Chronography of events from 1 January 1920 to 31 December 1929

Page last modified 12 June 2023


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31 December 1929, Tuesday (-5,607) Pope Pius XI condemned co-education as harmful to Christian training.

29 December 1929, Sunday (-5,609) William Maybach, German car designer, died aged 83.

24 December 1929, Tuesday (-5,614) Philip Sandeman Ziegler, author, was born

23 December 1929, Monday (-5,615) Chet Baker, US singer, was born in Yale, Oklahoma (died 13 May 1988 in Amsterdam)

22 December 1929. Sunday (-5,616) (1) The All-India National Congress demanded Indian independence.

(2) China and Russia agreed to withdraw troops from the border as their dispute over the eastern railway ended.

19 December 1929, Thursday (-5,619) UK Parliament passed the Coal Mines Bill, It allocated quotas and provided for a 7 �hour day.

16 December 1929, Monday (-5,622) Ivor Allchurch, footballer, was born.

12 December 1929, Thursday (-5,626) Alberto da Costa Pereira, Portuguese footballer, was born.

11 December 1929, Wednesday (-5,627) Sir Kenneth MacMillan, dancer and choreographer, was born

10 December 1929, Tuesday (-5,628) Harry Crosby, wealthy American poet and publisher, died aged 31 from a self-inflicted gunshot.

9 December 1929, Monday (-5,629) Bob Hawke, Australian Labour Prime Minister 1983-91, was born.

8 December 1929. Sunday (-5,630) Hitler�s Nazi Party won municipal elections in Bavaria.

7 December 1929, Saturday (-5,631) (India, Islam) Agha Khan 1I1 was married at a private ceremony in Aix les Bains, France, to a former candy store clerk and dressmaker. He was founder and first President of the all-India Muslim League.

6 December 1929, Friday (-5,632) US marines were sent to Haiti to quell a revolt there.

5 December 1929, Thursday (-5,633) 94 mph winds swept across Britain, killing 26 people.

4 December 1929, Wednesday (-5,634) The House of Lords voted 43 to 21 against the UK resuming diplomatic relations with the USSR.

3 December 1929, Tuesday (-5,625) President Hoover delivered his first State of the Union speech to Congress.

2 December 1929. Monday (-5,636) Britain got its first 22 public phone boxes.

1 December 1929. Sunday (-5,637) Major Thames floods.


30 November 1929, Saturday (-5,638) (Russia, China) Soviet planes bombed the Manchurian town of Pokutu.

29 November 1929. Friday (-5,639) US Admiral Richard Byrd, with pilot Bernt Balchen, became the first to fly over the South Pole.

28 November 1929. Thursday (-5,640) Berry Gordy, US musician, was born in Detroit

24 November 1929, Sunday (-5,650) Georges Clemenceau, Prime Minister of France, died.

21 November 1929. Thursday (-5,647) Henry Ford raised workers wages in all his car plants.

20 November 1929, Wednesday (-5,648) First exhibition of work by Salvador Dali.

19 November 1929, Tuesday (-5,649) Sean Kelly, cycling champion, was born in Waterford, Ireland.

17 November 1929, Sunday (-5,651) Nikolai Bukharin, Head of the Third International since 1926 and a potential rival to Joseph Stalin, was expelled from the Soviet Communist party.

13 November 1929, Wednesday (-5,655) (1) The Toronto stock market crashed.

(2) The Bank for International Settlements was founded.

12 November 1929, Tuesday (-5,656) Grace Kelly, US actress, was born.

11 November 1929, Monday (-5,657) Anti-Japanese occupation protests in Korea.

9 November 1929, Saturday (-5,659) Imre Kertesz, writer, was born.

7 November 1929, Thursday (-5,661) The Museum of Modern Art opened in New York on a rented space on 5th Avenue, Manhattan.

6 November 1929, Wednesday (-5,662) The Week in Westminster was first broadcast on UK radio.

5 November 1929, Tuesday (-5,663) Christopher Davidge, rower, was born.

3 November 1929, Sunday (-5,665)

2 November 1929, Saturday (-5,666) The first News Theatre Cinema opened in New York, the Embassy.

1 November 1929, Friday (-5,667) The Pony Club movement was founded in Britain.


31 October 1929, Thursday (-5,668) (Canada, Morals) Nova Scotia voted to repeal Prohibition. This left Prince Edward Island as the only �dry� region in Canada.

30 October 1929, Wednesday (-5,669) General Election in Ontario. The Conservatives, led by Howard Ferguson, won with an increased majority.

29 October 1929, Tuesday (-5,670) The Montreal stock market crashed.

28 October 1929, Monday (-5,671) The London stock market crashed.

27 October 1929, Sunday (-5,672) Elections in Czechoslovakia were won by the Republican Party of Agricultural and Smallholder Peoples.

26 October 1929, Saturday (-5,673) All London buses to be painted red. Earlier trials with yellow and red proved unpopular.

25 October 1929, Friday (-5,674) Chewing gum magnate William Wrigley Jr stated that business was good and prospects bright.

24 October 1929. Thursday (-5,675) New York stock market crash. See 22 May 1933. The Stock market opened to brisk selling and as the ticker tape was unable to cope with the volume of shares trading (12 million shares were traded that day), prices fell further, and worried investors sold more as prices fell. By 11.30 am. There was total chaos on the market. There were eleven suicides from ruined investors in New York alone. On 28 October 1929 the London Stock Exchange also fell sharply, and New York stocks fell further on 29 October 1929.

23 October 1929, Wednesday (-5,676) A sudden and unanticipated rush of selling hit the New York stock market.

22 October 1929, Tuesday (-5,677) The Brazilian airline Panair do Brasil began operation as NYRBA do Brasil S.A.

21 October 1929, Monday (-5,678) (1) Irish rural electrification received a boost when the Shannon hydroelectric scheme began operating this day. Until now only about a third of Dublin and a quarter of Cork had electricity; the new scheme, at a cost of �5 million, would greatly increase the electricity supply.

(2) The BBC began transmitting regional services, from an aerial at Brookman�s Park, north of London.

(3) In Egypt, the Wafd Nationalist Party won the elections.

18 October 1929, Friday (-5,681) Violeta Chamorro, President of Nicaragua, was born.

15 October 1929, Tuesday (-5,684) Nadir Khan was proclaimed King of Afghanistan, after Emir Amanullah fled the country on 22 May 1929.

14 October 1929, Monday (-5,685) The R101 airship went on its first trials above London from its Cardington hangar in Bedfordshire.The airship was 732 feet long and held 5 million cubic feet of hydrogen; power was from 5 diesel engines.

13 October 1929, Sunday (-5,686) Walasse Ting, Chinese-American poet, was born in Shanghai. He died in 2010.

12 October 1929, Saturday (-5,687) (1) The last British troops left the Rhineland, moving out of their base in Wiesbaden.

(2) Magnus Magnusson, British writer and TV presenter of the quiz show Mastermind, was born in Reykjavik, Iceland.

11 October 1929, Friday (-5,688) Graham Roberts, actor, was born.

10 October 1929, Thursday (-5,689) (Astronomy) Irvin Shapiro was born in New York City, USA. In 1971 he researched quasars.

8 October 1929, Tuesday (-5,691) Betty Boothroyd, UK politician, was born.

3 October 1929. Thursday (-5,696) The name of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was changed to Yugoslavia. The name change was an attempt to eradicate longstanding historical divisions within the country.

2 October 1929, Wednesday (-5,697) Britain set up a committee to consider the establishing of National Parks.

1 October 1929, Tuesday (-5,698) Britain resumed diplomatic relations with Soviet Russia.


30 September 1929, Monday (-5,699) The first experimental TV broadcast was made by the BBC.

29 September 1929, Sunday (-5,700) Lata Mangeshkar, musician, was born.

28 September 1929, Saturday (-5,701) In India, marriage of girls aged under 14 was banned by the Sarda Act.

27 September 1929, Saturday (-5,764) In France, Raymond Poincare resigned due to ill health. Aristide Briand became Prime Minister.

26 September 1929, Thursday (+5,703) John Schrober became chancellor of Austria.

25 September 1929, Wednesday (-5,704) Jimmy Doolittle, champion US aviator, performed the first �blind flight�, taking off, flying a set course and landing again all under a fabric hood so he couldn�t see outside the plane.

24 September 1929. Tuesday (-5,705) Workers in the USSR were given 2 days off a week.

23 September 1929, Monday (-5,706) The $1.5 million, 21,000-seat St. Louis Arena opened.

22 September 1929. Sunday (-5,707) Communists and Nazis fought on the streets of Berlin.

20 September 1929, Friday (-5,709) Anna Meara, actress, was born.

18 September 1929, Wednesday (-5,711) Professor Dick Grimsdale, who built the first transistorised computer, was born (died 6 December 2005)

17 September 1929, Tuesday (-5,712) Stirling Moss, motor racing champion, was born.

16 September 1929. Monday (-5,713) Bolivia and Paraguay signed an agreement to end their 10 month border dispute.

15 September 1929, Sunday (-5,714) Murray Gell-Mann, US physicist who researched sub-atomic particles, was born.

14 September 1929, Saturday (-5,715) Larry Collins, writer, was born (died 20 June 2005)

12 September 1929, Thursday (-5,717) (1) (Aviation) AH Orlebar, UK, set a new aviation speed record of 357.75 mph.

(2) KLM airlines now instituted a regular, fortnightly, service between Amsterdam and Jakarta. The 9,500 mile route included 18 stops, including Istanbul, Baghdad, Karachi, Calcutta (Kolkata) and Bangkok.

10 September 1929. Tuesday (-5,719) A British seaplane reached a record speed of 355.8 mph.

9 September 1929. Monday (-5,720) Heavy fighting between Russia and China on their border.

7 September 1929, Saturday (-5,722) Sonny Rollins, US jazz saxophonist, was born in New York

5 September 1929. Thursday (-5,724) Aristide Briand, the French Prime Minister, proposed a United States of Europe.

4 September 1929, Wednesday (-5,725) The German airship Graf Zeppelin completed its 20-day round the world trip from Friedrichshafen on the shore of lake Constance via Tokyo, Los Angeles, and Lakehurst.

3 September 1929. Tuesday (-5,726) The New York Stock Exchange reached a new high of 381.17.


31 August 1929, Saturday (-5,729)

25 August 1929. Sunday (-5,735) Britain declared martial law in Jerusalem as Arabs and Jews continued fighting. Arabs killed 8 Jews and then burned whole streets of houses; the rioting was sparked by Arab hostility to Jewish access to the Wailing Wall, situated in the heart of Arab east Jerusalem. Order was not restored by the British until 31 August 1929.

24 August 1929, Saturday (-5,736) Yasser Arafat, Palestinian leader, was born.

23 August 1929, Friday (-5,737) Zoltan Czibor, Hungarian footballer, was born.

19 August 1929, Monday (-5,741) Sergei Diaghilev, Russian impresario, died.

16 August 1929, Friday (-5,744) Helmut Rahn, West German footballer, was born.

14 August 1929, Wednesday (-5,746) Gene Scott, TV evangelist, was born (died 21 February 2005).

11 August 1929, Sunday (-5,749) Professor Alun Hoddinott, composer, was born.

10 August 1929, Saturday (-5,750) John Aldis, conductor, was born.

9 August 1929, Friday (-5,751) Jeff Butterfield, rugby player, was born.

8 August 1929, Thursday (-5,752) Ronald Biggs, great train robber, was born in Lambeth, south London.

7 August 1929, Wednesday (-5,753) James Pilditch, designer, was born.

6 August 1929, Tuesday (-5,754) Britain and Egypt agreed a draft treaty for the withdrawal of British troops from Egypt, except from the Canal Zone.

5 August 1929, Monday (-5,755) Millicent Garrett Fawcett, British feminist activist, died aged 82.

4 August 1929, Sunday (-5,756) Kishore Kumar, Indian actor, was born.

3 August 1929, Saturday (-5,757) Emile Berliner, US inventor of the flat phonographic record, died.

2 August 1929, Friday (-5,758) (Railways) The first Trans-Australian Railway, N-S, was completed.

1 August 1929, Thursday (-5,759) Syd Gregory, Australian cricketer, died.


31 July 1929, Wednesday (-5,760) World Boy Scouts jamboree opened at Arrowe Park, Merseyside.

30 July 1929, Tuesday (-5,761) Christine McGuire, American singer, was born.

29 July 1929, Monday (-5,762) Britain�s Foreign Secretary, Arthur Henderson, had talks with his Soviet counterpart about restoring Anglo-Soviet diplomatic relations.

28 July 1929, Sunday (-5,763) Jacqueline Onassis, widow of President Kennedy, was born in Southampton, New York State, as Jacqueline Lee Bouvier.

27 July 1929, Saturday (-5,764) Jack Higgins, novelist, was born

26 July 1929, Friday (-5,765) Alexis Weissenberg, Bulgarian pianist, was born in Sofia (died 2012)

25 July 1929. Thursday (-5,766) Pope Pius XI became the first Pope for 59 years to leave the Vatican. The creation of the Papal state under the Lateran treaties had clarified the politico-legal position of the Pope, who until then had been a virtual prisoner within the Vatican.

24 July 1929, Wednesday (-5,767) Peter Yates, film producer, was born

21 July 1929, Sunday (-5,770) The Puymorens rail tunnel, France, 5.5 km long, opened.

17 July 1929. Wednesday (-5,774) Russia broke off diplomatic relations with China and began to mobilise troops on the border.

16 July 1929, Tuesday (-5,775) In Dublin, the Censorship of Publications Act came into force, to control obscenity.

15 July 1929, Monday (-5,776) Hugo von Hoffmannsthal, Austrian author, died aged 55.

14 July 1929, Sunday (-5,777) Sir Walter Baldwin Spencer, anthropological writer, died.

12 July 1929, Friday (-5,779)

10 July 1929, Wednesday (-5,781) Charles Kingsford Smith and his crew arrived in England having flown from Australia in the record time of 12 days, 21 hours and 18 minutes.

9 July 1929, Tuesday (-5,782) Gerhard Hanappi, Austrian footballer, was born.

8 July 1929, Monday (-5,783) Lord Mark Carlisle of Bucklow, UK politician, was born (died 14 July 2005).

7 July 1929, Sunday (-5,784) Transcontinental Air Transport Company began the first coast to coast air service in the USA. The company soon became Trans World Airlines (TWA).

6 July 1929, Saturday (-5,785)

5 July 1929, Friday (-5,786) Tony Lock, cricketer, was born (died 30 March 1995).

4 July 1929, Thursday (-5,787) In London, 12 paintings of nudes by DH Lawrence were seized by police, after complaints from the public.

3 July 1929, Wednesday (-5,788)

2 July 1929, Tuesday (-5,789) The Giichi Tanaka Government inJapan fell.

1 July 1929. Monday (-5,790) Britain refused Leon Trotsky asylum.


29 June 1929, Saturday (-5,792)

28 August 1929, Friday (-5,793) Harold Evans, editor of the Times and Sunday Times, was born.

27 June 1929, Thursday (-5,794) In Turkey, President Kemal outlawed Communist propaganda.

26 June 1929. Wednesday (-5,795) The Japanese government signed the anti-war Kellogg-Briand pact, the last government to sign it.

25 May 1929, Tuesday (-5,796)

24 June 1929, Monday (-5,797) Sybil Queenie Newall, archery champion, died.

23 June 1929, Sunday (-5,798) June Carter Cash, singer, was born.

22 June 1929. Saturday (-5,799) Bruce Kent, campaigner for nuclear disarmament, was born.

21 June 1929, Friday (-5,800) A US-brokered peace deal ended the Cristero war in Mexico.

16 June 1929, Sunday (-5,805) Bramwell Booth, second General of the Salvation Army, died.

14 June 1929, Friday (-5,807) Journalist Arthur Schrieber became the first stowaway on na transatlantic flight.

12 June 1929. Wednesday (-5,809) Birth of Anne Frank, Dutch Jewish schoolgirl who wrote her famous dairies before going to her death in a Nazi concentration camp.

10 June 1929, Monday (-5,811) Margaret Bondfield became the first British woman Cabinet Minister when she was appointed Minister of Labour.

8 June 1929. Saturday (-5,813) At The Hague, Germany�s war debts were rescheduled. Germany was no longer required to pay for the reconstruction of France�s war-damaged provinces. The Young Plan, named after its American author Owen Young, removed controls on the German economy. However Germany must still repay �1.65 billion over the next 40 years, including �2 million a year that Britain insists upon to cover its American debt. Militant Germans, including the Nazis, demonstrated against these payments. The Plan was intended to strengthen the position of the Weimar Government but instead undermined it further.

7 June 1929. Friday (-5,814) The Papal State, extinct since 1870, was revived as the Vatican City State in Rome under the Lateran Treaty.

6 June 1929, Thursday (-5,815) Sunil Dutt, actor, was born.

4 June 1929, Tuesday (-5,817)


31 May 1929, Friday (-5,821) The Ford Motor Company signed an agreement with the USSR to produce cars there. The USSR wanted to create jobs in the automotive industry, and Henry Ford believed that he could undermine Communism by introducing capitalism there. The first Ford cars assembled in the USSR were only completed in 1932.

30 May 1929. Thursday (-5,822) UK General Election. Labour secured its first Parliamentary majority � see 22 January 1924. The Labour Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald, running Britain�s second Labour government, appointed Margaret Bondfield as Britain�s first woman minister. She was Minister of Labour, a key post, given the lengthening dole queues Britain faced. Labour won 288 seats, the Conservatives 260.

28 May 1929, Tuesday (-5,824) Edward Seaga, Jamaican Prime Minister, was born.

26 May 1929, Sunday (-5,826) Bodewalte J Lampe, composer, died in New York (born in Ribe, Denmark, 8 November 1869)

25 May 1929, Saturday (-5,827) Beverly Sills, soprano singer, was born.

24 May 1929, Friday (-5,828)

22 May 1929, Wednesday (-5,830) In Italy, Mussolini banned beauty contests as immoral.

21 May 1929, Tuesday (-5,831) (1) Lord Roseberry, British Liberal Prime Minister, died.

(2) King Alexander I of Yugoslavia used his dictatorial powers to ban the Croat Party and other political factions.

20 May 1929, Monday (-5,832) Under pressure from boycotts and foreign disapproval, Japan began evacuating the Shandong Peninsula, China.

19 May 1929, Sunday (-5,833)

17 May 1929, Friday (-5,835) Branislav Zebec, Yugoslav footballer, was born.

16 May 1929, Thursday (-5,836) The first Academy Awards were presented in Hollywood, by the Academy�s President, Douglas Fairbanks.

15 May 1929, Wednesday (-5,837)

14 May 1929, Tuesday (-5,838) Henry McGee, actor, was born (died 28 January 2006)

13 May 1929, Monday (-5,839) Burt Bacharach, composer, was born,

7 May 1929, Tuesday (-5,845)

5 May 1929. Sunday (-5,847) In Bombay a curfew was imposed to quell Hindu-Moslem fighting.

4 May 1929, Saturday (-5,848) Audrey Hepburn, actress, was born.

3 May 1929. Friday (-5,849) Severe civil unrest in Berlin.

2 May 1929, Thursday (-5,850) Fred Lincoln Wray, rock guitarist, was born (died 5 November 2005)

1 May 1929, Wednesday (-5,851) Communists in Berlin attacked policemen. Three days of clashes ensued, with 15 dead.


30 April 1929, Tuesday (-5,852) Ernst Streeruwitz was appointed Chancellor of Austria.

29 April 1929, Monday (-5,853) The future Liberal Party leader, Jeremy Thorpe, was born.

26 April 1929. Friday (-5,856) The first non-stop flight from England to India of 4,130 miles in 50 hours 37 minutes was made by two RAF officers. They were Squadron leader A G Jones-Williams and Flight Lieutenant N H Jenkins.

24 April 1929, Wednesday (-5,858) Denmark elected a socialist government.

23 April 1929, Tuesday (-5,859) Professor George Steiner, author, was born.

22 April 1929, Monday (-5,860) Britain�s first municipal airport opened, at Chat Moss, Manchester.

20 April 1929. Saturday (-5,862) The first Italian Parliament composed exclusively of Fascists led by Benito Mussolini was opened by King Victor Emmanuel III.

17 April 1929, Wednesday (-5,865) James Last, composer, was born.

15 April 1929, Monday (-5,867) Chancellor Winston Churchill, in his budget, abolished the 325-year-old tea duty, knocking 4d off the price of a pound of tea.

14 April 1929. Sunday (-5,868) (1) The first air mail from India arrived at Croydon.

(2) The Monte Carlo Grand Prix was run for the first time, 76 laps round the narrow streets and harbour of Monte Carlo.

12 April 1929, Friday (-5,870)

11 April 1929. Thursday (-5,871) (1) Germany refused asylum to Leon Trotsky.

(2) Popeye the cartoon character first appeared in a comic strip in a New York newspaper.

10 April 1929, Wednesday (-5,872) Michael Hawthorn, motor racing champion, was born (died 27 January 1959).

8 April 1929, Monday (-5,874) Jacques Brel, Belgian composer, was born in Brussels (died 9/10.1978 in Bobigny, Paris).

6 April 1929, Saturday (-5,876) Willis Hall, playwright, was born (died 7 March 2005).

5 April 1929, Friday (-5,877) (Science) Ivar Glaever, Norwegian-US physicist, was born in Bergan, Norway. In 1973 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on superconductors and semiconductors.

4 April 1929. Thursday (-5,878) The engineer Carl Benz, who built the first internal combustion car, died aged 84.

3 April 1929, Wednesday (+5,879)

2 April 1929, Tuesday (-5,880) Catherine Gaskin, author, was born.

1 April 1929, Monday (-5,881) Milan Kundera, writer, was bron.


31 March 1929, Sunday (-5,882) Easter Sunday.

30 March 1929, Saturday (-5,883) The first commercial air service between London and Karachi began.

29 March 1929, Friday (-5,884) Lennart Meri, President of Estonia, was born (died 28 March 2006)

27 March 1929, Wednesday (-5,886)

25 March 1929, Monday (-5,888) Tim Brookshaw, champion jockey, was born (died 8 November 1981).

24 March 1929. Sunday (-5,889) Mussolini�s single party Fascist state claimed it had won 99% of the vote in elections.

23 March 1929, Saturday (-5,890) Roger Bannister, the first man to run a mile in under 4 minutes (3 minutes, 59.4 seconds), was born in Harrow, London.

22 March 1929, Friday (-5,891)

21 March 1929, Thursday (-5,892) First performance in London of Ralph Vaughan William�s opera Sir John in Love, based on Shakespeare�s play The Merry Wives of Windsor.

20 March 1929. Wednesday (-5,893) The French military commander Marshal Ferdinand Foch died aged 68.

17 March 1929, Sunday (-5,896) The Spanish Government closed Madrid University because of student political agitation.

15 March 1929, Friday (-5,898) Clarence (Pine Top) Smith, US jazz pianist, was born in Troy, Alabama.

11 March 1929. Monday (-5,902) Major H O D Seagrave reached 231.36 mph in his racing car at Daytona Beach.

10 March 1929. Sunday (-5,903) Egyptian women were granted limited rights of divorce.

8 March 1929, Friday (-5,905)

6 March 1929, Wednesday (-5,907) David Sheppard, cricketer, was born.

5 March 1929, Tuesday (-5,908) David Buick, founder of the Buick motor company, died.

4 March 1929. Monday (-5,909) Herbert Hoover was inaugurated as the President of the USA.

3 March 1929, Sunday (-5,910) Streatham to Wimbledon via Haydons Lane, was electrified


27 February 1929, Wednesday (-5,914) Patricia Ward, tennis player, was born (died 22 June 1985).

25 February 1929, Monday (-5,916) All Embassy staff had now evacuated Afghanistan as the situation grew more tense.

24 February 1929, Sunday (-5,917) Andre Messager, French composer, died in Paris (born 30 December 1853 in Montlucon)

21 February 1929. Thursday (-5,920) France refused asylum to Leon Trotsky, Stalin�s most feared opponent, now exiled from the USSR.

18 February 1929, Monday (-5,,923) The First Academy Awards, known as Oscars from 1931, were announced.

17 February 1929, Sunday (-5,924) The first in-flight movie was shown, on an internal flight in the USA.

16 February 1929, Saturday (-5,925) The New York Stock Exchange posted widespread losses after the Federal Reserve Advisory Council's warning about speculators the previous day.

15 February 1929. Friday (-5,926) German unemployment was over 3 million. In 1926 it had been 2 million, falling to around 1.3 million in 1927 and 1928.

14 February 1929. Thursday (-5,927) The St Valentines Day Massacre took place in Chicago. Seven members of Bugsy Moran�s gang were machine-gunned to death by a rival gang.

13 February 1929, Wednesday (-5,928) The US expanded its Navy. Congress passed the Cruiser Act, authorising 15 new cruisers and 1 new aircraft carrier.

12 February 1929, Tuesday (-5,929) Lillie Langtry, US actress, died.

11 February 1929. Monday (-5,930) The 109 acres of the Vatican in Rome were made an independent state under the Lateran Treaty, which was signed by Benito Mussolini and Pietro Gasparri, Pope Pius XI.

