Chronography of events from 1 January 1913 to 31 December 1919

Page last modified 11/11/2021


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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from


For dates from 1/1/1920 click here



31/12/1919, Wednesday (-9,260)

30/12/1919, Tuesday (-9,261) In London, the first female bar student was admitted to Lincoln�s Inn.

29/12/1919, Monday (-9,262) Sir William Osler, medical teacher, died in Oxford, England.

28/12/1919, Sunday (-9,263) (Science) Johannes Robert Rydberg, Swedish physicist, died in Lund.

25/12/1919, Thursday (-9,266)

23/12/1919, Tuesday (-9,268) (Women�s Rights) In Britain, the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Bill was passed, opening up many professions to women.

22/12/1919, Monday (-9,269) David Lloyd George, the Prime Minister, announced plans for the partition of Ireland.

20/12/1919, Saturday (-9,271)

19/12/1919, Friday (-9,272) The Irish Republican Army (formerly Irish Volunteers) made an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Lord French, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

18/12/1919, Thursday (-9,273) Death of British aviation expert Sir John Alcock in a flying accident, six months after his pioneering transatlantic flight with Sir Arthur Brown.

16/12/1919, Tuesday (-9,275) German troops left Latvia and Lithuania.

13/12/1919, Saturday (-9,278) Soviets captured Kharkov from the White Russians under Anton Denikin.

10/12/1919, Wednesday (-9,281) British aviators Ross and Keith Smith completed a 135-hour flight from England to Australia.

3/12/1919, Wednesday (-9,288) Pierre Auguste Renoir, French Impressionist painter, died near Cannes, aged 78.


30/11/1919, Sunday (-9,291) Women were allowed to vote for the first time in French elections.

28/11/1919. Friday (-9,293) (1) Viscountess (Nancy) Astor became Britain�s first woman MP. She took her seat in the House of Commons on 1/12/1919, elected by a substantial majority. She won the seat of Plymouth Sutton in a by-election caused by the elevation of her husband to the peerage. She retired from Parliament in 1945.

(2) Latvia declared war on Germany. German troops left Latvia and Lithuania on 16/12/1919.

27/11/1919. Thursday (-9,294) (1) Bulgaria signed the Treaty of Neuilly, recognising the independence of Yugoslavia.Western Thrace was ceded to Greece, thereby cutting off Bulgaria from the Mediterranean, and two small regions were ceded to Yugoslavia.The southern Dobruja wasretained by Romania.Bulgaria was liable to pay reparations and its army limited to 20,000 men.

(2) A large meteor landed in Lake Michigan.

25/11/1919, Tuesday (-9,296)

24/11/1919, Monday (-9,297) Proposals to divide Ireland in two, Ulster and the South, were submitted to the UK Cabinet.

23/11/1919, Sunday (-9,298) P F Strawson, English philosopher, was born.

19/11/1919, Wednesday (-9,302) In Italy, Benito Mussolini and 37 Fascists were arrested after rioting at the election of the Socialists.

17/11/1919, Monday (-9,304) A Dorset farm labourer was paid �1.15 a week average.

16/11/1919, Sunday (-9,305) First Italian elections that were contested by the Fascists. However the Fascists did badly, receiving just 4657 votes out of 270,000 cast in Milan, supposedly a Fascist stronghold. In Predappio, Mussolini�s birthplace, not one vote went to the Fascists. The Socialists, however, did very well, gaining 1.76 million votes, their best tally to date; they raised their seats from 52 to 156, and became Italy�s largest single party. Socialist support had been boosted by the suffering of World War One, especially in Germany and the troubles in Russia. The Popolari Party, run by Don Sturzo, representing Catholics, the forerunner of the post-World War Two Christian Democrats, also did well, gaining 100 seats. The Pope, who had previously discouraged Catholics from voting, had now informally encouraged Catholic support for the Popolari. The Socialists were later undermined by the split in their ranks between the reformists (riformisti) and the revolutionaries (Massimilasti), the latter defecting to the Communist Party in 1921. This split allowed the fascists to gain power.

15/11/1919. Saturday (-9,306) The Red Army captured Omsk.

14/11/1919, Friday (-9,307) Romanian forces withdrew from Budapest, Hungary, which they had occupied since 4/8/1919.

13/11/1919, Thursday (-9,308)

12/11/1919. Wednesday (-9,309) Captain Ross Smith, his brother, and two others began the first flight from Britain to Australia. They arrived in Port Darwin, Australia, on 10/12/1919, winning a �10,000 prize from the Australian government for doing this.

11/11/1919, Tuesday (-9,310) Death of Andrew Carnegie, US steel magnate and philanthropist. Born in Dunfermline, Scotland, on 25/11/1835, his family moved to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania when Andrew was 13. \he gave considerable sums to education and set-up the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

7/11/1919, Friday (-9,314) The Allied War Council demanded the withdrawal of Romanian troops from Hungary.

4/11/1919, Tuesday (-9,317)


27/10/1919, Monday (-9,325) Lord Curzon succeeded A J Balfour as British Foreign Secretary.

26/10/1919. Sunday (-9.326) Shah of Iran, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, was born.

22/10/1919, Wednesday (-9,330) The Bolshevik Red Army defeated a White Russian army under Nicolai Yudenich near Petrograd. Yudenich retreated into Estonia.

18/10/1919, Saturday (-9,334) Pierre Trudeau, Canadian Liberal and Prime \Minister, was born in Montr�al, Quebec.

16/10/1919, Thursday (-9,336) Ivor Allchurch, Welsh footballer, was born.

13/10/1919. Monday (-9,339) Dock strike in New York.

12/10/1919. Sunday (-9,340) British troops pulled out of Murmansk, Russia.

11/10/1919. Saturday (-9,341) The first airline meals were served, on a Handley-Page flight from London to Paris. They were pre-packed lunch boxes priced at 3 shillings (15p).

10/10/1919, Friday (-9,342) British teachers, their salaries still at pre war levels, asked for a doubling of their pay.

9/10/1919, Thursday (-9,343) (Middle East) The General Company for the Ports of Iraq was established. It was a Government department responsible for the management of Iraqi ports and navigation in Iraqi territorial waters.

8/10/1919, Wednesday (-9,344) Carlos Melendez, 24th President of El Salvador, died (born 1861)

7/10/1919, Tuesday (-9,345) KLM, the Dutch national airline, the oldest established air carrier, was established.It began flights on 17/5/1920.

6/10/1919. Monday (-9,346) Norway adopted alcohol Prohibition.

5/10/1919, Sunday (-9,347) Frank Peard, badminton champion, was born.

2/10/1919, Thursday (-9,350) US President Wilson suffered a massive stroke, leaving his left side paralysed.


27/9/1919, Saturday (-9,355) (Russia) The last Anglo-French-US forces pulled out of Archangel, eastern Russia. They had landed there on 2/8/1918 in order to support anti-Bolshevik White Russian forces, since defeat of the Bolsheviks would bring Russia back into the war against Germany. An initial contingent of 1,500 Allied troops was reinforced up to 30,000, but this was still too small a number to control the vast and hostile terrain of the area. With no hope of a White Russian victory against the Bolsheviks, the Allied hold on Archangel became untenable and they were evacuated.

26/9/1919, Friday (-9,358) Henry Johnstone, footballer, was born (died 12/10/1973)

25/9/1919, Thursday (-9,357) The Paris Peace Convention awarded sovereignty of the Spitzbergen Islands to Norway.

22/9/1919. Monday (-9,360) Major steel strike in the USA.

15/9/1919. Monday (-9,367) China ended its war with Germany.

14/9/1919, Sunday (-9,368) Tim Molony, horse racing champion, was born (died 14/12/1989).

13/9/1919, Saturday (-9,369) Mary Midgley, English philosopher and author, was born.

12/9/1919, Friday (-9,370) An unofficial Italian army under Gabriele d�Annunzio seized Fiume, before it was incorporated in Yugoslavia.

11/9/1919, Thursday (-9,971) In Russia, the White Army foiled attempts by the Red Army to recapture the city of Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd).

10/9/1919, Wednesday (-9,372) (1) The TUC favoured nationalising the coal industry.

(2) The Treaty of St Germain was signed by the Allies with Austria at the Paris Peace Conference. Austria had to pay large reparations to the Allies, and recognise the independence of Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.

9/9/1919, Tuesday (-9,373) Boston, USA, police went on strike over low pay. Just 427 of the former 1,544 man force remained on duty, and crime soared. The militia were called in and the strikers sacked.

6/9/1919, Saturday (-9,376)

2/9/1919, Tuesday (-9,380) White Russian forces under Denikin captured Kiev, and came within 250 miles of Moscow, with backing from the UK.However a Red Army counter attack in December 1919 forced Denikin out of Kharkov and eventually back to the Caucasus, where he held on until March 1920.Denikin had a narrow Russophile view, and failed to see the need to link with Ukrainian and Polish anti-Bolshevik forces; he even blockaded Georgia and Azerbaijan, fearing these states would set up independent Republics.

1/9/1919, Monday (-9,381) The first intercontinental air service began, from Toulouse to Barcelona and Tangier.Services were extended to Casablanca in April 1920.


31/8/1919. Sunday (-9,382) (1) In Ireland, press censorship was abolished.

(2) The US Communist Party was founded.

29/8/1919, Friday (-9,384)

28/8/1919, Thursday (-9,385) Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, who invented the EMI scanner and winner of the Nobel prize for psychology in 1979, was born.

27/8/1919, Wednesday (-9,386) Louis Botha, South African Boer general and first Prime Minister from 1910, died.

25/8/1919. Monday (-9,388) Air service between London (Hounslow) and Paris (Le Bourget) inaugurated. This was the first international scheduled air service from Britain. The single fare was �21 for the 2 � hour journey, compared to the cost of rail and boat at �3 8s 5d. By 1/1/1920 three British companies were operating regular daily air services across The Channel, to Paris, Brussels, and Amsterdam, for passengers, freight, and mail.

21/8/1919, Thursday (-9,392) Afghanistan became independent.

20/8/1919, Wednesday (-9,393) Gregor MacGregor,cricketer, died (born 31/8/1869).

11/8/1919, Monday (9,402) Andrew Carnegie died aged 83 at his Berkshire Hills, Massachusetts, mansion. Out of his fortune, he had given away US$ 350 million in philanthropic donations.

9/8/1919, Saturday (-9,404) Britain guaranteed to preserve the integrity of Persia.

8/8/1919, Friday (-9,405) (1) The Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed. This ended the Third Afghan War, which had begun on 3/5/1919.

(2) F W (Frank Winfield) Woolworth, US merchant and founder of Woolworth stores in 1879, died.

7/8/1919, Wednesday (-9,406)

5/8/1919, Tuesday (-9,408) Kemal declared Turkey independent of the Sultan at the Turkish Nationalist Congress.

4/8/1919, Monday (-9,409) Romanian forces occupied Budapest, Hungary (until 14/11/1919).

3/8/1919, Sunday (-9,410) Riots in Liverpool during the policemen�s strike.

2/8/1919, Saturday (-9,411)

1/8/1919, Friday (-9,412) In Hungary, the Socialist regime of Bela Kun was overthrown.


31/7/1919. Thursday (-9,413) Germany adopted the Weimar Constitution, named after the town where the constitution was drafted.

27/7/1919. Sunday (-9,417) Large scale race riots in Chicago. Violent interracial clashes resulted in 38 dead, 537 injured, and 1,000 rendered homeless. The spark for these riots had been a trivial incident when a Black person swam into a part of Lake Michigan that White people had claimed as �their� preserve.

25/7/1919, Friday (-9,419) (China, Russia) The Soviet Assistant Foreign Commissar, Leo Karakhan, issued the Karakhan Manifesto. This renounced all former Tsarist rights and privileges in China. Although Russia did not hand over the Chinese eastern Railway (it in fact sold it to the Japanese in 1935), this Manifesto did much to convince the Chinese radicals that Soviet Russiawas their only ally.

23/7/1919, Wednesday (-9,421) Turkish Nationalists met at Erzurum to resist Allied plans to carve up Turkey.

22/7/1919, Tuesday (-9,422) British MPs formally approved the Treaty of Versailles. Only 4 MPs voted against, 3 of them Irish Nationalists objecting to the omission of Home Rule for Ireland.

21/7/1919, Monday (-9,423)

20/7/1919. Sunday (-9,424) Sir Edmund Hillary, who conquered Mount Everest in 1953 with Tenzing Norgay, was born in Auckland, North Island, New Zealand.

19/7/1919, Saturday (-9,425) (Britain) Allied victory in the Great War was celebrated with parades and banquets, three weeks after the Treaty of Versailles had been signed. However many British demobbed servicemen felt aggrieved at this, being unemployed and without the �Homes for Heroes� they had bene promised. There were civil disturbances in several towns, which escalated into a full riot in Luton, where a crowd burnt down the Town Hall, where a feast had been prepared for local dignitaries. The Mayor was forced to flee the town.

18/7/1919, Friday (-9,426) The first Cenotaph, a temporary structure of wood and plaster, was erected in Whitehall, London, for a parade celebrating the Treaty of Versailles. It was so popular the Government decided to erect a permanent version.

16/7/1919, Wednesday (-9,428)

15/7/1919, Tuesday (-9,429) (Chemistry) Emil Hermann Fischer, German chemist, died in Berlin.

14/7/1919, Monday (-9,430)Britain legalised passenger flights to and from the Continent. The very next day an executive from Pilkington Glass, who had missed the boat train, arranged to pay �50 for a one-off flight from Hendon, London, to Le Bourget, Paris.

13/7/1919, Sunday (-9,431) The British airship R34 arrived back in Pulham, Norfolk, having made the first transatlantic aerial round trip; she set out from East Fortune, Scotland, on 2/7/1919.

12/7/1919, Saturday (-9,432) Britain and France authorised the resumption of commercial relations with Germany.

11/7/1919, Friday (-9,433) The Turkish Sultan outlawed Kemal.

8/7/1919, Tuesday (-9,436) The new Turkish Sultan Mohammed VI dismissed Mustapha Kemal.

6/7/1919. Sunday (-9,438) The British airship R34 became the first to cross the Atlantic, flying from Edinburgh to New York in 108 hours. She had set out from East Fortune, near Edinburgh, on 2/7/1919. She set off from Long Island on 9/7/1919 on the return journey, arriving in Pulham, Norfolk, on 13/7/1919.

4/7/1919. Friday (-9,440) France demobilised its troops.

1/7/1919, Tuesday (-9,443) Iris Murdoch, British author, was born.


30/6/1919, Monday (-9,444) Lord Rayleigh, British scientist who discovered the inert gas argon in 1894 and won the Nobel prize, died in Witham, Essex, aged 76.

28/6/1919. Saturday (-9,446) The Treaty of Versailles was signed. This peace treaty between the Allies and the Germans was signed at Versailles and officially ended World War One, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand started it. Alsace Lorraine was returned to France, German colonies were under mandate, German East Africa went to Britain and German South West Africa (Namibia) to South Africa.The west bank of the Rhine and a zone 30 miles deep on its east bank was demilitarised. See 7/5/1919.

26/6/1919, Wednesday (-9,448) The New York Daily News began publication.

23/6/1919, Monday (-9,451) The British Government recommended nationalising the coal mines.

22/6/1919, Sunday (-9,452) The German National Assembly at Weimar authorised the signing of the Peace Treaty.

21/6/1919. Saturday (-9,453) (1) German sailors unexpectedly scuttled the captive German fleet, 72 warships, at Scapa Flow. See 19/11/1918.

(2) Francesco Nitti became Prime Minister of Italy.

20/6/1919, Friday (-9,454) The German Chancellor, Schiedemann, fell due to his opposition to the Paris Peace Plan. On 21/6/1919 Gustave Bauer formed a Cabinet comprising Social Democrats, Centre, and Democrats.

19/6/1919, Thursday (-9,455) In Turkey, Mustafa Kemal and other nationalist leaders signed the Amasia Protocol, declaring their resistance to the Allied plans for Turkey and the Sultan�s co-operation with these plans.

15/6/1919. Sunday (-9,459) John Alcock and Arthur Brown completed the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic. It took them 16 hours, 12 minutes, to fly from Lester�s Field, St John�s Newfoundland, to Derrygimla Bog, near Clifden, Ireland. They were both knighted for this achievement.

10/6/1919, Tuesday (-9,464) Austria protested against the terns of the Paris Peace Conference.

9/6/1919, Monday (-9,465) Red Army troops took Ufa.

6/6/1919. Friday (-9,468) Finland declared war on Russia.

3/6/1919. Tuesday (-9,471) More British troops arrived at Archangel, Russia.


30/5/1919, Friday (-9,471) At the Paris Peace Conference, Britain agreed to the transfer of part of German South West Africa to Belgium.

29/5/1919, Thursday (-9,472) German delegates made counter-proposals to the Paris Peace conference,

28/5/1919, Wednesday (-9,477) Armenia declared independence.

27/5/1919. Tuesday (-9,478) Lieutenant Commander Read and a crew of five, flying a Curtiss NC 4 seaplane, arrived in Lisbon via The Azores to complete the first flight across the Atlantic.They had left Trepassy, Newfoundland, on 16/5/1919.

26/5/1919, Monday (-9,479) North Sea Aerial Navigation Co inaugurated passenger flights between Hartlepool and Hull. In June further routes began, between Hull, Leeds and Hounslow (for London), and Scarborough, Leeds, Harrogate. Businesspeople liked the new fast link between London and the North.

25/5/1919, Sunday (-9,480) Pilots Hanker and Grieve were rescued, 1370 km west of Ireland, having failed to fly the Atlantic.

24/5/1919. Saturday (-9,481) Having defeated Afghan raiders on the Indian border, the British bombed Jalalabad and Kabul.

22/5/1919, Thursday (-9,483) Desmond O�Brien, rugby player, was born.

20/5/1919, Tuesday (-9,485) Roger Wolcott Hall, US author, was born (died 20/7/2008).

19/5/1919, Monday (-9,486) Turkish war hero Mustapha Kemal resisted the further reduction of Turkish territory, organising military resistance.

18/5/1919, Sunday (-9,487) Margot Fonteyne, English ballerina, was born (died 1991).

17/5/1919, Saturday (-9,488)

16/5/1919. Friday (-9,489) Waldzin Valentino Liberace was born in Wisconsin. His father wanted him to be an undertaker.

15/5/1919, Thursday (-9,490) The Greek Army landed at Smyrna, under the protection of British, French, and US fleets, beginning an occupation of the area by massacring Turkish civilians.

14/5/1919. Wednesday (-9,491) Death of the American food manufacturer Henry John Heinz. Heinz founded his company in Pittsburgh in 1869 as a partnership to market and prepare horseradish. This company collapsed in the business panic of 1875 but Heinz reorganised it in 1876 and it re-emerged as a major food company by 1900. By 1905 the Heinz company was the USA�s largest manufacturer of pickles, vinegar, and ketchup, and employed thousands. The company was headed by members of the Heinz family until 1969.

13/5/1919, Tuesday (-9,492)

11/5/1919, Sunday (-9,494) The population of Vorarlberg, the westernmost province of Austria, voted for union with Switzerland by a large majority.However this transfer was not supported by the Allies or the Swiss Government, and Vorarlberg became one of the nine Austrian Bundeslander.

10/5/1919, Saturday (-9,495) The first airline in Britain started. It flew the 50 miles between Alexander Park, Manchester, and Blackpool in a 2-seater single engine Avro biplane. Services lasted until 30/9/1919, and cost �2 2s single or �4 4s return..

8/5/1919, Thursday (-9,497)

7/5/1919, Wednesday (-9,498) Peace terms were dictated to Germany.Germany had to ceded Alsace-Loraine to France; Upper Silesia, most of Poznan, and West Prussia went to Poland.This separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany as Poland gained a corridor to the sea at Danzig.North Schleswig went to Germany and Memel went to Lithuania. See 28/6/1919.

6/5/1919. Tuesday (-9,499) Peace conference shared out former German colonies.

5/5/1919, Monday (-9,500)

4/5/1919. Sunday (-9,501) News that the Treaty of Versailles been signed reached China. However, despite the fact that China had declared war on Germany in August 1917, and had over 200,000 soldiers to fight with the Allies, the Treaty stated that German concessions in China would not be returned to the Chinese but would be given to Japan. There were large anti-foreigner demonstrations in China. Over 3,000 students gathered in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, to protest at Japan�s continued occupation of Shantung after World War One had ended.

3/5/1919. Saturday (-9,502) Fighting broke out between Britain and Afghanistan, The Third Afghan War, see 8/8/1919.

2/5/1919. Friday (-9,503) German troops entered Munich to crush the fledgling Soviet Republic in Bavaria.

1/5/1919, Thursday (-9,504) The reclamation of the Zuyder Zee began.


30/4/1919, Wednesday (-9,505) Oscar Adams, US author, died (born 1855).

20/4/1919, Sunday (-9,515) Easter Sunday. A Polish army under Pilsudski took the city of Vilnius, Lithuania, from the Soviets.

17/4/1919, Thursday (-9,518) The United Artists film distribution company was founded in Hollywood.

15/4/1919, Tuesday (-9,520) Passenger air services on a route between Berlin, Hanover and Rotthausen began, also Berlin to Warnemunde.

13/4/1919. Sunday (-9,522) The British fired on and massacred Indian Nationalist rioters in Amritsar, Punjab. A British officer panicked and ordered his troops to fire at point-blank range into a large crowd. 380 of Ghandi�s followers were killed and over 1200 injured. This massacre turned even moderate Indians against the British. The army had been called in by the police after several days of rioting against new security laws, in which some Europeans had been killed.

11//4/1919. Friday (-9,524) (1) The International Labour Organisation was established.

(2) In a referendum, New Zealand rejected Prohibition.

10/4/1919, Thursday (-9,525) Rioting by Sikhs began at Amritsar, see 13/4/1919.

9/4/1919, Wednesday (-9,526) (Computing) John Presper Eckert was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In 1945, along with John Mauchly, he developed the ENIAC all-purpose computer.

8/4/1919. Tuesday (-9,527) (1) The Red Army invaded the Crimea.

(2) Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, was born in Selukwe, then Southern Rhodesia.

7/4/1919, Monday (-9,528)

5/4/1919. Saturday (-9,530) Eamon De Valera became Sinn Fein�s president.

4/4/1919. Friday (-9,531) At Versailles, the Germans agreed to make Danzig a �free city�.

1/4/1919, Tuesday (-9,534) British troops supporting White Russian troops defeated a Bolshevik force.


30/3/1919, Sunday (-9,536) Scientists used a solar eclipse to confirm Einstein�s Theory of Relativity. British astronomer Arthur Edington verified Einstein�s Theory of Relativity by observing stars whose position was close to the Sun, during a solar eclipse in the South Pacific, and confirming that their apparent position had shifted due to the Sun�s gravity as the Theory predicted.

23/3/1919. Sunday (-9,543) The Italian Fascist Party (Fascio di Combattimento) was founded in Milan by Benito Mussolini. The party aimed to fight both Liberalism and Communism. The Fascists wanted land for the peasants, abolition of the Senate, a seizure of Church property, and tax reform. However most of this agenda was already offered by the Socialists and by December 1919 the Fascists only had 870 members. During 1926 Party membership rose from 600,000 to 938,000. By the end of 1933 there were 1,400,000 members, a figure that went up to 2,633,000 by 1939.

22/3/1919. Saturday (-9,544) Bela Kun declared Hungary a Soviet Republic.

21/3/1919, Friday (-9,545) Edmund Allenby became British High Commissioner in Egypt.

20/3/1919. Thursday (-9,546) Wireless telephone communication established between Ireland and Canada.

19/3/1919, Wednesday (-9,547) Joseph Egan, rugby player, was born in Wigan.

17/3/1919, Monday (-9,549)

16/3/1919, Sunday (-9,550) Wireless telephone now enabled one plane pilot to talk to another in mid-flight.

15/3/1919, Saturday (-9,551) Delegates from the American Expeditionary Force founded the American Legion Organisation of Veterans, to support veteran�s welfare.

14/3/1919, Friday (-9,552) Passenger air services between Berlin and Hamburg began. On 15/3/1919 a service from Berlin via Brunswick and Hanover to Gelsenkirchen began. In June 1919 these services had to be curtailed due to lack of fuel.

12/3/1919, Wednesday (-9,554)

11/3/1919. Tuesday (-9,555) The Allies agreed to supply famine-hit Germany with food.

10/3/1919, Monday (-9,556) (1) After Nationalist riots in Egypt, the British deported the Nationalist leader, Saad Zaghful.

(2) The UK Government was reported to favour the idea of a Channel Tunnel.

9/3/1919, Sunday (-9,557) The Canadian Grand Trunk Pacific Railway went bankrupt. It was nationalised in 1920.

4/3/1919, Tuesday (-9,562) The Comintern was formed. This was the �Communist International�, to spread Communism worldwide.

1/3/1919, Saturday (-9,565) Anti-Japanese colonialism demonstrations in Seoul, Korea.


26/2/1919, Wednesday (-9,568) (USA) In the USA, the Grand Canyon National Park opened.

23/2/1919, Sunday (-9,571) John Carey, footballer, was born in Dublin.

22/2/1919. Saturday (-9,572) After the murder of the Bavarian Prime Minister, Kurt Eisner, a Soviet Republic was declared in Bavaria.

19/2/1919, Wednesday (-9,575) French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau was shot by an anarchist.

17/2/1919, Monday (-9,577) Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Canada�s first French-speaking Prime Minister, died.

11/2/1919, Tuesday (-9,571) The Overman Committee was set up in the US, and played a crucial role in constructing image of the Red Radical Soviet� threat to the US. It was a precursor to the HUAC (House Committee of Un-American Activities).

6/2/1919, Thursday (-9,588) The first regular passenger air service. Planes flew from Berlin to Weimar, carrying mainly mail and newspapers, but some passengers also.

5/2/1919, Wednesday (-9,589) Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece, was born.

4/2/1919, Tuesday (-9,590) The �Soviet Republic of Bremen� was suppressed.

3/2/1919, Monday (-9,591) (1) US President Woodrow Wilson attended the first meeting of the League of Nations in Paris.

(2) London tube workers went on strike for shorter hours.


31/1/1919, Friday (-9,594) In Glasgow, a sheriff was hit by a bottle as he read the Riot Act; 40 injured in clashes with police.

27/1/1919, Monday (-9,598) Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (born 21/11/1877) died.

26/1/1919, Sunday (-9,599) Valentino Mazzola, Italian footballer, was born in Milan.

25/1/1919. Saturday (-9,600) The League of Nations was founded.

24/1/1919, Friday (-9,601) Battle of Skoczow. Czech forces forced the Polish Army back to the town of Drogomysl, Poland. Also the Battle of Shenkursk. The Red Army was almost surrounding Shenkursk, Russia, and Allied Commander General Edmund Ironside ordered the remaining American, Canadian and British force to break out and escape towards Arkhangelsk, Russia.

23/1/1919. Thursday (-9,602) The socialists won the German elections.

22/1/1919, Wednesday (-9,603) (1) The Red Army occupied Kiev, capital of the Ukraine.

(2) Czechoslovakia occupied Teschen (Tesin).

21/1/1919. Tuesday (-9,604) A Sinn Fein congress declared Irish Independence. Two Royal Ulster Constabularies were also murdered this day in Tipperary.

20/1/1919, Monday (-9,605) (Arts) Stepan Lucky, composer, was born.

19/1/1919. Sunday (-9,606) A pro-monarchist uprising in Portugal; the monarchy was proclaimed at Oporto.

18/1/1919, Saturday (-9,607) (1) Peace talks opened at Versailles. See 20/1/1920. 27 nations attended; Germany was excluded.

(2) Bentley Motors Limited was founded by W.O. Bentley in Cricklewood, North London

17/1/1919, Friday (-9,608) Ignacy Paderewski became Prime Minister of Poland.

16/1/1919, Thursday (-9,609) The US ratified the 18th Amendment, prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors after one year. See 16/1/1920.

15/1/1919, Wednesday (-9,610) A tank containing 8.7 million litres of warm molasses in Boston, USA, burst. A 5-metre high wave of molasses swept through the docks area at 60 mph, wrecking buildings. 21 people were killed and 150 injured. Many died as the molasses cooled and became more viscous, suffocating its victims.

14/1/1919, Tuesday (-9,611) Giulio Andreotti, Italian politician, was born (died 2013).

13/1/1919. Monday (-9,612) Satyendra Prasano Sinha became the first Indian peer of Britain and so the first Indian member of the House of Lords.

12/1/1919, Sunday (-9,613) Delegates arrived in Paris for the Peace talks, see 18/1/1919.

