Chronography of events from 1 January 1900 to 31 December 1906

Page last modified 10 July 2023


Home Page


(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from

See also Julian Day Count,


For dates from 1 January 1907 click here


Jump to:-

January 1906

January 1905

January 1904

January 1903

January 1902

January 1901

January 1900



1 January 1907, Tuesday (-14,007) In China, 4 million people were starving due to heavy rains and crop failure.


30 December 1906, Sunday (-14,009) (India) (1) In India the Muslim League was founded, to call for separate Muslim areas and counter the Pan-Indian ideals of the Indian National Congress. The separate Muslim electoral areas were delivered under the Indian Councils Act of 1909. Ultimately this paved the way for the Partition of India in 1947

(2) The Shah of Iran signed the new Constitution (7 October 1906). However he died shortly afterwards and was succeeded by his son, Mohammed Ali Shah, who was hostile to the new constitutional movement.

27 December 1906, Thursday (-14,012) Oscar Levant, US composer, was born in Pittsburgh (died 14 August 1972 in Beverly Hills, California)

26 December 1906, Wednesday (-14,013) (Science) German physicist Ernst August Friedrich Ruska was born in Heidelberg.

25 December 1906, Tuesday (-14,014) Suffragettes in London�s Holloway Prison refused Christmas meals.

24 December 1906, Monday (-14,015) (Maritime) the first radio programme aimed at seamen was broadcast from the US coast.

23 December 1906, Sunday (-14,016)

22 December 1906, Saturday (-14,017) 1 January 1826, Sunday (-43,591) Robert Rainy, Scottish Presbyterian divine, died in Melbourne Australia (born 1 January 1836 in Glasgow)

21 December 1906, Friday (-14,018) (Price-Unions) In Britain, Parliament passed the Trades Disputes Bill, legalising peaceful picketing and exempting Trades Unions from damages caused by illegal acts of its members. This reversed the Taff Vale House of Lords judgement of 1901.

20 December 1906, Thursday (-14,019)

19 December 1906. Wednesday (-14,020) (Russia) Birth of Leonid Brezhnev.He was born in Kamenskoye (now Dneprodzerzhinsk), in the Ukraine.

18 December 1906, Tuesday (-14,021) In Australian elections, the Protectionists lost seats, but Alfred Deakin remained as PM.

16 December 1906, Sunday (-14,023)

14 December 1906. Friday (-14,025) The German navy acquired its first submarine, the U1.

13 December 1906, Thursday (-14,026) A revolt of the Centre Party in the German Reichstag opposed spending on colonial wars. Von Bulow dissolved the Reichstag; in subsequent elections the Socialists lost ground.

12 December 1906, Wednesday (-14,027) In South Africa, the Transvaal was given autonomy with White male suffrage.

11 December 1906, Tuesday (+14,028)

10 December 1906, Monday (+14,029) Harold Adamson, US singer, was born (died 17 August 1980)

9 December 1906, Sunday (-14,030) Ferdinand Brunetiere, French writer, died (born 19 July 1849).

7 December 1906, Friday (-14,032)

6 December 1906, Thursday (-14,033) Self-government was granted to Transvaal and the Orange River Colony.

5 December 1906, Wednesday (-14,034) Russian Admiral Niebogatov went on trial, accused of surrendering ships to the Japanese.

4 December 1906, Tuesday (-14,035) (Medical) Robert Wallace Wilkins was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee. In 1950 he developed the use of reserpine for the treatment of high blood pressure.

3 December 1906, Monday (-14,036) (Football) AC Torino football club was founded.

2 December 1906, Sunday (-14,037) (Sound) Hungarian-US physicist Peter Mark Goldmark was born in Budapest. In 1948 he developed the first long-playing record in the USA.

1 December 1906. Saturday (-14,038) The world�s first purpose-built picture palace, the Cinema Omnia Pathe, opened in Paris.


30 November 1906, Friday (-14,039) (Britain) The Prince of Wales opened the new Cotton Exchange in Liverpool.

29 November 1906, Thursday (-14,040) The car company Lancia was founded by a group of Fiat racing car drivers.

28 November 1906, Wednesday (-14,041) (Germany) The German Centre Party, which had held the balance between the Conservatives and Socialists in the Reichstag since 1890, sparked a constitutional crisis by refusing to vote for funds to combat an uprising in Germany�s colony of SW Africa (Namibia). Von Bulow was forced to dissolve the Reichstag and call new elections.

26 November 1906, Monday (-14,043) US President Theodore Roosevelt returned to the USA from Central America, becoming the first American President to travel abroad whilst in office. On his 17-day trip aboard the US battleship Louisiana he visited Puerto Rico then went on to Panama to see how the construction of the Panama Canal was progressing.

22 November 1906, Thursday (-14,049) Stolypin introduced agrarian reforms in Russia.

21 November 1906, Wednesday (-14,048) In Glasgow, a man died when 200,000 gallons of hot whisky burst out of vats.

20 November 1906. Tuesday (-14,049) Charles Rolls and Henry Royce formed the car company Rolls Royce Ltd.

19 November 1906, Monday (-14,050)

18 November 1906, Sunday (-14,051) Alec Issigonis, British car designer, was born (died 1988).

17 November 1906, Saturday (-14,052) Hugh Edwards, Olympic rower, was born (died 21 December 1972).

15 November 1906, Thursday (-14,054) Japan launched what was then the world�s largest battleship, the Satsuma.

13 November 1906, Tuesday (-14,056) Hermione Baddeley, English actress, was born in Shropshire (died 19 August 1986 in Los Angeles)

12 November 1906, Monday (-14,057) (Aviation) A Santos-Dumas of France set an aviation speed record of 25.65 mph.

11 November 1906, Sunday (-14,058) (Aviation) The first balloon crossing of the Alps. A balloon piloted by Murillo and Cresti lifted off from Milan and passed over Mont Blanc, highest peak of the Alps.

9 November 1906, Friday (-14,060) (Education-Schools) Dorothea Beale died (born 21 March 1831), As Principal of Cheltenham Ladies College (opened 1854) from 1858, she did much to improve its standing, and new buildings were erected there from 1873 onwards.

6 November 1906. Tuesday (-14,063) Sylvia Pankhurst, suffragette, released from prison.

5 November 1906, Monday (-14,064) (Space exploration) Fred Lawrence Whipple was born in Red Oak, Indiana. In 1949 he suggested that comets are �dirty snowballs� consisting of water ice and ammonia ice with rock dust.

4 November 1906, Sunday (-14,065) Alois Alzheimer produced a public report on the brain f a dead dementia patient.

2 November 1906. Friday (-14,067) Jewish revolutionary Leon Trotsky was exiled for life to Siberia.


30 October 1906, Tuesday (-14,070) Gathorne Cranbrook, British statesman, died (born 1 October 1814).

25 October 1906, Thursday (-14,075) (1) The Japanese Ambassador to the US lodged a protest regarding the segregation of Japanese children in San Francisco schools (see 11 October 1906)

(2) Georges Clemenceau became PM in France.

24 October 1906. Wednesday (-14,076) 11 suffragettes were jailed for demonstrating in London, after refusing to pay �10 fines, or even acknowledge the court. Prison achieved martyrdom for the women.

23 October 1906, Tuesday (-14,077) Women suffragettes demonstrated in the outer lobby of the House of Commons. 10 were arrested and charged the following day.

22 October 1906, Monday (-14,078) (1) Painter Paul Cezanne died in Aix en Provence, France (born 19 January 1839).

(2) Elise Deroche became the first woman to fly solo.

21 October 1906, Sunday (-14,079) Edward James Saunderson, Irish politician, died (born 1 October 1837 in Cavan)

20 October 1906, Saturday (-14,080) Joint Anglo-French control of the New Hebrides Islands (now Vanuatu) was confirmed. This allayed Australian fears that Britain would permit total French control of the territory.

19 October 1906, Friday (-14,081) (USA) Frederick Winslow Taylor, originator of Taylorism, was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Science by the University of Pennsylvania.

18 October 1906, Thursday (-14,082) (Chemistry) Friedrich Konrad Beilstein, Russian chemist, died in St Petersburg.

17 October 1906. Wednesday (-14,083) First transmission of a picture by telegraph.

16 October 1906. Tuesday (-14,084) British New Guinea became part of Australia.

15 October 1906, Monday (-14,085) Victoria Regina Spivey, US composer, was born in Houston, Texas (died 3 October 1976 in new York)

14 October 1906, Sunday (-14,086) Sir Richard Tangye, British industrial machinery manufacturer, died (born 24 November 1833 in Redruth, Cornwall)

13 October 1906, Saturday (-14,087)

12 October 1906, Friday (-14,088) Hottentot rebellion in Namibia crushed by the Germans.

11 October 1906, Thursday (-14,089) The San Francisco Board of Education ordered segregation in separate schools of Japanese, Chinese and Korean children. President Roosevelt was unhappy, aware of the likely impact on international relations.

10 October 1906, Wednesday (-14,090) Leo Mathisen, Danish jazz pianist and composer, was born in Copenhagen, Denmark (died 1969)

9 October 1906. Tuesday (-14,091) Death of Joseph Glidden in the USA; he invented barbed wire.

8 October 1906, Monday (-14,092) Karl Nessler demonstrated first 'permanent wave' for hair in London

7 October 1906, Sunday (-14,093) Elected representatives met in the Persian capital, Tehran, and drew up a constitution.

6 October 1906, Saturday (-14,094) Auguste Himly, French historical writer, died (born 28 March 1823).

5 October 1906. Friday (-14,095) In Russia, 1,000 prisoners a day were being exiled to Siberia.

4 October 1906, Thursday (-14,096) Johannes Post, Dutch WW2 resistance fighter, was born in Hollandscheveld, Drente, Netherlands (died 1944)

3 October 1906. Wednesday (-14,097) SOS was established as an international distress signal, at the Berlin Radio Conference, replacing the earlier CDQ call sign, sometimes wrongly explained as Come Damn Quick.

2 October 1906, Tuesday (-14,098) John Humphreys Whitfield, British scholar of Italian language & literature, was born in Wednesbury, England (died 1995).

1 October 1906, Monday (-14,099) The Karawanken rail tunnel, between Austria and Yugoslavia, 8 km long, opened.


30 September 1906, Sunday (-14,100) The first international hot air balloon race began from Paris.

29 September 1906, Saturday (-14,101) Following the resignation of President Palma of Cuba, the USA declared a provisional Government to restore order.

28 September 1906, Friday (-14,102) Lincolnshire Cricket Club was founded.

26 September 1906, Wednesday (-14,104)

25 September 1906, Tuesday (-14,105) (1) Dmitri Shostakovich, Russian composer, was born.

(2) Phyllis Pearsall, who pioneered the modern London A-Z in 1936, was born.

24 September 1906, Monday (-14,106) Prince George of Greece resigned as High Commissioner of Crete. Alexander Zaimis succeeded him.

23 September 1906, Sunday (-14,107) Charles Smirke, champion jockey, was born (died 20 December 1993)

22 Saturday 1906, Saturday (-14,108)

20 September 1906, Thursday (-14,110) (1) The Mauretania, Atlantic passenger liner, was launched.

(2) In China, an imperial edict ordered the end of the use of heroin within 10 years.

19 September 1906, Wednesday (-14,111) (Medical) Ernst Chain was born in Berlin, Germany. Along with Howard Florey (born Adelaide, Australia, 24 September 1908) he developed, in 1940, the use of penicillin as an antibiotic.

18 September 1906, Tuesday (-14,112) Typhoon hit Hong Kong, killing some 10,000 peopole.

17 September 1906, Monday (-14,113) Senor Pedro Montt, President-elect, took up office in Chile.

13 September 1906, Thursday (-14,117) Brazilian aviator Alberto Santos Dumont made the first flight in Europe. His canvas and bamboo biplane stayed airborne for a 7 metre flight, on the outskirts of Paris.

9 September 1906. Sunday (-14,121) 100 Jews massacred in Siedlce, Poland.

1 September 1906, Saturday (-14,129) Australia declared that British New Guinea, the western half of New Guinea (currently part of Indonesia), was now a Federal possession of Australia known as Papua. Australia felt this territory was vital for its defence and that Britain had neglected this.


30 August 1906, Thursday (-14,131) A new express rail service linking Cork and Waterford with London via the new ports of Rosslare and Fishguard was inaugurated.

28 August 1906, Tuesday (-14,133) John Betjeman, poet, was born (died 1984).

26 August 1906, Sunday (-14,135) Eugen Gura, German singer, died (born 1824).

24 August 1906, Friday (-14,137) Kidney transplants were carried out on dogs, at a medical conference in Toronto, Canada.

19 August 1906, Sunday (-14,142) Eddie Durham, US guitarist, was born in San Marcos, Texas (died 6 March 1987 in New York)

16 August 1906. Thursday (-14,145) (Chile, Earthquake) Severe earthquake killed 3,000 in Valparaiso, Chile. 100,000 were left homeless.

15 August 1906, Wednesday (-14,146) �Bloody Wednesday� in Poland. 80 people were killed in terrorist attacks by socialists against Russian occupation of the country. Pilsudsky had visited Japan in 1904 and secured their backing in the fight against Russia; Japan was fighting Russia in the Far East.

13 August 1906, Monday (-14,148) Pearl Craigie, US novelist, died (born 3 November 1867).

9 August 1906,Thursday (-14,152) The Boer War Commission reported that corruption and incompetence in conducting the war cost Britain over �1 million.

8 August 1906 Wednesday (-14,153) Churchill and others protested at the excessive noise made by motor traffic.

7 August 1906, Tuesday (-14,154) Marcello Caetano, Portuguese Prime Minister, was born.

6 August 1906, Monday (-14,155) Vic Dickenson, US jazz trombonist, was born in Xenia, Ohio (born 16 November 1984 in New York)

5 August 1906, Sunday (-14,156) John Huston, film director, was born.

4 August 1906, Saturday (-14.157) The Italian liner Silvio was wrecked off Spain; 200 drowned.

3 August 1906, Friday (-14,158) Robert Emmett Dolan, US composer, was born in Hartford, Connecticut (died in California 26 September 1972)

1 August 1906, Wednesday (-14,160) The new Belfast City Hall was opened.


30 July 1906, Monday (-14,162) John Lawrence Toole, English actor, died in Brighton (born 12 march 1832)

29 July 1906, Sunday (-14,163) Diana Vreeland, fashion editor, was born.

26 July 1906, Thursday (-14,166)

23 July 1906, Monday (-14,169) 1,000 Zulu rebels surrendered to British troops in South Africa.

22 July 1906, Sunday (-14,170) Captain Dreyfus was formally reinstated in the French Army and given the Legion of Honour.

21 July 1906, Saturday (-14,171) In Russia, the Duma (Parliament) was dissolved and martial law set up. The Cadets withdrew to Finland where they issued the Viborg manifesto, calling on Russians to refuse to pay taxes.

20 July 1906, Friday (-14,172) Anton Farber, German actor, was born.

19 July 1906, Thursday (-14,173) (South Africa) Alfred Beit, South African financier, died.

17 July 1906, Tuesday (-14,175)

16 July 1906, Monday (-14,176) Vincent Sherman, film director, was born (died 18 June 2006)

15 July 1906, Sunday (-14,177) A Commons Commission recommended providing school meals, and a separate Ministry for Wales.

12 July 1906, Thursday (-14,180) In France, Captain Dreyfus was rehabilitated after being publicly disgraced 11 years earlier over spying and treason charges.Dreyfus had been imprisoned on Devil�s Island.

9 July 1906, Monday (-14,183) The Wochein rail tunnel, Yugoslavia, 6.5 km long, opened.

8 July 1906, Sunday (-14,184) Philip Johnson, architect, was born in Cleveland, Ohio.

7 July 1906, Saturday (-14,185) Britain�s first hot air balloon race.

6 July 1906, Friday (-14,186) Christopher Langdell, US legal writer, died (born 22 May 1826).

5 July 1906, Thursday (-14,187) (Light) Paul Karl Ludwig Drude, German optical physicist, committed suicide aged 42

4 July 1906, Wednesday (-14,188) Ethiopia, although nominally independent, was divided up into British, French and Italian zones of influence.

3 July 1906, Tuesday (-14,189) George Sanders, actor, was born.

2 July 1906, Monday (-14,190) (Astronomy) German physicist Hans Bethe was born in Strasbourg. In 1938 he proposed that stellar fusion of hydrogen into helium was how the Sun produced energy.

1 July 1906, Sunday (-14,191) (1) A train crash at Salisbury, UK, caused by excessive speed. Speed limits were now rigorously enforced and rail speed record attempts now ceased.

(2) A loaf of bread cost 5d (2p).A pound of beef cost 8d (3p).The average weekly wage was 19 shillings (95p).


30 June 1906, Saturday (-14,192) US Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act. There had been a public outcry after Upton Sinclair�s novel The Jungle had exposed poor conditions in the meat packing industry.

29 June 1906, Friday (-14,193) (USA) US Congress passed a Bill creating the Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado.

26 June 1906, Tuesday (-14,196) The first Grand Prix took place at Le Mans. The race was over 12 laps of a 65-mile triangular circuit at Le Mans.The race was won by Hungarian Ference Szisz, driving a Renault at an average speed of 63 mph.

23 June 1906, Saturday (-14,199) A deputation demanding votes for women, representing 500,000 women, met the British Prime Minister.

22 June 1906, Friday (-14,200) US President Roosevelt sued John D Rockerfeller�s Standard Oil Company for operating a monopoly.

21 June 1906. Thursday (-14,201) The Russian Parliament, the Duma, was exiled. On 23 June 1906 it called on Russians to refuse to pay taxes.

20 June 1906, Wednesday (-14,202) Catherine Cookson, British writer, was born.

18 June 1906, Monday (-14,204) Kay Kyser, US bandleader, was born in Rocky Mount, North Carolina (died 23 July 1985 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina)

14 June 1906, Thursday (-14,208) In the UK, a Parliamentary Bill was proposed to ban women from dangerous sports after a woman died in a parachuting accident.

12 June 1906, Tuesday (-14,210) Anti-Semitic riots in Bialystok.

11 June 1906, Monday (-14,211) Isvolsky became Russian Foreign Secretary.

10 June 1906, Sunday (-14,212) In South Africa, Zulu leader Bambaata and 100s of his followers were killed.

8 June 1906, Friday (-14,214)

7 June 1906. Thursday (-14,215) The Lusitania, the world's biggest liner, was launched in Glasgow.

6 June 1906, Wednesday (-14,216) Paris Metro Line 5 was inaugurated with a first section from Place d'Italie to the Gare d'Orleans (today known as Gare d'Austerlitz).

5 June 1906, Tuesday (-14,217) Germany decided to build more battleships.

4 June 1906, Monday (-14,218) Britain, France and Italy guaranteed the independence of Ethiopia.

3 June 1906, Sunday (-14,219) Walter Robins, cricketer, was born (died 12 December 1968)

2 June 1906, Saturday (-14,220).Betty Uber, badminton champion, was born (died 30 April 1983).

1 June 1906, Friday (-14,221) (Railway Tunnel) The Simplon I rail tunnel, 20.5 km long, linking Switzerland and Italy, opened.


31 May 1906, Thursday (-14,222) Michael Davitt, dedicated Irish Nationalist, died (born 25 March 1846).

29 May 1906, Tuesday (-14,224)

28 May 1906. Monday (-14,225) (Russia) The Russian government decided to redistribute 25 million acres of land to peasants.

27 May 1906, Sunday (-14,226) Henry Hibbs, footballer, was born (died 23 April 1984).

26 May 1906. Saturday (-14,227) The rebuilt Vauxhall Bridge over the Thames was reopened.

25 May 1906, Friday (-14,228)

24 May 1906. Thursday (-14,229) Czar Nicholas II granted universal male suffrage but refused an amnesty for political prisoners as suggested by the Duma.

23 May 1906, Wednesday (-14,230) Norwegian poet Henry Ibsen died.

22 May 1906, Tuesday (-14,231) The last British troops left the Dominion of Canada.

21 May 1906, Monday (-14,232) (Mexico, USA) The USA and Mexico reached agreement about water rights on the Rio Grande, which had increasingly been diverted for US irrigation.

19 May 1906, Saturday (-14,234) Joao Franco became Prime Minister of Portugal, with dictatorial powers.

16 May 1906, Wednesday (-14,237) (Namibia) Morenga was interned by the British. He had been pursued by Germans across the frontier into British-colonised territory and wounded, but he escaped from the Germans. The British classed him as a political refugee and refused German calls for his extradition.

14 May 1906, Monday (-14,239) Carl Schurz, US politician, died in New York City (born 2 March 1829 near Cologne, Germany)

12 May 1906, Saturday (-14,241) The Russian Duma and the Tsar disputed over the release of political prisoners.

11 May 1906, Friday (-14,242) Jack Higginbotham, US jazz trombonist, was born in Social Circle, near Atlanta (died 26 May 1973 in New York)

10 May 1906. Thursday (-14,243) The first Russian Parliament, or Duma, met in St Petersburg. There was deadlock as the Cadet�s party opposed the Fundamental Laws.

8 May 1906, Tuesday (-14,245) The US allowed Alaska to elect a delegate to Congress; they arrived in December.

7 May 1906, Monday (-14,246)

6 May 1906, Sunday (-14,247) (1) British soldiers killed 60 Zulus at Durban.

(2) Tsar Nicholas II promulgated the Fundamental Law of the Russian Empire, reaffirming autocratic rule.

5 May 1906, Saturday (-14,248) In Russia, Count Witte was replaced by the more conservative Ivan Goremykin.

3 May 1906, Thursday (-14,250) (Egypt) Britain demanded that Ottoman Turkey recognise the Sinai Peninsula as belonging to Egypt, not Turkey. Turkey conceded this on 14 May 1906.


30 April 1906, Monday (-14,253)

28 April 1906, Saturday (-14,255) (Mathematics) Austrian-US mathematician Kurt Godel was born in Brno, Czechoslovakia.

27 April 1906. Friday (-14,256) China reluctantly granted Britain control of Tibet, following the occupation of the capital Lhasa by British troops.

24 April 1906, Tuesday (-14,259) Nazi collaborator William Joyce, or �Lord Haw Haw�, was born in Brooklyn, New York City.

22 April 1906, Sunday (-14,261) Eddie Albert, actor, was born (died 26 May 2005).

21 April 1906, Saturday (-14,262) The Great Fire of San Francisco, started by the earthquake on 18 April 1906, ended.

20 April 1906, Friday (-14,263) An Australian wombat, the oldest known marsupial, died in London Zoo aged 26.

19 April 1906, Thursday (-14,264) Pierre Curie, French scientist who discovered Radium, was run over and killed in Paris.

18 April 1906. Wednesday (-14,265) (Earthquake, USA) Major earthquake hit San Francisco. Over 1,000 people were killed and large fires threatened upmarket homes on Nob Hill, after the water mains were destroyed in the quake. Overall, 3,000 acres of the city were devastated. The fire did more damage than the quake, it took 3 days to bring the blaze under control and 490 blocks were destroyed.

17 April 1906. Tuesday (-14,266) The British Labour Party called for universal female suffrage.

16 April 1906, Monday (-14,267)

15 April 1906, Sunday (-14,268) Easter Sunday.

14 April 1906, Saturday (-14,269) US President Roosevelt called US writers who were exposing corruption as �men with a muckrake, an allusion to Bunyan�s Pilgrim�s Progress. The term came to be applied favourably to all crusading writers exposing wrongdoing.

13 April 1906, Friday (-14,270) Samuel Beckett, Irish playwright, was born.

11 April 1906, Wednesday (-14,272) (Japan) Having occupied Taiwan since the Sino-Japanese War of 1895, Japan now appointed military commander Sakuma Samata to �control and pacify� the island�s indigenous population. Tribal land was confiscated and entire villages forcibly relocated; resistance was countered by collective punishment. Villages were bombed and hit with nerve gas, And concentration camps set up behind electrified fences.

9 April 1906, Monday (-14,274) The Labour leader Hugh Gaitskell was born in London.

8 April 1906, Sunday (-14,275) D Auguste, the first recorded Alzheimer's victim, died (born 1850).

7 April 1906. Saturday (-14,276) (1) The Conference of Algecieras ended.

(2) Mount Vesuvius erupted, destroying the town of Ottaiano. Hundreds died. Over 105 were killed when the church of San Guiseppe collapsed in Naples.The weight of ash killed many more as roofs collapsed.

6 April 1906, Friday (-14,277) Poet Laureate, John Betjeman, was born in London.

5 April 1906, Thursday (-14,278) Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany dismissed Count Friedrich Holstein, a key advisor in the Foreign Department, ending fears of a German war with France over Morocco.

4 April 1906, Wednesday (-14,279) Elections were held for the first Duma (Parliament) in Russia.


31 March 1906, Saturday (-14,285) David Heneker, British composer, was born in Southsea.

29 March 1906, Thursday (-14,287) Italian Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti returned to office.

27 March 1906, Tuesday (-14,289) Pee Wee (Charles Elsworth) Russell, US jazz clarinettist, was born (died15 February 1969 in Alexandria, Virginia)

25 March 1906, Sunday (-14,291) AJP Taylor, British historical writer, was born (died 1990).

23 March 1906, Friday (-14,291) Thomas Harris, US poet and preacher, died.

21 March 1906, Wednesday (-14,293) John D Rockefeller III, billionaire philanthropist, was born.

20 March 1906. Tuesday (-14,294) Russian army officers were killed by soldiers in a mutiny at Sevastopol, Crimea.

19 March 1906, Monday (-14,295) Adolf Eichmann, German Nazi responsible for the execution of millions of European Jews during World War II, was born in Solingen.

18 March 1906, Sunday (-14,296)

16 March 1906, Friday (-14,298) Japanese railways were nationalised.

15 March 1906, Thursday (-14,299) Alfred Jones, Canadian politician, died (born 9/1824).

14 March 1906. Wednesday (-14,300) The British Parliament accepted the principle of old age pensions.

13 March 1906, Tuesday (-14,301) Susan B Anthony, American pioneer of women�s suffrage, died aged 86.

12 March 1906, Monday (-14,302)

11 March 1906, Sunday (-14,303) 1,200 miners died in a pit explosion in northern France.

10 March 1906, Saturday (-14,304) The Bakerloo Line, London, opened between Baker Street and Elephant and Castle.

9 March 1906, Friday (-14,305) David Smith, sculptor, was born (died 1965).

8 March 1906. Thursday (-14,306) The British government stated that the British Empire covered 11.5 million square miles, one fifth of the world�s land area, and had a population of 400 million, a quarter of the world total. The Empire had grown by a third in the last 25 years.

7 March 1906. Wednesday (-14,307) Finland extended suffrage to all tax paying men and women aged over 24.

6 March 1906, Tuesday (-14,308) An avalanche at Roger�s Pass in the US buried a train. By the time the train was dug out, 62 people had died.

5 March 1906, Monday (-14,309)

4 March 1906, Sunday (-14,310) John McAllister Schofield, US soldier, died in Florida (born 29 September 1831in New York State)

3 March 1906, Saturday (-14,311) The first trials of an aeroplane with tyres took place at Montesson, Seine et Marne, France.

2 March 1906, Friday (-14,312) Tsar Nicholas II ceded some power to the Russian Parliament.

1 March 1906, Thursday (-14,313) Jose Maria de Pereda, Spanish novelist, died in Polanco (born 6 February 1833 in Polanco near Santander)


27 February 1906, Tuesday (-14,315) Samuel Langley, aviation pioneer, died (born 22 August 1834)

24 February 1906, Saturday (-14,318) In Cuba, Tomas Estrada Palma defeated Jose Gomez in the Presidential election. However Gomez rejected the result, and called Palma a �tool of Yankee imperialism�. Gomez started an uprising, and Palma called for US assistance to quell it.