10 February 1929, Sunday (-5,931) Jerry Goldsmith, US composer, was born in Los Angeles.

9 February 1929, Saturday (-5,932)

7 February 1929, Thursday (-5,934) Hindu-Muslim riots in Bengal.

6 February 1929, Wednesday (-5,935) Germany ratified the Kellogg-Briand anti-war pact.

5 February 1929, Tuesday (-5,936) �amon de Valera was arrested for entering Northern Ireland.

4 February 1929, Monday (-5,937) The first Green Belt area was approved, a five-mile wide strip near Hendon.

3 February 1929, Sunday (-5,938) Val Doonican, singer, was born.


31 January 1929. Thursday (-5,941) Leon Trotsky was expelled from Russia by Stalin. He found asylum in Mexico.

29 January 1929, Tuesday (-5,943) General Motors car company purchased Opel.

28 January 1929, Monday (-5,944) Acker Bilk, British clarinettist, was born in Pensford, Somerset.

27 January 1929, Sunday (-5,945) Mohamed al Fayed, owner of Harrods, was born.

25 January 1929, Friday (-5,947)

24 January 1929, Thursday (-5,948) Wilfred Baddeley, tennis player, died.

23 January 1929, Wednesday (-5,949) Jeanne Moreau, actress, was born.

20 January 1929, Sunday (-5,952) In Old Arizona, the first full-length talking ,movie filmed outdoors, was released.

17 January 1929, Thursday (-5,955) The cartoon character Popeye the Sailor Man, created by Elzie Crisler Segar, first appeared in the comic strip Thimble Theatre.

16 January 1929, Wednesday (-5,956) In Russia, Comintern Chief Bukharin was forced from office.

15 January 1929, Tuesday (-5,957) (1) US civil rights leader Martin Luther King was born in Atlanta, Georgia, son of a Baptist pastor.

(2) The USA ratified the Kellogg-Briand anti-war pact.

14 January 1929, Monday (-5.958) Amanullah Khan of Afghanistan, facing revolt, abdicated and left the throne to his brother Anayatullah Khan. However Anayatullah was a weak ruler, and fled the country on 22 May 1929, amidst general civil war.

13 January 1929, Sunday (-5,959) Wyatt Earp, American lawman and hero of the OK Corral, died peacefully aged 81.

12 January 1929, Saturday (-5,960) The Cascade Tunnel, USA, 12 km, long, was opened.

11 January 1929, Friday (-5,961)

10 January 1929, Thursday (-5,962) (Newspapers) Tin Tin first appeared in Le Vingtieme Siecle, Belgium.

9 January 1929, Wednesday (-5,963) (Medical) Fleming treated his assistant Stuart Craddock for an infection by washing it out with a penicillin solution; this cleared the infection.

6 January 1929, Sunday (-5,966) (Yugoslavia) King Alexander I of Yugoslavia (born 1888, ruled 1921-34) became dictator.

1 January 1929. Tuesday (-5,971) (1) In the UK, there were now 3.6 telephones per 100 people.

(2) The Polish airline, LOT was founded.


31 December 1928, Monday (-5,972) Ross Barbour, US musician, was born.

30 December 1928, Sunday (-5,973) Bo Diddley, US rock singer, was born in McComb, Missouri.

23 December 1928, Sunday (-5,980) An evacuation of all women and children from foreign Legations in Kabul began as unrest intensified.

20 December 1928. Thursday (-5,983) (1) Harry Ramsden started his first fish and chip restaurant in a hut near Bradford, West Yorkshire, which soon became the most famous in the world.

(2) The UK recognised the Kuomintang government of China.

18 December 1928, Tuesday (-5,985) Galt McDermot, Canadian composer, was born in Montreal

17 December 1928, Monday (-5,986) Jean Cherry Drummond, writer, was born (died 11 March 2005).

14 December 1928, Friday (-5,989)

12 December 1928, Wednesday (-5,991) In Romania, the Peasant�s Party won elections.

11 December 1928, Tuesday (-5,992) Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian author, was born.

10 December 1928, Monday (-5,993) In London, the new Underground Station at Piccadilly Circus opened.

9 December 1928, Sunday (-5,994)

7 December 1928, Friday (-5,996) Noam Chomsky, US social scientist, was born.

6 December 1928, Thursday (-5,997) Border clashed between Bolivia and Paraguay over the Chaco region began.

5 December 1928, Wednesday (-5,998) Wilhelm Miklas was elected President of Austria, succeeding Michael Hainish.

3 December 1928, Monday (-6,000) Andy Williams, US singer, was born in Wall Lake, Iowa.

1 December 1928, Saturday (-6,002) Arthur Gore, tennis champion, died (born 2 January 1868).


30 November 1928, Friday (-6,003) Emilio Portes Gil was sworn in as President of Mexico.

29 November 1928, Thursday (-6,004) In Britain the Government was concerned at the rising toll of road accidents. In 1927 there were 133,943 accidents and 5,329 deaths on Britain�s roads. The number of private cars was just 200,000 in 1920 but forecast to reach one million by 1930. However anyone aged 17 could drive with no more than a self-certification of physical fitness. The speed limit of 20 mph was widely ignored. Motoring had been the preserve of the wealthy but the Austin Seven car, introduced in 1921, cost just �225, within the reach of many people.

28 November 1928, Wednesday (-6,005)

27 November 1928, Tuesday (-6,006) John Conroy, hockey player, was born (died 9 November 1985).

26 November 1928, Monday (-6,007) (1) The first twins to be born by Caesarean section in Britain were delivered in Manchester.

(2) (Food) Otto Rohwedder patented a bread slicing machine, He first began work on this concept in 1912; bakers responded that sliced bread would quickly go stale, and slices could be stolen. Therefore a wrapping was necessary. Rohwedder suffered various setbacks including serious illness and a fire in 1917 that destroyed his work. He only secured financial backing for his work in 1922.

25 November 1928, Sunday (-6,008)

23 November 1928, Friday (-6,010) Jerry Bock, US composer, was born in New Haven, Connecticut.

22 November 1928, Thursday (-6,011) In Britain, the ten shilling and one pound notes went into circulation,

21 November 1928, Wednesday (-6,012) Hermann Sudermann, German author, died.

20 November 1928, Tuesday (-6,013) John Disley, athlete, was born.

19 November 1928, Monday (-6,014)

18 November 1928, Sunday (-6,015) Otar Gordeli, Georgian composer, was born in Tbilisi (died 1994)

17 November 1928, Saturday (-6,016) Lala Rajpat Raj, Indian politician, died.

16 November 1928, Friday (-6,017) Dick Gamble, ice hockey player, was born in Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada (died 2018)

15 November 1928, Thursday (-6,018) Emmanuel Mercer, horse racing champion, was born (died 26 September 1959).

12 November 1928, Monday (-6,021) Grace Kelly, US actress, was born (died 1982)

10 November 1928, Saturday (-6,023) Hirohito was enthroned as the 124th Emperor of Japan, continuing a line dating back to 660 BCE. He ruled until his death in 1989, aged 87.

9 November 1928, Friday (-6,024) Anne Sexton, poet, was born.

8 November 1928, Thursday (-6,025)

7 November 1928, Wednesday (-6,026) Bob McIntyre, motorcycle racer, was born.

6 November 1928. Tuesday (-6,027) Herbert Hoover, Republican, was elected 31st President of the USA.

5 November 1928. Monday (-6,028) Mount Etna erupted.

4 November 1928, Sunday (-6,029) The Nicaraguan general election was held; Jos� Mar�a Moncada was elected president.

3 November 1928. Saturday (-6,030) Turkey abolished the use of the Arabic script and adopted the Roman alphabet.

2 November 1928, Friday (-6,031) Paul Johnson, writer, was born


30 October 1928, Tuesday (-6,034) (1) The Col de Braus rail tunnel, France, 6 km long, opened.

(2) Static pictures were first transmitted by radio. Receivers required a special device called a Fultograph, attached to the radio set. This utilised a revolving drum upon which a stylus marked half-tone lines on special paper. The result was about as good as a mediocre picture in an underfunded local newspaper, and the device never became popular.

28 October 1928, Sunday (-6,036) Lawrence Reilly, footballer, was born.

27 October 1928, Saturday (-6,037) Cleo Laine, British singer, was born in Southall, near London

25 October 1928, Thursday (-6,039) Marion Ross, actress, was born.

15 October 1928. Monday (-6,049) The German airship Graf Zeppelin, captained by Hugo Eckener, completed its first transatlantic flight.It flew from Friedrichshafen, Germany, to Lakehurst in New York.

14 October 1928, Sunday (-6,050) Jose hector Rial, Argentinean footballer, was born.

13 October 1928, Saturday (-6,051)

12 October 1928. Friday (-6,052) The first iron lung was used at the Boston Children�s Hospital, Massachusetts.

11 October 1928, Thursday (-6,053) The LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin departed Friedrichshafen with 20 passengers and 40 crew, bound for the United States.

10 October 1928. Wednesday (-6,054) The King and Queen opened the new Tyne road bridge.

8 October 1928, Monday (-6,056) John Brockway, champion swimmer, was born.

6 October 1928. Saturday (-6,058) Chiang Kai-Shek became President of Nationalist China.

3 October 1928, Wednesday (-6,061) Shridrath Ramphal, Secretary General of the Commonwealth, was born

1 October 1928. Monday (-6,063) Stalin�s first Five Year Plan began. The idea was for rapid industrialisation of the USSR, especially in coal, iron, oil, steel, and machine building. Output of consumer goods was���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������also to rise sharply. Agriculture was to be collectivised, which meant disempowering the wealthy rural peasantry, or Kulaks. On 5 January 1930 Stalin sent thousands of government agents to the Russian countryside to persuade the Kulaks to join the new collectives. Under Stalin�s scheme, every poor farmer who turned his land over to the collective would be allowed to own a house, stable, garden, and one car, and to keep the income from any sales of garden vegetables.


23 September 1928, Sunday (-6,071) Frank Foster, saxophonist, was born.

22 September 1928, Saturday (-6,072) Donald Cockell, boxer, was born in Battersea, London (died 18 July 1983).

21 September 1928, Friday (-6,073)

20 September 1928, Thursday (-6,074) In Rome the supreme legislative body, the Chamber of Deputies, was taken over by the Fascists.

19 September 1928. Wednesday (-6,075) The first cartoon talking picture, Walt Disney�s Steamboat Willie, with Mickey Mouse (originally called Mortimer Mouse), was shown in New York.

18 September 1928, Tuesday (-6,076) The airship LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin entered service.

17 September 1928, Monday (-6,077) A hurricane hit Lake Okeechobee, Florida, USA drowning some 2,000 people.

16 September 1928,Sunday (-6,078) In Glasgow the P&O liner Viceroy of India was launched; she was the first to have oil-fired electric turbines.

15 September 1928. Saturday (-6,079) Alexander Fleming reported the discovery of penicillin.

14 September 1928, Friday (-6,080) Italo Svevo, writer, died.

13 September 1928, Thursday (-6,081)

12 September 1928, Wednesday (-6,082) Howard Talbot, British composer, died in Reigate, Surrey (born 9 March 1865 in Yonkers, New York)

11 September 1928, Tuesday (-6,083) In New York the world�s first television drama was broadcast. It was a 40 minute two-character play called The Queen�s Messenger.

9 September 1928, Sunday (-6,085) Mavis Steele, bowls champion, was born.

6 September 1928, Thursday (+6,088) Maura Murphy, author, was born (died 5 October 2005)

2 September 1928, Sunday (-6,092) Horace Silver, US jazz pianist, was born in Norwalk, Connecticut.

1 September 1928. Saturday (-6,093) Zogu was proclaimed King Zog I of Albania.


31 August 1928, Friday (-6,094) First performance in Berlin of the opera Die Dreigroschenoper (The Threepenny Opera), with music by Kurt Weill, adapting John Gay�s The Beggar�s Opera (1728) to the setting of 1920s Soho, London.

29 August 1928, Wednesday (-6,096)

28 August 1928, Tuesday (-6,097) (1) In Britain the Dangerous Drugs Act (1925) was amended to make the use of cannabis illegal.

(2) The Benguela Railway opened in Angola, for copper exports.

27 August 1928. Monday (-6,098) In Paris, 15 nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, outlawing war. The USSR signed the pact on 6 September 1928.

26 August 1928, Sunday (-6,099) Actress Barbara Stanwyck and vaudeville comedian Frank Fay were married in St. Louis.

25 August 1928, Saturday (-6,100) Anfield�s famous Kop terrace at Liverpool football ground opened.It was probably named after the Battle of Spion Kop in the Boer War (1899-1902); �kopje� means �small hill�.

24 August 1928, Friday (-6,101) Tommy Docherty, football manager, was born.

23 August 1928, Thursday (-6,102)

22 August 1928, Wednesday (-6,103) Karlheinz Stockhausen, composer, was born

21 August 1928, Tuesday (-6,104) Christopher Brasher, athletics champion, was born in Guyana.

19 August 1928, Sunday (-6,106) (1) Greek elections produced a victory for the Liberals under Venizelos.

(2) Lord Haldane, who founded the Territorial Army in 1908, died in London.

16 August 1928, Thursday (-6,109) Sheila Lerwill, athlete (high jump) was born.

14 August 1928. Tuesday (-6,111) (1) The world�s first scheduled television programmes were broadcast by WRNY in New York.

(2) The world�s first coach service to have sleeping bunks began, between London and Liverpool.

12 August 1928, Sunday (-6,113) Leos Janacek, Czech composer, died aged 74.

11 August 1928, Saturday (-6,114) Arthur J Lamb, US actor, died (born 12 August 1870)

10 August 1928, Friday (-6,115) British cigarette smoking was rising fast. In 1924 the country consumed 77,458,000 lbs of tobacco, up from 23,766,000 lbs in 1907, according to figures from the Imperial economic Committee. In 1927 Britons consumed 3.4 lbs of tobacco per head. All the increase was from cigarettes; pipe smoking and cigars have declined. Cigarette sales were boosted by marketing techniques such as free cards, and cigarette smoking had become a powerful symbol of female emancipation. Younger females also saw the habit as romantic. However some doctors were concerned about links to the rise in various cancers.

8 August 1928, Wednesday (-6,117) Peter Keenan, boxer, was born in Glasgow.

6 August 1928, Monday (-6,119) Andy Warhol, US artist, was born.

2 August 1928, Thursday (-6,123) Italy signed a 20 year treaty of friendship with Ethiopia.

1 August 1928, Wednesday (-6,124) The Morris Minor car was launched.


31 July 1928, Tuesday (-6,125)

28 July 1928, Saturday (-6,128) The 9th Olympic Games opened in Amsterdam.

27 July 1928, Friday (-6,129) Sakari Mononen, Finnish composer, was born in Korpiselka (died 1997)

26 July 1928, Thursday (-6,130) Stanley Kubrick, US film director, was born (died 1999).

25 July 1928, Wednesday (-6,131) Mario Montenegro, Filipino actor; was born in Pagsanjan (died 1988)

24 July 1929, Tuesday (-6,132) Oriana Fallaci, journalist, was born.

23 July 1928, Monday (-6,133) (Astronomy) Vera C Rubin was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In 1973, with W Kent, she established that the Milky Way has a proper motion of around 500 km / second relative to distant galaxies.

22 July 1928. Sunday (-6,134) Japan severed all relations with China.

21 July 1928, Saturday (-6,135) Ellen Terry, British actress, died.

20 July 1928, Friday (-6,136) A government decree in Hungary ordered the country's Romani people to integrate with the general population in dress and language and live in fixed abodes.

19 July 1928, Thursday (-6,137) China annulled the �unequal treaties� formerly made with European powers.

18 July 1928, Wednesday (-6,138) (Rail Tunnels) The Somport Tunnel, 7,874 metres long, opened between France and Spain.

17 July 1928, Tuesday (-6,139) Alvaro Obregon, newly-elected President of Mexico, was assassinated before taking office. Congress appointed Emilio Portes Gil as successor.

16 July 1928, Monday (-6,140) Robert Sheckley, science fiction writer, was born (died 9 December 2005)

15 July 1928, Sunday (-6,141) Jimmy Leadbetter, footballer, was born (died 18 July 2006)

14 July 1928, Saturday (-6,142) Moira Redmond, actress, was born (died 16 March 2006)

13 July 1928, Friday (-6,143) Leroy Vinnegar, jazz bassist, was born in Indianapolis, Indiana (died 1999)

12 July 1928, Thursday (-6,144) Sir Alistair Burnet, newsreader, was born.

10 July 1928, Tuesday (-6,146)

7 July 1928, Saturday (+6,149) Sliced bread was first produced.

6 July 1928, Friday (-6,150) The first all-talking feature film, Lights of New York, was presented at The Sound Theatre, New York.

5 July 1928, Thursday (-6,151)

4 July 1928, Wednesday (-6,152) Giampiero Boniperti, Italian footballer, was born.

3 July 1928. Tuesday (-6,153) (1) In Greece, Eleutherios Venizelos was again appointed Prime Minister, following his return in March.

(2) The first TV sets went on sale in the USA, at $75 each. John Logie Baird made the first colour TV transmission, from the Baird Studios, London.

2 July 1928, Monday (-6,154) In Britain women aged 21 and over got the vote, equalising the age of suffrage with men. This had not happened on 6 February 1918 as women, after the First World War, outnumbered men and there were fears that a specifically women�s Party would emerge and dominate politics. By 1928 it was clear that this would not happen.

1 July 1928, Sunday (-6,155) Alvaro Obregon was elected President of Mexico.


30 June 1928, Saturday (-6,156)

28 June 1928, Thursday (-6,158) In Germany, Hermann Muller, Social Democrat, was appointed Chancellor following the resignation of Wilhelm Marx on 13 June 1928.

27 June 1928, Wednesday (-6,159) In Poland, after elections, Kazimierz Bartel replaced Pilsudski as Prime Minister. However Pilsudski remained Minister of Defence.

26 June 1928, Tuesday (-6,160)

25 June 1928, Monday (-6,161) Bill Russo, Us composer, was born in Chicago

24 June 1928, Sunday (-6,162) France devalued the Franc against the US Dollar.

22 June 1928, Friday (-6,164)

20 June 1928, Wednesday (-6,166) During a heated debate in the Yugoslav Parliament, a Serb deputy pulled a gun and shot dead three Croat members, including the opposition leader. Shortly afterwards, the King of Yugoslavia declared a �royal dictatorship�, superseding Parliament.

19 June 1928, Tuesday (-6,167) The Earl of Minto was born.

18 June 1928. Monday (-6,168) (1) Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer who was the first to reach the South Pole in 1911, was lost in the North Sea after a flying accident..

(2) American aviator Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly the Atlantic. She and her two male companions landed safely in Wales.

17 June 1926, Sunday (-6,169) The Seventh Street Bridge (now the Andy Warhol Bridge) opened in Pittsburgh.

16 June 1928, Saturday (-6,170) (Arctic) Arctic Norwegian explorer Roald Engelbregt Amundsen died in a plane crash whilst searching for shipwreck victims.

15 June 1928. Friday (-6,171) A race between a train and a plane from London to Edinburgh was won by the train, the �Flying Scotsman�.

14 June 1928. Thursday (-6,172) (1) Birth of the Argentine revolutionary, Che Guevara, at Rosario, Argentina.

(2) Emmeline Pankhurst, suffragette, born 13 February 1858, died.

13 June 1928, Wednesday (-6,173) In Germany, Chancellor Wilhelm Marx resigned.

12 June 1928, Tuesday (-6,174) Vic Damone, US singer, was born in Brooklyn, New York.

11 June 1928, Monday (-6,175) Alan Paterson, athletics (high jump), was born.

10 June 1928, Sunday (-6,176) Maurice Sendak, writer, was born.

9 June 1928, Saturday (-6,177) Bob Bolling, USwriter, was born in Brockton, Massachusetts

8 June 1928, Friday (-6,178) (1) Charles Kingsford-Smith and Captain Ulm completed the first flight across the Pacific, landing at Brisbane, Australia.They had taken off from Oakland, California, and flew via Hawaii and Fiji in their plane, the Southern Cross.

(2) Beijing fell to Nationalist forces under Chiang Kai Shek, ending the Chinese civil war.

7 June 1928, Thursday (-6,179) Ken (Robert) McKinlay, speedway champion, was born.

4 June 1928, Monday (-6,182) Marshal Chang was killed when his train was mined. The assassination was done by Japanese Kwantung Army staff who wanted to secure Manchuria for Japan.


29 May 1928. Tuesday (-6,188) In the USA, the Chrysler and Dodge motor companies merged.

27 May 1928, Sunday (-6,190) Thea Musgrave, composer, was born.

25 May 1928, Friday (-6,192) Possible birth date of Pol Pot, dictator of Cambodia from 1975. This is the date according to French colonial records; his family insisted his birth year was 1925. He was born as Saloth Sar, to a Khmer farmer in the village of Prek Sbauv, close to the provincial capital of Kompong Thom

24 May 1928, Thursday (-6,193) William Trevor, novelist,, was born.

23 May 1928, Wednesday (-6,194) Rosemary Clooney, US singer, was born in Maysville, Kentucky.

22 May 1928, Tuesday (-6,195)

21 May 1928. Monday (-6,196) In Italy, Catholics were told to disassociate themselves from Fascism.

20 May 1928, Sunday (-6,197) In Germany, Socialists won the elections. The result was, Social Democrats rose from 131 seats to 153, to become the largest party but without an overall majority. Centre Party, 62 seats. Communists, 54 seats. German National People�s Party, 73 seats. German People�s Party, 45 seats. Nazis, 12 seats.

17 May 1928, Thursday (-6,200)

15 May 1928. Tuesday (-6,202) Australia began the flying doctor service. It began at Cloncurry, Queensland; the first doctor was Dr Vincent Welsh.

12 May 1928. Saturday (-6,205) The Italian electorate was reduced from 10 million to 3 million, under Mussolini. Now only men who paid taxes of 100 lira or more could vote, and women had no vote at all.

8 May 1929, Tuesday (-6,209) Norway formally annexed Jan Mayen island.

7 May 1928. Monday (-6,210) In Britain, women aged between 21 and 30 won equal suffrage in elections. This was known as the �flapper�s vote�. The women�s voting age in Britain had previously been 30.

5 May 1929, Saturday (-6,212)

4 May 1928, Friday (-6,213) Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was born.

3 May 1928, Thursday (-6,214) Chinese Nationalist forces suffered major losses against the Japanese.

2 May 1928. Wednesday (-6,215) Croydon Airport officially opened.

1 May 1928. Tuesday (-6,216) Ebenezer Howard, founder of the New Towns movement, knighted in 1927, of Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City, died in the latter town.


30 April 1928, Monday (-6,217) Charles Lindbergh flew the Spirit of St. Louis one last time, to Washington, D.C., so that it could be placed on permanent exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution

29 April 1928, Sunday (-6,218) Professor Heinz Wolff, bioengineer, was born.

28 April 1928, Saturday (-6,219) Yves Klein, painter, was born.

27 April 1928. Friday (-6,220) The Piccadilly Theatre, London, opened.

26 April 1928, Thursday (-6,221) Madame Tussauds waxworks museum re-opened on Marylebone Road, after its previous address in Baker Street burnt down.

25 April 1928, Wednesday (-6,222) Cy Twombly, US-Italian painter and sculptor, was born.

24 April 1928, Tuesday (-6,223) Thomas Docherty, footballer, was born.

23 April 1928, Monday (-6,224) Okke Jager, Dutch theological writer, was born.

22 April 1928. Sunday (-6,225) (1) In French elections Right-wing Parties won 325 out of the 610 seats.

(2) Earthquake in Corinth left 50,000 homeless.

21 April 1928, Saturday (-6,226) Jack Evans, Welsh-Canadian ice hockey player, was born.

20 April 1928, Friday (-6,227) Archaeologist Gerard Stanley Hawkins was born in Norfolk, England,

19 April 1928. Thursday (-6,228) The Japanese occupied Shantung, China.

18 April 1928. Wednesday (-6,229) Ken Colyer, British jazz trumpeter, was born in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk (died in France, 11 March 1988).

16 April 1928, Monday (-6,231) The Somerset Women�s Bowling Association was formed.

10 April 1928, Tuesday (-6,237) English writer Stanley John Weyman died, aged 72.

9 April 1928. Monday (-6,238) Turkey abolished Islam as the State religion.

8 April 1928, Sunday (-6,239) Easter Sunday.

7 April 1928, Saturday (-6,240) (China) Chinese Nationalists launched an offensive to capture Beijing.

6 April 1928, Friday (-6,241) In Italy, handshaking was banned as it was deemed unhygienic.

4 April 1928, Wednesday (-6,243) Maya Angelou, author, was born.

3 April 1928, Tuesday (-6,244)


31 March 1928, Saturday (-6,247) (Switzerland) Gustave Ador, Swiss statesman (born 23 December 1845) died.

30 March 1928, Friday (-6,248) (Aviation) M de Bernardi, Italy, set a new aviation speed record of 318.64 mph.

29 March 1928, Thursday (-6,249)

28 March 1928. Wednesday (-6,250) France shortened its term of compulsory military service to one year.

27 March 1928, Tuesday (-6,251) Leslie Stewart, British composer, died in Richmond, Surrey (born 15 March 1864 in Southport, Lancashire)

26 March 1928, Monday (-6,252)

25 March 1928, Sunday (-6,253) (1) James Lovell, American astronaut, was born in Cleveland, Ohio.

(2) The Purley to Caterham railway was electrified.

