Historical events from 1 January 1860 to 31 December 1899

Page last modified 14/3/2021

 

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

 

For dates from 1/1/1900 click here

 

1/1/1900, Monday (-16,563) Nigeria became a British protectorate. Previously the area had been under control of the Royal Niger Company. Frederick Legard became HighCommissioner of the territory.

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12/1899, Heavy British reprisals on China. Boers defeated British in South Africa.

30/12/1899, Saturday (-16,565) (1) A British missionary was murdered in China, close to Tsinan. As a result the British consul in Shanghai ordered that three Chinese should be beheaded, also one to be strangled, another to serve 10 years in prison, and another to be banished; furthermore, three village elders were to be flogged. This incident illustrates the weakness of the Chinese State at the time against British colonialism.

27/12/1899, Wednesday (-16,568) Harry Escombe, South African politician, died (born 25/7/1838).

25/12/1899, Monday (-16,570) Elliott Coues, naturalist, died (born 9/9/1842).

(2) In Britain the school leaving age was raised from eleven to twelve; in 1893 it had been raised from ten to eleven.

23/12/1899, Saturday (-16,572) Dorman Eaton, US lawyer, died (born 27/6/1823).

21/12/1899, Thursday (-16,574) Charles Lamoureux, French violinist, died (born 28/9/1834).

17/12/1899, Sunday (-16,578) Sir Gerald Graham, British General, died (born 27/6/1831).

16/12/1899, Saturday (-16,579) At the end of a bad week for the British in South Africa, 2,000 men and 12 heavy guns had been lost in battles with the Boers.

15/12/1899, Friday (-16,580) The Boers defeated the British, under Sir Redvers Buller, at the Battle of Colenso.

11/12/1899, Monday (-16,584) The Boers under Piet Cronje defeated the British at Magersfontein.

5/12/1899, Tuesday (-16,590) Sir Henry Tate, of Tate and Lyle fame, founder of the Tate gallery, died aged 80.

2/12/1899, Saturday (-16,593) In Washington, the USA, Britain, and Germany signed a treaty dividing the Samoan Islands between the USA and Germany.

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11/1899, USA finally subdued Philippines. Churchill captured by Boers, escaped. Boers besieged Ladysmith.

26/11/1899, Sunday (-16,599) Ronald Cove-Smith, rugby player, was born (died 9/3/1988).

24/11/1899, Friday (-16,601) US forces finally captured Luzon in the Philippines after nine months of jungle warfare. The US was awarded the Philippines in 1898 but found it hard to subdue the territory. Insurrectionist leader Emilio Aguinaldo wanted independence and declared the Malolos Republic in 1898. Aguinaldo continued a guerrilla war from the mountains.

23/11/1899, Thursday (-16,602) (Brazil) Manuel dos Reis Machado was born (died 5/2/1974). In 1932 he set up a School of Capoeira, the martial arts/music culture of Quilombo Black Brazilians.

21/11/1899, Tuesday (-16,604) Garrett Hobart, US Vice-President, died (born 3/6/1844).

18/11/1899, Saturday (-16,607) Henry Hicks, British geologist, died (born 26/5/1837).

16/11/1899, Thursday (-16,609) Julius Busch, German publicist, died (born 13/2/1821)

15/11/1899, Wednesday (-16,610) Sir Winston Churchill was captured by the Boers whilst working as a reporter for the Morning Post. He was on board an armoured train derailed in an ambush, and had persuaded the engine driver to take the remains of the train back with the wounded, and was captured by a Boer horseman with a rifle; Churchill had lost his pistol helping clear the railway line. He escaped a few weeks later.

14/11/1899, Tuesday (-16,611) Britain concluded an agreement with Germany over the frontier between the Gold Coast and the German colony of Togo.

13/11/1899, Monday (-16.612) Arthur Giry, French historical writer, died (born 29/2/1848).

2/11/1899, Thursday (-16,623) The Boers under Piet Joubert laid siege to Ladysmith, an important railway junction in Natal. See 28/2/1900.

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10/1899, Boer War began. USA took possession of Puerto Rico from Spain.

30/10/1899, Monday (-16,626) Sir Arthur Blomfield, English architect, died (born 6/3/1829).

27/10/1899, Friday (-16,629) Edward Berthon, English naval inventor, died (born in London 20/2/1813).

24/10/1899, Tuesday (-16,632) Grant Allen, English author, died in Hindhead (born 24/2/1848 in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

20/10/1899, Friday (-16,636) Battle at Talana Hill, near Dundee, Natal, in the Boer War

19/10/1898, Thursday (-16,637) Baghdad Railways concession was granted to Deutche Bank again.

18/10/1898, Wednesday (-16,638) The USA took formal possession of Puerto Rico from Spain.

17/10/1899, Tuesday (-16,639) British troops defeated the Boers at Glencoe.

16/10/1899, Monday (-16,640) Milwall beat Tottenham 2 to 1 at the Tottenham ground.

15/10/1899, Sunday (-16,641) The Boers, who surrounded Mafeking on 12/10/1899, laid siege to Kimberley. The siege of Kimberley was lifted by the British on 16/2/1900.

14/10/1899, Saturday (-16,642) Winston Churchill left for South Africa to report for The Morning Post.

13/10/1899, Friday (-16,643) Philip Colomb, English writer, died (born 29/5/1831).

12/10/1899, Thursday (-16,644) The Boers began the siege of Mafeking.Baden Powell defended the town until it was relieved by Colonel Plumer 217 days later.

11/10/1899, Wednesday (-16,645) The Boer War began. (See 31/5/1902). It was between the British Empire and the Republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. President Kruger of the Orange Free State had sent a telegram to Britain on 9/11/1899 demanding that Britain stop sending troops and arms to South Africa. Troubles had begun in the 1890s with the discovery of gold and diamonds in the Transvaal and this prompted many prospectors to arrive in the area. The Boers called them Uitlanders and President Kruger of the Transvaal taxed them heavily and refused them the vote. He feared that if they had the vote, Cecil Rhodes, Premier of Cape Province, who had considerable mining interests, would gain control of the Transvaal. Kaiser William of Germany expressed support for the Boers in the �Kruger Telegram� of 1896; Britain�s imperial ambitions were making her unpopular abroad at this time.

The Boers had 50,000 men against the British with 15,000 regulars in South Africa and another 10,000 due from India.The Boers had better knowledge of the terrain, and their horsemen war more mobile than the ponderous British forces, whose fighting was based on Crimean tactics.However the Boers were to waste their forces in besieging the British in strategically unimportant towns such as Ladysmith, instead of sending the majority of their forces out in to South Africa and depriving the British of naval supplies by capturing the ports.

9/10/1899, Monday (-16,647) The first petrol driven motor bus began operating in London.

5/10/1899, Thursday (-16,651) James Harlan, US politician, died (born 26/8/1820).

10/1899, Boer War began. USA took possession of Puerto Rico from Spain.

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9/1899, France �pardoned� Dreyfus. US open door policy to China; warning to Japan and Europe.

29/9/1899, Friday (-16,657) Billy Butlin, holiday camp owner, was born in South Africa.

28/9/1898, Thursday (-16,658) William Kingsford, English historical writer, died (born 23/12/1819).

24/9/1899, Sunday (-16,662) John Clarke, US actor, died (born 3/9/1833).

19/9/1899, Tuesday (-16,667) France finally granted a pardon to Alfred Dreyfus in an attempt to end the controversy over anti-Semitic allegations that threatened the political stability of France. Dreyfus insisted on a total clearing of his name.

12/9/1889, Tuesday (-16,674) Ronald Poulton, rugby player, was born (died 5/5/1915).

6/9/1899, Wednesday (-16,680) The US Secretary of State, John Hay, embarked on an �open door� policy towards China. He also urged the European powers, and Japan, to respect China�s territorial integrity and pursue a policy of free trade with China.

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8/1899, Dreyfus found guilty, Hitchcock born. Robert Bunsen, chemist, died.

27/8/1899, Sunday (-16,690) Emmanuel Hiel, Belgian-Dutch writer, died (born 5/1834).

25/8/1899, Friday (-16,692) Guy Butler, athlete, was born (died 22/2/1981).

16/8/1899, Wednesday (-16,701) Death of the German chemist Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, inventor of the Bunsen burner

13/8/1899, Sunday (-16,704) Birth of film director Alfred Hitchcock.He was born in Leytonstone, London, the son of a greengrocer.

9/8/1899, Wednesday (-16,708) Sir Edward Frankland, English chemist, died (born 18/1/1825).

7/8/1899, Monday (-16,710) (1) The guilt of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, condemned and deported for treason in 1894, was confirmed by a court-martial at Rennes.

(2) Alexander Bruce, Scottish religious writer, died (born 31/3/1831).

3/8/1899, Thursday (-16,714) Marjorie Pollard, hockey and cricket champion, was born (died21/3/1982).

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7/1899, First juvenile court sat. International Court of Arbitration founded.

31/7/1899, Monday (-16,717) (USA) Daniel Brinton, US archaeologist, died (born 30/5/1837).

29/7/1899, Saturday (-16,719) At The Hague, a conference of 26 countries established a permanent international court of arbitration.

24/7/1899, Monday (-16,724) Sir Arthur Cotton, irrigation engineer in India, died (born 15/5/1803).

21/7/1899, Friday (-16,727) Robert Ingersoll, US author, died (born 11/8/1833).

5/7/1899, Wednesday (-16,743) Jean Cocteau, film director, poet, artist, novelist, was born in Maisons-Lafitte, France.

3/7/1898, Monday (-16,745) Donald Healey, rally driver, was born (died 15/1/1988).

1/7/1899, Saturday (-16,747) The first juvenile court sat, at Cork County Court, Chicago.

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6/1899, USA began use of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

21/6/1899, Wednesday (-16,757) Herbert Leo Price, hockey champion, was born (died 18/7/1943).

20/6/1889, Tuesday (-16,758) The Peloritana rail tunnel, Italy, 6.5 km long, opened

15/6/1889, Thursday (-16,763)

11/6/1899, Sunday (-16,767) William Blaikie, theological writer, died (born in Aberdeen 5/2/1820).

10/6/1898, Saturday (-16,768) Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, was first used as a camp by US troops during the Spanish-American War.

7/6/1899, Wednesday (-16,771) Augustin Daly, US playwright, died (born 20/7/1838).

3/6/1899, Saturday (-16,775) Johann Strauss the Younger, Austrian composer, violinist, and conductor, who wrote The Blue Danube waltz, died in Vienna.

2/6/1899, Friday (-16,776) Lotte Reiniger, film animator, was born.

1/6/1899, Thursday (-16,777) Klaus Groth, German poet, died (born 24/4/1819).

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5/1899, Foundation of Victoria and Albert Museum, London, laid

24/5/1899, Wednesday (-16,785) William Esher, English Judge, died (born 13/8/1817).

17/5/1899, Wednesday (-16,792) Queen Victoria laid the foundation stone of the Victoria and Albert Museum.

16/5/1899, Tuesday (-16,793) Sir Frederick McCoy, British palaeontologist, died.

9/5/1899, Tuesday (-16,800)

2/5/1899, Tuesday (-16,807) Martin Simson, German politician, died (born 10/10/1810)

1/5/1899, Monday (-16,808) The railway reached Beira, Mozambique, from Zimbabwe.

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4/1899,

27/4/1899, Thursday (-16,812)

21/4/1899, Friday (-16,818) Heinrich Kiepert, German geographical writer, died (born 31/7/1818).

20/4/1899, Thursday (-16,819) Charles Friedel, French chemist, died (born 12/3/1832).

11/4/1899, Tuesday (-16,828) Lascar Catargiu, Romanian politician, died (born 1823).

9/4/1899, Sunday (-16,830) Stephen Field, US jurist, died (born 4/11/1816).

3/4/1899, Monday (-16,836) David Jack, footballer, was born (died 10/9/1958)

1/4/1899, Saturday (-16,838) (Jewish) Maurice de Hirsch, German Jewish philanthropist, died (born 9/12/1831).

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3/1899, World land speed record now set at over 57 mph.

18/3/1899, Saturday (-36,852) (USA) Othniel Charles Marsh, US palaeontologist, died in new Haven, Connecticut.

17/3/1899, Friday (-16,853) A merchant ship ran aground in the English Channel and sent the first radio distress call.

16/3/1899, Thursday (-16,854) The London erotic illustrator Aubrey Beardsley died aged 26.

12/3/1899, Sunday (-16,858) Mary Keeley, English actress, died.

6/3/1899, Monday (-16,864) The painkiller Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) was patented by Felix Hoffman. The active ingredient is derived from willow.

4/3/1899, Saturday (-16,866) Count Gaston de Chasseloup Laubat raised the world land speed record to 57.6 mph (92.96 kph), see 18/12/1898.

1/3/1899, Wednesday (-16,869) Andrew Boyd, Scottish author, died in Bournemouth (born 3/11/1825).

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2/1899, Boxer rebellion gained momentum in China. Czar Nicholas II began to Russify Finland.

25/2/1899, Saturday (-16,873) Paul Julius Reuter, German founder of Reuters news agency, died.

21/2/1899, Tuesday (-16,877) (Britain) Sir George Bowen, British colonial governor, died in Brighton (born 8/9/1811).

20/2/1899, Monday (-16,878) Ernst Lange, German novelist, died (born 21/2/1813).

19/2/1899, Sunday (-16,879)

18/2/1899, Saturday (-16,880) Marius Lie, Norwegian mathematician, died.

17/2/1899, Friday (-16,881) (Britain) Thomas Bridgett, English priest, died (born 20/1/1829).

16/2/1899, Thursday, (-16,882) Francois Faure, President of France, died (born 30/1/1841).

15/2/1899, Wednesday (-16,883) Czar Nicholas II began a process of Russification of Finland. The Finnish Diet was stripped of power.

13/2/1899, Monday (-16,885)

10/2/1899, Friday (-16,888) Cyril Simpson, rackets champion, was born (died 21/12/1981).

9/2/1899, Thursday (-16,889) The Boxer Rebellion gained momentum in China. Lack of rain had caused crops to fail, and Boxer pamphlets blamed the Churches for �standing in the way of Heaven and angering the Gods�. The Boxer publicity blamed �blue-eyed barbarians� for angering the ancestors and said railways, electric wires and ships must be destroyed. Britain, France, Germany and Russia had forced territorial concessions from China. The Boxers, or �society of harmonious fists�, were a secret society, originally formed to promote boxing, who became dedicated to removing foreign influence from China.

6/2/1899, Monday (-16,892) Georg Caprivi, German statesman (born 24/2/1831) died.