11/1/1919. Saturday (-9,614) Romania annexed Transylvania.

10/1/1919, Friday (-9,615) Bremen declared itself a Soviet Republic; this was crushed on 4/2/1919.

9/1/1919, Thursday (-9,616) (India) Major mill strike began in Mumbai, with 100,000 workers out on strike.

8/1/1919, Wednesday (-9,617) (Arts) Peter Altenberg, writer, died aged 59.

7/1/1919, Tuesday (-9,618) (Britain) Labour began to act as the official opposition in the UK House of Lords.

6/1/1919. Monday (-9,619) US President Theodore Roosevelt died at Sagamore Hill, Oyster Bay, New York State. He was the 24th President, from 1901 to 1909, and won the Nobel Prize in 1906. Starting his career as Chief of New York Police, he became President in 1901 when William McKinley was assassinated; he was elected in 1904 for a further term.

5/1/1919. Sunday (-9,620) (1) The Nazi (National Socialist) Party was founded in Germany. Adolf Hitler, a soldier in World War One who was awarded the Iron Cross for bravery, and who was angry at the armistice terms imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles, and extremely opposed to Communism, headed the new Party. Hitler was a poor student in the Austrian secondary school system. He became an artist but failed to gain entry to the Academy of Fine Arts; Hitler was a melancholic character, obsessed by fears that Jews, linked to Communists, would take over the world.

(2) The Spartacus League initiated a week of revolt in Berlin. Led by Rosa Luxembburg and Karl Leibknecht, they wanted a Communist workers Statein Germany

(3) Soviet forces entered Vilnius, Lithiania.

4/1/1919, Saturday (-9,821) (London) Major fire at Bethnal Green, London, food warehouses; �1,000,000 damage done.

3/1/1919, Friday (-9,622) (1) Part of the Latvian Army defected to the Communists and Communist forces occupied Riga, capital of Latvia.

(2) Rutherford split the atom. He bombarded nitrogen nuclei with alpha particles.

2/1/1919, Thursday (-9,623) 1.5 million Armenians in Turkey were massacred by Turks.

1/1/1919, Wednesday (-9,624) The early aviation industries in the USA and Europe began to develop in very different directions, after World War One. In the US there was a powerful railway lobby, but no equivalent air industry lobby. However US cities were much further apart than European ones. Therefore the US railways kept the passenger transport market, and US airlines concentrated on the postal delivery sector. Sometimes, US railways had fire beacons placed along their length by night to guide the aircraft. US airlines only got into the passenger market in the mid to late 1920s. By contrast, in Europe the railways had been severely damaged by the War, and European airlines ran comparatively short hop routes between cities, as well as carrying mail.


31/12/1918, Tuesday (-9,625) The British War Cabinet met for the last time.

30/12/1918, Monday (-9,626) The German Communist Party was founded.However within a fortnight, irregular German troops had murdered its leaders.

29/12/1918, Sunday (-9,627) In Britain the Sunday Express newspaper was first published.

28/12/1918. Saturday (-9,628) Lloyd George�s coalition was re-elected to government. Lloyd George had the support of 478 MPs; the Opposition had 229 MPs, of whom 63 were Labour. One women was elected, Countess Markievicz, for a Dublin constituency. However as Sinn Fein candidate she would not take the oath of allegiance to the King and did not take her seat in the House.

27/12/1918, Friday (-9,629) (1) King George V and Queen Mary greeted President and Mrs Wilson of the United States.

(2) Poznan rebelled against the Germans, ending a 103-year-old German occupation.

26/12/1918, Thursday (-9,630) (Greece) George Rallis, Prime Minister of Greece, was born (died 2006)

25/12/1918, Wednesday (-9,631) Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt, was born in Talah Minufiya.

24/12/1918, Tuesday (-9,632) A UK commission on poverty recommended an end to workhouses.

23/12/1918, Monday (-9,633) Helmut Schmidt, German leader, was born (died 2015)

20/12/1918, Friday (-9,636)

15/12/1918, Sunday (-9,641) The Portuguese President Sidonio Paes was assassinated.

14/12/1918, Saturday (-9,642) (1) Women aged over 30 voted in a general Election in Britain for the first time. Women could also stand as candidates in UK General Elections for the first time. 17 stood but only one was elected. See 6/2/1918.

(2) President Woodrow Wilson arrived in Paris for peace talks.

13/12/1918, Friday (-9,643)

11/12/1918, Wednesday (-9,645), Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian novelist, was born in Rostov.

10/12/1918, Tuesday (-9,646) Max Planck won the Physics Nobel prize for his work on quantum mechanics.

9/12/1918, Monday (-9,647) Kirk Douglas, US actor, was born.

8/12/1918, Sunday (-9,648)

6/12/1918. Friday (-9,650) Allied troops occupied Cologne.

5/12/1918, Thursday (-9,651) (Germany) The British Prime Minister demanded that the ex-German Kaiser be prosecuted by an International Court.

4/12/1918. Wednesday (-9,652) (Yugoslavia) The proclamation of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, or Yugoslavia.

3/12/1918, Tuesday (-9,651) (Indonesia) Abdul Haris Nasution, Indonesian general, was born (died 2000)

2/12/1918, Monday (-9,654) One of the last acts of the British War Cabinet; it demanded the extradition of the German Kaiser Wilhelm.

1/12/1918. Sunday (-9,655) (1) Denmark granted independence to Iceland; a 25-year union with Denmark was instituted.

(2) The British Second Army entered Germany.


30/11/1918. Saturday (-9,656) German occupation of Bucharest, capital of Rumania, ended, see 6/12/1916.

29/11/1918. Friday (-9,657) King Nicholas of Montenegro was deposed and his country was united with Serbia under King Peter.

27/11/1918, Wednesday (-9,659) The Soviet Red Army invaded Narva, Estonia.

25/11/1918, Monday (-9,661) French troops entered Strasbourg.

24/11/1918, Sunday (-9,662) (1) Serbia took control of the Backsa, Baranya and western Banat regions from Hungary.

(2) The Communist Party of Hungary (Kommunistik Magyarorszagi Partja) was founded, and soon after, started publishing its own newspaper, Voros Ujsag (Red News)

23/11/1918, Saturday (-9,663) Mutinous German sailors occupied the Chancellery and took Ebert hostage; he was rescued on 24/11/1918 by soldiers from Potsdam.

22/11/1918, Friday (-9,664) (1) In London, 100 women police officers went on street patrol for the first time.

(2) The Poles took Lvov.

21/11/1918. Thursday (-9,665) Surrender of the German Fleet to the Allies at Scapa Flow, for internment. On 21/6/1919 it was scuttled at Scapa Flow, in the Orkneys.

20/11/1918, Wednesday (-9,666) The Germans surrendered their submarines at Harwich.

19/11/1918, Tuesday (-9.667) The UK government revealed that the War had cost 767,000 deaths and some 2.3 million injured.

18/11/1918. Monday (-9,668) (1) The German occupation of Brussels ended, see 20/8/1914.

(2) Latvia gained independence from Russia, then ruled by Lenin and soon to be known as the USSR.

17/11/1918, Sunday (-9,669) The Communist Party of Greece was founded.

16/11/1918, Saturday (-9,670) Hungary was proclaimed an independent Republic.

15/11/1918, Friday (-9,671) Adolfo Pedernera, Argentinean footballer, was born.

14/11/1918. Thursday (-9,672) Tomas Masaryk was elected first President of Czechoslovakia.

13/11/1918, Wednesday (9,673) Charles, the former Austro-Hungarian Emperor, formally renounced any participation in the Government of Hungary.

12/11/1918, Tuesday (-9,674) The Republic of Austria was declared, ending the Hapsburg Dynasty, as Emperor Charles abdicated.

11/11/1918. Monday (-9,675) (Britain, France-Germany, USA) Armistice Day. World War One ended. Fighting ceased on the Western Front, and Austro-Hungary signed an armistice with the Allies. See 29/9/1918.Church bells rang out across Britain in celebration. The Allies had not expected such a sudden collapse of Germany; in September 1918 they were planning campaigns for 1919. However General Ludendorff was shaken by the sudden Allied advance (see 8/8/1918) and begged Kaiser Wilhelm to seek an armistice immediately. The Armistice was signed in Marshal Foch�s railway carriage, near Compiegne.Warsaw became the capital of a restored Polish State. The armistice required Germany to relinquish 5,000 heavy guns, 30,000 machine guns, 2,000 aircraft, all U-boats, 5,000 locomotives,150,000 wagons and 5,000 lorries. The surface fleet was to be interned (see 21/11/1918), the Allies were to occupy the Rhineland, and the blockade of German ports would continue. World War One cost 9 million lives, with a further 27 million injured. Britain alone had lost 750,000 men, and a further 200,000 from the Empire, with another 1.5 million seriously injured. The War had cost the Allies an estimated US$ 126 billion, and the Central Powers a further US$ 60 billion. Britons now celebrated, and wages rose, although higher food prices eroded some of those gains. Women, at least those over 30, finally had the vote, and smoking, gambling and movies boomed, with Charlie Chaplin as movie star.

The US was the greatest beneficiary of the War. US losses amounted to 53,000 men, a small number compared to 8,500,000 casualties of the European combatants. US industry had become more efficient, and key sectors such as chemicals had learned to do without Europe; the US aviation industry had been transformed. Economically, The US had needed European capital before 1914; by 1918 Europe owed the US some US$ 10,000 million.

10/11/1918, Sunday (-9,676) (Canal-Sea) The Cunard liner Campania sank in the Firth of Forth during a gale.

9/11/1918. Saturday (-9,677) (Germany) Kaiser William II abdicated and fled to Holland, and a German Republic was founded. On 11/11/1918 the Emperor of Austria, Karl, abdicated and a Republic was founded.

8/11/1918, Friday (-9,678) (Germany) Abdication of the King of Wurttemberg and Duke Ernest of Brunswick.

7/11/1918. Thursday (-9,679) Billy Graham, US evangelist, was born in Charlotte, North Carolina, the son of a dairy farmer.

6/11/1918. Wednesday (-9,680) Republic of Poland proclaimed.

5/11/1918, Tuesday (-9,681) The Poles occupied Lvov, Galicia.

4/11/1918, Monday (-9,862) Italian troops occupied Trieste.Under the Treaty of London (25/4/1915), The UK, France, and Russia agreed to give Trieste to Italy after the War.

3/11/1918. Sunday (-9,683) Austria signed an armistice with the Allies.

2/11/1918, Saturday (-6,984) Frederick Leboyer, Author, was born.

1/11/1918, Friday (-9,685) (1) In Lvov, the last Austrian Governor, Count Huyn, armed the Ukrainians who proclaimed an independent Republic of West Ukraine, in opposition to the Bolsheviks.

(2) Anglo-French troops took Constantinople.


31/10/1918. Thursday (-9,686) Ottoman Turkey surrendered to the Allies; the Dardanelles were reopened to Allied shipping. Anglo-French troops occupied Constantinople.

30/10/1918. (1) Wednesday (-9,687) An armistice was concluded aboard the British warship Agamemnon, at Mudros, between Britain and Turkey.However Turkey was to face some four more year�s fighting with Greece, and effectively with the Western Allies.

(2) Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Lawrence, �Lawrence of Arabia�, shocked King George V by turning down the Order of the Bath and Distinguished Service Order. Lawrence was disappointed at how the Arabs had not achieved independence after World War One but their land had been carved up between Britain and France.France, Catholic, took the Christian sites of Lebanon and Syria; Britain took Jordan and Iraq.

(3) Austria completed the evacuation of its troops from Italian territory. Austria became an independent German speaking state.See 23/10/1918.

(4) The Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed.It was led by Jan Masaryk and Eduard Benes.

29/10/1918, Tuesday (-9,688) Croatia declared its independence.

28/10/1918, Monday (-9,689) (1) Mutiny broke out amongst German sailors at Kiel, spreading rapidly to Hamburg and Bremen. On 7/11/1918 insurrection broke out at Munich.

(2) Czechoslovakia declared its independence.

27/10/1918. Sunday (-9,690) Poland declared its independence.

26/10/1918. Saturday (-9,691) (1) In London alone, in the past week, Spanish flu claimed 2,225 lives.

(2) Aleppo, Syria, was captured from the Turks by British and Arab troops advancing from the south.

25/10/1918, Friday (-9,692) Arab forces loyal to Prince Faisal captured Aleppo.

24/10/1918, Thursday (-9,693) James Peters, marathon runner, was born.

23/10/1918, Wednesday (-9,694) (1) The House of Commons voted to allow women MPs, by a margin of 274 to 25 votes.

(2) Italian forces counterattacked against the Austrians near Vittorio Veneto, reaching the Piave River on 27/10/1918,By 30/10.1918 the Italians, with the aid of British forces, had the Austrians in full retreat.

22/10/1918, Tuesday (-9,695) Myrtle Gonzalez, US actress, was born.

21/10/1918. Monday (-9,696) (1) (Railway Tunnels) The Mount Royal Ohara rail tunnel, Canada, 5.073 km long, opened in Montreal.

(2) The Spanish Flu epidemic began in Britain. 150,000 died of this disease in the last quarter of 1918.. It killed twice as many as died in World War One.

20/10/1918. Sunday (-9,697) Germany stopped U-boat warfare.

19/10/1918, Saturday (-9,698) Belgian forces recaptured Zeebrugge and Brugges.

18/10/1918. Friday (-9,699) Lille was recaptured from the Germans.

17/10/1918. Thursday (-9,700) (1) Yugoslavia became independent from Austro-Hungary.

(2) Hungary declared its independence from Austria.

16/10/1918, Wednesday (-9,701) Felix Arndt, composer, died aged 29.

15/10/1918, Tuesday (-9,702) Britain�s first oil well was sunk, at Hardstoft in Derbyshire.

14/10/1918, Monday (-9,703) The Czechoslovak National Council, meeting in Paris, organised a provisional Government headed by Thomas Masaryk as President.

13/10/1918, Sunday (-9,704) British troops occupied Tripoli, Lebanon.

12/10/1918, Saturday (-9,705) Germany and Austria agreed to US President Woodrow�s demand that their troops should return to their own territory before an armistice could be signed.

11/10/1918, Friday (-9,706) In Puerto Rico a major earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale

10/10/1918, Thursday (-9,707) 587 died when the Irish mailboat Leinster was torpedoed by a German U-boat.

9/10/1918, Wednesday (-9,708) British forces took Le Cateau.

8/10/1918, Tuesday (-9,709) The French retook Cambrai, see 26/8/1914.

7/10/1918. Monday (-9,710) British troops took Beirut and Sidon.

3/10/1918, Thursday (-9,714) Tsar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria abdicated, following the defeat of the Bulgarian Army the previous month in Macedonia. He was succeeded by his 22-year-old son, Boris I.

1/10/1918. Tuesday (-9,716) Arab forces under Emir Faisal, including the British officer T E Lawrence, captured Damascus from the Turks.


30/9/1918. Monday (-9,717) Slovak Nationalist parties in Hungary voted to join with Czechia.However the Slovaks soon found the Czech government more centralist than they expected, or desired, and pressure grew for Slovak separation from Czechoslovakia.

29/9/1918. Sunday (-9,718) (1) Allied troops captured part of the Hindenburg Line. Ludendorff called for an armistice to avert acatastrophe for Germany. Negotiations opened with President Woodrow Wilson of the USA on 4/10/1918 but fighting continued till 11/11/1918.

(2) Bulgaria signed an armistice with the Allies.

28/9/1918, Saturday (-9,719)

27/9.1918, Friday (-9,720) (Space exploration) Martin Ryle, English radio astronomer, was born (died 1984).

26/9/1918, Thursday (-9,721) General Allied offensive on the Western Front; the Germans were fighting now only to cover their retreat.

22/9/1918. Sunday (-9,725) Turkish resistance in Palestine collapsed.

20/9/1918. Friday (-9,727) The British captured Nazareth.

19/9/1918, Thursday (-9,728) In Britain a Government commission investigated equal pay for women.

18/9/1918, Wednesday (-9,729) (Turkey) The British under General Allenby started a major offensive against the Turks, pushing them north out of Palestine, starting with a British victory at Megiddo. This offensive pushed the Turks out of Palestine, captured Damascus, and forced the Turks to accept an armistice on 30/10/1918.

16/9/1918, Monday (-9,731)

15/9/1918, Sunday (-9,732) Mr C Chubb gave Stonehenge to the nation.

14/9/1918, Saturday (-9,733) Austria-Hungary attempted to negotiate a separate peace deal with the Allies, which was refused.

13/9/1918. Friday (-9,734) In the USA, 14 million men had registered for conscription.

12/9/1918, Thursday (-9,735) At the Battle of St Mihel, the US 1st Army under Pershing captured the St Mihel salient.

11/9/1918, Wednesday (-9,736) (New Zealand) Desmond James Scott, New Zealand fighter pilot, was born.

10/9/1918, Tuesday (-9,737) Muslim riots in Calcutta (Kolkata), India.

9/9/1918. Monday (-9,738) Allied victory at Megiddo.

8/9/1918, Sunday (-9,739) (Chemistry) Derek Harold Richard Barton was born in Gravesend, England. In 1949 he started research on the shape of complex organic chemical molecules, and how this shape affected their chemical properties.

4/9/1918. Wednesday (-9,743) The Germans retreated to the Siegfried Line.


31/8/1918, Saturday (-9,747) After a London police strike, and a meeting with the UK Government at Downing Street,, the pensionable pay of a top constable rose to �2.65 / week, also a60p War Bonus was granted. Yet the UK Government, fearful of the example of the 1917 Soviet Revolution, was extremely reluctant to recognise any police trades union. On 14/7/1919 a Police Federation of England and Wales was created, so avoiding the use of the term �trades union�.

30/8/1918. Friday (-9,748) (1) London police went on strike. Prisoners had to be taken to court in taxis, but a major crime wave did not materialise. Bus drivers did traffic duty at major junctions. 2,000 police officers marched to a rally at Tower Hill, demanding wage rises and the reinstatement of a colleague dismissed for political activities. The key issue, however, was trade union recognition. Trade Unions had grown significantly during the War, from 4,145,000 members in 1914 to 6,533,000 members in 1918. Now working-class policemen, who kept union disputes in check, wanted their own union representation.

(2) British troops crossed the Somme.

27/8/1918, Tuesday (-9,751) London police prepared to strike. Their wages had been eroded by inflation, and they were forbidden from leaving the force to take up better-paid jobs at munitions factories. The UK Government was strongly against the formation of a police trades union, and threatened that any police officer who joined one would be dismissed, and sent as a soldier to fight in the trenches of World War One.

25/8/1918. Sunday (-9,753) The Hungarian government expelled the Jews and confiscated their assets.

15/8/1918. Thursday (-9,763) The US severed diplomatic relations with the Bolshevik government of Russia.

8/8/1918. Thursday (-9,770) General Haig initiated a surprise offensive against the Germans at Amiens which started a continuous retreat of the Germans through to Armistice Day on 11/11/1918. The lessons of The Somme (see 13/11/1916) had finally been learnt. Low flying aircraft drowned out the noise of tank manoeuvres, ammunition dumps were camouflaged, and decoy tank movements distracted the Germans. When the Allies began a major creeping bombardment, the tanks moved in behind to crush the barbed wire and infantry swiftly followed to consolidate the territorial gains. On their part, the Germans were demoralised by the stalling of their great Spring offensive (see 13/4/1918) and also by news of hunger, rioting and strikes back in Germany. Reinforced by US troops, the Allies found the Germans ready to retreat, and advanced eight miles on the first day.The battle lines had become mobile again, and were moving east. In Ludendorff�s words, it was a black day for the German Army. The Allies were reinforced by US troops and further British troops were returning from Palestine. The British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, agreed to release reserve divisions of conscripts, which he had held back, now convinced he was not simply sending them into another meat grinder like The Somme or Passchendaele. With an assembly of 456 tanks and 2,000 guns and howitzers the Allies forced the Germans back on a 14-mile front, for 8 miles. 400 German guns were captured, along with 12,000 prisoners. The new Allied tactics continued to work against stiff German resistance and by mid September the Germans had retreated to the massive defences of their Hindenburg Line, 3 miles in depth. However the Germans were demoralised and after 10 days of fighting the Hindenburg Line was broken through at Saint Quentin. German soldiers going on home leave, passing fresh troops travelling west to the front, taunted them with calls of �you�re only prolonging the war�. However casualties on all sides were very high. In the three months following Amiens, August 1918, 531,000French soldiers died or were wounded or captured, as many as in the eight months of Verdun 1916. The figure for US soldiers for those three months was 127,000, over twice as many as lost in Vietnam. For British and Empire troops, the toll was 411,000, the same as during the 4 � months of The Somme. German losses were even higher; 785,000 killed and wounded, and 386,000 prisoners taken by the Allies. A major issue for Germany was lack of food. Germany had been over 80% self-sufficient in food in 1914, but the military had removed labour from the farms without compensatory inputs of fertiliser or mechanisation. German food productionplummeted and by 1918 German citizens had just 64% of pre-war cereals, 18% of the meat, and 12% of the fats they had consumed in 1913. On the German Home Front, Ludendorff and the other Generals knew the War was lost weeks before the November 1918 Armistice. Although by then Germany was effectively a military dictatorship, the military pretended that surrender was only due to the wishes of civilian politicians. This perpetuated a post-War myth that the German Army had not been defeated at all, but betrayed by left-wing politicians, that the German Army was in fact invincible. Less than 20 years later that myth helped fuel the rise of the Nazis.

2/8/1918. Friday (-9,776) British, French, and US forces landed at Archangel to support White Russians against the Bolsheviks. Japan invaded Siberia. See 27/9/1919.

1/8/1918, Thursday (-9,777)


29/7/1918. Monday (-9,780) Germany severed diplomatic relations with Ottoman Turkey.

28/7/1918, Sunday (-9,781) (Weather) End of the drought in New South Wales. 2,000,000 sheep and lambs had been lost to the drought.

21/7/1918, Sunday (-9,788)

19/7/1918, Friday (-9,790) Honduras, rather belatedly, joined the Allied war effort and declared war on Germany.

18/7/1918. Thursday (-9,791) (1) Allied forces launched a counter offensive on the Marne, capturing Soissons (see 9/4/1918).

(2) Nelson Mandela, South African Black Rights campaigner and leader, was born (died 2013).

17/7/1918. Wednesday (-9,792) The last Tsar, Nicholas II, was murdered by the Bolsheviks along with his entire family, his daughters Olga, Tatiana, Marie, Anastasia, and his son Alexis, and domestic staff, and even his dog, in the cellar of a house in Ekaterinburg. Their bodies were thrown down a disused mineshaft. The Bolshevik government was afraid that anti-Bolshevik White Russians or Czechoslovak troops would liberate the Romanov family and restore them to power. Western European powers such as Britain were afraid to give the Romanovs sanctuary (even if they could have been physically extricated from Russia) for fear of sparking workers� uprisings in their own territories.

16/7/1918, Tuesday (-9,793)

15/7/1918, Monday (-9,794) The Second Battle of the Marne began, when General Ludendorff attempted an advance; this was thwarted by British, French, and US troops.Marshall Ferdinand Foch of Francelaunched an offensive on the Marne which led the Germans to seek an armistice in November 1918.

14/7/1918, Sunday (-9,795) Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman was born.

12/7/1918, Friday (-7,977)

10/7/1918. Wednesday (-9,799) A provisional government of Siberia was set up.

9/7/1918, Tuesday (-9,800) America experienced its worst train accident.101 were killed in Nashville, Tennessee.

8/7/1918, Monday (-9,801) National Savings Stamps went on sale in Britain.

4/7/1918, Thursday (-9,805) Alec Bedser, cricketer, was born

1/7/1918, Monday (-9,808) A catastrophic explosion at the Chilwell munitions plant near Nottingham killed 134 workers. The women who worked there making nitrogen-based explosives were known as �Canary Girls�, because the chemicals turned their skin yellow and hair green. The blast was heard 30 miles away, but news of it was suppressed. The Chilwell factory had produced 19 million shells, half of those used by British forces during the First World War. Of the 7,000 surviving workers, all but 12 were back working at Chilwell the day after.


26/6/1918. Wednesday (-9,813) The Bolshevik government in Russia faced enemies on all; sides. In the south, General Anton Denikin had seized large parts of the Caucasus and Ukraine. In the north bands of anti-Bolsheviks roamed at will. Former Czech prisoners of war had organised themselves into the Czech legion and had seized Osmk on the Trans-Siberian railway. Over 100 British marines had landed at Murmansk to keep the Bolsheviks out of that port.

20/6/1918, Thursday (-9,819) After protests, the UK Government cancelled Irish conscription. See 18/4/1918.

18/6/1918, Tuesday (-9,821) The UK Government asked for a further War Loan of �500 million. General rationing in the UK began on 19/6/1918.

17/6/1918, Monday (-9,822) The last German air raid of World War One on London.

15/6/1918, Saturday (-9,824) The Austrians began an offensive against the Italians along the Piave River Front; they were attempting to break through to the fertile farmlands of the Veneto.See 23/10/1918.

13/6/1918. Thursday (-9,826) A Turkish offensive in Palestine was halted.

10/6/1918, Monday (-9,829) The Battle of Belleau Wood ended.

9/6/1918, Sunday (-9,830) Germany opened an offensive near Compeigne.

8/6/1918, Saturday (-9,831) (Biology) Francis H Crick was born in Northampton, UK. In 1953, along with James Dewey Watson (born Chicago, USA, 6/4/1928) he developed the double-helix model for DNA.

6/6/1918, Thursday (-9,833) Battle of Belleau Wood began.

4/6/1918, Tuesday (-9,835) Charles Warren Fairbanks, US statesman, died in Indianapolis, Indiana (born 11/5/1852 in Ohio).

3/6/1918. Monday (-9,836) British postal charges were raised from 1d to 1 � d for a letter and 1d for a postcard.

1/6/1918, Saturday (-9,838)


28/5/1918, Tuesday (-9,842) Azerbaijan officially proclaimed its independence.Se 27/4/1920.

27/5/1918, Monday (-9,843) The Germans took Soissons in a thrust towards Paris.

26/5/1918, Sunday (-9,844) The short-lived Transcaucasian Republic broke up.

23/5/1918. Thursday (-9,847) Georgia declared independence from Russia.

20/5/1918, Monday (-9,850) (Earthquake) Severe earthquake in Chile.

19/5/1918. Sunday (-9,851) Britain jailed 500 Sinn Fein members, including Eamon De Valera.

18/5/1918, Saturday (-9,852) To curb growing revolutionary power in Ireland, the British Government declared Sinn Fein and the Irish Volunteers (now IRA) to be illegal organisations.

17/5/1918, Friday (-9,853) Birgit Nilsson, Swedish opera singer, was born (died 1999)

16/5/1918, Thursday (-9,854) Wilfred Mannion, footballer, was born.

15/5/1918, Wednesday (-9,855) (Aviation) The US inaugurated the world�s first regular air mail service between New York and Washington. The US Navy operated the service, for the US Post Office.

14/5/1918, Tuesday (-9,856)

12/5/1918, Sunday (-9,858) Julius Rosenberg was born (see 19/6/1953).

11/5/1918, Saturday (-9,859) US quantum physicist Richard Feynman was born (died 1988).

10/5/1918, Friday (-9,860) John Thompson, rackets champion, was born.

9/5/1918, Thursday (-9,861) British troops averted a German attack on Ostend, Belgium.

7/5/1918. Tuesday (-9,863) Romania signed a peace treaty with Germany (The Fourth Treaty of Bucharest).Southern Dobruja was transferred from Romania to Bulgaria; Bulgaria had been seeking the whole of the Dobruja.See 27/11/1919.


29/4/1918. Monday (-9,871) (Germany) The last big German offensive on the Western Front petered out.

26/4/1918, Friday (-9,874) The Turks captured Kars, Caucasus, from Russia, however their cause was doomed as General Allenby made major gains in Palestine.

25/4/1918, Thursday (-9,875) Ella Fitzgerald, US jazz singer, was born (died 1996).

24/4/1918, Wednesday (-9,876)

23/4/1918. Tuesday (-9,877) (1) (Ireland) In Ireland, a one-day strike against conscription was widely supported, except in Ulster.

(2) British forces raided Zeebrugge. They accomplished their objective of sinking concrete-filled British ships in the harbour entrance to block it, bottling up German submarines.

22/4/1918, Monday (-9,878) Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan united to form the short-lived Transcaucasian Republic, see 26/5/1918.

21/4/1918, Sunday (-9,879) Manfred von Richtofen, the �Red Baron�, German World War One air ace, was shot down and died in his famous red tri-plane behind British lines.