24 March 1928, Saturday (-6,254) Lloyds Building, Leadenhall Street, London, was opened by King George V.

22/ March 1928, Thursday (-6,256)

20 March 1928, Tuesday (-6,258) James Packard, founder of the Packard car company, died.

19 March 1928, Monday (-6,259) In Britain, the Revised Book of Common Prayer was published.

17 March 1924, Saturday (-6,261)

16 March 1928, Friday (-6,262) In Egypt, the Nationalist leader Nahas Pasha became Prime Minister.

15 March 1928, Thursday (-6,263) Bob Wilber, US musician, was born in New York

14 March 1928, Wednesday (-6,264)

13 March 1928, Tuesday (-6,265) In Los Angeles, 450 died when a dam burst.

12 March 1928, Monday (-6,266) US playwright Edward Albee was born (died 2016).

10 March 1928, Saturday (-6,268) In the Soviet Union, show trials of �bourgeois� engineers accused of sabotage began.

8 March 1928, Thursday (-6,270)

6 March 1928, Tuesday (-6,272) Gabriel Garcia Marquez, writer, was born

4 March 1928, Sunday (-6,274) Allan Sillitoe, writer, was born.

3 March 1928, Saturday (-6,275) Gabriel Garcia Marquez, writer, was born.

1 March 1928, Thursday (-6,277) Vitamin F was discovered by US scientist Dr Herbert Evans.


27 February 1928, Monday (-6,280) The Moffat rail tunnel, USA, 9.997 km long, opened on the Denver-Glenwood Springs line.

26 February 1928, Sunday (-6,281) Fats Domino, US pianist, was born.

24 February 1928, Friday (-6,283)

23 February 1928, Thursday (-6,284) Vasili Lazaref, cosmonaut, was born.

22 February 1928. Wednesday (-6,285) Mr Bert Hinkler arrived in Port Darwin, having set a record time for the flight from England, 15 � days.

21 February 1928, Tuesday (-6,286)

20 February 1928. Monday (-6,287) Britain recognised the independence of the Kingdom of Transjordan (now Jordan).

19 February 1928. Sunday (-6,288) A new world land speed record of 206.35 mph was set by Malcolm Campbell in the US.

18 February 1928, Saturday (-6,289) Professor John Ostrom, paleontological writer, was born (died 16 July 2005)

17 February 1928, Friday (-6,290)

16 February 1928, Thursday (-6,291) Eddie Foy, US comedian, died in Kansas City (born 9 March 1854 in new York).

15 February 1928. Wednesday (-6,292) (1) Herbert Harry Asquith, Liberal Prime Minister in the UK from 1908 to 1916, died.

(2) The Oxford English Dictionary was completed after 70 years of work.

12 February 1928. Sunday (-6,295) The British colony of Malta gained Dominion status.

9 February 1928, Thursday (-6,298) Rinus Michels, football manager, was born (died 3 March 2005)

8 February 1928, Wednesday (-6,299) Oslan Ellis, harpist, was born.

6 February 1928. Monday (-6,301) 50,000 fled as Communists raided Peking.

3 February 1928, Friday (-6,301) Rioting in India as the Simon Commission arrived from Britain to report on the furure government of the country.

1 February 1928. Wednesday (-6,306) In the USA, Dr Herbert Evans discovered vitamin E.


31 January 1928, Tuesday (-6,307)

30 January 1928, Monday (-6,308) Croydon Aerodrome began operations, see 29 March 1920 and 2 May 1928.

29 January 1928, Sunday (-6,309) General Earl Haig, WW I Commander and founder of the British Legion, died in London. He was buried at Dryburgh Abbey.

28 January 1928, Saturday (-6,310)

26 January 1928, Thursday (-6,312) Roger Vadim, film director and actor, was born.

25 January 1928, Wednesday (-6,313) Edvard Shevardnadze, Soviet Foreign Minister under Gorbachev, was born.

24 January 1928, Tuesday (-6,314) Desmond Morris, zoologist, was born.

23 January 1928, Monday (-6,315) Jeanne Moreau, actress, was born.

21 January 1928, Saturday (-6,317) George Washington Goethals, American, chief engineer of the Panama Canal, died.

18 January 1928, Wednesday (-6,320) The first passenger flight by Pan-American Airlines,

17 January 1928, Tuesday (-6,321) Vidal Sassoon, English hair stylist, was born in London.

16 January 1928, Monday (-6,322) The 6th International Conference of American States opened in Havana. US President Coolidge presided at the opening.

15 January 1928, Sunday (-6,323) Joanne Linville, US actress, was born in Bakersfield, California (died 2021)

14 January 1928. Saturday (-6,324) Clashes between Italians and tribesmen in Libya, 100 tribesmen killed.

13 January 1928. Friday (-6,325) Allied military control in Bulgaria ended.

12 January 1928, Thursday (-6,326) The Italian press was banned from reporting suicides or sensational crimes

11 January 1928. Wednesday (-6,327) Thomas Hardy, English poet and novelist, author of Tess of the D�Ubervilles, died in his native Dorset aged 87.

10 January 1928. Tuesday (-6,328) (1) Stalin purged his opponents. Many were arrested by his security police, the OGPU, and sent to exile in Siberia.Trotsky was exiled from the USSR.

(2) Aviators Hood and Moncrieff were lost whilst attempting the first flight across the Tasman Sea, from Australia to New Zealand.

8 January 1928, Sunday (-6,330)

7 January 1928. Saturday (-6,331) Fourteen people drowned when the River Thames flooded parts of London, including the Palace of Westminster. A sudden thaw swelled the river as high tides and strong winds also drove up water levels.

6 January 1928, Friday (-6,332) Italian Finance Minister Giuseppe Volpi banned industries from taking out foreign loans without government approval.

5 January 1928. Thursday (-6,333) The first over 65s in the UK received their State Pensions. The sum was 10 shillings a week.

Walter Mondale, US Vice-President, was born in Ceylon, Minnesota.

4 January 1928, Wednesday (-6,334) Severe flooding hit large areas of England.

3 January 1928, Tuesday (-6,335) US troops went to Nicaragua to fight the Sandinistas.

2 January 1928, Monday (-6,336) Daily Service was first broadcast on radio in the UK.

1 January 1928, Sunday (-6,337) Nearly 250,000 domestic slaves in the British Protectorate of Sierra Leone were freed by decree of 1927.


31 December 1927, Saturday (-6,338) (1) In Britain the Electricity Supply Act provided for the setting up of a Central Electricity Board, which will create a uniform national supply via a national grid. At the time, there were many small competing power companies, delaying the spread of electrification, and only about 10% of UK homes could run the new electrical gadgets such as vacuum cleaners.

(2) The use of the lance was abandoned by the British Army, except for ceremonial purposes.

27 December 1927, Tuesday (-6.,342) First performance in New York of Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein II�s musical Show Boat.

25 December 1927, Sunday (-6,344) A White Christmas in London.

23 December 1927, Friday (-6,346) John Cockett, hockey player, was born.

19 December 1927, Monday (-6,350) In China, 600 Communists were executed by the Nationalists.

15 December 1927, Thursday (-6,354) China broke off diplomatic relations with the USSR. This was after an attempted Communist uprising in Guangzhou.

14 December 1927. Wednesday (-6,355) Chiang Kai Shek�s forces suppressed an attempted Communist coup in Canton.

13 December 1927, Tuesday (-6,356) Christopher Plummer, actor, was born

12 December 1927, Monday (-6,357) Honor Blackman, actress, was born.

10 December 1927, Saturday (-6,359) As greyhound racing grew in popularity, London�s third racecourse opened, at Wembley, to join those at Haringey and White City. Harringey stadium closed in 1987 to make way for a Sainsbury superstore.

5 December 1927, Monday (-6,364) King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand was born iu Cambridge, Massachusetts.

3 December 1927, Saturday (-6,366) Andy Williams, singer, was born.

2 December 1927, Friday (-6,367) Ford�s Model A car went on sale as the successor to the Model T.

1 December 1927, Thursday (-6,368) Chiang Kai Shek (also, Jiang Jieshi) married Song Meiling (Sung Mei Ling), a wealthy and Christianised US educated member of one of China�s wealthiest families. He had earlier divorced his previous wife.


25 November 1927, Friday (-6,374) The UK announced the setting up of the Simon Commission, headed by Sir John Simon, to study the governance of India.

22 November 1927, Tuesday (-6,377) 200 unemployed Welsh miners marched to London, but Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin refused to meet them.

18 November 1927. Friday (-6,381) The head of the International Football Association announced the creation of a World Cup.

15 November 1927, Tuesday (-6,384) Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party, USSR.

14 November 1927, Monday (-6,385) The Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party voted to expel both Trotsky and Zinoviev from membership, along with 81 of their associates. The resolution became effective on December 2, when the Fifteenth Congress of the CPSU purged 93 other Party members associated with the "Trotsky-Zinoviev faction"

13 November 1927, Sunday (-6,386) The Holland Tunnel, linking New York City to New Jersey, was opened.

12 November 1927. Saturday (-6,387) (1) The first automatic telephone exchange opened, in Holborn, London.

(2) The first London to Brighton veteran car rally, sponsored by the Daily Sketch.It was won by John Bryce, from amongst 51 competitors.

11 November 1927, Friday (-6,388) France and Yugoslavia made a friendship treaty.

10 November 1927. Thursday (-6,389) General Motors announced the largest dividend in history, US$ 62million.

9 November 1927, Wednesday (-6,390) Rebellion in the Lithuanian city of Taurag� by citizens dissatisfied with President Antanas Smetona, 209 people were convicted of charges arising from the insurrection, and eleven were executed.

8 November 1927, Tuesday (-6,391) Nguyen Khanh, Prime Minister of South Vietnam, was born.

7 November 1927, Monday (-6,392)

5 November 1927. Saturday (-6,394) The UK�s first set of automatic traffic lights began operating, at the Prince Square crossroads in Wolverhampton.

4 November 1927, Friday (-6,395) (Aviation) M de Bernardi, Italy, set a new aviation speed record of 297.83 mph.

1 November 1927, Tuesday (-6,398) Florence Mills, US singer, died in new York (born 25; January 1895 in Washington DC)


30 October 1927, Sunday (-6,400) Admiral Paul Kondouriotis, the President of Greece, survived an assassination attempt by a 25-year-old waiter. Zafioios Goussies shot President Kondouriotis in the head as the he was leaving a conference of Greece's mayors in Athens.

29 October 1927, Saturday (-6,401) Russian archaeologist Peter Kozlof discovered the tomb of Genghis Khan.

28 October 1927, Friday (-6,402) The Monte Orso rail tunnel, Italy, 7.5 km long, opened. Also the Vivola tunnel, Italy, 7 km long, opened. Also the Monte Massico rail tunnel, Italy, 5.5 km long, opened.

26 October 1927, Wednesday (-6,404)

25 October 1927, Tuesday (-6,405) Barbara Cook, US actress, was born in Atlanta, Georgia.

24 October 1927, Monday (-6,406) Gilbert Becaud, French composer, was born in Toulon.

23 October 1927, Sunday (-6,407)

21 October 1927, Friday (+6,409) Nadia Nerina, ballerina, was born

20 October 1927, Thursday (-6,410) Ronald Pearsall, writer, was born (died 27 September 2005)

19 October 1927, Wednesday (-6,411) Francis Birtles left London on the first overland trip to Australia by car. He arrived in Sydney on 15 July 1928.

18 October 1927. Tuesday (-6,412) Dancing bears were banned from the streets of Berlin.

17 October 1927, Monday (-6,413) Norway elected its first Labour government.

16 October 1927, Sunday (-6,614) The first remnant of Peking Man, a tooth, was found by palaeontologist Anders Birger Bohlin at Chou K'ou Tien (Zhoukoudian), under sponsorship of Davidson Black, who gave it the scientific name Sinanthropus pekinensis. More remains would be discovered over the next ten years, and reclassified as Homo erectus pekinensis, estimated to be more than 300,000 years old.

15 October 1927. Saturday (-6,415) (1) Britain�s Public Morals Committee attacked the use of contraceptives for �causing poor hereditary stock�.

(2) Iraq made its first oil strike, at Kirkuk.

14 October 1927, Friday (-6,416) Dieudonne Costas and Joseph Le Brix became the first persons to fly an airplane across the South Atlantic Ocean, and the first to make an east-to-west transatlantic crossing, departing Saint-Louis, Senegal and arriving in Port Natal, Brazil 21 hours and 15 minutes later, at 11:40 pm local time.

13 October 1927, Thursday (-6,417) Britain�s first veteran car rally took place.It was organised by the Daily Sketch, and took place in London, with 43 entrants.

10 October 1927, Monday (-6,420) �������������������������������������������������������

6 October 1927. Thursday (-6,424) The first full length talking picture, The Jazz Singer, opened in New York. The soundtrack was almost entirely music. The biggest problem with sound movies was synchronising speech with mouth movements.

5 October 1927. Wednesday (-6,425) The Labour Party voted to nationalise the coal mines at its party conference at Blackpool.

1 October 1927, Saturday (-6,429) Sandy Gall, broadcaster, was born.


27 September 1927, Tuesday (-6,433) Romano Scarpa, comic book illustrator, was born.

26 September 1927, Monday (-6,434) Romano Mussolini, jazz musician (son of Benito Mussolini), was born (died 3 February 2006)

25 September 1927, Sunday (-6,435) Colin Davis, conductor, was born

22 September 1927. Thursday (-6,438) Sierra Leone abolished domestic slavery.

20 September 1927, Tuesday (-6,440) General elections in the Irish Free State gave Cosgrave 61 seats to 57 for Fianna Fail; overall government majority of 6.

19 September 1927, Monday (-6,441) A Communist uprising in Guangdong (Canton) was easily crushed. However under a new leader, Mao Zedong, it would develop into a stronger Party based on peasant support.

18 September 1927, Sunday (-6,442) Phyllis Kirk, actress, was born (died 19 October 2006).

16 September 1927. Friday (-6,444) President Von Hindenburg repudiated German responsibility for the Great War (World War One).

14 September 1927, Wednesday (-6,446) US dancer Isadora Duncan, aged 49, was strangled to death when her long scarf became tangled in the rear wheel of a sports car.

8 September 1927, Thursday (-6,452) In Edinburgh, theTrades Union Congress voted to cut ties with Soviet trades unions.

7 September 1927, Wednesday (-6,453) (China) Mao Tse Tung led a Communist uprising in the rural province of Hunan.

5 September 1927, Monday (-6,455) Malcolm Allison, footballer, was born in Dartford, England.

2 September 1927, Friday (-6,458) (Turkey) Mustafa Kemal made Turkey a one-party state.

1 September 1927, Thursday (-6,459) (Atomic) German physicist Werner Karl Heisenberg formulated his famous Uncertainty Principle � the more one knows about the position of a subatomic particle, the less one knows about its motion, and vice versa.


27 August 1927, Saturday (-6,464) (Women�s Rights, Canada) Emily Gowan Murphy (maiden name Ferguson, born 14 March 1868 in Cookstown, Ontario), petitioned the Canadian Government to have women recognised as full legal �persons�. She had been instrumental in passing the Dower Act (1911),giving women a share in their husband�s property, and in 1916 Murphy had been appointed as the first woman magistrate in the British Empire. However on her first day as magistrate, a lawyer challenged her appointment as illegal as she was not a �person� under Canadian law. Murphy began a legal battle to overturn this law, petitioning the Canadian Government this day. On 14 March 1928 the Supreme Court of Canada decided against Murphy and four other campaigners, Nellie McClung, Irene Parlby, Henrrietta Muir andLouise McKinney. The�Famous Five� took their case to the British Privy Council, where they finally won on 18 October 1929. Murphy died of diabetes in 1933.

23 August 1927, Tuesday (-6,468) Allan Kaprow, artist, was born (died 5 April 2006)

18 August 1927, Thursday (-6,473) (USA) Rosalynn Carter, wife of Jimmy Carter, 39th US President, was born in Plains, Georgia, as Rosalynn Smith.

13 August 1927, Saturday (-6,478) HermannAlbert, German musicologist, died in Stuttgart (born 25 March 1871, Stuttgart).

12 August 1927, Friday (-6,479) Eamon de Valera took his seat in the Irish Dail.

11 August 1927, Thursday (-6,480) Raymond Leppard, conductor, was born

7 August 1927, Sunday (-6,484) The Peace Bridge opened between Canada and the USA.

1 August 1927, Monday (-6,490) The Nanchang Army uprising against the Kuomintang. The Chinese Communist Party considers this the date of the founding of the Red Army.


31 July 1927, Sunday (-6,491) Peter Nichols, playwright, was born

30 July 1927, Saturday (-6,492) Stan Stennett, actor, was born

26 July 1927, Tuesday (-6,496) Danny la Rue, entertainer, was born

24 July 1927, Sunday (-6,498) The Menin Gate, a memorial at Ypres to the soldiers of the British Empire, was unveiled by Lord Plumer.

23 July 1927, Saturday (-6,499) An exhibition housing estate opened to the public in Weissenhof, near Stuttgart, Germany. Designed by 16 leading Modernist architects, the flats were high-standard but cheap through use of prefabricated components.

22 July 1927, Friday (-6,500)

21 July 1927, Thursday (-6,501) US warships returned to Nicaragua, and some 2,000 Marines landed. Sandino joined the foight against the USA the USA prepared to supervise further Nicaraguan elections.

20 July 1927, Wednesday (-6,502) King Ferdinand of Romania died, aged 61. He was succeeded by his nephew, 5-year old Michael I.

18 July 1927, Monday (-6,504) (1) The Somport rail tunnel, 8 km long, between France and Spain, opened.

(2) The first motor races were held at the Nurburgring, Germany.

16 July 1927, Saturday (-6,506) Robert Evans, footballer, was born in Glasgow.

15 July 1927. Friday (-6,507) Vienna faced a General Strike as Socialists rioted. The left wing was upset that Austrian courts were much more lenient on offences committed by right-wing offenders, even up to murder.

14 July 1927, Thursday (-6,508) The Prince of Wales opened the Scottish National War Memorial in Edinburgh, It now contains the names of over 100,000 Scots who died in both World Wars.

13 July 1927, Wednesday (-6,509)

11 July 1927. Monday (-6,511) The LNER (London and North Eastern Railway) inaugurated a non-stop service between London and Newcastle on Tyne. On 1 May 1928 the LNER inaugurated the longest non-stop train service in the world, from London Kings Cross to Edinburgh, 392 � miles. The 392 mile journey took 7 hours, 27 minutes.

10 July 1927, Sunday (-6,512) In Ireland, Kevin O�Higgins, Nationalist Minister, was assassinated. This brought denunciation on the Republicans, and the Irish Dail passed the Public Safety Act. This declared revolutionary societies to be treasonable, and gave the Irish Government increased security powers.

9 July 1927, Saturday (-6,513) John Drew, US actor, died in San Francisco, California (born 13 November 1853 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)

8 July 1927, Friday (-6,514) Charles Lindbergh inaugurated the Transcontinental Air Transport airline with the first passenger flight from New York to Los Angeles. The trip took 48 hours.

7 July 1927. Thursday (-6,515) Christopher Stone became the first disc jockey on British radio when he presented his record round up from Savoy Hill.

6 July 1927, Wednesday (-6,516) The Church of England approved revisions to the Book of Common Prayer.

5 July 1927, Tuesday (-6,517) (Chemistry) Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel, German biochemist, was born in Heidelberg.

4 July 1927, Monday (-6,518) Gina Lollobrigida, Hollywood actress, was born.

3 July 1927, Sunday (-6,519) Ken Russell, film director, was born.

2 July 1927, Saturday (-6,520) Brock Peters, actor, was born (died 23 August 2005)


30 June 1927, Thursday (-6,522)

29 June 1927, Wednesday (-6,523) Piero Dorazio, artist, was born (died 17 May 2005)

28 June 1927, Tuesday (-6,524) Correlli Barnet, author, was born

25 June 1927, Saturday (-6,527) Professor Sir Arnold Wolfendale, astronomer, was born.

23 June 1927. Thursday (-6,529) Britain passed the Trades Disputes Act, making sympathetic strikes illegal. This was a consequence of the General Strike, to support the miners, which began on 3 May 1926.

20 June 1927, Monday (-6,532) (1) Fighting between Communists and Fascists in Hyde Park, London.

(2) Greyhound racing began at London�s White City Stadium.

(3) Naval disarmament conference began, between UK, USA, and Japan.The conference ended on 4 April 1927 without agreement.

19 June 1927, Sunday (-6,533) Karel Kupka, Czech composer, was born in Rychvald.

18 June 1927, Saturday (-6,534) (Food) Clarence Birdseye (1886-1956) took out a patent for �flash-freezing� of fish. Whilst cold storage of food was known beforehand, if it was only frozen slowly some spoilage of taste and appearance still occurred. Birdseye noticed that fish caught in winter and left exposed to freezing winds retained their taste as the froze quickly, His machine flash froze food under high pressure.

17 June 1927, Friday (-6,535) Alan Prescott, rugby player, was born.

16 June 1927, Thursday (-6,536) Thomas Graveney, cricketer, was born.

15 June 1927, Wednesday (-6,537) The flight from Amsterdam to Jakarta now took 15 days (see 10/1924, Aviation) each way.

14 June 1927, Tuesday (-6,538) British author Jerome K Jerome died.

13 June 1927, Monday (-6,539)

11 June 1927, Saturday (-6,541) Dame Beryl Grey, ballerina, was born.

10 June 1927, Friday (-6,542) Ladislav Kubala, footballer, was born in Hungary.

7 June 1927, Tuesday (-6,545)

5 June 1927, Sunday (-6,547) Thomas Harris, rugby player, was born.

4 June 1927. Saturday (-6,548) In Indonesia, Ahmed Sukarno founded the Indonesian Nationalist Party.

3 June 1927, Friday (-6,549) The first Ryder Cup Golf Match between the UK and USA was held in Worcester, Massachusetts. The USA won.

2 June 1927, Thursday (-6,550)

1 June 1927, Wednesday (-6,551) London�s new Regent Street was opened by King George V.


31 May 1927. Tuesday (-6,552) The last �tin lizzie�, came off the production line, almost unchanged since the model was introduced as the Model T Ford in 1908. 15,007,003 Model Ts were produced. It was replaced by the Model A. The Model T had become outdated, and Ford had lost first place in the market to General Motors. The first Model T made in 1908 cost US$ 850 but by 1927 they cost under US$ 300. Ford had also lost sales to the second hand market; other car manufacturers countered this by changing the model slightly each year.

29 May 1927, Sunday (-6,554)

27 May 1927, Friday (-6,556) Tomas Masaryk was re-elected President of Czechoslovakia.

26 May 1927, Thursday (-6,557) The 15 millionth Model T Ford was produced at the Ford Highland Park, Michigan, factory/ This marked the end of production for this model.

25 May 1927, Wednesday (-6,558) Robert Ludlum, spy novelist, was born.

24 May 1927. Tuesday (-6,559) Britain severed relations with the USSR amid allegations of subversion and espionage throughout the British Empire. On 9 June 1927 the USSR executed 20 people accused of being British spies.

23 May 1927, Monday (-6,560)

22 May 1927, Sunday (-6,561) Earthquake in China killed 200,000.

21 May 1927. Saturday (-6,562) Charles A Lindbergh completed the first solo Atlantic flight. He took off from Roosevelt Field, Long Island, flew his monoplane Spirit of St Louis for 33 � hours, and landed at Le Bourget airfield, Paris. Landing in Paris, he won the US$ 25,000 prize for the first solo flight across the Atlantic.

20 May 1927. Friday (-6,563) Britain recognised the independence of Saudi Arabia, under the Treaty of Jeddah.

16 May 1927, Monday (-6,567) Nilton Santos, Brazilian footballer, was born.

14 May 1927. Saturday (-6,569) The BBC broadcast its first cricket commentary, from the Essex vs. New Zealand match at Leyton, east London.

11 May 1927, Wednesday (-6,572) (Road Traffic) Francis Davis filed a patent for power steering of vehicles. Whilst cars at the time did not need this technology, the heavier trucks and buses of the 1920s did. Additionally, uneven roads could jar the steering, causing the drover to experience �wheel fight�. General Motors took out a licence on the new invention; however the Depression caused them to delay plans for its use until 1941. By then World War Two caused further delays, and the technology was not fitted to passenger cars until 1951 by Chrysler.

9 May 1927. Monday (-6,574) Parliament House, Canberra, opened. Canberra became the new capital of Australia, replacing Melbourne.

3 May 1927, Tuesday (-6,580) Ernest R Ball, US composer, died in Santa Ana, California (born 21 July 1878 in Cleveland, Ohio)

2 May 1927, Monday (-6,581) (Medical) Ernest Henry Starling, English physiologist, died at sea near Kingston, Jamaica.

1 May 1927, Sunday (-6,582) The first airline cooked meals were served, from a galley aboard the Imperial Airways Silver Ewing London to Paris flights. The galley could serve up to 18 passengers.


29 April 1927, Friday (-6,585) William Slater, footballer, was born.

27 April 1927, Wednesday (-6,586) Coretta Scott King, writer, writer, was born.

26 April 1927, Tuesday (-6,587) Philomena Garvey, golfer, was born.

24 April 1927, Sunday (-6,589)

22 April 1927, Friday (-6,591) Start of the Great Mississippi Flood, until 5 May 1927. 246 people were killed.

21 April 1927. Thursday (-6,592) The National Museum of Wales opened in Cardiff.

19 April 1927, Tuesday (-6,594) The US actress Mae West was convicted of obscenity for writing, producing and directing a Broadway musical called Sex. The play had already been running for a year and been seen by 325,000 peoplebefore the New York Police Department closed it down.

17 April 1927, Sunday (-6,596) Easter Sunday.

16 April 1927, Saturday (-6,597) Pope Benedict XVI was boorn.

14 April 1927, Thursday (-6,599) the first Volvo car was manufactured in Gothenburg, Sweden

12 April 1927, Tuesday (-6,601) Chiang Kai Shek massacred his former Communist allies in Shanghai.

7 April 1927, Thursday (-6,606) The comedian A Dolan was televised in Whippany, New Jersey, making him the first televised comedian.

6 April 1927, Wednesday (-6,607) Chinese police raided the Soviet Embassy in Beijing, seizing incriminating evidence of subversion. Several Communist leaders were later executed.

