert Chapman, footballer, died (born 19/1/1878).

3/1/1934, Wednesday (-4,143) (Road Traffic) British road signs were to be standardised.

1/1/1934. Monday (-4,145) (1) Sterilisation became law in Germany.

(2) Britain now had over 2 million telephone subscribers, with 275,000 more joining every year.


31/12/1933, Sunday (-4,146) Eddie Bunker, actor (Mr Bllue in Reservoir Dogs) was born (died 19/7/2005)

29/12/1933, Friday (-4,149)

26/12/1933, Tuesday (-4,151) The Nissan car company was founded in Japan.

25/12/1933, Monday (-4,152) Basil Heatley, marathon runner, was born.

24/12/1933, Sunday (-4,153) The Codex Siniaticus arrived in London.

23/12/1933, Saturday (-4,154) In Germany, the sentences were announced at the Reichstag Fire Trial.

21/12/1933, Thursday (-4,156) Britain resumed administration of its former colony, Newfoundland, after a financial crisis there. Newfoundland had become a Dominion in 1917.

17/12/1933, Sunday (-4,160) Just for this day, the public were allowed to walk through the newly completed Mersey Tunnel.

12/12/1933. Tuesday (-4,165) In Germany, the new Reichstag met but adjourned indefinitely.

9/12/1933. Saturday (-4,168) London to Singapore air service began.

6/12/1933. Wednesday (-4,171) Germany planned to abolish women�s suffrage.

5/12/1933. Tuesday (-4,172) (USA, Morals) Prohibition Laws repealed in the USA, by the 21st Amendment, after over 13 dry years, leaving individual States free to determine their known drinks laws. See 16/1/1920. Utah was the last state to ratify the 21st Amendment, which nullified the 19th Amendment of 1919 prohibiting the manufacture sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors. Prohibition had not stopped alcohol consumption, but merely driven it underground into the criminal world. America celebrated so much that 1.5 million barrels of beer were drunk the first night. Towns ran dry, and were drunk dry again the next night too. Prohibition had simply created enormous opportunities for organised crime.

4/12/1933, Monday (-4,173) Stefan George, German poet, died aged 65.

2/12/1933, Saturday (-4,175) Peter Harding, Marshal of the RAF, was born

1/12/1933, Friday (-4,176)


30/11/1933, Thursday (-4,177) Hermann Goering created the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei, or secret state police), as an instrument of terror and repression.

29/11/1933, Wednesday (-4,178) John Mayall, blues musician, was born

23/11/1933, Thursday (-4,184) Krzyszrof Penderecki, composer, was born

19/11/1933, Sunday (-4,188) In Spain, the CEDA (Spanish Confederation of Right-Wing Groups) won the largest number of seats, 115, in the general election. The Radicals won 102, Centre parties won 167, and the Left won 99. CEDA and the Radicals formed a Government, led by Alejandro Lerroux.

16/11/1933, Thursday (-4,191) The USA established diplomatic relations with the USSR for the first time since the Russian Revolution.

15/11/1933. Wednesday (-4,192) Germany�s new Reichstag opened. Women and Jewish members were excluded.

14/11/1933, Tuesday (-4,193) (1) The Biassa rail tunnel, Italy, 5.1 km long, opened.

(2) Fred Haise, US astronaut, was born in Biloxi, Mississippi.

13/3/1933, Monday (-4,194) Alexandru Vaida-Voevod, Prime Minister of Romania, resigned along with his entire cabinet, and was not asked to stay by King Michael.

12/11/1933. Sunday (-4,195) In a plebiscite in Germany, the Nazis won 92% of the vote.

11/11/1933, Saturday (-4,196) Samuel Miller, motorcycle racing champion, was born.

10/11/1933. Friday (-4,197) Dolfuss declared martial law in Austria.

9/11/1933, Thursday (-4,198) Jamil al-Midfai became Prime Minister of Iraq.

8/11/1933, Wednesday (-4,199) Mohammed Nadir Shah, King of Afghanistan, was assassinated in Kabul. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammed Zahir Shah.

7/11/1933, Tuesday (-4,200) LaGuardia was elected Mayor of New York; he served until 1945.

3/11/1933, Friday (-4,204) John Barry, composer, was born.


31/10/1933, Tuesday (-4,207) The carvings of the four heads of Presidents at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota, was completed.

29/10/1933, Sunday (-4,209) The Falange Party, a Spanish version of Fascism, was launched by Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera.

28/10/1933, Saturday (-4,210) Manoel Francisco dos Santos, Brazilian footballer, was born.

27/10/1933, Friday (-4,211) In Palestine, a State of Emergency was declared in coastal towns after rioters protested at Jewish immigration.

25/10/1933, Wednesday (-4,213) (Food, London) Lyons opened its Corner House fast food restaurant in London. It could seat 2,000 people.