5/2/1899, Sunday (-16,893)

4/2/1899, Saturday (-16,894) A rebellion against US rule broke out on the Philippines. The US had backed General Emilio Aguinaldo against Spanish colonial rule (see 10/12/1898), but instead of independence the Philippines came under US rule.

3/2/1899, Friday (-16,895) Robert John, footballer, was born (died 17/7/1982).

1/2/1899, Wednesday (-16,897)

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1/1899, US supplanted Spanish rule in Cuba. Lord Denning, Judge, was born.

31/1/1899, Tuesday (-16,898) (Britain) Charles Berry, English cleric, died (born in Leigh, Lancashire 14/12/1852).

30/1/1899, Monday (-16,899) Harry Bates, British sculptor, died in London (born in Stevenage, Hertfordshire 26//4/1850).

27/1/1899, Friday (-16,902) Charles Best, Canadian co-discoverer of insulin for treating diabetes, was born in West Pembroke, Maine.

23/1/1899, Monday (-16,906) Lord Denning, British Judge and Master of the Rolls, was born.

19/1/1899. Thursday (-16,910) Britain and Egypt established a condominium over Sudan.

17/1/1899, Tuesday (-16,912) (1) Al Capone, American gangster who operated in Chicago, was born in Naples, Italy.

(2) Nevil Shute, English novelist, was born in Ealing, London.

12/1/1899, Thursday (-16,917) Paul Muller, the Swiss chemist who formulated DDT, was born.

8/1/1899, Sunday (-16,921) Solomon Bandaranaike, Sri Lankan Prime Minister 1956-59, was born in the capital, Colombo.

1/1/1899, Sunday (-16,928) The official date on which US military rule succeeded Spanish rule of Cuba.

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12/1898, USA-Spain was ended. Radium was identified. Car land speed record of 39 mph set.

26/12/1898, Monday (-16,934) (Chemistry) The new element radium was first identified, as radium chloride, by Marie and Pierre Curie. Pure radium was first prepared by Marie Curie and Andre Louis Debierne in 1911.

18/12/1898, Sunday (-16,942) At Acheres, near Paris, Count Gaston de Chasseloup Laubat set a land speed record of 39.23 mph (63.13 kph) in a Jeantaud electric car.

13/12/1898, Tuesday (-16,947) Paul Hinschius, German legal writer, died (born 25/12/1835).

12/12/1898, Monday (-16,948) The Treaty of Paris ended the US-Spanish war.

11/12/1898, Sunday (-16,949) Sir William Jenner, English physician, died (born 30/1/1815).

10/12/1898. Saturday (-16,950) The war between Spain and the USA ended. The USA acquired Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and. for a US$20million indemnity, the Philippines. See 4/2/1899.

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11/1898, New Zealand old age pensions began. Turkey pulled out from Crete.

24/11/1898, Thursday (-16,966) (Biology) George James Allman, British biologist, died in Parkstone, Dorset (born 1812).

20/11/1898, Sunday (-16,970) (Railways GB) Sir John Fowler, British railway engineer, died (born 15/8/1817).

19/11/1898, Saturday (-16,971) (USA) Don Carlos Buell, US soldier, died (born 23/3/1818).

15/11/1898, Tuesday (-16,975) (Brazil) In Brazil, President Moraes was succeeded by Dr Campos Salles, who had previously been Governor of the State of Sao Paulo.

6/11/1898, Sunday (-16,984) Turkey evacuated its forces from Crete.

1/11/1898, Tuesday (-16,989) New Zealand passed the Old Age Pensions Act. Pensions were paid from March 1899, backdated to January 1899, to men over 65 and women over 60.

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10/1898, Aero Club de France founded.

31/10/1898, Monday (-16,990) Helena Faucit, English actress, died (born 1817).

30/10/1898, Sunday (-16,991) (Electrical) Josiah Clark, British electrical engineer, died (born 10/3/1822).

19/10/1898, Wednesday (-17,002) Harold Frederic, Anglo-US novelist, died (born 19/8/1856).

16/10/1898, Sunday (-17,005) John Findlay, Scottish newspaper owner, died (born 21/10/1824).

10/10/1898, Monday (-17,011) Pierre C Puvis de Chavannes, painter, died in Paris aged 73.

7/10/1898, Friday (-17,014) (Aviation) Aero club de France was established, to represent the country�s fliers.

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9/1898, Kitchener defeated Mahdists at Khartoum.

28/9/1898, Wednesday (-17,023) (USA) Thomas Bayard, US statesman, died in Dedham, Massachusetts (born in Wilmington, Delaware, 29/10/1828).

25/9/1898, Sunday (-17,026) (Biology) Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet, French anthropologist, died at St Germain en Laye.

24/9/1898, Saturday (-17,027) Sir Howard Florey, British pathologist and joint discoverer of penicillin with Sir Ernest Chain, was born in Adelaide, Australia.

20/9/1898, Tuesday (-17,031) Theodor Fontane, German novelist, died (30/12/1819).

10/9/1898, Saturday (-17,041) Elizabeth, consort of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, was stabbed to death by anarchist Luigi Luccheni.

2/9/1898, Friday (-17,049) Sir Herbert Kitchener led the 25,000-strong British forces to victory over the Mahdists at Omdurman, Sudan, killing 10,000 of the Dervish force, for 500 British deaths, and took Khartoum. This ended 14 years of Dervish rule after the Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad, had massacred General Charles Gordon and his entire garrison at Khartoum in 1885.

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8/1898, US sovereignty over Hawaii. US forces captured Manila. Alfred Hitchcock born

27/8/1898, Saturday (-17,055) John Hopkinson, English engineer, died (born 27/7/1849).

18/8/1898, Thursday (-17,064) Matthew Dawson, jockey, died (born 9/1/1820)

17/8/1898, Wednesday (-17,065) Sir William Fraser, English politician, died (born 10/2/1826).

15/8/1898, Monday (-17,067)

13/8/1898, Saturday (-17,069) (1) US forces captured Manila, capital of the Philippines

(2) Alfred Hitchcock, film director, was born in Leytonstone.

12/8/1898, Friday (-17,070) The sovereignty of Hawaii was transferred to the USA.

9/8/1898, Tuesday (-17,073)

7/8/1898, Sunday (-17,075) Enrico Cosenz, Italian soldier, died (born 12/1/1812).

6/8/1898, Saturday (-17,076) (Colombia) Colombia and Peru signed a treaty of friendship and extradition of criminals.

3/8/1898, Wednesday (-17,079) Jean Garnier, French architect, died (born 6/11/1825).

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7/1898, French reached Fashoda. USA formally annexed Hawaii. Polonium discovered. US invaded Puerto Rico.

30/7/1898, Saturday (-17,083) Henry Moore, British sculptor, was born in Castleford, Yorkshire, the son of a coal miner.

29/7/1898, Friday (-17,084) (Chemistry) John Alexander Newlands, English chemist, died in London.

28/7/1898, Thursday (-17,085) (1) Puerto Rico surrendered to US forces.

(2) Bismarck died, three years after his wife, at Friedrichsruh.He was a Prussian politician and founder of the modern state of Germany.

25/7/1898, Monday (-17,088) During the Spanish�American War, the U.S. invaded Puerto Rico with a landing at Gu�nica.

21/7/1898, Thursday (-17,092) William Hunter, Scottish legal writer, died (born 8/5/1844).

18/7/1898, Monday (-17,095) (Chemistry) Polonium was discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898, after samples of radium proved more radioactive than expected. They named the metal after their native Poland to highlight the lack of independence of that nation.

17/7/1898. Sunday (-17,096) The Frenchman Captain J Marchand reached Fashoda (now Kodok) in the Nile Valley in an attempt to build a continuous belt of French colonial territory from west to east across Africa. However the British similarly wanted a contiguous territory from north to south. Lord Kitchener, advancing south from Egypt to fight the Mahdi from Sudan, conquered the Sudanese on 2/9/1898 and then learned of �white men flying a strange flag at Fashoda�. The British reached Fashoda on 19/9/1898, under General Kitchener. War between France and Britain seemed imminent, neither side being willing to give way until Lord Salisbury was able to announce on 4/11/1898 that the French would back down. On 21/3/1899 a declaration was made that united all French territories in north, west, and central Africa into one unit whilst giving Fashoda to the British.

14/7/1898, Thursday (-17,099) Eliza Linton, English novelist, died (born 10/8/1822).

7/7/1898, Thursday (-17,106) The USA formally annexed Hawaii.

3/7/1898, Sunday (-17.110) (USA) The US navy destroyed a Spanish fleet attempting to escape the US blockade on the port of Santiago de Cuba, Cuba.On 5/7/1898 US forces captured Santiago itself.

1/7/1898, Friday (-17,112) China leased the New Territories (Hong Kong) to Britain for 99 years.

7/1898, French reached Fashoda. USA formally annexed Hawaii. Polonium discovered. US invaded Puerto Rico.

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6/1898, Anglo-French agreement on African colonisation. Plimsoll, shipping, died. Messerschmitt, German aviator, was born

26/6/1898, Sunday (-17,117) Wilhelm Messerschmitt, German aviation engineer and designer, was born in Frankfurt.

25/6/1898, Saturday (-17,118) (Biology) German botanist Ferdinand Julius Cohn died in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland).

24/6/1898, Friday (-17,119) Jose de Elduayen, Spanish politician, died (born 22/6/1823).

20/6/1898. Monday (-17,123) The US navy seized the island of Guam.

18/6/1898, Saturday (-17,125) (Cartography) Karl Gumbel, publisher of the first geological map of Bavaria in 1858, died (born 11/2/1823).

17/6/1898, Friday (-17,126) Edward Coley Burne-Jones, painter, died in London aged 64.

14/6/1898, Tuesday (-17,129) At a convention in Paris, the boundaries of the British colony of the Gold Coast, (Ghana) were confirmed, as they stand now. Britain abandoned claims to Ouagadougou (present-day capital of Burkina Faso), further north.

3/6/1898, Friday (-17,140) Samuel Plimsoll, who devised the Plimsoll Line for the safe loading of ships, died in Folkestone, Kent.

2/6/1898, Thursday (-17,141) (Medical) Paul Louis Simond, fighting bubonic plague in India, theorised that fleas transmitted the disease from rats to humans.

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5/1898, USA attacked Spanish fleet in the Philippines. Gladstone, UK PM, died. Golda Meir, Israeli PM, was born.

28/5/1899, Saturday (-17,146)

25/5/1899, Wednesday (-17,149) Emilio Castelar, Spanish politician, died (born 8/9/1832).

24/5/1898, Tuesday (-17,150) (Italy) Benedetto Brin, Italian naval engineer who laid the basis for the Italian navy, died (born 17/5/1833).

22/5/1898, Sunday (-17,152) Edward Bellamy, US writer died in Chicopee Falls (born in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts 25/3/1850).

19/5/1898. Thursday (-17,155) William Ewart Gladstone, born 29/12/1809, four times Liberal Prime Minister, died at Hawarden Castle, north Wales, aged 88.

3/5/1898, Tuesday (-17,171) (Jewish) Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel 1969-74, was born.

1/5/1898. Sunday (-17,173) US forces under George Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, Philippines.

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4/1898, US declared war on Spain, demanded Spanish withdrawal from Cuba.

24/4/1898. Sunday (-17,180) The United States declared war on Spain as a result of the sinking of the battleship Maine in Havana harbour on 15 February 1898. Fighting began in the Philippine Islands at the Battle of Manila Bay on 1 May 1898, where Commodore George Dewey destroyed a Spanish fleet. The war ended when the USA and Spain signed a peace treaty in Paris on 10 December 1898. As a result Spain lost control over the remains of its empire, including Cuba.

20/4/1898, Wednesday (-17,184) The US demanded the withdrawal of Spanish troops from Cuba.

19/4/1898, Tuesday (-17,185) (Biology) Biologist Charles Naudin died.

18/4/1898, Monday (-17,186) Gustave Moreau, painter, died in Paris aged 72

10/4/1898, Sunday (-17,198) Easter Sunday

8/4/1898, Friday (-17,196) The Battle of Atbara.

3/4/1898, Sunday (-17,201) Henry Luce, US publisher who founded Time, Life, and Fortune magazines, was born.

1/4/1898, Friday (-17,203) Samuel Davidson, Irish religious writer, died (born 1807).

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3/1898, First Communist Party meeting in Russia. Germany to expand its Navy.

28/3/1898, Monday (-17,207) Germany passed an Act allowing for substantial expansion of its navy.

27/3/1898, Sunday (-17,208) Gloria Swanson, American silent-film star, was born.

20/3/1898, Sunday (-17,215)

16/3/1898, Wednesday (-17,219) Aubrey Beardsley, English artist, died in Mentone (born in Brighton 24/8/1872).

15/3/1898, Tuesday (-17,220) Sir Henry Bessemer, inventor of a process for converting cast iron into steel in 1856, died aged 85.

10/3/1898, Thursday (-17,225) William Wavell Wakefield, rugby player, was born (died 12/8/1983).

6/3/1898, Sunday (-17,229) Felice Cavallotti, Italian politician, died (born 6/11/1842)

5/3/1898, Saturday (-17,230) Zhou Enlai, Chinese Premier, was born.

4/3/1898, Friday (-17,231)

2/3/1898, Wednesday (-17,233) Saiyid Ahmed, Indian educationalist, died at Aligarh (born 1817).

1/3/1898, Tuesday (-17,234) The first Communist Party meeting in Russia; the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party met in Minsk.

====================================================================================

2/1898, First motorist killed in a car accident. US warship sabotaged, US to declare war on Spain. Zola imprisoned over Dreyfus case.

23/2/1898, Wednesday (-17,240) Emile Zola was imprisoned for the publication of his letter, �J�Accuse�, which accused the French Government of anti-Semitism and of wrongly imprisoning Captain Dreyfus. See 13/1/1898.

20/2/1898, Sunday (-17,243) Enzio Ferrari, Italian car manufacturer, was born in Modena.

15/2/1898, Tuesday (-17,248)The US warship Maine blew up in Havana harbour, Cuba.Spanish sabotage was suspected.The USA declared war on Spain on 24/4/1898.

14/2/1898, Monday (-17,249) (Astronomy) Swiss astronomer Fritz Zwicky was born in Varna, Bulgaria.

13/2/1898, Sunday (-17,250) August Potthast, German historian (born 13/8/1824), died.

12/2/1898, Saturday (-17,251) Henry Lindfield of Brighton became the first British motorist to be killed in a car crash. As a result of a steering failure he had a leg amputated, and died of shock.

11/2/1898, Friday (-17,252) Ferdinand Fabre, French novelist, died (born 1830).