5 April 1927, Tuesday (-6,608) (Italy, East Europe) Hungary signed a �Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation� with the Italian leader, Mussolini. Hungary needed allies, and Italy strengthened its influence in the Danube Basin.

2 April 1927, Saturday (-6,611) The Oxford and Cambridge boat race was first broadcast.


29 March 1927. Tuesday (-6,615) A new land speed record of 203.841 mph was set by Major Harry Seagrave at the Daytona Beach racetrack, Florida.

27 March 1927, Sunday (-6,617) Mstislav Rostropovich, cellist, was born (died 27 April 2007).

26 March 1927. Saturday (-6,618) The Gaumont British Film Corporation was founded.

24 March 1927, Thursday (-6,620) In China, the Guomindang took Shanghai. Jiang Jeishi now began negotiations with wealthy Shanghai bankers and turned on his former Communist allies.

22 March 1927, Tuesday (-6,622) Kuomintang troops entered Shanghai, Kiangsu Province.

21 March 1927. Monday (-6,623) The victorious army of Chiang Kai-Shek entered Shanghai. In April 1927 he mounted an offensive against trade unionists and Communists, driving them into the countryside.

19 March 1927, Saturday (-6,625)

18 March 1927, Friday (-6,626) John Harold Kander, US composer, was born in Kansas City

17 March 1927, Thursday (-6,627) Patrick Allen, actor, was born (died 28 July 2006)

14 March 1927, Monday (6,630) Founding of Pan-American World Airways (Pan-Am) to carry airmails between Key West (Florida) and Havana (Cuba).

11 March 1927, Friday (-6,633) Ron Todd, leader of the Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU) was born (died 30 April 2005).

10 March 1927, Thursday (-6,634) Robert Kearns, inventor of the intermittent windscreen wiper system for vehicles in 1967, was born,

9 March 1927, Wednesday (+6,635)

8 March 1927, Tuesday (-6,636) Archaeologists discovered a 5,000-year-old manicure kit in Iran.

7 March 1927,Monday (-6,635) Betty Leslie-Melville, wildlife conservationist, was born (died 23 September 2005)

3 March 1927, Thursday (-4,641) John Parry Thomas, motor car racer, died.

1 March 1927, Tuesday (-6,643) Coal mine explosion in Ebbw Vale, Glamorgan, killed 50 and trapped 150 miners. ====================================================================================

28 February 1927, Monday (-6,644) In Britain severe gales with wind speeds up to 160 kph / 102 mph.

24 February 1927, Thursday (-4,648) Kuomintang forces entered Hangchow, Chekiang Province.

22 February 1927, Tuesday (-6,650)

21 February 1927, Monday (-6,651) Erma Bombeck, writer, was born.

20 February 1927, Sunday (-6,652) French fashion designer Hubert Taffin de Givenchy was born.

18 February 1927, Friday (-6,654) (Canada) Canada and the US established diplomatic relations

10 February 1927, Thursday (-6,662) Leontyne Price, soprano singer, was born.

9 February 1927, Wednesday (-6,663) Norman Adams, artist, was born (died 10 March 2005).

8 February 1927. Tuesday (-6,664) The revised book of common prayer introduced sex equality to the Church of England wedding service.

7 February 1927, Monday (-6,665) Emile Coue, French psychotherapist, died at Nancy.

5 February 1927, Saturday (-6,667)

4 February 1927. Friday (-6,668) Malcolm Campbell set a new world land speed record of 174.224 mph in his car, Bluebird, on Pendine Sands.

3 February 1927, Thursday (-6,669) In Portugal, a revolt began against dictator General Carmona; the revolt was defeated on 13 February 1927.

2 February 1927, Wednesday (-6,670) Stan Getz, US jazz saxophonist, was born in Philadelphia.


31 January 1927, Monday (-6,672) 12,000 British troops were ordered to China to defend British nationals in Shanghai, where the civil war was posing a threat to foreigners.

29 January 1927. Saturday (-6,674) In London the Park Lane Hotel opened, the first with en-suite bathrooms.

28 January 1927, Friday (+6,675) Ronnie Scott, British jazz saxophonist., was born in London

27 January 1927, Thursday (-6,676) Nina Milkina, Russian-born pianist, was born (died 29 November 2006)

24 January 1927, Monday (-6,679) The British Medical Association warned that cancer deaths, especially of the chest and tongue, had risen sharply in the past 20 years. Smoking had become much more popular over this period.

22 January 1927. Saturday (-6,681) The BBC broadcast its first football match; between Arsenal and Sheffield United.The result was a draw, 1-1.

21 January 1927, Friday (-6,682) Telly Savalas, American film actor who played �Kojak�, was born in Garden City, New York.

20 January 1927, Thursday (-6,683) Geoffrey Atkins, British rackets player, was born.

15 January 1927. Saturday (-6,688) (1) Winston Churchill met Mussolini in Italy.

(2) Founding of the Boeing Air Transport Company, to carry airmail between San Francisco and Chicago.

10 January 1927, Monday (-6,693) The futuristic film Metropolis, by Fritz Lang, premiered. It was the most expensive silent film made so far, costing 7 million German Marks, equivalent to US$ 200 million in 2005.

9 January 1927. Sunday (-6,694) Greta Garbo and John Gilbert-real life lovers � shocked cinemagoers in New York by their uninhibited kissing in the silent film Flesh and the Devil.

8 January 1927. Saturday (-6,695) The first scheduled flight from London to Delhi arrived in India.

7 January 1927. Friday (-6,696) (1) The transatlantic telephone service between London and New York began. The charge was �15 for three minutes.

(2) The Harlem Globetrotters basketball team was founded.

4 January 1927, Tuesday (-6,699)

2 January 1927, Sunday (-6,701) Catholic rebels in Mexico launched the Cristero War against the Mexican Government (until 1929)

1 January 1927. Saturday (-6,702) (1) The British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, came into being. It had formerly been the British Broadcasting Company.

(2) Hungary reformed its currency with a new unit, the Pengo, equivalent to 12,500 paper Crowns. The country had suffered rampant inflation in the early 1920s, and the League of Nations now helped with economic reconstruction.


31 December 1926, Friday (-6,703)

30 December 1926, Thursday (-6,704) Clifford Williams, theatre director, was born (died 20 August 2005)

29 December 1926, Wednesday (-6,705) Rainer Maria Rilke, Austrian poet, died.

25 December 1926. Saturday (-6,709) Emperor Hirohito ascended the Japanese throne after the death of his father Emperor Yoshihito.He died in January 1989 after 62 years as Emperor.

23 December 1926, Thursday (-6,711) Charlie Williams, comedian, was born (died 2 September 2006)

20 December 1926, Monday (-6,714) The first underground railway in Australia opened, in Sydney.

15 December 1926. Wednesday (-6,719) The Italian fascist party adopted the Roman symbol of authority, the fasces, or bundle of sticks, and origin of the word �fascist,, as its symbol.

8 December 1926, Wednesday (-6,726) Joachim Fest, historical writer, was born (died 11 September 2006)

6 December 1926. Monday (-6,728) The impressionist painter Claude Monet died as a recluse in Coventry, aged 86.


27 November 1926. Saturday (-6,737) (1) Vesuvius erupted.

(2) Italy and Albania signed the Treaty of Tirana, effectively making Albania an Italian Protectorate. Britain formally recognised the Treaty, angering France, who saw the Balkans as their sphere of influence.

26 November 1926, Friday (-6,738) Karl Mullen, rugby player, was born.

23 November 1926, Tuesday (-6,741) RL Burnside, Blues musician, was born (died 1 September 2005)

20 November 1926. Saturday (-6,744) The Commonwealth was born out of the British Empire. Britain decided that the self-governing dominions of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Newfoundland should have equal status with Britain as members of a �commonwealth of nations�. Ireland also became independent. The status of India was unchanged.

19 November 1926. Friday (-6,745) British striking miners returned to work, after a six-month strike, agreeing to work longer hours in return for no pay cut.

16 November 1926, Tuesday (-6,748)

13 November 1926, Saturday (-6,751) In Italy, Mario de Bernardi set a new seaplane speed record of 246 mph.

12 November 1926, Friday (-6,752) Nationalist revolt against Dutch rule in Java, Indonesia.

11 November 1926, Thursday (-6,753) The UScommercial broadcaster NBC(National Broadcasting Company) was founded

10 November 1926, Wednesday (-6,754)

9 November 1926, Tuesday (-6,755) Piero Cappuccilli, baritone singer, was born (died 12 July 2005)

8 November 1926, Monday (-6.756) (Communism, Italy) Italian Communist Antonio Gramsci was jailed. He had started the Italian Communist Party in 1921, and by 1924 was party leader and heading the fight against Mussolini�s Fascism. He was imprisoned as part of a fascist crackdown on its opponents, and in 1928 Gramsci�s prison term was extended to 28 years. In prison in Rome he wrote Prison Notebooks, detailing his theory of cultural hegemony, the process whereby the working class take on the values and interests of the middle and upper classes. Gramsci argued that the working class needed to develop its own distinctive culture before a true Communist revolution was possible, this process requiring intellectuals from the working class to create this culture. He died in prison in 1937 and his sister in law, Tatiana, smuggled his works out of the prison and sent them in a diplomatic bag to Moscow. His writings were not published until after World War Two had ended.

7 November 1926, Sunday (-6,757) Dame Joan Sutherland, opera singer, was born.

6 November 1926, Saturday (-6,758) Frank Carson, comedian, was born

5 November 1926, Friday (-6,759)

4 November 1926, Thursday (-6,760) Queen Astrid of Belgium (1905-35), daughter of Charles of Sweden and Princess Ingeborg of Denmark, married Leopold III, Crown Prince of Belgium, who became King of Belgium on 23 February 1934.Mother of King Baudouin I of Belgium, she was killed in a car accident near Kussnacht, Switzerland.

3 November 1926, Wednesday (-6,761) Annie Oakley, sharpshooter, died.

2 November 1926. Tuesday (-6,762) Imperial Chemical Industries, ICI, was formed, from the merger of four companies; Brunner Mond, Nobel Industries, United Alkali and BritishDyestuffs.


31 October 1926. Sunday (-6,764) (1) The USA magician and escapologist Harry Houdini died, aged 52. He was born as Ehrich Weisz in Hungary and adopted his later name from the conjuror Robert Houdin whose autobiography he read as a young boy. .Determined to match Houdin�s achievements and to haul his family out of poverty, Houdini ran away to New York to begin a life in magic and entertainment which would enthral thousands. He escaped from handcuffs in an underwater nailed packing crate, and later exposed many psychic frauds. Whilst giving a lecture on spiritualism in Montreal, Houdini was asked if he could withstand a blow to the abdomen. Before he had a chance to prepare himself, Houdini was struck three times by a student. Despite this he managed to perform again, but died of peritonitis in a Detroit hospital a few days later.

(2) Jimmy Savile, British radio and TV presenter, was born in Leeds, Yorkshire.

(3) An attempt was made on Mussolini�s life. This gave him the excuse to remove more civil liberties.

28 October 1926, Thursday (-6,767) Jon Vickers, tenor singer, was born

23 October 1926, Saturday (-6,772) In Russia, Leon Trotsky and Zinoviev were ousted from the Politburo.

20 October 1926, Wednesday (+6,775) Lord Montague of Beaulieu was born

18 October 1926, Monday (-6,777) Chuck Berry, US singer, was born.

16 October 1926, Saturday (-6,779) A troopship exploded on the Yangtze River, China, killing 1,200 people.

15 October 1926, Friday (-6,780) Ignaz Seipel formed a Christian Socialist Government in Austria, replacing Rudolf Ramek.

14 October 1926. Thursday (-6,781) In Britain, AA Milne published the first Winnie the Pooh, children�s book. It was inspired by his son Christopher Robin�s love for a bear in London Zoo called Winnipeg.

13 October 1926, Wednesday (-6,782)

12 October 1926, Tuesday (-6,783) Nikita Simonian, Russian footballer, was born.

11 October 1926. Monday(-6,784) Children�s Hour started on BBC Radio.

10 October 1926, Sunday (-6,785) Kuomintang troops entered Wuchang, Kiangsi Province.

7 October 1926. Thursday (-6,788) Mussolini decreed the Fascist party to be the State Party; all opposition was banned.

3 October 1926, Sunday (-6,792) At Chiswick, London, Violet Percy became the first woman to run a marathon. She took 3 hours 4o minutes.

2 October 1926, Saturday (-6,793) In Poland, Jozef Piludski became Prime Minister.

1 October 1926, Friday (-6,794) Alan Cobham made a round the world flight in 58 days.


28 September 1926, Tuesday (-6,797) Ford opened a sales office in Alexandria, Egypt.

26 September 1926, Sunday (-6,799) Two Lufthansa Junker planes completed a round trip from Berlin to Beijing and back, having departed on 24 July 1926.

25 September 1926, Saturday (-6,800) Italy began a campaign against the Mafia in Sicily.

23 September 1926, Thursday (-6,802) John Coltrane, jazz musician, was born.

20 September 1926, Monday (-6,805) Frederick Winter, champion jockey, was born.

19 September 1926, Sunday (-6,806) Arthur Wills, composer, was born

17 September 1928, Friday (-6,808)

16 September 1926, Thursday (-6,809) Tommy Bond, actor, was born (died 23 September 2005)

15 September 1926, Wednesday (-6,810) �Jelly Roll� Morton and his band, the Red Hot Peppers, released their first record. Their blend of ragtime with brass band style was a key stage in the development of jazz.

14 September 1926, Tuesday (-6,811) Michel Butor, French novelist, was born.

12 September 1926, Sunday (-6,813) David Valentine, rugby player, was born (died 14 August 1976).

10 September 1926, Friday (-6,815) Beryl Cook, painter, was born.

8 September 1926. Wednesday (-6,817) The League of Nations voted to admit Germany as a member. On 11 September 1926 Spain left the League in protest at Germany joining.

7 September 1926. Tuesday (-6,818) (1) Spain left the League of Nations after being denied a permanent seat on the council.

(2) Kuomintang troops entered Wuchang, Hupeh Province.

4 September 1926, Saturday (-6,821)

3 September 1926, Friday (-6,822) Alison Lurie, US writer, was born.

2 September 1926, Thursday (-6,823) Italy agreed a treaty with Yemen; Italy was attempting to control the eastern coast of the Red Sea.

1 September 1926, Wednesday (-6,824) (1) Civil marriage was established in Turkey.

(2) Adbur Rahman Biswas, President of Bangladesh, was born.


31 August 1926, Tuesday (-6.825)

30 August 1926, Monday (-6,826) General Motors New Zealand began operations, at Petone.

29 August 1926. Sunday (-6,827) A Nazi Party rally was held at Nuremberg.

26 August 1926, Thursday (-6,830) British physicist Paul Dirac, independently of Fermi, also explained the existence of fundamental particles.

24 August 1926, Tuesday (-6,832)

23 August 1926, Monday (-6,833) Rudolf Valentino, Hollywood film star, died.

22 August 1926, Sunday (-6,834) Theodore Pangalos, Greek dictator, was deposed and imprisoned in Crete.

21 August 1926, Saturday (-6,835) Kuomintang troops took Changsha, Hunan Province.

20 August 1926, Friday (-6,836) William Trew, rugby player, died.

18 August 1926, Wednesday (-6,838)

17 August 1926, Tuesday (-6,839) George Melly, jazz musician, was born (died 5 July 2007).

16 August 1926, Monday (-6,840) Channing Pollock, magician, was born (died 18 March 2006)

15 August 1928, Sunday (-6,841)

14 August 1926, Saturday (-6,842) Buddy Greco, singer, was born

13 August 1926. Friday (-6,843) Cuban revolutionary and leader Fidel Castro was born near Biran, the son of a sugar planter.

11 August 1926, Wednesday (-6,845) Sir Aaron Klug, biochemist, was born.

7 August 1926. Saturday (-6,849) The first motor racing Grand Prix in Britain was held at Brooklands, with the winning car averaging 71.61 mph.The race was over 110 laps, or 287 miles.

6 August 1926, Friday (-6,850) American Gertrude Ederle became the first woman to swim the English Channel. It took her 14 hours 30 minutes to complete the crossing.

5 August 1926. Thursday (-6,851) Houdini, the famous escapologist and magician, survived for 1 � hours in a bronze coffin in a hotel swimming pool in Los Angeles.

4 August 1926, Wednesday (-6,852) Umberto Nobile was feted in Rome for his part in the recent North Pole expedition, as 20,000 filled the square in front of the Palazzo Chigi.

3 August 1926. Tuesday (-6,853) Britain�s first traffic lights went into operation in Piccadilly Circus, London.


31 July 1926, Saturday (-6,856)

30 July 1926, Friday (-6,857) The boundaries of Albania were formally agreed by Greece and Yugoslavia.

26 July 1926, Monday (-6,861) The French Government made Roquefort Cheese a geographically-protected brand, passing a law that this cheese can only be made in the limestone caves of Roquefort, near Toulouse. This was the first law of its kind.

24 July 1926. Saturday (-6,863) The first greyhound racing track was opened by Brigadier Critchley, at Belle Vue in Manchester.

22 July 1926, Thursday (-6,865) Bryan Forbes, film producer, was born.

21 July 1926, Wednesday (-6.866) Bill Pertwee, actor, was born

18 July 1926, Sunday (-6,869) Richard Pasco, actor, was born.

15 July 1926, Thursday (-6,872) In Vienna, 2 Right-wing militia men were acquitted of murder., this led to riots between Socialist and Right wing groups in which 85 protestors and 4 policemen died.

14 July 1926, Wednesday (-6,873) Harry Dean Stanton, actor, was born.

12 July 1926, Monday (-6,875) Gertrude Bell, writer, was born.

10 July 1926, Saturday (-6,877) Kenneth Richmond, wrestler, was born.

8 July 1926, Thursday (-6,879) Elisabeth Kubler Ross, psychiatrist, was born.

7 July 1926, Wednesday (-6,880) John Cronshey, speed skater, was born.

6 July 1926, Tuesday (-6,881) A White man was speared by an indigenous Australian,because the White man was beating the Australianwith a whip. This provoked a killing spree of some 100 indigenous Australians by Australian police.

4 July 1926, Sunday (-6,883) Alfredo di Stefano, Spanish footballer, was born in apoor suburb of Buenos Aires.

2 July 1926, Friday (-6,885) Hans Werner Henze, composer, was born.


30 June 1926, Wednesday (-6,887) (Biology) Paul Berg was born in New York City, USA. In 1974 he recommended a halt to genetic engineering experiments.

29 June 1926. Tuesday (-6,888) In Italy, Mussolini increased the working day by one hour.

28 June 1926, Monday (-6,889) In Canada, W L MacKenzie King resigned as a result of the Canadian Customs scandal. Arthur Meighen formed a Liberal Government,

26 June 1926, Saturday (-6,891)

23 June 1926, Wednesday (-6,894) Hank Shaw, trumpeter, was born (died 26 October 2006)

22 June 1926, Tuesday (-6,895) Canada took a further step towards complete independence within the Commonwealth by declaring that any treaty requiring Canadian military or economic participation must be ratified by the Canadian Parliament.

19 June 1926, Saturday (-6,898)

17 June 1926, Thursday (-6,900) Professor Sir Alan Walters, economist and writer, was born.

14 June 1926, Monday (-6,903) Mary Cassatt, artist, died.

12 June 1926. Saturday (-6,905) Brazil left the League of Nations.

11 June 1926, Friday (-6,906) Maiden flight of the Ford 4AT trimotor plane.

10 June 1926, Thursday (-6,907) Spanish architect Gaudi y Cornet died. His most famous building is the Sagrada Familia cathedral in Barcelona.

9 June 1926, Wednesday (-6,908) Sanford Ballard Dole, Hawaiian statesman (born 23 April 1844 in Honolulu) died in Honolulu.

7 June 1926, Monday (-6,910)

5 June 1926, Saturday (-6,912) At the Treaty of Angora, Turkey accepted the Brussels line, setting the northern boundary of Iraq, and including Mosul within Iraq.Turkey was to receive a share of oil revenues from Mosul for the next 25 years, and to be compensated for public works carried out around Mosul.

4 June 1926, Friday (-6,913) Frederick Spofforth, Australian cricketer, died.

3 June 1926, Thursday (-6,914) Allan Ginsberg, US poet, was born.

2 June 1926, Wednesday (-6,915) Jonas Staugaitis was elected head of the Seimas in Lithuania.

1 June 1926, Tuesday (-6,916) Marilyn Monroe, American film actress, was born in Los Angeles, California, as Norma Jean Baker.


31 May 1926, Monday (-6,917) In Poland, the Parliament elected Jozef Piludski as leader, but he declined to take the office. On 1 June 1926, Ignace Moscicki was elected in his place.

30 May 1926, Sunday (-6,918) Christine Jorgensen, campaigner for trans-gender rights, was born,

28 May 1926, Friday (-6,920) A coup in Portugal established a military dictatorship.

26 May 1926, Wednesday (-6,922) Joseph Horowitz, composer, was born in Vienna

25 May 1926, Tuesday (-6,923) Jazz musician Miles Davis was born.

23 May 1926, Sunday (-6,925) In Morocco, the French seized Rif, and the rebel leader Abd El Krim surrendered.

20 May 1926, Thursday (-6,928) (Aviation) US Congress passed the Air Commerce Act, marking the start of greater Government regulation of the aviation industry. The Act provided for licencing of aircraft and pilots.

19 May 1926, Wednesday (-6,929) David Jacobs, broadcaster, was born.

18 May 1926, Tuesday (-6,930) The Preparatory Commission for a World Disarmament Conference held its first meeting, The US, UK and Japan attended, but the USSR did not.

17 May 1926, Monday (-6,931)

16 May 1926, Sunday (-6,932) Eamon de Valera, former President of Sinn Fein, inaugurated the new political party of Fianna Fail (�Soldier of Destiny�) at the La Scala theatre in Dublin. His main aim was the reunification of Ireland.

15 May 1926, Saturday (-6,933) Peter Shaffer, English playwright, was born (died 1926).

14 May 1926, Friday (-6,934) Josef Pilsudski seized power in a military coup in Poland.

13 May 1926, Thursday (-6,935)

12 May 1926. Wednesday (-6,936) (1) Striking miners in Britain resolved to carry on alone, after the TUC called off a general strike in support. See 1 May 1926.

(2) Roald Amundsen flew in the airship Norge over the North Pole. They had left Spitsbergen on 11/5 and landed on 14 May 1926 at Teller, Alaska.

11 May 1926, Tuesday (-6,937) Eamon de Valera resigned as leader of Sinn Feinn.

10 May 1926. Monday (-6,938) Striking UK miners grew angry as the army moved food from the docks by rail (see 1 May 1926). The Flying Scotsman was derailed in Northumberland, partly because the volunteer driver refused to heed warnings that the track ahead had been lifted. No serious injuries were caused, but the miners responsible got prison sentences of up to eight years.

9 May 1926, Sunday (-6,939) Richard Byrd, American explorer, made the first flight over the North Pole, with pilot Floyd Bennett.

8 May 1926, Saturday (-6,940) The naturalist and broadcaster Sir David Attenborough was born.

5 May 1926, Wednesday (-6,943) Professor John Vaughan, agricultural scientist, was born (died 17 May 2005)

3 May 1926, Monday (-6,945) The General Strike began in Britain.

2 May 1926, Sunday (-6,946) In Nicaragua, a revolt against the new President, Emiliano Chamorro, was underway. This day US troops landed in Nicaragua to protect US personnel and property interests there.

1 May 1926. Saturday (-6,947) (1) In Britain, a coal strike began over proposed pay cuts and longer working hours by the mine owners, faced with a slump in the coal trade (see 25 July 1925). The miners were locked out, and voted overwhelmingly for strike action. The first General Strike In British history began on 4 May 1926 when the TUC (Trades Union Congress) voted to back the striking miners. There were worries about a Communist revolution in Britain. On 11 May 1926 the engineering and ship workers unions called their men out on strike, but at this time negotiations were going on to end the strike. The TUC agreed to government terms but the miners did not. The TUC called off the General Strike on 12 May 1926 leaving the miners on their own. Many trains were run by volunteers, especially undergraduates and rail enthusiasts, and troops took over the unloading of food at London�s docks (see 10 May 1926). Students also drove lorries, trams, and buses, the illegality of this being ignored. On 23 June 1927 the Trades Disputes Act was passed, outlawing sympathetic strikes. The Trade Union movement suffered a setback; membership had been falling from a peak of 8.3 million in 1920 to 5.3 million in 1926, and further fell to 4.3 million by 1933. See 12 May 1926.

(2) Lufthansa began one of the world�s first passenger night routes, from Berlin to Konigsberg, using radio beacons.


30 April 1926, Friday (-6,948) Cloris Leachman, actress, was born.

28 April 1926, Wednesday (-6,950) Harper lLe, writer, was born.

26 April 1926, Monday (-6,952) In the USA, actress Mae West was arrested for �corrupting the morals of youth� with her play, Sex.

25 April 1926, Sunday (-6,953) First performance in Milan of Giacomo Puccini�s opera Turandot.

24 April 1926. Saturday (-6,954) Germany signed a friendship treaty with the USSR.

23 April 1926, Friday (-6,955) JP Donleavy, author, was born.

21 April 1926. Wednesday (-6,957) Queen Elizabeth II, crowned 1952, was born at 17 Bruton Street London. She was then called Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, the eldest daughter of George VI.