20/4/1918, Saturday (-9,880) (Science) Karl Ferdinand Braun, German physicist, died in New York City.

19/4/1918, Friday (-9,881) Alfred Milner became British War Secretary.

18/4/1918, Thursday (-9,882) In Britain, the age of military conscription was raised to 50, and extended to cover Ireland. See 20/6/1918. Sinn Fein, the Nationalists and the British labour Party all resisted this.

16/4/1918, Tuesday (-9,884) Spike Milligan, British-Irish actor and comedian, was born.

14/4/1918, Sunday (-9,886) (1) Following the collapse of the Russians, Turkey captured Batumi on the Black Sea.See 26/4/1918.

(2) In Finland, German General Goltz captured Helsinki from the Communists, see 3/3/1918.

10/4/1918, Wednesday (-9,890) (Austria) A congress of Austrian-subject peoples was held in Rome.

9/4/1918. Tuesday (-9,891) (1) (Germany) Germany launched a major offensive at Ypres. Reinforced by the arrival of 70 divisions freed up on the eastern front by the capitulation of Russia, Germany tried to knock the western Allies out of the war before new American troops could arrive. However instead of concentrating his attack here on the British forces, Ludendorff ordered secondary attacks on the French sector of the front at Chemin des Dames on 27/5/1918 and west of Reims on 15/7/1918. The Allied line held and a major counter offensive was launched on 18/7/1918.

(2) Latvia declared its independence.

6/4/1918. Saturday (-9,894) (1) US, British, and Japanese troops landed at Vladivostock.

(2) In Finland, the German General Mannerheim captured Tampere from the Communists, see 3/3/1918.

2/4/1918, Tuesday (-9,898) (Universities) Cape Town University, South Africa, was inaugurated, with the Price of Wales as its first Chancellor.

1/4/1918. Monday (-9,899) The Royal Air Force was formed, by amalgamating the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service.Lord Rothermere at the Air Ministry in The Strand, London, was in charge.


31/3/1918, Sunday (-9.900) Easter Sunday

30/3/1918, Saturday (-9,901)

29/3/1918, Friday (-9,902) In Quebec, Canada, the Compulsory Military Service Act of September 1917 provoked such severe rioting from this day until 2/4/1917 that 4 civilians were killed.

28/3/1918, Thursday (-9901) Ludendorff launched Operation Mars against the left wing of the British Third Army, to force a salient into Allied lines, but he was repulsed.

27/3/1918, Wednesday (-9,904) Henry Brooks Adams, historian, novelist and philosopher, died (born 16/2/1838).

26/3/1918, Tuesday (-9,905) The Battle of Rosieres, northern France, began.

25/3/1918, Monday (-9,906) Claude Debussy, French composer, died of cancer in London aged 55.

24/3/1918, Sunday, (-9,907) The Battle of Baupame, northern France, began.

23/3/1918. Saturday (-9,908) Ludendorff made a tactical error. Believing the Allied forces were already almost defeated, he failed to set definite objectives for his offensive and simply made general thrusts, gaining territory to the north west, west and south west, towards Beauvais and Paris. However he should have concentrated his efforts towards capturing the strategic rail junction of Amiens, whose loss would have forced the Allies to the negotiating table before US troops could be fully deployed. Meanwhile German troops shelled Paris from a distance of 75 miles, using a large gun called �Big Bertha�.

22/3/1918, Friday (-9,909) Cheddi Jagan, President of Guyana, was born.

21/3/1918. Thursday (-9,910) Major German offensive began on the Somme. This was Ludendorff�s desperate bid for victory before American troops could become effective.British casualties were over 300,000, and the Germans advanced on a 50 mile-wide front, in an attempt to reach the Channel ports, and drive a wedge between the British and French Armies, but the German advance was halted.

19/3/1918, Tuesday (-9,912) (USA, Railways Social) US Congress passed the Standard Time Act making the 4 US time zones official.

13/3/1918, Wednesday (-9,918) In Britain, it was announced that the minimum school leaving age was to be raised to 14, from 13; this measure was implemented in December 1918 under the Education Act.

8/3/1918, Friday (-9,923) Charles Adams, US poet (born 21/4/1842) died.

7/3/1918, Thursday (-9,924) Bonar Law asked the UK Commons for another war loan of �600 million.

6/3/1918, Wednesday (-9,925) (Russia) In Russia, at the 7th Party Congress in Moscow, the Bolshevik Party was renamed the Communist Party.

5/3/1918. Tuesday (-9,926) (Russia) Moscow was declared the new capital of Russia, in place of Petrograd.

4/3/1918, Monday (-9,927) (Medical) The first recorded case of Spanish flu, in a US soldier at Cape Funston, a military base in Kansas.

3/3/1918. Sunday (-9,928) The Bolshevik government in Russia signed the Treaty of Brest Litovsk with the Germans. Lenin insisted on signing, against the wishes of Trotsky.Trotsky wanted the Communist Revolution to spread throughout Germany, but Lenin feared the rapid advance of German troops into Russia, approaching Petrograd. Russia lost heavily in terms of land and industry (Russia lost 56 million inhabitants, 79% of its iron, and 89% of its coal production), but the Bolsheviks needed peace at any cost before their new and shaky administration was overthrown, by Germany or by anti-Bolshevik White Russians and Czechoslovak troops.Under this Treaty, Finland regained its independence from Russia.The Baltic Republics were ceded to Germany.Communists (recruited from Finnish labourers) joined Red Guardsto try and re-establish Communist control in Finland.Germany moved in to repulse them.See 6/4/1918.Turkey regained territories lost to Russia even in 1877.


28/2/1918, Thursday (-9,931)

26/2/1918, Tuesday (-9,933) 604 were killed in Hong Kong when the stands at the Hong Kong Jockey Club collapsed and caught fire.

25/2/1918. Monday (-9,934) (1) Rationing of meat, butter, and margarine began in London and the Home Counties.

(2) Minsk was occupied by the Germans.

24/2/1918. Sunday (-9,935) Estonia declared its independence.

23/2/1918, Saturday (-9,936)

22/2/1918. Friday (-9,937) The world�s tallest man, Robert Wadlow, was born, weighing 8 � lbs. He grew to 8 foot 11 � inches in height and weighed 31 stone 5 lbs, when he died in 1940.

21/2/1918. Thursday (-9,938) Australian cavalry captured Jericho from the Turks.

18/2/1918, Monday (-9,941) Germany launched a big offensive on the Russian Front.

16/2/1918, Saturday (-9,943) Lithuania declared its independence from Russia.

12/2/1918, Tuesday (-9,947) In New York, all Broadway theatres closed so as to save coal for the US War effort.

11/2/1918, Monday (-9,948) Chaim Weizmann was appointed to head a commission on Jewish colonies in Palestine.

10/2/1918, Sunday (-9,949) Abdul-Hamid II, Sultan of Turkey from 31/8/1876, died (born 21/9/1842).

9/2/1918. Saturday (-9,950) Ukraine signed a separate peace treaty with Germany.

6/2/1918. Wednesday (-9,953) (1) Married women in Britain aged over 30 got the vote, as did all men over 21, under the Representation of the People Act. See 14/12/1918.

(2) A deposit of �150 was required from UK Parliamentary candidates.


30/1/1918, Wednesday (-9,960) The Commons rejected the Lords� proposal for proportional representation.

28/1/1918. Monday (-9,962) (1) A general workers strike began in Berlin.

(2) Lenin created a Red Army and the Cheka, a security police force.

26/1/1918, Saturday (-9,964) Nicolae Ceausescu, dictator of Romania, was born (died 1989).

23/1/1918, Wednesday (-9,967) The UK Government ordered restaurants to have two �meatless� days a week.

22/1/1918, Tuesday (-9,968) (Communications) Radio-telegraphic communication was inaugurated between the USA and Italy.

21/1/1918, Monday (-9,969) The New York Philharmonic Orchestra banned all performances of works composed by living Germans.

20/1/1918, Sunday (-9,970) The German naval base at Ostend was bombarded by Allied ships.

19/1/1918, Saturday (-9,971) (Britain) The training ship Warspite was destroyed by fire.

17/1/1918, Thursday (-9,973) (Britain) Sir Keith Joseph, British politician, was born.

15/1/1918, Tuesday (-9,975) (Egypt) Gamal Nasser, the first President of Egypt, was born in Alexandria.

12/1/1918, Saturday (-9,978) (Weather) Chicago isolated by a severe blizzard.

10/1/1918, Thursday (-9,980) In Britain the House of Lords approved the Representation of the People Bill, giving women the vote. In Washington the House of Representatives also voted in favour of suffrage for women.

9/1/1918, Wednesday (-9,981) U.S troops engaged Yaqui Amerindian warriors in the Battle of Bear Valley in Arizona, a minor skirmish and one of the last battles of the American Indian Wars between the United States and American Indians.

8/1/1918, Tuesday (-9,982) Recruiting began in Britain for the WRNS; the Women�s Royal Naval Service.

5/1/1918, Saturday (-9,985)

1/1/1918, Tuesday (-9,989) Sugar rationing began in Britain.


31/12/1917, Monday (-9,990) (Food, Britain, Germany) During the year 1917 German submarines sank 6,500,000 tons of Allied shipping whilst only 2,700,000 tons was built. In April 1917 Britain had only two months� worth of food stocks. However with US destroyer patrols searching for German submarines, escorted transatlantic convoys and the mining of the seas between Scotland and Norway, Allied losses were dramatically reduced and after April 1918 never exceeded 200,000 tons a month.

30/12/1917, Sunday (-9,991) Election-related riots in Quebec; city placed under martial law.

29/12/1917, Saturday (-9,992) (Earthquake) Earthquake in Guatemala City made 125,000 homeless.

27/12/1917, Thursday (-9,994) The US Government took over the American railways.

22/12/1917. Saturday (-9,999) The Bolsheviks opened peace talks with Germany and Austria. The Allies accused |Russia of betrayal.

20/12/1917, Thursday (-10,001) A second vote in Australia on conscription went against the idea.

19/12/1917, Wednesday (-10,002) Graham Sharpe, champion figure skater, was born (died 2/1 /1995).

18/12/1917, Tuesday (-10,003) The United States Congress submitted Prohibition legislation to the states. The 18th Amendment was known as the Volstead Act, after its chief sponsor, Andrew Volstead of Minnesota. It took a further 13 months for the necessary three quarters of US states to ratify the Act for it to become law, see 16/1/1919.

17/12/1917. Monday (-10,004) Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, Britain�s first woman doctor, died.

16/12/1917, Sunday (-10,005) Arthur C Clarke, British science-fiction writer, was born.

14/12/1917, Friday (-10,006)

13/12/1917, Thursday (-10,008) The first German airline was founded. Known initially as Deutsche Luft Reederie, it was the forerunner of Lufthansa.

12/12/1917, Wednesday (-10,009) The world�s worst train accident occurred, at Modane, France.534 were killed.

11/12/1917, Tuesday (-10,110) (Christian) Owen Snedden, Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Wellington from 1962 to 1981, was born in Auckland (died 1981).

10/12/1917, Monday (-10,011) Italy torpedoed the Austrian warship Wien in Trieste.

9/12/1917. Sunday (-10,012) (Turkey) Jerusalem was surrendered by the Turks to the British under General Allenby, who had advanced from Gaza in 10/1917 into Judaea and on to Jerusalem. The Turks had ruled Jerusalem since its capture from the Crusaders in 1244.

8/12/1917, Saturday (-10,013)

7/12/1917. Friday (-10,014) The USA declared war on Austria.

6/12/1917. Thursday (-10,015) (1) Finland became independent from Russia.

(2) As the Russian Army disintegrated after the October Revolution into bands of raiders, Romania and Russia signed an armistice.

5/12/1917. Wednesday (-10,016) Russia signed an armistice with Germany, at Brest-Litovsk.

3/12/1917, Monday (-10,018) (1) The Quebec Bridge over the St Lawrence River opened.87 lives were lost during its construction.

(2) Britain refused to recognise Bolshevik Russia.Meanwhile German and Austrian delegates met at Brest-Litovsk to end Russian participation in World War One, see 3/3/1918.

1/12/1917. Saturday (-10,020) German East Africa cleared of German forces.


29/11/1917, Thursday (-10,022) The Inter Allied War Conference opened. Lloyd George of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France and Baron Sidney Sonnino of Italy were concerned that US soldiers and material quickly reach the front lines against Germany, since post-Revolution Russia had ceased fighting.

21/11/1917, Wednesday (-10,030) Douglas Smith, champion jockey, was born (died 11/4/1989).

20/11/1917. Tuesday (-10,031) (1) Major British tank offensive at Cambrai.The Battle of Cambrai ended on 3/12/1917.

(2) The Republic of the Ukraine was declared.

19/11/1917. Monday (-10,032) (1) A Revolutionary Council was established in Petrograd, with Leon Trotsky as leader.

(2) Indira Ghandi born in Allahabad.India�s first woman Prime Minister, she was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru.

18/11/1917, Sunday (-10,033) Pedro Infante, Mexican actor and singer, was born.

17/11/1917, Saturday (-10,034) Death of sculptor Auguste Rodin, aged 77.

16/11/1917. Friday (-10,035) Bolshevik troops took Moscow.

15/11/1917, Thursday (-10,036) General Allenby advanced to within three miles of Jaffa.

14/11/1917. Wednesday (-10,037) Jaffa (Joppa) was captured by the British, under General Allenby, from the Turks.

13/11/1917. Tuesday (-10,038) In London, bankers and Chambers of Commerce called for the decimalisation of the British currency.

12/11/1917, Monday (-10,039) Austrian forces established a bridgehead at Zenson, 20 miles north-east of Venice.

11/11/1917, Sunday (-10,040) Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii, died.

10/11/1917, Saturday (-10,041) The Third Battle of Ypres ended, see 31/7/1917. The plans of British General Haig to break through the German lines was in tatters; all the Allies had gained was a few square miles of swamp and an obliterated village, after 156 days of fighting and 250,000 deaths, at Paschaendaele. The tremors from the mining of theMessines Ridge had been felt in Downing Street. That August had been the wettest in living memory, turning the ground into an impassable quagmire; Allied troops faced death by drowning as much as by gunfire. The constant shelling had disrupted the system of dykes and streams which drained the flat fields of Flanders. Meanwhile in Palestine, British forces captured Tel-Aviv.

9/11/1917. Friday (-10,042) Arthur Balfour, the British Foreign Secretary, unveiled plans for a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. The message was conveyed to the Zionist representative, Baron Rothschild. The British Wear cabinet, under David Lloyd George, believed that Zionist support would help the war effort, especially against the Ottoman Turks. Arabs outnumbered Jews by ten to one in Palestine but Zionist leaders like Dr Chaim Weizmann would try and build up their numbers.

8/11/1917, Thursday (-10,043) In Russia, The People's Commissars gave authority to Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, and Joseph Stalin.

7/11/1917 (25/10 in Russia). Wednesday (-10,044) The Bolshevik Revolution, which led to the world�s first Communist Government under Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov Lenin. Prime Minister Alexander Kerensky�s government was overthrown. See 6/3/1918.

6/11/1917. Tuesday (-10,045) Canadian troops captured the village of Passchendaele, during the Third Battle of Ypres.

5/11/1917. Monday (-10,046) American troops under General Pershing went into action for the first time on the Western Front.

3/11/1917, Saturday (-10,048)

2/11/1917. Friday (-10,049) UK foreign secretary Arthur Balfour stated British support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine, to Lord Rothschild. The Balfour Declaration gained Jewish support during World War I, and in 1945 sparked a flood of Jewish refugees to Palestine after World War II. This led to clashes with both Arabs and the British administration. Britain withdrew in 1948; the State of Israel was proclaimed on 14/5/1948.

1/11/1917, Thursday (-10,050) In Germany, Count von Hertling was appointed Chancellor.


31/10/1917. Wednesday (-10,051) (1) The Italian army was shattered unexpectedly by a German onslaught in northern Italy and was retreating towards the Piave River, just 15 miles from Venice. The Italian Second Army had held the Austrians off during 1916 and had captured the fortress of Monte Santo only 2 months earlier. The Italians had seemed well dug in around the mountains of Caporetto and Udine. However a heavy creeping artillery barrage by the Germans and gas attacks drove the Italians back. Morale collapsed within the Italian army, and despite roadblocks and court martials, up to half a million soldiers deserted.A further 300,000 Italian soldiers were captured by the Germans, and the Italians lost 10,000 dead and 30,000 wounded in the German attacks.

(2) British forces under General Allenby captured Beersheba from the Turks. This opened the way for the British capture of Jerusalem and the rest of Palestine. Meanwhile on 16/5/1916 Britain and France had secretly signed the Sykes-Picot agreement to divided up the Ottoman Lands in the Middle East after the War. France was to get the north-western half of the Fertile Crescent, that is Syria and Lebanon; Britain was to get the south-east, Jordan and Iraq. The Catholic church wanted French control of the Mediterranean coast, where many Maronite Christians lived, and Britain wanted French lands between them and the Russians to the north. Britain retained an air corridor to Iraq through Jordan; Britain was dropping poison gas on rebellious Iraqi Arabs. France divided off Lebanon as a Christian Republic from Syria; it also divided off Hatay and gave that to Syria, due to lobbying from Hatay�s Turkish minority. The Allies also considered giving Palestine to Belgium. They also, at the Treaty of Sevres (10/8/1920) backed the formation of a Kurdish State, but refused to allow the Kurds in Iraq or Syria to be part of this State; the idea never materialised.

28/10/1917, Sunday (-10,054) Vittorio Orlando became Italian Prime Minister.

24/10/1917, Wednesday (-10,058) The Austrian offensive against Italy was halted on the Piave River.Boroevics army was so reduced by Italian forces during August and September 1917that Germany and Austria feared a collapse of Austro-Hungary.

23/10/1917, Tuesday (-10,059) The Battle of Caporetto began.

22/10/1917, Monday (-10,060) The Trans-Australia Railway opened, from Kalgoorlie to Port Augusta.

21/10/1917, Sunday (-10,061) Dizzie Gillespie, US jazz musician, was born (died 1993).

20/10/1917. Saturday (-10,062) 4 Zeppelins were shot down over France after raids on the UK.

15/10/1917. Monday (-10,067) The legendary Dutch spy Mata Hari, who danced in the nude, was executed by a firing squad in Paris, having been found guilty of espionage by the Germans.

9/10/1917, Tuesday (-10,073) Stalin joined the Bolshevik Committee.

5/10/1917. Friday (-10,077) Sir Arthur Lee donated Chequers to the nation as a country retreat for British Prime Ministers.

4/10/1917, Thursday (-10,078) British victory on Passchendaele Ridge.

3/10/1917, Wednesday (-10,079) The Battle of Polygon Wood (Ypres) ended.

2/10/1917, Tuesday (-10,080) (Biology) Rene de Duve, cytologist, was born in Thames Ditton, England. In 1974 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for electron microscopy and cell structure studies.

1/10/1917. Monday (-10,081) (1) Air raids on London.

(2) Damascus fell to General Allenby.


30/9/1917. Sunday (-10,082) The ex-Tsar and family were exiled to Siberia.

27/9/1917, Thursday (-10,085) The painter Edgar Degas died, aged 83 (born 19/7/1834, in Paris).

20/9/1917. Thursday (-10,092) The first RSPCA animal clinic was opened in Liverpool.

15/9/1917. Saturday (-10,097) (1) Russia was declared a Republic with a provisional government, by Soviet Party Prime Minister Aleksandr Kerenski.

(2) China offered the Allies 15,000 troops to fight on the Western Front.

14/9/1917. Friday (-10,098) German submarine shelled Scarborough.

13/9/1917, Thursday (-10,099) Robert Ward, American composer, was born (died 2013)

12/9/1917, Wednesday (-10,100) (Atomic) Leo James Rainwater was born in Council, Idaho. In 1949 he worked on the idea that the atomic nucleus was not spherical.

11/9/1917, Tuesday (-10,101) Ferdinand Marcos, President of the Philippines, was born.

10/9/1917, Monday (-10,102) Masahiko Kimura, Japanese wrestler, was born in Kumamoto, Japan (died 1993)

9/9/1917, Sunday (-10,103) Florence Syers, ice skater, died.

4/9/1917, Tuesday (-10,108)

2/9/1917, Sunday (-10,110) Major German night time air raid on Dover.

1/9/1917, Saturday (-10,111) German offensive against Russia; Riga fell to the Germans.


30/8/1917. Thursday (-10,113) Denis Healey, British Labour politician, was born.

20/8/1917, Monday (-10,123) (1) Over 100 killed in an air raid on Thanet and Sheppey.

(2) The French broke through the Verdun front on an 11 mile wide offensive.

18/8/1917, Saturday (-10,125) Caspar Weinberger, US Republican politician and Secretary of Defence for Ronald Reagan, was born in San Francisco.

17/8/1917, Friday (-10,126) Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo; Italy made minor gains.

16/8/1917, Thursday (-10,127)

15/8/1917, Wednesday (-10,128) In Lausanne Dmowski formed a Polish National Committee, It was almost a government-in-exile, recognised by the Allies as representing Polish interests.

14/8/1917. Tuesday (-10,129) China declared war on Germany and Austria.

13/8/1917, Monday (-10,130) In Spain, Catalonia revolted over demands for home rule.

6/8/1917, Monday (-10,137) Robert Mitchum, Hollywood actor, was born in Connecticut, USA.

4/8/1917. Saturday (-10,139) The US said avoiding conscription could be punished with execution.

3/8/1917, Friday (-10.140) German sailors mutinied at Wilhelmshaven.


31/7/1917. Tuesday (-10,143) The Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) began, see 10/11/1917.

29/7/1917, Sunday (-10,145) Taking advantage of Revolutionary chaos, the Finns declared their independence from Russia.

28/7/1917, Saturday (-10,146) The formation of the Royal Tank Corps in the British Army was authorised.

27/7/1917, Friday (-10,147) (Medical) Surgeon Emil Theodor Kocher died.

26/7/1917, Thursday (-10,148) Richard Burnell, champion rower, was born (died 29/1/1995).

25/7/1917, Wednesday (-10,149) Mata Hari, a Dutchwoman called Margaretha Geetruida Macleod (nee Zelle), aged 41, who used her charms to tempt French Army officers to betray military secrets, was found guilty of spying by a military court (despite very little evidence of her guilt) and sentenced to death by firing squad. She was initially hired by the French to spy in German-occupied Belgium.

24/7/1917, Tuesday (-10,150) UK MPs were alarmed to discover the war was costing Britain �7 million per day.

22/7/1917, Sunday (-10,152)

20/7/1917, Friday (-10,154) The Pact of Corfu proclaimed the Union of South Slavs, or Yugoslavia.When Serbia was invaded in World War One, the Serbs established a government in exile on Corfu.The Serbian Prime Minister Paslic agreed with the leader of the south Serbs, Ante Trumbic, that the Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, and Montenegrins, should unite to form a single state; Yugoslavia.In the 1920s, Serbia came to dominate this union, and other national groups claimed Paslic had tricked Trumbic at Corfu.

19/7/1917. Thursday (-10,155) Mutinies broke out in the German Navy. The German Reichstag passed a motion to end the war.

18/7/1917, Wednesday (-10,156) Lou Boudreau, athlete, was born.

17/7/1917. Tuesday (-10,157) Churchill returned to UK government as Minister for Munitions.

16/7/1917. Monday (-10,158) The provisional government in Petrograd, Russia, crushed the Bolshevik uprising. The Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, fled to Switzerland. However on 7/11/1917 Kerensky, leader of the Russian provisional government, was ousted by Lenin.

15/7/1917, Sunday (-10,159) US Congress passed the Espionage Act. Section 1introduced heavy penalties, of up to 20 years in prison, for anyone causing insubordination or disloyalty in the armed forces, or obstructing recruitment; 2,000 prosecutions were brought under this measure. The Act also empowered the US Postmaster to exclude from the mail any material in violation of Section 1.

14/7/1917, Saturday (-10,160) General Pershing, 57, arrived in Paris to set up the headquarters of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF).

13/7/1917, Friday (-10,161) Thomas Cannon, champion jockey, died (born 23/4/1846).

11/7/1917, Wednesday (-10,163) Yul Brynner, US actor, was born.

7/7/1917. Saturday (-10,167) Air raids on London and Margate killed 97 and injured 193.

5/7/1917, Thursday (-10,169) Joe Gormley, President of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), was born.

4/7/1917, Wednesday (-10,170) Lawrence of Arabia reassured the Arabs, who were wary of attacking the Turkish fort of Kethira under a full moon, that �for a while there will be no moon�. Lawrence knew a lunar eclipse was due. Turkish defenders panicked as the moon vanished, and the fort fell to the Arabs.

2/7/1917, Monday (-10,172) Race riots in Illinois, 75 Black people were killed.


30/6/1917, Saturday (-10,174) Julian Creus, weightlifter, was born.

29/6/1917. Friday (-10,175) Ukraine declared its independence. Greece declared war on Germany.

27/6/1917. Wednesday (-10,177) 14,000 American troops arrived in France to fight with the Allies.The American expeditionary force was commanded by General John Pershing.

20/6/1916, Wednesday (-10,184) (Chemistry) James Mason Crafts, US chemist, died in Ridgefield, Connecticut.

19/6/1917, Tuesday (-10,185) (1) Large Commons vote in favour of giving women over 30 the vote.

(2) All German titles and names are renounced by the British Royal Family, who adopted the name Windsor. The old name had been Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

17/6/1916, Sunday (-10,187)

16/6/1917. Saturday (-10,188) The first pan-Soviet Congress opened in Petrograd.

15/6/1917, Friday (-10,189) The US passed the Espionage Act, under which persons could be fined or imprisoned for hindering the war effort; the Federal Government took control of the US railways.

14/6/1917. Thursday (-10,190) Air raid on London, the first by German fixed-wing aircraft. In a daylight raid, 162 Londoners died and 432 were injured. 16 children died in a Poplar school.

13/6/1917, Wednesday (-10,191) Large German air raid on Folkestone, Shorncliffe and other Kent towns. 95 died and 260 were injured.

12/6/1917. Tuesday (-10,192) The pro-German King Constantine of Greece, who dismissed the pro-Allied government of Venizelos, was himself forced to abdicate by the Allies.

10/6/1917. Sunday (-10,194) Sinn Fein uprising in Dublin.

8/6/1917. Friday(-10,196) Haig launched a new Flanders offensive.

7/6/1917, Thursday (-10,197) (1) The British captured the Messines Ridge. The British had begun tunnelling under the Ridge from august 1915, and placed high explosives in the tunnels, detonated at 3.10 am. A million pounds of explosive was used, and the explosion was heard in London and Dublin.

(2)The railway from Addis Ababa to Djibouti was completed.

6/6/1917, Wednesday (-10,198)

4/6/1917. Monday (-10,200) (1) In France, with the co-operation of the provisional Russian government, a Polish army was formed to fight Germany.

(2) Brazil declared war against Germany and seized all German ships in its ports.


29/5/1917. Tuesday (-10,206) US Democrat and 35th President, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, the second of nine children. He was America�s first Roman Catholic President, and the youngest to date.

25/5/1917. Friday (-10,210) Air raid on Folkestone.

18/5/1917. Friday (-10,217) (1) Trotsky returned to Russia from the USA

(2) The US introduced conscription under the Selective Service Act. This required every male aged 21 to 31 to register for the draft on 6/6/1917. Local Boards would select half a million men for military service.

17/5/2017, Thursday (-10,218) Kerensky became head of the Soviet interim government.

15/5/1917. Tuesday (-10,220) Henri Petain became French Commander in Chief.

13/5/1917, Sunday (-10,222) At Fatima, a small town in north east Portugal, three shepherd girls aged 10 -13 saw a vision of a lady outside the town.The vision reappeared at monthly intervals and on 13/10/1917 declared itself to be �Our Lady of the Rosary�.

12/5/1917. Saturday (-10,223) The British army began to accept men aged 41-50.

9/5/1917, Wednesday (-10,226)

5/5/1917. Saturday (-10,230) The Battle of Arras, 9 April to 5 May. The Allied Spring offensive against the Germans pushed them back 3 to 4 miles from the eastern suburbs of Arras, capturing several important hills.

4/5/1917. Friday (-10,231) Widespread mutiny amongst French units on the Front.

3/5/1917, Thursday (-10,232) US destroyers arrived to join the British navy.

2/5/1917, Wednesday (-10,233) King George V called for national restraint in bread consumption.


26/4/1917. Thursday (-10,239) German naval raid on Ramsgate.