=====================================================================================

1/1898, Dreyfus Affair continued in France, with attempts to pervert course of justice.

30/1/1898, Sunday (-17,264) (Britain) Chichester Carlingford, British statesman, died (born 1/1823).

18/1/1898, Tuesday (-17,276) Henry Liddell, English writer, died (born 6/2/1811).

14/1/1898, Friday (-17,280) Lewis Carroll, author of Alice�s Adventures in Wonderland, died in Guildford, Surrey

13/1/1898, Thursday (-17,281) The Dreyfus affair in France escalated with the famous novelist Emile Zola accusing the French war office of judicial crime in an open letter on the front page of L�Aurore newspaper. Commandant Ferdinand Esterhazy had been acquitted of betrayal of France�s military secrets to Germany even though his handwriting had been identified as that on a note in the German embassy. Moreover, Georges Picquart, the intelligence chief who made the Esterhazy connection, was reposted to Africa. See 23/2/1898.

11/1/1898, Tuesday (-17,283) In Paris, Major Esterhazy was wrongly acquitted of forging documents used to establish the guilt of French Army Officer Captain Alfred Dreyfus.

9/1/1898, Sunday (-17,285) Gracie Fields, singer and music hall star, was born in Rochdale, Lancashire, as Gracie Stansfield.

7/1/1898, Friday (-17,287) (Medical) Ernest Hart, medical journalist, died (born 26/1/1835). He raised membership of the British Medical Association from 2,000 to 19,000, and saw the British Medical Journal expand from 20 to 64 pages.

2/1/1898, Sunday (-17,292) Sir Edward Bond, English librarian, died (born in Hanwell 31/12/1815).

1/1/1898, Saturday (-17,293) The boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens, Richmond, Manhattan, and The Bronx united to form Greater New York.

=====================================================================================

12/1897, Russia occupied Port Arthur. Greece-Turkey peace treaty.

31/12/1879, Friday (-17,294)

30/12/1897, Thursday (-17,295) Zululand was annexed to Natal.

29/12/1897, Wednesday (-17,296) William Linton, English wood engraver, died.

27/12/1897, Monday (-17,298) Victor Cazelet, squash player, was born (died 4/7/1943).

18/12/1897, Saturday (-17,309) Sir Frank Lockwood, English lawyer, died.

17/12/1897, Friday (-17,308) Alphonse Daudet, French novelist, died (born 13/5/1840).

16/12/1897, Thursday (-17,309)

14/12/1897, Tuesday (-17,311) Kurt Schusnigg, Austrian politician, was born.

13/12/1897, Monday (-17,312) Russia occupied Port Arthur.

4/12/1897, Saturday (-17,321) Greece and Turkey signed a peace treaty.

===================================================================================

11/1897, Aneurin Bevan, UK Labour leader, was born.

30/11/1897, Tuesday (-17,325) The Vologda to Archangel railway opened.

19/11/1897, Friday (-17,236) Henry Calderwood, Scottish philosophical writer, died (born 10/5/1830).

18/11/1897, Thursday (-17,237) (Technology) Sir Henry Doulton, English inventor, died (born 25/7/1820).

15/11/1897, Monday (-17,340) British Labour leader Aneurin Bevan was born in Tredegar, Wales.He was one of 13 children, son of a miner.

5/11/1897, Friday (-17,350) Warneford Cresswell, footballer, was born (died 20/10/1973).

4/11/1897, Thursday (-17,351) The projected Cape to Cairo Railway reached Bulawayo (now in Zimbabwe).

3/11/1897, Wednesday (-17,352)

1/11/1897, Monday (-17,354) (Geology) Peter Brodie, English geologist, died (born 1815).

===================================================================================

10/1897, Dow Jones Index founded. First car trip John O�Groats to Land�s End, took 10 days. Goebbels born.

31/10/1897, Sunday (-17,355) Samuel Haughton, Irish scientific writer, died (born 21/12/1821).

30/10/1897, Saturday (-17,356)

29/10/1897, Friday (-17,357) Joseph Goebbels, Nazi political leader and propagandist, was born in Rheydt, son of a factory foreman.

28/10/1897, Thursday (-17,358) Hercules Rosmead, British colonial administrator, died (born 19/12/1824).

24/10/1897, Sunday (-17,362)

20/10/1897, Wednesday (-17,366) The British put down a rebellion by Afghan tribes at the Battle of Durgai.

19/10/1897, Tuesday (-17,367) (1) Henry Sturmey, co-inventor of Sturmey-Archer bicycle gears, completed the first car trip from Land�s End to John O�Groats. It took him ten days, driving a Daimler.

(2) George Pullman, US manufacturer of railway sleeping and dining cars that bear his name, died in Chicago, Illnois, aged 66.

17/10/1897, Sunday (-17,369) Charles Dana, US journalist, died (born 8/8/1819).

10/10/1897, Sunday (-17,376) Felix Hoffman, German chemist, invented the painkiller aspirin.

8/10/1897, Friday (-17,378) In America, the Dow Jones company was set up by the financial journalist Charles Henry Dow, 46. He took the price of 12 stocks and averaged their price to create the Dow Jones Index.

6/10/1897, Wednesday (-17,380) Sir John Gilbert, English painter, died (born 21/7/1817).

4/10/1897, Monday (-17,382) Pascual Gayangos, Spanish historical writer, died (born 21/6/1809).

2/10/1897, Saturday (-17,384) (Alcohol) Neal Dow, US Temperance campaigner, died (born 20/3/1804).

10/1897, Dow Jones Index founded. First car trip John O�Groats to Land�s End, took 10 days. Goebbels born.

======================================================================================

9/1897, Boston Underground opened. Hawaii annexed to USA. UK first drunk driving conviction. Britain�s first motor bus service.

27/9/1897, Monday (-17,389) Charles Bourbaki, French General, died (born in Pau 22/4/1816).

26/9/1897, Sunday (-17,390) Pope Paul V was born in Concessio, as Giovanni Battista Montini.

25/9/1897. Saturday (-17,391) Britain�s first motor bus service began, in Bradford, Yorkshire.

22/9/1896, Wednesday (-17,394) Henry Seagrave, motor racing champion, was born (died 13/6/1930).

20/9/1897, Monday (-17,396) Karel Bendl, Bohemian composer, died in Prague (born in Prague 16/4/1838).

10/9/1897, Friday (-17,406) London taxi driver George Smith was fined �1, at Marlborough Street Court. He was the first Briton to be convicted of drunken driving. The defendant had driven his electric cab onto the pavement and into the front corridor of 165 Bond Street. He was found guilty and fined �1.

9/9/1897, Thursday (-17,407) The Hawaiian Senate approved the US annexation of Hawaii on 16/6/1897. Sugar plantation owners on Hawaii had demanded annexation; however Japan had some 25,000 nationals on Hawaii, and protested at the move.

6/9/1897, Monday (-17,410) Alexander R Armstrong, Australian rugby player, was born.

1/9/1897, Wednesday (-17,415) Boston�s underground railway began operating.

9/1897, Boston Underground opened. Hawaii annexed to USA. UK first drunk driving conviction. Britain�s first motor bus service.

=====================================================================================

8/1897, Royal Automobile Club, Britain, formed. Enid Blyton was born. Chop Suey invented. Jewish leaders discussed possible homeland.

31/8/1897, Tuesday (-17,416) World Jewish leaders met in Basle, Switzerland to discuss their hopes for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. 200 delegates from all branches of Judaism came, mainly from east and Central Europe.

29/8/1897, Sunday (-17,418) A New York chef, to appeal to Chinese and American tastes, devised Chop Suey, meaning �various things�, the most famous Chinese dish.

25/8/1897, Wednesday (-17,422) Emile Gautier, French historical writer, died (born 8/8/1832).

20/8/1897, Friday (-17,427) Sir Ronald Ross discovered that malaria was spread by mosquitoes.

19/8/1897, Thursday (-17,428) The first taxi cabs began operating in the UK.They were restricted to the City and West End of London.

17/8/1897, Tuesday (-17,430)

13/8/1897, Friday (-17,434) (Innovation) Sir Isaac Holden, British inventor, died (born 7/5/1807).

12/8/1897, Thursday (-17,435) (Astronomy) Otto Struve, Russian-American astronomer, was born in Kharkov, Russia. He discovered thin clouds of dust and gas between stars, suggesting a mechanism for planet formation.

11/8/1897, Wednesday (-17,436) Enid Blyton, author of children�s books, was born in Dulwich.

10/8/1897. Tuesday (-17,437) The Royal Automobile Club was founded, under the name of The Automobile Club of Great Britain.

9/8/1897, Monday (-17,438)

8/8/1897, Sunday (-17,439) (Chemistry) Viktor Meyer, German organic chemist, died in Heidelberg.

7/8/1897, Saturday (-17,440) The town of Abu Hamid was captured by the British from the Mahdists, Sudan.

6/8/1897, Friday (-17,441) Samuel Laing, British author, died (born 12/10/1810).

===================================================================================

7/1897, Amelia Earhart, aviator, was born.

30/7/1897, Friday (-47,448) (Austria) Alfred Arneth, Austrian historian, died (born 10/7/1819).

24/7/1897, Saturday (-17,454) Amelia Earhart, aviator, was born in Atchison, Kansas.

23/7/1897, Friday (-17,455) Germany and France agreed the border between their colonies of Togo and Dahomey (now Benin).

22/7/1897, Thursday (-17,456)

21/7/1897. Wednesday (-17,457) The Tate Gallery in London was officially opened, on the site of Millbank Prison.

20/7/1897, Tuesday (-17,458) (Biology) Tadeusz Reichstein was born in Wloclawek, Poland. In 1933 he succeeded in synthesising ascorbic acid (vitamin C).

11/7/1897, Sunday (-17,467) The Swedish balloonist S A Andree set off from Spitsbergen with two companions to fly over the North Pole. After a few days all contact with them was lost; their remains were discovered in 1930 on White Island.

7/7/1897, Wednesday (-17,471) (Geology) Samuel Allport, English petrologist, died in Cheltenham (born 23/1/1816 in Birmingham).

===================================================================================

6/1897, Shanghai anti-foot-binding association formed. Eden, UK Conservative PM, born. USA annexed Hawaii.

30/6/1897, Wednesday (-17,478) The Shanghai Foot Emancipation Society was founded. It was one of several such organisations dedicated to eliminating the custom of foot-binding which had been practiced on young aristocratic Chinese girls, leaving them in some cases scarcely able to walk. This practice dated from the 10th century AD; in China bound (small) feet were considered a mark of beauty, and also a sign that the woman was wealthy enough not to have to work. It also made her totally dependent upon her husband. As Christianity penetrated China in the 1880s a move to make women equal in status to men began, and to eliminate foot-binding. The Hundred Days Reform in 1898 also aimed to stop this practice. By 1899 some 800,000 Chinese people has joined anti-foot-binding societies. However the practice continued into the 20th century, and in 1949 the Communist administration found it necessary to ban the practice, still underway in remote rural areas. China retains a ban on foot-binding today.

28/6/1897, Monday (-17,480) George Eyston, motor racing champion, was born (died 11/6/1979).

22/6/1897. Tuesday (-17,486) Queen Victoria celebrated her diamond jubilee.

16/6/1897, Wednesday (-17,492) The USA annexed the Hawaiian Islands, see 9/9/1897.

15/6/1897, Tuesday (-17,493) Tirpitz was appointed German Naval Secretary.

14/6/1897, Monday (-17,494)

12/6/1897, Saturday (-17,496) (1) Anthony Eden, Conservative Prime Minister, was born at Windlestone Hall, Bishop Auckland, Durham.He later became the Earl of Avon.

(2) Carl Elsener took out a patent for the Swiss Army Knife.

(3) A magnitude 8.8 earthquake hit Assam, NE India. 1,542 were killed as a plateau in Shillong district suddenly rose 15 metres, throwing boulders, gravestones and even people into the air.

11/6/1897, Friday (-17,497) Karl Fresenius, German chemist, died (born 28/12/1818).

4/6/1897, Friday (-17,504)

6/1897, Shanghai anti-foot-binding association formed. Eden, UK Conservative PM, born. USA annexed Hawaii.

===================================================================================

5/1897, Greek-Turkish armistice brokered by Russia. Oscar Wilde released from jail.

27/5/1897, Thursday (-17,512) John Cockroft, nuclear physicist, was born in Yorkshire.

26/5/1897, Wednesday (-17,513) Bram Stoker�s Dracula was first published.

24/5/1897, Monday (-17,515)

22/5/1897. Saturday (-17,517) The Prince of Wales opened the Blackwall Tunnel in London.

21/5/1897, Friday (-17,518) Sir Augustus Franks, English antiquary, died (20/3/1826).

20/5/1897, Thursday (-17,519) With Greek troops demoralised and on the retreat, the Czar of Russia appealed to Turkey, and an armistice was arranged.

19/5/1897, Wednesday (-17,520) Oscar Wilde was released from Reading gaol.

17/5/1897, Monday (-17,522) Only now did Turkish troops attack Domokos (see 6/5/1897), this delay having given the Greeks time to entrench good defences.

15/5/1897, Saturday (-17,524) (Railways GB) (1) The Tipton to Budleigh Salterton railway opened.

(2) (Ethiopia) Britain and Abyssinia concluded a Treaty of Freindship.

10/5/1897, Monday (-17,529) William Best, English organist, died in Liverpool (born 13/8/1826 in Carlisle).

7/5/1897, Friday (-17,532) (France) Henri Aumale, French statesman, died in Zucco, Sicily (born 16/1/1822 in Paris).

6/5/1897, Thursday, (-17,533) The Turks drove the Greeks from their defensive positions in front of Pharsala. The Greeks retreated to Domokos.

5/5/1897, Wednesday (-17,534) (Africa) James Bent, explorer of Africa, died in London (born near Leeds 30/3/1852).

3/5/1897, Monday (-37,536) Edward Goulburn, English religious writer, died (born 11/2/1818).

5/1897, Greek-Turkish armistice brokered by Russia. Oscar Wilde released from jail.

=====================================================================================

4/1897, Greek-Turkish war over Crete.

27/4/1897, Tuesday (-17,542) Turkish forces only now reached Larissa. Neither side showed great military skill, with political considerations interfering with good strategy.

23/4/1997, Friday (-17,546) Turkish forces reached Deliler. The Greeks could have retreated in good order to Larissa, where a defensible position was available, but instead fled south in disorder towards Pharsala.

19/4/1997, Monday (-17,550) Turkish forces occupied the Meluna Pass, threatening the Greek frontier town of Larissa just 10 miles to the southeast.