15 April 1926, Thursday (-6,963) Lord Gerard Fitt, Northern Ireland politician, was born (died 26 August 2005)

11 April 1926, Sunday (-6,967) Luther Burbank, botanist, died.

9 April 1926, Friday (-6,969) Hugh Hefner, publisher of Playboy, was born.

8 April 1926, Thursday (-6,970) Jurgen Moltmann, German theologian, was born.

7 April 1926. Wednesday (-6,971) (Italy) Mussolini survived an assassination attempt. Violet Gibson, Irish aristocrat, shot him but only managed to graze his nose.

6 April 1926, Tuesday (-6,972) (Ireland) The Northern Ireland politician, MP for Antrim, Ian Paisley was born.

5 April 1926, Monday (-6,973) Stan Levey, jazz drummer, was born (died 19 April 2005)

4 April 1926, Sunday (-6,974) Easter Sunday.

3 April 1926, Saturday (-6,975) (1) (Italy) In Italy the Ballilla, a Fascist youth organisation, was founded.

(2) (Space exploration) Virgil Grissom, third man in space, was born.

2 April 1926. Friday (-6,976) (India) In India, riots broke out between Hindus and Moslems. On 4 April 1926 martial law was declared in Calcutta.

1 April 1926, Thursday (-6,977)


31 March 1926, Wednesday (-6,978) John Fowles, author, was born (died 5 November 2005).

30 March 1926, Tuesday (-6,979) (Space exploration) American physicist Robert Hutchings Goddard successfully tested the world�s first liquid-propellant rocket. It reached a height of 56 metres and attained a speed of 97 kilometres per hour.

28 March 1926, Sunday (-6,981) Pahlan Ratanji Umrigar, cricketer, was born (died 7 November 2006)

24 March 1926, Wednesday (-6,985) Safeway opened stores in Maryland, USA.

16 March 1926, Tuesday (-6,993) US physicist Robert Goddard launched the first liquid fuel rocket, in Massachusetts. It rose to 12.5 metres.

13 March 1926. Saturday (-6,996) (Germany) Germany was refused a place on the League of Nations Council.

12 March 1926, Friday (-6,997) Freddie Williams, speedway champion, was born.

11 March 1926, Thursday (-6,998) (Ireland) Eamon de Valera resigned as leader of Sinn Feinn.

9 March 1926, Tuesday (-7,000) Jerry Ross, US composer, was born in New York (died 11 November 1955 in New York)

7 March 1926, Sunday (-7,002) Ernst Ocwirk, Austrian footballer, was born.

6 March 1926. Saturday (-7,003) (1) Alan Greenspan, Chairman of the US Federal Bank, was born.

(2) Fire destroyed the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford on Avon. Only a blackened shell was left.

4 March 1926, Thursday (-7,005) Don Rendell, jazz musician, was born.

1 March 1926, Monday (-7,008)


28 February 1926, Sunday (-7,009) The Selsdon to Woodside railway was electrified. Lewisham to New Beckenham was electrified. The Bromley North branch was electrified. The Addiscombe branch was electrified.

27 February 1926, Saturday (-7,010) David H Hubel, neuroscientist, was born.

25 February 1926, Thursday (-7,012) Franco became Spain�s youngest General, at age 33.

23 February 1926, Tuesday (-7,014)

18 February 1926, Thursday (-7,019) An Anglo-Persian oil treaty was signed, giving another 25-year oil exploration contract to the Anglo-Persian Oil Company.

17 February 1926, Wednesday (-7,020) Polygamy was prohibited in Turkey.

16 February 1926, Tuesday (-7,021) John Schlesinger, English actor, was born (died 2003).

14 February 1926, Sunday (-7,023)

12 February 1926. Friday (-7,025) Mussolini outlawed strikes in Italy.

11 February 1926, Thursday (-7,026) Leslie Nielsen, actor, was born.

10 February 1926, Wednesday (-7,027) Germany applied to join the League of Nations, Brazil and Spain blocked Germany�s admission, in protest at the plan to give Germany a seat on the Council, which they thought they should have instead.

9 February 1926, Tuesday (-7,028) Dr Garret Fitzgerald, Irish Prime Minister, was born in Dublin.

8 February 1926. Monday (-7,029) Germany applied to join the League of Nations.

7 February 1926, Sunday (-7,030) Enrico Fermi showed how f8undamenta; particles of matter obeyed the Exclusion Principle.

6 February 1926, Saturday (-7, 031)

3 February 1926. Wednesday (-7,034) Czech became the official language of Czechoslovakia.

2 February 1926, Tuesday (-7,035) Giscard D�Estang, French President, was born.


30 January 1926. Saturday (-7,038) British troops ended a 7-year occupation of the Rhineland.

27 January 1926. Wednesday (-7,041) Scottish inventor John Logie Baird, aged 38, demonstrated the principle of transmitting moving images by radio. The demonstration was to members of the Royal Institution, at his workshop in Soho, London. He called this �television�.

26 January 1926, Tuesday (-7,042) The Shipping Forecast was first broadcast on radio.

25 January 1926, Monday (-7,043) British surgeon Sir Berkeley Moynihan said cancer of the tongue is partly caused by smoking.

24 January 1926,Sunday (-7,044) The Week�s Good Cause was first broadcast on radio.

22 January 1926, Friday (-7,046)

21 January 1926, Thursday (-7,047) Sennar Dam, on the Nile, was completed.

20 January 1926, Wednesday (-7,048) Patricia Neal, actress, was born.

17 January 1926, Sunday (-7,051) Moira Shearer, ballerina, was born (died 31 January 2006)

15 January 1926, Friday (-7,053) Maria Schell, actress, was born.

14 January 1926, Thursday (-7,054) Warren Mitchell, actor, was born.

13 January 1926, Wednesday (-7,055) Michael Bond, author, was born,

12 January 1926. Tuesday (-7,056) In Paris, the Pasteur Institute announced the discovery of an anti-tetanus vaccine.

10 January 1926, Sunday (-7,058) Derek Hammond-Stroud, operatic baritone singer, was born.

8 January 1926. Friday (-7,060) The new King, Ibn Saud, 43, renamed Hejaz as Saudi Arabia.

7 January 1926, Thursday (-7,061) The Royal Academy of Italy was created.

6 January 1926. Wednesday (-7,062) The German airline Lufthansa was founded.

5 January 1926. Tuesday (-7,063) In the UK the Widow's Pension began to be paid at Post Offices.

4 January 1926, Monday (-7,064) In Bulgaria a moderate Government took power, and offered an amnesty to all political prisoners except Communists.

3 January 1926, Sunday (-7,065) In Greece, Pangalos assumed dictatorial powers; in April 1926 he was elected President.

1 January 1926, Friday (-7,067) The Nationalist Kuomintang government was established in southern China.


21 December 1925. Monday (-7,078) Battleship Potemkin, a film by Sergei Eisenstein, opened in the USSR.

19 December 1925, Saturday (+7,080) Robert B Sherman, US songwriter, was born in New York

18 December 1925. Friday (-7,081) Work began on the Mersey Road Tunnel, Liverpool.It opened on 18 July 1934.

17 December 1925, Thursday (-7,082) The siege of Jeddah ended in victory for Ibn Saud.

16 December 1925, Wednesday (-7,083) The League of Nations voted to uphold the Brussels Line, dividing Mosul villayet, see 21 November 1925, 29 October 1924.

15 December 1925, Tuesday (-7,084)

14 December 1925, Monday (-7,085) First performance in Berlin of Alban Berg�s opera Wozzeck.

13 December 1925, Sunday (-7,086) Reza Khan was proclaimed Shah of Iran.

12 December 1925. Saturday (-7,087) The world�s first motel opened in San Luis Obispo, California, starting a trend for overnight stops by motorists in individual accommodation.

10 December 1925, Thursday (-7,089)

8 December 1925, Tuesday (-7,091) Sammy Davis Junior, US actor, was born.

7 December 1925, Monday (-7,092) The legislature of the Philippines sent a petition to the United States Congress demanding independence.

6 December 1925, Sunday (-7,093) Italy agreed the frontier of Libya with Egypt.

5 December 1925, Saturday (-7,094) Medina capitulated to Ibn Saud.

4 December 1925, Friday (-7,095) The Italian Chamber of Deputies passed a law allowing the government to regulate rates of industrial production based on the needs of the country.

3 December 1925. Thursday (-7,096) Stanley Baldwin signed an agreement fixing the Northern Irish frontier with the Irish Free State. See 10 November 1925.

2 December 1925, Wednesday (-7,097) Julie Harris, actress, was born in Grosse Point, Michigan (died 2013)

1 December 1925, Tuesday (-7,098) The Peace of Locarno was signed (by UK, France, Italy, and Germany), guaranteeing peace and existing national frontiers in Europe.


30 November 1925, Monday (-7,099) The US sent warships to Hankow, China, to stop attacks by Communist Chinese on foreigners.

29 November 1925, Sunday (-7,100) Parliamentary elections were held in Uruguay. The National Party won the most seats but various factions of the Colorado Party formed a majority.

28 November 1925, Saturday (-7.101) The newly-rebuilt Madison Square Garden indoor arena opened in New York.

27 November 1925, Friday (-7,102) Aristide Briand formed a Government in France.

26 November 1925, Thursday (-7,103) The Republic of Mongolia was proclaimed, formally ending the feudal monarchy.

25 November 1925, Wednesday (-7,104) (1) In Turkey, Kemal Ataturk, as part of his Westernisation program, outlawed the traditional fez and substituted western hats.

(2) In Britain, 12 Communists arrested in October 1925 were jailed for sedition.

24 November 1925, Tuesday (-7,105) William F. Buckley, Jr, author, was born (died 2008)

23 November 1925, Monday (-7,106) Johnny Mandel, US composer, was born in New York

22 November 1925, Sunday (+7,107) Paul Painleve resigned as French Prime Minister when a credit moratorium article in his financial plan was defeated in the Chamber of Deputies by three votes.

21 November 1925, Saturday (-7,108) The Permanent Court of International Justice agreed to the Brussels Line, dividing Mosul villayet, see 29 October 1924, and 16 December 1925.

20 November 1925, Friday (-7,109) British MPs approved a 4-month prison sentence and �50 fine for drunk-driving.

17 November 1925, Tuesday (-7,112) Rock Hudson, US actor, was born.

15 November 1925, Sunday (-7,114) In Ireland the Legion of Mary was founded by Frank Duff, civil servant and former active member of the Society of St Vincent de Paul, to combat drunkenness, prostitution, crime and disease. Members went to the poorest parts of Dublin to advise women living in poverty and degradation.

14 November 1925, Saturday (-7,115) The first Surrealist art exhibition opened in Paris.

13 November 1925, Friday (-7,116) The South African Government called for more segregation of Black people.

12 November 1925, Thursday (-7,117) Roman Statkowski, Polish composer, died aged 65

11 November 1925, Wednesday (-7,118) Gunther Schuller, US composer, was born in Jackson Heights, New York

10 November 1925, Tuesday (-7,119) In Dublin, Eoin McNeill resigned from the boundary commission set up under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 to determine the Northern Irish border, see 10 May 1924. A leaked report and map in the Morning Post of 7 November 1925 indicated that, contrary to the expectations of the Dublin Government, the commission had recommended only very minor changes to the border. Northern Ireland would lose parts of south Armagh, south-west Fermanagh and west Tyrone, and gain small parts of Donegal and Monahan. Overall, Northern Ireland would lose just 1.8% of its population and 3.7% of its territory. Fearing defeat in the Dail, Irish Government leaders sought agreement with the London Government to suppress the commission�s report. Dublin had hoped for a major diminution of Northern Ireland, making it economically unviable so the remainder of it would have to join the South. See 3 December 1925.

9 November 1925. Monday (-7,120) The German Schutzstaffel, or Protection Squad (SS), was formed.

8 November 1925, Sunday (-7,121) The Democratic Party won a majority in Portuguese elections, gaining 83 of the 163 seats.

7 November 1925, Saturday (-7,122) Mary Duggan,cricketer, was born (died 10 March 1973).

6 November 1925, Friday (-7,123) Khai Dinh, Emperor of Vietnam, died.

5 November 1925. Thursday (-7,124) In Italy, Mussolini banned all left-wing parties

4 November 1925, Wednesday (-7,125)

1 November 1925, Sunday (-7,128) The Buster Keaton film Go West opened.


31 October 1925, Saturday (-7,129) Persian Majles deposed the Shah, Sultan Ahmad.

30 October 1925. Friday (-7,130) In his workshop in London, John Logie Baird achieved the first TV pictures using a dummy�s head. He then persuaded a 15 year old office boy, William Taynton, to sit in front of the camera to become the first live person captured on TV.

29 October 1925, Thursday (-7,131) Greek troops withdrew from Bulgaria, on orders from the League of Nations.

25 October 1925, Sunday (-7,135) General Emiliano Chamorro Vargas seized power in acoup. Vargas became President 1/1926.

23 October 1925, Friday (-7,137) Johnny Carson, TV presenter, was born (died 23 January 2005).

22 October 1925. Thursday (-7,138) Border dispute flared between Greece and Bulgaria.

20 October 1925, Tuesday (-7,140)

19 October 1925, Monday (-7,141) Ancient sea shells were discovered in the Sahara Desert, proving it had once been underwater.

18 October 1925. Sunday (-7,142) French fleet bombards Damascus following a Druze insurrection that began on 18 July 1925.

17 October 1925, Saturday (-7,143) Harry Carpenter, broadcaster, was born.

16 October 1925, Friday (-7,144) (1) France and Germany concluded the Locarno Treaty, guaranteeing their mutual frontier. Italy and Britain also signed.Germany reaffirmed its renunciation of Alsace-Lorraine and guaranteed not to attack France or Belgium.Russia feared the Locarno Treaty meant an alliance of western powers against it, see 24 April 1926.

(2) Britain began regular broadcasts to Continental Europe, on a weekly basis.

14 October 1925, Wednesday(-7,146)

13 October 1925, Tuesday (-7,147) Future Conservative leader, Margaret Thatcher, was born as Margaret Roberts.She was born in Grantham, the daughter of a grocer. She was Prime Minister 1979-90.

12 October 1925, Monday (-7,148) Germany and the USSR signed a commercial treaty.

11 October 1925, Sunday (-7,149) Richard Burton, Welsh actor who was married to Elizabeth Taylor twice, was born this day.

10 October 1925, Saturday (-7,150) James Buchanan Duke, US industrialist, (born in Durham, North Carolina, 23 December 1856) died in New York.

5 October 1925, Monday (-7,155) The Locarno Conference opened, to decide the German border and future of the Rhineland.

3 October 1925, Saturday (-7,157) Gore Vidal, US writer, was born (died 2012).

2 October 1925, Friday (-7,158) London�s iconic red double-decker buses went into service. See 9 April 1909.

1 October 1925, Thursday (-7,159) Christine Pullein-Thompson, children�s author, was born (died 2 December 2005)


30 September 1925, Wednesday (-7,160)

29 September 1925, Tuesday (-7,161) In Britain, white lines were to be painted on roads to reduce accidents.

28 September 1925, Monday (-7,162) Robert Braithwaite, champion shooter, was born.

27 September 1925, Sunday (+7,163) Construction of the Nurburgring motor racing circuit, Getrmany, began.

25 September 1925, Friday (-7,165) John Kendall-Carpenter, rugby player, was born (died 23 May 1990).

22 September 1925, Tuesday (-7,168) William Franklyn, actor, was born (died 31 October 2006)

20 September 1925, Sunday (-7,170) Ananda Madihol, King of Siam (Thailand) 1935-46, was born in Germany, son of Prince Mahidol of Songkhla.

16 September 1925, Wednesday (-7,174) Charles Haughey, Irish Fianna Fail politician and Prime Minister, was born.

14 September 1925, Monday (-7,176) Sandra Blow, abstract painter, was born (died 22 August 2006)

13 September 1925, Sunday (-7,177) Mel Torme, US composer, was born in Chicago.

10 September 1925, Thursday (-7,180) Roy Brown, US composer, was born in New Orleans (died in Pacoima, California, 25 May 1981)

8 September 1925, Tuesday (-7,182) Peter Sellers, comic TV actor, was born.

7 September 1925. Monday (-7,183) (1) Laura Ashley, clothes designer, was born (died 1985).

(2) Anti-British rioters were shot in Shanghai. Protests had begun in May over working conditions in Japanese owned factories in Shanghai, and British police shot and killed demonstrating workers on 30 May 1925.

4 September 1925, Friday (-7,186) Elias Hrawi, President of :Lebanon, was born (died 7 July 2006)

1 September 1925, Tuesday (-7,189) Art Pepper, US jazz saxophonist, was born in Gardena, California (died 15 June 1982 in Los Angeles)


30 August 1925, Sunday (-7,191) Donald O�Connor, US singer, was born in Chicago

27 August 1925, Thursday (-7,194) Nathaniel Lofthouse, footballer, was born.

20 August 1925. Thursday (-7,201) Rome�s underground railway opened.

18 August 1925, Tuesday (-7,203) Terry Allen, British boxer, was born (died 8 April 1987).

16 August 1925. Sunday (-7,205) Charlie Chaplin�s film Gold Rush was premiered in America.

15 August 1925, Saturday (-7,206) Oscar Peterson, jazz pianist, was born.

14 August 1925, Friday (-7,207)

13 August 1925, Thursday (-7,208) Benny Bailey, jazz trumpeter, was born (died 14 April 2005)

12 August 1925. Wednesday (-7,209) Norris and Ross McWhirter, the British twins who founded the Guinness Book of records, were born. After the Bible, it is the best selling book in the world (2002). Ross McWhirter was murdered by the IRA.

11 August 1925, Tuesday (-7,210)

8 August 1925. Saturday (-7,213) The first national congress of the Klu Klux Klan opened in Washington, with a big Klan march.

7 August 1925. Friday (-7,214) The Summer Time Act in the UK was made permanent. See 17 May 1916.

6 August 1925, Thursday (-7,215) Loretta Perfectus Walsh, first active-duty woman to serve in the United States Navy, died aged 29 of tuberculosis.

5 August 1925, Wednesday (-7,216) The first public meeting of Plaid Cymru, the Welsh Nationalist Party. Founder-member Saunders Lewis planned a wholly-Welsh-speaking summer school at Machynlleth to open in August 1926.

4 August 1925, Tuesday (-7,217) Noel Westwood and GL Davies left Perth to complete the first circumnavigation of Australia by car. The returned to Perth on 30 December 1925.

3 August 1925, Monday (-7,218)

2 August 1925, Sunday (-7,219) Alan Whicker, widely-travelled TV reporter, was born in Cairo, Egypt.

1 August 1925, Saturday (-7,220) Pam Gems, playwright, was born.


31 July 1925, Friday (-7,221)

29 July 1925, Wednesday (-7,223) Mikis Theodorakis, Greek composer, was born in Chios

28 July 1925, Tuesday (-7,224) Juan Alberto Schiaffino, Uruguayan footballer, was born.

27 July 1925, Monday (-7,225)

26 July 1925, Sunday (-7,226) William Jennings Bryan, US Democratic Party orator and prosecutor in the Scopes �Monkey Trial�, born 19 March 1860 in Salem, Illinois, died in Dayton, Tennessee.

25 July 1925. Saturday (-7,227) The railworker�s, transport, and seamen�s unions supported the mine workers against pay cuts and longer hours (see 30 June 1925). On 31 July 1925 the UK government offered a subsidy to the mine owners to enable them to continue with existing wages. Discussions between the mine owners, mine workers, and a government commission continued until April 1926 (see 30 April 1926).

24 July 1925. Friday (-7,228) Insulin (patented 12 June 1922) was first used to successfully treat a patient, 6 year old Patricia Cheeseman, at Guy�s Hospital London.

22 July 1925, Wednesday (-7,230)

21 July 1925, Tuesday (-7,231) In the USA, John Thomas Scopes was fined US$100 for teaching Darwin�s Theory of Evolution at a school in Tennessee, where it was illegal to tech ideas that contradicted the Old Testament. The conviction was later overturned.

20 July 1925, Monday (-7,232) Jacques Delors, President of the European commission, was born.

19 July 1925, Sunday (-7,233) Italian cyclist Ottavio Bottecchia won the Tour de France for the second straight year.

18 July 1925, Saturday (-7,234) Insurrection by the Druze in Syria, against French rule.

17 July 1925, Friday (-7,235) Lovis Corinth, German painter, died.

16 July 1925, Thursday (-7,236) Iraq�s first elected Parliament met in Baghdad.

15 July 1925, Wednesday (-7,237) Harry Dean Stanton, actor, was born.

14 July 1925, Tuesday (-7,238) (Aviation) Captain Girier of France set a new aviation flight length record of 2,930 miles

13 July 1925. Monday (-7,239) French troops begin to withdraw from the Rhineland.

12 July 1925, Sunday (-7,240) (1) The first veteran car rally was held, in Munich.

(2) The Herne Hill to Shortlands railway was electrified. Raynes Park to Effingham Junction via Epson was electrified.

11 July 1925, Saturday (-7,241) France and Spain agreed to coordinate their efforts in the Rif War.

10 July 1925, Friday (-7,242) (1) The TASS news agency was founded in Russia.

(2) The Scopes trial began in Dayton Tennessee.Mr Scopes, a science teacher, was accused of teaching evolution and so breaching State laws against teaching ideas contradicting the Bible.The real issue was the role of the State in determining the religious nature of school education.The outcome was inconclusive.Scopes was found guilty on 21 July 1925 but the US$100 penalty was set aside on a technicality.

9 July 1925, Thursday (-7,243) In Dublin, Oonagh Keogh, 22, became the first female member of a stock exchange.

7 July 1925, Tuesday (-7,245)

6 July 1925, Monday (-7,246) Bill Haley, musician, was born.


30 June 1925. Tuesday (-7,252) The British mining industry faced a crisis. During 1923 and 1924 German coal exports had been halved because of French occupation of the Ruhr following a reparations dispute between France and Germany. Settlement of this, and a return to the Gold Standard by Britain at a rate which effectively raised UK export prices by 10% mean that in the first 6 months of 1925 the UK coal industry made a loss of �2.1 million. On 30 June 1925 the mine workers were given a month�s notice of the cancellation of a pay award made in 1924 and the option of returning to an 8 hour day or further wage cuts ranging from 13% to 38%. Even after the 1924 pay rise, miners� wages were very low, in real terms lower than they had been in 1914. The Miners Union rejected the pay cut and the longer hours. See 25 July 1925.

29 June 1925. Monday (-7,253) South Africa passed laws, the Mines and Works Act, excluding �Coloured, Indian, and Black people from all skilled jobs. In the late 19th century, skilled mining jobs in South Africa could only be filled by Whites. By the 1920s Black people had acquired the necessary skills for these jobs, and White employees feared their wages would be undercut, so they lobbied the Government for these racist laws.

28 June 1925, Sunday (-7,254)

27 June 1925, Saturday (-7,255) Michael Dummett, British campaigner for racial equality, was born (died 2011).

26 June 1925, Friday (-7,256) Coup in Greece; General Theodoros Pangalos seized power.

25 June 1925, Thursday (-7,257) Robert Venturi, architect, was born.

23 June 1925, Tuesday (-7,259) Miriam Karlin, actress, was born.

21 June 1925, Sunday (-7,261) Maureen Stapleton, actress, was born (died 13 March 2006)

20 June 1925. Saturday (-7,262) In Germany, a wireless telephone for cars was demonstrated.

19 June 1925, Friday (-7,263) Bank robber Everett Bridgewater and two accomplices were arrested in Indianapolis, Indiana.

18 June 1925. Thursday (-7,264) France accepted German proposals for a security pact. Hitler�s Mein Kampf was published.

17 June 1925, Wednesday (-7,265) Geneva arms Conference closed.

15 June 1925, Monday (-7,267) Richard Baker, broadcaster, was born

12 June 1925, Friday (-7,270)

11 June 1925, Thursday (-7,271) William Styron, author, was born (died 1 November 2006)

8 June 1925, Monday (-76,274) Barbara Bush, wife of US President Bush, was born.

7 June 1925, Sunday (-7,275) Karl Weschke, landscape painter, was born (died 20 February 2005).

6 June 1925. Saturday (-7,276) Walter P Chrysler founded the Chrysler Motor Company in Detroit.

5 June 1925, Friday (-7,277)

3 June 1925, Wednesday (-7,279) The 100,000th Chevrolet was manufactured.

2 June 1925. Tuesday (-7,280) The Canadian government claimed all land between Greenland and Alaska up to the North Pole.

1 June 1925, Monday (-7,281) Danish hygienists Louis Fridericia and Eiler Holm show that vitamin A deficiency causes night blindness.


31 May 1925, Sunday (-7,282) The Decorative Arts (Art Deco) Exhibition opened in Paris.

30 May 1925. Saturday (-7,283) (1) King George V opened the Great West Road at Brentford, London. It was seen as a model for post-War development.

(2) The British colony of Southern Rhodesia became self-governing; its assembly met for the first time.

28 May 1925, Thursday (-7,285) Dietrich Fisher Dieskau, baritone singer, was born

26 May 1925, Tuesday (-7,287) George Adams, US historian (born 3 June 1851) died.

25 May 1925, Monday, (-7,288) Henry Petrie, US composer, died in Paw Paw, Michigan (born 4 March 1857 in Bloomington, Illinois)

24 May 1925, Sunday (+7,289) William Park, golfer, died.

23 May 1925, Saturday (-7,290) British publishing magnate Sir Edward Hulton died after falling off his penny-farthing bicycle.

22 May 1925, Friday (-7,291) Sir John French, British general who led the British Expeditionary Force in France and Belgium, died.

19 May 1925, Tuesday (-7,294) Malcolm X, US militant Black civil rights leader, was born in Omaha, Nebraska, as Malcolm Little.