21 February 1906, Wednesday (-14,321) Thomas Oldham first suggested the Earth has a core, later shown to be liquid.

20 February 1906, Tuesday (-14,322) Unrest in Natal grew into a major revolt.

19 February 1906. Monday (-14,323) The American, William Kellogg, formed the Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company of Michigan to market to the public the breakfast cereal he had invented as a health food for mental patients 8 years earlier with his brother John Kellogg. John, a Seventh Day Adventist, had claimed the new food would curb the sex drive but the latest adverts failed to mention that.

18 February 1906, Sunday (-14,324) Hans Asperger, Austrian pediatrician and eponym of Asperger Syndrome, was born in Vienna (died 1980)

17 February 1906, Saturday (-14,325) Clement Armand Fallieres was elected President of France, but Georges Clemenceau held the real power. After the tensions of the Dreyfus Affair and the Morocco Crisis, France became more nationalist and patriotic. However a series of strikes in the wine industry now led to more violence in the coming months.

16 February 1906, Friday (-14,326) Vera Menchick, chess champion, was born (died 26 June 1944).

15 February 1906, Thursday (-14,327) Yvette Labrousse, winner of Miss France 1930, was born.

14 February 1906, Wednesday (-14,328) 54 were arrested as suffragettes fought police outside the British Parliament.

13 February 1906, Tuesday (-14,329) The US Patent Office registered the local anaesthetic procaine for Alfred Einhorn.

12 February 1906, Monday (-14,330) Earthquake in Taiwan, 1,228 killed.

11 February 1906, Sunday (-14,331) Anita Garvin, US actress, was born in New York City (died 1994)

10 February 1906, Saturday (-14,332) Britain launched the revolutionary new battleship Dreadnought.She made every other warship obsolete, outgunning and outranging them all. Her new steam turbine propulsion made her much faster than older ships. This marked the start of a keen naval arms race between Britain and Germany. Germany now realised that the latest class of battleships were too big to pass through the Kiel Canal. The Russo-Japanese War demonstrated the need for such battleship innovation, as naval battles were now fought at long range, using torpedoes, and torpedo boats therefore had to be destroyed at a distance with accurate long-range artillery. They were a key part of UK naval strategy in World War One; they were named after a naval ship of Francis Drake�s time.

9 February 1906, Friday (-14,333) Paul Laurence Dunbar, poet and novelist (born 27 June 1872 in Dayton, Ohio) died of tuberculosis. Son of a former slave, his poetry did much to describe the everyday lives of Black Americans.

8 February 1906, Thursday (-14,334) Birth of Chester Carlson, who invented the photocopier.

7 February 1906. Wednesday (-14,335) Pu Yi, last Emperor of China, was born in Beijing.

6 February 1906, Tuesday (-14,336) Nin� Gordini Cervi, Italian actress, was born.

5 February 1906, Monday (-14,337) John Carradine, actor, was born.

4 February 1906, Sunday (-14,338) Dietrich Bonhoeffer, German theologian who was part of the group who tried to assassinate Adolf Hitler, was born.

3 February 1906. Saturday (-14,339) Japan decided to double the size of its navy by 1908.

2 February 1906. Friday (-14,340) 530 injured in Paris in dispute over Church property.

1 February 1906, Thursday (-14,341) The Government dropped plans for a fast motor road between London and Brighton.


31 January 1906, Wednesday (-14,342) (Earthquake) Magnitude 8.9 earthquake hit the Colombia and Ecuador coasts.

30 January 1906, Tuesday (-14,343) Paul Dresser, US composer, died in New York (born 21 April 1857 in Terre Haute, Indiana)

29 January 1906, Monday (-14,344) Christian IX of Denmark died, aged 87. He was succeeded by his son, Frederick VIII, aged 62, who ruled until 1912.

28 January 1906, Sunday (-14,345) Markos Vafiadis, Greek General and politician, was born (died 1992).

27 January 1906. Saturday (-14,346) The River Thames caught fire as oil on the surface ignited.

26 January 1906. Friday (-14,347) Eugen Richter, German politician, died in Jena (born 30 July 1839 in Dusseldorf)

25 January 1906, Thursday (-14,348)

23 January 1906, Tuesday (-14,350) Charles W Hunter, US ragtime composer, died in St Louis, Missouri (born 16 May 1876 in Columbia, Tennessee)

22 January 1906, Monday (-14,351) George Holyoake, English writer, died (born 13 April 1817).

20 January 1906, Saturday (-14,353) Aristotle Onassis, Greek shipping tycoon, was born in Smyrna, Turkey.

17 January 1906, Wednesday (-14,356) In France, Clement Fallieres was elected president, through the influence of Georges Clemenceau.

16 January 1906. Tuesday (-14,357) The Algecieras Conference � see 28 August 1904.

15 January 1906, Monday (-14,358)

14 January 1906, Sunday (-14,359) Nelson Tarleton, boxer, was born (died 12 January 1956)

13 January 1906, Saturday (-14,360) The first AMCMA (American Motor Car Manufacturer�s Association) exhibition was held in New York City, USA.

12 January 1906, Friday (-14,361) The Liberals won a landslide victory in the British general elections. Labour under Keir Hardie also made gains. The Liberals had 399 seats, up from 184 in the 1900 election. The Conservatives retained 156 seats, down from 402. Labour gained 29 seats; a secret Liberal-Labour pact gave the Labour candidate a free run against the Tories in key constituencies. Labour�s share of the vote was just 4.8%, but this was treble their 1900 share. In December 1905 the new Liberal Government got the Trades Disputes Bill passed by the (Conservative-dominated) House of Lords, reversing the House of Lords ruling in the Taff Vale case (1901), which had meant trades unions were liable for losses to the employer caused by strikes.

11 January 1906, Thursday (-14,362)

10 January 1906, Wednesday (-14,363) Britain and France began closer co-operation on military and defence issues.,

9 January 1906, Tuesday (-14,364) Charles Ritchie, English politician, died in Biarritz (born 1838 in Dundee)

7 January 1906, Sunday (-14,366)

5 January 1906, Friday (-14,368) William Edward Davison, US jazz musician, was born in Defiance, Ohio (died 14 November 1989 in Santa Barbara, California)

4 January 1906, Thursday (-14,369) Sidney Lipton, British bandleader, was born in London.

3 January 1906, Wednesday (-14,370) (Astronomy) William Wilson Morgan was born in Bethesda, Tennessee, USA. He first demonstrated that the Milky Way galaxy has a spiral structure, like M31.

2 January 1906. Tuesday (-14,371) (1) New French Darraq racing car set a speed record of 108 mph.

(2) The Sultan of Brunei agreed to hand over administration of Brunei to the British.

1 January 1906, Monday (-14,372) (1) General Von Moltke was made head of the German armed forces.

(2) In Britain the Lunacy Commission reported that on this date 121,979 persons were certified as insane.

(3) In Moscow, with the worker uprisings of late December 1905 quelled, the authorities re-imposed order with the punitive raids known as The Black Hundreds.


31 December 1905, Sunday (-14,373) Jule Steyne, US composer, was born in London.

30 December 1905, Saturday (-14,374) A revolt in Moscow was brutally suppressed.

29 December 1905, Friday (-14,375) Fred Hartley, British composer, was born in Dundee

26 December 1905, Tuesday (-14,378)

24 December 1905. Sunday (-14,380) The US industrialist Howard Hughes was born.

23 December 1905, Saturday (-14,381) (1) (Australia) Australia passed the Aborigines Act. It provided for the removal of indigenous Australian children aged under 6, and their �integration� into White society through education and work placements � usually menial labour, in practice.

(2) The final of the earliest known beauty contest in Britain was held at Newcastle on Tyne.

22 December 1905, Friday (-14,382) The arrest of members of the St Petersburg Soviet led to civil disorder on the streets of Moscow as workers rioted. However Russian troops stayed loyal to the State and the uprising was quelled by 1 January 1906.

21 December 1905, Thursday (-14,383) Anthony Powell, English novelist, was born.

20 December 1905, Wednesday (-14,384) Henry Harland, US author, died (born 3/1861 in St Petersburg).

19 December 1905. Tuesday (-14,385) London County Council set up a motorised ambulance service for traffic accident victims.

18 December 1905, Monday (-14,386) George Le Brunn, British author, died in London (born 1862)

16 December 1905, Saturday (-14,388) The first civilian motor ambulance was delivered to the South West Ambulance Station of the Metropolitan Asylums Board. Built to order by James and Browne of 395 Oxford Street London for �465, it was used to transport scarlet fever patients from their homes to isolation hospitals, from 11 February 1906.

14 December 1905, Thursday (-14,390) UK Trade Unions called for universal suffrage, an eight hour working day, and old age pensions.

12 December 1905, Tuesday (-14,392) Francois Meurice, French dramatist, died (born 7 February 1818).

11 December 1905, Monday (-14,393) (USA) Edward Atkinson, US economist, died in Boston (born 10 February 1827 in Brookline, Massachusetts).

10 December 1905, Sunday (-14,394) (Women�s Rights) Austrian pacifist and writer Bertha von Suttner became the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

9 December 1905, Saturday (-14,395) In France, the Church and State were legally separated.

8 December 1905, Friday (-14,396) Charles Cushing, American composer, was born in Oakland, California (died 1982)

7 December 1905. Thursday (-14,397) Russian revolutionaries occupied the fortress at Kiev, Ukraine.

6 December 1905, Wednesday (-14,398) Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen landed at Fort Egbert, Alaska, after a 2 � year exploration of America�s arctic coast.

5 December 1905. Tuesday (-14,399) The roof of Charing Cross Station collapsed, killing six people.

4 December 1905, Monday (-14,400) British Prime Minister Arthur Balfour resigned.

3 December 1905, Sunday (-14,401) British troops quelled a riot at Georgetown, British Guyana.

2 December 1905, Saturday (-14,402) Osvaldo Pugliese, Argentine composer, was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina (died 1995)

1 December 1905, Friday (-14,403) 20 Russian army officers and 230 guards were arrested at St Petersburg after a plot to kill the Tsar was uncovered.


30 November 1905, Thursday (-14,404) (Aviation) The Aero Club of America was formed in New York City.

29 November 1905, Wednesday (-14,405) Marcel Lefebvre, French Roman Catholic Bishop, was born (died 1991)

28 November 1905. Tuesday (-14,406) (1) Austria gained universal suffrage.

(2) Sinn Fein was founded in Dublin by Arthur Griffith.

26 November 1905, Sunday (-14,408)

25 November 1905, Saturday (-14,409) King Haakon VII arrived in Oslo.

24 November 1905, Friday (-14,410) Harry Barris, US composer, was born in New York (died 13 December 1962 in Burbank, California).

23 November 1905, Thursday (-14,411) In Britain, Liberal Party leader Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman proposed Home Rule for Ireland �by instalments�. His speech, at Stirling, Scotland, was attacked by former Liberal leader Lord Roseberry, on 25 November 1905.

21 November 1905, Tuesday (-14,413)

19 November 1905, Sunday (-14,415) The British steamer Hilda was wrecked off St Malo killing 128.

18 November 1905. Saturday (-14,416) Prince Carl of Denmark was chosen to be King Haakon VII of Norway.

17 November 1905, Friday (-14,417) Josef Marais, South African composer, was born (died 27 April 1978 in Los Angeles)

16 November 1905, Thursday (-14,418) Count Sergei Witte was appointed Prime Minister of Russia.

15 November 1905, Wednesday (-14,419) Annunzio Paolo Mantovani, British composer, was born in Venice (died in Tunbridge Wells, 30 March 1980)

14 November 1905, Tuesday (-14,420) Robert Whitehead, who invented the naval torpedo in 1866, died in Berkshire.

13 November 1905, Monday (-14,421) Clarence Hearn, Australian footballer, was born (died 1 April 1981).

12 November 1905, Sunday (-14,422) (1) Russia imposed martial law in Poland

(2) In the UK, Queen Alexandra launched an appeal for the unemployed.

11 November 1905, Saturday (-14,423) Israel Aaron Maisels, South African politician, was born in Johannesburg, (died 1994)

10 November 1905, Friday (-14,424) Amidst growing unrest in Russia, all Russian universities were closed. Mutinies broke out in Vladivostok and other cities.

9 November 1905, Thursday (-14,425) Erika Mann, German-US author, was born in Munich, Germany (died 1969)

8 November 1905. Wednesday (-14,426) In Odessa, Russia, 1,000 Jews were killed when a mob of 50,000 went on the rampage stabbing Jewish men, women, and children.

7 November 1905, Tuesday (-14,427) (Finland) Russia gave in to the Finnish General Strike, and restored conditions to as pre-1899.

5 November 1905, Sunday (-14,429)

3 November 1905, Friday (-14,431) (Namibia) In Namibia, Hendrik Witboi, Chief of the Hottentots, who had actually helped Germany suppress the Bondelzwart rebellion (10/1903) but who subsequently fell out with the German administrators, died aged 75. His son and successor, Samuel Isaac, now surrendered to the Germans. However a rebel Hottentot faction then emerged under Morenga, who continued guerrilla warfare against the colonisers.

1 November 1905. Wednesday (-14,433) Police closed George Bernard Shaw�s play, Mrs Warren�s Profession, because of its portrayal of prostitution.


31 October 1905, Tuesday (-14,434) In New York City, police banned the play Mrs Warren�s Profession, by George Bernard Shaw, after its first performance, because it portrayed prostitution.

30 October 1905. Monday (-14,435) (1) Aspirin went on sale in the UK for the first time.

(2) (Russia) Czar Nicholas II of Russia, on advice from Sergei Yulevitch Witte, issued a decree to turn his country from an absolute aristocracy into a semi-constitutional monarchy in an attempt to quell growing popular unrest, issuing the October Manifesto. However by the end of 1906 Czar Nicholas, with the opposition divided as to the acceptability of his reforms, was able to resume autocratic rule again.

28 October 1905, Saturday (-14,437) Michael Dragomirov, Russian military writer, died (born 8 November 1830).

26 October 1905. Thursday (-14,439) (Scandinavia) Norway and Sweden ended their union. King Oscar II of Sweden formally abdicated the crown of Norway.

25 October 1905, Wednesday (-14,440) (1) (Russia) The first meeting of the Soviet (Council) of Workers Deputies met in St Petersburg. There was widespread disorder across Russia, with a train strike preventing the British Ambassador leaving St Petersburg.

(2) (Britain) Lord Roseberry called for a future Liberal Government to challenge the power of the House of Lords.

24 October 1905, Tuesday (-14,441)

23 October 1905, Monday (-14,442) (Science) Swiss-US physicist Felix Bloch was born in Zurich, In 1927 he proved that some electrons could travel through a crystal array without being scattered.

22 October 1905, Sunday (-14,443) (Astronomy) Karl Jansky was born in Norman, Oklahoma. In 1931 his experiments with an improvised radio aerial led to the birth of radio astronomy. Some radio emissions were found to be coming from the Milky Way.

21 October 1905, Saturday (-14,444) (1) (Russia) A railway strike began in Russia, which became nation-wide by 25 October 1905. By the end of October this had become a general strike across Russia.

(2) (Rail Travel) A 110 km line of gauge 0.75 metres opened from Famagusta (Cyprus) via Nicosia to Morphou. It closed on 31 December 1951.

20 October 1905, Friday (-14,445) Ellery Queen, writer, was born.

18 October 1905, Wednesday (-14,447) (Road traffic) Kingsway and Aldwych, London, opened.

16 October 1905, Monday (-14,449) Ferdinand Richtofen, German geographical writer, died (born 5 May 1833 near Karlsruhe, Silesia)

15 October 1905, Sunday (-14,450) CP Snow, English novelist, was born (died 1980)

14 October 1905. Saturday (-14,451) Suffragettes Emmeline Pankhurst and Annie Kenney opted to go to prison for seven days rather than pay a fine for assaulting a policeman. The assault was at a political meeting at the Free Trade Hall in Manchester, where a leading Liberal politician, Sir Edward Grey, was making a speech.

13 October 1905, Friday (-14,452) Sir Henry Irving, the first British actor to receive a knighthood, gave his final performance in Bradford, Yorkshire, before collapsing and dying in the arms of his dresser at the Midland Hotel.

10 October 1905, Tuesday (-14,455)

6 October 1905, Friday (-14,459) Helen Wills, US tennis player, was born.

5 October 1905. Thursday (-14,460) (Aviation) Orville Wright became the first man to fly an aircraft for 38 minutes. He flew in a 24.5 mile circular course at Dayton, Ohio.

3 October 1905, Tuesday (-14,462) US zoologist Edmund Wilson described the XX and XY system of sex chromosomes.


28 September 1905, Thursday (-14,467) (Atomic) Albert Einstein published what is now known as his Special Theory of Relativity. This argued that light travelled at a constant speed for all observers regardless of position or motion, that e = mc2, and that time slowed down as one approached lightspeed.

25 September 1905, Monday (-14,470) Jacques Cavaignac, French politician, died (born 21 May 1853).

23 September 1905, Saturday (-14,472) Myron �Tiny� Bradshaw, US singer, was born iu Youngstown, Ohio (died 26 November 1958 in Cincinatti)

19 September 1905, Tuesday (-14,476) (1) Britain and Germany held simultaneous war manoeuvres.

(2) (Children) Doctor Thomas Barnardo, who set up over 112 homes for deprived children from 1867, died aged 60 at Surbiton, SW London.

18 September 1905. Monday (-14,477) Greta Garbo, the Swedish shop-girl who became a famous film star, was born.

16 September 1905, Saturday (-14,479)

15 September 1905, Friday (-14,480) Patrick O�Callaghan, athlete (hammer throwing) was born (died 1 December 1991).

14 September 1906, Thursday (-14,481) George McVeagh, Irish hockey, tennis, cricket and squash player, was born (died 5 June 1968)

13 September 1905, Wednesday (-14,482) Rene Goblet, French politician, died (born 26 November 1828).

12 September 1905, Tuesday (-14,483) Boris Arapov, Russian composer, was born in St. Petersburg, Russia (died 1992)

11 September 1905, Monday (-14,484) Figures were released showing rural lunacy on the rise; this was attributed to the tedium of living in the countryside.

10 September 1905, Sunday (-14,485) Pete Browning, American baseball player, died aged 44.

9 September 1905. Saturday (-14,486) (Earthquake) Severe earthquake killed thousands in Calabria, Italy.

8 September 1905, Friday (-14,487) In Britain, 1,997,000 people now belonged to Trades Unions.

7 September 1905, Thursday (-14,488) John Whitley, British air-marshal was born (died 1997)

6 September 1905, Wednesday (-14,489) Karl Heigel, German novelist, died (born 25 March 1835).

5 September 1905. Tuesday (-14,490) (1) The Treaty of Portsmouth (New Hampshire) was signed, ending the Russo-Japanese war. Japan acquired south Sakhalin from Russia, also the Russian leasehold territories in South Manchuria. Russia also recognised Japanese dominance in Korea, which led to Japan formally annexing Korea as a colony in 1910. Russia refused to pay any indemnities, sparking angry demonstrations in Tokyo (7 September 1905). This Treaty marked the start of Japanese expansion into China, which aroused unease in Washington.

(2) Hundreds died in clashes between Armenians and Tartars.

4 September 1905, Monday (-14,491)) (Africa) Pierre Paul Brazza, French explorer of Africa and founder of the French Congo (Brazzaville), died (born 26 January 1852).

3 September 1905, Sunday (-14,492) (Atomic) Physicist Carl David Anderson was born in New York City, USA. In 1932 he discovered the positron, a positively-charged antimatter version of the electron. This proved correct the 1928 prediction of Paul Dirac (1902-1984), that negative-energy particles corresponding to our positive energy ones should exist.

2 September 1905. Saturday (-14,493) Russia suffered its worst famine since 1891.

1 September 1905, Friday (-14,494) The Canadian Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were established, out of former Hudson�s Bay Company Territory.


31 August 1905, Thursday (-14,495) Robert Fox Bacher, US atomic physicist, was born,

30 August 1905, Wednesday (-14,496) (Canada) Alberta was constituted a province of Canada, created out of part of the North West Territories.

29 August 1905. Tuesday (-14,497) Russia and Japan agreed peace. An armistice was arranged for 31 August 1905. A peace treaty was signed between Russia and Japan on 5 September 1905 at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, USA.

25 August 1905, Friday (-14,501) The mutineers from the battleship Potemkin were sentenced. Eight were condemned to death. Heavy taxation, Russia�s defeat by Japan, and the Czar�s opposition to constitutional government were causing resentment.

23 August 1905, Wednesday (-14,503) English composer constant Lambert was born in London.

22 August 1905, Tuesday (-14,504) David Monro, English classical writer, died (born 16 November 1836).

21 August 1905, Monday (-14,505) Julius Oppert, German Assyriologist writer, died in Paris (born in Hamburg 9 July 1825)

20 August 1905, Sunday (-14,506) Chinese revolutionary Sun Yat Sen, exiled from China in 1895, had travelled the world in order to muster support to bring down the Manchu Dynasty. This day in Tokyo he formed the first Chapter of the T�ung Meng Hui, a union of all secret organisations aimed at overthrowing the Manchus.

19 August 1905, Saturday (-14,507) Tsar Nicholas II of Russia proposed an Imperial Duma (parliament), which would only be elected on a limited franchise and have only deliberative powers.

16 August 1905, Wednesday (-14,510)

13 August 1905, Sunday (-14,513) A referendum in Norway found 80% agreed with the separation from Sweden.

12 August 1905, Saturday (-14,514) Under Russian direction a pogrom of Jews occurred in Bialystock, Poland; 38 were killed and over 200 wounded.

11 August 1905, Friday (-14,515) (Biology) Austrian-American biochemist Erwin Chargaff was born in Czernowitz. He demonstrated in the 1940s that for DNA the number of adenine and thymine bases, and the number of cytosine and guanine bases, were equal. This was an important clue to the structure of DNA.

9 August 1905, Wednesday (-14,517)

8 August 1905, Tuesday (-14,518) (Women�s Rights) The Magazine Good House Keeping reported that three out of every four wives had to beg their husbands for more money; the Daily Mail, progressively, asked men to consider how they would feel in this situation.

7 August 1905, Monday (-14,519) Julius Stinde, German author, died near Kassel (born 28 August 1841)

5 August 1905, Saturday (-14,521) The preliminary meeting of the Japanese and Russian peace negotiators, at President Roosevelt�s home at Oyster Bay, New York State.

1 August 1905, Tuesday (-14,525) The founder of the Salvation Army, General William Booth, began a 2,000 mile crusade round Britain.


31 July 1905. Monday (-14,526) The Russian governor of Sakhalin Island surrendered to the Japanese.

29 July 1905, Saturday (-14,528) (1) In negotiations promoted by US President Roosevelt to end the Russo-Japanese War, the US Secretary of State, William Howard Taft, made a secret agreement with Japan. Japan could have a free hand in Korea in return for it not interfering with US activities in The Philippines.

(2) Dag Hammarskjold, Swedish Secretary-General of the United Nations, was born in Jonkoping.

24 July 1905, Monday (-14,533) (Germany, Russia) Kaiser William II of Germany and Czar Nicholas II of Russia signed the Treaty of Bjorko at a meeting in Finland. This proposed a mutual defence pact between the two countries if either was attacked by another European power. However the Russian Foreign Office opposed the Treaty because it threatened Russia�s relationship with France, upon whom Russia was dependent for aid. The German Chancellor, Von Bulow also opposed the Treaty, and Franco-German tension over the Morocco crisis left the Treaty dead in the water.

22 July 1905, Saturday (-14,535) Ralph Lingen, British civil servant, died.

18 July 1905, Tuesday (-14,539) (Railways) The first railway in Togo opened; from Lome 45 km to Anecho.

16 July 1905. Sunday (-14,541) Commander Peary of the USA set out on his second expedition to the North Pole.

13 July 1905, Thursday (-14,544) The Niagara Movement was founded in Ontario. It was a US Black organisation calling for more civil rights.

12 July 1905, Wednesday (-14,545) (Britain) In Britain, the Princess of Wales gave birth to a son, Prince John.

11 July 1905, Tuesday (-14,546) 124 miners died in a pit disaster in Glamorgan, south Wales.

10 July 1905, Monday (-14,547) A UK Parliamentary reshuffle meant 22 fewer Irish MPs.

9 July 1905, Sunday (-14,548) (London) Large Labour demonstration in Hyde Park, London.

8 July 1905. Saturday (-14,549) The crew of the battleship Potemkin surrendered to the Romanians at Constanta after a mutiny. Romania refused to extradite them back to Russia because it said the mutiny was a political act. The ship itself was returned to Russia on 9 July. The mutiny began as the battleship was watching the rioters in the city of Odessa. A sailor complained about bad food and was shot. The crew mutinied, on 27 June 1905, and threw the captain and several officers overboard; the remaining 8 officers joined the mutiny. A steamer laden with coal was seized and the coal transferred to the Potemkin.

6 July 1905, Thursday (-14,551)

5 July 1905, Wednesday (-14,552) Alfred Deakin returned to power as Australian Prime Minister after George H Reid, Conservative Prime Minister since 17 August 1904, resigned on 30 June 1905.

4 July 1905, Tuesday (-14,553) Dante Fiorillo, US composer, was born in New York City (died 1970)

3 July 1905. Monday (-14,554) Russian troops killed more than 6,000 people in Odessa to restore order after a general strike. The crew of the battleship Georgei Pobiedonosets surrendered to the authorities.

2 July 1905, Sunday (-14,555) Jean Rene Lacoste, tennis player, was born.

1 July 1905, Saturday (-14,556) The Colonial Office considered a plan to relocate Britain�s �surplus population� in various parts of the Empire.


30 June 1905, Friday (-14,557) (1) In Odessa the crew of the battleship Georgei Pobiedonosets mutinied in sympathy with the Potemkin crew. The naval mutiny spread and the whole Russian Black Sea Fleet was pout of action as crews sabotages ships� engines. Officers had to send crews ashore to avoid worse damage.

(2) Albert Einstein published his article �On the Electrodyamics of Moving Bodies�. This was the first paper to mention special relativity, which revolutionised modern physics.

29 June 1905. Thursday (-14,558) The inaugural meeting of the Automobile Association took place at the Trocadero Restaurant in London, attended by 50 motorists.

28 June 1905, Wednesday (-14,559) The Potemkin arrived at Odessa, and sailors took ashore the dead body of the first crewmate shot. This triggered a general revolutionary riot; sailors and civilians attacked and burnt granaries, quays and ships in harbour. Hundreds of people were killed as government troops tried to quell the disorder.

27 June 1905, Tuesday (-14,560) Mutiny on the Russian battleship Potemkin, see 8 July 1905. Meat served to the crew was spoiled, the sailors refused to eat it, an officer shot a crewman, and enraged sailors fired on their officers, killing the captain and all but 5 officers on board. A committee of 20 sailors took charge of the ship, which was then sailed to Romania.

25 June 1905, Sunday (-14,562) The battleship Potemkin sailed from Sevastopol for at-sea firing practice.

23 June 1905, Friday (-14,564) Tsar Nicholas II broke his promise regarding an elected assembly.

22 June 1905, Thursday (-14,565) Leigh Walter, British composer, was born in London (died 12 June 1942 in Tobruk)

21 June 1905, Wednesday (-14,566) Jean Paul-Sartre, French dramatist and novelist, was born in Paris.

20 June 1905, Tuesday (-14,567) Lillian Helman, US writer, was born (died 1984).

19 June 1905. Monday (-14,568) The world�s first all motion picture cinema opened in Pittsburgh. For 10 cents admission

there was a film, Poor But Honest, followed by The Baffled Burglar, accompanied by a melody on theharp by Madame Durocher.

18 June 1905, Sunday (-14,569) A group of striking textile workers from Lodz, Poland, were fired upon by Cossacks and soldiers, killing five. This led to several days of rioting, in which (official figures) 151 were killed, including 55 Poles, 79 Jews and 17 Germans. The Polish middle classes feared more unrest and over the next year some 33,000 applied for passports to emigrate from Poland.