18/4/1897, Sunday (-17,551) Easter Sunday; Edhem Pasha, Turkish military leader, began a general advance from his headquarters at Elassona against Greece. Turkish troops began bombarding Arta.

17/4/1897, Saturday (-17,552) (Greece-Turkey) War broke out between Greece and the Ottoman Empire.Turkey accused Greece of fomenting revolt in Crete.On 19/5/1897, after several defeats by Turkey and having been forced to withdraw from Crete, Greece signed an armistice with Turkey at Thessaly. Support for Greece by France and the UK saved it from total defeat, but Greece had to pay large war indemnities to Ottoman Turkey, bankrupting the country.

12/4/1897, Monday (-17,557) (Geology) Edward Cope, US palaeontologist, died (born 28/7/1840).

10/4/1897, Saturday (-17,559) Greek irregular troops crossed the frontier into Macedonia, then under Turkish rule, hoping to provoke insurrection there.

3/4/1897, Saturday (-17,566) Johannes Brahms, German composer, died at his home in Vienna, aged 64.

====================================================================================

3/1897, Gold discovered in The Klondike, Canada.

31/3/1897, Wednesday (-17,569) Gold was discovered in The Klondike, Canada.

11/3/1897, Thursday (-17,389) Henry Drummond, Scottish scholarly writer, died (born 17/8/1851).

7/3/1897, Sunday (-17,393) Gustav Kenncott, mineralogist, died (born 6/1/1818)

====================================================================================

2/1897, Crete proclaimed union with Greece, against Turkey. Blondin, tightrope walker, died.

22/2/1897, Monday (-17,606) Darius Couch, US soldier, died (born 23/7/1822).

19/2/1897. Friday (-17,609) (1) French tightrope walker Charles Blondin died. He was born on 28/2/1824.

(2) The Women�s Institute organisation was founded at Stoney Creek in Ontario by Mrs Hoodless. The first W I meeting was on 25/9/1897. The W I idea was brought to England by a Mrs Watt during World War One.

13/2/1897, Saturday (-17,615) Carl Erhardt, ice hockey player, was born (died 3/5/1988).

11/2/1897, Thursday (-17,617) (Atomic) Hungarian-US physicist Leo Szilard was born in Budapest. In 1939 he researched self-sustaining nuclear reactions.

10/2/1897. Wednesday (-17,618) Greece sent ships and troops to Crete, 4 days after Crete�s proclamation of union with Greece.

9/2/1897, Tuesday (-17,619) Sir Charles Kingsford Smith, Australian aviator, was born.

4/2/1897, Thursday (-17,624) Christians in Canea, Crete, protested over the slow pace of reform by the island�s Turkish Governor, which reforms were intended to safeguard their rights. Turkish troops fired at the demonstrators, many of who took refuge on European naval ships just offshore, and part of the town was burnt down.

1/2/1897, Monday (-17,627) Constantin Ettingshausen, scientific writer, died (born 16/6/1826).

2/1897, Crete proclaimed union with Greece, against Turkey. Blondin, tightrope walker, died.

====================================================================================

1/1897, Glasgow Subway began (cable-drawn). Isaac Pitman, shorthand inventor, died.

26/1/1897, Tuesday (-17,633) Karl Holsten, German religious writer, died (born 31/3/1825).

21/1/1897, Thursday (-17,638) The Glasgow subway began operating as a cable-drawn system.

13/1/1897, Wednesday (-17,646) Mr and Mrs Bradley Martin, members of New York�s �top 400�, threw an extremely extravagant party in which the ballroom of the Waldorf Astoria was made into a replica of Versailles. This event, in the face of an economic recession, attracted much criticism in the popular press, and the Martins fled to England.

12/1/1897, Tuesday (-17,647) Sir Isaac Pitman, who invented phonetic shorthand in 1837, died in Somerset aged 84.

8/1/1897, Friday (-17,651) Peter Alliss, British golfer, was born (died 31/5/1975).

====================================================================================

12/1896, Radio publically demonstrated by Marconi.

30/12/1896, Wednesday (-17,660) (Britain) Evan Herber Evans, Welsh non-conformist preacher, died (born 5/7/1836).

28/12/1896, Monday (-17,662) Horatio Hale, US ethnological writer, died (born 3/5/1817).

27/12/1896, Sunday (-17,663) (Britain) Sir John Brown, Sheffield armour plate manufacturer, died (born 6/12/1816).

12/12/1896, Saturday (-17,678) Guigliemo Marconi gave his first public demonstration of radio, at Tonybee Hall, east London.

10/12/1896, Thursday (-17,680) Alfred Bernhardt Nobel, Swedish chemist who invented dynamite, died in San Remo, Italy. See 14/7/1867.

5/12/1896, Saturday (-17,685) Carl Cori, US biochemist, was born in Prague.

4/12/1896, Friday (-17,686) Heavy gales destroyed the chain pier at Brighton.

===================================================================================

11/1896, First car insurance policy. Oswald Moseley. UK fascist leader, was born

29/11/1897, Sunday (-17,691) James Legge, British scholarly writer on Chinese, died.

26/11/1896, Thursday (-17,694) Mathilde Blind, English author, died (born in Mannheim 21/3/1841).

21/11/1896, Saturday (-17,699) (Colombia) Colombia and Venezuela signed a treaty of friendship.

16/11/1896, Monday (-17,704) Birth of British fascist leader Oswald Mosley, in London

14/11/1896, Saturday (-17,706) (1) The speed limit for �horseless carriages� was raised from 4mph, or 2mph in towns, to 14 mph.

(2) Mannie Eisenhower, wife of America�s 34th President, was born in Boone, Iowa, as Mannie Doud.

13/11/1896, Friday (-17,707) The Arnold car, made by Walter Arnold of Peckham, south London, made its first appearance on British roads. This was the first car to have an electric starter; older cars had to be crank-started by hand.

8/11/1896, Sunday (-17,712)

3/11/1896, Tuesday (-17,717) (Chemistry) Eugen Baumann, German chemist, died in Frieburg.

2/11/1896, Monday (-17,718) General Accident issued the first motor insurance policies in Britain.

===================================================================================

10/1896, Italy withdrew from Ethiopia.

26/10/1896, Monday (-17,725) Paul Challemel-Lacour, French politician, died (born 19/5/1827).

21/10/1896, Wednesday (-17,730) (London Underground) James Greathead, engineer whose invention, known as the Greathead Shield, was crucial for the construction of the first London tube lines, died in Streatham, south London (born 6/8/1844 in South Africa).

11/10/1896, Sunday (-17,740) (Britain) Edward Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury, died in Ireland (born in Birmingham 14/7/1829).

8/10/1896, Thursday (-17,743) George du Maurier, English writer, died (born 1834).

6/10/1896, Tuesday (-17,745) The Treaty of Addis Ababa ended the Ethiopian War. Italy agreed to withdraw its plans for an Italian Protectorate.

3/10/1896, Saturday (-17,748) Queen Victoria became the first British monarch to be captured on moving film, at Balmoral.

====================================================================================

9/1896, Heart surgery first performed.

24/9/1896, Thursday (-17,757) F Scott Fitzgerald, US author, was born.

23/9/1896, Wednesday (-17,758) Ivar Aasen, Norwegian philosopher, died in Christiania, (born in Sondmore, 5/8/1813).

21//9/1896, Monday (-17,760) Herbert Kitchener, who took control of the Anglo-Egyptian army in March 1896, with the aim of re-conquering the Sudan, took the town of Dongola.

18/9/1896, Friday (-17,763) (Science) Armand Fizeau, physicist, died (born 23/9/1819)

16/9/1869, Wednesday (-17,765) Thomas Graham, British chemist, died (born 20/12/1805).

11/9/1896, Friday (-17,770) Francis Child, scholarly writer, died (born 1/2/1825).

10/9/1896, Thursday (-17,771) Elsa Schiaparelli, sportswear designer, was born in Rome.

9/9/1896, Wednesday (-17,772) Surgery was performed on the heart for the first time, at Frankfurt City Hospital, Germany. The 22 year old patient had been stabbed in the heart during a pub brawl and stitches were inserted in the organ.

6/9/1896, Sunday (-17,775) Sir Joseph Crowe, art writer, died (born 25/10/1828).

=====================================================================================

8/1896, Turkish-Armenian conflict. First pedestrian killed by a car. Madagascar was proclaimed a French colony.

31/8/1896, Monday (-17,781) Earthquake in Ugo and Rikuchu areas of Japan, 209 killed.

30/8/1896, Sunday (-17,782) Alexis Lobanov-Rostovski, Russian statesman, died (born 30/12/1824).

29/8/1896, Saturday (-17,783) Many Armenians, perhaps 3,000 or more, were being killed in Turkey three days after the Armenians seized the Ottoman Bank in Istanbul, to draw the world�s attention to their fight against Ottoman rule. The Armenian uprising began in 1894, and they hoped to break free of Turkish rule as Bulgaria had done. Some 200,000 Armenians were killed in Anatolia. Britain�s support for Armenia threatened the favoured position it had held for over 40 years in Istanbul. Germany began to manoeuvre to take Britain�s place, eager to secure concessions for its Berlin to Baghdad Railway project.

25/8/1896, Tuesday (-17,787)

19/8/1896, Wednesday (-17,793) Alexander Green, English geologist, died (born 10/10/1832).

18/8/1896, Tuesday (-17,794) (Germany) Richard Avenarius, German philosopher, died in Zurich (born 19/11/1834 in Paris).

17/8/1896. Monday (-17,795) (1) The first pedestrian was killed by a motor vehicle in Britain. A car doing 4 mph killed Mrs Bridget Driscoll of Croydon. She froze in panic as the car approached.

(2) Gold was discovered at Bonanza Creek on the Klondike River in Canada�s Yukon Territory. This led to the great Gold Rush of 1898, in which the city of Dawson grew to over 25,000 people.

15/8/1896, Saturday (-17,797)

13/8/1896, Thursday (-17,799) John Everett Millais, painter, died in London aged 67.

12/8/1896, Wednesday (-17,800) Sir Harry Lumsden, British soldier, died (born 11/12/1821).

6/8/1896, Thursday (-17,806) Madagascar was proclaimed a French colony.

1/8/1896, Saturday (-17,811) Sir William Grove, electrical innovator, died (born 11/7/1811).

====================================================================================

7/1896, City of Miami was incorporated.

28/7/1896, Tuesday (-17,815) The City of Miami was incorporated.It had been a small Indian trading post with two dwellings, a storehouse, and a small fort when the railway was built there in 1896.On incorporation it had a population of 260.By 1910 it had a population of 5,471; by 1920, 29,571.

26/7/1896, Sunday (-17,817) Henry Birkin, motor racing champion, was born (died 22/7/1933).

16/7/1896, Thursday (-17,827) Trygve Lie, Norwegian politician and Secretary General at the United Nations, was born in Oslo.

11/7/1896, Saturday (-17,832) Ernst Curtius, German historical writer, died (born 2/9/1814).

9/7/1896, Thursday (-17,834) Heinrich Beyrich, German geologist, died (born in Berlin 31/8/1815).

2/7/1896, Thursday (-17,841) Isaac Hall, US orientalist writer, died (born 12/12/1837).

====================================================================================

6/1896, Marconi patent for radio communication. First permanent cinema opened.

29/6/1898, Monday (-17,844) (Railways) Passenger services began on the first railway in Newfoundland, from St Johns to Hall Bay, Construction of the line had begun on 9/8/1881, against considerable local opposition and violence. The line was completed in 1896.

26/6/1896. Friday (-17,847) The world�s first permanent cinema opened in New Orleans; admission was 10 cents. Britain�s first cinema opened in Islington on 5/8/1901, and charged between 6d and 3s for entry. However by World War One most cinemas were only charging 3d or 6d. The first drive in cinema opened on 6/6/1933 in Camden, New Jersey, and could hold 400 cars.

22/6/1896, Monday (-17,851) (USA) Benjamin Bristol, US politician, died (born 20/6/1832).

17/6/1898, Wednesday (-17,856) Sir Edward Burne-Jones, painter, died

15/6/1896, Monday (-17,858) A tsunami created a 100 foot wave that struck Sanriku, Japan, killing thousands along 170 miles of coastline. Earthquake in Sanriku, Japan, killed 27,100.

13/6/1896, Saturday (-17,860) (India) Sir James Browne, British engineer in India, died (born 1839).

11/6/1896, Thursday (-17,862) Sir George Dasent, English writer, died born 22/5/1817).

7/6/1896, Sunday (-17,866) Imre Nagy, Prime Minister of Hungary 1953-55 and 1956, was born.

4/6/1896. Thursday (-17,869) Henry Ford took his Ford automobile for a trial run around the streets of Detroit.

3/6/1896, Wednesday (-17,870) King Edward VII (then Prince of Wales) won the Derby on a horse called Persimmon.

2/6/1896, Tuesday (-17,871) Marconi was granted patent no.12039 for his system of communication using radio waves. The maximum communications range was then about 12 miles.

====================================================================================

5/1896, Daily Mail first published. First horseless carriage (car) show.

29/5/1896, Thursday (-17,875) Gabriel Daubree, French geologist, died (born 25/6/1814).

18/5/1896, Monday (-17,886) Otto von Camphausen, Prussian statesman, died.

12/5/1896, Tuesday (-17,892) Henri Cernuschi, Italian politician, died (born 1821).

11/5/1896, Monday (-17,893) Henry Bunner, US writer, died (born 3/8/1855).

10/5/1896, Sunday (-17,894) Luigi Cossa, Italian economics writer, died.

9/5/1896. Saturday (-17,895) The first Horseless Carriage Show opened to the motor trade, with ten models on show at London�s Imperial Institute.

8/5/1896, Friday (-17,896)

7/5/1896, Thursday (-17.897) Kathleen Godfree, tennis player, was born (died 19/6/1992).

6/5/1896, Wednesday (-17,898) In the US, Samuel Pierpoint Langley succeeded in flying a glider 3,300 feet (one kilometre).

5/5/1896, Tuesday (-17,899) Silas Adams, US politician died (born 1839)

4/5/1896. Monday (-17,900) The Daily Mail was first published, founded by Lord Northcliffe.

3/5/1896, Sunday (-17,901) Alfred Hunt, English painter, died (born 1830).

1/5/1896, Friday (-17,903) Nasr-ed-Din, Shah of Persia, was assassinated, aged 65. He was succeeded by his 43-year-old

son, Muzaffar-ed-Din.

====================================================================================

4/1896, The first Modern Olympic Games opened in Athens.

29/4/1896, Wednesday (-17,905) Jean Haureau, French writer, died (born 1812).