14 May 1925, Thursday (-7,299) Henry Rider Haggard, English writer, died aged 69.

12 May 1925, Tuesday (-7,301) Alfred, Lord Milner, British statesman, died aged 71.

11 May 1925. Monday (-7,302) Direct telephone communication between London and Rome began for the first time.

10 May 1925, Sunday (-7,303) William Massey, Prime Minister of New Zealand, died.

9 May 1925, Saturday (-7,304)

8 May 1925, Friday (-7,305) Ali Hassan Mwinyi, President of Tanzania, was born.

7 May 1925, Thursday (-7,306) William Lever, Viscount Leverhulme, British entrepreneur and founder of the Lever Brothers corporation, died.

6 May 1925, Wednesday (-7,207)

5 May 1925, Tuesday (-7,208) (Biology) John Scopes was arrested. His trial began on 10 July 1925.

4 May 1925, Monday (-7,309) Geneva Conference on arms traffic and the use of poison gas inwar opened.

3 May 1925, Sunday (-7,310) Robert Jonquet, French footballer, was born.

2 May 1925, Saturday (-7,311)

1 May 1925. Friday (-7,312) Cyprus became a British Crown Colony. It had been annexed by Britain from Turkey in 1914 when Turkey supported Germany in World War One.


30 April 1925. Thursday (-7,313) The Distillers Whisky Group was formed.

28 April 1925. Tuesday (-7,315) Britain returned to the Gold Standard. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Winston Churchill, told the House of Commons he will not renew the Act of 1919 which suspended the Standard. Symbolically, this measure signalled a return to pre-War stability and a Victorian era in which Britain was pre-eminent. However Cambridge economist John Maynard Keynes warned that the USA was not actually adhering to a Gold Standard; it was manipulating the price of gold, at great expense, to ensure it stayed level with the US Dollar. For Britain to return to the Standard meant subjugating UK economic policy to that of the USA.

25 April 1925. Saturday (-7,318) Hindenburg became President of Germany. He won 48.5% of the popular vote, against 42.5% for Wilhelm Marx of the Centre Party.

24 April 1925, Friday (-7,319) James Dickinson, footballer, was born (died 8 November 1982).

22 April 1925, Wednesday (-7,321) George Cole, actor, was born

20 April 1925, Monday (-7,323) Herbert Lawford, tennis champion, died (born 15 May 1851).

16 April 1925. Thursday (-7,327) In Turkey, the Kurdish uprising ended.

15 April 1925, Wednesday (-7,328) Sir James Barrie donated the copyright of Peter Pan to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children in London.

14 April 1925, Tuesday (-7,329) John Singer Seargant, US painter, died aged 69.

13 April 1925, Monday (-7,330) Henry Ford set up the USA�s first aerial freight service, running between Detroit and Chicago.

12 April 1925, Sunday (-7,331) Easter Sunday.

11 April 1925, Saturday (-7,332) Abd el-Krims Rifkabylen defeated the French army in Morocco.

10 April 1925, Friday (-7,333) In France, Paul Painleve became Prime Minister after the defeat of Edouard Herriot.

9 April 1925, Thursday (-7,334) Tom Jackson, British union leader, was born.

8 April 1925. Wednesday (-7,335) (1) The Australian Government and the British Colonial Office offered low interest rate loans for Britons to emigrate to Australia; the aim was for 450,000 Britons a year to migrate to Australia over the next 10 years. In the first decade of the 20th century, an average 284,000 Britons emigrated annually, mostly to the USA or the Dominions.

(2) Italian Catholic bishops banned scantily clad or bare legged women from churches.

7 April 1925, Tuesday (-7,336) (Biology) Charles Yanofsky was born in New York City, USA. In 1967 he helped crack the DNA code for proteins.

6 April 1925. Monday (-7,337) The first in-flight movie was shown; The Lost World.

5 April 1925, Sunday (-7,338) The Belgian Workers Party won parliamentary elections.

4 April 1925, Saturday (-7,339) Dorothy Alison, actress, was born.

3 April 1925, Friday (-7,340) Anthony Wedgewood Benn, British Labour politician, was born.

2 April 1925, Thursday (-7,341) France and Turkey agreed on the autonomy of Alexandretta.

1 April 1925, Wednesday (-7,342) (Jewish, Universities) The Hebrew University at Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, was opened by Lord Balfour.


31 March 1925, Tuesday (-7,343) The Philadelphia Daily News began publication.

30 March 1925, Monday (-7,344) Rudolf Steiner, Austrian educator who founded the Anthroposophical Society, died aged 64.

29 March 1925. Sunday (-7,345) Japan passed a Bill for universal male suffrage.

28 March 1925, Saturday (-7,346) In the Boat Race, the Oxford boat sank.

27 March 1925, Friday (-7,347) Double Chase won the 84th Grand National horse race at Aintree Racecourse near Liverpool, England.

26 March 1925, Thursday (-7,348) Hindenburg was elected President of Germany.

25 March 1925. Wednesday (-7,349) (1) The new fast London-Southend road was opened.

(2) The Tattenham Corner branch line was electrified.

24 March 1925, Tuesday (-7,350) Quazi Nuruzzaman, Bangladeshi guerrilla commander, was born (died 2011)

23 March 1925. Monday (-7,351) US Tennessee law prohibited the teaching of evolution.

22 March 1925, Sunday (-7,352) Radio broadcasting began in Japan.

21 March 1925, Saturday (-7,353) (Sport) Merle Keagle, US baseball player, was born.

20 March 1925, Friday (-7,354) Lord Curzon, British statesman, died aged 66.

19 March 1925. Thursday (-7,355) Britain established a large naval base at Singapore. This reinforced links with the British colonies such as Hong Kong, but Japan saw it as a threat.

18 March 1925, Wednesday (-7,356) A series of tornadoes killed 792 and injured 13,000 in the US Midwest.

15 March 1925, Monday (-7,358)

13 March 1925, Friday (-7,361) British MPs approved the Summer Time Bill, making annual daylight saving time permanent,

12 March 1925, Thursday (-7,362) In China, Kuomintang leader Dr Sun Yat Sen died.General Chiang Kai Shek became the new leader. Discontent within China at the Unequal Treaties with Western powers grew, and China started a boycott of British trade and shipping.

6 March 1925, Friday (-7,368) Michael Ward, doctor, was born (died 7 October 2005)

2 March 1925. Monday (-7,372) Austria introduced a new currency, the schilling.


28 February 1925. Saturday (-7,374) (1) Kurdish uprising in Turkey. The rebellion ended on 16 April 1925.

(2) Friedrich Ebert, Social Democrat President of the German Republic, died. He had been pilloried buy the extreme Right in Germany who had accused him of treason since he was appointed in 1919. He was replaced by war hero Hindenburg (see 25 April 1925).

27 February 1925, Friday (-7,375) Hitler spoke at a Nazi meeting at a Munich beer hall.

26 February 1925, Thursday (-7,376) Sir Everton Weekes, cricketer, was born.

25 February 1925, Wednesday (-7,377) Kurdish rebellion broke out in Turkey.

24 February 1925, Tuesday (-7,378) Joseph Rowntree, chocolate manufacturer in York, died in that city.

22 February 1925, Sunday (-7,380)

21 February 1925, Saturday (-7,381) The New Yorker was first published, founded by Harold Ross.

20 February 1925, Friday (-7,382) Robert Altman, film director, was born

17 February 1925, Tuesday (-7,385) Ron Goodwin, British composer, was born in Plymouth.

15 February 1925, Sunday (-7,387) Eric Brown, golfer, was born.

14 February 1925. Saturday (-7,388) The ban on the Nazi Party in Bavaria was lifted.

10 February 1925, Tuesday (-7,392) Jack Kyle, rugby player, was born.

8 February 1925, Sunday (-7,394) Jack Lemmon, actor and film director, was born.

7 February 1925, Saturday (-7,395) Dora Bryan, actress, was born.

5 February 1925, Thursday (-7,397)

4 February 1925, Wednesday (-7,398) Robert Koldeway, the archaeologist who excavated Babylon, died.

3 February 1925, Tuesday (-7,399) (Electrical) Oliver Heaviside, English physicist and electrical engineer, died in Paignton, Devon.

2 February 1925, Monday (-7,400) David Whitfield, British singer, was born in Hull (died 16 January 1980 in Sydney)

1 February 1925, Sunday (-7,401) Ahmed Bey Zogu became President of Albania.


30 January 1925, Friday (-7,403) Jim Driscoll, boxer, died (born 15 December 1880).

26 January 1925, Monday (-77,407) Paul Newman, US actor, was born.

25 January 1925, Sunday (-77,408) General Motors Brazil was organised.

23 January 1925, Friday (-77,410)

21 January 1925, Wednesday (-7,412) Benny Hill, English comedian, was born in Southampton.

20 January 1925, Tuesday (-7,413) The UK and China made the Treaty of Peking.

19 January 1925, Monday (-7,414) Nina Bawden, novelist, was born.

18 January 1925, Sunday (-7,415)

17 January 1925, Saturday (-7,416) US President Coolidge, in an address to the Society of American newspaper Editors, stated �The business of America is business� as he set out his policy of reducing taxes, especially on the middle class. He opposed any write down of British and French War Debt to the USA.

16 January 1925, Friday (-7,417) Trotsky was dismissed as Soviet War Commissar.

15 January 1925, Thursday (-7,418) (1) After a month of intense political negotiations in Germany, Hans Luther (Independent) succeeded Wilhelm Marx as Chancellor, and Gustav Stresemann became Foreign Minister.

(2) In China, strikes at Shanghai were suppressed by British and French troops. This sparked revolutionary unrest, and US troops now arrived to protect their nationals and economic interests.

14 January 1925, Wednesday (-7,419) Yukio Mishima, writer, was born.

10 January 1925, Saturday (+7,423) Geoffrey Keighley, cricketer, was born (died 14 June 2005)

7 January 1925, Wednesday (-7,426) Gerald Durrell, naturalist, was born.

6 January 1925, Tuesday (-7,427) John DeLorean, car industry entrepreneur, was born (died 19 March 2005)

5 January 1925. Monday (-7,428) Mrs Nellie Taylor Ross became governor of Wyoming, the first woman Governor in the USA. This followed the death of her husband.

3 January 1925. Saturday (-7,430) Mussolini assumed full dictatorial control in Italy.He nominated his cabinet on 5 January 1925.

1 January 1925. Thursday (-7,432) Norway�s capital, Christiana, reverted to its historic name of Oslo.


30 December 1924, Tuesday (-7,434) Edwin Hubble reported that Andromeda was a galaxy, like the Milky Way, suggesting the Universe was far larger than previously believed.

29 December 1924, Monday (-7,435) John D Rockefeller donated US$ 1 million to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

28 December 1924, Sunday (-7,436) Milton Obote, President of Uganda, was born.

24 December 1924. Wednesday (-7440) Albania was declared a republic.

21 December 1924, Sunday (-7,443) Christy O�Connor, golf champion, was born.

20 December 1924. Saturday (-7,444) (Germany) Adolf Hitler was freed from prison on parole after serving just 8 months of his jail term for high treason.

19 December 1924, Friday (-7,445)

18 December 1924, Thursday (-7,446) Pope Pius XI denounced the USSR.

17 December 1924, Wednesday (-7,447) Clifton Pugh, artist, was born.

9 December 1924, Tuesday (-7,455)

8 December 1924, Monday (-7,456) (Innovation, Music) The Theremin, the world�s first electronic musical instrument, was patented in Germany by Lev Sergievitch Termen, a Russian cellist and electronic engineer, born in St Petersburg in 1896 (died 1993). It worked on the heterodyne principle, that a combination of two radio high frequency sound waves could combine to produce a lower frequency audible sound equal to the difference, As the high frequency waves varied, so did the audible sound. The presence of a human body altered the radio waves, which was how the machine could produce changing sounds as a hand was waved over it. The machine was later superseded by the Moog Synthesiser.

7 December 1924, Sunday (-7,457) (Germany) In German elections, the Communists (45 seats) lost ground to the Social Democrats (131 seats). The Conservative Nationalists also gained (103 seats) whilst the Nazis slumped to 14 seats. The Centre Party won 69 seats.

5 December 1924, Friday (-7,459) In Italy, Mussolini commenced comprehensive press censorship.

3 December 1924, Wednesday (-7,461) (Chemistry) Louis Marie Hilaire Bernigaud, comte de Chardonnet, French chemist, died in Paris.

2 December 1924, Tuesday (-7,462) The UK and Germany signed a trade pact.

1 December 1924, Monday (-7,463) Communists staged a failed coup attempt in Estonia.


30 November 1924, Sunday (-7,464) (1) (Germany) The last French and Belgian troops left the Ruhr.

(2) Radio photographs were first transmitted from Britain to the USA.

29 November 1924, Saturday (-7,465) The composer Puccini died in Brussels.

28 November 1924, Friday (-7,466) (Arts) Dennis Brutus, activist, educator, journalist and poet, in was born in Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia (died 2009)

27 November 1924, Thursday (-7,467) The first Macy�s Thanksgiving Parade was held in New York City.

26 November 1924. Wednesday (-7,468) The Communist party of the USSR denounced Trotsky.

25 November 1924, Tuesday (-7,469) Louis de Broglie described the wave particle theory of matter.

24 November 1924, Monday (-7,470) The Egyptian Government resigned under pressure from Britain, following the assassination of Major General Sir Lee Stack on 19 November.

23 November 1924, Sunday (-7,471)

21 November 1924, Friday (-7,473) The new Conservative Government of Britain repudiated a treaty made by the previous Labour administration with the USSR.

20 November 1924, Thursday (-7,474) Kurds in Turkey rebelled; they were suppressed with considerable force.

19 November 1924, Wednesday (-7,475) The British Governor-General of Sudan was assassinated in Cairo. Egypt was claiming the right to rule the territory.

18 November 1924, Tuesday (-7,476)

16 November 1924, Sunday (-7,478) Edward Everett Rice, US composer, was born in Brighton, Massachusetts.

15 November 1924, Saturday (-7,479) Jakub Schikaneder, Bohemian painter, died (born 27 February 1855).

13 November 1924, Thursday (-7,481) Stanley Hiller Jr, who helped develop the helicopter, was born (died 20 April 2006)

9 November 1924, Sunday (-7,485) Lord John Ulick Knatchbull Brabourne, film producer, was born (died 22 September 2005)

8 November 1924, Saturday (-7,486) The Irish Government offered an amnesty to those involved in the civil conflict between IRA and Government. See 12 January 1922.

7 November 1924, Friday (-7,497) Germany announced its first balanced budget since the war.

6 November 1924. Thursday (-7,488) The new Conservative Prime Minister of Britain, Stanley Baldwin, appointed Winston Churchill as Chancellor of the Exchequer.

5 November 1924, Wednesday (-7,489) The last Manchu Emperor, Pu-Yi, 18, was evicted from his palace in Beijing by the Christian warlord Feng Xuyiang who took control of the city. Pu-Yi had been compelled to abdicate in 1912, when he was aged 6, by the Revolutionary Government in Nanking after the Wuchang uprising, ending 268 years of Manchu rule and over 2000 years of imperial tradition. He was allowed to continue living in his palace in the Forbidden City, and was temporarily restored to the throne by General Xun�s coup in 1917, but was dethroned after 12 days. Pu-Yi now sought refuge in the Japanese concession at Tien-Tsin.

4 November 1924. Tuesday (-7,490) (1) Texas elected its first woman State Governor.

(2) Calvin Coolidge was re-elected President of the USA

3 November 1924, Monday (-7,491) Feng Yuxiang's troops entered Tianjin.

2 November 1924. Sunday (-7,492) The first crossword appeared in a British newspaper, the Sunday Express. It was bought from an American paper, operated by C W Shepherd, where crosswords had appeared 11 years earlier, see 21 December 1913.

1 November 1924, Saturday (-7,493) (1) Eamon de Valera was jailed for one month for entering Northern Ireland illegally. He was a devout Roman Catholic and Britain did not want him proselytising in Protestant Northern Ireland. See 16 July 1924.

(2) The British Empire Exhibition at Wembley, London, closed (opened 23 April 1924).


30 October 1924, Thursday (-7,495)

29 October 1924, Wednesday (-7,496) The Council of Brussels drew the Brussels Line, dividing the villayet of Mosul into Turkish and Iraqi areas.See 21 November 1925, 16,12,1925.

28 October 1924. Tuesday (-7,497) France recognised the USSR.

27 October 1924, Monday (-7,498)

26 October 1924, Sunday (-7,499) Lew Dockstader, US singer, died (born 1856).

25 October 1924, Saturday (-7,500) In China, President Tsao Kun resigned.

20 October 1924, Monday (-7,505) Ibn Saud seized control of Mecca, defeating the Hashemites.

12 October 1924, Sunday (-7,513) French writer Anatole France died.

10 October 1924, Friday (-7,515) Ed Wood, flim producer, was borm.

9 October 1924. Thursday (-7,516) Britain�s minority Labour government fell after a vote of censure in the Commons; the vote was 364 against the Government, 198 in favour. On 29 October 1924 the Conservatives won a large victory following a scare over the �Zinoviev letter�. This was a forged letter allegedly from Moscow, urging a Communist revolution in Britain. A General Election was held on 30 October 1924 and the result was 413 seats to the Conservatives, against 151 for Labour and 40 for the Liberals. Stanley Baldwin became Prime Minister.

7 October 1924, Tuesday (-7,518) The British Labour Party banned Communists from becoming members.

5 October 1924, Sunday (-7,520) Kenneth Jack, artist, was born (died 10 June 2006).

4 October 1924, Saturday (-7,521) Charlton Heston, the film star in Ben Hur, was born.

3 October 1924, Friday (-7,522) In Arabia, King Hussein abdicated as King of Hejaz in favour of his son, Ali.

2 October 1924, Thursday (-7,523) Trotsky took command of the Red Army in Georgia.

1 October 1924. Wednesday (-7,524) US Democrat and 39th President James Earl (Jimmy) Carter, peanut farmer, was born in Plains, Georgia.


30 September 1924, Tuesday (-7,525) Truman Capote, writer, was born.

29 September 1924, Monday (-7,526)

28 September 1924, Sunday (-7,527) Lieutenants Smith and Nelson, in US Army Douglas airplanes, completed the first circumnavigation of the globe.They flew a total of 26,103 miles, with 57 stops.

27 September 1924, Saturday (-7,528) Following Mexican elections, Plutarcho Calles became President of Mexico. He took office on 1 December 1924.

25 September 1924, Thursday (-7,530)

18 September 1924. Thursday (-7,537) Mohandas Ghandi, serving 6 years in prison for sedition, began a 21-day hunger strike, to try and dissuade Hindus and Moslems from rioting.

17 September 1924, Wednesday (-7,538) Italy abrogated the Treaty of Rapallo (made 12 November 1920).

16 September 1924, Tuesday (-7,539) Lauren Bacall, Hollywood actress, was born.

15 September 1924, Monday (-7,540) The BBC began broadcasting from Belfast.

14 September 1924, Sunday (-7,541)

13 September 1924, Saturday (-7,542) Maurice Jarre, French composer, was born in Lyons

12 September 1924, Friday (-7,543) George Target, novelist, was born (died 14 December 2005).

7 September 1924, Sunday (-7,548) Leonard Rosenman, US composer, was born in New York

5 September 1924, Friday (-7,550) In Chile, a military junta took power.

2 September 1924, Tuesday (-7,553) Daniel Arap Moi, President of Kenya, was born.

1 September 1924, Monday (-7,554) The Dawes Plan was implemented in Germany. It was drafted by Charles G Dawes, a Chicago banker. Under it, a new Reichsmark was issued at one billion old marks. The Reichsbank was now under Allied control. German reparations were rescheduled, and the Allied loaned Germany 800 million gold Marks. New taxes were introduced, and inflation began to subside. Political stability followed, and support for extremist Parties declined.


31 August 1924, Sunday (-7,555)

30 August 1924, Saturday (-7,556) The German Reichsbank was made independent of the government.It issued a new currency, the ReichsMark, at 1,000,000 million old Marks to the new currency.

29 August 1924, Friday (-7,557) Dinah Washington, US singer, was born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama (died14 December 1963 in Detroit)

25 August 1924, Monday (-7,561) Heinrich Berte, Hungarian composer, died in Vienna (born 8 May 1858 in Galgocz)

20 August 1924, Wednesday (-7,566) Jim Reeves, US country singer, was born in Galloway, Texas (died 31 July 1964 in Tennessee)

17 August 1924. Sunday (-7,569) French and Belgian troops agreed to withdraw from the Ruhr within 1 year following Germany�s agreement on war reparations.

16 August 1924, Saturday (-7,570) The Allies and Germany accepted the Dawes Plan, for a revised timetable of reparations.

15 August 1924, Friday (-7,571)

14 August 1924, Thursday (-7,572) Lee Adams, US musician, was born in Mansfield, Ohio.

13 August 1924, Wednesday (-7,573) Severe flooding in China, 50,000 killed.

12 August 1924, Tuesday (-7,574) Derek Shackleton, cricketer, was born.

10 August 1924, Sunday (-7,576)

8 August 1924, Friday (-7,578) A ten-nation summit agreed a plan drawn up by US banker Charles Dawes, designed to assist Germany�s economy and fulfil reparation payments.

7 August 1924, Thursday (-7,579) Kenneth Kendall, broadcaster, was born.

5 August 1924, Tuesday (-7,581)

3 August 1924, Sunday (-7,583) Polish-born UK author Joseph Conrad died.

2 August 1924, Saturday (-7,584) James Arthur Baldwin, Us Black writer, was born.


29 July 1924, Tuesday (-7,588) Jocelyne Rickards, film costume designer, was born (died 7 July 2005)

25 July 1924, Friday (-7,592) Pierre Maurice Gy, French chemist, was born in Paris (died 5 November 2015).

23 July 1924, Wednesday (-7,594) Gavin Lambert, writer, was born (died 17 July 2005)

21 July 1924, Monday (-7,596) Don Knotts, actor and comedian, was born.

20 July 1924, Sunday (-7,597) Robert D Maurer, who invented the optical fibre, was born.

19 July 1924. Saturday (-7,598) Liverpool Cathedral was consecrated, although it was not yet finished. Construction had begun in 1904.

16 July 1924, Wednesday (-7,601) Eamon de Valera was released after 11 months in Kilmainham Prison. Hundreds of other activists continued to be held, many without trial. Free State troops continued to carry out raids and arrests, causing much bitterness. See 1 November 1924, 8 November 1924.

13 July 1924, Sunday (-7,604) Alfred Marshall, British economist, died aged 81.

11 July 1924. Friday (-7,606) Hindus and Muslims rioted in Delhi.

8 July 1924, Tuesday (-7,609) Adolf Hitler resumed leadership of the Nazi Party.

5 July 1924, Saturday (-7,612) The 8th Olympic games opened in Paris. Germany did not attend.

4 July 1924, Friday (-7,613) Caesar�s Salad made its debut, at the Caesar�s Place Restaurant, Tihuana, Mexico, owned by US citizen Caesar Cardini.

3 July 1924, Thursday (-7,614)

2 July 1924, Wednesday (-7,615) Rick Besoyan, US composer, was born in Reedley, California (died in Sayville, Long Island, 13 March 1970)

1 July 1924, Tuesday (-7,616) Inauguration of the first regular transcontinental air mail service in the USA.


30 June 1924, Monday (-7,617) In South Africa, J B Hertzog, Nationalist leader, formed a Government with Labour support, following the defeat of J C Smuts� South African Party in elections.

28 June 1924, Saturday (-7,619) Italian racing car driver Luigi Musso was born.

25 June 1924, Wednesday (-7,622) Britain said it would not relinquish control over the Sudan, despite Egyptian demands for it to do so.

23 June 1924, Monday (-7,624) The seeding system was introduced for competitors at Wimbledon.

21 June 1924, Saturday (-7,626) Wally Fawkes, cartoonist, was born.

20 June 1924, Friday (-7,627) Audie Murphy, writer, was born.

17 June 1924, Tuesday (-7,630) Sir Edward Downes, conductor, was born.

14 June 1924, Saturday (-7,633) The 10 millionth Ford car was manufactured.

13 June 1924, Friday (-7,634) Gaston Doumergue became the 13th President of France.

12 June 1924, Thursday (-7,635) George Bush, Republican and US President, was born in Milton, Massachusetts.

11 June 1924, Wednesday (-7,636) The French President, Millerand, resigned. He had been accused by the radical Socialist Party leader Edouard Herriot of being too Right-wing, when the President should be neutral. On 13 June 1924 Gaston Doumergue became the new French President and on 14 June 1924 Herriot became the new Prime Minister.

10 June 1924, Tuesday (-7,637) Italian socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti was assassinated by Mussolini�s fascists. He had replaced Filippo Turati as leader of Italy�s reformed Socialist Party, and on 30 May 1924 he denounced the Italian elections of April 1924, in which Mussolini�s Fascists had done well, as fraudulent.

9 June 1924, Monday (-7,638) Ed Farhat, professional wrestler, was born in Lansing, Michigan (died 2003)

8 June 1924. Sunday (-7,639) George Mallory, on his third attempt to conquer Everest, was seen for the last time at a point 800 feet from the summit.

7 June 1924, Saturday (-7.,640) Dolores Gray, US actress, was born in Chicago (died 2002)

6 June 1924, Friday (-7,641) The German Reichstag approved the Dawes Plan by a 247�183 vote.

5 June 1924, Thursday (-7,642) The UK Government appointed a Northern Ireland representative to the Border Commission, see 10 May 1924.

4 June 1924, Wednesday (-7,643) Anti-government forces in Albania took Shkoder.

3 June 1924, Tuesday (-7,644) German novelist Franz Kafka died, aged 40, in a sanatorium at Kierling, near Vienna, after a seven year battle with tuberculosis.