13 June 1905, Tuesday (-14,574) (Greece) Theodoros Delyanni, Greek statesman, born 1826, was murdered in revenge for the strict measure shad had taken against gambling houses.

9 June 1905, Friday (-14,578) (Atomelectric) Albert Einstein first described his theory of the photoelectric effect.

8 June 1905, Thursday (-14,579) US President Roosevelt sent notes to both Japan and Russia urging them to end the conflict and offering his services as mediator.

7 June 1905. Wednesday (-14,580) Norway declared independence from Sweden (see 4 November 1814).Since the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Norway had been a self-governing subject of the Swedish Crown. In 1905 the provincial parliament voted to cut off relations with Sweden, and a plebiscite backed the move by 386,208 to 184 votes. In 1397 Margaret I succeeded in uniting Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In 1527 Gustav I cancelled that union, and Norway was ruled by Denmark until 1814, when it was ceded to Sweden under the Treaty of Kiel. Calls for Norwegian independence grew, especially after the adoption of universal suffrage in 1898.

6 June 1905, Tuesday (-14,581) Theophile Delcasse, French Foreign Minister since 1898, resigned under pressure from Germany.

4 June 1905, Sunday (-14,583)

3 June 1905. Saturday (-14,584) Cossacks charged at rioting crowds in St Petersburg.

2 June 1905, Friday (-14,585) (Road travel) The Royal Mail horse drawn parcel post coach from London to Brighton was replaced by a faster motor coach service.

1 June 1905, Thursday (-14,586) Emile Delahaye, founder of Delahaye Automobiles, died aged 62.


31 May 1905, Wednesday (-14,587)

30 May 1905, Tuesday (-14,588) Henry Warner Slocum, USA General, died in Brooklyn, New York (born 24 September 1827 in New York State)

27 May 1905. Saturday (-14,591) The Russian fleet was annihilated by the Japanese at the Battle of Tsushima. Tsar Nicholas II had sent a fleet of 38 ships on an 18-month voyage from the Baltic to the Far East, including 7 battleships and 6 cruisers. This was met in the Tsushima Straits by Admiral Togo who commanded a fleet of similar size. Battle began on the afternoon of the 27 May and recommenced at dawn on the 28th. All but 3 of the 38 Russian ships were sunk or captured; Japanese losses were just 3 torpedo boats. The Russian fleet was too late to save Port Arthur in any case, which had surrendered to Japan on 2 January 1905. Along with the humiliating defeat at Mukden (10 March 1905) the Tsar now had to accept a humiliating treaty allowing extensive Japanese territorial gains in northern China. The rest of the world now had to accept Japan as a major power, although until 1854 Japan had been a feudal state closed to the rest of the world.

25 May 1905, Thursday (-14,593) Europe�s first flight by a heavier-than-air machine.

24 May 1905, Wednesday (-14,594) Anti-Semitic riots in Warsaw, many Jews killed.

22 May 1905, Monday (-14,596) Emile Jonas, French composer, died in St Germaine en Laye (born 5 March 1827 in Paris)

18 May 1905, Thursday (-14,600) Hedley Verity, cricketer, was born (died 31 July 1943).

16 May 1905, Tuesday (-14,602) Bob Hope, US comedian, was born.

15 May 1905, Monday (-14,603) In the USA, Las Vegas was founded.

12 May 1905, Friday (-14,606) A Bill to give British women the right to vote failed; it was talked out of time. Under Parliamentary rules, a Bill is lost if MPs are still debating it when the House is due to adjourn.

9 May 1905, Tuesday (-14,609) The Chinese Government anno8unced that it was taking control of the Imperial Customs Service, removing Robert hart from office, who had been its Inspector-General since 1863.

8 May 1905, Monday (-14,610) In Russia the Union of Unions was formed by Paul Miliukov, demanding Parliamentary reform.

5 May 1905, Friday (-14,612) (Race Equality) The Chicago Defender, the first major African-American newspaper, began publication

1 May 1905, Monday (-14,617) In talks lasting until the 5th May, Paul Rouvier, French Prime Minister, failed to settle the Moroccan Question with Germany.


30 April 1905, Sunday (-14,618) (Russia) Tsar Nicholas II guaranteed freedom of conscience and freedom of worship in Russia.

29 April 1905, Saturday (-14,619) Rudolf Schwartz, Viennese conductor who survived the Nazi concentration camps to become conductor of the BBC Symphony Orchestra, was born.

28 April 1905, Friday (-14,620) Fitzhugh Lee, US cavalry General, died (born 19 November 1835).

26 April 1905, Wednesday (-14,622)

25 April 1905, Tuesday (-14,623) Britain drew up a new Constitution for the former Boer colony of Transvaal, but the Boers said it did not give them enough say in the government. The Het Volk Party, led by former Boer War commander Louis Botha, organised resistance.

24 April 1905, Monday (-14,624) (Crime, Punishment) China �de-barbarised� its death penalty procedure. By Imperial Edict, the body was no longer cut up and the head exhibited for public view.

23 April 1905, Sunday (-14,625) Easter Sunday.

22 April 1905, Saturday (-14,026)

21 April 1905, Friday (-14,627) The Crete Assembly voted for Union with Greece.

20 April 1905, Thursday (-14,628) The pillory was abolished in the US State of Delaware.

19 April 1905, Wednesday (-14,629) In Britain, a Judge ruled that the public had no right of access to Stonehenge.

18 April 1905, Tuesday (-14,630) Juan Valera, Spanish novelist, died (born in Cordova 18 October 1824)

15 April 1905, Saturday (-14,633)

11 April 1905, Tuesday (-14,637) The Russian Government stopped censoring private telegrams.

10 April 1905, Monday (-14,638) Joseph George Strossmayer, Croatian politician, died (born in Esseg 4 February 1815)

7 April 1905, Friday (-14,641)

4 April 1905, Tuesday (-14,644) An earthquake in Lahore, India, killed over 10,000 people.

3 April 1905, Monday (-14,645) Boca Juniors football club was founded in Buenos Aires, by an Irishman, Patrick MacCarthy. It went professional in 1931.

2 April 1905, Sunday (-14,646) The Simplon Railway Tunnel officially opened.

1 April 1905, Saturday (-14,647) (Africa) The Victoria Falls Bridge (Zimbabwe � Zambia) was completed.


31 March 1905, Friday (-14,648) (Britain, France-Germany, Morocco) Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany arrived in Tangier, Morocco, to give a speech in favour of Moroccan independence. This was intended to humiliate France, who saw Morocco as their own protectorate, and to test the closeness of the Franco-British entente. Germany intended to subsequently �grant France limited control in Morocco�, a move supposed to bring France closer to Germany and away from Britain. However Germany was surprised by the forcefulness with which British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey backed France; Germany was further isolated from France, Britain and hence Russia too. This event paved the way for the Agadir crisis of 1911.

30 March 1905, Thursday (-14,649) President Roosevelt was asked to mediate in the Far East war between Japan and Russia.

29 March 1905, Wednesday (-14,650) Edward Burra, English painter, was born (died 1976).

28 March 1905, Tuesday (-14,651) The Lawa railway from Paramaribo to Dam opened in Suriname

27 March 1905, Monday (-14,652) Fingerprints were used as evidence for the first time in Britain, to solve a murder case. Ann and Thomas Farrow had been killed when their shop was robbed, and Alfred Stratton�s fingerprint was found on the shop cashbox.

26 March 1906, Sunday (-14,653) William Nevett, horse racing champion, was born (died 9 May 1992).

25 March 1905, Saturday (-14,654) Robert Howland, athletics (shot put), was born (died 7 March 1986).

24 March 1905, Friday (-14,655) Jules Verne, French science fiction writer, died in Amiens aged 77.

23 May 1905, Thursday (-14,656) Mary Livermore, US social campaigner and writer, died (born 19 December 1821).

21 March 1905, Tuesday (-15,658)

20 March 1905, Monday (-14,659) Antonin Proust, French politician, died ( born in Niort 15 March 1832)

19 March 1905, Sunday (-14,660) Albert Speer, architect for the Nazis, was born.

18 March 1905, Saturday (-14,661)

17 March 1905, Friday (-14,662) Albert Einstein completed his scientific paper detailing his Quantum Theory of |Light, now a cornerstone of modern physics.

16 March 1905, Thursday (-14,663) Elisabeth Flickenschildt, German actress, was born in Hamburg, Germany (died 1977)

15 March 1905, Wednesday (-14,664) Fierce storms in Cornwall killed 23 as winds reached 100 mph.

14 March 1905, Tuesday (-14,665) (Football) Chelsea football club, London, was founded.

12 March 1905, Sunday (-14,667) Ongoing strikes and civil disorder in Italy forced Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti out of office. He returned on 29 March 1906.

10 March 1905, Friday (-14,669) The Japanese defeated the 200,000 strong Russian army at Mukden. Japan was on the verge of overextending its land forces, and Russia might have been able to gain the upper hand against them, with its large reserves, However unrest at home in Russia prevented this.

9 March 1905, Thursday (-14,670) Russia agreed to pay �65,000 compensation for the Dogger Bank incident of 1904.

8 March 1905, Wednesday (-14,671)

7 March 1905, Tuesday (-14,672) Auguste Lambermont, Belgian statesman, died (born 25 March 1819).

6 March 1905, Monday (-14,673) James Robert Wills, US country singer, was born near Kosse, Texas (died 13 March 1975 in Fort Worth, Texas)

4 March 1905, Saturday (-14,675)

3 March 1905, Friday (-14,676) Czar Nicholas II agreed to form a Consultative Assembly.

2 March 1905, Thursday (-14,677) (Britain) Dr Gore was installed as the first Bishop of Birmingham.

1 March 1905, Wednesday (-14,678) Britain announced that spending on the navy was to increase by 350%.


28 February 1905, Tuesday (-14,679) George Boutwell, US statesman, died in Groton, Massachusetts (born in Brookline, Massachusetts 28 January 1818)

25 February 1905, Saturday (-14,682) The Hague found against Russia in the Dogger Bank Incident and ordered Russia to pay compensation to Britain.

23 February 1905, Thursday (-14,684) The Rotary Club was founded by Paul Harris and others, in offices in Dearborn, Chicago.

19 February 1905, Sunday (-14,688) The Japanese began fighting the Russians for control of Mukden.

18 February 1905, Saturday (-14,689) Jay Cooke, US financier, died (born 10 August 1821).

17 February 1905, Friday (-14,690) (1) A typhus outbreak occurred in London�s East End.

(2) Grand Duke Sergei was killed in Moscow by an assassin�s bullet.

15 February 1905, Wednesday (-14,692) Harold Arlen, musician, was born in New York.

13 February 1905, Monday (-14,694) The Japanese laid siege to Vladivostock.

11 February 1905, Saturday (-14,696) 11 Frenchmen landed in Crystal Palace from a hot air balloon after crossing the Channel.

10 February 1905. Friday (-14,697) The state of Wisconsin passed a tax on bachelors aged over 30.

9 February 1905, Thursday (-14,698) In Britain, the Board of Education called for greater thrift amongst schoolchildren.

6 February 1905, Monday (-14,701) Wladyslaw Gomulka, post-War Polish leader, was born (died 1982).

4 February 1905, Saturday (-14,703) Eddie Foy Jr, US actor, was born in New Rochelle, New York

2 February 1905, Thursday (-14,705) Russian writer Maxim Gorky was released from prison.

1 February 1905, Wednesday (-14,706) The General Strike that began in Warsaw (27 January 1905) now spread to Czestochowa and the Dabrowa Basin.


31 January 1905, Tuesday (-14,707)

29 January 1905, Sunday (-14,709) Czar Nicholas II made proposals for reforming the criminal code, establishing worker�s insurance and improving work conditions. However these changes were too little too late and did not halt the rising mood of revolution.

27 January 1905, Friday (-14,711) A General Strike began in Warsaw in support of socialism and workers� rights. The army was brought in to suppress the strike and 29 companies of infantry along with 5 squadrons of cavalry and 4 Cossack companies killed (official figures) 64 strikers, a further 29 dying of their wounds later. In fact some 200 were killed and 270 wounded.

26 January 1905. Thursday (-14,712) The world�s largest diamond was found at the Premier Mines in Pretoria, South Africa, by Captain Wells. The Cullinan Diamond weighed over one and a quarter pounds.

25 January 1905, Wednesday (-14,713) Czar Nicholas II promised reforms.

24 January 1905, Tuesday (-14,714)

22 January 1905. Sunday (-14,716) Bloody Sunday in St Petersburg when 140,000 striking workers were fired on and 105 killed as they marched on the Winter Palace to protest peacefully at Tsar Nicholas II�s regime. The workers movement had begun on 16 January 1905 as a local strike but soon grew to encompass over 100,000 workers. They planned to present to the Tsar a petition calling for universal suffrage, equality for all classes, an 8-hour day, civil liberties and release of political prisoners. The workers were led by priest Georgi Gapon. Workers in St Petersburg elected a �Soviet� (�Council� in Russia), to debate matters such as pay and working conditions. This event sparked the Russian Revolution.

21 January 1905, Saturday (-14,717) Christian Dior, French designer, was born in Granville.

20 January 1905, Friday (-14,718) President Roosevelt took control of the Dominican Republic�s national and international debts, although the US Senate had not approved of this.

19 January 1905. Thursday (-14,719) 75,000 Russian workers went on strike amid growing civil disturbances, and anti-monarchist sentiments, fuelled by defeats by Japan.

18 January 1905, Wednesday (-14,720) Chick Chandler US actor, was born in Kingston, New York (died 1988)

17 January 1905, Tuesday (-14,721) Guillermo St�bile, Argentine footballer, was born (died 1966)

16 January 1905, Monday (-14,722) In Russia the Putilov Works was hit by a strike in support of four workers who had been dismissed. See 22 January 1905.

15 January 1905, Sunday (-14,723) Edward Teller, who developed the Hydrogen Bomb in 1952, was born to Jewish parents in Budapest.

14 January 1905, Saturday (-14,724) Ernst Abbe, German physicist (born 1840) died in Jena.

13 January 1905, Friday (-14,725) Robert Gifford, US painter, died (born 23 December 1840).

12 January 1905, Thursday (-14,726) Tex Ritter, actor, was born.

11 January 1905, Wednesday (-14,727) The price of a third class transatlantic liner ticket was �6.

10 January 1905, Tuesday (-14,728) Clemence Michel, French anarchist, died.

7 January 1905, Saturday (-14,731) The US Senate approved the first government appointment of a Black man, as head of South Carolina Customs Services.

4 January 1905, Wednesday (-14,734) Theodore Thomas, US musician, died (born in Essens, Germany, 11 October 1835)

2 January 1905, Monday (-14,736) Michael Tippett, English composer, was born.

1 January 1905. Sunday (-14,737) (1) Russians defending Port Arthur finally capitulated to the Japanese; the effort had cost the lives of 60,000 Japanese troops.

(2) The Trans-Siberian railway officially opened. Its aim was to facilitate trade between Russia and China. Furs, grain, and cattle from Siberia would be traded for tea, silk, and cotton from China.

(3) In Italy, Belgian Henri Oedenkoven founded the world�s first vegetarian organisation.


30 December 1904, Friday (-14,739) Russian composer Dmitri Kabalevsky was born in St Petersburg.

28 December 1904, Wednesday (-14,741) The first weather reports by wireless telegraphy were published in London.

27 December 1904, Tuesday (-14,742) The Abbey Theatre in Dublin opened, on the site of the former Mechanics Institute in Abbey Sttreet; the first State subsidised theatre in the world. The Irish State saw the theatre as a focus for nationalist literature and drama.

26 December 1904, Monday (-14,743) After months of unrest and riots in Russia, Tsar Nicholas II made decrees to improve the lot of the peasants.

25 December 1904, Sunday (-14,744) (Science) German-Canadian physicist Gerhard Hertzberg was born in Hamburg, Germany. In 1971 he was awarded the Nobel prize for his work on the geometry of molecules in gases.

15 December 1904, Thursday (-14,754) In London, British politician Joseph Chamberlain called for curbs on immigration; he said they were responsible for crime and disease.

13 December 1904. Tuesday (-14,756) London�s Metropolitan Railway went electric.

9 December 1904, Friday (-14,760) Elsie Randolph, British actress, was born in London (died 15 October 1981 in London)

6 December 1904, Tuesday (-14,763) US President Roosevelt extended the Monroe Doctrine (that the USA would permit no more foreign interference in the western hemisphere). Roosevelt stated that this meant the US has responsibility to seek redress for wrongs inflicted on a foreign State by a western hemisphere State. In effect, Roosevelt was asserting a right by the US to interfere in Latin American affairs.

5 December 1904. Monday (-14,764) The Japanese destroyed the Russian fleet at Port Arthur.

4 December 1904, Sunday (-14,765)

3 December 1904, Saturday (-14,766) Dillon Perrine discovered the 10th moon of Jupiter.

2 December 1904, Friday (-14,767) Ann Gilbert, US actress, died (born 21 October 1821).

1 December 1904, Thursday (-14,768) The Great World Fair, at St Louis, USA, closed, having had millions of visitors from all over the world.


30 November 1904, Wednesday (-14,769) The Japanese made headway against the Russians at Port Arthur, at the cost of 12,000 casualties.

29 November 1904, Tuesday (-14,770) A large increase in unemployment in Britain. Over 520,000 people in England and Wales were on Poor Relief, more than at any time since 1888, and a further 250,000 were reduced to living in workhouses, an 11% increase on 1903. Low wages meant a third of the population at or below the poverty line. Half the population of Scotland and a sixth of Londoners lived more than two people to a room.

28 November 1904, Monday (-14,771) Rebels in South West Africa were beaten by the Germans, see 3 October 1904.

25 November 1904, Friday (-14,774)

23 November 1904, Wednesday (-14,776) (Russia) Negotiations between Russia and Germany over a mutual defence treaty, both countries sharing a mutual tension with Britain, which had opened on 27 October 1904, ended this day when Russia insisted on consulting with France also.

22 November 1904, Tuesday (-14,777) (Atomic) Hannes Alfven of Sweden was born. In 1970 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for work in plasma physics.

21 November 1904, Monday (-14,778) A typhoon off Mindanao, The Philippines, rendered 30,000 people homeless.

20 November 1904, Sunday (-14,779) Alexandra Danilova, Russian ballerina, was born in Petergof, Russia (died 1997)

19 November 1904, Saturday (-14,780) Hans von Hopfen, German poet, died (born 3 January 1835).

18 November 1904, Friday (-14,781) (1) In Poland the illegal Polish Peasant Union (Polski Zwiazek Ludowy, PZL) was formed. It demanded a political voice for the workers and peasants.

(2) Gold was discovered in Rhodesia.

17 November 1904, Thursday (-14,782) First UK underwater voyage of a submarine was made, under the Solent from Southampton to the Isle of Wight.

16 November 1904, Wednesday (-14,783) Nnamdi Azikiwe, 1st President of Nigeria (1963-66), was born in Zungeru, (died 1996)

15 November 1904, Tuesday (-14,784) Tilly Losch, Austrian actress, was born in Vienna, Austria (died 1975)

14 November 1904, Monday (-14,785) Michael Ramsey, 100th Archbishop of Canterbury, was born (died 1988)

13 November 1904, Sunday (-14,786) In the Plac Gryzbowski, Warsaw, a serious worker uprising took place. In clashes with the police and army, 6 were killed, 27 wounded and hundreds arrested.

12 November 1904, Saturday (-14,787) In Namibia, Von Trotha took command of German forces.

11 November 1904, Friday (-14,788) Valentin Cameron Prinsep, English artist, died (born 4 February 1838)

8 November 1904. Tuesday (-14,791) US President Theodore Roosevelt won a second term in the elections.

6 November 1904, Sunday (-14,793) John James Stewart Perowne, religious writer, died (born in Bengal 13 March 1823)

4 November 1904, Friday (-14,795) Benjamin de Costa, US historical writer, died (born 10 July 1831).

2 November 1904. Wednesday (-14,797) The British newspaper The Mirror was founded by Alfred Harmsworth. Originally sold as a woman�s paper for 1d, it was subsequently relaunched as the Daily Illustrated Mirror price � d.

1 November 1904, Tuesday (-14,798) George Bernard Shaw�s play John Bull�s Other Island had its premier.


31 October 1904. Monday (-14,799) The radio valve was invented by John Fleming at London University.

30 October 1904, Sunday (-14,800) Alfred Gradstein, Polish composer, was born in Częstochowa (died 1954)

29 October 1904, Saturday (-14,801) Vivian Ellis, British composer, was born in Hampstead, London.

28 October 1904, Friday (-14,802) The Russian Czar agreed with Britain to refer the Dogger Bank incident to The Hague.

27 October 1904. Thursday (-14,803) The first section of the New York subway opened. Trains ran from City Hall to Broadway and 145th Street.

26 October 1904, Wednesday (-14,804) Sir Henry Wylie Norman, British Field Marshal, died (born 2 December 1826)

25 October 1904, Tuesday (-14,805) Japan began a heavy bombardment of the Russian-held forts at Port Arthur, under siege since June.

24 October 1904, Monday (-14,806), Four French officers were charged with lying in the Dreyfus case.

23 October 1904, Sunday (-14,807) Harvey Penick, US golfer, was born (died aged 90).

22 October 1904, Saturday (-14,808) The �Dogger Bank� incident nearly caused war between Britain and Russia. The Russian Baltic fleet sank two Hull trawlers on the Dogger bank. The Russian Commander, Admiral Rozhdestvensky, later claimed he thought they were Japanese torpedo boats, sent under false flags to attack, but there was widespread disbelief and indignation in Britain. The Russians were fearful of Japanese attack and on edge, guns ready; they suddenly found themselves surrounded by a flotilla of small boats. However when they realised their mistake they did not stop to help but steamed off into the night. The people of Hull were furious and demanded the British navy chase after the Russians to �teach them a lesson�. Only French diplomatic intervention prevented the incident from escalating further. The Russian fleet was on its way to fight the Japanese navy in the Pacific.Russia expressed regret and provided compensation.

21 October 1904, Friday (-14,809) US President Roosevelt called for a peace conference at The Hague to end the Russo-Japanese War.

20 October 1904, Thursday (-14,810) Bolivia and Chile signed a peace treaty ending the War of the Pacific. This recognised Chile�s possession of the Pacific coast it had taken, and provided for a railway link for Bolivia from La Paz to Arica (formerly, Peru) on the coast.

15 October 1904, Saturday (-14,815) George, King of Saxony, died,.

13 October 1904, Thursday (-14,817) Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud published his Interpretation of Dreams.

12 October 1904, Wednesday (-14,818) The Polish Archbishop, Wincenty Popiel, condemned socialism as being subversive of all institutions.

10 October 1904. Monday (-14,820) Kurdish tribesmen massacred Armenians in Turkey.

8 October 1904, Saturday (-14,822) The first Vanderbilt Cup motor race was held, in Long Island, New York, USA. It was set up by William Kissam Vanderbilt II, of the wealthy Vanderbilt family, a fan of motor racing and collector of cars until he died on 8 January 1944 (born 1878).

7 October 1904, Friday (-14,823) Isabella Bird Bishop, the first woman to be admitted to the Royal Geographical Society of London, died today aged 73. A sickly child, the family doctor advised her to travel and she did, widely, firstly to the western USA. Her last trip aboard was to Morocco in 1901. She established missionary hospitals in India and China.

6 October 1904, Thursday (-14,824)

4 October 1904, Tuesday (-14,826) Death of French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, designer of the Statue of Liberty.

3 October 1904. Monday (-14,827) France and Spain agreed that northern Morocco was recognised as a Spanish zone of influence.

2 October 1904, Sunday (-14,828) (Namibia) In Namibia, Von Trotha, exasperated by his lack of success at containing the Herero guerrilla warfare, issued a general order to shoot all Herero, armed or not, men women and children. He later modified this and ordered his soldiers to fire �over the heads of� women and children. Many Herero fled across the border to British-colonised territory.

1 October 1904, Saturday (-14,829) (Atomic) Austrian-British physicist Otto Robert Frisch was born in Vienna. He developed the fission theory, in 1939, for the bombardment of uranium by neutrons.


30 September 1904, Friday (-14,830) George Hoar, US politician, died (born 29 August 1836).

29 September 1904, Thursday (-14,831) Greer Garson, actress, was born.

26 September 1904, Monday (-14,834) Lafcadio Hearn, US writer om Japan), died aged 54

21 September 1904, Wednesday (-14,839) A General Strike in Italy, called by the Socialists, had spread across the country. Violence in Milan saw 3 miners killed by troops. This violence caused the end of the Strike this day.

20 September 1904. Tuesday (-14,840) The US Army rejected heavier than air flying machines.

16 September 1904, Friday (-14,844) (Innovation) Willis Carrier filed US patent no. 808897 for air conditioning. The basic idea of air conditioning had been known since Roman times, when it was noted that cool vapour rose from water thrown on hot stones. In 1902 a Brooklyn printer, Sackett-Williams, told Carrier that he had a problem with changing heat and humidity altering the colours unpredictably on his printing. Willis Carrier designed the first air conditioning unit, which weighed 30 tons. Dust control was added in 1906.

7 September 1904, Wednesday (-14,853) A treaty between the UK and Tibet gave Britain trading posts in Tibet and a promise that the Dalai Lama would not cede territory to a foreign power such as Russia. See 2 August 1904.

4 September 1904, Sunday (-14,856) Japanese forces captured Liao-Yang. 200,000 Japanese troops defeated 150,000 Russians. Japan suffered the heavier casualties, at 18,000 to 16,000.

3 September 1904, Saturday (-14,857) Hottentot Chiefs in Namibia refused to disarm their men.

1 September 1904, Thursday (-14,859) (Canada) Earl Grey was appointed Governor-General of Canada.


30 August 1904, Tuesday (-14,861) George Ridding, English Bishop, died (born 16 March 1828 in Winchester)

29 August 1904, Monday (-14,862) The 3rd Olympic Games opened in St Louis, Missouri.

28 August 1904. Sunday (-14,863) A treaty was concluded in London whereby France would allow the British freedom of action in Egypt in return for the British allowing the French a free hand in Morocco. For many years the nominally independent Sultanate of Morocco had been losing power as it became increasingly dependent on French, Spanish, and German business and subsidies for financial security. In October 1904 the French also concluded a secret treaty with the Spanish. This disturbed Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany who saw his country being squeezed out of North Africa. Wilhelm II therefore landed at Tangier on 31 March 1905. The sultan sided with the Germans and serious friction with the French resulted. On 161/1906 the Algecieras Conference was held. German claims were backed by Austria whilst French claims were backed by Britain. Germany failed to curb France�s privileged position in Morocco. See 8 April 1904.

26 August 1904, Friday (+-14,865) Joseph Hulme, footballer, was born (died 27 September 1991).

24 August 1904, Wednesday (-14,867) Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping was born in Sichuan Province.

21 August 1904, Sunday (-14,870) William �Count� Basie, US jazz composer, was born I Red bank, New jersey (died 26 April 1984 in Hollywood, Florida)

18 August 1904, Thursday (-14,873) Max Factor, cosmetics entrepreneur, was born.

17 August 1904, Wednesday (-14,874) In the UK, the Postmaster General reported that postcard usage increased by 25% in 1903.

16 August 1904, Tuesday (-14,875) Britain protested to Russia about attacks on neutral merchant shipping.

14 August 1904, Sunday (-14,877)

12 August 1904, Friday (-14,879) Tsarevich Alexis was born. He was haemophiliac and this resulted in the intervention of Rasputin in 1905.

11 August 1904, Thursday (-14,880) (1) The Russian fleet in harbour at Port Arthur was now vulnerable to Japanese gunfire from the hills near the town. Several Russian ships attempted to escape to sea but were forced back in harbour by the Japanese Navy.

(2) (Namibia) The Herero of Namibia were defeated by the Germans at Hamakari. Survivors were driven into the Kalahari Desert where waterholes had been poisoned. The Herero were reduced from a population of 80,000 to around 15,000. Survivors were placed in slave labour camps.