23/10/1933, Monday (-4,215) Albert Sarraut became Prime Minister of France.

22/10/1933, Sunday (-4,216) Francisco Gento, Spanish footballer, was born.

21/10/1933, Saturday (-4,217) Georgia Brown, British actress, was born in London

20/10/1933. Friday (-4,218) Mussolini denounced Roosevelt as a dictator.

19/10/1933, Thursday (-4,219) The 1,000th Boots chemist opened, at Galashiels, Scotland. By 1939 the chain operated 1,200 stores across the UK.

18/10/1933, Wednesday (-4,220) Ben Bagley, US musician, was born in Hardwick, Vermont.

17/10/1933, Tuesday (-4,221) Albert Einstein arrived in the US as a refugee from Nazi Germany.

16/10/1933, Monday (-4,222) In Norway, the Labour Party won the general elections. Labour won 69 seats, Conservatives 30 seats, Liberals 24 seats, Farmers Party 23 seats, Others 4 seats.

15/10/1933, Sunday (-4,223) Moseley�s Fascist supporters were stoned in Manchester.

14/10/1933. Saturday (-4,224) Germany withdrew from the League of Nations.

12/10/1933, Thursday (-4,226) The US Department of Justice acquired the Army Disciplinary barracks on Alcatraz island, San Francisco bay, for use as a Federal prison.

10/10/1933, Tuesday (-4,228) the first proven case of sabotage of a commercial airline flight. A United Airlines Boeing 247 exploded between Cleveland and Chicago, killing 7.

7/10/1933, Saturday (-4,231) Jonathan Penrose, chess champion, was born.

5/10/1933, Thursday (-4,233) In Birmingham, UK, a �95 million 5-year programme began to demolish the city�s slums

3/10/1933, Tuesday (-4,235) Neale Fraser, tennis player, was born


30/9/1933, Saturday (-4,238) US President Franklin D Roosevelt announced the US$ 700 million New Deal for the poor.

27/9/1933, Wednesday (-4,241) In Germany the National Synod elected the pro-Nazi Ludwig Muller as Reichs-Bishop. Opponents rallied round Pastor Neimoller and formed the anti-Nazi Confessional Church.

26/9/1933, Tuesday (-4,242) Roy Wright, US baseball player, was born.

25/9/1933, Monday (-4,243) 25,000 visited Turin Cathedral to gaze at the Turin Shroud, revealed to the public for the first time in 400 years, which purportedly showed the face of Jesus.

24/9/1933, Sunday (-4,244) Terence Davies, rugby player, was born.

23/9/1933, Saturday (-4,245) Lloyd Old, US immunologist, was born.

22/9/1933, Friday (-4,246) In Ireland, William Cosgrave became leader of the Finne Gael Party

21/9/1933, Thursday (-4,247) The Reichstag Fire trial began.

20/9/1933, Wednesday (-4,248) Annie Besant, co-founder of the Theosophical Society, died.

15/9/1933, Friday (-4,253) Colin Ingleby Mackenzie, cricketer, was born (died 9/3/2006)

12/9/1933, Tuesday (-4,256) Jewish Hungarian physicist Leo Szilard first conceived of the �chain reaction�, the mechanism behind a nuclear weapon. He worked on the Manhattan Project in 1945, but later became a vehement opponent of nuclear weapons.,

11/9/1933, Monday (-4,257) Dr William L Pierce, writer, was born.

10/9/1933, Sunday (-4,258) Adrian Ross, British singer, died in London (born 23/12/1859 in Lewisham, London)

9/9/1933, Saturday (-4,259) Joe Ashton, UK politician, was born

8/9/1933. Friday (-4,260) Iraqi King Feisal I, King since 1921, died in Berne, Switzerland.

7/9/1933, Thursday (-4,261) Sir Edward Grey (born 25/4/1862), Liberal MP for Berwick on Tweed from 1885 and UK Foreign Secretary 1905-1916, died at Fallodon. He attempted to avert war in 1914 through negotiations with Germany.

5/9/1933, Tuesday (-4,263) Carlos Manuel de Cespedes yQuesada (1871-1939) was ousted in an army coup staged by Sergeant Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar (1901-73) and replaced by Professor Ramon Grau San Martin (1887-1969).

3/9/1933, Sunday (-4,265) (Atomic) Jeffry Goldstone, subatomic particle researcher, was born in Manchester, England.

2/9/1933, Saturday (-4,266) (1) Adolf Hitler addressed a huge crowd at Zeppelin Field, promising that the Nazi Party would meet in Nuremberg for the next 1,000 years.

(2) In Ireland, the opposition parties of the National Guard, the Centre, and Cumann na nGaedhael united to form the Fine Gael Party, led Owen O�Duffy (from 22/9, William Cosgrave was leader).