2 June 1924, Monday (-7,645) The US now allowed indigenous Indians to become full citizens. Indigenous Indian, Learned Hand, became the first Native American judge of the US Court of Appeals, serving until 1956.

1 June 1924, Sunday (-7,646) Raymond Poincare resigned as Prime Minister of France.


31 May 1924. Saturday (-7,647) China recognised the USSR.

27 May 1924, Tuesday (-7,651)

26 May 1924. Monday (-7,652) The US cut immigration quotas from an annual 3% of the number of that nationality already in the US (enacted 1921) to 2%, and excluded Japanese citizens entirely. Japan protested.

25 May 1924, Sunday (-7,653) Theodore F Morse, US composer, died in New York (born 13 April 1873 in Washington DC)

22 May 1924, Thursday (-7,756) Charles Aznavour, actor, was born.

19 May 1924, Monday (-7,759) Jeremy Fry, can inventor, was born (died 18 July 2005)

13 May 1924, Tuesday (-7,665) Bea Arthur, actress, was born

12 May 1924, Monday (-7,666) Tony Hancock, English comedian, was born (died 1968).

11 May 1924, Sunday (-7,667) In French elections the Left bloc emerged with the largest number of seats, 287 out of 581.

10 May 1924, Saturday (-7,668) Under the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty (6 December 1921) a Boundary Commission was to determine the borders of Northern Ireland. The Irish Government believed that such a commission would give them at least 3 of the 6 Northern counties, and an economically unviable North would then join the South. Now the Northern Irish Government refused to appoint a member to the commission. Both the London and Dublin governments could fall over this issue. However on 5 June 1924 the UK Government appointed a representative for Northern Ireland. See 20 November 1925.

8 May 1924, Thursday (-7,670) Afrikaans became the official language of South Africa.

6 May 1924, Tuesday (-7,672) Patricia Lawford Kennedy, younger sister of President Kennedy, was born (died 17 September 2006)

4 May 1924, Sunday (-7,674) In elections to the German Parliament (Reichstag), the Nationalists made gains, winning 95 seats, as did the Communists with 62 seats. The Social Democrats won 100 seats and the Centre Party had 65 seats. For the first time the National Socialist (Nazi) Party entered Parliament, with 32 seats.

3 May 1924, Saturday (-7,675) Robert Kenneth Tyrell, founder of Tyrell Formula One Constructor, was born.

1 May 1924, Thursday (-7,677) MG registered its octagon logo as a trademark.


29 April 1924,Tuesday (-7,679) Zizi Jean Marie, dancer, was born.

28 April 1924, Monday (-7,680) (1) Kenneth Kaunda, Zambia�s first President, was born in Lubwa.

(2) The US sent troops to Honduras amidst electoral unrest.

26 April 1924, Saturday (-7,682)

24 April 1924. Thursday (-7,684) Train ferry service between Harwich and Zeebrugge was opened by King George V.

23 April 1924. Wednesday (-7,685) King George V opened the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley Stadium, London. It closed on 1 November 1924.

22 April 1924, Tuesday (-7,686)

21 April 1924, Monday (-7,687) Eleonora Duse, Italian actress (born Lombardy, Italy, 3 October 1859) died in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

20 April 1924, Sunday (-7,688) (1) Easter Sunday. Turkey continued its modernisation plan, with the abolition of tithes and the shortening of military service.

(2) The interchange at Camden Town between the City and South London Lines and the Northern Line to Golders Green, Highgate, came into use.

18 April 1924, Friday (-7,690) Clarence �Gatemouth� Brown, musician, was born (died 10 September 2005)

16 April 1924. Wednesday (-7,692) The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film corporation was formed by merger.

15 April 1924, Tuesday (-7,693) The Japan Times called for a boycott of California if the United States passed the Immigration Act, putting the blame for the bill on that State.

14 April 1924, Monday (-7,694) Louis Sullivan, US architect, died in Chicago.

13 April 1924, Sunday (-7,695) Calvin Coolidge was nominated as US Presidential candidate by the Republican Party

12 April 1924, Saturday (-7,696)

11 April 1924, Friday (-7,697) In Danish elections, Social Democrats formed a Government after winning 55 seats to the Liberals 44, Radicals with 20, and Conservatives with 28.

10 April 1924. Thursday (-7,698) The first crossword puzzle book was published in New York.

6 April 1924. Sunday (-7,702) Mussolini�s Fascist Party won a sweeping victory in the Italian general election. However there was widespread voter intimidation so the vote was not free and fair.

4 April 1924, Friday (-7,704) The BBC broadcast its first radio programmes for schools.

3 April 1924, Thursday (-7,705) Marlon Brando, US Hollywood actor, was born.

1 April 1924. Tuesday (-7,707) (1) Adolf Hitler was jailed for 5 years for his part in the abortive Munich beer hall putsch.

(2) The first gramophone to automatically change records went on sale, produced by HMV.

(3) Britain�s national airline, Imperial Airways, was created by amalgamating four smaller aviation companies. These were Handley Page Transport, Daimler Airway, Instone Airline and British Marine Air Navigation. These four companies were unprofitable, and the government realised that, as in other countries, they way forward was a national carrier, with strong financial support from public funds.


31 March 1924, Monday (-7,708)

28 March 1924, Friday (-7,711) Total was founded as the Compagnie Fran�aise des P�troles (CFP), the "French Petroleum Company". Petroleum was seen as vital in the case of a new war with Germany.

27 March 1924, Thursday (-7,712) Sarah Vaughan, US singer, was born in Newark, New Jersey (died 3 April 1990 in Los Angeles)

25 March 1924, Tuesday (-7,714) Greece was proclaimed a Republic, as conformed by plebiscite on 13 April 1924. Admiral Pavlos Koundouriotis became President.

23 March 1924, Sunday (-7,716) TE Dunville, British comedian, was born

19 March 1924, Wednesday (-7,720) Mary Wimbush, actress, was born (died 31 October 2005)

15 March 1924. Saturday (-7,724) The first Egyptian Parliament opened.

8 March 1924, Saturday (-7,731) Sir Anthony Caro, sculptor, was born.

7 March 1924, Friday (-7,732) Sir Eduardo Paolozzi, sculptor, was born (died 22 April 2005).

6 March 1924, Thursday (-7,733)

5 March 1924, Wednesday (-7,734) Arthur Eddington proposed a relationship between the mass and luminosity of stars.

4 March 1924, Tuesday (-7,735) Happy Birthday to You, a song written by two US teachers, the sisters Patty and Mildred Hill, first appeared in print in a book by Robert H Coleman.

3 March 1924, Monday (-7,736) Mustafa Kemal formally abolished the caliphate, and exiled all members of the House of Osman. This ended the Ottoman Dynasty, founded in 1290.

2 March 1924, Sunday (-7,737) The Turkish National Assembly abolished the caliphate, disestablishing the Islamic religion.


29 February 1924, Friday (-7,739)

27 February 1924, Wednesday (-7,741) Trevor Duncan, English composer, was born in Cornwall.

26 February 1924, Tuesday (-7,742) Adolf Hitler was charged with treason for his part in the abortive Munich beer hall putsch.

24 February 1924, Sunday (-7,744)

22 February 1924, Friday (-7,746) (Medical) Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, English physician, died in Cambridge.

21 February 1924, Thursday (-7,747) Robert Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe, was born.

20 February 1924, Wednesday (-7,748) Gloria Vanderbilt, clothing designer and entrepreneur, was born.

19 February 1924, Tuesday (-7,749) Lee Marvin, actor, was born.

18 February 1924, Monday (-7,750)

15 February 1924, Friday (-7,753) (Aviation) The world�s first �control tower� was inaugurated at le Bourget Airport, Paris. A tower with a commanding view of the airport now enabled aircraft movements to be directed by an officer with binoculars.

14 February 1924, Thursday (-7,754) The Computing-Tabulating-recording Company (see 15 June 1911) changed its name to IBM, International Business Machines.

13 February 1924, Wednesday (-7,755)

12 February 1924, Tuesday (-7,756) First performance of George Gershwin�s Rhapsody in Blue.

11 February 1924, Monday (-7,757) (Medical) Jacques Loeb, German-US physiologist, died in Hamilton, Bermuda,

9 February 1924, Saturday (-7,759)

8 February 1924. Friday (-7,760) The first execution by gas chamber, in Carson City�s Nevada State Prison. Chinese gang member Gee John�s execution took some six minutes after the hydrocyanic gas was introduced.

7 February 1924, Thursday (-7,761) Italy recognised the USSR.

6 February 1924. Wednesday (-7,762) The USA granted full citizenship to American Indians.

5 February 1924. Tuesday (-7,763) The BBC �pips� or time signals, were heard for the first time. They were set by a clock at Greenwich.

4 February 1924, Monday (-7,764) Close of the 1st Winter Olympic Games at Chamonix, France.

3 February 1924, Sunday (-7,765) Woodrow Wilson, Democrat and 28th President of America from 1913 to 1921, also Nobel Prize winner, died and was buried in Washington Cathedral.

2 February 1924, Saturday (-7,766) Elfi von Dassanowsky, singer and pianist, was born in Vienna, Austria (died 2007)

1 February 1924. Friday (-7,767) Britain�s Labour Government recognised the USSR.


31 January 1924, Thursday (-7,768) Japanese Prime Minister Kiyoura Keigo dissolved the National Diet and called for new elections. A brawl broke out during the morning session over accusations that the government had failed to protect a train that prominent opposition leaders were riding on when it was pelted with rocks and timbers

30 January 1924, Wednesday (-7,769) Lloyd Alexander, author, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (died 2007)

29 January 1924. Tuesday (-7,770) The ice cream cone making machine was patented by Carl Taylor.

28 January 1924, Monday (-7,771) Campaigning began for a general election in Italy. Benito Mussolini addressed 10,000 Blackshirts in the Palazzo Venezia in Rome, predicting complete victory at the polls and declaring that the Fascists were "ready to kill or die."

27 January 1924. Sunday (-7,772) (1) Mussolini signed a pact with Yugoslavia, and Italy annexed the free city of Fiume.

(2) Rauf Denktash, Turkish-Cypriot politician, was born,

26 January 1924. Saturday (-7,773) Petrograd was renamed Leningrad.

25 January 1924. Friday (-7,774) The first Winter Olympics were held, at Chamonix, France.

24 January 1924, Thursday (-7,775) All non-Fascist Trades Unions were banned in Italy.

23 January 1924, Wednesday (-7,776) Ramsay McDonald formed Britain�s first Labour Government (without an overall majority). Philip Snowden became Chancellor of the Exchequer.

22 January 1924. Tuesday (-7,777) The Labour Party won 288 seats against the Conservatives 266, but had no overall majority as the Liberals held 59. Ramsay MacDonald became Britain�s first Labour Prime Minister, succeeding the Conservative, Stanley Baldwin. See also 26 July 1945. The first Labour government in Britain was elected. King George V sent for Ramsay MacDonald (born 12 October 1866) following the Conservative defeat on a censure motion in the Commons the previous day. The state of the Commons was then, previous to the election, Conservative 259 seats, Labour 191, and Liberals 159. Labour secured its first UK Parliamentary majority on 30 May 1929.

The new Labour government was to prioritise unemployment; slum clearance and house building would also be tackled.

21 January 1924. Monday (-7,778) (1) Vladimir Illitch Lenin died, aged 53. The middle-class lawyer who made a revolution on behalf of the workers died of a series of debilitating strokes. A power struggle then ensued between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin, who won.

(2) The Chinese Kuomintang Congress admitted the Communists.

20 January 1924, Sunday (-7,779) Legion Ascot motor speedway opened in ||Los Angeles.

19 January 1924, Saturday (-7,780) Jean-Francois Revel, philosopher, was born (died 29 April 2006)

18 January 1924, Friday (-7,781)

16 January 1924, Wednesday (-7,783) The BBC broadcast the first play written specifically for radio, Danger, by Richard Hughes.

15 January 1924, Tuesday (-7,784) Michael Davie, author, was born (died 7 December 2005)

13 January 1924, Sunday (-7,786)

12 January 1924, Saturday (-7,787) General Motors began manufacturing vehicles in Copenhagen; the first time they had made vehicles outside the USA.

11 January 1924, Friday (-7,788) Eleutherios Venizelos accepted the Premiership of Greece under the National Assembly.

10 January 1924, Thursday (-7,789)

9 January 1924, Wednesday (-7,790) In Germany, Rhineland secessionist leader Heinz was assassinated.

8 January 1924, Tuesday (-7,791) Ron Moody, actor, was born.

7 January 1924. Monday (-7,792) Direct communication by transatlantic cable and land wire was opened by the Western Union Telegraph Company between London and Chicago.

6 January 1924, Sunday (-7,793) Earl Scruggs, US country banjoist, was born.

1 January 1924, Tuesday (-7,798)


31 December 1923. Monday (-7,799) The chimes of Big Ben were broadcast by the BBC for the first time.

28 December 1923. Friday (-7,802) Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, who designed the 300 metre Eiffel Tower, Paris, died aged 91.

27 December 1923, Thursday (-7,803) Emperor Hirohito of Japan narrowly escaped assassination.

26 December 1923, Wednesday (-7,804) Jack Pleasants, British comedian, died in Bradford, Yorkshire (born 17 August 1874 in Bradford)

25 December 1923, Tuesday (-7,805)

23 December 1923, Sunday (-7,807) The BBC began regular radio broadcasts for entertainment, as opposed to information.

22 December 1923, Saturday (-7,808) John Ebdon, TV broadcaster, was born (died 19 March 2005)

21 December 1923, Friday (-7,809)

19 December 1923, Wednesday (-7,811) King George II left Greece at the request of the ruling Revolutionary Committee.

18 December 1923, Tuesday (-7,812) The International Zone of Tangier was set up.

17 December 1923. Monday (-7,813) The Greek Army deposed King George II.

15 December 1923, Saturday (-7,815)

12 December 1923, Wednesday (-7,818) John Pulman, snooker champion, was born.

10 December 1923, Monday (-7,820) The Kraft Company started as National Dairy Products Corporation (National Dairy), formed on December 10, 1923, by Thomas H. McInnerney.

9 December 1923, Sunday (-7,821) Meggie Albanesi, British actress, died aged 24.

8 December 1923. Saturday (-7,822) In the UK 8 women were now MPs. The British general election resulted in a hung Parliament. The Conservatives, standing on a platform of protectionist tariffs to reduce unemployment, lost seats, finishing with 258 seats. Labour had 191 seats, and the Liberal had 159 seats.

6 December 1923, Thursday (-7,824) Jim Eanes, musician, was born (died 21 November 1995).

3 December 1923, Monday (-7,827) Trevor Bailey, English cricketchampion, was born.

2 December 1923, Sunday (-7,828) Maria Callas, Greek-US soprano singer, was born.


25 November 1923. Sunday (-7,835) The first transatlantic wireless broadcast from the UK to the USA was made.

20 November 1923, Tuesday (-7,840) Nadine Gordimer, writer, was born.

18 November 1923, Sunday (-7,842) Alan Shepard, the first US astronaut in space, was born in East Derry, New Hampshire.

15 November 1923. Thursday (-7,845) (1) Rampant German inflation peaked with the Mark worth 4,200,000 Million to the US Dollar, and 10,000,000 Million to the UK Pound � if you could find anyone willing to change your marks for dollars. It had been 4.2 to the Dollar in 1914, 350,000 to the pound (1 pound was 5 dollars) on 1 June 1923, and 622,000 to the pound on 22 June 1923. A loaf of bread cost 63 pfennigs in 1918, and 250 pfennigs in January 1923. But by July 1923 a loaf cost 3,465 pfennigs, and by November 1923, 201,000 million marks. Workers were paid twice a day and by the evening a loaf of bread would cost what a house was worth in the morning.

Money had effectively become worthless; trade was done by barter. Middle class families with cash in the bank had been ruined. The problem had been that, after French troops occupied the Ruhr to enforce war reparations, the German Government began to print marks in huge numbers. German industry was unable to produce the goodsto match the vast increase in money supply. On 15 November 1923 Germany introduced the Rentemark, tied to the country�s real estate. Each rentemark was worth 1,000 million old marks.

(2) Poland was also in the grip of hyperinflation, though not as bad as Germany�s. The Polish mark went from 9.8 to the US$ in November 1918 to 580 by end-December 1920, and to 17,800 to the US$ by December 1922. By November 1932 the rate stood at 2,300,000 Polish Marks to the US$.

14 November 1923, Wednesday (-7,848) Italy passed a law stating that the Party winning the greatest number of votes in an election would automatically receive two thirds of the seats.

13 November 1923, Tuesday (-7,847) In Italy, Mussolini introduced a Bill giving women the vote.

12 November 1923, Monday (-7,848) In Germany, Dr Hjalmar Schacht was appointed special commissioner to deal with the currency problem. By November 1924 Germany�s currency had stabilised again.

11 November 1923, Sunday (-7,849) Robert C. Murdoch, Australian zoologist and mollusc expert, died aged 72,

10 November 1923, Saturday (-7,850) Robert Carrier, celebrity chef, was born (died 27 June 2006)

9 November 1923. Friday (-7,851) The Munich beer hall putsch marked the start of Hitler�s rise to power in Germany. This putsch against the Bavarian Government failed and Hitler was arrested on 11 November 1923 in a village outside Munich and imprisoned.Hitler then spent several months in prison in Landsberg Am Lech, Bavaria, where he dictated part of his Mein Kampf to Rudolf Hess.

8 November 1923, Thursday (-7,852) Jack St Clair Kilby, scientist who invented the microchip, was born (died 20 June 2005).

6 November 1923, Tuesday (-7,854) (Clothing) The Schick dry shaver the first practical electric shaver, was patented.

4 November 1923, Sunday (-7,856) Alfred Heineken, brewer and businessman, was born.

1 November 1923, Thursday (-7,859) Victoria de los Angeles, soprano singer, was born (died 14 January 2005).


31 October 1923, Wednesday (-7,860) A severe heatwave began at Marble Bar, Western Australia. It lasted for 160 days, with temperatures rising to 37.8 C (100F).

30 October 1923, Tuesday (-7,861) Andrew Bonar-Law, Canadian-born UK Prime Minister, died.

29 October 1923. Monday (-7,862) Mustapha Kemal proclaimed Turkey a Republic and himself as its first President, called Kemal Ataturk.

27 October 1923, Saturday (-7,864) French troops occupied Bonn and Wiesbaden.

24 October 1923, Wednesday (-7,867) Sir Robin Day, TV interviewer, was born this day.

23 October 1923, Tuesday (-7,868) A Communist uprising occurred in Hamburg.

22 October 1923, Monday (-7,869) Communists in Hamburg led by Ernst Thalmann were secretly called on to mobilise.

21 October 1923, Sunday (-7,870) The world�s first planetarium opened, in Munich.

19 October 1923, Friday (-7,872)

18 October 1923, Thursday (-7,873) Eileen Sheridan, champion cyclist, was born.

17 October 1923, Wednesday (-7,874) Reverend Professor Maurice Wiles, religious writer, was born (died 3 June 2005)

16 October 1923, Tuesday (-7,875) General Francisco Franco of Spain, aged 30, married Maria del Carmen Polo y Martinez Valdez, aged 23, in Oviedo.

14 October 1923, Sunday (-7,877)

12 October 1923. Friday (-7,879) The Turkish capital was officially moved from Istanbul to Ankara.

11 October 1923, Thursday (-7,880) The German Mark reached 10,000 million to the UK Pound.

10 October 1923. Wednesday (-7,881) Rhodesia, formerly administered by the British South African Company, became a self-governing British colony.

9 October 1923, Tuesday (-7,882) Donald Sinden, actor, was born.

8 October 1923, Monday (-7,883)

6 October 1923, Saturday (-7,885) Soviet agent Mikhail Borodin arrived in China to assist Sun Yat Sen�s Kuomintang Government.

5 October 1923, Friday (-7.,886) Jock Stein, footballer, was born (died 11 September 1985).

4 October 1923, Thursday (-7,887) Charlton Heston, US actor, was born

3 October 1923, Wednesday (-7,888)

1 October 1923, Monday (-7,890) The German mark reached 242,000,000 to the US$


30 September 1923, Sunday (-7,891) A German uprising in Dusseldorf against French occupation of The Ruhr.

29 September 1923. Saturday (-7,892) The British mandate in Palestine officially began.

28 September 1923. Friday (-7,893) (1) Ethiopia joined the League of Nations.

(2) The Radio Times was first published.

27 September 1923. Thursday (-7,894) Martial law was proclaimed in Germany, under Article 48 of the Constitution.

26 September 1923, Wednesday (-7,895) The Commonwealth Conference was held in London. Britain recognised the right of the dominions to make treaties with foreign powers.

22 September 1923, Saturday (-7,899) Dannie Abse, writer, was born

17 September 1923, Monday (-7,904) Hank Williams, musician, was born.

16 September 1923, Sunday (-7,905) Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of Singapore, was born.

15 September 1923, Saturday (-7,906) As the German economy deteriorated, the German Bank Rate was raised to 90%.

14 September 1923, Friday (-7,907) In Spain, Miguel Primo de Rivera became dictator, ruling under King Alfonso XIII.

12 September 1923, Wednesday (-7,909) The garrison at Barcelona mutinied. In response, General Primo, with the approval of King Alfonso XIII, suspended the constitution and instituted a military government.

10 September 1923. Monday (-7,911) (Ireland) The Irish Free State was admitted to the League of Nations.

9 September 1923, Sunday (-7,912) (Medical) Daniel Carleton Gajdusek was born in Yonkers, New York, USA. In 1966 he succeeded in transferring kuru, a disease of the central nervous system thought to be spread by cannibalism, to chimpanzees. This was the first time a viral disease of the central nervous system had been transferred from humans to another species.

8 September 1923, Saturday (-7,913)

6 September 1923, Thursday (-7,915) King Peter of Yugoslavia was born.

5 September 1923, Wednesday (-7,916) (Aviation) Sadi Lecointe, France, set a new aviation altitude record of 35,242 feet.

4 September 1923. Tuesday (-7,917) Birth of Birmingham politician Lord Howell, Britain�s first Minister for Sport.

3 September 1923, Monday (-7,918) The US recognised the Mexican government.

2 September 1923, Sunday (-7,919) Hitler fiercely denounced the Weimar Republic.

1 September 1923. Saturday (-7,920) (Earthquake, Japan) An earthquake magnitude 7.9 in Japan left the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama in ruins and killed over 300,000 people. The epicentre was just outside Tokyo. Half of Tokyo�s houses were destroyed, a million of its people made homeless, and 132,807 killed in Tokyo alone. Altogether 143,000 died and 2.5 million were made homeless.


31 August 1923. Friday (-7,921) Italy seized the Greek island of Corfu. This followed an incident in which an Italian General and 4 members of his staff were shot whilst determining the Albanian-Greek border on 27 August 1923.Mussolini saw the incident as a national insult.Greece appealed to the League of Nations on 3 September 1923, and under pressure from France and the UK, Italy withdrew from Corfu on 27 September 1923.Greece was compelled to pay a considerable indemnity to Italy.

29 August 1923, Wednesday (-7,923) British film director and actor Sir David Attenborough was born.

27 August 1923, Monday (-7,925) (Ireland) In Irish elections, Cumann na nGaedheal won 63 seats; the anti-Treaty Republicans won 44 seats.

23 August 1923, Thursday (-7,929) The last Allied troops left Istanbul..

22 August 1923, Wednesday (-7,930 (Aviation)) Maiden flight of the Witteman-LewisXNBL-1. This long-range bomber was then the world�s largest plane.

21 August 1923, Tuesday (-7,931) In London, a 7-week dockworkers strike ended.

19 August 1923, Sunday (-7,933)

17 August 1923. Friday (-7,935) The defence treaty between Japan and the UK (see 30 January 1902 and 23 August 1914) was replaced by a four power agreement between the USA, France, Japan, and the UK.

16 August 1923, Thursday (-7,936) (Jewish) Shimon Peres, Prime Minister of Israel 1984-86, was born in Poland.

15 August 1923, Wednesday (-7,937) (Ireland) Eamon de Valera was arrested by Irish Free State troops; released 16 July 1924.

14 August 1923, Tuesday (-7,938) 99 miners died in a coal mine explosion near Kemmerer, Wyoming.

13 August 1923. Monday (-7,939) (Turkey) Mustapha Kemal, (Ataturk), was elected President of Turkey.

12 August 1923, Sunday (-7,940) Streseman became German Chancellor.

11 August 1923, Saturday (-7,941) The Cuno strikes broke out across Germany as opposition to Wilhelm Cuno hardened. 35 workers were killed and 100 wounded around the country.

10 August 1923, Friday (-7,942) (Germany) Civil unrest began in Germany; strikes and riots, until 13 August 1923.

9 August 1923, Thursday (-7,943) (Ireland) In Ireland, the 1923 Land Law Act, introduced by Agriculture Minister Paul Hogan, reformed landholdings in favour of tenants. This Act completed the work of William Gladstone, British Prime Minister, who in 1870 introduced legislation allowing tenant farmers to borrow two thirds of the price of buying their landholding from the government, to be repaid with interest over 35 years. Hogan�s Act made compulsory the sale of all land still owned by landlords. Rents fixed before 1911 were reduced by 35%, those fixed after 1911 by 30%. All rent arrears pre-1920 were cancelled and rent arrears post 1920 were reduced by 25%. Current sub-tenants were recognised as legitimate owners and further subdivision or subletting of land was made illegal.

8 August 1923, Wednesday (-7,944) Jimmy Witherspoon, US blues singer, was born in Gurdon, Arkansas.

7 August 1923, Tuesday (-7,945) German Chancellor Wilhelm Cuno called a conference of the six top party leaders where it was decided to put the country back on a gold basis.