10 August 1904, Wednesday (-14,881) Gerald Bright, bandleader, was born in London (died 4 May 1974 in Vevey, Switzerland0

7 August 1904, Sunday (-14,884) Ralph Johnson Bunche, who became the first Black person to hold an important position at the US State Department, was born. He helped found the United Nations and won the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating the 1949 Arab-Israeli truce.

4 August 1904. Thursday (-14,887) The first Atlantic weather forecast was received by radio telegraph.

3 August 1904, Wednesday (-14,888) Tibet�s religious leader, the Dalai Lama, fled Lhasa as Lord Curzon�s forces entered the city.

2 August 1904, Tuesday (-14,889) The British had faced resistance by Tibetans against colonial expansion.On this day the British, successful against Tibet, entered Lhasa. See 7 September 1904. Britain was concerned about growing Russian influence over Tibet. In May 1904 the last serious Tibetan resistance, in the Karo Pass, had been overcome. 3,000 Tibetans had taken up position behind a wall connecting two forts fired on advancing British, Sikh and Ghurkha forces. However the Sikhs outflanked the Tibetans whilst the Ghurkhas climbed a precipice to fire down on them. The Tibetans fled, leaving 400 dead.

1 August 1904, Monday (-14,890) Birth of American jazzman Count Basie.


30 July 1904, Saturday (-14,892)

28 July 1904, Thursday (-14,894) (1) In Colombia, Rafael Rayes became dictator. After the loss ofPanama, Rayes now reformed Colombia�s finances.

(2) In Poland the Interior Minister, Plehve, was assassinated by the socialist revolutionary, Sazonov.

27 July 1904, Wednesday (-14,895) The first Buick made was sold to Dr Hilbert Hills, of Flint, Michigan.

26 July 1904, Tuesday (-14,896) Eugene Davy, rugby player, was born in Dublin.

25 July 1904, Monday (-14,897)

23 July 1904, Saturday (-14,899) The first ice cream cone was commercially sold, by Charles Menches in Missouri. See 13 December 1903.

22 July 1904, Friday (-14,900) Wilson Barrett, playwright, died (born in Essex 18 February 1846).

21 July 1904, Thursday (-14,901) The Trans-Siberian Railway was finally completed. The 4,607 miles of track took 13 years to lay.

20 July 1904, Wednesday (-14,902) (Sea and Canal) The new Kings Dock at Swansea was inaugurated.

19 July 1904, Tuesday (-14,903)

17 July 1904, Sunday (-14,905) The foundation stone of the Anglican Liverpool Cathedral was laid by King Edward VII.

16 July 1904, Saturday (-14,906) Islands of Manu'a group (Samoa) were ceded to the US by their chiefs.

15 July 1904, Friday (-14,907) (Light) Pavel Chenenkov was born in Voronezh, Russia. In 1934 he discovered that a particle travelling at close to the speed of light in a vacuum through a liquid or transparent solid travels faster than the speed of light in that medium, light is emitted. This is now known as Cherenkov radiation.

14 July 1904, Thursday (-14,908) Paul Kruger, leader of the Boer Republic of Transvaal during the Boer War, died.

13 July 1904, Wednesday (-14,909) Luigi Capuano, Italian film director and screenwriter, was born in Naples,(died 1979)

12 July 1904, Tuesday (-14,910) Britain and Germany signed a five-year treaty, to resolve disputes through arbitration rather than by military means.

11 July 1904, Monday (-14,911) Frederic Huntington, US religious writer, died (born 28 May 1819).

9 July 1904, Saturday (-14,913)

7 July 1904, Thursday (-14,915) James Cagney, film director, was born in New York.

6 July 1904, Wednesday (-14,916) (Japan) Russia sent two battle cruisers into the Red Sea to stop passage of ships belonging to nations they believed friendly to Japan, including Germany and Britain. After protests, Russia ordered these ships to desist on 3 September 1904.

5 July 1904, Tuesday (-14,917) The composer Edward Elgar was knighted.

4 July 1904. Monday (-14,918) Work began on the 40 mile-long Panama Canal.It opened on 15 August 1914.

3 July 1904. Sunday (-14,919) Hungarian-born Zionist Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) died in Vienna.He was a journalist, and the founder of Zionism.He rejected territories such as Uganda for a Jewish homeland, insisting on Palestine.

2 July 1904, Saturday (-14,920) Russian playwright, Anton Chekhov, born 17 January 1860 in Taganrog, died in Germany whilst being treated for tuberculosis.

1 July 1904, Friday (-14,921) The third Olympic Games opened in St Louis, USA.


30 June 1904, Thursday (-14,922) Robert Borthwick Adam, US book retailer and collector, died (born 1833)

29 June 1904, Wednesday (-14,923) Thomas Emmett, cricketer for England, died in Leicester (born 3 September 1841 in Halifax, Yorkshire)

28 June 1904, Tuesday (-14,924) Daniel Decatur Emmett, US composer, died in Mount Vernon (born 29 October 1815 in Mount Vernon, Ohio)

27 June 1904, Monday (-14,927) The second Fastnet Lighthouse came into service in SW Ireland.

26 June 1904. Sunday (-14,926) Japanese forces inflicted a heavy defeat on the Russians at Telissu.

25 June 1904, Saturday (-14,927) Wilhelm Jordan, German poet and novelist, died.

24 June 1904, Friday (-14,928) Richard Knill Freeman, British architect, died (born 1840)

23 June 1904, Thursday (-14,929) US President Roosevelt was nominated by his party for a further term.

22 June 1904, Wednesday (-14,230) The Cape to Cairo railway opened.

21 June 1904, Tuesday (-14,231) Mack Gordon, US songwriter, was born

20 June 1904, Monday (-14,232) Frederick Sandys, English painter, died in Kensington, London (born 1 May 1832 in Norwich)

9 June 1904, Thursday (-14,943) (1) First meeting of the Ladies Automobile Club.

(2) First concert by the London Symphony Hall.

6 June 1904, Monday (-14,946) Winston Joseph Field, Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 12/1962, was born in Bromsgrove, England.

3 June 1904, Friday (-14,949) (USA) Robert Keep, US educator, died (born 26 April 1844).

2 June 1904, Thursday (-14,948) Frantrisek Planicka. Czech footballer, was born.

1 June 1904, Wednesday (-14,951)


30 May 1904, Monday (-14,953) Japan captured Dairen, Manchuria, from Russia.

28 May 1904, Saturday (-14,955) Matthew Stanley Quay, US politician died (born in Pennsylvania 30 September 1833)

26 May 1904, Thursday (-14,957) George Formby, British musician, was born in Wigan (died 6 March 1961 in Penwortham)

25 May 1904. Wednesday (-14,958) In a major battle of the Russo-Japanese war at Nanshan, near Port Arthur, 4,500 Japanese and 3,000 Russians died. Oku sealed off Port Arthur by land and sea.

24 May 1904, Tuesday (-14,959) (Innovation) Engineer and inventor Friedrich Seimens died.

23 May 1904, Monday (-14,960) Introduction of cheap steerage rates encouraged migration from Europe to the USA.

21 May 1904, Saturday (-14,962) (Football) The Football Federation (FIFA) was founded in Paris, to obtain greater control of the game at international level.

20 May 1904, Friday (-14,963) Humphrey Hicks, croquet champion, was born (died 9 June 1986).

19 May 1904, Thursday (-14,964) Auguste Molinier, French historical writer, died (born 30 September 1851)

18 May 1904, Wednesday (-14,965) (USA) In Morocco, a US citizen, Ion H Perdicaris, was kidnapped by brigands under Raizuli. The USA sent a note to the Moroccan Government insisting on Perdicaris� release, or the capture of Raizuli, and in June 1904 Perdicaris was released. This incident boosted the US republican�s reputation for muscular protection of its interests abroad.

17 May 1904, Tuesday (-14,966) The French Ambassador to The Vatican was recalled to Paris. Earlier, on 24 April 1904, the Vatican had objected to a State visit by the French President to King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy.

16 May 1904, Monday (-14,967) Frank Rutley, English geologist, died in London (born 14 May 1842 in Dover)

15 May 1904, Sunday (-14,968)

11 May 1904. Wednesday (-14,972) Spanish painter Salvador Dali was born in Figueras, Upper Catalonia.

10 May 1904, Tuesday (-14,973) Sir Henry Morton Stanley, British explorer in Africa and journalist, died in London.

9 May 1904, Monday (-14,974) The City of Truro became the first locomotive to exceed 100 mph, on the run from Plymouth to London.

8 May 1904, Sunday (-14,975) Frederick York Powell, historical writer, died in Oxford (born 14 January 1850 in Bloomsbury, London)

7 May 1904, Saturday (-14,976)

6 May 1904, Friday (-14,977) Mexico officially created the post of Vice President.

5 May 1904, Thursday (-14,978) Gordon Richards, champion jockey, was born (died 10 November 1986).

4 May 1904. Wednesday (-14,979) Charles Rolls and Henry Royce agreed to join forces in the motor trade. Charles Rolls had set a new land speed record of 93 mph in Phoenix Park in Dublin in 1904, and now agreed to sell cars produced by Royce. Rolls had won the Thousand-Mile Trial of 1900, which had popularised motoring in Britain. Henry Royce was an electrical engineer from Manchester who produced his first car on 1 April 1904, a ten horsepower model praised for its excellent running.

3 May 1904, Tuesday (-14,980) John Breeden, US actor, was born in San Francisco, California (died 1977)

2 May 1904. Monday (-14,981)

1 May 1904. Sunday (-14,982) (1) The Battle of the Yalu marked the start of the Russo-Japanese War.

(2) Czech composer Antonin Dvorvak died.

(3) France and Belgium played their first international football match.


30 April 1904, Saturday (-14,983) The St Louis Exhibition opened.

29 April 1904, Friday (-14,984) Morgan Russ, US composer, was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania (died 7 August 1969 in Las Vegas)

26 April 1904, Tuesday (-14,987) John C Watson became leader of Australia�s first Labour Government, when Alfred Deakin resigned. However Watson himself resigned in August 1904.

24 April 1904, Sunday (-14,989) The French President Emile Loubert and Foreign Minister Theophile Delcasse visited King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. The Papacy was annoyed at the visit.

23 April 1904, Saturday (-14,990) The US acquired the assets of the French Panama Canal Company.

22 April 1904. Friday (-14,991) (1) Britain passed a Bill legalising peaceful picketing during strikes.

(2) Robert Oppenheimer, US scientist who developed the US atomic bomb at Los Alamos, was born in New York City.

20 April 1904, Wednesday (-14,993)

19 April 1904, Tuesday (-14,994) Sir Clement Foster, English geologist, died (born 23 March 1841)

18 April 1904, Sunday (-14,995) Sir Henry Thompson, English surgeon, died (born 6 August 1820 in Framlingham, Suffolk)

16 April 1904, Saturday (-14,997) Samuel Smiles, Scottish writer, died aged 92.

14 April 1904. Thursday (-14,999) The first attempt to produce �talking pictures� was made at the Fulham Theatre, London, using cinematography and a phonograph.

13 April 1904. Wednesday (-15,000) Russia lost its flagship battleship Petropavlosk and 600 men to a mine in an ill-fated sortie from Port Arthur.

12 April 1904, Tuesday (-15,001)

10 April 1904, Sunday (-15,003) Isabella II, Queen of Spain, died (born 10 October 1830).

9 April 1904, Saturday (-15,004) A train ran from Plymouth to London non-stop in less than 4 � hours, a record speed.

8 April 1904. Friday (-15,005) Entente Cordiale set up between Britain and France. Each country recognised the other�s colonial interests.France agreed not to interfere in Egypt and England agreed not to interfere in Morocco. Germany, which also wanted control in Morocco, felt threatened by this entente. Britain had become unpopular with many countries after the Boer War, and needed friends; relations with France had been strained since the Fashoda incident in 1898. Now both Britain and France felt anxious over the rise of the German economy and military might, especially its navy. The entente meant Britain�s navy could concentrate on defending the North Sea whilst France�s monitored the Mediterranean. See 28 August 2904.

5 April 1904, Tuesday (-15,008) The South African Bowling Association was formed.

3 April 1904, Sunday (-15,010) Easter Sunday.

2 April 1904, Saturday (-15,011) Arthur Griffith proposed that Ireland should separate from England, but retain the same King.

1 April 1904, Friday (-15,012) Sid Field, English actor was born (died 1950).


31 March 1904, Thursday (-15,013) British forces underMacDonald killed some 300 Tibetans attempting to halt a British mission to Tibet.

30 March 1904, Wednesday (-15,014) By-election in Melbourne, Australia, caused by electoral irregularities in the 1903 General Election.

29 March 1904, Tuesday (-15,015) Richmond Park in south-west London was opened to the public.

28 March 1904, Monday (-15,016) (1) Japanese troops captured the Korean town of Chengju from the Russians.

(2) (Denmark) The British King and Queen visited Copenhagen.

26 March 1904, Saturday (-15,018) Xenophon Zolotas, Prime Minister of Greece, was born.

24 March 1904, Thursday (-15,020) Sir Edwin Arnold, British poet, died (born 10 June 1832).

22 March 1904, Tuesday (-15,022) In the USA, the Daily Illustrated Mirror carried the world�s first colour picture in a newspaper.

20 March 1904, Sunday (-15,024) BF Skinner, psychologist, was born.

17 March 1904, Thursday (-15,027) (Britain) George William Frederick Charles, Duke of Cambridge, died (born 26 March 1819).

16 March 1904, Wednesday (-15,028) (1) The first books of stamps were issued by the GPO in Britain. They contained 24 one-penny stamps.

(2) (Netherlands) For health reasons, The Netherlands restricted the employment of women and children in trades where lead was used, also near dangerous machinery.

15 March 1904, Tuesday (-15,029) Mos� Bianchi, Italian painter, died (born 1840)

14 March 1904, Monday (-15,030) In the USA, a Court ruled (Northern Securities case) that proposed mergers of railway interests violated the Anti-Trust Act.

13 March 1904, Sunday (-15,031) Joachim Joseph Andr� Murat, French politician, died (born 1828)

12 March 1904, Saturday (-15,032) (Railways) The first main line electric train in Britain left Liverpool for Southport.

11 March 1904, Friday (-15,033) The Army Bill was passed in Hungary (see 16 September 1903), despite Magyar obstruction, using the guillotine. See 16 September 1903.

10 March 1904, Thursday (-15,034) Giovanni Cesari, Italian castrato singer, died (born 1843)

9 March 1904, Wednesday (-15,035) Dow Erastus Palmer, US sculptor, died in Albany USA (born 2 April 1817 in Pompey, New York)

8 March 1904, Tuesday (-15,036) (1) (Railways) The first rail tunnel under the Hudson River, New York, was completed (it did not open officially until 25 January 1908). The tunnel connected New Jersey with Manhattan.

(2) (Railways) The Denver and Salt Lake railway opened, between Ogden and Lucin, USA.

7 March 1904, Monday (-15,037) Ferdinand Fouque, French geologist, died (born 21 June 1828)

6 March 1904, Sunday (-15,038) (Japan) Japan bombarded Vladivostok.

5 March 1904, Saturday (-15,039) (Jewish) A new enquiry into the Dreyfus case began in France.

4 March 1904, Friday (-15,040) Charles Poisot, French musician, died (born 1822)

3 March 1904, Thursday (-15,041) GW Hunt, British composer, died in London

2 March 1904, Wednesday (-15,042) Theodor Seuss Geisel, author of children�s books, was born in Springfield, Massachusetts.

1 March 1904, Tuesday (-15,043) Glenn Miller, American trombonist, was born in Clarinda, Indiana.


29 February 1904, Monday (-15,044) (Panama) US President Roosevelt appointed a seven-man Panama Canal Commission to oversee the completion of the Canal.

22 February 1904, Monday (-15,051) The Hague Tribunal ruled against Venezuela and set the sums to be paid to Britain, Germany and Italy.

20 February 1904, Saturday (-15,053) Alexei Kosygin, Soviet Communist leader and Prime Minister, was born in Leningrad.

18 February 1904, Thursday (-15,055) Turks besieging Shemshi Pasha massacred 800 Albanians.

15 February 1904, Monday (-15,058) Marcus Hanna, US politician, died (born 24 September 1837).

14 February 1904, Sunday (-15,059) The Great Northern and City Railway opened, from Moorgate to Finsbury Park

12 February 1904, Friday (-15,061)

11 February 1904, Thursday (-15,062) (Chemistry) Russian chemist Vladimir Markovnikov died in Moscow.

10 February 1904, Wednesday (-15,063) Night attack by the Japanese crippled the Russian fleet at Port Arthur.

9 February 1904, Tuesday (-15,064) (Japan) Japan landed troops at Chemulpo (Inchon), near Seoul, Korea; within three weeks they had advanced to the Yalu River, border of Manchuria.

8 February 1904, Monday (-15,065) (Japan) The Russo-Japanese war broke out.This was provoked by Russian penetration into Manchuria and Korea.By 1898 Russia had secured the Pacific ice-free port of Port Arthur and had linked it to the Trans-Siberian railway going to Vladivostok and beyond.Japan ousted the Russians from Seoul, Korea.

The Russian army numbered 1,000,000 peacetime standing, plus 4,500,000 reserves; the Japanese army only comprised 150,000 men with 900,000 reserves. However the Russians faced a huge logistical problem because most of their forces had to be transported from Europe. The Trans-Siberian railway, still incomplete, was not up to the job. In an effort to resist the |Japanese they sent their Baltic Fleet around the Cape to the Pacific; en route they sank two British North Sea trawlers, thinking they were Japanese warships. See 30 January 1902. Fighting started when the Japanese attacked Port Arthur without warning, sinking two battleships and a cruiser, trapping the rest of the fleet in port. Only after this event did Japan declare war on Russia.

7 February 1904. Sunday (-15,066) A major fire destroyed much of the centre of Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

6 February 1904. Saturday (-15,067) (1) (Japan) Japan announced that due to what it saw as Russian provocation and delaying tactics, it was recalling its ambassador from Moscow.

(2) Maryland disenfranchised Black voters.

5 February 1904, Friday (-15,068) The US ended its occupation of Cuba.

4 February 1904, Thursday (-15,069) Predrag Milosevic, Serbian composer and conductor; was born in Knjazevac, Serbia (died 1988)

3 February 1904, Wednesday (-15,070) The Irish Nationalist leader John Redmond called for Home Rule.

2 February 1904, Tuesday (-15,071) Christabel Pankhurst entered the Free Trade Hall in Manchester where Liberal MP Winston Churchill was due to speak. She called for an amendment on women�s suffrage, and was ejected.

1 February 1904, Monday (-15,072) (1) Britain agreed with France to remain neutral if there was war between Russia and Japan.

(2) Iceland achieved Home Rule. However the Danish Constitutional laws of 1876 still applied in Iceland


31 January 1904, Sunday (-15,073)

29 January 1904, Friday (-15,075) The Esher Committee (see 7 November 1903) submitted preliminary recommendations on improving the British military. These included, an Army Council to reorganise the Army, also a Defence Counciloverseen by the Prime Minister to oversee the wider aims of UK defence. This later became known as the Committee of Imperial Defence.

28 January 1904, Thursday (-15, 076) Karl Franzos, German novelist, died (born 25 October 1848).

26 January 1904, Tuesday (-15,078) Fire caused major damage at the National Library, Turin, Italy.

22 January 1904, Friday (-15,082) The Norwegian city of Alesund burned down, leaving 12,000 homeless.

21 January 1904, Thursday (-15,083) Christian Dior, French fashion designer, was born.

20 January 1904, Wednesday (-15,084) 19 June 1841, Herman Eduard von Holst, German historical writer, died in Freiburg (born 19 June 1841 in Livonia)

19 January 1904, Tuesday (-15,085) Leo Soileau, US Cajun musician, was born in Ville Platte, Louisiana (died 1980)

18 January 1904, Monday (-15,086) Cary Grant, US film actor, was born in Bristol, England, as Alexander Archibald Leach.

17 January 1904, Sunday (-15,087) Sir Henry Keppel, British Admiral, died (born 14 June 1809).

16 January 1904, Saturday (-15,088) Phil Harris, US singer, was born in Linton, Indiana

15 January 1904, Friday (-15,089) Eduard Lassen, Belgian-Danish composer, died (born 1830)

14 January 1904, Thursday (-15,090) British photographer Cecil Beaton was born.

13 January 1904, Wednesday (-15,091) Richard Addinsell, British composer, was born in Oxford (died 14 November 1977 in London)

12 January 1904. Tuesday (-15,092) (1) (Road Traffic) Henry Ford set a new car speed record of 91.37 mph. The record was set on frozen Lake St Clair near Detroit.

(2) (Namibia) Uprising in the Namibian town of Okahandja against German rule. Kaiser Wilhelm II sent 14,000 troops under Lieutenant-GeneralLothar vn Trotha (who had previously suppressed the Boxer Rebellion in China) to quell the revolt.

11 January 1904, Monday (-15,093) British troops massacred 1,000 rebels in Somaliland, who were under the command of the �Mad Mullah�.

10 January 1904, Sunday (-15,094) Ray Bolger, actor, was born.

9 January 1904, Saturday (-15,095) George Balanchine, ballet choreographer, was born (died 1983).

8 January 1904, Friday (-15,096) Pope Pius X banned women from wearing low-cut dresses in the presence of Church dignitaries.

7 January 1904, Thursday (-15,097) Marconi International Marine Communications Company introduced a distress signal, CDQ, based on the general call code CQ. See 3 October 1906.

4 January 1904, Monday (-15,100) The US Supreme Court ruled that Puerto Ricans could enter the US freely, but were not entitled to US citizenship.

2 January 1904, Saturday (-15,102) James Longstreet, US Confederate soldier, died (born 8 February 1821).

1 January 1904, Friday (-15,103) The Motor Car Bill became Law in the UK. It required cars to display a number plate at front and rear, and to be registered with the local county or borough council. Drivers had to have an annually-renewable driving licence, costing 5 shillings (25p). This licence could be suspended or withdrawn by the courts. A motorist had to stop and assist the police at the scene of an accident. A new offence of �driving recklessly or negligently� was created. A new speed limit of 20 mph was introduced. The first motor vehicle registration plate was issued in Britain. It was �A1�, issued to Earl Russell for his �Napier�.


31 December 1903, Thursday (-35,104)

30 December 1903, Wednesday (-35,105) Major fire at a Chicago theatre, 602 killed in a panic stampede for the exit.

29 December 1903, Tuesday (-15,106) Clyde McCoy, US trumpeter, was born in Ashfield, Kentucky

28 December 1903, Monday (-15,107) George Gissing, English novelist, died (born 22 November 1857)

25 December 1903, Friday (-15,110) Albert Schaffle, German statesman, died in Stuttgart (born 24 February 1831 in Wurttemberg)

22 December 1903, Tuesday (-15,113) Rosette Anday, Hungarian born singer, was born in Budapest (died 28 September 1977 in Vienna)

19 December 1903, Saturday (-15,116) The Williamsburg Bridge, linking New York to Brooklyn, opened.

18 December 1903, Friday (-15,117) Robert Etheridge, English geologist, died (born 3 December 1819).

17 December 1903. Thursday (-15,118) The Wright Brothers made the first successful controlled heavier-than-air flight. The flight, over the sand dunes at Kill Devil Hill, near Kittyhawk, North Carolina, lasted for 12 seconds at a height of 8 to 12 feet and an air speed of 30 to 35 mph. The flight was 120 foot long. Three subsequent flights were made, the longest being 59 seconds and 852 foot long, before their craft was damaged by a sudden gust of wind.

16 December 1903, Wednesday (-15,119) Harold Whitlock, champion walker, was born (died 27 December 1985).

15 December 1903, Tuesday (-15,120) Italian-American food cart vendor Italo Marchiony received a USpatent for inventing a machine to make ice cream cones.

14 December 1903, Monday (-15,121) Phil MacPherson, rugby player, was born (died 2 March 1981).

13 December 1903. Sunday (-15,122) Carlos Montoya, Spanish flamenco guitarist, was born in Madrid, Spain (died. 1993)

12 December 1903, Saturday (-15,123) A British expedition entered Tibet.

11 December 1903, Friday (-15,124) The first wildlife preservation society was formed in Britain.It was called The Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of the Empire.

10 December 1903. Thursday (-15,125) Marie Curie, aged 33, won the Nobel Prize jointly with her husband for the discovery of radioactivity.

9 December 1903, Wednesday (-15,126) The Glasgow East End Industrial Exhibition opened in Duke Street, Glasgow, Scotland. It ran until 9 April 1904, attracting 908,897 visitors. The opening ceremony, led by Alexander Bruce, 6th Lord Balfour of Burleigh, was followed by a choral concert given by the Royal Marines.

8 December 1903, Tuesday (-15,127) Herbert Spencer, British philosopher, died.

2 December 1903, Wednesday (-15,133) James Sullivan, rugby player, was born (died 14 September 1977).


24 November 1903, Tuesday (-15,141) Sir John Maple, British business magnate, died.

19 November 1903, Thursday (-15,146) Hugh Scott, English novelist, died.

18 November 1903, Wednesday (-15,147) Panama granted the canal strip to US, by treaty ratified on 26 February 1904.

17 November 1903. Tuesday (-15,148) Vladimir Lenin emerged as leader of the Bolsheviks within the Russian Social Democratic party. A walk-out by disgruntled Jewish Social Democrats gave him the slight majority he needed. The opposition Mensheviks (minority) feared Lenin would suppress free debate and institute a one man dictatorship.

15 November 1903, Sunday (-15,150)

13 November 1903, Friday (-15,152) Camille Pisarro, painter, died,

12 November 1903, Thursday (-15,153) The Lebaudy brothers made a fully controlled dirigible flight, navigating 37 miles from Moisson to Paris.

11 November 1903, Wednesday (-15,154) Lavilla Esther Allen, US author, died (born 1834)

10 November 1903. Tuesday (-15,155) (1) 10,000 Chinese troops moved into Manchuria.

(2) Car windscreen wipers were patented by Mary Anderson.

9 November 1903, Monday (-15,156) Montague Rowton, British statesman, died in London (born 8 October 1838 in London)

8 November 1903, Sunday (-15,157) Vasily Dokuchaev, Russian geologist, died (born 1846)

7 November 1903, Saturday (-15,158) In the wake of the Boer war, Britain appointed the three-man Esher Committee to improve the British military.

6 November 1903, Friday (-15,159) The USA recognised Panamanian independence from Colombia, see 3 November 1903.

5 November 1903, Thursday (-15,160) James Brough, rugby player, was born (died 16 September 1986).

4 November 1903, Wednesday (-15,161) Henry Milton Taylor, 3rd Governor-General of the Bahamas was born (died 1994)

3 November 1903. Tuesday (-15,162) Panama revolted and declared itself independent from Colombia. At precisely 6pm the rebels bribed the Colombian garrison to surrender, the USS Nashville steamed into Panama harbour, and Panama proclaimed its independence. On 6 November 1903 the US recognised Panamanian independence. On 12 August 1903 the Colombian Senate had rejected US plans for a canal at Panama. On 18 November 1903 the US and Panama signed a treaty to build the Canal. See 22 January 1903.On 2 November 1903 the US sent three warships to Panama.

2 November 1903. Monday (-15,163) The Daily Mirror was first published in London, Britain, intended as a daily paper for women. See 1 November 1911, Woman�s Weekly first published.

1 November 1903, Sunday (-15,164) Theodor Mommsen, writer, died aged 87.


31 October 1903, Saturday (-15,165) Hampden Park, home of Glasgow�s Queen�s Park football ground, was opened.

30 October 1903, Friday (-15,166) Russia re-occupied Mukden, in violation of their promise to vacate Manchuria. This alarmed both China and Japan.