24/4/1917, Tuesday (-11,241) In the US the Liberty Loan Act authorised the issue of War Bonds.

20/4/1917. Friday (-10,245) The US broke off relations with Turkey.

18/4/1917, Wednesday (-10,247) The Second battle of Gaza; Turkish forces, with German support, forced back British forces.

17/4/1917. Tuesday (-10,248) On his return to Russia (from Zurich) with the other Bolshevik leaders, Vladimir Illyich Lenin demanded a transfer of power to workers Soviets.

15/4/1917, Sunday (-10,250)

14/4/1917, Saturday (-10,251) Dr Zamenof, Polish linguist and inventor of Esperanto, died.

13/4/1917, Friday (-10,252) Stalin was released from exile in Siberia (imposed 1913).

12/4/1917, Thursday (-10,253) Robert Manzon, French racing driver was born (died 2015).

11/4/1917. Wednesday (-10.254) (1) Brazil broke off relations with Germany after the steamer Parana was torpedoed off France. On 1/6/1917 Brazil revoked its neutrality in the War as a mark of �continental solidarity and friendship with the USA�. After more Brazilian shipping was sunk, Brazil declared war on Germany on 26/10/1917. Brazil�s direct contribution to the war was the dispatch of part of its fleet to European waters and the sending of a medical mission and some aviators to the Western Front. The main contribution was placing its food supplies and other resources at the disposal of the Allies.

(2)British general Sir Edmund Allenby, commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, occupied Jerusalem following his victory in Palestine over the Turks.

10/4/1917.Tuesday (-10,255) Canadian troops captured Vimy Ridge in northern France, with heavy casualties. This was a major assault during the Battle of Arras, World War One.

9/4/1917, Monday (-10,256) The Canadians stormed Vimy Ridge, see 10/4/1917.

8/4/1917, Sunday (-10,257) Easter Sunday.

7/4/1917. Saturday (-10,258) Cuba declared war on Germany.

6/4/1917. Friday (-10,259) The USA declared war against Germany, with a declaration signed by President Woodrow Wilson. This followed the revealing by the British on 1/3/1917 of the Zimmerman Telegram, a missive from Germany to Mexico urging it to declare war on the USA and recover its lost territories. The German Foreign Minister, Arthur Zimmerman, had sent a coded telegram to the German Ambassador in Mexico offering an alliance against the US, in which Mexico would recover its territories of New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. British naval intelligence intercepted and decoded the message and passed it to President Wilson. American shipping bound for Britain had also been attacked by German submarines. The Germans did not believe that the US could raise and equip an effective army quickly enough to make a difference in Europe, and that even if they did, it could not be transported across a submarine-infested ocean. They seriously underestimated the determination and resources of the US. The US did indeed have only a relatively small standing army, 300,000 men including the National Guard and reserves, but conscription was introduced and many willingly signed up. Meanwhile this day the King and Queen of England attended a Thanksgiving service at St Pauls Cathedral for the US�s entry into the �war for freedom�.

4/4/1917, Wednesday (-10,261)

3/4/1917, Tuesday (-10,262) Vladimir Illyich Lenin returned to Moscow from exile.

2/4/1917, Monday (-10,263) US President Wilson asked the US Congress to pass a resolution to declare war on Germany.

1/4/1917, Sunday (-10,264) Scott Joplin, American composer, died in poverty in an asylum.


31/3/1917, Saturday (-10,265) The USA purchased the Virgin Islands from Denmark for US$25 million, to prevent their occupation by Germany and to guard the Panama Canal.

30/3/1917, Friday (-10,266) The Russian provisional government guaranteed the independence of Poland.

29/3/1917, Thursday (-10,267) In Britain, Lloyd George announced plans to give women over 30 the vote.

28/3/1917. Wednesday (-10,268) The first women�s service unit, the Women�s Army Auxiliary Corps, was formed.

27/3/1917, Tuesday (-10,269) Moses Jacob Ezekiel, US sculptor, died (born 1844);

26/3/1917. Monday (-10,270) Britain attacked the Turks at Gaza (First Battle of Gaza).

25/3/1917, Sunday (-10,271) In baseball, in the USA, John McGraw signed a record US$50,000 contract to manage the New York Giants for one year.

24/3/1917, Saturday (-10,272) (Biology) John Cowdery Kendrew was born in Oxford, England. In `1960 he determined the molecular structure of myoglobin, similar to haemoglobin.

23/3/1917, Friday (-10,274)

21/3/1917. Wednesday (-10,275) Ex-Tsar Nicholas II and his family were arrested.

20/3/1917. Tuesday (-10,276) (1) A German U-boat sank a fully-lit hospital ship.

(2) Dame Vera Lynn was born.

19/3/1917, Monday (-10,277) French Prime Minister Briand resigned. Alexandre Ribot formed a Cabinet.

18/3/1917. Sunday (-10,278) Ramsgate and Broadstairs shelled from the sea.

17/3/1917. Saturday (-10,279) The British heavily defeated the Turks near Gaza.

16/3/1917, Friday (-10,280) An interim Soviet Russian government was set up.

15/3/1917. Thursday (-10,281) Czar Nicholas II abdicated in Pskov. The 300-year Romanov dynasty ended (see 8/3/1917).

14/3/1917, Wednesday (-10,282) China broke off diplomatic relations with Germany.

13/3/1917, Tuesday (-10,283) Maria Vlamynck, Flemish author, was born.

12/3/1917, Monday (-10,284) Izvestia, the official daily newspaper of the USSR, was founded.

11/3/1917. Sunday (-10,285) The Allies captured Baghdad from Ottoman Turkey.

10/3/1917, Saturday (-10,286) A Soviet, or council, of workers and soldiers was set up in Russia.

9/3/1917, Friday (-10.287) (USA) Dante Fascell, American politician (U.S. House of Representatives from Florida) was born in Bridgehampton, New York (d. 1998).

8/3/1917. Thursday (-10,288) (1) The Russian �February� (old style calendar) Revolution began at Petrograd. Widespread demonstrations were sparked by food shortages; more ominously for Tsar Nicholas II, soldiers refused to open fire on the crowds. The Russian army had suffered severe casualties against the Germans and was more on the people�s side. Soldiers were defecting and joining the demonstrators. See 15/3/1917.

(2) US marines landed in Cuba to help the civil authorities.

(3) Graf von Zeppelin, German airship pioneer, died in Charlottenburg, near Berlin.

7/3/1917. Wednesday (-10,289) The Dixie Band One-Step was the world�s first jazz record to be released. Ironically it was by the all-white Original Dixieland Jazz Band.

4/3/1917, Sunday (-10,292) Pamela Barton, golfer, was born.

2/3/1917. Friday (-10,294) The US Congress passed the Jones Act, making Puerto Rico a US territory.

1/3/1917, Thursday (-10,295) Robert Lowell, US poet, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.


28/2/1917, Wednesday (-10,296)

26/2/1917. Monday (-10,298) (1) News of the sinking of the Cunard liner Laconia by German U-boats reached Capitol Hill just as Congress was debating measures to protect US shipping from the growing menace of U boats in the Atlantic. Earlier in February 1917a US ship, the Housatonic was sunk, making a total of 134 neutral ships destroyed by the Germans in the last 3 weeks. The US navy was already mounting patrols to protect its ships in the Atlantic.

(2) US Congress created the McKinley National Park, covering 2,500 square miles. It is now much larger, and known as Denali.

25/2/1917. Sunday (-10,299) The Germans retreated on the Ancre, and on 28/2/1917 the British captured Gommecourt.

20/2/1917, Tuesday (-10,304) The USA bought the Dutch West Indies.

13/2/1917, Tuesday (-10,311) (1) Britain introduced new regulations to allow women to be taxi drivers.

(2) The Dutch spy Mata Hari was arrested by the French.

12/2/1917, Monday (-10,312) US President Wilson refused to reopen negotiations with Germany until it abandoned its policy of unrestricted naval warfare; on 3/2/1917 the US liner Housatonic had been sunk by a German U-boat.

10/2/1917. Saturday (-10,314) Weizmann and the British Government discussed plans for a Jewish homeland.

7/2/1917. Wednesday (-10,317) All US citizens in Germany were held as hostages.

5/2/1917, Monday (-10,319) (USA) Immigrants to the US were now required to pass a literacy test. This law, inspired by the Immigration Restriction League founded in 1894, had been vetoed by US President Wilson, but was passed by Congress anyway. Those fleeing religious persecution were exempted, which allowed more Russian Jews to enter.

3/2/1917. Saturday (-10,321) The USA broke off relations with Germany.

2/2/1917, Friday (-10,322) In the UK, bread rationing began.


31/1/1917. Wednesday (-10,324) Germany announced a policy of unrestricted naval warfare. All ships, passenger or cargo, found by Germans could now be sunk without warning. This was a calculated risk by Germany because it was bound to involve US shipping being sunk, and would therefore bring the USA in against Germany. But Germany reckoned on the inevitability of the USA entering the war against here soon anyway, and believed she could win the war before this happened. The German Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Von Holtzendorff, presented a memo to the Kaiser saying that if 600,000 tons of Allied shipping could be sunk each month, within five months Britain would have to surrender. In fact, in the worst month, April 1917, German U-boats sank 869,103 tons of shipping, 373 ships. The British adopted a convoy system, despite fears that a convoy�s speed was limited to that of the slowest ship. The Navy had feared it had too few destroyers for this job but then realised that it had enough if only ocean-going ships, not cross-Channel traffic, was guarded. Meanwhile the British navy deployed Q-ships, gunships disguised as merchant ships which lured U-boats to the surface then opened their gun hatches at the last moment. The first trial convoy ran from Gibraltar on 10/5/1917. The convoy system worked; of 26,604 vessels convoyed in 1917, only 147 were sunk. Meanwhile the Germans lost 65 of their 139 U-boats. Meanwhile Allied shipping blockaded German trade, creating shortages of tea and coffee, but more seriously, fertiliser shortages too. In the final German land offensive of 1918, advancing German troops discovered their privations were not being endured by the enemy, and German morale fell.

29/1/1917. Monday (-10,326) Congress passed the Immigration Act (or, Asiatic Barred Zone Act), requiring all immigrants to know at least 30 words of English and banning all Asian migrants except Japanese. This followed on from the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, banning further immigration from China. See for further details.

22/1/1917, Monday (-10,333) US President Woodrow Wilson delivered a speech to the Senate, �Peace Without Victory�, condemning European imperialism and militarism and calling for a League of Nations.

19/1/1917, Friday (-10,336) (London) An explosion at a munitions factory in Silvertown, east London, killed 73 and injured over 400.

11/1/1917, Thursday (-10,344) The war was costing Britain �5.7 million per day.

10/1/1917, Wednesday (-10,345) William �Buffalo Bill� Cody died, aged 71. He was a pony express rider before the Civil War, in which he fought; after, he supplied meat to the workers of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, hence his name. As chief of scouts for the US military he fought in several battles against the Indians, which made him famous.

9/1/1917. Tuesday (-10,346) The Russian Prime Minister, Alexander Trepov, resigned in the face of strikes, food shortages, and anti-war protests. He was succeeded by Dimitri Golitzin.

4/1/1917, Thursday (-10,351) Britain and Germany agreed to exchange all internees aged over 45.

1/1/1917, Monday (-10.354) Britain, France and Italy recognised the Kingdom of Hejaz in Arabia.


31/12/1916, Sunday (-10,355) By the end of 1916, Russia had seen some 3,600,000 of its citizens killed or wounded in the Great War, and a further 2,000,000 taken prisoner by the Central Powers.

30/12/1916. Saturday (-10,356) In Russia, Gregory Rasputin, the infamous Siberian �seer� and miracle worker, was murdered, aged 44.

23/12/1916, Saturday (-10,363) The Irishmen interned after the Easter Rising were released (see 1/5/1916).

18/12/1916, Monday (-10,368) Bettie Grable, US actress, was born.

15/12/1916. Friday (-10,371) The Battle of Verdun, which began on 21/2/1916, ended. 364,000 Allied soldiers and 338,000 German soldiers, had died in this battle.

14/12/1916, Thursday (-10,372) (USA, Denmark) A referendum in Denmark agreed by 64.3% for to 35.7% against to agree to the sale of the Danish West Indies to the US, for the sum of US$ 25 million. These islands became the US Virgin Islands; they were of strategic importance to the US now that the Panama Canal had opened. The islands were formally handed over on 1/4/1917, just before the US declared war on Germany.

13/12/1916. Wednesday (-10,373) New British offensive in Mesopotamia.

12/12/1916, Tuesday (-10,374) Robert Nivelle was appointed Commander in Chief of French armies in N and NE France.


7/12/1916. Thursday (-10,379) In Britain, David Lloyd George succeeded Herbert Asquith as Prime Minister (see 8/4/1908). A Coalition government led by the Liberals was formed.

6/12/1916, Wednesday (-10,380) (1) (Rail Tunnels) The Connaught rail tunnel, Canada, 8.5 km long, opened.

(2) The Central Powers occupied Bucharest.

5/12/1916, Tuesday (-10,381) An explosion at the Barnbow munitions factory, Leeds, killed 35 women. The incident was censored and went unreported at the time. War production resumed within a week, with wages on �12 a week, equivalent to over �1,000 a week in 2015.

3/12/1916, Sunday (-10,383)

1/12/1916, Friday (-10,385) The lights of the Statue of Liberty were turned on by President Wilson.


30/11/1916, Thursday (-10,386) William Carr, jockey, was born (died 19/10/1985).

29/11/1916, Wednesday (-10,387) The Sheriff of Mecca, Hussein, was proclaimed King of the Arabs.

24/11/1916, Friday (-10,392) Sir Hiram Maxim, English-born US inventor of the machine gun in 1883, died in London.

22/11/1916, Wednesday (-10,394) Jack London, author and campaigner for social justice (born 12/1/1876 in San Francisco) died destitute of a drugs overdose.

21/11/1916. Tuesday (-10,395) Emperor Franz Josef, ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire since 1848, died. He was succeeded by his 29-year old grandson, Charles I.

20/11/1916, Monday (-10,396) Railway electrification from London Waterloo reached Claygate.

16/11/1916, Thursday (-10,400)

14/11/1916, Tuesday (-10,402) H H Munro (Saki) died, aged 45.

13/11/1916, Monday (-10,403) The Battle of the Somme ended.It had begun on 1/7/1916, and succeeded in driving the Germans north towards the coast, but cost over 600,000 Allied lives; 420,000 British and 200,000 French. German casualties were 450,000. At Verdun, ten months of fighting had cost another 400,000 men from both sides. The Allies gained, at the Somme, some two miles of ground for these casualties, about five lives lost per inch gained. The Germans knew the �Big Push� was coming, and had prepared well by stockpiling ammunition then sitting deep in underground bunkers waiting. The Allied bombardment fully announced this push, but did not destroy the German bunkers. After the bombardment the Allied soldiers walked forward over no man�s land carrying their kit, guns, and grenades, at least 30 kg or 60 lbs per person on a hot summer day. The Germans, as soon as the bombardment ended, climbed back up and scythed down the Allies in a hail of machine gun fire. On the first day of that offensive, the Allies lost 19,000 men with a further 57,000 wounded, the greatest loss ever on a single day. Bad communications and slowness meant the few gains made were mostly lost again.

12/11/1916, Sunday (-10,404) Percival Lowell, US astronomer who predicted the existence of the planet Pluto prior to its discovery in 1930, died in Flagstaff, Arizona.

10/11/1916, Friday (-10,406) Theobald von Bethmann, German Chancellor, made a speech to the Reichstag pledging that Germany would join or even lead a peace league after the War, to prevent such a catastrophic war from ever happening again. In part he was responding to anti-war concerns from Social Democrats within Germany. The German Government was also now open to a peace agreement for the same reason as the Allies opposed it � because Germany was now in control of large swathes of Europe from France to Russia.

7/11/1916. Tuesday (-10,409) (1) Woodrow Wilson was re-elected US President.

(2) Janet Rankin became the first woman member of the US Congress.

3/11/1916, Friday (-10,413) London�s bakers were accused of profiteering after raisingthe price of bread to 10d a loaf. A price freeze was anticipated following a government commission on wheat prices. There was also concern about rising rates of sexually-transmitted diseases in Britain, with 50,000 cases reported amongst servicemen in 1916.

2/11/1916, Thursday (-10,415) French forces recaptured Fort Vaux, which the Germans had taken on 7/6/1916.


31/10/1916, Tuesday (-10,416) Charles Taze Russell, who founded the modern-day Jehovah�s Witnesses, died.

28/10/1916, Saturday (-10,419) In Australia, a proposal to introduce compulsory military conscription was narrowly rejected in Parliament.

27/10/1916, Friday (-10,420) Bob de Lange, Dutch actor, was born.

26/10/1916. Thursday (-10,421) Francois Mitterand, President of France from 1981, and founder of the French Socialist Party, was born.

25/10/1916, Wednesday (-10,422) Stanley Cullis, footballer, was born.

24/10/1916. Tuesday (-10,423) French troops broke open a four mile stretch of the German lines at Verdun, and another offensive started there.

16/10/1916. Monday (-10,431) (1) The Allies took Athens.

(2) Margaret Sanger, who coined the term �birth control�, opened the first family planning clinic in the US. It faced considerable opposition,

1/10/1916. Sunday (-10,446) (1) A Zeppelin was brought down at Potters Bar, Hertfordshire.

(2) The line from Broad Street (London) to Richmond was electrified


29/9/1916, Friday (-10,448) The British Government asked people to observe a �meatless day� to prevent food price rises.

28/9/1916, Thursday (-10,449) John D Rockefeller became the world�s first billionaire.

27/9/1916. Wednesday (-10,450) Greece declared war on Bulgaria, which itself had declared war on Rumania earlier in the month.

26/9/1916, Tuesday (-10,451)

24/9/1916, Sunday (-10,453) The French bombed the Krupp works at Essen.A second Zeppelin was shot down in England.

23/9/1916, Saturday (-10,454) Kenneth Gee, rugby player, was born (died 17/4/1989).

20/9/1916, Wednesday (-10,457)

17/9/1916, Sunday (-10,460) Manfred von Richtofen, the �Red Baron�, Germany�s greatest air ace, won the first of his 80 confirmed kills over Cambrai, France.

16/9/1916. Saturday (-10,461) A provisional �government of Czechoslovakia� was recognised by Britain and France.

15/9/1916. Friday (-10,462) Tanks went into battle for the first time, for the British Army at the battle of Flers on theSomme.They were invented by Sir Ernest Swinton, weighed 30 tons, and travelled at 4mph. It was hoped they would break the stalemate of trench warfare. Some German soldiers fled, thinking the Devil had come. The tank forces achieved their objective but infantry reserves could not arrive in time to consolidate the successes.

14/9/1916, Thursday (-10,463) Seventh Battle of Isonzo; Italian forces made small gains.

13/9/1916, Wednesday (-10,464) Roald Dahl, author of children�s books, was born in Llandaff, Glamorganshire.

12/9/1916, Tuesday (-10,465) British and Serbian forces mounted an attack from Salonika, but were unable to help Romania.

11/9/1916, Monday (-10,466) Battle of Transylvania. The Romanian Army began the third phase of conquering Transylvania, leading to the capture of Merești, forcing a river crossing at Rupea, and establishing a bridgehead to conquer Daișoara.

10/9/1916. Sunday (-10,467) The Allies launched an offensive in Salonika.

9/9/1916, Saturday (-10,468) Battle of Ginchy. The Irish 16th Division captured the German-held village of Ginchy in north eastern France, but at a cost of 4,330 casualties.

8/9/1916, Friday (-10,469) US President Woodrow Wilson promised women the vote.

7/9/1916, Thursday (-10,470) Clara Bewick Colby, US suffragist and founder of The Woman's Tribune, died.

6/9/1916, Wednesday (-10,471) US retailer Clarence Saunders opened the first �Piggly Wiggly� supermarket, in Memphis, Tennessee.

4/9/1916. Monday (-10,473) British troops took Dar Es Salaam in east Africa.

3/9/1916. Sunday (-10,474) The first Zeppelin was shot down, by Captain Leefe Robinson, at Cuffley, Hertfordshire, using the newly-invented Pomeroy incendiary bullets.

2/9/1916, Saturday (-10,475) Battle of Transylvania. The Romanian Army captured the city of Orșova, Transylvania, then part of Austria-Hungary, before advancing towards Sibiu and completing the first phase of its offense against the Central Powers.

1/9/1916, Friday (-10,476) In the US the Keating-Owen Act was signed, outlawing work in mines and on night shifts by children under 16. Daytime shifts for under-16s were limited to 8 hours, and interstate commerce in articles made by children under 14 was banned.


31/8/1916, Thursday (-10,477) Danish news tabloid BT began publishing in Copenhagen.

30/8/1916. Wednesday (-10,478) Paul Von Hindenburg became Chief of General Staff in Germany. He became Commander in Chief on the Western Front on 29/11/1916.

29/8/1916, Tuesday (-10,479) Battle of Transylvania. The Romanian Army captured Brașov, Transylvania.

28/8/1916. Monday (-10,480) Italy declared war on Germany.

27/8/1916. Sunday (-10,481) Romania declared war on Germany, see 6/12/1916. Austria declared war on Rumania.

26/8/1916, Saturday (-10,482) Battle of Delville Wood. After a week�s delay due to rain, the British attacked and captured the German trenches.

25/8/1916, Friday (-10,483) (Medical) Frederick C Robbins was born in Auburn, Alabama. In 1948, along with John Franklin Enders (born 10/2/1897, West Hartford, Connecticut) and Thomas Huckle Wells (born 15/6/1915, Ann Arbor), he discovered how to grow the mumps virus in chick tissue using penicillin to prevent bacterial contamination.

24/8/1916. Thursday (-10,484) Eight people were killed in a Zeppelin raid on London.

23/8/1916, Wednesday (-10,485) The Brazilian Navy established an air force, starting with a naval aviation school.

22/8/1916, Tuesday (-10,486) Romania declared war on Austro-Hungary.Its troops crossed the passes into Transylvania.

21/8/1916, Monday (-10,487) Peru declared neutrality during World War One.

20/8/1916. Sunday (-10,488) The Allies began an offensive against Turkey in Mesopotamia.

19/8/1916. Saturday (-10,489) German warships bombarded the east coast of England.

18/8/1916, Friday (-10,490) The Second Army of Romania was established. It regrouped in Moldova, the only region of Romania unoccupied by the Central Powers.

17/8/1916, Thursday (-10,491) The UK, France, Russia, and Italy guaranteed Romania the Banat, Transylvania, the Hungarian Plain as far as the Tisza River and Bukovina as far as the Prut River, if it declared war on Austro-Hungary.

9/8/1916. Wednesday (-10,499) Italian troops took Glorizia.

7/8/1916. Monday (-10,501) Iran formed an alliance with Britain and Russia.

6/8/1916, Sunday (-10,502) Dom Mintoff, Labour politician and Prime Minister of Malta, was born.

5/8/1916. Saturday (-10,503) The British defeated the Turks in a naval battle off Port Said.

3/8/1916. Thursday (-10,505) Sir Roger Casement, the Irish Nationalist, was hanged in Pentonville |prison, London, for treason, because of his attempts to induce Germany to support the cause of Irish independence. He was a former diplomat who had exposed slavery in the Congo. Casement had been found guilty and sentenced on 29/6/1916. There were intense efforts made for his reprieve, but the prosecution, with the connivance of the British Government, released his �black diaries�, with evidence of his homosexuality, making any reprieve impossible.


29/7/1916, Saturday (-10.510) Max Faulkner, golf player, was born.

28/7/1916, Friday (-10,511) The UK banned imports of cocaine and opium.

23/7/1916, Sunday (-10,516) Sir William Ramsey, chemist who discovered helium, and isolated neon, krypton, and xenon, died in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire.He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1904.

19/7/1916, Wednesday (-10,520) At Fromelles, a preliminary British bombardment of a German salient gave away all hopes of a surprise attack, then troops were ordered to advance across open marshy ground towards a well defended German position. Allied casualties e3xceeded 7,000 with only minor and temporary territorial gains.

15/7/1916, Saturday (-10,524) Edward Boeing set up the Pacific Aero Products Company in Seattle.

14/7/1916, Friday (-10,525) Bazentin le Grand and Bazentin le Petit, villages in the Somme area, were taken by the Allies. They were lost and then recaptured again in 1918.

9/7/1916. Sunday (-10,530) British Prime Minister (1970-74) Edward Heath, was born in Broadstairs, Kent.

6/7/1916. Thursday (-10,533) Russia and Japan signed a peace treaty.

3/7/1916, Monday (-10,536) (USA) Hetty Green, the wealthiest women in the USA died aged 80, leaving a fortune of US$ 100 million.

2/7/1916. Sunday (-10,537) Hundreds died in race riots in St Louis, USA.

1/7/1916. Saturday (-10,538) (1) Battle of the Somme began. Britain and France launched a major offensive. This offensive lasted until 8/11/1916, and one million were killed, including 500,000 British. However the Germans were only beaten back ten miles � over one casualty per inch of ground won. The Germans retained the key rail junction of Bapaume.On this first day of battle alone, there were over 100,000 casualties, including 60,000 British.However for the Germans the massive casualties of the Somme made it impossible thereafter to obtain enough trained soldiers, hence it marked the turning point of the War for France.

(2) The US States of Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, and South Dakota brought in Prohibition, bringing the number of states banning alcohol to 24.

(3) Coca Cola introduced its distinctively-shaped bottle.


29/6/1916, Thursday (-10,540)

27/6/1916, Tuesday (-10,542) King George V confirmed that women were eligible to receive the Military Medal.

26/6/1916, Monday (-10,543) (Innovation) Peter Nissen (1871-1930) patented the Nissen Hut. He noticed that there was a lack of easy to build housing for the troops in World War One. 100,000 of these huts were built by the end of the War; each one taking 6 men 4 hours to build. Their main drawback was they were very cold in the winter.

25/6/1916, Sunday (-10,544) Thomas C Eakins, US artist, died (born 25/7/1844).

24/6/1916. Saturday (-10,545) A new German offensive began at Verdun.

23/6/1916. Friday (-10,546) A Russian offensive captured most of Galicia.

22/6/1916, Thursday (-10,547) The Germans gassed French artillery positions around Verdun, France, causing 1,600 casualties.

21/6/1916. Wednesday (-10,548) Hussein, the Grand Sheikh of Mecca, declared war on Ottoman Turkey with the aim of achieving Arabia�s independence from Britain.

20/6/1916, Tuesday (-10,549)

18/6/1916, Sunday (-10,551) (1) Russian forces took Czernowitz (now Chernovtsy, Ukraine).

(2) The Surbiton to Hampton Court branch line was electrified.

17/6/1916, Saturday (-10,552) In Italy a coalition government was formed, including the Catholics and Reformed Socialists, under Paolo Boselli.

16/6/1916, Friday (-10,553)

15/6/1916, Thursday (-10,554) In the US, the Democratic Convention nominated President Wilson as presidential candidate.

14/6/1916, Wednesday (-10,555) Allied economic conference in Paris.

13/6/1916, Tuesday (-10,556) Jan Smuts captured Wilthemstal in German East Africa (now Tanzania).

12/6/1916, Monday (-10,557)

10/6/1916, Saturday (-10,559) In the US, the Republican Convention nominated Charles E Hughes as presidential candidate.

9/6/1916. Friday (-10,560) (Greece-Turkey, Islam) Sherif Hussein of Mecca led a revolt against the Ottoman Turks. The Arabs were angered by the Young Turks nationalist and secular policies.

8/6/1916, Thursday (-10,561) Professor Sir Francis Crick, who along with J D Watson discovered DNA, was born.

7/6/1916, Wednesday (-10,562) German forces captured Fort Vaux. Recaptured by the French on 2/11/1916.

6/6/1916, Tuesday (-10,563) Allied forces blockaded Greece.

5/6/1916. Monday (-10,564) Lord Kitchener, British General and conqueror of the Sudan, born 24/6.1850 near Listowel, County Kerry, died when his cruiser HMS Hampshire hit a German mine off the Orkney Islands, en route to Russia. There were no survivors.

4/6/1916, Sunday (-10,565) Russia began the Brusilov Offensive, pushing back Austrian forces south of the Pripet Marshes. German reinforcements halted the Russian advance.

3/6/1916, Saturday (-10,566)

2/6/1916. Friday (-10,567) Second Battle of Ypres.

1/6/1916, Thursday (-10,568) Germany established a War Food Office to set controlled prices for food. A bad harvest in Autumn 1916 led to strict food rationing.