6/4/1896, Monday (-17,928) The modern Olympic Games, revived by Pierre de Coubertin, were opened at Athens. The original Olympic Games were first recorded in 776 BC although they had already been played for centuries by then; they were played every four years in honour of the God Zeus.They were abolished by the Christian Roman Emperor Theodosius, to discourage paganism, in AD 394.

5/4/1896, Sunday (-17,929) Easter Sunday

4/1896, The first Modern Olympic Games opened in Athens.

====================================================================================

3/1896, Italians in Tigre defeated by British and Ethiopians.

28/3/1896, Saturday (-17,937) Elizabeth Charles, English author, died (born 2/1/1828).

21/3/1896, Saturday (-17,944) George Denison, English religious writer, died (born 11/12/1805).

1/3/1896. Sunday (-17,964) An Italian force invading Tigre in Ethiopia was crushed by British and Ethiopian forces under Menelik at the Battle of Adowa. 100,000 Ethiopians slaughtered 7,000 Italians. The war was essentially unnecessary for Italy; facing economic depression and anarchy at home, Crispi, the Italian Prime Minister, decided on a �cheap foreign war�. General Baratieri took command of an army of 16,000, and recklessly provoked Ethiopia by occupying northern Tigre. He then lingered there for a year giving the Ethiopians time to muster a large army. Menelik finally lured the Italians into a fight, but the battle was chaotic. Italian orders were misunderstood and brigades became separated, allowing the Ethiopians to cut them down one by one. This defeat ensured that Ethiopia remained independent for another forty years, until avenged by Mussolini.

==================================================================================

2/1896,

29/2/1896, Saturday (-17,965) Ranchhodji Morarji Desai, Indian Prime Minister who was imprisoned with Gandhi, was born.

28/2/1896, Friday (-17,966) (Medical) Philip Showalter Hench was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1948 he discovered that cortisone can be used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

26/2/1896, Wednesday (-17,968) Arsene Houssaye, French novelist, died (born 28/3/1815).

===================================================================================

1/1896, First motorist speeding charge. Anglo-French agreement on SE Asia. X-rays demonstrated.

29/1/1896, Wednesday (-17,996) Hugh Childers, British politician, died (born 25/6/1827).

28/1/1896, Tuesday (-17,997) Arnold Miller, of East Peckham, became the first motorist charged with speeding, at Tonbridge Magistrates Court. He had driven at over the 2 mph speed limit in a built up area past the window of the local constable�s house just as he was about to have dinner. The constable left his meal, grabbed his helmet, and gave chase on a bicycle, catching up the driver after 5 miles. Miller was driving at about 8 mph, according to witnesses. He was fined 1s plus costs.

25/1/1896, Saturday (-18,000) Frederick Leighton, English painter and sculptor, died.

23/1/1896, Thursday (-18,002) (Spain) Juan Camacho, Spanish statesman, died (born 1824).

20/1/1896, Monday (-18,005) Henry Prince of Battenberg died (born 5/10/1859).

18/1/1896, Saturday (-18,007) British troops took Kumasi and took the Ashante King prisoner in the Fourth Ashante (Ghana) War.

15/1/1896, Wednesday (-18,010) Britain and France signed an agreement on their spheres of influence in S.E. Asia. Both countries guaranteed the independence of Siam (Thailand) and Britain recognised the French protectorate of Laos.

14/1/1896, Tuesday (-18,011) John Dos Passos, US writer, was born in Chicago, Illinois.

13/1/1896, Monday (-18,012) (Switzerland) Emilie de Morsier, Swiss social activist, died.

12/1/1896, Sunday (-18,013) Tommy Handley, British comedian, was born in Liverpool.

11/1/1896, Saturday (-18,014) Joao de Deus, Portuguese poet, died (born 8/3/1830).

8/1/1896, Wednesday (-18,017) Baron Colin Blackburn, British judge, died (born 1813).

6/1/1896, Monday (-18,019) Cecil Rhodes was forced to resign as Prime Minister of Cape Colony because of his involvement in the Jameson raid.

5/1/1896, Sunday (-18,020) The German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen gave the first demonstration of X rays.

4/1/1896, Saturday (-18,021) Utah became the 45th state of the USA.

2/1/1896, Thursday (-18,023) The Jameson Raid, into the Boer colony of Transvaal to support British settlers, ended in failure.

1/1896, First motorist speeding charge. Anglo-French agreement on SE Asia. X-rays demonstrated.

====================================================================================

12/1895, Jameson Raid. Start of German naval rivalry with Britain.

29/12/1895, Sunday (-18,027) (Britain, Germany, South Africa) Leander Starr Jameson, an agent of the British South Africa Company, invaded the Boer Republic of Transvaal with 470 men. On 2/1/1896 Jameson surrendered At Doorn Kop after a defeat at Krugersdorp. On 3/1/1896 Kaiser William II sent a telegram to Paul Kruger congratulating him on the defeat of Jameson. This caused outrage in Britain, which saw the telegram as an attempt by Germany to expand its influence in Africa. Britain mocked the German Navy, saying it would be �child�s play� for the British Navy to wipe it out. Wilhelm I now decided on a course of massive expansion of the German Navy, seeing Britain no longer as an ally but a potential threat.

22/12/1895, Sunday (-18,034) The physicist Wilhelm Roentgen made a radiograph (X-ray photograph) of his wife�s hand.

17/12/1895, Tuesday (-18,039) Relations between the US and Britain were under severe strain because of a border dispute between Guiana and Venezuela.

14/12/1895, Saturday (-18,042) The future King George VI was born in Sandringham, Norfolk, second son of George V and Mary, see 11/12/1936.

8/12/1895, Sunday (-18,048) Theodore la Villemarque, French writer, died (born 6/7/1815).

====================================================================================

11/1895, X-Rays discovered by Roentgen. China-Russia agreed on Trans-Siberian Railway.

30/11/1895, Saturday (-18,056) China and Russia made a secret treaty so that Russia could build the Trans-Siberian railway through Manchuria to the port of Vladivostock.

29/11/1895, Friday (-18,057) William Tubman, President of Liberia, was born.

28/11/1895, Thursday (-18,058) Jose Iturbi, Spanish pianist and conductor, was born in Valencia, Spain (died 1980).

27/11/1895, Wednesday (-18,059) Alexandre Dumas II, novelist, died (born 27/7/1824)

26/11/1895, Tuesday (-18,060)

24/11/1895, Sunday (-18,062) (France) Saint Hilaire Barthelemy, French politician, was born in Paris (died 24/11/1895).

23/11/1895, Saturday (-18,063) Mauritz de Haas, US painter, died (born 12/12/1832).

22/11/1895, Friday (-18,064) John de Tabley, English poet, died (born 26/4/1835).

8/11/1895, Friday (-18,078) Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X rays, during an experiment at the University of Wurtzburg. He made the first radiograph, or X-ray, of his wife�s hand, on 22/12/1895. In 1896 Emil Grubbe, having noticed the damage that X-ray exposure did to his own skin, experimented with applying rays to cancerous tissue; he treated a woman with breast cancer, but did not publicise the results until several years later.

4/11/1895, Monday (-18,082) Eugene Field, US poet, died (born 2/9/1850).

2/11/1895, Saturday (-18,084) (Roads) The first issue of Autocar, a motoring magazine, was published in Britain.

1/11/1895, Friday (-18,085) (Roads) The first motoring association, the American Motor League, was founded in Chicago, Illinois.

11/1895, X-Rays discovered by Roentgen. China-Russia agreed on Trans-Siberian Railway.

===================================================================================

10/1895, First motoring prosecution summons in the UK. First UK motor show

25/10/1895, Friday (-18,092) Sir Charles Halle, English pianist and conductor, died (born 11/4/1819).

22/10/1895, Tuesday (-18,095) Ruggero Bonghi, Italian writer, died (born in Naples 20/3/1828).

17/10/1895, Thursday (-18,100) (Road Travel) The first motoring offence in the UK resulting in a court summons. John Henry Knight of Farnham was charged with �permitting a locomotive to be at work� in Castle Street Farnham without a licence, and James Pullinger was charged with operating the same �locomotive� during prohibited hours. The prosecution was brought under a Surrey Council by-law requiring all locomotives other than those used in agriculture or road maintenance to be licensed by the Council and to be driven on the public highway only during set hours. The case was heard on 31/10/1895 before R H Combe at Farnham Petty Sessions. The locomotive was a motor vehicle owned by Knight, who watched whilst Pullinger drove it. Both defendants were fined 2s 6d each.

15/10/1895, Tuesday (-18,102) (Road Travel) First UK motor show, at the Agricultural Showground, Tunbridge Wells Kent. Also this day the last turnpike toll was levied on the last remaining stretch of turnpike road in the UK; the Anglesey section of Telford�s Shrewsbury to Holyhead road.

10/10/1895, Thursday (-18,107) (Railway) The Cape Town to Durban railway, South Africa, opened.

8/10/1895, Tuesday (-18,109) (Argentina) Juan Peron, Argentinean general and nationalist dictator, was born in Lobos.

7/10/1895, Monday (-18,110) William Wetmore Story, US poet, died (born 12/2/1819).

6/10/1895, Sunday (-18,111) Sir Henry Wood�s promenade concerts began at Queen�s Hall, London.

4/10/1895, Friday (-18,113) Buster Keaton, silent film comedian who performed his own stunts, was born this day.

10/1895, First motoring prosecution summons in the UK. First UK motor show

===================================================================================

9/1895, Pasteur died. French captured Tananarive. British protectorate over Bechuanaland.

30/9/1895, Monday (-18,117) The capital of Madagascar, Tananarive, surrendered to the French.

28/9/1895, Saturday (-18,119) The French chemist Louis Pasteur died (see 6/7/1885). He had been born in Dole, France, on 27/12/1822.

27/9/1895, Friday (-18,120) Woolf Barnato, motor racing champion, was born (died 27/7/1948).

11/9/1895, Wednesday (-18,136) Three African Chiefs, Khama of the Ngwato tribe, Bathoen of the Ngwaketse and Sebele of the Kwena, from Bechuanaland (now Botswana) met with the British Prime Minister, Joseph Chamberlain, Their mission was to obtain British protection from the exploitative colonisation of Cecil Rhodes, who was then establishing White economic domination over African lands across much of southern Africa. In fact Rhodes was then preparing for the disastrous Jameson Raid (see 2/1/1896), against Chamberlain�s wishes. This made Chamberlain more sympathetic to the African Chiefs, and British Royal protection was granted to the existing tribal rule in Bechuanaland.

1/9/1895,

=====================================================================================

8/1895, Christians attacked in China. Engels died. Hydroelectric plant opened at Niagara Falls.

29/8/1895, Thursday (-18,149) The Rugby League was formed at a meeting at the George Hotel in Huddersfield.

26/8/1895, Monday (-18,152) A hydroelectric plant designed by Nikola Tesla and built by Westinghouse opened at Niagara Falls.

16/8/1895, Friday (-18,162) Mathieu Geffroy, French historical writer, died (born 1820).

14/8/1895, Wednesday (-18,164) Thomas Hovenden, US artist, died (born 28/12/1840)

6/8/1895, Tuesday (-18,172) (Weather) Francis W Reichelderfer, US meteorologist, was born.

5/8/1895, Monday (-18,173) Engels died in London, aged 74. He was an immigrant businessman who, along with Marx, founded the political philosophy called communism. Marx was the better of the two at theory but Engels could communicate these ideas better to the public.

3/8/1895, Saturday (-18,175)

1/8/1895, Thursday (-18,177) The people of Gutian in Fujian Province, destroyed churches and killed more than ten Australian and British missionaries, including women and children.

===================================================================================

7/1895, Basque Nationalist Party founded. Polish Peasant Party formed.

31/7/1895, Wednesday (-18,178) The Basque Nationalist Party was founded by Sabino de Arana Goiri (1865-1903). He did much to revive the Basque language, publishing newspapers, magazines, and books on subjects ranging from grammar to history in this language. He also coined the word Euzkadi for the Basque national people, and designed the first Basque national flag, the Ikurrrina.

30/7/1895, Tuesday (-18,179)

29/7/1895, Monday (-18,180) Joseph Derenbourg, Orientalist writer, died (born 1811).

28/7/1895, Sunday (-18,181) In Poland the Peasant Electoral Committee (Ludowy Komitet Wyborcy) assembled in Rzeszow; from this meeting emerged the Polish Peasant Party (Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe). The PSL demandeduniversal suffrage, redistribution of land from the gentry, and an end to peasant service obligations to their landlord.

22/7/1895, Monday (-18,187) Heinrich Gneist, German politician, died (born 13/8/1816)

18/7/1895, Thursday (-18,191) Percy Baker, bowls champion, was born (died 3/1/1990)

13/7/1895, Saturday (-18,196) John Carrodus, violinist, died (born 20/1/1836)

8/7/1895, Monday (-18,201) The opening of the Delagoa Bay railway, from Johannesburg to Maputo Bay, gave the Transvaal access to the sea independent of the British colonies.

1/7/1895, Monday (-18,208) The pay for a junior civil servant in Britain, aged 17-20, ranged from �70 to �250 per annum, with a possible �100 bonus for efficiency available. In England, a domestic servant was paid �18.80 annually, and received board and lodging worth ca, �12.50 annually with the job. A female Lancashire cotton worker received �37.10 annually (no board and lodging provided).

7/1895, Basque Nationalist Party founded. Polish Peasant Party formed.

====================================================================================

6/1895, Kiel Canal opened. Japan took Formosa (Taiwan) from China. First pneumatic tyre.

29/6/1895, Saturday (-18,210) The foundation stone of Westminster Cathedral, London, was laid.

25/6/1895, Tuesday (-18,214) The Marquess of Salisbury resumed office as Prime Minister.

19/6/1895, Wednesday (-18,220) The 61-mile Kiel Canal between the Baltic and North Sea opened by German Emperor Wilhelm II.

11/6/1895, Tuesday (-18,228) the first pneumatic-tyred car appeared on French roads. This was Edoaurd Michelin�s Peugeot, which was a competitor in the Paris-Bordeaux motor race. This car only came ninth, because it needed 22 inner tube changes, but gave a very smooth ride.

2/6/1895, Sunday (-18,237) Japan took formal possession of Formosa (Taiwan) from China.

1/6/1895, Saturday (-18,238) John Samuel Tucker, rugby player, was born (died 4/1/1973).

====================================================================================

5/1895, Oscar Wilde sentenced. US Court ruled income tax unconstitutional.

31/5/1895, Friday (-18,239) (Women�s Rights) Emily Faithfull died (born 1835), In 1863 she began publishing a monthly periodical, The Victoria Magazine, campaigning for the right of women to remunerative employment.