29 October 1903, Thursday (-15,167) Mieczysław Jastrun, Polish poet , was born (died 1983)

28 October 1903, Wednesday (-15,168) British novelist Evelyn Waugh was born.

26 October 1903, Monday (-15,170) Victorin Joncieres, French composer, died (born 12 April 1839).

22 October 1903, Thursday (-15,174) William Lecky, Irish historical writer, died (born 26 March 1838).

19 October 1903, Monday (-15,177) At 62 Nelson Street, Chorlton in Medlock, near Manchester, the home of Emmeline Pankhurst, the WSPU (Women�s Social and Political Union) was officially founded; its motto �Deeds not Words, to fight for female suffrage. In 1987 it became the Pankhurst Centre.

18 October 1903, Sunday (-15,178) Panamanian revolutionaries in New York purchased fabric from Macey�s to create the new Panamanian flag. Mr Bunau-Varilla, a French engineer who had worked on the now-bankrupt French Panama canal construction company, was named as the first Panamanian ambassador to the US, despite not being a resident of Panama.

17 October 1903, Saturday (-15,179) Following the Colombian Senate�s refusal, in August 1903, of the US�s offer (June 1902) to buy the Panama Canal Zone for US$ 10 million, Panamanian dissidents travelled to Washington and agreed to stage a US backed secession of Panama from Colombia. The date for this secession was set for 3 November 1903 at 6pm, local time. The Panamanians were led by Dr Manuel Amador. President Roosevelt was angered by the Colombian rebuttal, and was said to have referred to �those contemptible little creatures in Bogota�.

16 October 1903, Friday (-15,180) Cecille de Brunhoff, writer, was born.

15 October 1903, Thursday (-15,181)

13 October 1903, Tuesday (-15,183) The first US baseball World Series was won by Boston Red Sox.

12 October 1903, Monday (-15,184) The shipbuilders Cammel and Laird agreed to merge.

11 October 1903, Sunday (+15,185) Teddy Weatherford, US pianist, was born in Bluefield, West Virginia (died 25 April 1945 in Calcutta)

10 October 1903. Saturday (-15,186) (Women�s Rights) Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst formed the Women�s Social and Political Union to fight for female emancipation in Britain.�Deeds not Words� was the motto of the new group, after efforts to persuade some MPs to back Parliamentary reform bore no fruit.

8 October 1903, Thursday (-15,188)

7 October 1903, Wednesday (-15,189) In the US, Professor Samuel Langley attempted to fly a heavier-than-air machine, but failed.

6 October 1903, Tuesday (-15,190) Manchester University formally opened.

5 October 1903, Monday (-15,191) In Berlin, a Siemens electric train reached 125 mph.

3 October 1903, Saturday (-15,193)

2 October 1903, Friday (-15,194) A section of the old Roman Wall of London was discovered during the demolition of other buildings.

1 October 1903, Thursday (-15,195) The Russian railway system was linked to European railways.


29 September 1903, Tuesday (-15,197) (1) Prussia became the first country to require car drivers to have licences

(2) Count Witte, Russian Financial Minister, was dismissed. This signalled the supremacy of the Russian Government faction favouring continued Russian expansion in Manchuria and Korea.

26 September 1903, Saturday (-15,200) Connecticut gave women the vote in State elections.

25 September 1903, Friday (-15,201) Mark Rothko, US artist, was born.

24 September 1903, Thursday (-15,202) (1) George Darwin first suggested that the Earth is heated by radioactivity.

(2) Following the resignation of Edmund Barton to become a Justice of the High Court, Alfred Deakin became the second Prime Minister of Australia. Like Barton, Deakin was a liberal protectionist. He remained as Prime Minister over most of the next seven years.

23 September 1903, Wednesday (-15,203)

22 September 1903, Tuesday (-15,204) The Packard car factory opened.

21 September 1903, Monday (-15,205) The first Wild West movie, Kit Carson, opened in the USA. It was 21 minutes long.

20 September 1903, Sunday (-15,206)

19 September 1903, Saturday (-15,207) Belgian King Leopold denied any ill treatment of indigen9ous peoples in the Belgian Congo. This was in response to a note sent by Britain ti Belgium on 19 august 1903 protesting about conditions there (see also 20 May 1903)

18 September 1903, Friday (-15,208) (Britain) Alexander Bain, Scottish educationalist, died in Aberdeen 18 September 1903 (born in Aberdeen, 11 June 1818).

17 September 1903, Thursday (-15,209) (1) Turks massacred 10,000 in Macedonia.

(2) In the UK, Joseph Chamberlain resigned over tariff reform. Chamberlain wanted preferential tariffs for Empire countries to maintain the unity of the British Empire. However the Duke of Devonshire, C T Ritchie, Lord Balfour of Burleigh and Lord George Hamilton preferred global free trade.

16 September 1903, Wednesday (-15,210) Franz Joseph of Austria proposed to bring Hungarian Army regiments in under a unified military command. This provoked opposition from the Magyars. However see 11 March 1904.

15 September 1903, Tuesday (-15,211) Roy Acuff, Country and Western musician, was born in Maynardsville, Tennessee.

14 September 1903, Monday (-15,212)

12 September 1903, Saturday (-15,214) Maxwell Close, Irish geologist, died (born 1822).

11 September 1903, Friday (-15,215) A pogrom at Czetochowa, Poland, many Jews were killed.

8 September 1903, Tuesday (-15,218) (1) Turks massacred 50,000 Bulgarians.

(2) The TUC in Britain opposed the Government�s tariff policy favouring Empire imports.

1 September 1903, Tuesday (-15,225) (1) The Albula rail tunnel, Norway, 6 km long, opened.

(2) The UK banned sugar imports from Denmark, Argentina, and Russia as part of a policy for preference for Empire imports. The TUC opposed this policy.

(3) Macedonian rebels blew up a Hungarian steamer, killing 29.


31 August 1903, Monday (-15,226) Unrest continued in the Balkans, with atrocities committed by all sides.

30 August 1903, Sunday (-15,227)

28 August 1903, Friday (-15,229) Frederick Law Olmsted, US landscape architect, died (born 27 April 1822 in Hartford, Connecticut)

27 August 1903, Thursday (-15,230) Donald George Bradman, Australian cricketer, was born.

26 August 1903, Wednesday (-15,231) Women got the vote in Connecticut State elections.

25 August 1903, Tuesday (-15,232) A Royal Commission into the Boer War criticised poor campaign planning and revealed that 100,000 British lives were lost.

24 August 1903, Monday (-15,233) Gerald Balding, polo champion, was born (died 16 September 1957)

23 August 1903, Sunday (-15,234)

22 August 1903. Saturday (-15,235) Lord Salisbury, four times Conservative Prime Minister, died, aged 73.

21 August 1903, Friday (-15,236) Tom Fetch concluded a 63-day endurance drive from New York to San Francisco, to prove that US-made cars could manage a continental crossing.

19 August 1903. Wednesday (-15,238) At the sixth Zionist conference in Basle, Switzerland, there were arguments over whether to set up a Jewish State in Uganda.

15 August 1903, Saturday (-15,242) Joseph Pulitzer gave US$ 2 million to Columbia University to start a school of journalism.

14 August 1903, Friday (-15,243) The UK Parliament approved a scheme to help Irish tenant famers buy their own land. Public funds would be used to pay the difference between what tenants could afford and what landlords will accept. The scheme was to remove some causes of Irish Nationalist agitation, at a time when agriculture was prospering, with wages rising and exports of linen weaving, spinning, brewing and distilling were growing.

12 August 1903, Wednesday (-15,245) The Colombian Senate rejected US plans for a Canal at Panama, see 3 November 1903.

9 August 1903, Sunday (-15,248) Pope Pius X was crowned before a crowd of 70,000 in Rome.

7 August 1903, Friday (-15,250) James Farrell, rugby player, was born (died 24 October 1979).

5 August 1903, Wednesday (-15,252) Phil May, English caricaturist, died (born 22 April 1864).

4 August 1903, Tuesday (-15,253) Guiseppe Sarto was elected as Pope; he took the name Pius X.

3 August 1903, Monday (-15,234)

2 August 1903, Sunday (-15,255) The revolutionary organisation VMRO (Vnutrasnja Makedonska Revolucionarska Organizacija, or Internal Revolutionary Macedonian Organisation) staged the Illinden Uprising against Ottoman rule. They hoped to bring in the major European powers, but the rebellion was badly organised and its leader, Gotse Delchev, was captured and executed before it even began. The European powers avoided involvement in the uprising and it was brutally suppressed by the Ottomans. However post-event the Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph, and Tsar Nicholas II of Russia forced the Ottoman Government to pay compensation to Macedonia and allow in foreign observers.

1 August 1903, Saturday (-15,256) Calamity Jane, prominent figure in the US Wild West, died of pneumonia this day, aged 51 (born 1 May 1852).


31 July 1903, Friday (-15,257) Alexander Graham Bell�s proposition that radium could be used to treat cancer appeared in the US journal, Science.

28 July 1903, Tuesday (-15,260) Mother Jones arrived at the home of President Roosevelt having completed a 100 mile march to highlight the condition of child workers. At this time nearly 2 million US children aged under 16 worked in factories and mines.

23 July 1903, Thursday (-15,265) The Ford Motor Company sold its first car, a Model A that cost US$850 and could reach 30 mph.

22 July 1903, Wednesday (-15,266) Cassius Clay, US politician, died (born 19 October 1818).

21 July 1903, Tuesday (-15,267) The Irish Land Purchase Act was passed. This gave incentives for landlords to sell holdings to the irish Land Commission, which would collect annuities from tenants rather than rent.

20 July 1903, Monday (-15,268) (1) The UK Government announced it was to send large numbers of troops to India.

(2) Leo XIII (Gioacchino Vincenzo Pecci), Pope since 1878, died aged 93.

19 July 1903, Sunday (-15,269) Frenchman Maurice Garin won the first Tour de France. Only 20 out of 60 competitors completed the race,

18 July 1903, Saturday (-15,270) Bozidar Kunc, composer, was born.

17 July 1903, Friday (-15,271) James Whistler, painter, died aged 70.

16 July 1903, Thursday (-15,272) Adalberto Libera, Italian Modernist architect, was born in Trentino (died 1963)

15 July 1903, Wednesday (-15,273) Walter Dumeaux Edmonds, US novelist, was born in Booneville, New York.

14 July 1903, Tuesday (-15,274) The UK Government rejected calls for penalties for drunk driving, driving tests and vehicle inspection.

13 July 1903, Monday (-15,275) Benjamin von Kallay, Austro-Hungarian statesman, died (born 22 December 1839).

12 July 1903, Sunday (-15.276)

11 July 1903, Saturday (-15,277) The world�s first power boat race was staged by the Cork Yacht Club in Ireland.

10 July 1903, Friday (-15,278) Kenneth Clarke, UK Conservative politician, was born (died 1983).

9 July 1903, Thursday (-15,279) 27 September 1842, Tuesday (-37,478) Alphonse Renard, Belgian geologist, died in Brussels (born 27 September 1842 in Renaix)

8 July 1903, Wednesday (-15,280)

7 July 1903, Tuesday (-15,281) Britain�s falling birth-rate would result in a halt to population growth in 18 years.

6 July 1903, Monday (-15,282) (Britain, France) French President Emile Loubet, and Theophile Delcasse, visited London to begin the Entente Cordiale.

5 July 1903, Sunday (-15,283)

4 July 1903, Saturday (-15,284) 4 July 1903, The Pacific Cable opened between Honolulu and Manila. President Roosevelt of the USA inaugurated the Pacific Communications Cable with a global message.

3 July 1903, Friday (-15,285) The UK and Japan demanded that Russia withdraw from Manchuria.

2 July 1903, Thursday (-15,286) Sir Alec Douglas Home, Conservative Prime Minister, was born in London.

1 July 1903, Wednesday (-15,287) (1) Aviator Amy Johnson was born in Hull.

(2) The first Tour de France cycle race began. It was sponsored by Henri Desgrange, the proprietor of a French newspaper, L�Auto, to poach readers from a rival publication, Le Velo, which already staged what were till then the biggest cycle races in France, Bordeaux to Paris and Paris to Brest. The Tour de France, announced in January 1903, was to be 2,500 km long, taking 19 days to complete. Just 21 of the 60 entrants completed the race, competing for prize money totalling 20,000 Francs.


30 June 1903, Tuesday (-15,288) Daniel Godfrey, military musician, died in Beeston, Nottingham (born 4?9/1831 in London)

25 June 1903, Thursday (-15,293) Birth of author George Orwell, in Motihari, Bengal, India.He was born as Eric Arthur Blair.

22 June 1903, Monday (-15,296) Ben Pollack, US bandleader, was born in Chicago (died 7 June 1971 in Palm Springs, California)

21 June 1903, Sunday (-15,297) Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven described the first electrocardiograph

20 June 1903, Saturday (-15,298)

19 June 1903, Friday (-15,299) Walter Hammond, cricketer, was born (died 1 July 1965).

18 June 1903, Thursday (-15,300) Jeanette MacDonald, actress and singer, was born.

17 June 1903, Wednesday (-15,301) Serbia restored its more liberal constitution of 1889.

16 June 1903. Tuesday (-15,302) The Ford Motor Company was founded. Also this day the name Pepsi-Cola was registered with the US patent office.

15 June 1903, Monday (-15,303) (Yugoslavia) The Serbian Assembly elected Prince Peter, 59, to succeed Alexander I, who had been assassinated on 11 June 1903 along with his wife and several courtiers.

14 June 1903, Sunday (-15,304) (Medical) Karl Gegenbaur, German anatomist, died in Heidelberg.

12 June 1903, Friday (-15,306)

11 June 1903, Thursday (-15,307) (Yugoslavia) King Alexander Obrenovic of Serbia and Queen Draga were assassinated in Belgrade by army officers. King Alexander had been pro-Austrian and this outraged Serbs who, under the Black Hand organisation, wanted to take control of �Serb� lands from Austria (including those such lands inhabited by Bosnian, Macedonians and Croats). The Black Hand were strong in the Serbian military and the Serbian Government had been reluctant to remove them, despite pressure from other European countries to do so, for fear of provoking their own assassination.

10 June 1903, Wednesday (-15,308) Luigi Cremona, Italian mathematician, died (born 7 December 1830).

9 June 1903, Tuesday (-15,309) In Germany, the Daimler Motor Company factory at Cannstadt was destroyed by fire.

8 June 1903, Monday (-15,310) The French bombarded the town of Figig, Algeria, in retaliation for native attacks on French colonialists.

6 June 1903, Saturday (-15,312) Armenian composer Aram Khachaturian was born in Tblisi.

4 June 1903, Thursday (-15,314) A Russian decree restricted Jewish ownership of property.

1 June 1903, Monday (-15,317) Peter Lesley, US geologist, died (born 17 September 1819).


29 May 1903, Friday (-15,320) Bob Hope, comedian, was born.

28 May 1903. Thursday (-15,321) Earthquake in Constantinople killed 2,000 people.

27 May 1903, Wednesday (-15,322) George Scott-Wood, British composer, was born in Glasgow (died 28 October 1978 in London)

26 May 1903, Tuesday (-15,323) The Paris to Madrid motor race was banned after the deaths of 6 people.

25 May 1903, Monday (-15,324) Ralph Reader, British actor, was born in Crewkerne, Somerset (died 13 May 1982 in Bourne End, Buckinghamshire)

23 May 1903, Saturday (-15,326) A Packard car left San Francisco for New York, completing the first successful transcontinental drive across the United States. The journey took 52 days, owing to the poor state of the roads, which limited car usage at the time.

21 May 1903. Thursday (-15,328) Joseph Chamberlain, the colonial secretary, founded the Tariff League to promote a preferential trading system within the British Empire.

20 May 1903, Wednesday (-15,329) In Britain a debate in the House of Commons began over treatment of indigenous people in the Belgian Congo. Britain became involved in this after a report by the British Consul, Roger Casement, and because Britain wanted to stand for �the civilised treatment of colonial peoples�.

19 May 1903, Tuesday (-15,330) The Buick Motor Company was founded, as a division of Buick Auto Vim and Power Company. The Buick Model B went on sale in 1904. William C Durant became General Manager and used the profits to establish General Motors in 1908, which Buick later became part of.

15 May 1903, Friday (-15,334) (1) (Iran, Russia) British Foreign Secretary Lord Lansdowne announced that Britain would strongly resist the establishment of any fortified base by another power on the Persian Gulf. This was aimed at countering expansionist plans by Russia.

(2) London�s first electric tram service began, running from Tooting to Westminster Bridge.

12 May 1903, Tuesday (-15,337) Lennox Berkeley, English composer, was born (died 1989).

8 May 1903, Friday (-15,341) Death of French Impressionist painter Eugene Henri Paul Gauguin, on the Marquesas Islands, Polynesia, aged 54. He was born in Paris in 1848 and spent a short time with Vincent Van Gogh. He died of syphilis. Gauguin had given up a successful career on the Paris stock exchange at 35 to pursue painting, at which he was self-taught.

4 May 1903, Monday (-15,345) John Hurst, US religious writer, died (born 17 August 1834).

3 May 1903, Sunday (-15,446) Actor and singer Bing Crosby was born (died 1977).

2 May 1903, Saturday (-15,347) US paediatrician Dr Benjamin Spock was born in New Haven, Connecticut.

1 May 1903, Friday (-15,348) (France) King Edward VII of Britain began a State visit to France (until 4 May), where he strengthened Anglo-French relations, but Anglo-German ones deteriorated. On 8 May 1903 an entente cordiale was signed between Britain and France.


30 April 1903, Thursday (-15,349)

29 April 1903, Wednesday (-15,350) (Earthquake) Earthquake in Van, Turkey, killed 860.

28 April 1903, Tuesday (-15,351) Josiah Gibbs, US mathematician, died (born 11 February 1839).

22 April 1903, Wednesday (-15,357) (USA) The new New York Stock Exchange opened at 18 Broad Street.

19 April 1903, Sunday (-15,360) A pogrom began in Kishinev, in which 50 Jews were killed.

14 April 1903, Tuesday (-15,365) (1) In New York, the typhus vaccine was discovered by Dr Harry Plotz.

(2) Bulgarians massacred 165 Muslims in Macedonia.

13 April 1903, Monday (-15,366) A railway and dock strike in The Netherlands that began on 6 April 1903 was ended when the Government brought in troops. This raised socialist support amongst Dutch workers generally.

12 April 1903, Sunday (-15,367) Easter Sunday. The world�s first municipal motor bus service began, between Eastbourne railway station and Meads, Sussex.

8 April 1903, Wednesday (-15,371) Anti-Semitic riots in Kishinev.

6 April 1903, Monday (-15,373) The Dreyfus documents were proved to be forgeries by the army, in Paris.

3 April 1903, Friday (-15,340) James Wesley Miley, US singer, was born (died 20 May 1932)

2 April 1903, Thursday (-15,341) Violent clashes between students and police in Spain.


29 March 1903, Sunday (-15,381) A regular news service began between New York and London began, using Marconi�s wireless.

27 March 1903, Friday (-15,385) In Dublin, the Bank Holiday (Ireland) Act made St Patrick�s Day, 17 March, a public holiday.

26 March 1903, Thursday (-15,386) The first vehicle speed trials were held at Daytona Beach, Florida

25 March 1903, Wednesday (-15.385) Sir Hector MacDonald, British soldier, died.

24 March 1903, Tuesday (-15,386) (Biology) Adolf Friedrich Butenandt was born in Bremerhaven, Germany. In 1929 he isolated oestrone, a female sex hormone.

23 March 1903, Monday (-15,387) (Aviation) US patent no. 821393 was filed for the first aeroplane. The patent was filed by Orville Wright (1871-1948), and his brother Wilbur Wright (1867-1912). They tried to sell the aeroplane but without a demonstration flight people were sceptical of the notion that heavier-than-air machines could fly.

22 March 1903, Sunday (-15,388) Niagara Falls dried up due to a drought.

21 March 1903, Saturday (-15,389) In the US, the grievances that caused the 1902 miners� strike were resolved with a 10% pay rise and shorter working day, The mine owners, however, refused to recognise the United Mine Workers Union.

20 March 1903, Friday (-15,390) Charles Godfrey Leland, US writer, died aged 78.

19 March 1903, Thursday (-15,391) US Senate ratified the tariff reduction treaty signed with Cuba on 11 December 1902.

18 March 1903, Wednesday (-15,392) An anti-clerical French Government dissolved all religious orders.

17 March 1903, Tuesday (-15,393) The US Senate ratified the Hay-Herran treaty of 2 January 1903 providing for the construction of the Panama canal. Terms included a 100-year lease on a ten mile wide strip of land in the Colombian province of Panama, on payment of US$ 10 million and annual rental of US$ 250,000 thereafter. However thye Colombian Senate rejected this treaty on 12 August 1903.

16 March 1903, Monday (-15,394) Trial of Jack the Ripper.

15 March 1903, Sunday (-15,395) The British completed the conquest of northern Nigeria.

14 March 1903, Saturday (-15,396) The US Senate ratified construction of the Panama Canal.

13 March 1903, Friday (-15,397) Nikolaas Beets, Dutch poet, died in Utrecht (born in Haarlem 13 September 1814).

12 March 1903, Thursday (-15,398) The University of Puerto Rico was officially founded.

11 March 1903, Wednesday (-15,399) Lawrence Welk, US musician, was born in Strasburg, North Dakota.

10 March 1903, Tuesday (-15,400) The Academy of Medicine, Paris, issued a report denouncing alcohol as detrimental to health.

8 March 1903, Sunday (-15,402)

6 March 1903, Friday (-15,404) In response to the growing German navy, construction began on a huge new British naval base at Rosyth.

5 March 1903, Thursday (-15,405) (Turkey) A revised German-Turkish Treaty regarding the Berlin to Baghdad railway was agreed. Construction of the Turkish section was to begin in July 1903.

4 March 1903, Wednesday (-15,406) (Britain, France) King Edward VII of Britain concluded a visit to Paris, during which Anglo-French relations were strengthened.

3 March 1903, Tuesday (-15,407) The USA passed a bill to limit immigration and ban �undesirables�.

2 March 1903, Monday (-15,408) The Standard Motor Company of Britain was registered.

1 March 1903, Sunday (-15,409) The Ligue Nationaliste Canadienne was founded in Quebec, Canada, by Henri Bourassa and Olivar Asselin.


28 February 1903, Saturday (-15,410) Vincente Minnelli, film director, was born.

27 February 1903, Friday (-15,411) George Hill, English writer, died (born 7 June 1835).

26 February 1903, Thursday (-15,412) (1) In the UK, a Commons Debate called for curbs on immigration.

(2) Richard Gatling, US inventor of the rapid-fire gun, died aged 84.

25 February 1903, Wednesday (-15,413) King Clancy, Canadian ice hockey player, was born (died 1986)

24 February 1903, Tuesday (-15,414) British troops fought Somali rebels.

23 February 1903, Monday (-15,415) The US signed a deal with Cuba to lease 45 square miles of land at Guantanamo Bay for 2,000 gold coins (about US$ 4,000) a year. Fidel Castro later refused to accept this money.

22 February 1903, Sunday (-15,416) The world�s first ships newspaper was published, on the liner Etruria.

21 February 1903, Saturday (-15,417) Red rain fell in southern England, coloured by dust from the Sahara.

18 February 1903, Wednesday (-15,420) Matthias Sindelar, Austrian footballer, was born.

15 February 1903, Sunday (-15,423) (USA) The first teddy bear was sold from Michtom�s candy store, New York. The origin of teddy bears was that in 1902 on a hunting trip by President Theodore Roosevelt, his assistants tied a bear to a tree so he could shoot it; Roosevelt refused such unsporting conduct and set the bear free instead.

14 February 1903, Saturday (-15,424) Stuart Erwin, US actor, was born (died 1967)

13 February 1903, Friday (-15,425) Venezuela came to an agreement with its creditors to submit the case for arbitration at The Hague.

12 February 1903, Thursday (-15,426) Gaspar Nunez de Arce, Spanish statesman, died in Madrid (born 1834 in Valladolid).

11 February 1903, Wednesday (-15,427) US Congress adopted the Expedition Act. This authorised the US Attorney-General to �expedite� anti-Trust cases through the Courts, as President Roosevelt�s �Trust-busting� campaign grew in popularity.

10 February 1903, Tuesday (-15,428) Two new roads in London were named; Kingsway, after King George VII, and Aldwych.

9 February 1903, Monday (-15,429) Sir Charles Duffy, Irish writer, died (born 12 April 1816).

8 February 1903, Sunday (-15,430) Tunku Abdul Rahman, first Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaysia, was born (died 1990)

7 February 1903, Saturday (-15,431) James Glaisher, English meteorologist, died (born 7 April 1809).

6 February 1903, Friday (-15,432) (Road, Rail) In the UK, a Royal Commission was set up to find a solution to London�s traffic jams. Options included new electric tramways, but these would take up valuable road space, or new tube lines, following the success of the �twopenny tube� opened in 1900 from Shepherds Bush to Bank (now the Central Line).

5 February 1903, Thursday (-15,433) Henry Dawes, US lawyer, died (born 30 October 1816).

4 February 1903, Wednesday (-15,434) Alexander Imich, US chemist, was born in Czestochowa (died 2014)

3 February 1903, Tuesday (-15,435) The British captured Kano from Nigerian rebels.

2 February 1903, Monday (-15,436) Bartel Leendert van der Waerden, Dutch mathematician, was born in Amsterdam (died 1996)

1 February 1903, Sunday (-15,437) Martin Delbruck, Prussian statesman, died (born 16 April 1817).


31 January 1903, Saturday (-15,438) Wilhelm Meyer Lutz, German composer, died in London.

30 January 1903, Friday (-15,439)

28 January 1903, Wednesday (-15,441) Jean Robert Planquette, French composer, died in Paris (born 31 March 1848 in Paris)

27 January 1903, Tuesday (-15,442) John Carew Eccles, neuropsychologist, was born.

22 January 1903, Thursday (-15,447) The USA and Colombia signed a treaty to allow construction of the Panama Canal. See 3 November 1903.

20 January 1903, Tuesday (-15,449) The first showing of the musical, The Wizard of Oz, at the Majestic Theatre, New York.

19 January 1903, Monday (-15,450) The creation of a new bicycle race, the Tour de France, was announced.

18 January 1903, Sunday (-15,451) Henri Blowitz, journalist, died (born in Bohemia 28 December 1825).

17 January 1903, Saturday (-15,452) Quintin Hogg, polytechnic founder, died.

16 January 1903, Friday (-15,453) (Road traffic) The first saloon car, the Duryea, appeared at the Stanley Motor Show.

15 January 1903, Thursday (-15,454) The Australian Government started a bonus scheme to persuade sugar growers to employ White labour.

14 January 1903. Wednesday (-15,455) (Road traffic) The Motor Car Act in the UK required British drivers to have licences. It set the minimum age as 17 for cars and 14 for motor cycles; prior to this the youngest driver was a 6 year old, Master Ernest Bond of Bishopston, Bristol, whose father had designed a motor bike specially for him. See 14 January 1893 for the world�s first driving licences, in France. See also 13 March 1935, driving tests in the UK.

13 January 1903, Tuesday (-15,456) (Weather) The Society Islands in the Pacific were hit by a hurricane; 5,000 were killed.

12 January 1903, Monday (-15,457) (Atomic) Igor Vasilevich Kurchatov was born in Sim, Russia. In 1946 he became director of the first Soviet nuclear reactor.

11 January 1903, Sunday (-15,468) South African author and anti-apartheid activist Alan Paton was born (died 1988)

10 January 1903, Saturday (-15,459) British sculptress Barbara Hepworth was born.

9 January 1903, Friday (-15,460) In India a great durbar (reception) marking the coronation of King Edward VII ended (began 1 January 1903). 16,000 prisoners in India were released to mark the occasion.

6 January 1903, Tuesday (-15,463) Albert Einstein, now aged 23, married Mileva Maric (see 14 February 1919)

4 January 1903, Sunday (-15,465) British forces under General Manning landed at Obbia to attack the army of Mohammed bin Abdullah, the so-called ;Mad Mullah�.