31/5/1916. Wednesday (-10,569) Battle of Jutland. On 31/5/1916 German Admirals Scheer and Hipper set sail from the Jade and Elbe estuaries. British intelligencepicked up on this and Admirals Beatty and Jellicoe set out to engage them. Beatty happened to meet Hipper�s battle cruiser squadron, and the two main fleets began to engage. Although the British suffered larger losses, the British fleet had been much larger to begin with, and Scheer managed to retreat back to the safety of the Jade estuary. The German fleet rarely ventured to sea after this.

30/5/1916, Tuesday (-10,570)

28/5/1916, Sunday (-10,572) The Sopwith triplane, first triplane fighter to enter military service, was introduced by the British.

27/5/1916, Saturday (-10,573) In the USA, a peacekeeping League of nations was proposed, to be created at the end of the Great War.

25/5/1916, Thursday (-10,575) Britain extended compulsory military conscription from single men (Military Service Act, given Royal Assent on 27/1/1916) to married men too (a second Military Service Act).

21/5/1916, Sunday (-10,579) (1) Daylight saving time began in Britain. It was introduced by William Willett, to save coal stocks by reducing the demand for electric lighting.

(2) Keadby swing road bridge, Lincolnshire, opened over the River Trent. It was necessary to serve the growing traffic between Immingham Docks (opened 1912) and the developing coalfields of South Yorkshire.

20/5/1916, Saturday (-10,580) Owen Chadwick, British writer, was born

19/5/1916, Friday (-10,581)

17/5/1916. Wednesday (-10,583) The Daylight Saving Act was passed. Clocks went forward in Britain for the first time on 21/5/1916, causing some confusion. See 7/8/1925.

16/5/1916, Tuesday (-10,584) (Britain, France, Turkey) French diplomat Francois-Georges Picot and British diplomat Mark Sykes began a secret correspondence to decide how the Middle East would be divided up after World War One (see also 30/10/1917). The Western Powers had already decided that the Ottoman Empire was too vast and too corrupt to be allowed to survive. Britain would claim Jordan, most of Iraq, and the port city of Haifa. Francewould take SE Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Palestine would be jointly administered between Britain and France. Russia would be granted the city of Constantinople and several Armenian-dominated regions. In fact the Russian Revolution of 1917 and further diplomatic developments meant that not all these provisions became reality, but the Sykes-Picot agreement set the scene for many of the issues of the Middle East during the 20th century.

12/5/1916. Friday (-10,588) James Connolly was the last of the seven rebels who signed the proclamation of an Irish Republic during the Easter Rising (see 29/4/1916) to be executed. Wounded in the Easter Rebellion, he was taken to face the firing squad on a stretcher.

10/5/1916, Wednesday (-10,590) Shackleton reached South Georgia (see 9/4/1916).

9/5/1916, Tuesday (-10,591) The UK Government said there would be no conscription in Ireland.

8/5/1916. Monday (-10,592) Australian and New Zealand troops arrived in France.

3/5/1916, Wednesday (-10,597) Padraic Pearse, (1879-1916), leader of the 1916 Easter Rebellion against the British in Dublin, was executed at Kilmainham Gaol.

1/5/1916, Monday (-10,599) 400 Irish rebels arrived at Liverpool docks for internment in Britain. See 23/12/1916.


30/4/1916, Sunday (-10,600) The Easter Rebellion in Ireland against the British ended with 450 dead and 3,000 wounded.

29/4/1916. Saturday (-10,601) British troops surrendered to the Ottoman Turks after a siege of 143 days at Kut-el-Amara in Iraq. See 22/11/1915.

26/4/1916 Wednesday (-10.604)

25/4/1916, Tuesday (-10,605) Anzac Day was first celebrated in London.

24/4/1916. Monday (-10,606) Roger Casement was arrested as he landed in Ireland from a German submarine. The Irish wanted Germany to supply arms for a rebellion against the British and even for a German invasion of Ireland; however German support was lukewarm. The Easter Rebellion began in Dublin against British rule, on Easter Monday. The rebellion ended on 30/4/1916. It was followed by British reprisals, led by the notorious Black and Tans. The rebellion had begun almost unnoticed by the British. The arrest of Roger Casement lulled the British into a false sense of security. On Easter Monday few paid attention to the columns of soldiers marching into central Dublin, where they seized the General Post Office for their headquarters. From the steps of this building General Pearce read a proclamation declaring the establishment of the Republic of Ireland. Many British Army officers were on leave to attend a horse race meeting and the city only contained 1,200 British troops. By the time the British authorities realised what was happening the rebels had taken over the entire city centre and established a cordon of fortified posts in the suburbs. However the might of the British Army soon arrived, with heavy artillery, and bombarded the city centre; the Post Office caught fire and was destroyed. The rebels had no choice but to surrender unconditionally.

23/4/1916, Sunday (-10,607) Easter Sunday.

22/4/1916, Saturday (-10.608) Yehudi Menuhin, US violinist, was born.

20/4/1916, Thursday (-10,610)

18/4/1916, Tuesday (-10,612) Russian forces captured Trebizond, Turkey.

17/4/1916. Monday (-10,613) The Boer leader Jan Smuts led an anti-German drive from Kenya.

16/4/1916, Sunday (-10,614)

15/4/1916, Saturday (-10,615) Between November 1914 and this day the British had prosecuted some 500 Irish people under DORA (Defence Of The Realm Act), since World War One broke out. This caused resentment in Ireland, leading to the Easter Rising.

14/4/1916. Friday (-10,616) The Allied bombarded Istanbul.

9/4/1916, Sunday (-10,621) Shackleton and his crew left the ice floe in small boats. They reached Elephant Island on 12/4/1916 (see 10/5/1916).

5/4/1916, Wednesday (-10,625) Gregory Peck, US actor, was born.

2/4/1916, Sunday (-10,628) A large explosion occurred at the Uplees explosives factory, Kent, which was producing armaments for World War One. 116 men and boys were killed.

1/4/1916, Saturday (-10,629) A German Zeppelin airship dropped its bombs on Cleethorpes, Lincolnshire.


26/3/1916, Sunday (-10,635) William Edrich, cricketer, was born (died 24/4/1986).

24/3/1916. Friday (-10,637) German forces sank a cross-Channel steamer, the Sussex, after a decision in February 1916 that German forces would sink any armed merchant ships on sight. See 31/1/1917.

22/3/1916, Wednesday (-10,639) In China, President Yuan Shikai died.

21/3/1916. Tuesday (-10,640) Austrian soldiers killed 10,000 Serbian civilians.

20/3/1916. Monday (-10,641) Food scarcities in Germany caused rationing to begin.

19/3/1916. Sunday (-10,642) German seaplane raids on Deal, Dover, Margate, and Ramsgate.

15/3/1916. Wednesday (-10,646) The US mounted a punitive raid into Mexico in revenge for the raids of Pancho Villa into New Mexico on 9/3/1916.

13/3/1916, Monday (-10,648) Germany loosened its rules on its submarines attacking ships; they could now sink vessels around Britain if they �appeared not to be passenger ships�.

11/3/1916. Saturday (-10,650) British Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson was born in Huddersfield, Yorkshire.

10/3/1916, Friday (-10,651) The UK War Office urged women to be less extravagant in their dress. From now until the end of the war there would be no imports of spirits, pianos, or motors.

9/3/1916. Thursday (-10,652) Germany declared war onPortugal.

6/3/1916, Sunday (-10,655)

2/3/1916, Thursday (-10.659) The Russians took Bitlis, in Turkestan, from the Ottoman Turks. Turkey retook it on 7/8/1916.

1/3/1916, Wednesday (-10,660) Liljevalchs Konsthall art gallery, designed by Swedish architect Carl Bergsten, was opened in Stockholm.


29/2/1916, Tuesday (-10,661) Bryan Marshall, horse racing champion, was born (died 9/10/1991).

28/2/1916, Monday (-10,662) Henry James, US novelist, died.

26/2/1916, Saturday (-10,664)

23/2/1916, Wednesday (-10,667) The British Government urged well-off families to release their servants for �more useful purposes�.

22/2/1916. Tuesday (-10,668) Tsar Nicholas II opened the Duma (Parliament).

21/2/1916 Monday (-10,669) Battle of Verdun began. The Germans launched an all-out attack on the fortress of Verdun, but Petain took over the defence and repulsed the Germans, achieving victory by June 1916. See 15/12/1916. The previous commander, General Joseph Joffre, had ignored intelligence reports and, believing the German attack would come at Champagne, failed to reinforce Verdun.

20/2/1916, Sunday (-10,670) Eddie Arcaro, American jockey, was born in Cincinnati (died 1997)

19/2/1916, Saturday (-10,671) (1) In Britain, National Savings Certificates went on sale.

(2) Ernst Mach, Austrian scientist after whom the speed of sound in air is named, died the day after his 78th birthday.

18/2/1916, Friday (-10,672), The last German garrison in Cameroon surrendered.

17/2/1916, Thursday (-10,673) Alexander Obolensky, rugby player, was born (died 29/3/1940).

16/2/1916, Wednesday (-10,674) The Russians captured Erzurum, in the Caucasus, from Turkey.

15/2/1916, Tuesday (-10,675) Fifth Battle of Isonzo, between Italy and Austria.

14/2/1916, Monday (-10,676) (Rail Tunnels) A 4.8 km rail tunnel under Buenos Aires, carrying freight only, opened from west of Once de Septembre Station to the Port Zone.

13/2/1916, Sunday (-10,677) In the Erzurum Offensive Russian forces advanced on the Ottoman Third Army, which was too small to defend against the assault.

12/2/1916, Saturday (-10,678) (Mathematics) Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind, German mathematician, died in Braunschweig.

11/2/1916, Friday (-10,679) Kaiser Wilhelm II ordered an escalation of the U-boat warfare.

10/2/1916, Thursday (-10,680) George Richardson, Canadian hockey player, died (born 1886)

9/2/1916, Wednesday (-10,681) Former Boer leader General Jan Smuts was appointed Commander of British and South African troops in East Africa.

8/2/1916. Tuesday (-10,682) Food shortages caused riots in Berlin. Food rationing began in Germany on 20/3/1916. The British blockade deprived Germany of food imports.

6/2/1916, Sunday (-10,684) South African poet Ruben Dario died.

4/2/1916, Friday (-10,686) In Turkey, Crown Prince Yussuf Izzedin was assassinated.


31/1/1916. Monday (-10,690) Zeppelin raids on Shrewsbury killed 59 persons.

30/1/1916, Sunday (-10,691) The Shepperton branch, SW London, was electrified.

29/1/1916. Saturday (-10,692) (1) Zeppelins bombed Paris for the first time.

(2) Military tanks were trialled at Hatfield, Hertfordshire.

28/1/1916. Friday (-10,693) British and Belgian troops took Yaounde, capital of the German colony of Cameroon.

27/1/1916. Thursday (-10,694) In Berlin, the German Communist Party, Spartacus, was formed.

25/1/1916, Tuesday (-10,696)

24/1/1916. Monday (-10,697) Conscription started in Britain. It was for single men aged 19-30.

23/1/1916, Sunday (-10,698) London�s Natural History Museum and British Museum were closed for the duration of the War.

20/1/2016, Thursday (-10,701)

17/1/1916. Monday (-10,704) Russia began an offensive against Turkey.

16/1/1916, Sunday (-10,705) (Mexico) Supporters of Pancho Villa in Mexico killed 16 US citizens near Chihuahua.

14/1/1916. Friday (-10,707) (Netherlands) Zuider Zee dam in the Netherlands collapsed, causing extensive flooding.

12/1/1916, Wednesday (-10,709) (South Africa) Pieter Botha, South African President, was born in Paul Roux in the Orange Free State.

8/1/1916. Saturday (-10,713) (1) (Railway Tunnels)The Lower Hauenstein rail tunnel, Switzerland, 8.134 km long, opened on the Tecknau-Olten line.

(2) Gallipoli was evacuated by Allied troops. This was the end of an unsuccessful attempt to capture Constantinople. See 20/12/1915.

6/1/1916, Thursday (-10,715) The Commons voted in favour of conscription by 403 votes to 103, although the Home Secretary Sir John Simon resigned over the issue. Single men were to be conscripted first; armed service became compulsory for single men aged between 18 and 41. Many British soldiers had been killed in the War, and volunteering rates had dropped off sharply.

1/1/1916, Saturday (-10,720) In Britain, women�s employment had risen by two million over the past 12 months.


31/12/1915, Friday (-10,721) On the Western Front, positions have scarcely changed for a year amongst the trenches, despite appalling casualties. Major attacks became bogged down in bad weather, and tens or hundreds of thousands died for little territorial gain by either side. France had seen, during 1915, 330,000 soldiers killed and a further one million wounded, in addition to the 900,000 killed or wounded during 1914. In 1915 alone, 170,000 German soldiers were killed and 680,000 wounded. In 1915 alone, Britain saw 73,000 soldiers killed and 240,000 wounded.

30/12/1915, Tuesday (-10,722) The liner Persia was sunk by a U-boat, 400 drowned.

27/12/1915, Monday (-10,725)

21/12/1915, Tuesday (-10,731) William Robertson became British Chief of Staff.

20/12/1915. Monday (-10,732) Australian, New Zealand, and British troops were evacuated from the ill-fated Gallipoli expedition. See 25/4/1915. The aim had been to capture the Dardanelles and Constantinople, and so knock Turkey out of the war, and link up with the Russian Black Sea Fleet. However disease, flies, fever, and mosquitoes, and the incompetence of the Allied commanders, were compounded by the fact that landings were not made until two months after Turkish positions here had been bombarded. Hence the element of surprise was lost, and the Turks had ample time to prepare strong defences. Evacuation was completed by 8/1/1916, without casualties. An ingenious plan involved loading provisions onto the Gallipoli beaches in daylight, but at night men, guns and horses were evacuated, leaving rifles set to fire automatically at intervals. At the last moment an Allied destroyer trained a searchlight on the Turkish lines, the Turks fired back, and under this exchange of fire the Allies slipped away undetected.

19/12/1915, Sunday (-10,733) Douglas Haig replaced John French as British Commander in Chief for France and Flanders.

15/12/1915, Wednesday (-10,737) Serbian troops retook Belgrade from the Austrians.

13/12/1915, Monday (-10,739) B J Vorster, President of South Africa, was born.

12/12/1915. Sunday (-10,740) In Germany, Hugo Junkers built the first all-metal aeroplane.The Junkers J1 first flew at Dessau.

6/12/1915. Monday (-10,746) Germany occupied Bucharest, capital of Rumania, ending Rumania�s war effort against Germany. See 30/11/1918.

4/12/1915. Saturday (-10,748) The US state of Georgia officially recognised the Klu Klux Klan.


25/11/1915, Thursday (-10,757) (1) The White supremacist society Klu Klux Klan was revived at Stone Mountain, Georgia, by Colonel William Simmons. The original Klan, from Greek kuklos = circle, was formed as a secret Confederate Army. Its �night riders� in their hooded costumes terrorised Blacks. The new Klan also opposed Catholics, Jews, immigration, birth control, the repeal of Prohibition, pacifism and Darwinism, as well as Black people.

(2) General Augusto Pinochet, Chilean dictator who overthrew Allende in 1973, was born.

23/11/1915, Tuesday (-10,759)

22/11/1915. Monday (-10,760) General Charles Vere Ferrers Townshend was advancing by boat on Baghdad with a force of 9,000 men of the 6th Indian Division. The land was roadless, an �arid billiard table� as he described it. At Ctesiphon, 20 miles short of Baghdad, Townshend came up against a large, well supplied force. He was short of supplies because a stingy and over-optimistic government in India expected him to get all the supplies he needed in Baghdad.Townshend�s forces drove out the Turks but at a loss of 40% of his men. He was now unable to withstand any Turkish counter-attack, let alone advance further, so he retreated to Kut with 1,600 Turkish prisoners of war and 4,500 wounded from both sides.The Invasion of Mesopotamia was to secure the oil but that only required the occupation of a small area around Basra. This would, keep the Turks away from the Iranian port of Abadan, terminus of the Anglo-Iranian pipeline which supplied the Royal navy with oil. Kut was besieged by the Turks, from 8/12/1915. Townshend had 13,500 inside to feed, including some 2,500 Indian non-combatants and 2,000 sick and wounded. There were also 6,000 Arabs. They had to contend with freezing cold and torrential rain. A relief force never got near enough; three relief attempts were made, at a cost of 23,000 casualties. The Indians would not eat meat, although the oxen were slaughtered for food by the British, then the camels, horses, and finally cats, starlings, dogs, and hedgehogs. Gallipoli had been evacuated by the British on 8/1/1916 and elated by this, and now with troops to spare from there, the Turks refused a ransom of �2million (�67million in 2002 prices) to let the defenders leave. Kut was the first siege in which supplies were dropped by air, including flour for the Indian�s chappatis. However the Turks and their German allies had more and better aircraft. Finally Kut surrendered on 27/4/1916, with rations down to seven ounces of grain a day for the 12,000 men there. More Indian and British soldiers died during the forced march from Kut to captivity in Mesopotamia or even all the way to Turkey. However Townshend was in relatively comfortable captivity near Constantinople.Kut finally fell to the Allies in February 1917, and Baghdad fell in March 1917.

19/11/1915, Friday (-10,763) The Allies asked China to join the entente.

14/11/1915, Sunday (-10,768) Death of Booker T Washington, first principal of the Tuskegee Institute (Alabama) for Blacks.

13/11/1915. Saturday (-10,769) Churchill resigned from the cabinet over the Dardanelles.

12/11/1915, Friday (-10,770) Roland Barthes, French philosopher, was born (died 1980)

11/11/1915, Thursday (-10,771)

10/11/1915, Wednesday (-10,772) (1) A survey showed that women working in UK factories have enabled production to rise by 250%, see 24/2/.1915 and 20/10/1915.

(2) Britain annexed the Gilbert and Ellice Islands.

9/11/1915, Tuesday (-10,773) British war casualties now totalled 510,000.

8/11/1915, Monday (+10,774) The Italian liner Ancona was torpedoed off Sardinia, over 200 died.

7/11/1915, Sunday (-10,775) 40,000 people protested in Chicago, USA, at a new law closing bars on Sundays.


28/10/1915, Thursday (-10,788) The first performance of Richard Strauss�s �Alpine Symphony� in Berlin.

25/10/1915, Monday (-10,788) The railway between London Waterloo and East Putney was electrified.

24/10/1915, Sunday (-10,789) Tito Gobbi, Italian baritone singer, was born (died 1984)

23/10/1915, Saturday (-10,790) William Gilbert Grace, cricketer, died this day.

22/10/1915, Friday (-10,791)

21/10/1915, Thursday (-10,792) The Battle of Isonzo began; Italian forces made small territorial gains.

20/10/1915, Wednesday (-10,793) UK Prime Minister Lloyd George allowed women to step into many male employment roles, three months after 30,000 women marched down Whitehall demanding �The right to serve�. Trades Unions were concerned in case the move depressed wages.

18/10/1915, Monday (-10,795)

17/10/1915. Sunday (-10, 796) Russia and Italy followed Britain and France in declaring war on Bulgaria.

16/10/1915. Saturday (-10,797) The Allies blockaded Bulgarian ports.France declared war on Bulgaria.

15/10/1915. Friday (-10,798) Britain declared war on Bulgaria. France declared war on Bulgaria on 16/10/1915.

14/10/1915. Thursday (-10,799) Bulgaria and Serbia each declared war on the other.

13/10/1915, Wednesday (-10,800) The British Government banned �treating� � buying drinks for another � in an effort to curb drunkenness amongst factory workers.

12/10/1915. Tuesday (-10,801) (1) The UK government broke off relations with Bulgaria.

(2) British nurse, Edith Cavell, was executed by a German firing squad in Brussels for helping Allied prisoners escape over the Dutch frontier; she had given medical attention to both Allied and German casualties equally.The Brussels authorities had ordered her execution, which was opposed by the Kaiser and the German High Command as a political mistake, carried out quickly by the German occupation regime in Belgium before Berlin was informed.Her death aroused patriotic fervour in Britain against Germany.

11/10/1915, Monday (-10,802) Henri Jean Fabre, French entomologist, died in Serignan, France (born 21/12/1823 in St Leons, France).

9/10/1915. Saturday (-10,804) The Serbian capital, Belgrade, fell to the Austro-German army.

5/10/1915. Tuesday (-10,808) Allied troops landed at Salonika, Greece, to help Serbia (see 26/4/1915). These troops probably dissuaded Greece from joining the German side, and in 1918 took part in an offensive against Bulgaria, but otherwise played little role in the war.

1/10/1915, Friday (-10,812) (Rail Tunnels) The Grenchenberg rail tunnel, Switzerland, 8.578 km long, opened on the Moutier-Grenchen line.


28/9/1915. Tuesday (-10,815) (1) The British defeated the Turks at Kut El Amara in Mesopotamia.

(2) Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg was born (see 19/6/1953).

26/9/1915. Sunday (-10,817) (1) British and French troops began two big offensives, in Champagne and Flanders.

(2) Kier Hardie, founder of the Labour Party, died.

25/9/1915. Saturday (-10,818) (1) The Battle of Loos began, and the London Regiment�s 18th battalion went over the top kicking a football.

(2) The British forces used poison gas for the first time. Its first use was by the Germans on 22/4/1915.

24/9/1915, Friday (-10,819)

23/9/1915. Thursday (-10,820) King Constantine of Greece began mobilising against Bulgaria, in aid of Serbia.

22//9/1915. Wednesday (-10,821) Bulgaria mobilised its army and declared war on Serbia.

21/9/1915, Tuesday (-10,822) Stonehenge was sold at auction for �6,600. A Mr Chubb bought it as a present for his wife.

20/9/1915, Monday(-10,823)

19/9/1915. Sunday (-10,824) The Germans took Vilna (Vilnius), capital of Lithuania.

18/9/1915, Saturday (-10,825) (1) The Kaiser gave renewed assurances that passenger ships would not be attacked.

(2) The British government revealed that the war was costing �3.5 million daily.

(3) German forces entered Vilnius, Lithuania.

17/9/1915, Friday (-10,826)

16/9/1915, Thursday (-10,827) Bulgaria formed an alliance with Germany.

15/9/1915, Wednesday (-10,828) The Entente (France, UK) promised Bulgaria part of Macedonia if she declared war on Turkey.

13/9/1915. Monday (-10,830) The process for making cornflakes was patented by Frank Martin. The previous combination of corn, oats, and grain proved indigestible for the public.

11/9/1915. Saturday (-10,832) The first Women�s Institute in Britain was formed, in Anglesey, Wales.The first Women�s Institute was founded in Canada in 1897.

6/9/1915. Monday (-10,837) (1) The first military tank, the No.1 Lincoln, modified and renamed Little Willie, had its first run.

(2) Bulgaria signed a military accord with Germany and Austria.Bulgaria was seeking territory held by Greece and Serbia that it felt should be Bulgarian, see 10/8/1913.See 15/9/1915.

5/9/1915, Sunday (-10,838) David Bedell-Sivright, rugby player, died (born 8/12/1880)

2/9/1915, Thursday (-10,841) Percy Lucas, golf champion, was born.


30/8/1915. Monday (-10,844) The great Russian fortress of Brest-Litovsk fell to the Germans.

29/8/1915. Sunday (-10,845) The UK sent �55,000,000 in gold to pay the USA for munitions.

25/8/1915, Wednesday (-10,849)

22/8/1915, Sunday (-10,852) (Science) Canadian-US physicist James Hillier was born in Brantford, Ontario.

21/8/1915. Saturday (-10,853) Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire.

20/8/1915, Friday (-10,854) Paul Erlich, bacteriologist, died of a stroke in Bad Homburg, Germany. Born in Strehlen, Silesia (now Poland) on 14/3/1854, he laid the foundations for the use of chemotherapy in treating disease. In 1909 he developed the first compound designed specifically to cure a disease; Salvarsan, for syphilis.

19/8/1915, Thursday (-10,855) Battle of the Gulf of Riga. The German High Seas Fleet was able to clear the Russian minefields and enter the gulf, but withdrew after German cruiser SMS Moltke was hit by a torpedo fired by British submarine HMS E1.

18/8/1915, Wednesday (-10,856) The Germans took the fortress of Novo Georgievsk.

17/8/1915, Tuesday (-10,857) The Germans took Kovno.

16/8/1915, Monday (-10,858) The Allies promised the Kingdom of Serbia, should victory be achieved over Austria-Hungary and its allied Central Powers, the territories of Baranja, Srem and Slavonia from the Cisleithanian part of the Dual Monarchy, along with Bosnia and Herzegovina, and eastern Dalmatia from the Krka River to Bar.

15/8/1915, Sunday (-10,859) The Allied landings at Suvla, Dardanelles, were completed.

14/8/1915, Saturday (-10,860) A rail crash in Weedon, England killed ten people.

13/8/1915, Friday (-10,861) George Joseph Smith, the infamous �Brides in the Bath� murderer, was hanged by John Ellis at Maidstone Prison. Smith had �married� three different women, then murdered them to claim on life insurance policies or gain their fortunes.

10/8/1915, Tuesday (-10,864)

6/8/1915. Friday (-10,868) New Allied landings on Gallipoli. See 8/1/1916.

5/8/1915. Thursday (-10,869) Austro-German forces took Warsaw as the Russian abandoned it.

4/8/1915, Wednesday (-10,870) Nurse Edith Cavell was arrested in Brussels, see 12/10/1915.


31/7/1915, Saturday (-10.874)

28/7/1915, Wednesday (-10,877) (Science) US physicist Charles Hard Townes was born in Greenville, South Carolina. In 1953 he developed the maser, precursor of the laser.

27/7/1915. Tuesday (-10,878) Revolution in Haiti. President Vilbrun Guillaume was killed by a mob.

20/7/1915, Tuesday (-10,885)

16/7/1915, Friday (-10,889) In Britain the National Registration Act made it compulsory for men eligible for military service to register.

15/7/1915. Thursday (-10,890) 200,000 Welsh miners went on strike for more pay.

12/7/1915, Monday (-10,893) The German Government took control of the coal industry.

10/7/1915, Saturday (-10,895) Saul Bellow, US author, was born in Lachine, Quebec.

9/7/1915. Friday (-10,896) German South West Africa (Namibia) was conquered. All German troops surrendered to Botha (South Africa), see 14/4/1915.

5/7/1915, Monday (-10,900)

3/7/1915, Saturday (-10,902) The war was costing Britain �3 million daily.

2/7/1915, Friday (-10,903) Porfirio D�az, 29th President of Mexico (born 1830) died.

1/7/1915, Thursday (-10,904) A packet of aspirin cost 3d (1p) and a pair of silk stockings at Harrods was 3s 11d (19.5p). A British train driver got �2 0s 6d (202.5p) a week. A female cotton weaver got 18s 6d (92.5p) a week. The Secretary of the Lunacy Commission got �800 a year.


30/6/1915, Wednesday (-10,905) (Geology) Elso Sterrenberg Barghoorn was born in New York City, USA. In 1954 he discovered, with Stanley A Tyler, very ancient fossils in Gunflint chert in the Canadian shield. These fossils of bacteria and algae were estimated at 2 billion years old.

27/6/1915, Sunday (-10,908)

24/6/1915, Thursday (-10,911) Professor Fred Hoyle, British astronomer and science fiction writer, was born.

23/6/1915, Wednesday (-10,912) Italy launched its first major military campaign in World War One with an army of 225,000 under command of Luigi Cadorna attacking Austro-Hungarian positions above the Isonzo River in the Alps.

22/6/1915. Tuesday (-10,913) The Austrians retook Lemberg (Lvov), capital of Galicia, which they had lost to Russia on 3/9/1914.

20/6/1915, Sunday (-10,915)

11/6/1915. Friday (-10,924) Serbian troops invaded Albania and took Tirana, the capital.

10/6/1915, Thursday (-10,925) Second Battle of Garua. The remaining 249 German and African troops stationed in garrisons around Garua, Kamerun surrendered to British and French forces.

9/6/1915, Wednesday (-10,926) British troops in France were first issued with hand grenades.

8/6/1915, Tuesday (-10,927) Kayyar Kinhanna Rai, Indian poet, known for his poems and activism work for an independent India, was born in Kayyar, India (died 2015).

7/6/1915, Monday (-10,928) The British air force downed a German Zeppelin. Sub-Lieutenant Warneford took his aircraft over the airship and dropped six 20-pound bombs, one of which hit its target. For this Warneford was awarded the Victoria Cross.

6/6/1915, Sunday (-10,929) The Kaiser promised that in future the German Navy would not attack passenger vessels. However on 28/6/1915 a German submarine sunk the passenger liner Armenia off Cornwall, and the passenger liner Arabic was sunk on 19/8/1915.