30/5/1895, Thursday (-18,240) Maurice Tate, cricketer, was born (died 18/5/1956).

29/5/1895, Wednesday (-18,241) The Japanese landed near Keelung on the northern coast of Taiwan, and in a five-month campaign swept southwards to Tainan.

28/5/1895, Tuesday (-18,242) Walter Gresham, US statesman, died (born 28/5/1895).

26/5/1895, Sunday (-18,244)

25/5/1895, Saturday (-18,245) Oscar Wilde�s second trial ended, and he was sentenced to two year�s hard labour.

24/5/1895, Friday (-18,246) Hugh McCulloch, US financier, died (born 7/12/1808).

20/5/1895. Monday (-18,250) The US Supreme court ruled that income tax, introduced in 1894, was unconstitutional.

15/5/1895, Wednesday (-18,255) Joseph Whitaker, who founded Whitaker�s Almanac in 1869, died.

===================================================================================

4/1895, Japan-China peace treaty. Oscar Wilde lost legal case, convicted of homosexuality.

30/4/1895, Tuesday (-18,270) Gustav Freytag, German novelist, died (born 13/7/1816)

26/4/1895. Friday (-18,274) At the Old Bailey, the trial of Oscar Wilde for homosexuality, then a crime, began.

25/4/1895, Thursday (-18,275) Stanley Rous, footballer, was born (died 18/7/1986).

23/4/1895, Tuesday (-18,277) (Medical) Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig, German physiologist, died in Leipzig, Saxony.

17/4/1895. Wednesday (-18,283) Japan and China signed the peace treaty of Shimonoseki. China recognised the independence of Korea (although Japan did not have to recognise this), and ceded Formosa (Taiwan), the Pescadores Islands, and the Liaodong Peninsula, to Japan. China also had to pay a huge indemnity to Japan, and allow Japanese trade in four treaty ports, which would be exempt from Chinese taxation. Rivalry between Japan and China over Korea had started this war; the immediate cause was the assassination of a pro-Japanese politician in Korea, which gave Japan an excuse to send in troops. Japan opened hostilities without declaring war, by sinking a Chinese troopship and machine-gunning the survivors. However on 23/4/1895 Russia, France, and Germany intervened, forcing Japan to hand back the Liaodong Peninsula.

14/4/1895, Sunday (-18,286) Easter Sunday; James Dana, US geologist, died (born 12/2/1813).

5/4/1895, Friday (-18,295) Oscar Wilde sued the Marquess of Queensberry for libel at the Old Bailey. The Marquess was alleged to have left a note at Mr Wilde�s club accusing him of sodomy. The Marquess, keen on boxing, was annoyed that his son, Alfred, had an intimate relationship with Mr Wilde. Oscar Wilde lost his case.

===================================================================================

3/1895, Celluloid cinema film first demonstrated.

31/3/1895, Sunday (-18,300) Sir George Chesney, British General, died (born 30/4/1830).

30/3/1895, Saturday (-18,301) (Britain) Frederick Alcester, British Admiral, died (born 12/4/1821).

28/3/1895, Thursday (-18,303) Sir Patrick Grant, British Field Marshal, died (born 11/9/1804).

26/3/1895, Tuesday (-18,305) Jimmy McMullan, footballer, was born (died 28/11/1964).

25/3/1895, Monday (-18,396) James Seed, footballer, was born (died 16/7/1966).

22/3/1895, Friday (-18,309) The first demonstration of celluloid cinema film was given in Paris by Auguste and Louis Lumiere.

15/3/1895, Friday (-18,316) Bridget Clary, aged 27, was burnt to death for witchcraft at Battyradhen, County Tipperary.

13/3/1895, Wednesday (-18,318) Robert Dale, English religious writer, died (born 1/12/1829).

11/3/1895, Monday (-18,320) Albert Jenkins, rugby player, was born (died 7/10/1953).

6/3/1895, Wednesday (-18,325) Henry Lazarus, British clarinettist, died (born 1/1/1815).

3/3/1895, Sunday (-18,328) Sir Geoffrey Hornby, British Admiral, died (born 20/2/1825).

2/3/1895, Saturday (-18,329) Stuart Blackie, Scottish writer, died in Edinburgh (born in Glasgow 28/7/1809).

=====================================================================================

2/1895,

25/2/1895, Monday (-18,334) (Britain) Henry Aberdare, British statesman and educationalist (born 16/4/1815) died in London).

23/2/1895, Saturday (-18,336) Samuel Horton, US economics writer, died (born 16/1/1844).

19/2/1895, Tuesday (-18,340) John Hulke, British geologist, died (born 6/11/1830).

18/2/1895, Monday (-18,341) (Austria) Friedrich Albert, Austrian Field Marshal, died (born 3/8/1817 in Vienna).

14/2/1895, Thursday (-18,345) Oscar Wilde�s final play, The Importance of Being Earnest, opened in London.

11/2/1895, Monday (-18,348) Charles Gayarre, US historical writer, died (born 9/1/1805).

3/2/1895, Sunday (-18,356) Cecil Kershaw, rugby player, was born (died 1/11/1972).

====================================================================================

1/1895, Hoover, founder of the FBI, was born. Italy defeated Ethiopia at Senafe. Chuirchill, founder of the UK Conservative Party, died.

31/1/1895, Thursday (-18,359) Ebenezer Hoar, US politician, died (born 21/2/1816).

28/1/1895, Monday (-18,362) Francois Canrobert, French military leader (born 27/6/1809) died.

27/1/1895, Sunday (-18,363) Sir James Cockle, English mathematician, died (born 14/1/1819).

26/1/1895, Saturday (-18,364) (Mathematics) Arthur Cayley, British mathematician, died in Cambridge.

25/1/1895, Friday (-18,365) Wales lost 3 � 0 to Ireland in the first ever hockey international, held at Rhyl in Wales.

24/1/1895, Thursday (-18,366) Lord Randolph Churchill, founder of the British Conservative Party, died.

22/1/1895, Tuesday (-18,368)

20/1/1895, Sunday (-18,370) (Race Equality) Frederick Douglass, US campaigner for Black Equality, died.

19/1/1895, Saturday (-18,371) Moritz Carriere, German historical writer, died (born 5/3/1817)

15/1/1895, Tuesday (-18,375) (Ethiopia) Italian forces defeated the Ethiopians at Senafe, following an Italian victory (13/1/1895) at Koatit. However later in the year the Italian Army pushed too far south, and, lacking support, was defeated at Amba Alagi (7/12/1895) and then at Macalle (23/1/1896).

11/1/1895, Friday (-18,379) Thomas Hake, English poet, died (born 10/3/1809).

10/1/1895, Thursday (-18,380) Benjamin Godard, French composer, died (born 18/8/1849).

1/1/1895, Tuesday (-18,389) J Edgar Hoover, American criminologist and founder of the FBI, was born in Washington DC.

1/1895, Hoover, founder of the FBI, was born. Italy defeated Ethiopia at Senafe. Chuirchill, founder of the UK Conservative Party, died.

====================================================================================

12/1894, First motoring journal launched. Dreyfus case opened in France. De Lesseps died. Amelia Bloomer born

30/12/1894, Sunday (-18,391) Amelia Bloomer, American social reformer, campaigner for temperance and women�s rights, died.

29/12/1894, Saturday (-18,392) Christina Rossetti, English poet, died (born 5/12/1830).

27/12/1894, Thursday (-18,394) (Italy) Former King Francis II of Naples died.

23/12/1894, Sunday (-18,398) Arthur Gilligan, cricketer, was born (died 5/9/1976).

22/12/1894, Saturday (-18,399) The Dreyfus case opened.Alfred Dreyfus, French artillery officer, was convicted of selling army secrets to Germany, and imprisoned on Devil�s Island.Later he was pardoned and completely exonerated.

20/12/1894, Thursday (-18,401) Robert Menzies, Australian Prime Minister, was born.

15/12/1894, Saturday (-18,406) John Lord, US historical writer, (died (born 27/12/1810)

14/12/1894, Friday (-18,407) Eugene Debs, President of the American Railway Union, was jailed for 6 months for ignoring an injunction to end the Pullman strike. The strike began on 11/5/1894 when the Pullman Company reduced wages but did not cut rents for workers living in company housing.The strike turned violent with riots and burning or railroad cars. Attorney-General Richard Olney obtained an injunction to end the strike on the grounds it was obstructing the mail, and when this was ignored federal troops arrived in Chicago to enforce the court order. By 10/7/1894 the strike was broken.

13/12/1894, Thursday (-18,408)

12/12/1894, Wednesday (-18,409) (France) Auguste Burdeau, French politician, died (born 1851).

11/12/1894, Tuesday (-18,410) The first motor show opened in Paris, with nine exhibitors.It closed on 25/12/1894.

10/12/1894, Monday (-18,411)

8/12/1894, Saturday (-18,413) James Thurber, author, was born in Columbus, Ohio.

7/12/1894, Friday (-18,414) Ferdinand de Lesseps, French diplomat and engineer who promoted the Suez Canal, died aged 89.

3/12/1894, Monday (-18,418) Robert Louis Stevenson, who wrote Treasure Island, died.

1/12/1894, Saturday (-18,420) The first motoring journal, La Locomotion Automobile, was published in Paris. According to this publication, cars were unlikely to replace horse drawn traffic and would improve things in cities.

12/1894, First motoring journal launched. Dreyfus case opened in France. De Lesseps died. Amelia Bloomer born

====================================================================================

11/1894, Japan defeated China at Port Arthur. US and Japan signed a commercial treaty. First turbine ship launched.

30/11/1894, Friday (-18,421) William Hall, English legal writer, died (born 22/8/1835).

27/11/1894, Tuesday (-18,424)

25/11/1894, Sunday (-18,426) Jean Duroy, historical writer, died (born 11/9/1811).

24/11/1894, Saturday (-18,427) Herbert Sutcliffe, cricketer, was born (died 22/1/1978).

23/11/1894, Friday (-18,428) Ture Persson, Swedish sprinter, was born.

22/11/1894, Thursday (-18,429) The USA and Japan signed a commercial treaty.

21/11/1894, Wednesday (-18,430) (China-Japan) Japan defeated China at Port Arthur.

19/11/1894, Monday (-18,432)

16/11/1894, Friday (-18,435) James McCosh, philosophical writer, died (born 1/4/1811).

15/11/1894, Thursday (-18,436) (Brazil) In Brazil, General Peixoto was succeeded by Dr Prudente de Moraes Barros. The influence of the military on Brazilian politics was thereafter gradually reduced.

4/11/1894, Sunday (-18,447) First turbine ship launched

1/11/1894, Thursday (-18,450) Alexander III, Tsar of Russia, died (24/10).Nicolas II became Tsar of Russia.

====================================================================================

10/1894, Captain Dreyfus was arrested in France on betrayal charges,

24/10/1894, Wednesday (-18,458) Ted Lewis, boxer, was born (died 20/10/1970).

22/10/1894, Monday (-18,460) Earthquake in Shonai, Japan, killed 726.

20/10/1894, Saturday (-18,462) Jean Challamel, French historical writer, died (born 18/3/1818)

19/10/1894, Friday (-18,463) James Darmesteter, French author, died (born 28/3/1849).

15/10/1894, Monday (-18,467) Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer, was arrested for betraying military secrets to Germany. A French agent had discovered evidence of betrayal of French secrets in the German embassy. Suspicion fell on Dreyfus; he was ordered to take a handwriting test, his hand shook, and he was arrested. He was sentenced to life imprisonment on Devils Island. Aged 34, Dreyfus was an unlikely spy. Cold, serious, punctilious in his duties, he had no money problems because his father was a wealthy textile manufacturer. He was however Jewish and so was disliked by the militant Catholics who dominated the officer corps. Anti-Semitism was growing in France. At his court-martial evidence was thin and his lawyers were barred from court.

9/10/1894, Tuesday (-18,473) Henry Grey, British statesman, died (born 28/12/1802).

7/10/1894. Sunday (-18,475) Andrew Curtin, US politician, died (born 22/4/1817).

6/10/1894, Saturday (-18,476) Sir Rupert Kettle, English County Court Judge and industrial dispute arbiter, died (born 9/1/1817).

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9/1894, First Marks and Spencer store opened. Blackpool Tower opened.

28/9/1894, Friday (-18,484) The first Marks and Spencer store opened, as a Penny Bazaar at Cheetham Hill, Manchester.

18/9/1894, Tuesday (-18,494) The Blackpool Tower opened. It is a 500 foot high replica of the Eiffel Tower.

13/9/1894, Thursday (-18,499) French composer Alexis Chabrier died (born 18/1/1841).

9/9/1894, Sunday (-18,503) (Egypt) Heinrich Brugsch, German Egyptologist, died (born 18/2/1827).

8/9/1894, Saturday (-18,504) (Biology) Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz died (born 31/8.1821) He researched the relationship between nerve cells and nerve fibres.

5/9/1894, Wednesday (-18.507) Sir Edward Inglefield, British Admiral, died (born 27/3/1820).

1/9/1894, Saturday (-18,511) First use of postcards with adhesive stamps in Britain

9/1894, First Marks and Spencer store opened. Blackpool Tower opened.

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8/1894, Japan declared war on China. Argon discovered. Britain introduced Death Duties.

27/8/1894, Monday (-18,516) In the USA, the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act made income tax a law.

24/8/1894, Friday (-18,519) Elisha Scott, footballer, was born (died 16/5/1959).

13/8/1894, Monday (-18,530) (Chemistry) Argon was first discovered by British chemists Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsey. It was the first Noble Gas found. Atmospheric Nitrogen was found to be lightly denser, by 0.47%, than Nitrogen obtained from chemical reactions; this margin was beyond experimental error. Therefore atmospheric Nitrogen had to contain some other gas. Removing Oxygen from the air (by passing over hot metallic Copper)and then also remiving the Nitrogen (by passing over hot Magnesium) left an inert gas, which was termed �Argon� meaning un-reactive. Subsequently, 120 tons of air was liquefied and from the Argoin so obtained, the other inert gases Krypton, Xenon and Neon were discovered.

3/8/1894, Friday (-18,540) George Innes, US landscape painter, died (born 1/5/1825).

2/8/1894. Thursday (-18,541) Death Duties were introduced in Britain.

1/8/1894. Wednesday (-18,542) (China) War was formally declared between China and Japan.

====================================================================================

7/1894, First car race took place, from Paris. Korea declared war on China.

30/7/1894, Monday (-18,544) (Railway Tunnels) The Cataldo rail tunnel, Italy, 5.1.41 km long, opened on the Agropoli-Supri-Naples-Reggio line.