2 January 1903. Friday (-15,467) President Roosevelt closed a Post Office in Missouri for refusing to employ a Black postmistress.

1 January 1903, Thursday (-15,468) (1) King George VII was proclaimed Emperor of India.

(2) The Pacific Cable opened between Honolulu and San Francisco.


31 December 1902, Wednesday (-15,469) (1) Ina test of the Monroe doctrine, British and German naval ships seized the Venezuelan navy and shelled a fort in Caracas, to enforce payment for property seized without compensation during the 1899 revolution. The US pressurised the two countries to end the blockade and refer the matter to the international court in The Hague.

(2) (Railways) The railway from Djibouti was completed as far as Dire Dawa.

30 December 1902, Tuesday (-15,470) Spain sent warships to Tangiers, Morocco.

27 December 1902, Saturday (-`15,473) Sam Coslow, US composer, was born in New York

25 December 1902, Thursday (-15,475) Pope Leo XIII, in his Christmas Encyclical, endorsed the Christian Democratic Movement as an alternative to the more radical Socialists and Communists. These latter groups had great appeal to those feeling excluded from the advances and promises of society.

23 December 1902, Tuesday (-15,477) Frederick Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury, died (born 1821)

22 December 1902, Monday (-15,478) Joseph Thompson, rugby player, was born.

21 December 1902, Sunday (-15,479) Patrick Hughes, tennis champion, was born.

20 December 1902, Saturday (-15,480) Italy also made financial claims on Venezuela. US President Roosevelt was asked by all parties to mediate.

19 December 1902, Friday (-15,481) Venezuela defaulted on repayments on loans taken out to pay for infrastructure improvements.

18 December 1902, Thursday (-15,482) In London, the Committee of Imperial Defence held its first meeting.

17 December 1902, Wednesday (-15,483) Britain agreed to arbitration over its financial claims on Venezuela.

16 December 1902, Tuesday (-15,484) An earthquake in Turkestan killed 4,000.

13 December 1902, Saturday (-15,487) British and German warships began bombarding the Venezuelan forts at Puerto Bello.

11 December 1902, Thursday (-15,489) The US agreed a treaty with Cuba providing for a 20% reduction in tariff rates on US imports from Cuba. US Senate ratified this treaty on 19 March 1903.

10 December 1902. Wednesday (-15,490) (1) Major Ronald Ross of the British army won the Nobel Prize for medicine because of his work relating malaria to mosquitoes.

(2) (Egypt) The large dam at Aswan, Egypt, was completed. At 130 foot high, with a 114 mile long lake, it had taken four years to build.

9 December 1902. Tuesday (-15,491) The Swiss Government agreed to build the Simplon Railway Tunnel.

7 December 1902, Sunday (-15,493) Britain and Germany demanded that President Cipriano Castro Venezuela pay for damages caused to their assets within the country during his takeover in 1899. When Cipriano failed to comply, British and German warships blockaded the port of Caracas.

4 December 1902, Thursday (-15,496) Peter Yorke, British composer, was born in London (died 10 February 1966 in London)

1 December 1902, Monday (-15,499) (Road Traffic) The first patent for disc brakes, GB 26407/1902, was filed in the UK by Frederick William Lanchester (1868-1946) of Warwickshire.


28 November 1902, Friday (-15,502) Joseph Parker, English religious writer, died (born 9 April 1830 in Hexham on Tyne)

27 November 1902, Thursday (-15,503) George Camsell, footballer, was born (died 7 March 1966).

26 November 1902, Wednesday (-15,504) In New Zealand, the Progressive Party gained a fifth consecutive election victory.

25 November 1902, Tuesday (-15,505)

24 November 1902, Monday (-15,506) Alfred Ellaby, rugby player, was born (died 29 September 1993).

23 November 1902, Sunday (-15,507) (Medical) Walter Reed, US military surgeon, died in Washington DC.

22 November 1902. Saturday (-15,508) In Germany, the steel magnate Friedrich Krupp (1854-1902), head of Germany�s largest manufacturing firm and the richest man in the country, died unexpectedly of a stroke.He was aged 48. Friedrich�s father Alfred had founded the Krupp Company but Friedrich had been in charge since the age of 33 when his father died.

21 November 1902, Friday (-15,509) Canada started to catalogue and classify its many public statues.

18 November 1902, Tuesday (-15,512)

17 November 1902, Monday (-15,513) Hugh Hughes, British religious writer, died (born 8 February 1847).

16 November 1902, Sunday (-15,514) George Henty, English war journalist, died (born 12/1832).

15 November 1902, Saturday (-15,515) King Leopold II of Belgium was attacked by anarchist Genaro Rubbino.

13 November 1902, Thursday (-15,517) Persia agreed preferential trade terms favouring Russia, and discriminating against British goods.

9 November 1902, Sunday (-15,521) British film director Anthony Asquith was born.

8 November 1902, Saturday (-15,522) The Kaiser arrived in London on a 12-day State Visit to try and improve Anglo-German relations.

5 November 1902, Wednesday (-15,525)

2 November 1902, Sunday (-15,528) (Medical) Rudolf Albert von Kolliker, Swiss anatomist and physiologist, died in Wurzburg, Bavaria.

1 November 1902, Saturday (-15,529) (1) (France, Italy) Italy signed the Franco-Italian entente with Italy. Italy assured France it would remain neutral if France was attacked.

(2) (Chad) Italy, which had just taken Libya from Turkey, agreed to the Libya-Chad border as settled by Britian and France in 1899.


31 October 1902, Friday (-15,530) The Pacific Cable was completed at Suva.

28 October 1902, Tuesday (-15,533)

26 October 1902, Sunday (-15,535) Elizabeth Cady Stanton, American leader of the women�s suffrage movement, died aged 86.

25 October 1902, Saturday (-15,536) Frank Norris, US novelist, died.

24 October 1902, Friday (-15,537) The Santa Maria volcano in Guatemala began a 2-day eruption.

23 October 1902, Thursday (-15,538) Irish MPs protested violently in the Houses of Parliament, London.

22 October 1902, Wednesday (-15,539) The North British Hotel opened at Edinburgh�s Waverley Railway Station.

21 October 1902, Tuesday (-15,540) (USA) A strike by 140,000 anthracite miners, mainly in Pennsylvania, ended, over 4 months after it began on 12 May 1902, after President Roosevelt threatened to call in the army to run the mines. The price of coal in the US had risen steeply through the summer as the mine owners refused to even recognise the United Mine Workers (UMW) Union, let alone negotiate with it.

20 October 1902, Monday (-15,441) The Philippines Government approved a bid to build an electric streetcar system in Manila.

19 October 1902, Sunday (-15,442) Alfred Richard Cecil Selwyn, British geologist, died in Vancouver (born 28 July 1824 in Kilimington, Somerset)

18 October 1902, Saturday (-15,443) Miriam Hopkins, US actress, was born in Savannah, Georgia (died 1972)

17 October 1902, Friday (-15,544) The first Cadillac car, made in Detroit, was sold in the USA.

16 October 1902. Thursday (-15,545) The first Borstal institution opened, at the village of Borstal near Rochester, Kent.

15 October 1902, Wednesday (-15,546) US President Roosevelt threatened to send in troops to end a miner�s strike.

14 October 1902, Tuesday (-15,547) (USA) The Court of Arbitration in The Hague decided, in the case of the Pious Fund (see 22 May 1902) in favour of the USA, calling on Mexico to pay US$ 1,402,682.

10 October 1902, Friday (-15,551) Irish landowners, who were mainly English aristocrats, proposed talks between them and the Irish tenants, but this initiative was rejected. Following a no-rent campaign that began in 1901, evictions had increased,

7 October 1902, Tuesday (-15,554) George Rawlinson, English historian (born 23 November 1812) died.

6 October 1902. Monday (-15,555) A railway between Bulawayo and Salisbury was completed. It ran a total of 2000 miles down to Cape Town.

5 October 1902, Sunday (-15,556) Ray Kroc, businessman who developed the McDonalds chain, was born (died 1984)

3 October 1902, Friday (-15,558)


30 September 1902. Tuesday (-15,561) Rayon, or artificial silk, was patented by Samuel Slocum.

29 September 1902. Monday (-15,562) Writer Emile Zola, and valiant champion of Captain Dreyfus, died, accidentally, gassed by charcoal fumes.

28 September 1902, Sunday (-15,563) 15,000 requests a week for South African gold mining permits.

27 September 1902, Saturday (-15,564) A British Crown ordinance authorised White settlement of the east African uplands.

26 September 1902, Friday (-15,565) Levi Strauss, US manufacturer of denim jeans, died aged 73 (born 1829)

25 September 1902, Thursday (-15,566) Al Hoffman, US composer, was born in Derevno, near Minsk (died 21 July 1960 in New York)

24 September 1902, Wednesday (-15,567) The Bailundo revolt began in Angola as Portuguese soldiers led by Pedro Massano de Amorim arrived from Luanda and entered Bailundo fort in readiness for anticipated attack.

23 September 1902, Tuesday (-15,568) John Wesley Powell, US geologist (born 24 March 1834) died.

22 September 1902. Monday (-15,569) (1) Czar Nicholas II abolished the nominal independence of Finland and appointed a Russian Governor-General.

(2) The earliest British airship, 75 foot long, built by Stanley Spencer, made its maiden flight of 30 miles from Crystal Palace, London.

21 September 1902, Sunday (-15,570) Sir Allen Lane, English publisher who founded Penguin books and brought about the paperback revolution, was born.

20 September 1902, Saturday (-15,571) Stevie Smith, poet and novelist, was born (died 1971)

19 September 1902, Friday (-15,572) Herbert Waddell, rugby player, was born (died 5 January 1988)

18 September 1902, Thursday (-15,573) U.S. Navy Lieutenant Commander Robert Peary, Arctic explorer, arrived in Sydney, Nova Scotia, 4 years after having departed.

17 September 1902, Wednesday (-15,574) The USA sent a note to Romania protesting at anti-Semitism there. Anti-Semitism was prevalent across Europe, and many Jews were emigrating to the Americas.

16 September 1902, Tuesday (-15,575) Jakob Sporrenberg, Nazi official and war criminal, was born in Dusseldorf (executed, 1952)

15 September 1902, Monday (-15,576) Horace Gray, US jurist, died (born 24 March 1828).

14 September 1902. Sunday (-15,577) In Dublin, 20,000 protested against strict law and order measures imposed by the British Government under a State of Emergency.

13 September 1902. Saturday (-15,578) Britain�s first conviction on fingerprint evidence was obtained by the Metropolitan Police in a case at the Old Bailey against Harry Jackson.

12 September 1902, Friday (-15,579) Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, 21st President of Brazil, was born.

11 September 1902, Thursday (-15,580) Ernst Dummler, German historical writer, died (born 2 January 1830).

9 September 1902, Tuesday (-15,582)

7 September 1902, Sunday (-15,584) The whole of Australia was asked to pray for rain after seven years of drought. Rain did fall 3 days later.

6 September 1902, Saturday (-15,585) (1) (Environment) Whale hunt in the Shetlands. 166 were caught.

(2) (Angola) An insurrection, several months in duration, against Portuguese rule finally ended in Angola. The costs of this had bankrupted the Portuguese State.

5 September 1902, Friday (-15,586) (Medical) Rudolf Carl Virchow, German pathologist, died in Berlin.

4 September 1902, Thursday (-15,587) The Absaroka National Forest was established in Montana by the US General Land Office.

3 September 1902, Wednesday (-15,588) The Trades Unions Congress voted in London to back independent Labour Parliamentary candidates rather than rely on local alliances with Liberals.

2 September 1902, Tuesday (-15,589) Edward Egglestone, US author (born 10 December 1837 in Vevay, Indiana) died in Lake George, New York.

1 September 1902. Monday (-15,590) (1) The AA (Automobile Association) organised a motor car trial to demonstrate the reliability of the new machines. 63 cars drove from Crystal Palace, south London, to Folkestone and back. Most completed the 139 mile route successfully, and the AA logged the performance of each car.

(2) A State of Emergency was declared in Dublin.


31 August 1902, Sunday (-15,591) Phil Carig, US composer, was born in New York (died 21 July 1960 in New York)

30 August 1902, Saturday (-15,592) Labour MP Kier Hardie protested at the Taff Vale court decision.

29 August 1902, Friday (-15,593) A cholera epidemic in Egypt killed over 9,000.

26 August 1902, Tuesday (-15,596) Jimmy Rushing, US jazz and blues singer, was born in Oklahoma City (died 8 June 1972 in new York)

24 August 1902, Sunday (-15,598) Fernand Braudel, French historical writer, was born (died 1985).

22 August 1902, Friday (-15,600) Theodore Roosevelt became the first incumbent US President to travel by car. He very much preferred horse and carriage.

21 August 1902, Thursday (-15,601) (USA) Franz Sigel, German and US soldier, died in New York City (born 18 November 1824 in Baden)

18 August 1902, Monday (-15,604) The Shah of Persia arrived in London on a State Visit.

12 August 1902, Tuesday (-15,610) Foreign embassies were attacked in Caracas, Venezuela.

11 August 1902, Monday (-15,611) King Edward VII gave Osborne House, where Queen Victoria had died, to the nation.

10 August 1902, Sunday (-15,612) (Chemistry) Arne Wilhelm Tiselius, Swedish chemist, was born in Stockholm.

9 August 1902, Saturday (-15,613) King Edward VII, born 9 November 1841, was crowned in Westminster Abbey. The coronation had been delayed from June because the King had appendicitis.

8 August 1902, Friday (-15,614) The British Academy, London, was granted a Royal Charter.

7 August 1902, Thursday (-15,615) (Germany) Rudolf Bennigsen, German politician, died (born in Luneburg 10 July 1824).

6 August 1902, Wednesday (-15,616) Luis Carl Russell, US pianist, was born in Panama (died 11 December 1963 in New York)

5 August 1902, Tuesday (-15,617) Antenor Firmin formed a rebel government in Haiti at Gonaives.

4 August 1902, Monday (-15,618) The Greenwich foot tunnel under the Thames opened. It replaced a ferry that had existed here since 1676.

3 August 1902, Sunday (-15,619) First parcel post left the UK for the USA, on board the liner Teutonic.

2 August 1902, Saturday (-15,620) Ernie Harper, marathon runner, was born.

1 August 1902, Friday (-15,621) 100 miners died at a pit disaster at Wollongang, Australia.


31 July 1902, Thursday (-15,622) Sir George Oswald, cricketer, was born (died 29 November 1969).

30 July 1902, Wednesday (-15,623) The US militia restored order in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, after a street fight between striking coal miners and police, resulting in at least one death.

29 July 1902, Tuesday (-15,624) John Watson champion jockey, died.

28 July 1902, Monday (-15,625) Karl Popper, scientist, was born (died 1994).

27 July 1902, Sunday (-15,626) A powerful earthquake struck Santa Barbara County, California.

26 July 1902, Saturday (-15,627) Charles Adams, US historian (born 24 January 1835) died.

25 July 1902, Friday (-15,628) Alfred Choubrac, French painter and illustrator, died from pneumonia (born 1853)

24 July 1902, Thursday (-15,629) Robert Schwenke, German, was granted a patent for his front wheel drive system.

23 July 1902, Wednesday (-15,630) Bournemouth Corporation Tramways, UK. began operating

22 July 1902, Tuesday (-15,631) (Poland) Miecislaus Ledochowski., Polish Cardinal, died.

21 July 1902, Monday (-15,632) Joseph Kesselring, US playwright, was born in New York City (died 1967)

20 July 1902, Sunday (-15,633) John MacKay, US industrialist, died (born 28 November 1831).

19 July 1902, Saturday (-15,634) The Jackson Automobile Company was founded, run by Byron J Carter.

18 July 1902, Friday (-15,635) Dimitar Panov, Bulgarian actor, was born (died 1985)

17 July 1902, Thursday (-15,636) Lord Tennyson, son of the famous poet, was named as successor to Lord Hopetoun, first Governor-General of Australia

16 July 1902, Wednesday (-15,637) Henry MacLeod, Scottish economics writer, died.

15 July 1902, Tuesday (-15,638) The 1,000 year old bell tower at St Mark�s Square, Venice collapsed.

13 July 1902, Sunday (-15,640)

12 July 1902, Saturday (-15,641) (1) Arthur Balfour (Conservative) succeeded Lord Salisbury as Tory Prime Minister.

(2) Kitchener returned to a heroes� welcome in London.

11 July 1902, Friday (-15,642) (Atomic) Samuel Goudsmit, physicist, was born in The Hague, Netherlands. In 1925, along with George Uhlenbeck (born Batavia, Indonesia, 6 December 1900), he formulated the hypothesis of the electron spin.

10 July 1902, Thursday (-15,643) Kurt Alder, German chemist, was born.

8 July 1902, Tuesday (-15,645)

5 July 1902, Saturday (-15,648) Edward VII paid for 450,000 impoverished Britons to celebrate his coronation with a free dinner.

4 July 1902, Friday (-15,649) The Philippines formally returned to civilian government, and US President Roosevelt issued an amnesty for all insurgents.

3 July 1902. Thursday (-15,650) (1) In Britain, a House of Lords ruling restricted betting to the sites of sporting events.

(2) After riots in Russia which killed several thousand people, Czar Nicholas II offered to talk to the people.

2 July 1902, Wednesday (-15,651) Albert Namatjira, painter, was born.

1 July 1902, Tuesday (-15,652) (Philippines) The USA passed the Philippine Government Act, providing for a US President-appointed commission to govern the Philippines, with consent of US Senate.


30 June 1902, Monday (-16,653) At the Colonial Conference in London, a principle of Imperial Preference was agreed; that Britain and the colonies should set preferential tariffs for each other�s goods.

29 June 1902. Sunday (-15,654) The French car maker Marcel Renault won the first Paris to Vienna motor race.

28 June 1902, Saturday (-15,655) The USA authorised the construction of the Panama Canal.

27 June 1902, Friday (-15,656) France closed 120 schools for girls that had been established illegally after the passage of the Religious Associations Law.

26 June 1902, Thursday (-15,657) William P Lear, founder of the Lear Jet Corporation, was born.

25 June 1902, Wednesday (-15,658) Yasuhito, Prince Chichibu, member of the Japanese royal family and Japanese Imperial Navy admiral; was born in Tokyo. The second son of Emperor Yoshihito and younger brother of the Emperor Hirohito, he was second in line for succession during Yoshihito's reign from 1912 to 1925, but never the crown prince. He died of tuberculosis in 1950.

24 June 1902, Tuesday (-15,659) King Edward VII contracted appendicitis, delaying his coronation (scheduled for 26 June), see 9 August 1902.

23 June 1902. Monday (-15,660) (1) Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Italy renewed the Triple Alliance.

(2) Albert Einstein began work in the Swiss Patent Office.

21 June 1902, Saturday (-15,662)

19 June 1902, Thursday (-15,664) (Child welfare) Italy proscribed women working within one month after childbirth.

18 June 1902, Wednesday (-15,665) Samuel Butler, English writer, died (born 4 December 1835).

17 June 1902, Tuesday (-15,666) US Congress passed the Newlands Reclamation Act, establishing a fund from the sale of public land to build dams to irrigate arid western lands.

14 June 1902, Saturday (-15,669)

10 June 1902, Tuesday (-15,673) (Germany) Frederick Augustus, King of Saxony from 1873 (born 23 April 1828) died.

9 June 1902, Monday (-15,674) The automatic coin vending machine, or �automat�, was invented in Philadelphia, USA.

5 June 1902, Thursday (-15,678) Kaiser Wilhelm II responded to growing demands from Poles and other Slavic peoples living within Germany with calls for more �Germanisation� of these peoples.

3 June 1902, Tuesday (-15,680) (France, Christian) In France, Rene Waldbeck-Rousseau resigned, despite having a majority on the Chamber, over disputes with extremists. He was succeeded by Emile Combes, who pursued a strongly anti-clerical policy.


31 May 1902. Saturday (-15,683) (South Africa�) The Boer War ended with the Peace of Vereeniging. (See 11 October 1899). The Boers accepted the sovereignty of the British Crown over Transvaal and the Orange Free State but gained the promise of self government. This came in 1910 with the Government of South Africa Act, see 31 May 1910. The Boers also received �3 million to repair and restock their farms. At first the Boers were winning, farmers humiliating the British Army. However towards the end only 80,000 Boers were fighting 450,000 elite British troops, the Boers relying on mobility and guerrilla tactics. Under Lord Kitchener, the British countered the Boers by herding them off their land into concentration camps where 20,000, one in three inmates, died of disease and starvation. These camps did much to damage Britain�s reputation in the world.

30 May 1902, Friday (-15,684) The newly installed Spanish King Alfonso XII suspended the Cortes (Parliament). Labour unrest and riots now led to the imposition of martial law. Many Spanish did not want a hereditary monarchy.

29 May 1902. Thursday (-15,685) The London School of Economics and Political Sciences was opened by Lord Rosebery.

28 May 1902. Wednesday (-15,686) British marched against the 'Mad Mullah' in East Africa.

26 May 1902, Monday (-15,688) Julian Pauncefoote, British diplomat, was born died (born 13 September 1828).

24 May 1902, Saturday (-15,690) Empire Day was celebrated for the first time (Queen Victoria�s birthday)

22 May 1902, Thursday (-15,692) (USA) The US agreed with Mexico to submit to arbitration at the new Court of Arbitration in The Hague a dispute between the two countries over interest payments (The Pious Fund), see 14 October 1902. US President Roosevelt did this in order to show support for the New Court.

21 May 1902, Wednesday (-15,693) Marcel Lajos Breuer, architect, was born (died 1981)

20 May 1902, Tuesday (-15,694) Cuba gained dependence, from US military rule, see 1 January 1899.

19 May 1902, Monday (-15,695) A coal mine explosion killed 216 miners at the Coal Creek Company, Fraterville, Tennessee.

18 May 1902, Sunday (-15,696) Meredith Wilson, US composer, was born in mason City, Iowa (died 15 June 1984 in Santa Monica, California)

17 May 1902, Saturday (-15,698) (Spain) Coronation of King Alfonso XIII of Spain in Madrid as the young monarch came of age at 16.

16 May 1902, Friday (-15,698) Carles Fages de Climent, Catalonian writer, poet and journalist, was born in Figueres (died 1968).

15 May 1902, Thursday (-15,699) (Ethiopia) Britain and Abyssinia signed a Treaty defining the frontier between Abyssinia and Sudan. Abyssinia also agreed to allow Britain to construct a railway through its territory connecting Sudan and Uganda.

14 May 1902, Wednesday (-15,700) Following a severe financial crisis in Portugal, a law was passed reducing the value of bonds and dividends of bond holders.

13 May 1902, Tuesday (-15,701) U.S. Congress voted to approve $300,000 for foreign aid relief to Martinique.

12 May 1902, Monday (-15,702) The Court of Appeal reversed the legal decision of 22 April 1902, and allowed barmaids to work in pubs, following protests by pub landlords, barmaids and the public.

11 May 1902, Sunday (-15,703) Charles Collis, US soldier, died aged 64.

10 May 1902, Saturday (-15,704) Portugal was bankrupt, and defaulted on its external debt. It faced heavy costs from an ongoing insurrection in Angola, which continued until 6 September 1902.

9 May 1902, Friday (-15,705) Henry Morton, US scientist and President of the Stevens Institute of Technology since its founding in 1870, died aged 65.

8 May 1902. Thursday (-15,706) Mount Pelee on Martinique erupted, destroying the city of St Pierre and killing 30,000 people in just three minutes.

7 May 1902, Wednesday (-15,707) (1) Mount Soufriere volcano, St Vincent, West Indies, erupted. This killed over 1,000 people and covered a third of the island in lava. Barbados nearby also saw heavy ash falls.

(2) The U.S. House of Representatives began consideration of statehood for the U.S. territories of Oklahoma, Arizona and New Mexico.

6 May 1902, Tuesday (-15,708) Guerrilla warfare by Philippines independence fighters had now ended, and the US set up a civilian Government under US control.

5 May 1902, Monday (-15,709) The Prussian Government banned women�s political groups.

4 May 1902, Sunday (-15,710)

2 May 1902, Friday (-15,712) In Pennsylvania, USA, 200,000 coal miners began a strike, demanding union recognition and a pay rise.

1 May 1902, Thursday (-15,713) A tornado killed 416 in Dacca, India.


29 April 1902, Tuesday (-15,715) (USA) The USA extended the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 to cover Chines labourers moving to the US mainland from US overseas territories. This was aimed at curbing Chinese migrants from the Philippines.

25 April 1902, Friday (-15,719) A heavy fall of ash from Mont Pelee, Martinique, occurred.This was a prelude to the major eruption of 8 May 1902.

22 April 1902, Tuesday (-15,722) Magistrates in Glasgow ruled that female barmaids must be replaced by men, because of the moral hazards of pubs. Pubs employing female staff would not have their licences renewed. See 12 May 1902.

20 April 1902, Sunday (-15,724) Pierre and Marie Curie isolatedradium from the mineral pitchblende. They were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1903 for their work on radioactivity.

18 April 1902, Friday (-15,726) Over a week of civil unrest in Belgium, as people demanded better education and work conditions. Despite a general strike and riots in several cities, with several killed, the Belgian government did not make any concessions.

16 April 1902, Wednesday (-15,728) Over 20,000 people protested in Dublin against British rule.

15 April 1902, Tuesday (-15,729) In Russia, socialist revolutionaries assassinated the Interior Minister, Sipyagin. He was succeeded by Viacheslav Plehve, who suppressed the peasants revolt and attacked the Armenian Church.

14 April 1902, Monday (-15,730) US trader KC Penney opened his first store, in Kemmerer, Wyoming.

13 April 1902. Sunday (-15,731) A new record car speed of 74 mph was set in Paris.

12 April 1902, Saturday (-15,732) Following British successes against the Boers in South Africa, Kitchener met with Boer leaders for peace negotiations.

11 April 1902, Friday (-15,733) Fred Gaisberg, of the Gramophone Company, made the first recordings of Caruso.

10 April 1902, Thursday (-15,734) Fighting in the Boer war ceased.

9 April 1902 Wednesday (-15,735) In London, the Underground Electric Railways Company was formed.

8 April 1902. Tuesday (-15,736) Russia signed an agreement with China, promising to withdraw its troops from Manchuria.

7 April 1902. Monday (-15,737) The Texas Oil Company, or Texaco, was founded.

6 April 1902, Sunday (-15,738) FL Green, British novelist, was born in Portsmouth, England (died 1953)

5 April 1902, Saturday (-15,739) 25 died when a stand collapsed at the Scotland vs England match, Ibrox Park.

4 April 1902, Friday (-15,740) Louise Leveque de Vilmorin, French actress, was born in Verrieres-le-Buisson, France (died 1969)

3 April 1902, Thursday (-15,741) (Road Traffic) The patent for Tarmac road surfacing was filed by Edgar Purnell Hooley of Nottingham, England. John Loudon Macadam, Scottish engineer and General Surveyor of Roads in England from 1827, first tried to improve road surfaces by using crushed stone. This was a major improvement on dirt roads, which could soon become impassable after heavy rain. However they too were problematical in bad weather, and the stones could puncture the tyres of the new automobiles. In 1901 Edgar Hooley, County Surveyor of Nottinghamshire, noticed that a stretch of road at Denby, Derbyshire, was rut-free. He found that a barrel of tar had fallen off a dray, and that waste slag from a nearby blast furnace has been used to cover the tar. Hooley patented the idea but failed to develop it financially. The patent was bought by Sir Alfred Hickman, a steelworks owner in Wolverhampton.

2 April 1902, Wednesday (-15,742) Esther Hobart Morris, 89, the first woman to serve as a justice of the peace in the USA (born 1812), died. She was appointed to the post in Sweetwater County, Wyoming after her predecessor resigned to protest the territory's adoption of the women's suffrage amendment.