5/6/1915, Saturday (-10,930) French sculptor and draughtsman Henri Gaudier-Brzeska was killed in action in World War One, aged 23.

4/6/1915. Friday (-10,931) Austro-German troops retook Premsyl from the Russians.


31/5/1915, Monday (-10,935) German airship bombing raid on London; Stoke Newington was badly damaged and 7 Londoners died.

27/5/1915. Thursday (-10,939) (1) The Turkish government decided to deport the entire Armenian population to Syria and Mesopotamia, suspecting them of lack of loyalty. The deportation involved much cruelty against the Armenians. Of the total Armenian population of 1.8 million, a third were deported, a third escaped deportation, and a third were killed. The Russians conquered Turkish Armenia in 1916 and proclaimed �the liberation of the Armenian people from the Turkish yoke� but prevented the Armenians from returning to their homeland as they planned to settle the area with Cossacks.

(2) Zeppelin raid on Southend, Essex.

26/5/1915. Wednesday (-10,940) The first Zeppelin raids on London. A ton of bombs was dropped from one airship, killing 7 and injuring 15.

25/5/1915. Tuesday (-10,941) (1) Prime Minister Herbert Asquith of Britain formed a wartime Liberal-Conservative coalition, replacing the former Liberal Government; Asquith remained Prime Minister. The Liberal Government had been shaken by the scandal of British troops in the front line facing a shortage of high explosive shells.

(2) The Austrians bombarded Venice.

24/5/1915. Monday (-10,942).The Austrian fleet bombarded Ancona, N.E. Italy.

23/5/1915, Sunday (-10,943) Italy entered the war on the Allied side, see 25/4/1915.

22/5/1915. Saturday (-10,944) The Gretna Green troop train disaster, the worst on Britain�s railways, took place; 227 died. Three trains had collided at Quintinshill, and 200 of the casualties were Scots Guards on the way to war. The shocked and dishevelled survivors were mistaken for German POWs and stoned by civilians.

20/5/1915, Thursday (-10,946) Moshe Dayan, Israeli military commander and politician, was born in Deganya.

17/5/1915. Monday (-10,949) Zeppelin raid on Ramsgate, Kent.

16/5/1915, Sunday (-10,950) The Mont d�Or rail tunnel, between France and Switzerland, 6 km long, opened.

15/5/1915, Saturday (-10,951) Unsuccessful British and French offensive in NE France.

14/5/1915, Friday (-10,952) Britain began internment of enemy aliens.

13/5/1915, Thursday (-10,953) In Britain, street violence against those suspected of being �aliens� increased following the sinking of the Lusitania on 7/5/1915.

12/5/1915, Wednesday (-10,954) South Africa occupied Windhoek, capital of German South West Africa.

11/5/1915, Tuesday (-10,955) German-owned businesses, shops and restaurants, in the London suburbs of Bethnal Green, Camden Town, Limehouse, Poplar, Stepney and Walthamstow were attacked, burnt and destroyed. Traders at Smithfield Market refused to trade with ethnic Germans, even if they had been naturalised as Britons. An American trader at Smithfield who was inclined to trade with the foreigners was also beaten up. The unrest was in response to the sinking of the Lusitania four days earlier.

10/5/1915. Monday (-10,956) (1) Zeppelin raid on Southend, Essex.

(2) Fierce fighting in the Ypres area.

(3) Denis Thatcher, wife of Margaret, British Prime Minister, was born.

9-25/5/1915, Battle of Aubers Ridge (second battle of Artois); the French advanced three miles at great cost.

7/5/1915. Friday (-10,959) The Lusitania, captained by William Thomas Turner, was torpedoed. 1,400 people drowned 8 miles off the Old Head of Kinsale, near Cork. 128 Americans were among the 1,208 casualties, including friends of President Woodrow Wilson and the millionaire yachtsman Alfred Vanderbilt, as the ship made its way back to Liverpool on a voyage from New York. America condemned the torpedoing of the ship by a German submarine as an act of piracy and this brought the USA into the War. The 30,000 tonne Lusitania had sailed from New York on 1/5/1915. She carried 1,257 passengers, including 128 Americans; 702 crew; and an estimated 3 stowaways. Her cargo list, later a source of controversy, included small arms cartridges, uncharged shrapnel shells, cheese, furs, and, oddly, 205 barrels of oysters. The Germans later claimed the �oysters� were actually heavy munitions whose explosion had doomed the ship. However there was no second explosion after the torpedo hit; there were no heavy munitions and rifle rounds burned harmlessly, like firecrackers, and did not explode. Cunard had shut down the Lusitania�s fourth boiler room to save on coal but even at the reduced maximum speed of 21 knots it was reckoned she could outrun any German U-boat. Passengers ignored warnings from the German Embassy published in the New York Press not to cross the Atlantic under a belligerent flag, and the lifeboat drills on board were palpably inadequate. The Lusitania had plenty of lifeboats but most were unlaunchable because the ship listed heavily as water poured through lower deck portholes, opened for air despite orders to close them.She sank within 18 minutes of being hit. The sinking of the Lusitania deepened American hostility towards Germany but President Woodrow Wilson�s administration was split between the hawks and doves, and it was another 2 years before America entered the war.

6/5/1915, Thursday (-10,960) Orson Wells, American actor and film director, was born,

5/5/1915, Wednesday (-10,861) Ronald Poulton, rugby player, died (born 12/9/1889).

4/5/1915, Tuesday (-10,962) Italy denounced the Triple Alliance (Italy, Germany, Austro-Hungary). This was a preparatory move to her entering the War on the Allied side on 23/5/1915.

3/5/1915, Monday (-10,963) The war was costing Britain �2 million per day.

2/5/1915, Sunday (-10,964) German forces broke through on the Eastern Front at Gorlice.

1/5/1915, Saturday (-10,965) (1) Widespread resentment by British workers at alcohol sales restrictions.

(2) The US ship Gulflight was sunk without warning by a German U-boat.

(3) The Austrian commander Mackensen reversed earlier weaknesses of the Austrian Army, which in Spring 1915 was on the verge of collapse after repeated Russian attacks.At Dunajec-San, he forced the Russians to retreat.


30/4/1915. Friday (-10,966) (1) Germany invaded the Russian Baltic provinces.

(2) Zeppelin air raids on Ipswich and Bury St Edmunds.

27/4/1915, Tuesday (-10,969)

26/4/1915. Monday (-10,970) Allied forces established themselves on the Gallipoli Peninsula, having landed the previous day, 25/4/1915. This was an attempt to take control from the Dardanelles from Turkey, and open up a supply route to Russia. The Allies hoped, against all evidence, that the landing itself would provoke a coup in Turkey and remove it from the War. Russian Jews, who saw the ottoman Empire as a barrier to a Jewish Homeland, supported the exercise. Forces landed included 27,500 British, 18,100 ANZACs, and 16,800 French. However the landing site was fully exposed to Turkish fire, and evacuation of Allied troops was the only option. Also on 25/9/1915 the Germans attacked Serbia and Allied forces had to go to Salonika to buttress Serbian resistance (see 5/10/1915). Evacuation began on 8 December 1915 and was completed by 9 January 1916. The Dardanelles expedition cost 70,700 British casualties (26,000 dead), 25,700 Australians (7,800 killed), 23,000 French (8,000 killed), 7,100 New Zealanders (2,445 killed) and 5,500 Indians (1,682 killed). However the evacuation was managed with very little loss of life.

25/4/1915. Sunday (-10,971) Italy signed a secret treaty, the Treaty of London, with Britain, France, and Russia.Italy agreed to enter the war on the Allied side within one month in return for territorial gains.Italy was to gain the Austrian provinces of Trentino, South Tyrol, Istria, Gorizia, Gradisca, and Trieste, also a large stretch of the Dalmatian coast and islands, some Albanian territory around Valona, full sovereignty over the Turkish-controlled Dodecanese Islands, the Turkish province of Adalia in Asia Minor, colonial gains in Africa, and a share of war indemnities.The Allies agreed to this because they believed that Italian intervention would soon destroy Austro-Hungary, opening the �back door to Germany�.Italy duly entered the war on 24/5/1915, but the expected breakthrough against Austria never materialised.When the Bolsheviks took over in 1917 they revealed the terms of this secret treaty, which ran totally against the ethnic-determination principles of President Wilson of the USA; he stated he did not consider the treaty terms as binding.At the Paris Peace Conference the UK and France also opposed implementation of the treaty�s terms, and Italy received far less than originally specified.This created popular resentment in Italy and was a factor in the rise of Mussolini and Fascism in Italy.

24/4/1915. Saturday (-10,972) The arrest in Constantinople (now Istanbul) of 235 Armenian academics, politicians, lawyers and journalists. Another 600 were later detained. All were sent to Anatolia, most of them slaughtered. Turkey feared they would collaborate with Russia. On this day the Ottoman Interior Minister, Talaat Pasha, gave the order for the Armenian Massacre. Many Armenians were deported to the Syrian desert to die.

23/4/1915, Friday (-10,973) Rupert Brooke, British poet, died at Lemnos.

22/4/1915. Thursday (-10,974) (1) The British began a new offensive at Ypres.

(2) The Germans began using poison gas, chlorine, against the British north of Ypres. 4,000 tons of chlorine were sent over Allied lines, killing 6,000. Many Germans were also killed whilst releasing the gas and they did not press forward, losing any advantage gained from using the gas. The new weapon was used by Britain on 25/9/1915.

21/4/1915, Wednesday (-10,975)

20/4/1915. Tuesday (-10,976) President Wilson declared the USA to be strictly neutral in the Great War.

19/4/1915, Monday (-10,977) The British captured Hill no.60.

14/4/1915. Wednesday (-10,982) (1) Zeppelin air raid on Lowestoft and Maldon, Essex.

(2) South African troops began an offensive to clear the Germans from German south-west Africa (now Namibia).See 9/7/1915.

7/4/1915, Wednesday (-10,989) Billie Holiday,US jazz singer, was born/

6/4/1915, Tuesday (-10,990) (Morals) In Britain, the King ordered a Prohibition on alcohol in all the Royal Households.

5/4/1915. Monday (-10,991) France began a broad offensive from the Meuse to the Moselle.

4/4/1915, Sunday (-10,992) Easter Sunday. Andrew Stoddart, cricketer, died.

2/4/1915, Friday (-10,994)


31/3/1915, Wednesday (10,996) Wyndham Halswelle, athlete, died (born 30/5/1882).

30/3/1915, Tuesday (-10,997) In Britain King George V offered to give up alcohol as an example to the munitions workers.

29/3/1915, Monday (-10,998) (Chemistry) Stainless Steel was patented by Harry Brearley (1871-1948), of Sheffield, UK. Such steel must contain at least 132% chromium, and also be less than 1% carbon.Nickel is also added to improve the steel.

26/3/1915, Friday (-11,001)

23/3/1915, Tuesday (-11,004) The Hungarian fortress of Przemysl fell to Russian forces.

22/3/1915, Monday (-11,005) London Underground extended the Metropolitan line, with a new station at North Harrow

21/3/1915, Sunday (-11,006) Frederick Winslow Taylor, the inventor of modern scientific time-management, died.

20/3/1915. Saturday (-11,007) German air raid on Deal, Kent.

19/3/1915, Friday (-11,008) The Defence of India Act was passed, giving the colonial government in British India powers to enforce criminal law, to curb nationalist and revolutionary activities in the country during and after World War I.

18/3/1915, Thursday (-11,009) Evelyn Pinching, champion skier, was born.

17/3/1915, Wednesday (-11,010) Yambol association football club was formed in Yambol, Bulgaria.

16/3/1915, Tuesday (-11,011) Britain�s Jockey Club decided that the War should not stop horse racing.

15/3/1915, Monday (-11,012) US soldiers under General Pershing entered Mexico to hunt down the revolutionary Pancho Villa.

14/3/1915, Sunday (-11,013) The German battle cruiser Dresden was sunk.

13/3/1915, Saturday (-11,014)

11/3/1915. Thursday (-11,016) Britain began a naval blockade of Germany.

10/3/1915, Wednesday (-11,017) Battle of Neuve-Chapelle began. By 12/3/1915 the Allies had captured the village and just4 square miles of countryside. 40,000 Allied soldiers fought, and of these there were 7,000 British and 4,200 Indian casualties; the Germans lost a similar number. This amounted to one casualty per 5,000 square feet of ground won.

1/3/1915. Monday (-11,026) Britain began blockading German ports.


27/2/1915, Saturday (-11,028) (France) In Paris, the Moulin Rouge burnt down.

26/2/1915. Friday (-11,029) Clydeside armament workers went on strike for more pay.

21/2/1915. Sunday (-11,034) German air raid on Essex.

19/2/1915 Friday (-11,036) The Dardanelles campaign began. A Franco-British fleet began shelling Turkish fortifications along the Dardanelles, to open up the strategic waterway to get munitions to Russia via the Black Sea, and deliver Russian grain to France and the UK. Spotter planes from the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal were directing the gunners by radio.

18/2/1915. Thursday (-11,037) (1) Germany�s blockade of Britain by submarine began.

(2) Shackleton�s ship Endurance became stuck in pack ice.

17/2/1915. Wednesday (-11,038) Germany captured the Polish port of Memel.

16/2/1915, Tuesday (-11,037) France began a bombardment of German forces in the Champagne area.

15/2/1915, Monday (-11,038) (Technology) Emile Hilaire Amagat, French physicist, died in Saint Satur.

11/2/1915. Thursday (-11,044) British seaplanes and airplanes bombarded Bruges and Ostend.

7/2/1915-15/2/1915. Battle of the Masurian Lakes. The Russian 10th Army was defeated by the Germans under Otto Von Below.

5/2/1915, Friday (-11,050) (Atomic) Robert Hofstadter was born in New York City, USA. In 1961 he determined the internal structure of the proton and neutron.

4/2/1915, Thursday (-11,051) (1) British war casualties now stood at 104,000 dead.

(2) Germany began using submarines in warfare to blockade Britain.

(3) The Sarajevo conspirators were executed in Bosnia.

3/2/1915, Wednesday (-11,052) Richard Bales, composer, was born.

2/2/1915. Tuesday (-11,053) The Turks were defeated on the Suez Canal.

1/2/1915, Monday (-11,054) British passport holders were required to carry photographs, not just written descriptions.


31/1/1915, Sunday (-11,055) Battle of Bolimov; German forces attacked Russian positions near the Polish village of Bolimov, using poison gas.

30/1/1915, Saturday (-11,056) John Profumo, British Cabinet Minister involved in the Profumo Affair with Christine Keeler and a Russian attach�, was born.

28/1/1915, Thursday (-11,058) The US Coastguard was founded at Washington DC.

25/1/1915. Monday (-11,061) (1) In Canada, the Northern Railway from Lake Superior to the Pacific Coast was completed.

(2) Mussolini formed the Fasci d�Azione Rivoluzionara in Milan.

24/1/1915. Sunday (-11,062) (1) 1,000 British suffragettes arrived in France to fill factory jobs vacated by men away on the Front, see 10/11/1915.

(2) Admiral Hipper was intercepted by the British navy off Dogger Bank after bombardment of UK coastal towns. The superior British force sank the German battleship, Blucher. After this German naval raids on UK coastal towns ceased.

23/1/1915, Saturday (-11,063) Heavy fighting began in the Carpathian Mountains between Russian and Austro-Hungarian forces. This continued until mid-April.

18/1/1915. Monday (-11,068) Japan made �21 Demands� on China, which if accepted would virtually give Japan sovereignty over China.

15/1/1915. Friday (-11,071) German Zeppelin airships dropped bombs on villages in Norfolk, killing five people. Great Yarmouth was bombed.

13/1/1915. Wednesday (-11,073) (1) South African troops occupied Swakopmund in German South West Africa.

(2) An earthquake killed 20,000 in central Italy.

12/1/1915. Tuesday (-11,074) The US Congress defeated a Bill for women's suffrage.

11/1/1915, Monday (-11,075) Cyril Holmes, athlete, was born.

10/1/1915, Sunday (-11,076)

9/1/1915, Saturday (-11,077) Mexico and the US signed a peace treaty, ending border disputes.

8/1/1915, Friday (-11,078) Heavy fighting in the Bassee Canal and Soissons area of France.

7/1/1915, Thursday (-11,079) Heavy rain caused floods in the Thames Valley, turning Windsor Castle into an island.

5/1/1915, Tuesday (-11,081)

3/1/1915, Sunday (-11,083) Tear gas was used in warfare for the first time; by Germany against the Russians, in Poland.

2/1/1915, Saturday (-11,084) |John Hope Franklin, US historian, was born.

1/1/1915, Friday (-11,085) The Ilford rail crash in Essex, England killed ten people and injured another 500 passengers.


31/12/1914, Thursday (-11,086) At the end of 1914, France alone had seen 900,000 of its citizens killed or hospitalised.

30/12/1914, Wednesday (-31,087) First Battle of Champagne. As the French launched a new assault, the German counterattacked their right flank and took out three lines of defence and inflicted major casualties.

29/12/1914, Tuesday (-11,088) The first Zeppelin appeared over the British coast. The Daily Mail newspaper cost � d.

28/12/1914, Monday (-11,089) (Railways) South Australian Railways opened the Peebinga railway line from Karoonda to Peebinga, South Australia, Australia.

27/12/1914, Sunday (-11,090) (Chemistry) Charles Martin Hall, US chemist, died in Daytona Beach, Florida.

26/12/1914, Saturday (-11,091) The German Government took control of food supplies and distribution.

25/12/1914. Friday (-11,092) In World War One, an informal truce between the combatants ended at midnight.

24/12/1914. Thursday (-11,093) The first air raid on Britain took place (see 1/11/1911). A single bomb fell in the grounds of St James Priory, Dover.

22/12/1914, Tuesday (-11,095) Turkish forces made unsuccessful attacks on Russian forces in the Caucasus.

20/12/1914, Sunday (-11,097) The British Protectorate of Egypt was established, with Hussein Kamil as Sultan.

19/12/1914. Saturday (-11,098) Britain declared Egypt to be a British Protectorate, deposing the ruler, Khedive Abbas II, who had sided with Germany�s ally, Turkey. Abbas II, born 14/7/1874, who succeeded his father on 8/1/1892, died in Geneva on 21/12/1944.

18/12/1914, Friday (-11,099)

17/12/1914. Thursday (-11,100) Anzac (Australia, New Zealand, army corps) troops occupied Samoa and German New Guinea.

16/12/1914. Wednesday (-11,101) The German navy bombarded Hartlepool, Scarborough, and Whitby with over 1,000 shells, killing 102.

14/12/1914, Monday (-11,103) Serbian forces recaptured Belgrade.

12/12/1914Saturday (-11,105) The New York Stock Exchange reopened, for the first time since World war One began. It was hoped to raise money for the war effort, but stock values plummeted.

11/12/1914, Friday (-11,106) The Royal Flying Corps adopted the roundel now used by the RAF.

10/12/1914, Thursday (-11,107)

9/12/1914, Wednesday (-11,108) The first warship built as an aircraft carrier was commissioned. HMS Ark Royal, originally designed as a merchant ship, but acquired by The Admiralty whilst under construction at Blyth, was launched in September 1914.

8/12/1914. Tuesday (-11,109) Battle of the Falklands.Six of the seven ships in the German Pacific Squadron were sunk.Admiral Sturdee�s victory over Vice-Admiral von Spee ended German naval activity in the southern Atlantic and Pacific oceans, allowing the British navy to concentrate on home waters and the Mediterranean for the remainder of World War One.

7/12/1914, Monday (-11,110)

6/12/1914. Sunday (-11,111) The Germans captured Lodz, Poland.

5/12/1914, Saturday (-11,112) The Austrians defeated the Russians at Limanova, but failed to break the Russian lines at Krakow.

4/12/1994, Friday (-11,113)

2/12/1914, Wednesday (-11,115) The Austrians took Belgrade from Serbia.

1/12/1914, Tuesday (-11,116) The British Government suppressed anti-enlistment newspapers in Dublin.


30/11/1914, Monday (-11,117) The Great War was spreading from the Franco-German border to encompass the world. There was fighting in the Dardanelles region of Turkey, Britain has occupied Cyprus, Russia invaded Armenia and naval battles off Sumatra. There were also conflicts in various parts of Africa between German and Allied colonies.

29/11/1914, Sunday (-11,118) Japanese forces seized German territory at Kiaochow, China, thereby winning favour with the Allies.However Japan then went on to try and establish a virtual protectorate over most of China.

28/11/1914, Saturday (-11,119) Vincent Fago, American comic book artist, was born.

27/11/1914, Friday (-11,120) The UK passed the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA), enabling the government to requisition factories and censor the press. Further restrictions were imposed as the War progressed.

(2) Britain�s first policewoman went on duty, on completion of her training, in Grantham, Lincolnshire.

26/11/1914, Thursday (-11,121) At Sheerness, Kent, the HMS Bulwark exploded, killing 700 people.

25/11/1914, Wednesday (-11,122) Joe Di Maggio, US baseball player who married Marilyn Monroe, was born.

24/11/1914, Tuesday (-11,123) Lynne Chadwick, English sculptor, was born.

23/11/1914. Monday (-11,124) The British navy bombarded Zeebrugge.

22/11/1914, Sunday (-11,125) Peter Townsend, British Air Force officer in World War Two, was born.

21/11/1914. Saturday (-11,126) Indian troops occupied the port of Basra, Persia.

20/11/1914, Friday (-11,127) Emilio Pucci, Italian fashion designer, was born in Naples, Italy.

19/11/1914, Thursday (-11,128) The Battle of Kolubara. Austro-Hungarian forces gained a foothold in Serbia as the opposing armies fell back towards Belgrade.

18/11/1914, Wednesday (-11,129) On the eastern front, the Germans broke the Russian line at Kutno.

17/11/1914, Tuesday (-11,130) Lloyd George announced that Income tax would double in 1915 to pay for the war, then costing Britain �1 million per day.

16/11/1914, Monday (-11,131) The University of Santo Domingo was established in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

15/11/1914, Sunday (-11,132) Peter Lunn, skiing champion, was born.

14/11/1914. Saturday (-11,133) (1) The Sultan of Turkey declared a Jihad, or Holy War, against the Allies.

(2) Lord Roberts, Boer War commander, died whilst visiting British troops in the field in France.

13/11/1914. Friday (-11,134) (1) General Botha�s forces crushed the rebellion of General Christaan de Wet in the Orange Free State, opening the way to march on the German colonists of South West Africa.

(2) The brassiere was patented in the USA by heiress Mary Phelps Jacob.

12/11/1914, Thursday (-11,135) Peter Whitehead, English racing car driver, was born (died 1958).

11/11/1914, Wednesday (-11,136) Howard Fast, US author, was born in New York City.

10/11/1914, Tuesday (-11,137) The Australian cruiser Sydney sank the German cruiser Emden off Sumatra. This cleared the Indian Ocean of German forces.

9/11/1914, Monday (-11,138) Jean-Baptiste Faure, French opera singer, died.

8/11/1914, Sunday (-11,139) Admiral Sturdee sank a German squadron off the Falklands.

7/11/1914. Saturday (-11,140) The German fortified city of Qingdao (Tsingtao)in China surrendered to the Japanese, see 27/8/1914.

6/11/1914, Friday (-11,141) British troops landed at Fao (now Iraq) and captured the Turkish fort there.

5/11/1914. Thursday (-11,142) Following Russia, Britain and France declared war on the Ottoman Empire. Britain annexed Cyprus. However the Dardanelles were now closed to Allied shipping, and it was vital to be able to get supplies to support Russia. The ports of Archangel and Vladivostock were ice-bound, so an attempt was made to seize the Dardanelles by the Gallipoli campaign (see 25/4/1915).

4/11/1914. Wednesday (-11,143) (1) At the Ritz-Carlton hotel, New York, Edna Chase of Vogue magazine organised the first catwalk fashion show.

(2) The Russians declared war on Turkey and invaded Armenia, part of the Ottoman Empire.

3/11/1914. Tuesday (-11,144) (1) German ships bombarded Yarmouth.

(2) Britain declared the North Sea to be a military area, dangerous to merchant shipping, and mined it. Germany responded on 4/2/1915 by making a similar declaration and also mining, the area of the English Channel and waters around Ireland. Germany began a submarine blockade of Britain. On 1/3/1915 Britain announced that all ships presumed to be carrying goods of enemy origin, destination or ownership would be seized, regardless of ownership or destination of the ship.

2/11/1914, Monday (-11,145) Russia declared war on Turkey.

1/11/1914. Sunday (-11,146) The British fleet was defeated at the Battle of Coronel, Chile.


31/10/1914, Saturday (-11,147) The front line in the Great War had stabilised into trench warfare, stretching from the Swiss border to the English Channel (see 30/9/1914).Fierce battles raged for front-line towns such as Ypres, and Paris was bombed by Zeppelins.

30/10/1914, Friday (-11,148) The British hospital ship Rohilla foundered on rocks near Whitby; 40 were drowned.

29/10/1914, Thursday (-11,149) (1) (Germany, Turkey) Turkish warships bombarded the Russian ports of Sevastopol, Odessa and Novorossiysk. In Turkey the Young Turks, in 1908, had had two aims; to pull together the disintegrating remains of the Ottoman Empire, and to recover land lost to Russia. However they found the Turkish Treasury in debt to European banks by the then-colossal sum of �200 million. They sought an alliance with a wealthy European nation that could help rebuild the Turkish economy. Britain, which had helped found Turkey�s National Bank in 1908, was approached, as an enemy of Germany with whom the former Turkish Sultan Abdul Hamid had been friendly. Britain declined the approach, believing that an alliance with Turkey would unite Europe against it. Turkey again approached Britain during the Balkan War (1912-13) and was again rebuffed. In July 1914 France also rejected overtures by Turkey. Moreover on 1/8/1914 Winston Churchill ordered the requisition of two warships being built in Britain for the Turkish Navy. Meanwhile the German General Otto Liman von Sanders was assisting the modernisation of the Turkish Army. Germany hoped that Turkey, possibly allied with Bulgaria, would threaten Russia without direct German involvement. The Young Turk, Ismail Enver Pasha, Minister for War, approached the German Ambassador in Constantinopleon 22/7/1914 to propose a formal alliance. The German Ambassador, Freiherr von Wangenheim, declined; Germany assessed that an alliance with Turkey would exacerbate tensions with Russia, and therefore be of advantage to Britain and France, but be of no gain to Germany because of the weak state of the Turkish Army, and the parlous state of the Turkish economy that retarded the development of the Turkish military. However Kaiser Wilhelm II, Emperor of Germany, on learning of Enver�s approach, overruled Wangenheim and instructed Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann to open negotiations with Turkey. A secret treaty of alliance between Germany and Turkey was signed on 2/8/1914, essentially a mutual guarantee of defence against, only, any attack by Russia. The secrecy allowed Enver to hedge his bets and only intervene against Russia when it suited him. Therefore although Germany had mobilised against Russia on 1/8/1914 Enver did not attack immediately. German Admiral Wilhelm von Souchon sailed two German ships, the SMS Goeben and SMS Breslau, past British ships in the Mediterranean just hours before Britain declared war on Germany, on 4/8/1914. Britain chased these ships but did not prevent their arrival at Constantinople, where they became part of the Turkish navy, replacing the ships confiscated by Britain. They were renamed the Yavuz Sultan Selim and the Midilli, and Turkey also received 20 million marks in gold by train from Germany, to assist in updating Turkish military capabilities. Once the gold was received, and Turkey had witnessed German successes against the Russians in East Prussia (following initial defeats inflicted on Germany at Tannenberg and the Marne) the Yavuz Sultan Selim and the Midilli, complete with German crews, bombarded the Russian ports. Churchill was not too perturbed by Turkey�s entry into the Great War on the German side. Almost all the Turkish Army�s 43 divisions were only on peacetime strengths of 4,000 men, not the wartime basis of 10,000. The Turkish divisions based in Mesopotamia (now Iraq), also Arabia and the Levant, were manned by local recruits of dubious loyalty to the Ottoman Empire. The British enjoyed easy victories against these divisions in the Basra area, where the local oilfields were secured. However later in the war the Young Turks reinforced the fighting capabilities of the army, giving Britain a harder battle.

(2) Near Nieuport, Netherlands, the Yser area was flooded tactically.