27/7/1894, Friday (-18,547) (China) Korea declared war on China.

26/7/1894, Thursday (-18,548) Aldous Huxley, novelist, was born.

25/7/1894, Wednesday (-18,549) Japanese forces sank the Kowshing, a British ship carrying Chinese forces to Korea.

22/7/1894. Sunday (-18,552) The first automobile race took place, between Paris and Rouen.

18/7/1894, Wednesday (-18,556) Charles Leconte, French poet, died (born 22/10/1818).

17/7/1894. Tuesday (-18,557) (Ethiopia), Italian forces under Colonel Baratieri captured Kassala.

10/7/1894, Tuesday (-18,564)

5/7/1894, Saturday (-18,569) Sir Austin Layard, British author, died.

4/7/1894, Friday (-18,570) The Republic of Hawaii was declared with 50-year old Judge Sanford Dole as President.

====================================================================================

6/1894, London�s Tower Bridge opened.

30/6/1894. Saturday (-18,574) London�s Tower Bridge was officially opened to traffic.Sir Horace Jones and J Wolfe Barry designed it.

28/6/1894, Thursday (-18,576) (Arts) Alice DG Miller, US screenwriter, was born (died 24/7/1985).

25/6/1894, Monday (-18,579) Hermann Julius Oberth, designer of the V2 flying rocket bombs that plagued London at the end of World War two, was born.

24/6/1894, Sunday (-18,580) The President of France, Marie Francois Carnot, was stabbed to death at Lyons by an Italian anarchist.

23/6/1894. Saturday (-18,581) King Edward VIII was born at White Lodge, Richmond, Surrey, the eldest son of George V and Queen Mary.

22/6/1894, Friday (-18,582) Dahomey became a French colony.

20/6/1894, Wednesday (-15,584)

18/6/1894, Monday (-18,586) The Turchino rail tunnel, Italy, 6.9 km long, opened.

17/6/1894, Sunday (-18,587) William Hart, US painter, died.

14/6/1894, Thursday (-18,590) John Coleridge, Lord Chief Justice of England, died (born 3/12/1820).

5/6/1894, Tuesday (-18,599) Edward Capern, English poet, died (born 21/1/1819).

4/6/1894, Monday (-18,600) Wilhelm Freund, German scholarly writer, died (born 27/1/1806).

====================================================================================

5/1894, Manchester Ship Canal opened by Queen Victoria.

23/5/1894, Wednesday (-18,612) Brian Hodgson, British writer on Buddhism, died (born 1/2/1800)

21/5/1894. Monday (-18,614) The Manchester Ship Canal, which had taken 25 years to build, was officially opened by Queen Victoria (see 1/1/1894). The Queen travelled by rain from Windsor, leaving at 11.10 a.m. and travelling on the Great Western Railway via Reading, Oxford, and Wolverhampton, which she made by 2pm.Continuing via Stafford and Crewe, Queen Victoria arrived at London Road Station, Manchester, at about 4 p.m. The Queen then travelled along the canal by boat.

13/5/1894, Sunday (-18,622) Asgeir Asgeirsson, President of Iceland, was born.

12/5/1894, Saturday (-18,623) The Congo Treaty, between Britain and Belgium, gave Britain a lease on a corridor between Lakes Tangynika and Albert.

8/5/1894, Tuesday (-18,627)

1/5/1894, Tuesday (-18,634) David Coxey, who led a march of 100,000 unemployed to the capital, Washington, to demand economic reform, was arrested.

====================================================================================

4/1894, Britain established a Protectorate over Uganda. Moving films were shown for the first time.

29/4/1894, Sunday (-18,636) Augusta Drane, English writer, died (born 29/12/1823).

26/4/1894, Thursday (-18,639) Rudolf Hess, Adolf Hitler�s deputy, was born in Alexandria, Egypt.

17/4/1894, Tuesday (-18,648) Nikita Kruschev, Soviet leader, was born in Kalinovka, near Kursk.

16/4/1894, Monday (-18,649) (Football) Preston North End beat Liverpool, at Preston, 3-0.

15/4/1894, Sunday (-18,650) The Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac died (born 24/4/1817). He researched on atomic weights and isotopes, and explored the chemistry of the rare earths.

14/4/1894, Saturday (-18,651) Edison�s kinetoscope, or moving pictures, were shown to the public for the first time.

13/4/1894, Friday (-18,652) David Field, US lawyer, died (born 13/2/1805).

12/4/1894, Thursday (-18,653) Francisco Craveiro Lopes, 12th President of Portugal (1951-58), was born in Lisbon.

11/4/1894, Wednesday (-18,654) Britain established a protectorate over Uganda.

10/4/1894, Tuesday (-18.655) Charles Bowen, English Judge, died (born in Gloucestershire 1/1/1835).

6/4/1894, Friday (-18,659)

2/4/1894, Monday (-18,663) (Medical) Charles Brown-Sequard, neurologist, died (born 8/4/1817)

1/4/1894, Sunday (-18,664) Henri le Caron, British secret agent, died (born 26/9/1841).

=====================================================================================

3/1894, Germany and France agreed not to compete for colonies in Africa.

31/3/1894, Saturday (-18,665)

30/3/1894, Friday (-18,666) Tommy Green, champion walker, was born (died 29/3/1975).

29/3/1894, Thursday (-18,667) James Hannen, English Judge, died (born 1821).

28/3/1894, Wednesday (-18,668) George Curtis, US lawyer, died (born 28/11/1812).

27/3/1894, Tuesday (-18,669)

25/3/1894, Sunday (-18,671) Easter Sunday

24/3/1894, Saturday (-18,672) Verney Cameron, English explorer of Africa and author (born 1/7/1844) died.

23/3/1894, Friday (-18,673) Arthur Grimsdell, footballer, was born (died 12/3/1963).

20/3/1894, Tuesday (-18,676) Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian patriot, died (born 19/9/1802).

17/3/1894, Saturday (-18.679) (USA) The USA and China signed a Chinese Exclusion Treaty, whereby China consented to the exclusion of Chinese labourers from migration to the USA. This year the US established an Immigration Bureau, and a group of Boston citizens formed an Immigration Restriction League, which campaigned for literacy tests for immigrants to the US. This was aimed against Chinese, Slavs and Latin-Americans.

15/3/1894, Thursday (-18,681) Germany and France signed a treaty outlining their spheres of influence in tropical Africa

13/3/1894, Tuesday (-18,683) The world�s first professional striptease performance took place at the Divan Fayanou Music Hall, Paris. It consisted of a woman getting ready for bed.

12/3/1894, Monday (-18,684) Coca Cola was sold in bottles for the first time.

10/3/1894, Saturday (-18,686) Paul Jablochkov, Russian electrical engineer, died (born 14/9/1847).

3/3/1894, Saturday (-18,693) Gladstone resigned after splitting his party over the issue of Irish Home Rule. He was succeeded by Lord Rosebery as Prime Minister.

2/3/1894, Friday (-18,694) (USA) Jubal Anderson Early, US Confederate General (born 3/11/1816 in Franklin County, Virginia) died in Lynchburg, Virginia.

====================================================================================

2/1894, Harold Macmillan, UK Conservative PM, was born.

13/2/1894, Tuesday (-18,711) Hans Bulow, German pianist, died (born 8/1/1830).

10/2/1894, Saturday (-18,714) (1) Harold Macmillan, Lord Stockton, British Conservative Prime Minister, was born in London.

(2) Germany signed a commercial treaty with Russia.

9/2/1894, Friday (-18,715) Adolphe Saxe, the Belgian musical instrument maker who invented the Saxophone, died in Paris.

8/2/1894, Thursday (-18,716) Robert Ballantyne, writer, died in Rome (born in Edinburgh 24/4/1825).

6/2/1894, Tuesday (-18,718) Albert Billroth, surgeon, died (born in Rugen 26/4/1829).

3/2/1894, Saturday (-18,721) George Childs, US publisher, died (born 12/5/1829).

=====================================================================================

1/1894, The Manchester Ship Canal opened. Russia and France agreed a mutual defence treaty; they both felt threatened by Britain and Germany.

30/1/1894, Tuesday (-18,725) Charles King of Detroit received a patent for the pneumatic hammer.

23/1/1894, Tuesday (-18,732) King Lobengula of Matabeleland was killed.

8/1/1894, Monday (-18,747) Peter Forchhammer, German archaeological writer, died (born 23/10/1801).

4/1/1894, Thursday (-18,751) (France, Russia) Russia and France signed a treaty of mutual defence. Despite huge differences between their political systems, both countries felt threatened by encirclement. France felt threatened by a rare entente between Germany and Britain. Russia saw itself threatened to the south and east by the British Empire in central and eastern Asia.

3/1/1894, Wednesday (-18,752) (1) (Italy) The Italian government ordered the dissolution of the Fasci, and the arrest of their ringleaders. Over 1,000 people were deported to Italian islands, often without trial. The Fasci were small alliances, groups of radical or socialist academics and peasants, and some anarchists, local gentry and Mafiosi. The name derived from the fasces, or bundle, of sticks used in ancient Rome. Starting in Sicily in 1893 the Fasci agitated for political ends, with strikes and riots, alarming the larger landowners.

(2) Elizabeth Peabody, American educator and founder in 1960 of the first kindergarten in the US, died aged 89.

1/1/1894, Monday (-18,754) (Canals) The 35 mile Manchester Ship Canal opened.Its official opening by Queen Victoria was on 21 May 1894.

======================================================================================

12/1893, France extended its colonial influence eastwards from Senegal into Mali.

30/12/1893, Saturday (-18,756) (Africa) Sir Samuel Baker, explorer of Africa, died in Sandford Orleigh (born in London 8/6/1821).

26/12/1893, Tuesday (-18,760) (China) Mao Tse Tung, Chinese Communist leader, was born in Hunan.He was the son of a peasant farmer.

22/12/1893, Friday (-18,764) William Lloyd, English writer, died (born 11/3/1813).

21/12/1893, Thursday (-18,765) (Ethiopia) Italian forces under Colonel Arimondi captured Agordat.

18/12/1893, Monday (-18,768) The Chateau Frontenac Hotel opened in Quebec after 18 months construction, with 170 bedrooms.
12/12/1893, Tuesday (-18,774) The French advanced down the valley of the Niger from Kayes in Senegal and captured Timbuktu, capital of Mali.

======================================================================================

11/1893, Britain colonised what is now Zimbabwe. Women voted for the first time, in New Zealand,

28/11/1893, Tuesday (-18,788) (Women�s Rights, New Zealand) Women first voted in New Zealand, at the General Election, see 19/9/1893.

19/11/1893, Sunday (-18,797) The first newspaper colour supplement produced; a 4-page section of the New York World.

18/11/1893, Saturday (-18,798) Charles Deems, US religious writer, died (born 4/12/1820).

16/11/1893, Thursday (-18,800) Robert Kelly, footballer, was born (died 22/9/1969).

14/11/1893, Tuesday (-18,802) (Railways) The railway from Chicla to Oroya opened.

13/11/1893, Monday (-18,803) Adelbert Edward Doisy, US biochemist, was born in Hume, Illinois.

12/11/1893, Sunday (-18,804) The Durand Agreement, defining the border between Afghanistan and India, was signed.

6/11/1893. Monday (-18,810) (1) The Totley rail tunnel, UK, 6 km long, opened.

(2) The composer Peter Illich Tchaikovsky, born.7/5/1840, died of cholera, after drinking infected water.

(3) Edsel Ford, US car executive, only child of Henry Ford, was born in Detroit.

4/11/1893. Saturday (-18,812) The British defeated the Matabele in Zimbabwe and occupied the capital, Bulawayo.

2/11/1895, Thursday (-18,814) Jack Dempsey, boxer, died (born 15/12/1862)

11/1893, Britain colonised what is now Zimbabwe. Women voted for the first time, in New Zealand,

======================================================================================

10/1893, France colonised Laos, taking the territory from Thailand.

28/10/1893, Saturday (-18,819) The British Royal Navy�s first destroyer, HMS Havoc, underwent sea trials.

23/10/1893, Monday (-18,824) (Bulgaria) Alexander of Battenberg, First Prince of Bulgaria, died (born 5/4/1857).

22/10/1893, Sunday (-18,825) Dhuleep Singh, Maharajah of Lahore, died (born 2/1837).

20/10/1893, Friday (-18,827)

18/10/1893, Wednesday (-18,829) Lucy Stone, American campaigner for women�s rights, died.

17/10/1893, Tuesday (-18,830) Marie MacMahon, French President, died (born 13/7/1808).

9/10/1893, Monday (-18,838) Sir George Elvey, composer, died (born 27/3/1816)

6/10/1893, Friday (-18,841) Ford Brown, English painter, died (born 16/4/1821).

3/10/1893. Tuesday (-18,844) Siam (Thailand) gave up all its territory east of the Mekong Rover, and recognised Laos as a French protectorate

2/10/1893, Monday (-18,845) David James, English actor, died (born 1839).

1/10/1893, Sunday (-18,846) Henry Crosskey, English geologist, died (born 7/12/1826).

10/1893, France colonised Laos, taking the territory from Thailand.

======================================================================================

9/1893, New Zealand gave women the vote. The Lords rejected the Irish Home Bill.

23/9/1893, Saturday (-18,854) Thomas Hawkesley, English engineer, died (born 12/7/1807).

19/9/1893. Tuesday (-18,858) (Women�s Rights, New Zealand) New Zealand became the first country to allow women the vote. The Women�s Christian Temperance Union had been pressing for this for 8 years, and had presented three petitions to the House of Representatives. Each time the number of signatures rose, until a record 31,872 names swayed the House. Despite an unscrupulous liquor lobby, the WCTU won and intended to press for women�s votes in other countries.See 28/11/1893

18/9/1893. Monday (-18,859) (Railways) In the USA, the Great Northern Pacific Railway opened. This was the most northerly of the USA�s rail routes between the Mississippi River and the Pacific.

12/9/1893, Tuesday (-18,865) (Railways) The Killorglin to Valentia Harbour line opened.

7/9/1893, Thursday (-18,870) (1) The Featherstone Massacre. In Yorkshire, striking miners campaigning for a living wage were fired upon; soldiers killed 2 and wounded 16.

(2) Leslie Hore-Belisha, British Liberal politician, was born in Devonport.

1/9/1893, Friday (-18,876) Second Irish Home Rule Bill passed in the Commons, but rejected on 8/9/1893 by the Lords

9/1893, New Zealand gave women the vote. The Lords rejected the Irish Home Bill.