1 April 1902, Tuesday (-15,743) (Crime) The treadmill was abolished in British prisons.


31 March 1902, Monday (-15,744) The first national meeting of the American Philosophical Association began, at Columbia University, chaired by James Edwin Creighton.

30 March 1902, Sunday (-15,745) Easter Sunday.

29 March 1902, Saturday (-15,746) Sir William Walton, English composer, was born in Oldham, Lancashire, to musical parents.

28 March 1902, Friday (-15,747) The British Royal Family received its first motor car, a Daimler Mail Phaeton.

27 March 1902, Thursday (-15,748) (Military) Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps was established in the British Army, with Queen Alexandra as its first President, with the signing of a Royal Warrant by her husband, King Edward VII.

26 March 1902. Wednesday (-15,749) Statesman and colonial administrator, Cecil John Rhodes, died aged 48 in Cape Town.

25 March 1902, Tuesday (-15,750) In Russia, 567 students were tried for rioting and �political disaffection�. Most were given short prison terms, but 95 were banished to Siberia.

24 March 1902, Monday (-15,751) The Flag of New Zealand became standardized after more than 32 years, with royal assent being given to the New Zealand Ensign Act of 1901 by King Edward VII.

23 March 1902, Sunday (-15,752) Major reform of schools in England and Wales. County Councils and large urban authorities took over responsibility for education from several thousand school boards and managers of voluntary schools. However non-conformist churches objected to the use of public money to finance Anglican and Catholic schools, which would retained considerable autonomy in their curricula.

21 March 1902, Friday (-15,754)

20 March 1902, Thursday (-15,755) (Japan) France and Russia formally stated that they had no objections to the Anglo-Japanese alliance of 30 January 1902, but reserved the right to protect their own interests in China and Korea.

19 March 1902, Wednesday (-15,756) Charlies Rieu, Orientalist writer, died in London (born 1820 in Geneva)

18 March 1902, Tuesday (-15,757) (Turkey) Turkey granted Germany permission to build a railway through its territory, which would ultimately link Berlin to Baghdad.

15 March 1902, Saturday (-15,760) Sir Richard Temple, British colonial administrator in India, died in Hampstead (born 8 March 1826)

10 March 1902, Monday (-15,765) Earthquake in Turkey destroyed the town of Tochangri.

7 March 1902, Friday, (-15,768) The Battle of Tweebosch, the last major Boer victory in the Boer War.

5 March 1902, Wednesday (-15,770) French coal miners went on strike, demandn9ing an 8-hour day.

4 March 1902, Tuesday (-15,771) In the US, the AAA (American Automobile Association) was founded.

3 March 1902, Monday (-15,772) In the USA, the Supreme Court banned dealing in �financial futures�.

1 March 1902, Saturday (-15,774) (Communism) Lenin published a pamphlet entitled �What is to be Done�, outlining his ideas for liberating the working masses through a Communist Revolution.


27 February 1902, Thursday (-15,776) John Steinbeck, American author and Nobel Prize Winner who wrote The Grapes of Wrath, was born in Salinas, California.

26 February 1902, Wednesday (-15,777) In the North Kilkenny by-election, brought about by the resignation of the sitting MP Patrick McDermott of the Irish Parliamentary Party, Joseph Devlin stood unopposed, retaining the seat for the IPP.

25 February 1902. Tuesday (-15,778) (1) In the USA, Herbert Cecil Booth founded the Vacuum Cleaner Company Ltd.

(2) Boers routed the British army at Klerksdorp.

24 February 1902, Monday (-15,779) London�s first telephone service began operating.

23 February 1902, Sunday (-15,780)

21 February 1902, Friday (-15,782) Emil Holub, Bohemian writer, died (born 7 October 1847)

20 February 1902, Thursday (15,783) Strikes in Barcelona, Spain; fighting left 500 dead.

19 February 1902. Wednesday (-15,784) France made smallpox vaccinations compulsory.

18 February 1902,Tuesday (-15,785) In Britain, a petition demanding votes for women was presented to Parliament by over 37,000 female textile workers.

17 February 1902, Monday (-15,786) A general strike in Barcelona and nearby towns led to military reprisals that left 40 dead.

16 February 1902, Sunday (-15,787) (USA) George Carter Needham, US evangelist, died aged 56.

15 February 1902. Saturday (-15,788) The Berlin underground railway opened.

14 February 1902, Friday (-15,789) Lord Rosebery declared he would never give Ireland its independence.

13 February 1902, Thursday (-15,790) The UK Government refused to let a German committee visit the South African Boer concentration camps.

12 February 1902, Wednesday (-15,791) The first Studebaker automobile was sold.

11 February 1902, Tuesday (-125,792) Arne Jacobsen, Danish architect, was born (died 1971)

10 February 1902, Monday (-125,793) Armand Bernier, Belgian poet, was born.

9 February 1902, Sunday (-125,794) Sir George Cox, English religious writer, died (born 10 January 1827).

8 February 1902, Saturday (-125,795) Demchugdongrub, Mongolian politician was born (died 1966)

7 February 1902, Friday (-15,796) Thomas Cooper, English painter, died (born 26 September 1803).

6 February 1902, Thursday (-15,797) (Africa, Railways) France agreed with Ethiopia to finance a railway from Djibouti to Addis Ababa. Britain and Italy both protested.

5 February 1902, Wednesday (-15,798) Robert Adamson, Scottish philosopher (born 19 January 1852) died.

4 February 1902. Tuesday (-15,799) In Moscow, 30,000 students began a political protest against the Tsar.

2 February 1902, Sunday (-15,801)

1 February 1902, Saturday (-15,802) Foot binding was declared illegal in China.


31 January 1902, Friday (-15,803) The number of smallpox victims in London rose to 2,273.

30 January 1902. Thursday (-15,804) Japan and the UK concluded a mutual defence alliance. See 8 February 1904 and 23 August 1914. Each country agreed not to sign treaties with third nations without consulting the other; if one country was attacked the other guaranteed to remain neutral, and furthermore if a second country attacked, each would aid the other. Each needed an ally in the region. British interests in China were threatened by other countries, especially Germany, whilst Japan was under threat from Russian expansion in Manchuria.

28 January 1902, Tuesday (-15,806) London�s population reached 6,581,372, according to the 1901 census.

26 January 1902, Sunday (-15,808) Andrew Davidson, Scottish religious writer, died (born 1831).

25 January 1902, Saturday (-15,809) Russia abolished the death penalty.

24 January 1902, Friday (-15,810) (Mathematics) Oskar Morgenstern, German-US mathematician, was born in Silesia (Poland).

22 January 1902, Wednesday (-15,812)

21 January 1902, Tuesday (-15,813) Webster Booth, British singer, was born in Lincoln (died 22 June 1984 in Llandudno)

20 January 1902, Monday (-15,814) The beginnings of Saudi Arabia. Bedouin warrior, Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, 20-year old Emir of the Wahhabi, seized Riyadh, capital of the Nejd. He became a focus for the Arab nationalist movement.

19 January 1902, Sunday (-15,815) Maria Cristina, Infanta of Portugal and Spain, died aged 68/

18 January 1902. Saturday (-15,816) A US Commission chose Panama as the site for a new canal.

17 January 1902. Friday (-15,817) (1) Earthquake in Mexico City killed 300.

(2) The first issue of The Times Literary Supplement was published.

16 January 1902, Thursday (-15,818) Eric Liddell, Scottish athlete, was born (died 1945)

15 January 1902, Wednesday (-15,819) Alpheus Hyatt, US science writer, died (born 5 April 1838).

14 January 1902, Tuesday (-15,820) In Britain, over 300 Trades Unions supported universal state pensions.

12 January 1902, Sunday (-15,822)

11 January 1902, Saturday (-15,823) John Briggs, cricketer, died (born 3 October 1862).

10 January 1902, Friday (-15,824) New Zealander Ellen Dougherty became the world's first registered nurse

9 January 1902. Thursday (-15,825) New York State introduced a bill to outlaw flirting in public.

8 January 1902, Wednesday (-15,826) The United Irish League met in Dublin; it now had 1,200 branches. Activating for Irish independence, it called for boycotts of those Irish who wanted to retain links to Britain.

7 January 1902, Tuesday (-15,827) Following the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion, the Chinese Imperial Court returned to Beijing.

6 January 1902, Monday (-15,828) Mark Brunswick, composer, was born.

5 January 1902, Sunday (-15,829) (Cosmetics) Helena Rubenstein established the world�s first �beauty salon� in Melbourne, Australia. Born in Cracow Poland, around 1870,Ms Rubenstein was the eldest of 8 children; when she moved to Australia in 1894, possibly to escape an arranged marriage desired by her father. Here she marketed a cream that allegedly cured everything from warts to double chins, as well as poor skin; her salon even had an �operating theatre�. The business boomed, and she went on to market her product in London and Paris, and then when World War One broke out she moved to New York. She died in 1964, her estate worth an estimated US$ 60 million.

4 January 1902, Saturday (-15,830) Italy was facing a wave of socialist agitation, as workers campaigned for shorter hours, greater security of employment, better pay, also non work-related matters such as more rights for housing tenants. This day a major railway strike was threatened. Italy was facing a new tendency, the �sympathy strike�.

3 January 1902, Friday (-15,831) Preston Jackson US jazz trombonist, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana (died 1983)

2 January /1902. Thursday (-15,832) Women's foot-binding was outlawed in China.

1 January 1902, Wednesday (-15,833) (Child welfare) Denmark excluded children aged under 12 from factory work.


31 December 1901, Tuesday (-15,834) In Presidential elections in Cuba, Tomas Estrada Palma was elected.

29 December 1901, Sunday (-15,836)

27 December 1901. Friday (-15,838) Marlene Dietrich, German actress, was born.

26 December 1901, Thursday (-15,839) The Uganda Railway was completed, linking Mombasa with Lake Victoria.

25 December 1901, Wednesday (-15,840) The Boers gained victory in South Africa, at Tweefontein.

24 December 1901, Tuesday (-15,841) Two Irish members of the House of Commons, Jasper Tully and J.O. O'Donnell, were given jail sentences for inciting Irish tenants to not pay rent to their landlords, in violation of United Kingdom law

23 December 1901, Monday (-15,842) Sir Joseph Gilbert, English chemist, died (born 1 August 1817).

22 December 1901, Sunday (-15,843) George Stephenson, rugby player, was born (died 5 August 1970).

21 December 1901. Saturday (-15,844) In Norway, women voted for the first time (municipal elections).

20 December 1901, Friday (-15,845) Robert Van de Graaff, inventor of the Van de Graaff generator, was born.

18 December 1901, Wednesday (-15,847)

16 December 1901, Monday (-15,849) Johann Duntzer, German writer, died (born 12 July 1813).

15 December 1901, Sunday (-15,850) British physician Joseph Everett Dutton identified sleeping sickness �worms� as trypanosomes.

14 December 1901, Saturday (-15,851) Paul I, King of Greece, was born.

13 December 1901, Friday (-15,852) British geologist J.W. Gregory began his expedition to the fossil beds of Lake Eyre in South Australia, Eyre would later write of his findings in his book The Dead Heart of Australia.

12 December 1901. Thursday (-15,853) The first transatlantic wireless message (the letter �S�, three dots in Morse, was continually transmitted) was sent from a164 foot aerial at Poldhu, Cornwall to Signal Hill, St John�s, Newfoundland, a distance of 1,800 miles, where it was received by Marconi on an aerial suspended from a kite.Three previous transmission attempts, in which the aerial had been raised by balloon, were unsuccessful, thwarted by bad weather.

11 December 1901, Wednesday (-15,854) The American Federation of Catholic Societies was founded at a meeting in Cincinnati after members amended the initial proposal to exclude women from a federation of all the Roman Catholic societies in the United States.

10 December 1901. Tuesday (-15,855) (Chemistry) Nobel prize first awarded. Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel had invented a powerful new explosive, called dynamite. He thought that, if two armies could annihilate each other in an instant, war would become impractical, an idea similar to the MAD (Mutual Assured Destruction) concept that kept the peace during the Cold War of the 1950s, 60s and 70s. Nobel made a fortune from his new explosive and when he died in 1896 he left most of that fortune to a Foundation to award prizes annually to those who in the preceding year have most benefitted mankind. The first Nobel Prize was worth US$ 30,000. They are awarded in Stockholm and Oslo, in the categories of literature, chemistry, physics, medicine and peace. The first ever Nobel Prize was shared between Jean Henri Dunant (founder of the Red Cross) and Frederic Passy (founder of the French Society for the Friends of Peace).

8 December 1901, Sunday (-15,857)

7 December 1901, Saturday (-15,858) Japan abandoned negotiations with Russia, and started to arrange an alliance with Britain.

6 December 1901, Friday (-15,859) The secret Turkish organization Committee of Union and Progress, composed of members of the Young Turks movement, approved a plan to assassinate Abdul Hamid II, Ottoman Sultan. One of the persons at the meeting, however, was a spy for the Sultan, and informed security forces, who shut down the CUP's centre in Istanbul.

5 December 1901. Thursday (-15,860) Walt Disney was born.

4 December 1901, Wednesday (-15,861) Sir William MacCormick, Irish surgeon, died (born 17 January 1836).

3 December 1901. Tuesday (-15,862) (Clothes, Fashion) King Camp Gillette (1855-1932) patented his first safety razor.

2 December 1901, Monday (-15,863) In the Insular Case, the US Supreme Court ruled that Puerto Ricans and inhabitants of other US overseas territories are US Nationals, but not US citizens, as the US Constitution only applied to areas incorporated by Congress.

1 December 1901, Sunday (-15,864) George Lohmann, cricketer, died (born 2 June 1865).


30 November 1901, Saturday (-15,865) (1) In the USA, Christmas tree lights were developed by the Edison Electric Company.

(2) The Henry Ford Motor Company was founded. This soon failed, and two years later Henry Ford founded the Ford Motor Company (see 23 July 1903).

28 November 1901, Thursday (-15,867)

26 November 1901, Tuesday (-15,869) Britain and Italy agreed a frontier between Eritrea and the Sudan.

25 November 1901, Monday (-15,870) Prince Hirobumi Ito of Japan, whilst visiting St Petersburg, sought Russian acceptance of Japanese claims in Korea.

23 November 1901, Saturday (-15,872)

22 November 1901, Friday (-15,873) Joaquin Rodrigo, composer, was born.

21 November 1901, Thursday (-15,874) Coleman Hawkins, US jazz saxophonist, was born.

19 November 1901, Tuesday (-15,876)

18 November 1901. Monday (-15,877) The US journalist and statistician George Gallup was born in Jefferson, Iowa.

17 November 1901, Sunday (-15,878) Moorgate to Angel, London Underground, opened.

16 November 1901, Saturday (-15,879) In New York, French driver Henri Fournier drove 1 mile in 52 seconds in a motor car.

15 November 1901. Friday (-15,880) (Medical) The first practical hearing aid, the Acousticon, was patented by Miller Reese Hutchinson of New York. Earlier devices such as the ear trumpet were bulky and impractical. Reese�s idea was to have a battery powered device that could be set to the wearer�s own preferences; it converted the desired sounds into electrical impulses that were transmitted to a carbon speaker in the earpiece that turned the electricity back into sound. Unwanted sounds could be filtered out.

14 November 1901, Thursday (-15,081) Aquascutum Ltd was incorporated. The name means n�water-shield� in Latin, and the origins of the company lie back in the 1850s, when waterproofing methods for clothes were being developed. The company produced trench coats for officers in the First World War.

13 November 1901, Wednesday (-15,882) Arturo Jauretche, Argentine politician, was born in Lincoln, Argentina (died 1974).

12 November 1901. Tuesday (-15,883) (Weather) More than 200 died as gales swept Britain.

11 November 1901, Monday (-15,884) Richmond Mayo-Smith, US economics writer, died (born 9 February 1854).

10 November 1901. Sunday (-15,885) (India) The North-West Frontier province was incorporated into India.

9 November 1901, Saturday (-15,886) The Sultan of Turkey accepted a French ultimatum to stop interfering with French interests in Turkey.

7 November 1901, Thursday (-15,888) Li Hung Chang, Chinese statesman, died (born 16 February 1823).

5 November 1901, Tuesday (-15,890) Edward Paynter, cricketer, was born (died 5 February 1979).

3 November 1901, Sunday (-15,892) Leopold III, King of Belgium from 1934, was born the son of King Albert I.

1 November 1901. Friday (-15,894) In Chicago, Dr J E Gilman announced an X-Ray treatment for breast cancer.


30 October 1901, Thursday (-15,896) The Boers under Louis Botha attacked British troops at Brakenlaagte. 60 British were killed and 165 wounded; the Boers saw 44 deadwith many wounded.

29 October 1901, Tuesday (-15,897) Anarchist Leon Czolgosz was executed by electrocution for assassinating US President McKinley

28 October 1901, Monday (-15,898) Race riots in America over the Presidential dinner on 21 October 1901. The event was condemned by racist Whites as �a breach of etiquette�. In 1900 Mr Washington had formed the �National Negro Business League� to promote entrepreneurialism amongst Black people.

27 October 1901, Sunday (-15,899) (Germany, UK) Negotiations on an Anglo-German alliance broke down, after the British Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, made an anti-German speech in Edinburgh.

26 October 1901, Saturday (-15,900) (USA) William Holland, US abolitionist, died aged 87.

25 October 1901, Friday (-15,901) A serious fire killed 19 people and left another 12 badly injured in Philadelphia, USA. The fire began in the 8-floor Hunt & Wilkinson furniture company and spread to three other buildings. The conflagration began in the basement and spread up the lift shaft.

24 October 1901, Thursday (-15,902) Ann Edson Taylor rode over the Niagara Falls in a padded barrel, and lived to tell the tale.

23 October 1901, Wednesday (-15,903) (1) In South Africa, General Buller was sacked for indiscretion.

(2) Alberto Santos Dumont, Brazilian aviator (see 19 October 1906) collected a prize for the first officially-observed powered flight in Europe. He flew his airship from St Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back, taking 30 minutes.

22 October 1901, Tuesday (-15,904) Frederic Archer, 63, English-born American composer and organist, died aged 63.

21 October 1901, Monday (-15,905) (Ireland) The first professionally produced Irish language play, Casadh an tS�g�in ("Twisting of the Rope"), premiered at the Gaiety Theatre, Dublin,

20 October 1901, Sunday (-15,906) (Aviation) The Aero Club of the United Kingdom was founded in London.

19 October 1901, Saturday (-15,907) (Aviation) Brazilian aviator Alberto Santos Dumont circumnavigated the Eiffel Tower in his airship, winning an aviation prize, see 23 October 1901.

16 October 1901, Wednesday (-15,910) A Black teacher, Booker T Washington, dined with President Roosevelt at the White House.See 28 October 1901.

13 October 1901, Sunday (-15,913) �Jolly� John Nash, British music hall singer, was born in London.

12 October 1901, Saturday (-15,914) President Theodore Roosevelt renamed the Executive Mansion as The White House.

11 October 1901, Friday (-15,915) James Greenough, US classical scholarly writer, died (born 4 May 1833).

9 October 1901, Wednesday (-15,917)

7 October 1901, Monday (-15,919) Ralph Rainger, US composer, was born in New York (died 23 October 1942 in Beverly Hills, California)

6 October 1901, Sunday (-15,920) Father James Cullen held the first Annual General meeting of the Pioneer Association in Dublin, aimed at promoting temperance. He believed that England was using alcoholism to keep Ireland subdued.

4 October 1901, Friday (-15,922)

2 October 1901. Wednesday (-15,924) (Maritime, Military) Vickers launched the British Navy�s first submarine. HMS Holland I, 105 tons, was designed for coastal duties. Earlier submarine designs had been tried, but the idea did not work until metal could be used for ships hulls, Now all major world powers had submarines, setting the scene for future underwater warfare. The idea was dismissed as �underhand, underwater, and damned un-English� by Admiral Sir Arthur Wilson. The petrol engine was dangerous; later submarines used diesel engines. Mice were kept on board, to give warning of dangerous levels of petrol fumes. The crew breathed compressed air, and stayed under for 4 hours. The Royal Navy concentrated on using submarines for inshore patrols whereas other navies, especially Germany, developed longer-distance craft. This disparity was a severe handicap to Britain during the First World War; only the development of sophisticated counter measures saved Britain from starvation as German U-boats sunk supply ships.

1 October 1901, Tuesday (-15,925) (1) Partap Singh Kairon, India politician and Chief Minister of the Punjab from 1956 to 1964, was born (assassinated 1965).

(2) Abdurrahman Khan, Amir of Kabul, died and was succeeded by his son Habibula.


30 September 1901. Monday (-15,926) France made it compulsory to register cars capable of more than 20 mph.

29 September 1901, Sunday (-15,927) Enrico Fermi, atomic physicist, was born in Rome, Italy.

28 September 1901, Saturday (-15,928) Ed Sullivan, TV show host, was born.

27 September 1901, Friday (-15,929)

26 September 1901, Thursday (-15,930) Ted Weems, US bandleader, was born in Pitcairn, Pennsylvania (died 6 May 1963 in Tulsa, Oklahoma)

25 September 1901. Wednesday (-15,931) Britain annexed the Asante Kingdom (Ghana) as part of the Gold Coast.

23 September 1901, Monday (-15,933)

21 September 1901, Saturday (-15,935) Learie Constantine, West Indian cricketer, was born (died 1971)

20 September 1901, Friday (-15,936) Ralph Tate, British geologist, died in Adelaide, Australia (born 1840 in Alnwick, Northumberland)

19 September 1901, Thursday (-15,937) Joe Pasternak, film producer, was born.

18 September 1901, Wednesday (-15,938) Venezuelan forces who had invaded Colombia were routed at La Hacha.

17 September 1901, Tuesday (-15,939) Sir Francis Chichester, British yachtsman and aviator, was born in Barnstaple, Devon.

16 September 1901, Monday (-15,940)

14 September 1901. Saturday (-15,942) US President William McKinley died in Buffalo, eight days after being shot by an anarchist. Born in Niles, Ohio, on 29 January 1843, McKinley became a teacher and then a brevet major when the Civil War broke out. After the War he studied law and opened a law office in Canton, Ohio. In 1876 McKinley was elected as a Republican to the US House of Representatives and in 1891 became Governor of Ohio. Six years later he became President and earned a reputation as one of the most peace-loving leaders in US history. On the afternoon of 6 September 1901 he was shot at point blank range by anarchist Leon Czolgosz, who was sentenced to death and executed at Auburn Prison, New York, on 29 October 1901. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt was then sworn in as 26th president, the youngest at 42.

13 September 1901, Friday (-15,943) (India) Sir Sheshadri Aiyar, Indian statesman, died (born 1845). He did much to develop Mysore State.

11 September 1901, Wednesday (-15,945)

10 September 1901, Tuesday (-15,946) US anarchist Emma Goldman was arrested for her part on the plot to kill President McKinley.

9 September 1901. Monday (-15,947) The bespectacled short painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec died in Malrome from a paralytic stroke, aged 36.

8 September 1901, Sunday (-15,948) Hendrik Verwoerd, South African Prime Minister who was responsible for the policy of apartheid, was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He was stabbed to death 2 days before his 65th birthday.

7 September 1901. Saturday (-15,949) The Peace of Peking ended the Boxer Rising in China. It was signed by a Manchu prince, Li Hung-Chang, and eleven European powers. Under this Treaty, ten Chinese officials were to be executed and 100 others punished, China gave formal apologies, Chinese civil service exams were suspended in 45 cities (so as to penalise the Chinese middle class), the European Legation quarter was to be expanded and fortified, and permanently garrisoned with troops, and key railway posts were to be manned by Western troops to ensure access to Beijing from the sea, and a large indemnity was to be paid by China.

6 September 1901, Friday (-15,950) Anarchist Leon Czolgosz shot US President Mc Kinley at a public reception in Buffalo; he died on the 14 September 1901.

5 September 1901, Thursday (-15,951) In the USA, the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues (now, Minor League Baseball) was formed in Chicago, Illinois.

4 September 1901. Wednesday (-15,952) In the Taff Vale Railway case, the House of Lords ruled that Trades Unions were liable for financial losses of companies affected by industrial action. As a result of this case the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants must pay the Taff Vale Railway Company �32,000 in costs and damages. This decision confirmed the ruling of High Court Judge Mr Justice Fairwell, later overturned in the Court of Appeal. A future Labour Government was to reverse this ruling.

3 September 1901, Tuesday (-15,953) Theodore Roosevelt, then Vice-President of the USA, spoke the phrase �speak softly and carry a big stick�. Meaning use diplomatic negotiations but have military back up if needed. This became known as �big stick diplomacy�.

2 September 1901, Monday (-15,954) Andreas Embirikos, Greek surrealist poet, was born (died 1975)

1 September 1901, Sunday (-15,955) Johnny Bannerman, rugby player, was born (died 10 April 1969).


31 August 1901, Saturday (-15,956) In Ecuador, General Alfaro peacefully handed over power to his elected successor, General Leonidas Plaza.

30 August 1901. Friday (-15,957) Scotsman Hubert Cecil Booth patented the vacuum cleaner. The motor and pump were so large they were mounted on a horse-drawn cart whilst a tube that might be over 200 metres long was used for suction. Booth later introduced a clear tube so clients could see the dirt being sucked out of their house.

28 August 1901, Wednesday (-15,959)

27 August 1901, Tuesday (-15,960) Rudolf Haym, German writer, died (born 5 October 1821).

26 September 1901, Monday (-15,959) US cyclist Robert Walthour covered 1 mile on his bicycle in 1 minute 37.4 seconds.

21 August 1901. Wednesday (-15,966) In Detroit, USA, the Cadillac motor company was founded.

17 August 1901, Saturday (-15,970) Edmond Audrun, French composer, died in Tierceville (born 12 April 1842 in Lyons).

15 August 1901, Thursday (-15,972) In the Boer war, Britain called on the Boers to surrender by 15 September or face banishment and confiscation of their property. There were daily conflicts and heavy losses on both sides. The Boers ignored this demand.

12 August 1901, Monday (-15,975) The British Government was defeated in an effort to limit working hours.

9 August 1901. Friday (-15,978) Colombian troops invaded Venezuela.

8 August 1901, Thursday (-15,979) Ernest Lawrence, US physicist who invented the first subatomic particle accelerator and the first colour TV tube, and won the Nobel Physics prize in 1939, was born.

7 August 1901, Wednesday (-15,980) Australian PM Prime Minister Edmund Barton introduced the Immigration Restriction Act 1901. This Act gave British migrants preference over everybody else during the first four decades of the 20th century. In the interests of maintaining a �White� Australia (see Race Equality), it imposed an English-language test on immigrants.

6 August 1901, Tuesday (-15,981) The town of Lawton, Oklahoma, came into being as the United States Land Office began auctioning lots divided from a 320-acre townsite located near the U.S. Army's Fort Sill.

5 August 1901, Monday (-15,982) (Germany) Victoria, Empress of Germany, 60, daughter of Queen Victoria of the UK, sister of King Edward VII, wife of Kaiser Friedrich III, and mother of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, died aged 60.

4 August 1901. Sunday (-15,983) Gold was discovered in the South African Rand.

3 August 1901, Saturday (-15,984) (China) Pavel Mil, Soviet administrator who guided the development of the Chinese Communist Party in the 1920s, was born.

2 August 1901, Friday (-15,985) Hans Forssell, Swedish historical writer, died (born 14 January 1843).

1 August 1901, Thursday (-15,986) The Commons voted an extra �12.5 million for naval and war budgets.


31 July 1901, Wednesday (-15,987) Jean Dubuffet, French artist, was born in Le Havre, France.

30 July 1901, Tuesday (-15,988) By a vote of 109 to 23, the Alabama constitutional convention began the first of its measures to disenfranchise African Americans. The �grandfather clause� limited the right to register to vote to those persons whose ancestors were war veterans.