28/10/1914. Wednesday (-11,150) (1) Turkey attacked Russian ports in the Black Sea. Turkey had just been delivered two German battleships, the Goeben and Breslau, as replacements for two British battleships which had just been completed in British shipyards but which the British now refused to deliver. Renamed the Jawus and the Midilli, under Admiral Souchon, these ships bombarded Odessa, Sebastopol, and Feodorian. This provoked a declaration of war by Russia against Turkey on 4/11/1919 (qv); also by Britain and France on 5/11/1914.

(2) Jonas Salk, US bacteriologistwho discovered the anti-poliomyelitis vaccine, was born in New York City, to Polish-Jewish immigrant parents.

27/10/1914, Tuesday (-11,151) Dylan Marlais Thomas, Welsh poet, was born in Swansea, the son of a schoolmaster.

22/10/1914. Thursday (-11,156) Britain ordered all foreign ships out of the Suez Canal.

20/10/1914, Tuesday (-11,158) US birth control promoter Margaret Sanger was forced to flee to Canada.

17/10/1914. Saturday (-11,161) German U-boats raided Scapa Flow, the main base of the British Fleet.Four German destroyers were sunk.

15/10/1914. Thursday (-11,163) The Germans, having captured Ghent and Bruges, took Ostend.

14/10/1914. Wednesday (-11,164) British and French troops occupied Ypres. The Belgian government fled to France. Canadian troops arrived in Britain.

13/10/1914, Tuesday (-11,165) The Boers in South Africa, under Christian de Wet, rebelled against British rule

12/10/1914, Monday (-11,166) The German Army entered Lille, after several days bombardment.

11/10/1914. Sunday (-11,167) Paris was bombed.

10/10/1914. Saturday (-11,168) The Germans took Antwerp.

9/10/1914, Friday (-11,169) The Germans took Ghent.

6/10/1914, Tuesday (-11,172) Thor Heyerdahl, Norwegian adventurer, leader of the Kon Tiki expedition, was born in Larvik.

4/10/1914, Sunday (-11,174) The first bomb was dropped on London.

3/10/1914, Saturday (-11,175) The first national flag day was held in England, in aid of the Belgian Relief Fund.

2/10/1914, Friday (-11,176)

1/10/1914. Thursday (-11,177) Turkey closed the Dardanelles.


30/9/1914, Wednesday (-11,178) Paris was saved from occupation as German forces were driven back (see 31/8/1914). However |British losses were heavy and Germany still occupied a strip of northern France, along with almost the whole of Belgium. and all of The Netherlands. See 31/10/1914.

29/9/1914, Tuesday (-11,179)

28/9/1914. Monday (-11,180) German guns began bombarding Antwerp. Antwerp capitulated on 10/10/1914.

27/9/1914. Sunday (-11,181) The Russians invaded Hungary.

26/9/1914. Saturday (-11,182) The Australians took the German port of Friedrich Wilhelmshafen in German New Guinea.

25/9/1914, Friday (-11,183)

24/9/1914, Thursday (-11,184) First use of radio in an aircraft in warfare, during the First Battle of the Aisne.

23/9/1914. Wednesday (-11,185) (1) The British suffered heavy casualties at Mons, and retreated.

(2) British aviators bombed the Zeppelin shed at Dusseldorf.

22/9/1914. Tuesday (-11,186) Three British cruisers, Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy, were torpedoed by a German submarine, 1,500 were killed.

20/9/1914, Sunday (-11,188) Germany bombarded Rheims Cathedral.

18/9/1914, Friday (-11,190) In Britain, the Irish Home Rule Bill received Royal Assent. However it was suspended the same day due to the War.

17/9/1914, Thursday (-11,191) The �race to the sea� between Allied and German forces trying to outflank each other; this established the Western Front from the North Sea to Switzerland.

16/9/1914, Wednesday (-11,192) Trench warfare began on the Aisne salient.

15/9/1914, Tuesday (-11,193)

14/9/1914. Monday (-11,194) (1) The Allies drove back the Germans on the Marne, relieving the threat to Paris. The Germans retreated to Verdun.

(2) The Russians were forced to retreat from East Prussia, after the battle of the Masurian Lakes.

13/9/1914, Sunday (-11,195) The Battle of the Aisne began. It lasted until 28/9/1914.

11/9/1914, Friday (-11,197)

10/9/1914, Thursday (-11,198) South Africa confirmed its loyalty to Britain in the developing European War.

9/9/1914, Wednesday (-11,199) The first Battle of the Marne ended when the German advance on Paris under Von Moltke was halted by the British Expeditionary Force and the French under Joffre and Foch.This marked Germany�s furthest penetration into France.

8/9/1914, Tuesday (-11,200) The French fortress of Maubeuge fell to the Germans.

7/9/1914, Monday (-11,201) (Weather) James Alfred van Allen was born in Mount Pleasant, Indiana. In 1952 he developed the idea of a balloon launched from a rocket, to study the Earth�s upper atmosphere.

6/9/1914. Sunday (-11,202) Battle of the Marne began. Advances by British and French forces.The Germans retreated to Verdun.

5/9/1914. Saturday (-11,203) The Germans took Rheims.

4/9/1914. Friday (-11,204) Britain, France, and Russia agreed not to make separate peaces.

3/9/1914. Thursday (-11,205) (1) A new Pope, Benedict XV, was elected in Rome.

(2) Russian forces took Lvov.

2/9/1914. Wednesday (-11,206) (1) The Ottoman Empire mobilised its forces.

(2) The Japanese began landing forces at Lungkow, 150 miles north of Tsingtao, see 27/8/1914.

1/9/1914, Tuesday (-11,207) The last passenger pigeon, a bird which once dominated the skies of America, became extinct as the last individual died in Cincinnati Zoo.


31/8/1914. Monday (-11,208) (1) The German General Hindenburg had reversed earlier Russian successes (see 24/8/1914), surrounding and beating the Russians under General Samsonov, at the Battle of Tannenburg, taking 100,000 Russians prisoner.In the following week, Russian General Rennenkampf was forced to retreat and east Prussia was cleared of Russian forces. In France the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) initially held back the German advance but the French retreated, leaving the flank of the BEF exposed. The allies retreated towards Paris, but then halted the German forces before they occupied Paris. See 30/9/1914.

(2) St Petersburg was renamed Petrograd.

30/8/1914. Sunday (-11,209) (1) The Germans took Amiens.

(2) A New Zealand expeditionary force occupied the former German colony of Samoa.

29/8/1914, Saturday (-11,210) Battle of Guise, northern France.

28/8/1914. Friday (-11,211) (1) The Germans began besieging Antwerp (see 18/8/1914), capturing it on 10/10/1914.

(2) The British sank three German cruisers and two destroyers off Heligoland Bight, opening the war at sea.

26-31/8/1914. Germany defeated Russia at the Battle of Tannenberg.

27/8/1914, Thursday (-11,212) Japanese forces began a blockade of Kiaochow Bay, China, to force the surrender of the German stronghold of the town of Tsingtao there.See 2/9/1914, 7/11/1914.

26/8/1914, Wednesday (-11,213) (1) The German cruiser Magdeburg ran aground in the Baltic whilst on a reconnaissance mission. Unable to free her, the captain, Richard Habenicht, decided to scuttle his ship; however the appearance of two Russian cruisers prompted the German crew to set off the explosives prematurely. Habenicht and 57 of his crew were captured. Significantly also captured were German code books; Germany did not realise this had happened and carried on using the same codes for radio messages, enabling the Allies to track German warship movements.

(2) The Germans occupied Cambrai. See 8/10/1918.

25/8/1914, Tuesday (-11,214) The Germans sacked Louvain.

24/8/1914. Monday (-11,215) Belgian forces attacked the rear of the German right flank, to ease the pressure on the British and French left flank. This campaign halted on 25/8/1914 when news arrived of the Franco-British retreat into France, but the Belgian offensive had tied down some German forces. On learning, on 7/9/1914, that some of these forces were to be sent to France, the Belgians launched a fresh offensive on 9/9/1914, a crucial day in the Battle of the Marne.Meanwhile the Russians under General Alexander Samsonov and General Paul Rennenkampf were advancing into East Prussia, driving back a numerically inferior German force.See 31/8/1914.

23/8/1914. Sunday (-11,216) (1) Battle of Mons, in Belgium near the French frontier. The heavily outnumbered British Expeditionary Force under Sir John French, in its first important battle, was forced to retreat after bitter fighting with Germany.This retreat continued until the Marne, where the tide turned against Germany.

(2) Japan declared war on Germany. This was due to the treaty of mutual defence concluded between Japan and the UK on 30/1/1902. The Germans had not responded to an ultimatum by Japan issued 14/8/1914.See 17/8/1923.

22/8/1914, Saturday (-11,217) The Germans took Namur. The fortress of Namur had been expected to hold out for several months;its �impregnable� defences were shattered by new German high explosives.

21/8/1914. Friday (-11,218) (1) German atrocities were committed in Belgium to deter Belgian civilian resistance. On 21-22 August 384 Belgian civilians were shot in the market square at Tamines, and from 24 to 30 August the Cathedral city of Louvain was given to looting and burning by German troops.

(2) The Germans took Brussels. See 18/11/1918. France and Russia agreed that on Germany�s defeat an independent Poland would be restored, France would recover Alsace Lorraine and Denmark would recover Schleswig-Holstein from Germany, Bohemia would have independence from Austro-Hungary, and all German colonies would be confiscated.

20/8/1914. Thursday (-11,219) (1) The German army was defeated by the Russians at Grumbinnen; Russian forces had mobilised faster than anticipated.

(2) In Rome, Pope Pius X died.

(3) French forces made headway a short distance into Germany but were turned back this day in battles at Mulhouse and Strasbourg.

19/8/1914, Wednesday (-11,220) First use of aerial reconnaissance by Britain in warfare. Captain Philip Joubert de la Ferte and Lt Gilbert Mapplebeck flew over Nivelle and Genappe, to ascertain the positions of Belgian troops and German cavalry.

18/8/1914. Tuesday (-11,221) The Belgian government left Brussels for Antwerp. See 28/8/1914.

17/8/1914. Monday (-11,222) A British Expeditionary Force of 70,000 men landed in France.

16/8/1914 Sunday (-11,223) Liege, Belgium, fell to the Germans.The Battle of Liege had begun on 4/8/1914 and the resistance here had seriously delayed the German occupation of Belgium.

15/8/1914, Saturday (-11,224) (1) Russia invaded East Prussia.

(2) The 40-mile long Panama Canal opened; construction work had begun on 4/7/1914. The first ship to pass through the canal, this day, was the SS Ancon. Ships passed through three locks 30 metres wide and 300 metres long, rising to 85 feet above sea level at Lake Gatun, which had been created by damming a river, before descending through more locks. Since 1914 over one million ships have used the Canal, saving 3,000 miles and eight days of travel around Cape Horn. In 2013 12,036 vessels, carrying 319 million tonnes of cargo, transited the Canal, paying US$ 1,800 million in tolls. 86.7 million tons of this cargo originated from the USA, and 49.8 million tons was destined for the USA. In 2013 some 3% of world maritime cargo, worth US$ 270 billion (UK� 160 million at 2014 exchange rates). However many 21st century cargo ships are too big for the Canal, and in 2006 the Panama Canal Authority announced expansion plans, costed at US$ 3,200 million, due for completion in 2016.

14/8/1914, Friday (-11,225) Japan demanded that Germany withdraw warships from the China and Japan region by15/9/1914, see 23/9/1914.

13/8/1914, Thursday (-11,226) (Mexico) In Mexico, interim president Francisco S. Carvajal officially resigned from office to make way for the inauguration of Venustiano Carranza.

12/8/1914. Wednesday (-11,227) Britain and France declared war on Austria.

11/8/1914. Tuesday (-11,228) Young men in Britain formed long queues outside army recruiting offices, anxious not to miss the war, which was expected to be over by Christmas. Farm boys, city workers, peers, and dustmen left their jobs �to serve King and country�. Schoolboys gave false ages and friends join up together to fight together on the front. War was seen not only as a patriotic duty but as a break from a humdrum existence. However Sir Edward Grey, the Foreign Secretary, was more realistic. He said �the lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime�.

10/8/1914, Monday (-11,229) Olympia was used as a detention centre for 300 German-born citizens under the wide emergency powers of the Defence of the Realm Act.

9/8/1914. Sunday (-11,230) The first British troops arrived in France. The British Expeditionary force was landed from 9th to 17th August at Boulogne.

8/8/1914. Saturday (-11,231) German troops entered Liege, Belgium.

7/8/1914. Friday (-11,232) (1) The French counter offensive began. French troops entered the upper Alsace, partly for political effect and partly to distract from the main French goal of destroying a German base at Basle and the Rhine bridges below this. By 19/8/1914 this French force reached the Rhine.

(2) Britain issued ten shilling and �1 notes.

6/8/1914. Thursday (-11,233) (1) A major deployment of German troops westwards began. Between 1870 and 1914 the number of double German railway lines running towards her western frontier had been raised from 9 to 13, and all German railway development required approval from the Chief of Staff. Now, 550 trains a day crossed the Rhine, westwards, and by 12/8/1914 seven German armies of a total of 1.5 million men were fully supplied. The first British casualties of the War occurred when the Royal Navy cruiser HMS Amphion was damaged by mines in the North Sea and 150 men died as she sank.

(2) Austro-Hungary declared war on Russia. Serbia declared war on Germany.

5/8/1914. Wednesday (-11,234) The first electric traffic light signals to control road traffic were installed in Cleveland, Ohio.

4/8/1914. Tuesday (-11,235) Britain declared war on Germany for violating the Treaty of London. President Wilson declared the USA neutral. That morning, Germany began the invasion of Belgium (see 2/8/1914, and 6/8/1914). The Austrian ultimatum to Serbia brought Russia in as Serbia�s ally, and Germany entered as Austria�s ally. Britain might well have stayed neutral had Germany not invaded Belgium in an attempt to outflank France. Germany began mining Danish waters and requested Denmark to mine the Great Belt. Denmark, believing Germany would mine it anyway, said it would do so. Britain believed the war would be over by Christmas.

3/8/1914. Monday (-11,236) (1) Germany declared war on France, after false accusations of French air raids on Nuremberg. Germany had sought assurances that France would not intervene in a Russo-German war, but France merely said it would �act in its own interests�. Germany was seeking control over Belgium and the French coast from Dunkirk to Boulogne, cession by France to Germany of the Briey-Longwy iron basin and the fortress of Belfort, and German control of the French and Belgian colonies in Africa. France had fewer fighting men, with a total population of 40 million against 65 million Germans. However Russian and French forces combined were bigger than Germany plus Austria; Germany could, though, bank on Russia being slow to mobilise.

(2) Britain warned Germany it would honour the 1839 Treaty of London guaranteeing Belgian neutrality.

2/8/1914. Sunday (-11,237) (1) Britain mobilised the Royal Navy after Germany declared war on Russia.. The British Cabinet had finally agreed that a German presence in French Channel ports could not be tolerated, and so France must be helped against Germany (see 9/8/1914), although at the end of July most of the Cabinet had been for non-intervention in Europe.

(2) Belgium had failed to guarantee German troops free passage across its territory, as demanded by a German ultimatum delivered on the evening of 2/8/1914; Germany occupied Luxembourg, and invaded Belgium 2 days later, on 4/8/1914. Russian troops crossed into East Prussia.

1/8/1914. Saturday (-11,238) Kaiser Wilhelm II declared war on his cousin Czar Nicholas II. Italy declared herself neutral. France ordered the mobilisation of the army, but as a last-minute gesture had withdrawn its forces to 10 km behind the frontier.Denmark declared itself neutral, and mobilised an emergency force of 54,000 men.


31/7/1914. Friday (-11,239) (1) Germany ordered a general mobilisation of the army, rejecting Britain�s offer of mediation in the Austro-Serbian crisis as �insolence�.

(2) The New York stock exchange closed with the outbreak of World War One.

30/7/1914. Thursday (-11,240) (1) The Czar of Russia ordered general mobilisation of the army.

(2) The British Government shelved plans for Irish Home Rule, as the threat of European war loomed.

(3) European stockmarkets began to panic as war loomed.

29/7/1914, Wednesday (-11,241) (1) Russia, under Tsar Nicholas II, ordered a limited mobilisation of its 1.2 million strong army against Austria. However this move reassured Serbia in its resistance, and produced a German mobilisation.

(2) The first test call was made on the new transcontinental telephone line between New York and San Francisco.

28/7/1914. Tuesday (-11,242) Austria declared war on Serbia. See 23/7/1914. Belgrade was bombarded by Austria on 29/7/1914, the first engagement of World War One. The Austrians took Belgrade on 30/7/1914, and Russia began to mobilise. The Serbs initially drove back the invading Austrians and themselves entered southern Hungary in the autumn of 1914. Russia attacked Austria and made advances against the Austrians in southern Galicia. France, as the ally of Russia, was also drawn in. Germany moved to help Austria and in early 1915 drove the Russians out of southern Galicia. Later in 1915 the Germans overran Serbia. On 9/10/1915 Belgrade fell to the Germans. Italy declared war on Austria on 23/5/1915, and here too the Germans were needed to help Austria against Italy.

27/7/1914, Monday (-11,243) (Ethiopia) Amha Selassie, last Emperor of Ethiopia, was born in Harar, Ethiopia (died 1997)

26/7/1914. Sunday (-11,244) Serbia mobilised its army. Meanwhile in view of the deteriorating international situation, the British Admiralty ordered the Fleet, which had assembled at Portland for review, not to disperse. On 29/7/1914 the Fleet was able to set sail for the North Sea, giving Britain a vital dominance there for the duration of the War.

25/7/1914, Saturday (-11,245) 66 year old WG Grace batted for the last time in a competitive match, scoring 69 not out.

24/7/1914. Friday (-11,246) The Russian Council of Ministers began plans for partial mobilisation of the army.

23/7/1914. Thursday (-11,247) (Germany, East Europe) Austria determined that the government of Serbia was involved in the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand on 28/6/1914, and sent an ultimatum to the President of Serbia, Narodna Odbrana, drafted so as to prepare for war with Serbia. The terms were designed to be too humiliating for Serbia to accept. In fact Serbia accepted most of the terms, but insisted that an Austro-Serbian judicial enquiry into the assassination would be subject to Serbian law, and Austria rejected this condition. See 28/7/1914. Austria�s real issue with Serbia was that it blocked potential Austrian territorial expansion southwards into the Balkans, to give Austria domination of the Aegean Sea,

22/7/1914, Wednesday (-11,248) In Europe the financial press began to realise a major war might be starting. The first symptom of crisis was a rise in insurance rates for shipping.

15/7/1914, Wednesday (-11,255) President Huerta of Mexico fled the country as the US invaded.

8/7/1914, Wednesday (-11,262) The UK Government accepted the Lords� amendment to the Home Rule Bill (for Ireland) excluding Ulster. However on 30/7/1914 the Home Rule process was shelved due to the growing crisis in Europe. In an attempt at compromise, the Bill allows counties of Ireland to vote on staying out of Home Rule for six years, until there have been two British General elections. However this was unpopular with both Nationalists (who wanted no exemptions) and Loyalists (who wanted no time limit).

5/7/1914. Sunday (-11,265) Germany promised support to Austria.

2/7/1914, Thursday (-11,268) Joseph Chamberlain, British politician, died.

1/7/1914. Wednesday (-11,269) In 1914 Marks and Spencer took over the London Penny Bazaar Company. Cadburys chocolate bars cost 1d, 22p in 2003. It also cost 1d to post a letter anywhere in the UK, and the Manchester Guardian cost 1d.Thomas Cook, travel agents, could arrange a 15-day Grand Tour through Switzerland for �30 (�1,350 in 2003), and the middle classes could go to the Italian Riviera for two weeks for �14 (�630 in 2003). Tours of the Indian Empire cost 70 guineas (�73 10s, or �3,300 in 2003). In 1914 the General Post Office (GPO) took over the telephone exchange in Portsmouth, leaving Hull as the only area with its own exchange. Doctors at Middlesex Hospital first successfully treated cancer with radium, and Guglielmo Marconi announced he could light a lamp six miles away by means of wireless power. The Ford model T cost �220 (�10,400 in 2003); it was made at Trafford Park, Manchester, and each car took 12 hours to build.

500g of streaky bacon cost 5p.500g of beef cost 5p.250g of cheddar cheese cost 2p.250g of butter cost 6p.500g of margarine cost 3p.1 kg old potatoes cost 1p.125g of loose tea cost 2p.�� 6 eggs cost 3p.1 kg granulated sugar cost 2p.800g sliced white bread cost 1p.1 pint of pasteurised milk cost 1p.


30/6/1914, Tuesday (-11,270)

28/6/1914. Sunday (-11,272) Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, nephew of Franz Joseph, in the Bosnian town of Sarajevo. Along with his wife he was shot and killed by the terrorist Gavril Princip, thus precipitating World War One. Born in Graz, Austria, in 1863, Ferdinand was the eldest son of the Archduke Charles Louis, who was the brother of the emperor Francis Joseph. When Francis Joseph died in 1896 Ferdinand became heir to the throne but because of his bad health in the 1890s his younger brother Otto was regarded as more likely to succeed to the throne of Austria. In foreign affairs he tried, without endangering the alliance with Germany, to restore Austro � Russian understanding. In 1913 Ferdinand became Inspector General of the Army. This was just before he was assassinated in June 1914, starting World War One with Austria�s declaration of war against Serbia. The assassin�s first bullet hit the archduke in the neck; his second hit his wife, who had flung herself in front of him. She died almost immediately, he died ten minutes later.

Gavril Princip was born in June or July of 1894 in the village of Obljaj, in what is now Bosnia. His father was a postman and the Princip family was very poor, and heavily taxed by local overlords. Bosnia had been part of the Ottoman Empire until 1878 when it was taken by Austria. Gavril left Obljaj for Sarajevo in 1907, enrolling in a secondary school where he did well academically; here he joined other teenagers seeking home rule for the Slav peoples. Archduke Ferdinand wanted to balance out competing nationalisms within his empire by minimising the over-arching influence of Serbia amongst the Slavic peoples under Austrian rule. Princip wanted Bosnia to become part of a greater independent Serbia. See 23/7/1914.

Gavril himself, arrested immediately after the shooting, was just under the 20-year age limit for the death sentence under Hapsburg law; he received a 20-year prison term, to be denied food one day each month, and was chained to the wall of his cell. He died in Spring 1918, just before the end of World War One, of skeletal tuberculosis that had caused the amputation of his right arm.

26/6/1914, Friday (-11,274) Anti-British Irish tried to smuggle in an arms cache bought in Belgium into Howth bay.Police intercepted them and a gun battle ensued.

23/6/1914, Tuesday (-11,277) Britain�s Royal Air Force was formed.

22/6/1914, Monday (-11,278) Geoffrey Dyson, athlete, was born (died 5/2/1981).

18/6/1914, Thursday (-11,282)

16/6/1914, Tuesday (-11,284) Stewart Griffith, cricketer, was born (died 7/4/1993).

15/6/1914, Monday (-11,285) Yuri Andropov, Russian President, was born in the village of Nagutskyoye, north of the Caucasus Mountains.

14/6/1914, Sunday (-11,286) Severe thunderstorms in London brought ten cm of rain in three hours.

13/6/1914, Saturday (-11,287) (1) Greece annexed the islands of Chios and Lesbos from Turkey.

(2) Pancho Villa defeated President Huerta�s troops at Zacatecas.

12/6/1914, Friday (-11,288) 100 Greeks in Phocaea were massacred by Turkish irregular troops.

11/6/1914. Thursday (-11,289) Bomb outrage by suffragettes in Westminster Abbey.

10/6/1914, Wednesday (-11,290) Sylvia Pankhurst was arrested for the 8th time.

4/6/1914, Thursday (-11,296) In Britain, railway workers and miners came out on strike in support of builders and other workers already on strike.

1/6/1914, Monday (-11,299) Suffragettes burnt a church near Henley on Thames.


29/5/1914, Friday (-11,302) The Canadian Pacific liner Empress of Ireland was wrecked in the St Lawrence River, drowning over 1,000.

25/5/1914, Monday (-11,306) The Home Rule Bill was passed by the Commons, without separate provision for Ulster.

22/5/1914. Friday (-11,309) Suffragettes protested outside Buckingham Palace. Emmeline Pankhurst was arrested as she tried to present a petition.

15/5/1914, Friday (-11,316) The Commons rejected the idea of Home Rule for Scotland.

13/5/1914, Wednesday (-11,318) Reginald Foster, cricketer, died (born 16/4/1878).

10/5/1914, Sunday (-11,321) In Britain, the Liberal Unionist Party united with the Conservatives.

9/5/1914. Saturday (-11,322) Earthquake killed over 150 in Catania, Italy.

8/5/1914, Friday (-11,323) The US Congress officially recognised Mothers� Day, setting it as the second Sunday in May thereafter.

7/5/1914, Thursday (-11,324)

6/5/1914. Wednesday (-11,325) The House of Lords rejected the Women's Enfranchisement Bill.

5/5/1914, Thursday (-11,326) US actor Tyrone Power was born.

4/5/1914, Monday (-11,327) UK taxation rose. Income tax now began at 10 � d in the � on annual income over �1,000.

1/5/1914, Friday (-11,330)


26/4/1914, Sunday (-11,335) (Geology) Eduard Suess, Austrian geologist, died in Marz, Burgenland.

25/4/1914, Saturday (-11,336) The Ulster Volunteer Force took over the town of Larne for the night, cutting communications and rendering the town authorities impotent as they unloaded 25,000 rifles and 3 million rounds of ammunition from a collier ship, the Clydesdale. She also unloaded Loyalist guns at Bangor and other Ulster ports. The munitions, bought in Hamburg, had been loaded aboard the Fanny, and described as zinc plates, before being transferred to the Clydesdale at sea. The munitions unloaded at Larne were then driven away into the night in 700 cars and lorries.

22/4/1914, Wednesday (-11,339)

21/4/1914, Tuesday (-11,340) US troops occupied the Mexican city of Vera Cruz to prevent German weaponry reaching the Mexican military.

20/4/1914, Monday (-11,341) US National Guard troops shot dead 3 striking mine workers, along with 2 women and 13 children, in Colorado.

17/4/1914. Friday (-11,344) A suffragette bomb destroyed the pier at Great Yarmouth.

13/4/1914, Monday (-11,348) George Bernard Shaw�s play Pygmalion caused a stir with its use of the word �bloody�.

12/4/1914, Sunday (-11,349) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1914, Wednesday (-11,353)

4/4/1914, Saturday (-11,357) A rally in Hyde Park, London, protested against the possible use of the British army against Loyalists in Ulster.

3/4/1914, Friday (-11,358) Katherine Stammers, tennis champion, was born.

2/4/1914, Thursday (-11,359) British actor Sir Alec Guinness was born.

1/4/1914, Wednesday (-11,360) In Russia, 10,000 workers went on strike in St Petersburg.


30/3/1914. Monday (-11,362) 100,000 miners in Yorkshire went on strike.

27/3/1914. Friday (-11,365) (Medical) The first �successful� blood transfusion took place, in a hospital in Brussels. Earlier blood transfusions had met with the problem of the blood clotting, but in 1914 it was discovered that sodium citrate could be used as an anti-coagulant. This discovery led to the development of modern blood banks.

20/3/1914, Friday (-11,372) The Curragh Mutiny in Ireland. British Army Officers refused to act against Protestant paramilitaries.

16/3/1914, Monday (-11,376) Madame Caillaux, wife of the French Finance Minister, shot dead the editor of Le Figaro to protect her husband against libel.

15/3/1914, Sunday (-11,377) In the UK, the price of The Times was halved to one penny.

14/3/1914, Saturday (-11,378) Peace was concluded between Turkey and Serbia.

13/3/1914, Friday (-11,379) Saroj Dutta, Indian Communist Leader, active in the Naxalite movement in India, was born (died 1971).

12/3/1914, Thursday (-11,380) George Westinghouse, American engineer who patented the Westinghouse Railway Brake in 1868, died in New York City.

11/3/1914, Wednesday (-11,381) John Mackay, Australian explorer and founder of the city of Mackay, Queensland in Australia, died.

10/3/1914. Tuesday (-11,382) Suffragettes rioted in London. Mary Richardson, militant suffragette, attacked Velasquez�s Rokeby Venus in London�s National Gallery with a meat cleaver. See 2/7/1928. On 4/6/1913 Suffragette Emily Davison was seriously injured after throwing herself under the King�s horse, Anmer; she later died.

5/3/1914, Thursday (-11,387) An Irish Home Rule Bill was introduced in the Commons.


25/2/1914, Wednesday (-11,395) The Ulster Volunteer Force now had 100,000 members.

18/2/1914, Wednesday (-11,402) British explorer Captain Campbell Besley announced the discovery of three Inca cities in Peru.