6 August 1923, Monday (-7,946) (Germany) In Germany, Gustav Stresemann was appointed Chancellor following the sudden resignation of Wilhelm Cuno. Stresemann formed a coalition Government.

5 August 1923, Sunday (-7,947) (Singapore) C V Devan Nair, President of Singapore, was born.

4 August 1923, Saturday (-7,948) (Rail Tunnel) The Otira Tunnel, New Zealand, 8.563 km long, opened on the Christchurch-Brunner line, South island.

3 August 1923, Friday (-7,949) (USA) John Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) became 30th (Republican) President of the USA, going on to win the election of 1924.He declined to stand for election in 1928 but retired, just before the Wall Street crash.

2 August 1923, Thursday (-7,950) (USA) Warren Harding, American Republican and 29th President from 1921, died in San Francisco on return from a trip to Alaska, aged 57.The remainder of his term was completed by Calvin Coolidge.

1 August 1923, Wednesday (-7,951) Yoshinao Nakada, Japanese composer, was born in Shibuya, Tokyo (died 2000)


31 July 1923, Tuesday (-7,852) Jimmy Evert, US tennis coach (father of Chris Evert), was born in Chicago, Illinois (died 2015).

30 July 1923, Monday (-7,953) (Antarctic) The Ross Dependency in Antarctica was created, under New Zealand rule.

29 July 1923, Sunday (-7,954) Albert Einstein lectured in pacifism in Berlin.

28 July 1923, Saturday (-7,955) In Australia, New South Wales Premier Sir George Fuller ceremonially turned the first sod in the construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

27 July 1923, Friday (-7,956) (Broadcasting) The BBC radio transmission station at Daventry opened.

26 July 1923, Thursday (-7,957) (Innovation, TV) John Logie Baird patented a system for transmitting pictures by �mechanical television�. The transmitter and receiver both had a spinning disc with 24 holes; pictures were sent by photoelectric cells. The principle was the same as making repeated static images �move� by rapidly flicking the pages of a book; the persistence of images in the human eye gives the illusion of motion. Unfortunately the picture quality was mediocre, the flickering gave viewers a headache, and the intense light needed to film anything was exhausting for the cast.

25 July 1923, Wednesday (-7,958) (Railway disasters) 100 killed in Bulgarian train crash.

24 July 1923. Tuesday (-7,959) (Turkey) The Treaty of Lausanne was signed. This restored Adrianople to Turkey after the Greco-Turkish was of 1923. Turkey regained the territories lost after World War One, including the eastern Aegean and Armenia.

20 July 1923, Friday (-7,963) Francisco �Pancho� Villa, Mexican revolutionary leader, born 1878, son of a farm worker, was shot dead. His killers were members of the Herrera family, four of whom Pancho had executed during the Revolution.

18 July 1923, Wednesday (-7,965) In Britain, the Matrimonial Causes Act gave women equality in divorce cases.

16 July 1923. Monday (-7,967) Mussolini banned gambling in Italy.

15 July 1923, Sunday (-7,968) Regular passenger flights between Moscow and Gorki (Nizhniy-Novgorod), 420 km, began.

13 July 1923, Friday (-7,970) Britain made sales of alcohol to under-18s illegal.

11 July 1923, Wednesday (-7,972) Albert Chevalier, British actor, was born in Notting Hill, London.

10 July 1923, Tuesday (-7,973) All non-Fascist Parties in Italy were abolished.

7 July 1923, Saturday (-7,976) (Innovation) John Harwood patented the first self-winding wristwatch. Self-winding watches already existed but they were bulky fob-watches. The concept was to use a small swinging weight to wind the timepiece.

2 July 1923, Monday (-7,981) London dock workers went on strike (until 21 August 1923).

1 July 1923, Sunday (-7,982) The German Mark reached 160,000 to the US$.Pre 1914 it had been 4.20; during 1922 the rate fell from 162 to over 7,000 to the US$.


30 June 1923. Saturday (-7,983) The Klu Klux Klan claimed to have a million members. Founded after Black slaves gained freedom in the American Civil War, it gradually widened its targets to include Jews, Catholics, foreigners; anyone not Protestant and White. It was disbanded in 1869 but revived in 1915, under its �imperial wizard�, a dentist called Hiram Evans.

29 June 1923, Friday (-7,984) Gustav Kerker, composer, died in new York (born 28 February 1857 in Herford, Germany)

28 June 1923, Thursday (-7,985)

27 June 1923, Wednesday (-7,986) Beth Chatto, horticulturalist, was born

26 June 1923, Tuesday (-7,987) Syd Lawrence, British bandleader, was born in Shotton, near Chester

22/ June 1923, Friday (-7,991)

16 June 1923, Saturday (-7,997) Ronald Flockhart, motor racing champion, was born (died 12 April 1962).

15 June 1923. Friday (-7,998) Earthquake in Iran killed 20,000.

14 June 1923, Thursday (-7,999) (1) ex-Prime Minister Stamboliski of Bulgaria was shot whilst trying to �escape�. On 9 June 1923 he had been ejected in a coup, after his policies had antagonised the military.

(2) The New Zealand Air Force was founded.

13 June 1923, Wednesday (-8,000) Li Yuanhung, President of the Chinese Government in Beijing, was oiusted by warlord Cao Kun.

12 June 1923, Tuesday (-8,001) Fa�ade was performed at the Aeolian Hall, London. English poet Edith Sitwell recited her poems to William Walton�s accompanying music.

11 June 1923, Monday (-8,002)

10 June 1923. Sunday (-8,003) (1) Switzerland and Liechtenstein formed a customs union.

(2) Robert Maxwell, newspaper owner, was born in Solotvino, eastern Czechoslovakia, as Ludvick Hoch (died 1991).

9 June 1923, Saturday (-8,004) In Italy, the Vatican ordered the Catholic Party to disband, and many of its members joined Mussolini�s Fascist party. The Catholic Party, or Partito Popolare Italiano (Italian People�s Party), had been formed in 1919;before then the Vatican had forbidden Catholics to vote. In Italian elections in 1919 and in 1921 the Catholic Party received 20% of the vote, second only to the Italian Socialist Party. Following Mussolini�s victory in 1922 Cardinal Gasparri, the Vatican�s Secretary of State, made a deal with Mussolini that the Catholic Church would support him; in return Mussolini would restore the historic privileges of the Catholic Church in Italy. In 1927 Mussolini was baptised as a Catholic, and in 1929 he signed the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican a separate sovereign State. He also made Catholicism the State religion of Italy, and paid the Vatican 750 million lire as compensation for the Vatican�s loss of the ancient Papal States territory in Italy.

8 June 1923, Friday (-8,005) In the UK, wives were now allowed to divorce their husbands for adultery.

6 June 1923, Wednesday (-8,007)

4 June 1923, Monday (-8,009) In Spain, the Archbishop of Saragossa was murdered.

3 June 1923, Sunday ((-8,010) In Italy, Mussolini approved a Bill giving women the vote.


31 May 1923, Thursday (-8,013) Prince Ranier III, prince of the House of Grimaldi, was born in Monaco.

28 May 1923, Monday (-8,018) Gyorgy Ligeti, Hungarian composer, was born (died 2006).

27 May 1923. Sunday (-8,017) The inaugural first 24 hours of the Le Mans car race ended today.

26 May 1923, Saturday (-8,018) The annual Le Mans 24-hour race for sports cars was first held, on the Sarthe circuit. The winners, Andre Lagache and Rene Leonard, averaged 57.2 mph.

25 May 1923, Friday (-8,019) The State of Transjordan, now Jordan, became independent.

24 May 1923, Thursday (-8,020) Republicans opposed to the Anglo Irish Treaty of 1921 unconditionally surrendered to the Irish Free State Government, ending a period of civil conflict within Ireland.

23 May 1923, Wednesday (-8,021) (Aviation) Sabena airline Belgium, was set up.

22 May 1923. Tuesday (-8,022) Stanley Baldwin became Conservative Prime Minister after the resignation of Andrew Bonar Law due to illness. Baldwin was to serve as PM for three terms.See 23 October 1922.

20 May 1923, Sunday (-8,024) Bonar Law, UK Prime Minister, resigned due to illness.

17 May 1923, Thursday (-8,027) Sir Michael Beetham, Marshal of the RAF, was born

15 May 1923, Tuesday (-8,029) Richard Avedon, photographer, was born.

11 May 1923, Friday (-8,033) (Education-schools) Stowe House public school, Buckinghamshire, opened.

8 May 1923, Tuesday (-8,036) Britain protested to Russia about their anti-British propaganda.

3 May 1923, Thursday (-8,041) The first nonstop flight across the USA was completed, after 27 hours in the air, when John McCready and Oakley Kelly landed in California.

2 May 1923, Wednesday (-8,042) The BBC radio programme �Woman�s Hour� began.

1 May 1923, Tuesday (-8,043) William Steel, footballer, was born (died 13 May 1982).


30 April 1923. Monday (-8,044) The US only permitted alcohol consumption on ships 3 miles or more out at sea.

29 April 1923, Sunday (-8,045) Irvin Kershner, film director, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (died 2010)

28 April 1923. Saturday (-8,046) The first major sporting event was held at Wembley Stadium; the FA Cup Final.

27 April 1923, Friday (-8,047) After the death of IRA Chief of Staff Liam Lynch (see 10 April 1923), Eamon de Valera called off his armed struggle against the Treaty that partitioned Ireland. Speaking to his Republican followers, termed �irregulars� or �rebels� by the Irish Free State Government, de Valera said �Further sacrifice of life would now be in vain. Military victory must be allowed for to rest for the moment with those who have destroyed the Republic�. The struggle had taken 4,000 lives and cost �30 million in damage to property. Republicans had regarded the entire State apparatus of the Free State government, courts, police, judges, illegal and therefore legitimate military targets. In turn the Free Government had reacted with a strong crackdown on the IRA.

26 April 1923, Thursday (-8,048) King George V, then the Duke of York, married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in Westminster Abbey.

25 April 1923, Wednesday (-8,049) Melissa Hayden, ballerina, was born (died 8 August 2006)

24 April 1923, Tuesday (-8,050)

23 April 1923, Monday (-8,051) In Italy, the Catholic Party quit from Mussolini�s Government.

22 April 1923, Sunday (-8,052) Bettie Page, pin-up model, was born.

21 April 1923, Saturday (-8,053) John Mortimer, barrister, was born.

20 April 1923, Friday (-8,054)

19 April 1923, Thursday (-8,055) (USA) The Yankee Stadium, new York, opened.

18 April 1923, Wednesday (-8,056) Yankee Baseball Stadium opened in The Bronx, New York City. It was the first such building of its kind, and the name �stadium� was meant to hark back to ancient Greek athletic arenas.

15 April 1923, Sunday (-8,059)

13 April 1923, Friday (-8,061) Don Adams, actor, was born.

11 April 1923, Wednesday (-8,063) In Britain, the Conservative Government suffered a Commons defeat, by 145 votes to 138, on a motion on ex-servicemen.

10 April 1923, Tuesday (-8,064) Liam Lynch, head of the IRA, died in police custody after being wounded in fighting with Free State troops. See 27 April 1923.

9 April 1923, Monday (-8,065) (Unions) The US Supreme Court ruled, in Adkins v Children�s Hospital, ruled that the minimum wage for women and children adopted in the District of Columbia was unconstitutional. This was a blow to organised labour.

3 April 1923, Tuesday (-8,071)

1 April 1923, Sunday (-8,073) Easter Sunday.


31 March 1923, Saturday (-8,074) Rioting German workers at the Krupps works in Essen in French-occupied Ruhr were shot by French troops.

30 March 1923, Friday (-8,075) Milton Acorn, poet / writer, born in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada (died 1986).

29 March 1923, Thursday (-8,076) (Aviation) RL Maughan, USA, set a new aviation speed record of 236.59 mph.

28 March 1923, Wednesday (-8,077) The Italian Air Force was created.

27 March 1923, Tuesday (-8,078) (1) The astronomer and broadcaster Patrick Moore was born in Pinner.

(2) Sir James Dewar, Scottish scientist, inventor of the vacuum flask, died aged 80.

26 March 1923. Monday (-8,079) (1) The world�s first inter-urban motorway opened, in Italy. It was formally opened by the King of Italy on 21/9.1924. It ran from Milan to Varese and the Lombardy Lakes.

(2) Regular daily weather forecasts began to be broadcast on BBC radio. See 14 November 1922.

25 March 1923, Sunday (-8,080) (Astronomy) Kenneth Lynn Franklin was born in Alameda, California. In 1955 he and Burke detected radio emissions from Jupiter.

24 March 1923. Saturday (-8,081) The salt tax in India was restored.

23 March 1923, Friday (-8,082) Cutty Sark Scotch whisky was introduced.

22 March 1923, Thursday (-8,083) Marcel Marceau, mime artist, was born.

21 March 1923. Wednesday (-8,084) Scientists in Paris claimed smoking is beneficial.

18 March 1923, Sunday (-8,087)

15 March 1923, Thursday (-8,890) Fuad I was proclaimed King of Egypt.

14 March 1923. Wednesday (-8,891) The Allies recognised Vilna and East Galicia as Polish.

13 March 1923, Tuesday (-8,092)

12 March 1923, Monday (-8,093) The foundation stone of the Australian Federal Parliament Building at Canberra was laid.

11 March 1923, Sunday (-8,094) Louise Brough, tennis player, was born.

9 March 1923. Friday (-8,096) Vladimir Illitch Lenin retired from the Bolshevik leadership of the USSR because of a second stroke.

4 March 1923, Sunday (-8,101) Patrick Moore, astronomer, was born in Pinner.

3 March 1923. Saturday (-8,102) The US magazine Time was first published. Republican-leaning, the magazine was to condense the news for time-pressed Americans, and could be distributed by rail in a country with no true national newspaper.

2 March 1923, Friday (-8,103) (1) In Britain the Matrimonial Causes Bill, passed by 231 votes to 27, changed the inequality whereby a man could divorce his wife simply for adultery, but a woman had to prove cruelty or desertion as well.

(2) Cardinal Basil Hume, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster from 1976, was born.

1 March 1923, Thursday (-8,104) The Czechoslovak national airline, CSA, was set up.


28 February 1923, Wednesday (-8,105) Charles Durning, actor, was born.

27 February 1923, Tuesday (-8,106) Dexter Gordon, US jazz saxophonist, was born in Los Angeles (died 25 April 1990 in Philadelphia)

24 February 1923, Saturday (-8,109) The Flying Scotsman train began scheduled 4-hour services between Kings Cross, London, and Edinburgh, at a record 100 mph.

22 February 1923, Thursday (-8,111) Bleddyn Williams, rugby player, was born.

21 February 1923, Wednesday (-8,112) In Italy the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Vincenzo Cardinal Vanutelli, said �Mussolini had been chosen to save the nation and restore her fortune.

19 February 1923, Monday (-8,114) Jeronomo Gimenez, Spanish composer, died in Madrid (born 10 October 1854 in Seville)

17 February 1923. Saturday (-8,116) Tutankhamen�s tomb opened by the Egyptologist Howard Carter. Carter was born in Swaffham, Norfolk, on 9 May 1873, and joined the British � sponsored archaeological survey of Egypt at the age of 17. He died in London in 1939.

15 February 1923, Thursday (-8,118) (Aviation) Sadi Lecointe, France, set a new aviation speed record of 233.03 mph.

13 February 1923, Tuesday (-8,120) Charles �Chuck� Yeager, American pilot, first to fly at supersonic speed, was born.

12 February 1923, Monday (-8,121) Franco Zeffirelli, Italian film director, was born.

11 February 1923, Sunday (-8,122) A US intervention army left Honduras.

10 February 1923. Saturday (-8,123) William Konrad Von Roentgen, German physicist who discovered X rays in 1895, died.

9 February 1923, Friday (-8,124) The Soviet national airline, now called Aeroflot, was established; then known as Dobrolet.

5 February 1923, Monday (-8,128)

3 February 1923, Saturday (-8,130) (Ireland) Arson campaign began in the Irish Free State.

2 February 1923, Friday (-8,131) (Australia) In Australia, Prime Minister Hughes was forced to resign. Stanley Bruce formed a coalition Government from the Nationalist and Country Parties.

1 February 1923. Thursday (-8,132) Inflation in Germany continued; �1 was now worth 220,000 Marks. On 2 January 1922 �1 had been worth 30,000 Marks.


31 January 1923, Wednesday (-8.133) Hungary was admitted to the League of Nations.

30 January 1923, Tuesday (-8,134) Arthur Kinnaird, footballer, died (born 16 February 1847).

27 January 1923. Saturday (-8,137) The German Nazi Party held its first rally, in Munich.

20 January 1923, Saturday (-8,144) All US troops withdrawn from Germany.

19 January 1923, Friday (-8,145) Jean Stapleton, actress, was born.

17 January 1923, Wednesday (-8,147)

16 January 1923, Tuesday (-8,148) Keith Shackleton, artist, was born.

15 January 1923, Monday (-8,149) Lithuania seized Memel from the occupying Allied forces.

14 January 1923, Sunday (-8,150) Fascist voluntary militia officially approved in Italy.

13 January 1923, Saturday (-8,151) The US Senate agreed to take in 25,000 Armenian orphans.

12 January 1923, Friday (-8,152) Germany protested at the occupation of the Ruhr (see 11 January 1923) and ceased all coal reparations shipments to France.The French erected customs posts and economically divided the region from the rest of Germany.This was a serious blow to the German economy, especially after the loss of the industrial Upper Silesia to Poland.The resultant economic disruption hit the German economy and its currency began to collapse.See 31 July 1925.

11 January 1923. Thursday (-8,153) (1) Germany defaulted on reparations payments (see 26 December 1922), and French and Belgian troops occupied Essen and The Ruhr.

(2) Constantine, King of the Hellenes, died of a brain haemorrhage in Palermo (born 2 August 1868).

10 January 1923, Wednesday (-8,154) The last US troops left Germany.

9 January 1923. Tuesday (-8,155) Katherine Mansfield, New Zealand author, died aged 34.

8 January 1923, Monday (-8,156) John Wardle, cricketer, was born (died 23 July 1985).

7 January 1923, Sunday (-8,157) A White mob destroyed the mainly Black settlement of Rosewood, Florida.

3 January 1923, Wednesday (-8,161) Death of Czech satirical writer Jaroslav Hasek.

1 January 1923, Monday (-8,163) (1) Britain�s railways were regrouped according to the Railways Act of 1921. The railways had been nationalised during the War, but ambitious plans for electrification and redevelopment had been abandoned in favour foa return to private ownership. However the multiple overlapping companies of pre-War Britain were now organised into four regional monopolies, the Great Western, the London and North Western, the London and North eastern, and the Southern.

(2) A French pilot set a new air speed record of 217 mph.

(3) 100 acres of Ken Wood Estate were bought for the nation to extend Hampstead Heath.


30 December 1922. Saturday (-8,165) Soviet Russia was officially renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or USSR.

28 December 1922, Thursday (-8,167) Stan Lee, comics artist who created Spiderman and The Incredible Hulk, was born.

24 December 1922, Sunday (-8,171) (Broadcasting) The first play written for radio, The Truth About Father Christmas, was broadcast by the BBC.

23 December 1922, Saturday (-8,172) Birth of Helmut Schmidt, German Chancellor.

22 December 1922, Friday (-8,173) (USA) New York�s last horse-drawn fire engine was taken out of service.

20 December 1922, Wednesday (-8,175)

17 December 1922, Sunday (-8,178) The last British troops left Dublin.

16 December 1922, Saturday (-8,179) The Reparation Commission accused Germany of intentional shortfalls in wood and coal deliveries to France.See 11 January 1923.

15 December 1922, Friday (-8,180) Franco-Canadian trade agreement signed.

14 December 1922, Thursday (-8,181) Royal Dutch Shell struck oil near Lake Maracaibo.

13 December 1922, Wednesday (-8,182) Hannes Hafstein, Prime Minister of Iceland, died.

10 December 1922, Sunday (-8,185)

8 December 1922, Friday (-8,187) Lucian Freud, artist, was born

7 December 1922, Thursday (-8,188) The Northern Ireland Parliament voted against inclusion in the Irish Free State.

6 December 1922, Wednesday (-8,189) In Ireland. Tim Healy was appointed Governor-General.

5 December 1922. Tuesday (-8,190) The Irish Free State was officially proclaimed. The last British troops left on 17 December 1922.

4 December 1922, Monday (-8,191) The Second Central American conference convened in Washington DC. Nicaragua and Honduras needed arbitration to solve their differences. The USA retained the right, under the Roosevelt Corollary, to intercede in South American affairs.

3 December 1922, Sunday (-8,192) Sven Nykvist, cinematographer, was born (died 20 September 2006)

2 December 1922, Saturday (-8,193) (Saudi Arabia) Under the Uqair Convention, the Saudi Arabia � Iraq frontier was settled, but two �neutral zones� were left, one between Iraq and Saudi Arabia, and another between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The sovereignty of three islands in the Gulf, Kubbar, Qaruh and Umm al Mara, was also left undecided. The administration of these �neutral zones� was not settled until May 1938. These zones were provisionally divided between the neighbouring countries in July 1975 but this agreement was not ratified at the time. See 26 December 1981.

1 December 1922, Friday (-8,194) Jozef Pilsudski, President of Poland, resigned.


30 November 1922, Thursday (-8,195)

28 November 1922. Tuesday (-8,197) First skywriting achieved.

27 November 1922, Monday (-8,198) Demetrio Castillo Duany, 66, Cuban revolutionary, soldier and politician, died.

26 November 1922. Sunday (-8,199) (1) The tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamen was discovered by Howard Carter and his patron, Lord Carnarvon.

(2) Birth of the American cartoonist Charles Schultz. At an arts instruction school in St Paul, Minnesota, Schultz asked fellow student Charlie Brown if he could use his name . He also used Brown�s moon-face looks to create the friendly loser-kid in the comic strip Peanuts, which featured in some 2,600 newspapers in 75 countries, translated into 21 languages. Schultz died in Santa Rosa, California, in 2000.

25 November 1922, Saturday (-8,200) The Italian Parliament granted Mussolini temporary emergency powers to force through reforms.

24 November 1922, Friday (-8,201) In the Irish Free State, leading Republican Erskine Childers was executed for possession of a firearm.

23 November 1922, Thursday (-8,202) Lord Carnarvon arrived in Egypt to see the archaeological excavations he was funding..

22 November 1922, Wednesday (-8,203) Wilhelm Cuno succeeded Wirth as German Chancellor.

21 November 1922. Tuesday (-8,204) Ramsay MacDonald was elected leader of the Labour Party.

20 November 1922, Monday (-8,205) John Leach, table tennis champion, was born.

19 November 1922, Sunday (-8,206) Unemployed hunger marchers demonstrated in Trafalgar Square in London.

18 November 1922, Saturday (-8,207) Marcel Proust, writer, died.

17 November 1922, Friday (-8,208) Siberia voted for union with the USSR.

16 November 1922. Thursday (-8,209) In Britain, the Tories under Bonar Law won the General Election with a majority of 77. The Conservatives got 345 seats. Labour won 142 to become the main opposition party for the first time, and the Liberals had 117 seats.

15 November 1922, Wednesday (-8,210) Marcel Proust, French writer, died aged 51.

14 November 1922. Tuesday (-8,211) The British Broadcasting Corporation began daily news broadcasts from 2LO in The Strand, London. This had formerly been Marconi�s London broadcasting station. At 6pm the news was read by Arthur Burrows, once at normal speed and once at slow speed. See 14 February 1922, 18 October 1922 and 26 March 1923.

13 November 1922, Monday (-8,212) Charles Bronson, US actor, was born.

12 November 1922, Sunday (-8,213) Italy formally annexed Libya.

11 November 1922, Saturday (-8,214) Kurt Vonnegut Jr, science fiction writer, was born.

10 November 1922, Friday (-8,215) John Crook, British composer, died in London (born 1852 in Manchester).

9 November 1922, Thursday (+8,214) Dorothy Dandridge, American actress, singer and dancer, in Cleveland, Ohio (died 1965)

8 November 1922, Wednesday (-8,217) Dr Christian Barnard, South African surgeon who pioneered heart transplants, was born in Beaufort West, Cape Province.

7 November 1922. Tuesday (-8,218) In US Congressional elections, the Republican majority was reduced.

5 November 1922, Sunday (-8,220)

4 November 1922, Saturday (-8,221) Archaeologist Howard Carter discovered a stairway near the tomb of Ramses II. Excavations now halted until Howard�s financial backer, Lord Carnarvon, arrived.

3 November 1922, Friday (-8,222) Albert Reynolds, Prime Minister of Ireland 1992-94, was born.

2 November 1922, Thursday (-8,223) Economic experts opened a conference in Berlin on the German financial crisis

1 November 1922. Wednesday (-8,224) (1) Mustafa Kemal announced a new Turkish Republic.

(2) The first radio licences went on sale in Britain. They cost 10 shillings (50p). They were abolished on 1 February 1971. Some people built their own radios; others bought them from the BBC, costing between �2 and �4, with headphones.


31 October 1922, Tuesday (-8,225) (1) Mussolini�s supporters organised a mass rally in Rome.

(2) Norodom Sihanouk, King of Cambodia, was born.

30 October 1922. Monday (-8,226) Benito Mussolini took power in Italy.

29 October 1922, Sunday (-8,227) King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy invited Mussolini to travel to Rome from Milan to form a government. Mussolini�s Fascist Party had been founded in March 1919, and was dissolved on 28 July 1943.

28 October 1922,