1/9/1933, Friday (-4,367) U.S. Interior Secretary Harold L. Ickes issued an order forbidding racial discrimination in hiring on any Public Works Administration funded projects.


31/8/1933, Thursday (-4,268) Theodor Lessing, German Jewish philosophical writer,, died in exile.

30/8/1933, Wednesday (-4,269) Air France was created by the merger of five French airlines (Air Orient, Compagnie G�n�rale A�ropostale, Soci�t� G�n�rale de Transport A�rien (SGTA), Air Union and Compagnie Internationale de Navigation (CIDNA).

29/8/1933. Tuesday (-4,270) It was officially confirmed that German Jews were being sent to concentration camps.

28/8/1933, Monday (-4,271) (Women�s Rights) The first female BBC woman announcer, Sheila Borrett, began work.

27/8/1933, Sunday (-4,272) Joke Smit, Dutch feminist, was born.

26/8/1933, Saturday (-4,273) Terence Monaghan, speed skating champion, was born.

25/8/1933, Friday (-4,274) (Germany, Jewish) The Haavara (�transfer�) Agreement was signed between the Nazi German Government and Zionist Jews. It provided for the relocation of Jews from hostile Germany to what was then British Mandated Palestine, and for these Jews to take some assets that would otherwise have been confiscated by Germany. Advantages to Nazi Germany included the removal of Jews from their territory and a possible easing of sanctions on the country which had been imposed by Jews in the rest of Europe, which were a threat to the still-fragile German economy. The Agreement was cancelled in 1939 after Hitler invaded Poland. Hitler initially opposed the Haavara Agreement, but supported it in the period 1937-9.

24/8/1933, Thursday (-4,275) Ray W. Scott, Jr., American angler who created the Bassmaster Classic and other professional fishing tournaments was born, in Montgomery, Alabama

23/8/1933. Wednesday (-4,276) (1) Gandhi was released from Poona jail after his hunger strike over the government�s attitude to Untouchables nearly killed him.

(2) The King and Queen opened the new Civic Hall at Leeds.

22/8/1933, Tuesday (-4,277) In Ireland, Eamon de Valera banned the Blue Shirts, a quasi-Fascist movement.

21/8/1933, Monday (-4,278) In the USSR, the White Sea Canal opened. It was built mostly with forced labour.

18/8/1933, Friday (-4,281) Just Fontaine, French footballer, was born in Marrakech, Morocco.

12/8/1933, Saturday (-4,287) In Cuba the army, led by Fulgencio Batista, and backed by the US, overthrew President Machado y Morales.

11/8/1933, Friday (4,288) Tamas Vassary, pianist and conductor, was born.

10/8/1933, Thursday (-4,289) Keith Duckworth, automobile engineer, was born (died 18/12/2005).

8/8/1933, Tuesday (-4,291) Joe Tex, (Joseph Arrington), US soul singer, was born in Baytown, Texas (died 13/8/1982 in Navasota, Texas)

3/8/1933, Thursday (-4,296) WH Tay, British astronomer, founda prominent white spot on Saturn.

2/8/1933, Wednesday (-4,297) Martial law was imposed in Nicaragua.

1/8/1933, Tuesday (-4,298) Michael Campbell-Lamerton, rugby player, was born in Malta.


31/7/1933, Monday (-4,299)

29/7/1933, Saturday (-4,301) Anne Rogers, British actress, was born in Liverpool

25/7/1933. Tuesday (-4,305) Hitler�s Cabinet announced that disabled people would be sterilised.

23/7/1933. Sunday (-4,307) (1) Germany decreed that importing banned books was punishable with death.

(2) The World Monetary and Economic Conference met in London without reaching any agreement. The British Government abandoned its principle of free trade and encouraged people to �buy British�.

(3) Richard Rogers, architect who designed the Pompidou Centre in Paris and the Lloyds Building in London, was born.

22/7/1933. Saturday (-4,308) Wiley Post, 34, completed the first solo round the world flight. He also slice 21 hours off the previous record for a round the world flight of 8 days 15 hours 51 minutes he achieved with his navigator Harold Gatty.

20/7/1933, Thursday (-4,310) 20,000 Jews protested in Hyde Park, London, against Nazi anti-Semitism.

18/7/1933, Tuesday (-4,312) Yevgeny Yevtushenko, political activist writer, was born.

15/7/1933, Saturday (-4,315) Julian Bream, guitarist, was born.

14/7/1933. Friday (-4,316) Nazis banned all other political parties in Germany.

13/7/1933, Thursday (-4,317) David Storey, writer, was born

11/7/1933, Tuesday (-4,319)

10/7/1933, Monday (-4,320) Jerry Herman, US composer, was born in New York.

9/7/1933, Sunday (-4,321) Oliver Sacks, neurologist, was born.

8/7/1933, Saturday (-4,322) The Vatican signed a concordat with Nazi Germany; this did not protect German Catholics from persecution.