8/2/1914, Sunday (-11,412) Paul Haefliger, artist, was born (died 3/1982).

7/2/1914, Saturday (-11,413) A report on working-class conditions in Dublin revealed that 22% of the population lived in one-room tenement buildings in extreme squalor. Many of these tenements were served by just one courtyard tap, the basement rooms enjoyed very little light or ventilation, and human excreta littered the yards and passages. 118,000 people lived in these conditions, which were said to be comparable with living conditions in Calcutta. The tuberculosis death rate was the highest of any city in the British Isles.

4/2/1914, Wednesday (-11,416)

2/2/1914, Monday (-11,418) (1) The Cub Scouts were founded at Robertsbridge, Sussex.

(2) A 900-mile railway opened between Dar-Es-Salaam and Tanganyika.

1/2/1914, Sunday (-11,419) Stanley Matthews, professional footballer, was born.


20/1/1914, Tuesday (-11,431) Roy Plomley, who created �Desert Island Discs�, was born. He began his career as a copywriter for an advertising agency then became an actor. He then became an announcer for a French commercial radio station. He was awarded the OBE in 1975.

9/1/1914, Friday (-11,442) Derek Allhusen, equestrian sportsman, was born.

8/1/1914, Thursday (-11,443) Doctors at the Middlesex Hospital successfully treated cancer with radium.

7/1/1914, Wednesday (-11,444) Patrick Weston Joyce, Irish historian, author of The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places, born 1827, died this day.

5/1/1914, Monday (-11,446)

3/1/1914. Saturday (-11,448) The suffragette Sylvia Pankhurst was re-arrested. This was under the �Cat and Mouse� Act which enabled the UK government to release suffragette hunger strikers from prison so they would not die and become martyrs, only to re-arrest them when they recovered.

2/1/1914, Friday (-11,449) The Battle of Ojinaga. An estimated 1,000 casualties were reported as the battle moved into its second day, with Pancho Villa�s troops under the command of Gen. Toribio Ortega Ram�rez slowly gaining against defending Federal troops in Ojinaga, Mexico in spite of constant artillery bombardment. Many Federal troops deserted and crossed the U.S. border into Presidio, Texas where the United States Army assisted the Red Cross in setting up a mobile hospital to treat wounded while at the same time disarming and turning away hundreds of others.

1/1/1914, Thursday (-11,450) (1) The USA�s first regular passenger air service began. Passengers were carried, on at a time, twenty miles across Tampa Bay between St Petersburg and Tampa, Florida, for US$ 5, saving a 36 mile road trip around the Bay. The service was discontinued after 4 months.

(2) Lloyd George called the arms build-up in western Europe �organised insanity�.


28/12/1913, Sunday (-11,454) (Aviation) G Legagneux, France, set a new aviation altitude record of 20,079 feet.

26/12/1913, Friday (-11,456) Frank Swift, English footballer, was born.

25/12/1913, Thursday (-11,457) In New York, a couple were arrested for kissing in the street.

24/12/1913, Wednesday (-11,458) The Italian Hall Disaster. A stampede at the Italian Hall in Calumet, Michigan killed 73 people (59 of them children) during a Christmas Eve celebration for over 400 striking miners and their families. An unknown person had yelled "Fire!" (even though there wasn't one). Speculation included the theory that an anti-union ally of mine management had yelled out the false alarm in order to disrupt the party.

23/12/1913, Tuesday (-11,459) The Federal Reserve, the Central banking system of the USA, was established.

22/12/1913, Monday (-11,460) British racing driver L.G. Hornsted set a new land speed record in excess of 200 kph at the Brooklands racing circuit in southern England.

21/12/1913. Sunday (-11,461) The world�s first crossword was published, in the New York World, compiled by Liverpool-born Arthur Wynne. The first British crossword appeared on 2/11/1924.

18/12/1913, Thursday (-11,464) (1) Lord Plymouth gave money to enable the Crystal Palace to be bought for the nation.

(2) Willy Brandt, German Chancellor, was born in Lubeck as Karl Herbert Frahm.

15/12/1913, Monday (-11,467) The world�s biggest battlecruiser, HMS Tiger, was launched in Glasgow.

14/12/1913, Sunday (-11,468) Greece formally annexed Crete.

13/12/1913, Saturday (-11,469)

12/12/1913. Friday (-11,470) Leonardo Da Vinci�s Mona Lisa which had been stolen from the Louvre three years earlier was found in a bedroom of a small hotel in Florence. An Italian, Vicenzo Peruggia, was arrested.

11/12/1913, Thursday (-11,471) Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia, died.

8/12/1913, Monday (-11,474)

5/12/1913, Friday (-11,477) Britain proscribed the import of arms into Ireland.

4/12/1913, Thursday (-11,478) Emmeline Pankhurst was arrested at Plymouth on her return from the USA.

3/12/1913, Wednesday (-11,479)

2/12/1913, Tuesday (-11,480) Esme Mackinnon, skiing champion, was born.

1/12/1913, Monday (-11,481) (Road technology) Henry Ford, instituted the automatic production line, at his car plant. He was inspired by the grain conveyors and the meat packing plants of Chicago. Workers stayed in one place whilst automobile parts and cars came to them on a conveyor belt; each worker did the same repetitive task all day. Now a car could be made every 24 seconds, and annual car production rose from 82,000 to 189,000; by 1923 2,000,000 Model T Fords were being produced each year. Unskilled workers could be employed. Problems with boredom and loss of worker autonomy caused absenteeism and high staff turnover, but Henry Ford raised wages to the high level of 5 US$ a day; this reduced annual staff turnover from 48% to 6.4%. In 1926 Ford introduced an 8-hoiur,5-day week, meaning workers had more leisure time to use their new Ford cars.


30/11/1913. Sunday (-11,482) Charlie Chaplin made his film debut in Mack Sennett�s short film Making a Living.

25/11/1913, Tuesday (-11,487) In Natal, police opened fire on demonstrators protesting against the imprisonment of Mahatma Ghandi, killing 2 and injuring 20.

22/11/1913, Saturday (-11,490) Benjamin Britten, English composer, was born in Lowestoft, Suffolk.

21/11/1913, Friday (-11,491) Death of Tokugawa Keiki, last of the Japanese shoguns who controlled the country from 1603 to 1867.

20/11/1913, Thursday (-11,492) The Zabern Incident. A German officer insulted Alsatian recruits, causing friction between France and Germany.

17/11/1913. Monday (-11,495) The steamship Louise became the first ship through the Panama Canal.

15/11/1913, Saturday (-11,497) In Mexico, rebel leader Pancho Villa took Ciudad Juarez.

13/11/1913, Thursday (-11,499) Peace was concluded between Turkey and Greece.Greece acquired Crete and the Aegean Islands, excepting Tenedos and Imbros; also the Dodecanese Islands remained under Italian occupation.

10/11/1913, Monday (-11,502) In Battersea, London, Britain�s first Black mayor was elected.

7/11/1913. Friday (-11,505) (1) Box Hill, Surrey, was formally given to the nation.

(2) Birth of the French novelist and playwright Albert Camus. He was born in Algeria and studied philosophy. He worked as an actor, teacher, and journalist; and was active in the French Resistance in World War II. But he found fame as an existentialist writer; for example his nihilist novel The Outsider, 1942, contained the line �Mother died today. Or perhaps it was yesterday. I don�t know�. He was awarded the Nobel prize for literature in 1957, and died in 1960.

6/11/1913, Thursday (-11,506) Mahatma Gandhi, leader of the Indian Passive Resistance Movement, was arrested.

5/11/1913 Wednesday (-11,507) (Russia, China) A joint declaration by Russia and China recognising the autonomy of Outer Mongolia (Mongolia) under Chinese suzerainty.

4/11/1913, Tuesday (-11,508)

3/11/1913, Monday (-11,509) The US demanded the removal of General Huerta from Mexico.

2/11/1913, Sunday (-11,510) Burt Lancaster, US actor, was born.

1/11/1913, Saturday (-11,511)


26/10/1913, Sunday (-11,517) Hugh Scanlon, British trade unionist, was born.

25/10/1913, Saturday (-11,518) The Iwate Light Railway was extended in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, serving stations Nitanai, Oyamada, and Tsuchizawa.

24/10/1913, Friday (-11,519) Mary Hide, cricketer, was born.

23/10/1913, Thursday (-11,520)

21/10/1913, Tuesday (-11,522) An attempted pro-Royalist revolution in Portugal was suppressed by the government.

20/10/1913, Monday (-11,523) Emmeline Pankhurst was released as US President Wilson reversed her deportation order.

17/10/1913. Friday (-11,526) Serbia invaded Albania.

14/10/1913, Tuesday (-11,529) (1) The world�s first oil-powered battleship, HMS Queen Elizabeth, was launched.

(2) Britain�s worst coal mining disaster occurred at Universal Colliery, Senghenydd, Glamorgan, when 439 died in a pit explosion. The blast was heard 11 miles away in Cardiff.

10/10/1913. Friday (-11,533) The Panama Canal was completed.

9/10/1913, Thursday (-11,534) Harry Bradshaw, golfer, was born.

2/10/1913, Thursday (-11,541)


30/9/1913, Tuesday (-11,543) Rudolf Diesel, German inventor of the diesel engine, died, vanishing from a steamer whilst crossing the English Channel.

29/9/1913, Monday (-11,544) The Treaty of Constantinople, an addition to the Treaty of Bucharest (see 10/8/1913), settled the frontier between Bulgaria and Turkey.

26/9/1913, Friday (-11,547)

24/9/1913, Wednesday (-11,549) Ulster Unionists blocked Irish Home Rule. Protestants in Ulster vowed to fight rather than accept rule by Catholic Dublin. The Ulster Volunteer Force held a military parade in Belfast.

23/9/1913, Tuesday (-11,550) The Ulster Unionist Council, with Sir Edward Carson as its Chairman, drew up plans for resisting government from Dublin, and to set up an alterative Belfast government.The Council voted to raise a �1 million indemnity fund to insure the Ulster Volunteer Force against loss or injury when acting on behalf of the provisional Ulster government. Meanwhile Irish nationalists were alarmed at the prospect of Ulster being excluded from Home Rule legislation.

21/9/1913. Sunday (-11,552) Turkey and Bulgaria settled their border dispute; Turkey kept Adrianople.

12/9/1913, Friday (-11,561) Jesse Owens, US athlete, was born.

2/9/1913, Tuesday (-11,571) William Shankly, footballer, was born (died 28/9/1981).

1/9/1913, Monday (-11,572) Louis Bleriot performed his first loop the loop.


31/8/1913, Sunday (-11,573) The astronomer Sir Bernard Lovell was born in Gloucestershire.He was a pioneer in the field of radio astronomy.

27/8/1913, Wednesday (-11,577) Russian Air Service Lieutenant Pyotr Nikolaevich was arrested in Kiev for looping the loop, the first aviator to accomplish this.

20/8/1913. Wednesday (-11,584) (1) Adolphe Pegond baled out of a plane at 700 feet, becoming the fist person to parachute from a plane.

(2) Harry Brearley of Sheffield cast the first stainless steel.

19/8/1913, Tuesday (-11,585)

16/8/1913, Saturday (-11,588) Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel 1977-83, was born in Russia.

15/8/1913, Friday (-11,589) Dr. Albert Schweitzer performed major surgery for the first time at the site of what would become the Albert Schweitzer Hospital at Lambar�n� in Gabon, at that time a part of French Equatorial Africa.

14/8/1913, Thursday (-11,590) In Britain, street deaths involving motor buses have risen 500% since 1907.

13/8/1913, Wednesday (-11,591) Archbishop Makarios, President of Cyprus 1960-77, was born near Paphos, the son of a farmer.

12/8/1913, Tuesday (-11,592)

11/8/1913, Monday (-11,593) Angus Wilson, English novelist, was born (died 1991).

10/8/1913. Sunday (-11,594) (Bulgaria, Greece-Turkey, Yugoslavia) The Third Treaty of Bucharest ended the Second Balkan War.Rumania gained the fertile area of Southern Dobruja, which had been Bulgarian since 1878, whilst Serbia and Greece divided Macedonia between them; againterritory that Bulgaria wanted.Greece received Salonika, a major port.Bulgaria merely received the mountainous areas of Pirin and Dospat, and two small Mediterranean ports called Dedeagach and Lagos; Bulgaria was left resentful. Turkey�s possession in Europe were limited to the area around Constantinople and Adrianople.Albania was created.See 6/9/1915.In the First World War, the losers by this Treaty (Turkey and Bulgaria) fought on the German side; the gainers (Greece, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro) fought on the Allied side.

7/8/1913. Thursday (-11,597) France passed an Army Bill, imposing three year�s compulsory military service.

3/8/1913, Sunday (-11,601) Hop ranch workers in California protested over an attempt to arrest Union leader Blackie Ford. 4 died in the riots.

2/8/1913, Saturday (-11,602) Frank Weldon, equestrian champion, was born (died 21/9/1993).


31/7/1913, Thursday (-11,604) Lloyd George said the Lords should be abolished.

22/7/1913, Tuesday (-11,613) Edinburgh Zoo opened.

19/7/1913, Saturday (-11,616) Paignton Zoo (Primley Zoological Gardens) opened.

18/7/1913, Friday (-11,617) Turkish forces recovered Adrianople from the Bulgarians, who took the city in March 1917.

16/7/1913, Wednesday (-11,619)

15/7/1913. Tuesday (-11,620) (1) The Lotschberg rail tunnel, Switzerland, 15 km long, opened.

(2) In Richmond Park, near London, a woman was arrested for wearing a split skirt.

(3) The House of Lords again rejected an Irish Home Rule Bill.

14/7/1913. Monday (-11,621) US Republican and 38th President, Gerald Ford, was born in Omaha, Nebraska, as Leslie king Junior.

13/7/1913, Sunday (-11,622)

12/7/1913, Saturday (-11,623) (1) At the Craigavon Meeting, 150,000 Ulstermen pledged to resist Home Rule by force.

(2) Turkey seized Adrianople.

11/7/1913, Friday (-11,624) (1) Romania invaded Bulgaria.

(2) Liverpool�s Gladstone Dock was opened by King George V.

10/7/1913. Thursday (-11,625) (1) Russia declared war on Bulgaria.500,000 Romanian troops crossed the frontier into Bulgaria, occupied southern Dobruja, and advanced on Sofia.

(2) A record high temperature of 56.7 C was recorded at Death Valley, California.

9/7/1913, Wednesday (-11,626)

8/7/1913, Tuesday (-11,627) (1) Sylvia Pankhurst sentenced to three months in prison.

(2) China agreed to grant independence to Mongolia.

7/7/1913, Monday (-11,628) The Home Rule Bill was passed again by the Commons.

5/7/1913, Saturday (-11,630) Alfred Lyttelton, cricketer, died (born 7/2/1857).

3/7/1913. Thursday (-11,632) Romania mobilised its troops. in response to Bulgaria�s attack on its neighbours.

1/7/1913. Tuesday (-11,634) (1) In the UK, apples cost 3d (1.25p) a pound. A Daisy vacuum cleaner cost �3 13s 6d (�3.68). Clemak safety razors cost 5s (25p). The average price of a semi-detached house in London was �600.

(2) Greece and Serbia declared war on Bulgaria.

(3) Zanzibar was incorporated into British East Africa.


29/6/1913. Sunday (-11,636) (1) Women got equal voting rights with men in Norway.

(2) Bulgaria signed a defensive pact with Austro-Hungary.

(3) (Bulgaria, Greece-Turkey, Yugoslavia) Bulgaria launched a surprise attack on Serbia and Greece, thereby starting the Second Balkan War.Bulgaria was then invaded by Romania and Turkey.See 10/8/1913.

26/6/1913, Thursday (-11,639)

24/6/1913. Tuesday (-11,641) Greece and Serbia broke their alliance with Bulgaria over a border dispute. On 29/6/1913 Greece and Serbia were attacked by Bulgaria.

23/6/1913, Monday (-11,642) Michael Foot, UK Labour Party Leader, was born.

21/6/1913, Saturday (-11,644) Georgia Bradwick, in Los Angeles USA, became the first woman to make a parachute jump.

14/6/1913, Saturday (-11,651) Funeral of Emily Davidson, suffragette, see 4/6/1913.

6/6/1913. Friday (-11,659) Germany passed a Bill for a large increase in its army.

5/6/1913, Thursday (-11,660) Peter Doherty, footballer, was born (died 6/4/1990).

4/6/1913, Wednesday (-11,661) Emily Davidson, a suffragette, born 1872, was trampled when she fell under King George V�s horse, Anner, at Tattenham Corner in the Derby Races, Epsom.She died from her inquiries on 8/6/1913, and her funeral was on 14/6/1913. She intended only to grab the horse�s reins as it approached the winning post, but her publicity stunt went tragically wrong.


30/5/1913. Friday (-11,666) (Greece-Turkey, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia) Turkey signed a peace treaty with the Balkan League (the Treaty of London), ending their war.Under this Treaty Salonika was formally assigned to Greece. The Great Powers formally recognised Albanian sovereignty.

26/5/1913. Monday (-11,670) Miss Emily Duncan became Britain�s first woman magistrate. She was appointed a Justice of the Peace in West Ham, London.

25/5/1913, Sunday (-11,671) The broadcaster Richard Dimbleby was born.

23/5/1913. Friday (-11,673) London set a 10mph speed limit at Hyde Park Corner.

20/5/1913. Tuesday (-11,676) The first Chelsea Flower Show opened in London.

16/5/1913, Friday (-11,680) Woody Herman, US jazz musician, was barn (died 1987).

15/5/1913, Thursday (-11,681) The Home Secretary banned public meetings by suffragettes.

14/5/1913, Wednesday (-11,682) The Rockefeller Foundation was established, by US industrialist James Rockefeller.

13/5/1913, Tuesday (-11,683) (Aviation) The Russians first flew the biggest aircraft to date. Designed by Sikorsky, with a 92-foot wingspan, the Bolshoi offered luxurious civilian transport, with armchairs, sofas and ample vodka.

12/5/1913, Monday (-11,684) (Geology) William Maurice Ewing was born in Lockney, Texas. In 1935 he began a seismic study of the seabed using refractions of waves from explosions.

10/5/1913, Saturday (-11,686)

7/5/1913. Wednesday (-11,689) A suffragette bomb was found in St Paul�s Cathedral.

6/5/1913, Tuesday (-11,690) In the UK, the House of Commons rejected a Bill to give women the vote.


29/4/1913, Tuesday (-11,697) The improved version of the zip fastener, as we have it today, was patented by a Swedish engineer, Gideon Sundback, from New Jersey.

22/4/1913. Tuesday (-11,704) Montenegro captured Scutari after a 6 month siege.

16/4/1913, Wednesday (-11,710) Turkey signed an armistice with Bulgaria.

15/4/1913, Tuesday (-11,711) The UK Government banned public meetings by suffragettes, on the grounds of a risk to public order.

12/4/1913, Saturday (-11,714)

8/4/1913. Tuesday (-11,718) (1) China�s first parliament opened, in Beijing.

(2) The 17th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified. This provided for the election of US Senators by direct popular vote, so ending the �millionaire�s club� that had dominated the US Senate.

7/4/1913, Monday (-11,719) Jean Constans, French politician, died in Paris (born 3/5/1833 in Beziers).

5/4/1913, Saturday (-11,721)

3/4/1913. Thursday (-11,723) The suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst was jailed for 3 years for inciting her supporters to place bombs at Lloyd George�s house.

2/4/1913, Wednesday (-11,724) Montenegro rejected demands from five European nations (Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia) to withdraw its troops from Albania.

1/4/1913, Tuesday (-11,725) The Turkish government approved the terms of peace to end the First Balkan War, losing 60,000 square miles of territory to the Balkan nations.


31/3/1913, Monday (-11,726) New York�s Ellis Island, where new migrants were processed, received a record 6,745 admissions.

30/3/1913, Sunday (-11,727) Censu Tabone, President of Malta, was born.

29/3/1913, Saturday (-11,728) R. S. Thomas, Welsh poet, was bornin Cardiff (died 2000)

28/3/1913. Friday (-11,729) The first Morris Oxford car left the factory at Cowley, near Oxford.

27/3/1913, Thursday (-11,730) The Arkansas Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Futrell v. Oldham that Junius Futrell was the Governor of Arkansas, after Futrell and former President William Kavanaugh Oldham had both claimed the office

26/3/1913. Wednesday (-11,731) The Balkan allies took Adrianople from Turkey after a 155 day siege.

25/3/1913, Tuesday (-11,732) Flooding on the Miami River in Ohio killed 730 and caused US$ 181 million damage.

24/3/1913, Monday (-11,733) The Palace Theater, New York, opened on Broadway, 47th Street.

23/3/1913, Sunday (-11,734) Easter Sunday

18/3/1913, Tuesday (-11,739) George I, King of Greece from 1863, was assassinated in Salonika by a Greek called Schinasi.Constantine I became King of Greece, in the newly-occupied city of Salonika.Constantine opposed the pro-Allied policy of Venizelos, and in June 1917 the Allies forced his abdication in favour of his second son, Alexander, who ruled until dying from a monkey bite in October 1920.A plebiscite two months later voted overwhelmingly for the return of Constantine I.However Constantine was unfairly blamed for Greek military failure in action against Turkey in Anatolia and Smyrna, and he abdicated on 27/9/1922.He died in exile in Sicily a year later.

15/3/1912, Saturday (-11,742)

12/3/1913. Wednesday (-11,745) Canberra became the federal capital of Australia.

11/3/1913, Tuesday (-11,746) Britain and Germany agreed on the border between Nigeria and Cameroon.

10/3/1913, Monday (-11,747) Harriet Tubman, who led many US slaves to freedom in the 1850s, died in Auburn, New York.

9/3/1913, Sunday (-11,748) Andre Courreges, French couturier who invented the mini skirt in 1964, was born.

7/3/1913, Friday (-11,750)

6/3/1913. Thursday (-11,751) Hostilities resumed in the Balkans; the Greeks took Janina, capturing 32,000 Turks.

5/3/1913, Wednesday (-11,752) 71 sailors drowned when the German destroyer S-178 was accidentally rammed by the German cruiser Yorck in the North Sea off of Helgoland.

4/3/1913. Tuesday (-11,753) Woodrow Wilson became President of the USA.

3/3/1913, Monday (-11,754) 5,000 US suffragettes marched along Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington DC. Angrt men jeered and assaulted the women, starting a brawl which took 40 cavalry troops to suppress.

2/3/1913. Sunday (-11,755) A mob attacked suffragettes in London's Hyde Park.

1/3/1913, Saturday (-11,756) The International Lawn Tennis Federation was set up at a meeting in Paris attended by 13 countries.


27/2/1913, Thursday (-11,758)

25/2/1913. Tuesday (-11,760) (1) In the UK, suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst went on trial accused of the bomb explosion at Lloyd Georges house (19/2/1913). Mrs Pankhurst founded the Women�s Social and Political Union (WSPU) in 1903 to press for voting rights for British women; women in Australia and New Zealand already had the vote. The WSPU was adopting increasingly militant tactics.

(2) (USA, price) In the USA, Federal income tax was introduced. By the 16th Amendment the US Government was authorised to raise a tax of between 1% and 6% on incomes of more than US$ 4,000 (US$ 3,000 for bachelors) without having to share this tax revenue between the States of the Union according to their population.

24/2/1913, Monday (-11,761) Jules Gabriel Compayre, French educationalist, died in Paris (born 2/1/1843 in Albi).

23/2/1913, Sunday (-11,762) Madero, the deposed President of Mexico, was assassinated.

22/2/1913. Saturday (-11,763) Death of the Dowager Empress of China.

21/2/1913, Friday (-11,764) Roger Laurent, Belgian racing driver, was born (died 1997)

20/2/1913. Thursday (-11,765) Great fire in Tokyo.

19/2/1913, Wednesday (-11,766) A bomb exploded at Lloyd George�s house; nobody was hurt. On 24/2/1913 Emmeline Pankhurst was arrested in connection with this incident.

18/2/1913, Tuesday (-11,767) In Mexico the army commander, Victoriano Huerta, joined rebel soldiers and forced President Madero to resign. Huerta declared himself President; civil war broke out, and the US refused to recognise Huerta.

17/2/1913, Monday (-11,768) New York got its first look at Cubism when the Armory Show opened on Lexington Avenue.

14/2/1913, Friday (-11,771) Fred Davis, snooker champion, was born.

10/2/1913. Monday (-11,775) The remains of Captain Scott and two of his companions, who died returning from the South Pole in January 1912, were found dead, just 11 miles from a safe camp.

7/2/1913, Friday (-11,778) 5,000 Turks died in a battle with Bulgaria.

5/2/1913, Wednesday (-11,780) Sylvia Pankhurst began a hunger strike whilst in prison.

4/2/1913, Tuesday (-11,781) Rosa Parks was born in Tuskegee, Alabama, USA.

3/2/1913. Monday (-11,782) (1) Bulgaria re-started the Balkan War. On 7/2/1913 a Turkish-Bulgarian battle left 5,000 Turks dead, and on 26/3/1913 the Bulgarians captured Adrianople from Turkey.

(2) In the USA, the 16th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified. This authorised the imposition of income tax.

2/2/1913. Sunday (-11,783) Grand Central Station in New York, the world�s largest railway station, opened.

1/2/1913, Saturday (-11,784) Formica was patented, initially as a substitute �for-mica�. Mica being used for electrical insulation. Formica is made by compressing layers of paper impregnated with phenolic acid. Formica initially was always black or brown, but in the 1920s coloured versions became available, and were used for �modern� furniture coverings. It was easy to clean and water-resistant.


31/1/1913. Friday (-11,785) The House of Lords rejected a Bill for Irish Home Rule, by 326 votes to 69. the Ulster Volunteer Force was formed to resist Home Rule.

27/1/1913, Monday (-11,789) Athlete Jim Thorpe was stripped of two Olympic gold medals for his involvement in �professional� sport.

23/1/1913, Thursday (-11,793) Enver Pasha, leader of the Young Turks, entered the principal council chamber of the Sublime Porte with Talat and Kemal and shouted �Death to Kamil Pasha�. They forced the Grand Vizier to resign at gunpoint and shot dead the Minister of War, General Nazim. Enver then forced the Sultan to appoint his ally, Shevket, as Grand Vizier. The British ensured safe passage for Kamil out of Turkey but he was never reinstated as Grand Vizier. Enver, Talat and Kemal went on to establish a military junta to govern Turkey.

22/1/1913, Wednesday (-11,794) Turkey accepted a ceasefire ultimatum.

21/1/1913, Tuesday (-11,795) In France, Aristide Briand succeeded Poincare as Prime Minister.

20/1/1913, Monday (-11,796)

18/1/1913, Saturday (-11,798) Danny Kaye, US actor, was born (died 1987).

17/1/1913, Friday (-11,799) Serbian troops massacred Muslims.

16/1/1913, Thursday (-11,800) The Home Rule Bill passed its second Commons reading.

15/1/1913, Wednesday (-11,801) The first Benefits for sickness (10 shillings, 50p, a week), unemployment (7 shillings, 35p, a week), and maternity benefit (30 shillings, �1.50, a week) were introduced in Britain.

13/1/1913, Monday (-11,803) The Pope spoke out against films of a religious nature.

11/1/1913, Saturday (-11,805) The last horse drawn omnibus in Paris ran.

10/1/1913, Friday (-11,806) Gustav Husak, First Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party, was born.

9/1/1913. Thursday (-11,807) (1) Turkey breached the armistice by attacking Bulgaria. Turkey accepted a ceasefire ultimatum on 22/1/1913.

(2) Birth of Richard Nixon at Yorba Linda, California. Nixon was the 37th President of the US.

8/1/1913, Wednesday (-11,808)

7/1/1913, Tuesday (-11,809) The UK Government introduced proportional representation into the Home Rule Bill to protect the interests of Protestants.

6/1/1913, Monday (-11,810) A peace conference in London broke down when Turkey refused to cede Adrianople, the Aegean Islands and Crete.

5/1/1913, Sunday (-11,811) Gottlieb von Jagow became German Foreign Minister.

4/1/1913, Saturday (-11,812)

3/1/1913, Friday (-11,813) James Hamilton Abercorn, British politician (born 24/8/1838) died.

2/1/1913. Thursday (-11,814) Turkey agreed to give up almost all its European territories.

1/1/1913, Wednesday (-11,815) Film censorship began in Britain.


25/12/1912, Wednesday (-11,822) Italy sent troops to Albania to suppress unrest there.


For dates up to 31/12/1912 click here


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