29 July 1901, Monday (-15,989) The Socialist Party of America was founded at Indianapolis.

28 July 1901, Sunday (-15,990) Rudy Vallee, US composer, was born in Island Pond, Vermont (died 3 July 1986 in Hollywood)

24 July 1901, Wednesday (-15,994) Britain admitted that over 100,000 people were now interned in the South African concentration camps.

20 July 1901, Saturday (-15,998) (Morocco) Morocco ceded control of its frontier police on its Algerian border to France. France already controlled Algeria as a colony, and this was a step towards France acquiring Morocco also as a further colony, thereby excluding Britain and Spain who also had aspirations for this territory.

19 July 1901, Friday (-15,999) Eleanor Ormerod, English entomologist, died in St Albans (born 11 May 1828)

18 July 1901, Thursday (-16,000)

17 July 1901, Wednesday (-16,001) (USA) Daniel Butterfield, US soldier, died (born 1831).

16 July 1901, Tuesday (-16,002) A Liberal Government took power in Denmark, ending a long period of Conservative rule.


14 July 1901, Sunday (-16,004) English composer Gerald Finzi was born in London.

13 July 1901, Saturday (-16,005) Brazilian aviator Santos Dumont circled the Eiffel Tower, Paris, in his dirigible, but later crashed at Boulogne.

12 July 1901, Friday (-16,006) Canadian fishermen, on strike, attacked non-union Japanese fishermen who continued to fish, kidnapping and imprisoning 47 of them.

10 July 1901, Wednesday (-16,008)

9 July 1901, Tuesday (-16,009) Barbara Cartland, British writer of romantic novels, was born.

8 July 1901, Monday (-16,010) France set a speed limit of 10 kph for cars in urban areas.

7 July 1901, Sunday (-16,,011) Johanna Spyri, writer, died.

6 July 1901, Saturday (-16,012) William James Stillman, US painter, died in Surrey, UK (born 1 June 1628 in New York State)

4 July 1901, Thursday (-16,014) (Philippines) US Republican, Taft, was appointed Governor of the Philippines, replacing a former military government with civilian rule. He announced an amnesty for all former rebels who took an oath of allegiance to the USA.

2 July 1901. Tuesday (-16,016) 400 died in New York heatwave.

1 July 1901, Monday (-16,017) (1) The population of Ealing, west London, was 47,510.In 1814 the population had been 8,407; in 1871, 18,169.

(2) (France, Christian) France enacted its anti-clerical Association Law, which outlawed all religious institutions not formally registered with the State.


30 June 1901, Sunday (-16,018) (Aviation) Herr Berson and Professor Suring set a new balloon altitude record of 35,435 feet.

29 June 1901, Saturday (-16,019)

28 June 1901, Friday (-16,020) The British Academy was founded, for the promotion of studies of moral and political sciences.

27 June 1901, Thursday (-16,021) (Atomic) Atomic physicist Merle Tuve was born in the USA.

26 June 1901, Wednesday (-16,022) In Paris, professional chauffeurs protested at a law prohibiting them from having moustaches.

24 June 1901, Monday (-16,024) The first Picasso exhibition opened in Paris.

22 June 1901, Saturday (-16,026) Jack Whiting, US actor, was born in Philadelphia (15 February 1961)

18 June 1901, Tuesday (-16,030) The Four European powers controlling Crete rejected the initiative for union with Greece.

17 June 1901, Monday (-16,031) Lloyd George spoke out against starvation, lack of hygiene, and poor conditions in the concentration camps in South Africa, where Britain was detaining the Boers. The camps had originally been set up to feed Boers displaced from their farms by the fighting; in February 1901 their function changed to interning Boer men who might fight a guerrilla war. The camps now contained some 75,000 people, mostly women and children.

16 June 1901, Sunday (-16,032) The liner Lucania was used for trials of wireless telegraphy at sea.

14 June 1901, Friday (-16,034)

12 June 1901, Wednesday (-16,036) A new Constitution for Cuba was drawn up, giving the US extensive rights that made the island virtually a US protectorate.

11 June 1901, Tuesday (-16,037) New Zealand annexed the Cook Islands.

10 June 1901, Monday (-16,038) Robert Buchanan, British novelist, died (born 18 August 1841).

9 June 1901, Sunday (-16,039) Sir Walter Besant, English author, died in Hampstead, London (born in Portsmouth 14 August 1836).

6 June 1901, Thursday (-16,042) Sukarno, President of Indonesia, was born.


31 May 1901, Friday (-16,048) The Greek National Assembly opened with Prince George, High Commissioner for Crete, asking it to endorse a union with Greece. The Greek delegates passed this resolution.

30 May 1901, Thursday (-16,049) Frankie Trumbauer, US saxophonist, was born (died11 June 1956 in Kansas City)

29 May 1901, Wednesday (-16,050) Lord Salisbury, in a confidential memo, decided against developing an alliance between Britain and Germany.

28 May 1901, Tuesday (-16,051) (Netherlands) For health reasons, The Netherlandsprohibited the manufacture of lucifer matches using white phosphorus.

27 May 1901, Monday (-16,052) (USA) The US Supreme Court handed down the first of three verdicts in the so called �Insular Cases�, deciding the status of overseas territories such as Puerto Rico. The effect was that whilst some US laws would apply to such territories, full privileges of citizenship would still have to be specifically conferred by Congress.

26 May 1901, Sunday (-16,053) China announced that it had agreed with the Eight-Nation Alliance (six European superpowers, also Japan and the USA) on the indemnity to be paid for damages from the Boxer Rebellion of 1900. Economists estimated that it would take China 39 years to pay the reparations amount of 450 million taels (�67,500,000 or $175,500,000) along with four percent annual interest, and that China would have to raise 23,000,000 taels in tax revenues each year in order to avoid default.

25 May 1901, Saturday (-16,054) Norway granted the right to vote to women, but only those who were taxpayers.

24 May 1901, Friday (-16,055) 78 miners died ina pit disaster in Caerphilly, Wales.

23 May 1901, Thursday (-16,056) Edward Rubbra, composer, was born (died 1986).

22 May 1901, Wednesday (-16,057) Clarissa Scott Delany, African-American poet, was born (died 1927)

21 May 1901, Tuesday (-16,058) Connecticut became the first US State to impose speed limits specifically for motor vehicles. The limit for automobiles was 12 mph in urban areas and 15 mph in rural areas. Speed limits for horse drawn traffic dated back, in New Amsterdam (now New York) to 1652, forbidding such traffic from proceeding �at a gallop�. The fine in New Amsterdam was Two Flemish Pounds, equivalent to US$ 150 in 2017.

20 May 1901, Monday (-16,059) End of US military rule in Cuba.

19 May 1901, Sunday (-16,060) Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, first President of the South African Republic, died (born 1819)

18 May 1901, Saturday (-16,061) Vincent du Vigneaud, US biochemist, was born.

17 May 1901, Friday (-16,062) Werner Egk, German composer, was born (died 1983)

16 May 1901, Thursday (-16,063) Gustaf Lindstrom, Swedish palaeontologist, died (born 27 August 1829).

15 May 1901, Wednesday (-16,064) The British Admiralty decided to build three large battleships.

14 May 1901, Tuesday (-16,065) End of a General Strike in Barcelona, Spain, that had begun on 7 May 1901.

13 May 1901, Monday (-16,066) Lord Salisbury spoke against the idea of Irish Home Rule.

12 May 1901, Sunday (-16,867) (Atomic) Christopher Hinton was born in Tisbury, England. In 1956 he opened Calder Hall reactor in England, the first large-scale nuclear plant designed for peaceful purposes.

11 May 1901, Saturday (-16,068) Rose Auslander, German poet, was born (died 1988)

10 May 1901, Friday (-16,069) The Flag of Australia was chosen from entries in a national competition.

9 May 1901, Thursday (-16,070) The first Federal Parliament met in Melbourne, Australia.

8 May 1901, Wednesday (-16,071) (Climate) A severe drought in India had caused widespread famine, and British-appointed High Commission stated that some 1,250,000 had died; the Commission blamed rising population for placing excessive demands on the food supply.

7 May 1901, Tuesday (-16,072) US actor Gary Cooper was born.

5 May 1901, Sunday (-16,074)

3 May 1901, Friday (-16,076) Hugo Wilhelm Friedhofer, US composer, was born in San Francisco (died 17 May 1981 in Los Angeles)

2 May 1901, Thursday (-16,077) Robert Wyatt,cricketer, was born (died 20 April 1995).

1 May 1901, Wednesday (-16,078) In Britain, miners threatened to strike unless there was a cut in the coal export tax.


30 April 1901, Tuesday (-16,079) The game of ping pong was created by James Gibb.

29 April 1901, Monday (-16,080) (Japan) Birth of Crown Prince Hirohito. Later Emperor of Japan.

24 April 1901, Wednesday (-16,085) 200 were killed in an explosion at a chemical factory in Griesheim, Germany.

22 April 1901, Monday (-16,087) William Stubbs, English historical writer, died aged 76.

19 April 1901, Thursday (-16,090) In the Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo, now a prisoner of the Americans, issued a call to his country to end the armed rebellion and use peaceful means to gain independence.

16 April 1901, Tuesday (-16,093) (Scitech) Henry Augustus Rowland, US physicist, died (born in Pennsylvania 27 November 1848)

15 April 1901, Monday (-16,094) (Christian) Pope Leo XIII issued a pronouncement condemning hostilities to Roman Catholicism. across Europe. For instance the French Government hadrecently passed laws requiring the registration and control of religious associations, and had closed some Roman Catholic schools.

14 April 1901, Sunday (-16,095) US actors were arrested at the Academy of Music, New York, for wearing costumes on a Sunday.

12 April 1901, Friday (-16,097) Louis Auguste Sabatier, French religious writer, died (born in the Cevennes 2 August 1839)

8 April 1901, Monday (-16,101) (New Guinea, Christian) James Chalmers, Scottish missionary to New Guinea, died (born 1841).

7 April 1901, Sunday (-16,102) Easter Sunday.

5 April 1901, Friday (-16,104) (Yugoslavia) Under pressure from Turkey, Bulgaria arrested the leader of the Macedonian Committee. Macedonia had been agitating for independence from Turkey.

3 April 1901, Wednesday (-16,106) Richard D�Oyly Carte. British singer, died in London (born 3 May 1844 in London)

2 April 1901, Tuesday (-16,107) (China, Russia) A proposed agreement between Russia and China for Russian occupation of Manchuria was cancelled by China, after Chinese appeals for support from Britain, Japan and Germany. For details see

1 April 1901, Monday (-16,108) (Chemistry) Francois Marie Raoult, French physical chemist, died in Grenoble, Isere.


31 March 1901, Sunday (-16,109) (Road Traffic) The first Mercedes car was built. Its inventor, the German, Gottleib Daimler, named it after his daughter. The car had a maximum speed of 53 mph.

29 March 1901, Friday (-16,111) First Federal elections in Australia. They were won by the interim Prime Minister, Edmund Barton.

27 March 1901, Wednesday (-16,113) Eisaku Satu, Prime Minister of Japan 1964-72, was born (died 1975).

25 March 1901, Monday (-16,115) (Road Traffic) In Britain, the world�s first diesel motor went on show.

24 March 1901, Sunday (-16,116) Charlotte M Yonge, novelist, died, aged 78.

23 March 1901, Saturday (-16,117) Philippines independence fighter Aguinaldo was captured by US General Frederick Funston (1865-1917).

21 March 1901, Thursday (-16,119)

19 March 1901, Tuesday (-16,121) The Boer leader, Botha, rejected Kitchener�s peace terms.

18 March 1901, Monday (-16,122) Russian-German dancer Tatiana Gsovsky was born.

17 March 1901, Sunday (-16,123) Anti-Czarist protests by students in St Petersburg were broken up by Cossack troops.

16 March 1901, Saturday (-16,124) Negotiations between Kitchener, for Britain, and the Boer leader Louis Botha broke down because Britain refused to accept an amnesty for Boers and other rebels in the Cape and Natal Provinces.

15 March 1901, Friday (-16,125) (China) Germany�s Chancellor von Bulow declared that the Anglo-German agreement of October 1900, to restrain foreign aggression and maintain open trade, did not apply to Manchuria. Britain retaliated by ending its initiative to form an Anglo-German-Japanese bloc to halt Russian penetration of Manchuria.

14 March 1901, Thursday (-16,126) Utah's Governor Heber Wells vetoed a bill that would have prevented criminal prosecution of polygamy. Earlier in the week, the State Senate had voted 11�7 to approve the measure and the state House of Representatives had concurred, 25�17.

13 March 1901, Wednesday (-16,127) Benjamin Harrison, American Republican and 23rd president from 1889 to 1893, died in Indianapolis, Indiana.

12 March 1901, Tuesday (-16,128) Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, opened.

11 March 1901, Monday (-16,120) (1) The tanker ship Atlas departed from Port Arthur, Texas, with 3,000 barrels of crude oil from the Spindletop oil fields, bound for the Standard Oil refineries in Philadelphia, marking the first shipments of Texas oil.

(2) The first of many large tourist resorts in Hawaii, the Moana Hotel, opened on the Waikiki beach, outside of Honolulu, with an afternoon tour of the rooms and dinner and entertainment for investors, newspaper reporters and VIPs. The first overnight guests were registered the next day, March 12, with rooms for $1.50 per night (about US$ 47.00 in 2020 by the consumer price index). Located at what is now 2365 Kalakaua Avenue in Honolulu, the hotel is now operated as the Westin Moana Surfrider.

10 March 1901, Sunday (-16,130) Workers and students set up barricades in Moscow.

9 March 1901, Saturday (-16,131) The Olds car factory in Lansing, Michigan, burnt down.

8 March 1901, Friday (-16,132) Peter Benoit, composer, died in Antwerp (born in Flanders 17 August 1834).

7 March 1901, Thursday (-16,133) Kate Greenaway, English artist, died (born 17 March 1846)

6 March 1901, Wednesday (-16,134) Anarchists attempted to assassinate Kaiser Wilhelm, who escaped with face wounds.

5 March 1901, Tuesday (-16,135) In London, police ejected Irish Nationalists from the House of Commons.

4 March 1901, Monday (-16,136) US President McKinley was inaugurated.

3 March 1901, Sunday (-16,137) Yaa Asantewaa, the Queen of the Ashanti Empire (in what is now Ghana) was arrested by British troops, bringing to an end the War of the Golden Stool that had started on March 28 March 1900

2 March 1901, Saturday (-16,138) (Cuba) US Congress passed the Platt Amendment, which demanded that Cuba comply with certain conditions before the US withdrew its occupation.

1 March 1901, Friday (-16,139) Tommy Jarrell, US fiddler and banjo player who attained nationwide recognition in the 1960s, was born.


28 February 1901, Thursday (-16,140) Dr Linus Pauling, American biochemist and twice winner of the Nobel Prize, was born in Portland, Oregon.

27 February 1901, Wednesday (-16,141) The Russian Propaganda Minister was assassinated after his repression of student agitators.

26 February 1901, Tuesday (-16,142) Two leaders of China�s Boxer Rebellion were publically executed in Beijing, ending the 2-year rebellion against foreigners. Japanese soldiers led the men to their death. In January 1901 10,000 allied troops captured Beijing and ended a 56-day Boxer siege of the foreign legations. The Chinese Dowager Tzu Hsi shared the beliefs of the Boxers, the Society of Righteous Harmony Fists, and refused to act against them. She has now fled Beijing; China had to pay an indemnity for the deaths of 1,500 foreigners in the rebellion, and to accept Western troops permanently stationed in Beijing.

25 February 1901, Monday (-16,143) The United States Steel Corporation was formed by merging several smaller companies, including Andrew Carnegie�s steel company. Carnegie wished to retire and practise philanthropy.

24 February 1901, Sunday (-16,144) After 53 ballots without any single candidate attaining a majority, the legislature of Oregon elected former Senator John H. Mitchell to be one of its two United States Senators.

23 February 1901, Saturday (-16,145) The United States Steel Corporation was founded by JP Morgan.The US iron and steel magnate Andrew Carnegie (1835-1918) sold the Carnegie Steel Corporation to the US Steel Corporation for the unprecedented sum of US$ 447 million.Carnegie then made several philanthropic donations; beneficiaries included US and Scottish universities.

22 February 1901, Friday (-16,146) (Race Equality) Laura Matilda Towne, US educator and abolitionist who founded the first freedmen's schools for the education of newly freed slaves, died aged 75.

21 February 1901, Thursday (-16,147) Cuba became a republic.

20 February 1901, Wednesday (-16,148) Louis Isadore Kahn, architect, was born (died 1974)

19 February 1901, Thursday (-16,149) Paul Armande Silvestre, French poet, died in Toulouse (born 18 April 1837 in Paris)

18 February 1901, Monday (-16,150) Gaetan Henri L�on de Viaris, French cryptanalyst who furthered the use of mathematical relations to cryptology, particularly linear substitutions, died aged 54

17 February 1901, Sunday (-16,151) Ethelbert Nevin, US composer, was born (died 17 February 1901 in New Haven, Connecticut)

16 February 1901, Saturday (-16,152) Wayne King, US composer, was born in Savannah, Illinois (died 16 July 1985)

15 February 1901, Friday (-16,153) (Aviation) The Aero Club of Belgium was founded.

14 February 1901, Thursday (-16,154) King Edward VII, aged 59, opened his first UK Parliament.

13 February 1901, Wednesday (-16,155) Lewis Grassic Gibbon, Scottish novelist, was born (died 1935)

12 February 1901, Tuesday (-16,156) Britain extended direct rule from India into the tribal areas of Peshawar, Khyber and Waziristan, scene of much inter-ethnic fighting. Britain was concerned that unrest in these areas, on India�s northern frontier, would allow Russia to invade from the north through Afghanistan.

11 February 1901, Monday (-16,157) Death of Milan, father of King Alexander I of Serbia.

10 February 1901, Sunday (-16,158) (Chemistry) German chemist Max Joseph von Petenkofer died near Munich.

9 February 1901, Saturday (-16,159) James Murray, US actor, was born (died 1936).

8 February 1901, Friday (-16,160) Benjamin Prentiss, US Major General who had distinguished himself at the Battle of Shiloh, died aged 81.

7 February 1901, Thursday (-16,161) (Italy) The Italian Government of Guiseppe Saracco was overthrown, for its weak response to a dock strike in Genoa.

6 February 1901. Wednesday (-16,162) Paris installed the first public telephones at railway stations.

5 February 1901. Tuesday (-16,163) The world�s first billion-dollar business deal. J Pierpont Morgan bought a billion dollars worth of mines and steel mills.

4 February 1901, Monday (-16,164) Queen Victoria was buried at Windsor, next to Albert.

3 February 1901, Sunday (-16,165) Rosamund Lehmann, novelist, was born (died 1900).

2 February 1901, Saturday (-16,166) Mexico was facing an ongoing insurrection by the Yaqui indigenous people. This day the Yaqui ambushed government troops, killing 100.

1 February 1901, Friday (-16,167) Fitzedward Hall, US orientalist writer, died (born 21 March 1825).


31 January 1901, Thursday (-16,168) Three Sisters, a play by Anton Chekhov, premiered in Moscow.

29 January 1901, Tuesday (-16,170) Joseph Gourko, Russian General, died (born 15 November 1828).

27 January 1901, Sunday (-16,172) Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi died in Milan aged 87. His works included La Traviata and Il Travatore.

22 January 1901, Tuesday (-16,177) Queen Victoria died, at of a cerebral haemorrhage Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, aged 81; the longest reigning and longest lived monarch of Britain. Accession of King Edward VII to the British throne. His coronation was on 9 August 1902. King Edward VII was born on 9 November 1840, and was the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Crowned at 60 years of age, he proved a popular monarch who gave his name to the Edwardian era. He was made Prince of Wales by his mother when only one month old. His free and easy social life made him a prominent figure in society and he was involved in several scandals. His coronation was elaborate and was a departure from the rather dour image of the monarchy in the latter part of Queen Victoria�s reign. Edward VII is remembered as a popular man who tried to ensure peace in Europe, touring European capitals in a diplomatic role. An estimated 500,000 watched the funeral procession of Queen Victoria as it travelled through the silent streets of London, on 2 February 1901. The funeral took place at Windsor.

21 January 1901, Monday (-16,178) The first Paris Motor Show was held.

20 January 1901, Sunday (-16,179) (Innovations) Zenobe Theophile Gramme, Belgian-French inventor, died at Bois Colombes, France.

19 January 1901, Saturday (-16,180) Queen Victoria became seriously ill.

18 January 1901, Friday (-16,181) (Biology) US zoologist Thomas Montgomery described chromosome pairing in meiosis (cell division).

17 January 1901, Thursday (-16,182) Frederic Myers, English poet, was born (died 17 January 1901)

16 January 1901, Wednesday (-16,183) Fulgencio Batista, Cuban leader 1952-53, was born.

14 January 1901, Monday (-16,185) Russia ceased exiling criminals to Siberia.

10 January 1901, Thursday (-16,189) (USA) Major oil discovery in Texas, USA. The salt dome of Spindletop had been suspected of containing oil since 1865; this day oil was struck; a gush of oil 6 inches wide rose over 200 feet, and was visible for over 10 miles. The population of nearby Beaumont rapidly rose from 10,000 to over 50,000, as oil production at Spindletop reached 100,000 barrels per day. Oil production in the area lasted until 1950.

9 January 1901, Wednesday (-16,190) (Innovations) Meccano was patented by Frank Hornby (1863-1936), England.

6 January 1901, Sunday (-16,193) Philip Amour, one of the first American meat packers to use refrigerated transport and to make canned meat products, died.

2 January 1901, Wednesday (-16,197) The first municipal crematorium was opened in Britain, by the Lord Mayor in Hull.

1 January 1901, Tuesday (-16,198) (Australia) The Commonwealth of Australia was inaugurated, by federating the six states and two territories of the continent. Edmund Barton became the first Prime Minister of Australia.


31 December 1900, Monday (-16,199) (1) At Stonehenge, Stone No. 21 and its lintel fell down.

(2) Wheat acreage in Britain stood at 1.8 million, down from 2.9 million acres in 1880. Cheap imports of wheat from the USA had increased dramatically since the 1870s.

30 December 1900, Sunday (-16,200) 50 died as gales swept Britain.

29 December 1900, Saturday (-16,201)

28 December 1900, Friday (-16,202) Last rebel chiefs in Ashanti (Ghana) were captured by the British.

27 December 1900, Thursday (-16,203) Marlene Dietrich, US actress, was born (died 1992).

24 December 1900, Monday (-16,206)

23 December 1900, Sunday (-16,207) In The Philippines, as US forces gained the upper hand over the insurgents, some Filipinos formed a Federal Party that recognised US sovereignty.

22 December 1900, Saturday (-16,208) (Jewish) French writer Emile Zola, who had done much to prove the innocence of Dreyfus, protested at a French move to grant an amnesty to those involved in the fabrications against Dreyfus.

21 December 1900, Friday (-16,209) Leonhard Blumenthal, Prussian Field-Marshal, died in Quellendorf (born in Schwedt on Oder 30 July 1810).

20 December 1900, Thursday (-16,210) (Panama) The US Senate insisted on the right to fortify a future Panama canal, contrary to the provisions of the first Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (5 February 1900) with Britain.

19 December 1900, Wednesday (-16,211) France granted an amnesty to all those involved in the Dreyfus Affair.

18 December 1900, Tuesday (-16,212)

16 December 1900, Sunday (-16,214) France and Italy agreed to respect each other�s sphere of influence in North Africa.

15 December 1900, Saturday (-16,215) (South Africa) Soon after Lord Roberts declared that the Boer War was over, British troops in South Africa suffered a surprise defeat and the capture of hundreds of their men by the Boer attackers led by General P.H. Kritzinger. 573 men in four companies of the Northumberland Fusiliers were taken prisoner at the battle of Magaliesberg.

14 December 1900, Friday (-16,216) (Atomic) German physicist Max Planck proposed a quantum theory of energy. This solved the problem with radiation from Black Bodies, which without quantum theory would be theoretically infinite in amount, His theory led Einstein to propose that light also came in discrete packets he called photons. From here De Broglie proposed a theory of particles as waves, this being developed into a theory of particle behaviour based on wave dynamics by Erwin Schrodinger in the 1920s. Meanwhile German physicist Werner Heisenberg created a mathematical equivalent to Schrodinger�s theory, but with only linear algebra, not wave theory. US physicist Richard Feynman then created the modern theory of quantum mechanics known as Quantum Electrodynamics, explaining how charged subatomic particles interact within electric and magnetic fields.

13 December 1900, Thursday (-16,217) Britain, France and Italy signed an agreement to preserve, in Ethiopia, the integrity of the ancient empire of Abyssinia.

12 December 1900, Wednesday (-16,218) In London, the War Office announced that the Boer War had cost the lives of over 11,000 soldiers, over two thirds of that number due to disease.

11 December 1900, Tuesday (-16,219) William D. Coleman, the President of Liberia since 1896, resigned under pressure after failing to extend government control further away from the capital. Coleman, from Fayette County, Kentucky, was replaced by Secretary of State Garretson W. Gibson.

10 December 1900. Monday (-16,220) The first Nobel prizes were awarded.

8 December 1900, Saturday (+16,222) Henry Russell, British composer, died in London (born 24 December 1812 in Sheerness)

6 December 1900, Thursday (-16,224) Agnes Moorhead, actress, was born.

5 December 1900, Wednesday (-16,225) James Dimmock, footballer, was born (died 23 December 1972).

4 December 1900, Tuesday (-16,226)

3 December 1900, Monday (-16,227) Philippine rebels surrendered to US forces.

1 December 1900, Saturday (-16,229) In Lancashire, 14 died and 2,000 fell ill after drinking beer containing arsenic.


30 November 1900. Friday (-16,230) (1) (Panama) The First Isthmian Canal Conference, convened by the US President, examined routes for a canal and favoured the Nicaraguan route over Panama. France had begun a Panama Canal in 1880 but the company had gone bankrupt; some in the US wanted this canal continued.

(2) Irish writer Oscar Wilde (born Dublin 16 October 1854) died in poverty in Paris under the pseudonym Sebastian Medmoth. Wilde�s stage and literary career ended in 1895 when the Marquess of Queensbury, angered by Wilde�s friendship with his son, accused Wilde of sodomy. Wilde sued for libel but lost the case and was at once prosecuted for homosexuality. He served two years in gaol 1895-97 before fleeing to France and poverty.

29 November 1900, Thursday (-16,231) (South Africa) British General Horatio Kitchener took over command in the Boer War from General Lord Roberts. Roberts returned to England, believing the War to be nearly over.

27 November 1900, Tuesday (-16,233) Cushman Davis, US politician, died (born 16 June 1838).

25 November 1900, Sunday (-16,235) Arthur Schwartz, US composer, was born in Brooklyn, new York (died 3 September 1984 in Kintnersville, Pennsylvania)

24 November 1900, Saturday (-16,236) (South Africa) Paul Kruger, leader of South Africa�s Boers, received a popular welcome in France; this day he was received by the French Chamber of deputies, who passed a resolution of Sympathy with his cause. However this was largely an anti-British initiative rather than a pro-Boer one, and sympathy, not practical help, was all he got.

23 November 1900, Friday (-16,237) Rosetta Duncan, was born in Los Angeles (died in Chicago 4 December 1959)

22 November 1900, Thursday (-16,238) Arthur Sullivan, British composer, died in London (born 13 May 1842 in London)

19 November 1900, Monday (-16,241)

16 November 1900, Friday (-16,244) In Germany, a woman hurled an axe at Kaiser Wilhelm, but failed to kill him.

15 November 1900, Thursday (-16,245) The Madrid to Paris express derailed, killing 17, including the Peruvian Ambassador.

14 November 1900, Wednesday (-16,246) (1) Dr Karl Landsteiner of the Pathological and Anatomical Institute of Vienna announced the discovery of the three major blood groups.