=====================================================================================

8/1893, France began regulating its motorists.

28/8/1893, Monday (-18,880) Samuel Irving, footballer, was born (died 17/1/1969).

22/8/1893, Tuesday (-18,886) Ernst II, Duke of Saxe Coburg Gotha, died (born 21/6/1818).

19/8/1893, Saturday (-18,889) Julien Havet, French historical writer, died (born 4/4/1853).

16/8/1893, Wednesday (-18,892) (Medical) Jean Charcot, French physician, died (born 29/11/1825).

15/8/1893, Tuesday (-18,893) John Hatfield, champion swimmer, was born (died 30/3/1965).

14/8/1893. Monday (-18,894) The world�s first car registration plates were introduced, in France. French drivers also were required to have driving licences from this date, for which the passing of a driving test was needed; French tests also began from 14/8/1893. See 13/3/1935 for British tests. From 10/3/1899 French motorists had to carry a driving licence in card form at all times. See 14/1/1903 for the UK

12/8/1893, Saturday (-18,896) Sir Edward Hamley, British military writer, died (born 27/4/1824).

6/8/1893, Sunday (-18,902) The 3 � mile Corinth Canal opened in Greece. Cut up to 300 feet deep, it took ten years to build.

8/1893, France began regulating its motorists.

======================================================================================

7/1893,

13/7/1893, Thursday (-18,926) Germany passed a bill to substantially increase the size of its army.

======================================================================================

6/1893, First women�s golf championship,

30/6/1893, Friday (-18,939) (Companies) Anthony Drexel, US banker, died (born 13/9/1826).

23/6/1893, Friday (-18,946) Sir William Fox, New Zealand statesman, died (born 9/6/1812).

14/6/1893, Wednesday (-18,955) Jakob Frohschammer, German scholarly writer, died (born 6/1/1821).

13/6/1893, Tuesday (-18,956) The first women�s golf championship was held, at Britain�s Royal Lytham course.

6/6/1893, Tuesday (-18,963) Karl Hefele, German religious writer, died (born 15/3/1809).

6/1893, First women�s golf championship,

======================================================================================

5/1893, Golda Meir, Israeli PM, was born.

21/5/1893, Sunday (-18,979) Arthur Carr, cricketer, was born (died 7/2/1963).

11/5/1893, Thursday (-18,989) (USA) Samuel Armstrong, US soldier and philanthropist, died in Hampton, Virginia (born 30/1/1839 in Maui, Hawaii)

3/5/1893, Wednesday (-18,997) Golda Meir, Israeli Prime Minister, was born in Kiev, Russia, as Golda Mabovitch, the daughter of a carpenter.

===================================================================================

4/1893, Billy Smart, circuses, was born, Ribbentrop, Nazi, was born.

30/4/1893, Sunday (-19,000) (Germany) Joachim von Ribbentrop, Hitler�s foreign minister, was born.

29/4/1893, Saturday (-19,001) (Atomic) Physicist Harold Clayton Urey was born in Walkerton, Indiana. In 1932 he discovered deuterium or heavy hydrogen.

27/4/1893, Thursday (-19,003)

24/4/1893, Monday (-19,006) Alan Morton, footballer, was born (died 15/12/1971).

23/4/1893, Sunday (-19,007) Billy Smart, British circus proprietor, was born in London, the son of a fairground owner.

18/4/1893, Tuesday (-19,012) Belgium introduced pluralism and universal male suffrage.

6/4/1893, Thursday (-19,024) Vicat Cole, English painter, died (born 17/4/1833).

4/4/1893, Tuesday (-19,026) Alphonse Candolle, botanical writer, died (born 28/10/1806).

2/4/1893, Sunday (-19,028) Easter Sunday.

====================================================================================

3/1893, John Bartholomew, cartographer, died.

29/3/1893, Wednesday (-19,032) (Cartography) John Bartholomew, Scottish cartographer, died in London (born in Edinburgh 25/12/1831).

26/3/1893, Sunday (-19,035) (Railways, Britain) Sir George Findlay, English railway manager, died (born 18/5/1829).

17/3/1893, Friday (-19,044) Jules Ferry, French politician, died (born 5/4/1832).

====================================================================================

2/1893, First fim studio. First striptease. Diesel engine patented.

23/2/1893, Thursday (-19,066) (Road, Scitech) The diesel engine was patented by Rudolf Deisel.

20/2/1893, Monday (-19,069) Pierre Beauregard, American Confederate General, died

13/2/1893, Monday (-19,076) A Home Rule Bill (for Ireland) was introduced to the UK Commons.

9/2/1893, Thursday (-19,080) The world�s first public striptease took place at the Moulin Rouge, Paris.

1/2/1893, Wednesday (-19,088) In New Jersey, USA, Thomas Edison opened the world�s first film studio.

=====================================================================================

1/1893, UK Labour Party was founded. US annexed Hawaii, as threat from Japan perceived.

30/1/1893, Monday (-19,090) Charles Bradlaugh, English politician, died (born in Hoxton, London 26/9/1833).

28/1/1893, Saturday (-19,092) Julius Eichberg, German composer, died (born 13/6/1824).

27/1/1893, Friday (-19,093) James Blaine, US statesman, died in Washington DC (born in Pennsylvania 31/1/1830).

26/1/1893, Thursday (-19,094) Abner Doubleday, US soldier, died (born 26/6/1819).

23/1/1893, Monday (-19,097) Phillips Brooks, US author, died (born 13/12/1835).

17/1/1893. Tuesday (-19,103) (1) US troops landed on Hawaii and annexed it to the USA. The annexation was generally peaceful. The US was concerned about the rise of Japan as a world power, the need for the US to have a Pacific base, the anti-US attitude of the Hawaiian Queen, and demands from Hawaiian sugar growers to sell inside the US tariff area.

(2) Rutherford Hayes, US Republican and 19th President from 1877 to 1881, died in Fremont, Ohio.

15/1/1893, Sunday (-19,105) Frances Kemble, author, died (born 27/11/1809)

14/1/1893. Saturday (-19,106) The UK Labour Party was founded in Bradford, W Yorks.

13/1/1893, Friday (-19,107)

12/1/1893, Thursday (-19,108) Hermann Goering, German Nazi leader and founder of the Luftwaffe, was born in Rosenbaum, Bavaria.

11/1/1893, Wednesday (-19,109) (USA) Benjamin Butler, US politician, died (born 5/11/1818).

3/1/1893, Tuesday (-19,117) Nikolai Koksharov, Russian geologist, died (born 5/12/1818).

===================================================================================

12/1892, French Protectorate on Dahomey (Benin). Paul Getty born. General Franco born.

15/12/1892, Thursday (-19,136) Paul Getty, US oil tycoon, was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

14/12/1892, Wednesday (-19,137) John Lemoinne, French journalist, died.

12/12/1892, Monday (-19,139) Sir John Burke, British genealogical writer, author of Burke�s Peerage, died (born 5/1/1814).

7/12/1892, Wednesday (-19,144) Fred Leslie, English actor, died (born 1/4/1855).

4/12/1892, Sunday (-19,147) General Franco, Spanish dictator, was born in El Ferrol.

3/12/1892. Saturday (-19,148) The French imposed a protectorate on Dahomey (Benin) after they captured its capital, Abomey.

2/12/1892, Friday (-19,149) Jay Gould, US financier, died (born 27/5/1836).

===================================================================================

11/1892, Coubertin proposed Olympic Games revival. First railway in the Philippines.

30/11/1892, Wednesday (-19,151) Fenton Hort, English religious writer, died (born 23/4/1828).

26/11/1892, Saturday (-19,155) Simone St-Bon, Italian admiral, died (born 20/3/1823).

25/11/1892, Friday (-19,156) Pierre de Coubertin proposed the revival of the Olympic Games.

24/11/1892, Thursday (-19,157) The first railway in The Philippines, from Manila Bay to Gulf of Linguven, 120 miles, opened.

14/11/1892, Monday (-19,167)

6/11/1892, Sunday (-19,175) Aviator Sir John Alcock was born in Manchester. In 1919 he made the first transatlantic flight, with Sir Arthur Whitten-Brown.

5/11/1892, Saturday (-19,176) John Haldane, pioneer in genetic research, was born.

2/11/1892, Wednesday (-19,179) Marie Hervey, French orientalist writer, died (born 1823).

====================================================================================

10/1892, Tennyson, poet, died

27/10/1892, Thursday (-19,185) (Colombia) Colombia and Italy signed a treaty of friendship.

24/10/1892, Monday (-19,188) Robert Franz, German composer, died (born28/6/1815).

21/10/1892, Friday (-19,191) Anne Edgren-Leffler, Swedish author, died (born 1/10/1849).

18/10/1892, Tuesday (-19,194) Telephone services began between New York and Chicago.

12/10/1892, Wednesday (-19,200) Lothar Bucher, German writer, died (born 25/10/1817)

6/10/1892. Thursday (-19,206) Alfred Lord Tennyson, poet laureate from 1850, died at Aldworth, Surrey. He was born on 6/8/1809.

4/10/1892, Tuesday (-19,208) Engelbert Dolfuss, Austrian dictator, was born.

====================================================================================

9/1892,

24/9/1892, Saturday (-19,218) Patrick Gilmore, US bandmaster, died (born 1829).

17/9/1892, Saturday (-19,225) Rudolf von Jhering, German legal writer, died (born 22/8/1818).

8/9/1892, Thursday (-19,234) Enrico Cialdini, Italian politician, died (born 10/8/1811).

6/9/1892, Tuesday (-19,236) Maxwell Woosnam, tennis champion and footballer, was born (died 14/7/1965).

===================================================================================

8/1892, Gladstone formed 4th Liberal Government. Mae West, actress, was born.

31/8/1892, Wednesday (-19,242) George Curtis, US writer, died (born 24/2/1824).

24/8/1892, Wednesday (-19,249) Goodison Park, the home of Everton Football Club, Liverpool, opened.

23/8/1892, Tuesday (-19,250) Manoel Fonseca, First President of Brazil, died

22/8/1892, Monday (-19,251) Percy Fender, cricketer, was born (died 15/6/1985).

21/8/1892, Sunday (-19,252)

19/8/1892, Friday (-19,254) Richard Lipsius, German religious writer, died (born 14/2/1830).

18/8/1892, Thursday (-19,255) In Britain, William Ewart Gladstone formed his fourth Liberal government after his election defeat of the Conservatives under Lord Salisbury.

17/8/1892, Wednesday (-19,256) (1) Mae West, US film actress, was born in Brooklyn, New York.She was the daughter of a boxer.

(2) Russia and France signed a military convention.

11/8/1892, Thursday (-19,262) (1) The Marquess of Salisbury left office as Prime Minister

(2) Hugh McDaimid, Scottish poet and founder of the Scottish Nationalist Party, was born.

6/8/1892, Saturday (-10,267) William Gillespie, footballer, was born (died 2/7/1981).

====================================================================================

7/1892, First Socialist MP in House of Commons. Thomas Cook died. Haile Selassie was born.

30/7/1892, Saturday (-19,274) Joseph Hubner, Austrian writer, died (born 26/11/1811).

23/7/1892, Saturday (-19,281) Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, was born in Harar Province, as Tafari Makonnen. When the Italians invaded in 1936 he went into exile but resumed full authority after Ethiopia was liberated in 1941.

20/7/1892, Wednesday (-19,284) Leon Cladel, French novelist, died (born 13/3/1835).

18/7/1892, Monday (-19,286) Pioneer travel agent Thomas Cook died.

16/7/1892, Saturday (-19,288) John MacGregor, geographical writer, died (born 24/1/1825).

15/7/1892, Friday (-19,289) (Britain) Thomas Cooper, Chartist, died (born 20/3/1805).

12/7/1892, Tuesday (-19,292) (Communications) Cyrus Field, US capitalist who projected the first transatlantic cable, died (born 30/11/1819).

6/7/1892, Wednesday (-19,298) Dadabhai Naoroji became Britain�s first non-White MP. He was elected Liberal representative for Central Finsbury, London, by a majority of 3 votes over his Unionist rival.

4/7/1892, Monday (-19,300) James Kier Hardie, standing in the General Election at Holytown, Lanarkshire, became the first Socialist to win a seat in the British Parliament. He was MP for the London docklands area of West Ham. He was elected as an independent socialist but planned to form a Labour party to represent the workers. See 14/1/1893.

=====================================================================================

6/1892,

29/6/1892, Wednesday (-29,305) Jean Courcelle-Seneuil, French economics writer, died (born 22/12/1813).

28/6/1892, Tuesday (-29,306) (Britain) Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, British politician, died.

21/6/1892, Tuesday (-29,313)

12/6/1892, Sunday (-29,322) Johann Erdmann, German philosophical writer, died (born 13/6/1805).

11/6/1892, Saturday (-29,323) William Corey, English scholarly writer, died (born 9/1/1823).

1/6/1892, Wednesday (-29,333) Henry Mallin, boxer, was born (died 8/11/1969).

====================================================================================

5/1892, End of broad gauge usage in Britain. Tito, Yugoslav leader, was born. Worker�s uprising in Poland.

20/5/1892, Friday (-19,345) The last broad gauge train left Paddington at 5.00 pm for Plymouth.The engine returned to Paddington with the last up train early the next morning.

17/5/1892, Tuesday (-19,348) Georg Klapka, Hungarian soldier, died (born 7/4/1820).

12/5/1892, Thursday (-19,353) William James Wilde, boxer, was born (died 10/1/1969).

9/5/1892, Monday (-19,356) George Bramwell, English judge, died (born in London 12/6/1808).

8/5/1892, Sunday (-19,357) (Railways) Gabor Baross, who developed the Austro-Hungarian railway system, died in Hungary (born in Trencsen 6/7/1848).

7/5/1892, Saturday (-19,358) Josip Broz (Marshal Tito), Yugoslav Communist President, was born in Kumrovec, near Klanjec, on the border of Croatia and Slovenia.

6/5/1892, Friday (-19,359) A worker�s uprising began in Lodz, Poland; all workers came out on strike. Order was not restored until 10/5/1893, by which time 217 people had been killed or wounded and 350 arrested.

5/5/1892, Thursday (-19,360) US Congress passed the Geary Chinese Exclusion Act, extending all restrictions on Chinese immigration to the USA for another 10 years, and requiring all existing Chinese immigrants to register or face deportation.

4/5/1892, Wednesday (-19,361)

3/5/1892, Tuesday (-19,362) Broad gauge track construction was abandoned in Britain.

2/5/1892, Monday (-19,363) Baron Mandred von Richtofen, German air ace of World War One, known as the �Red Baron� because he flew a red Fokker, was born in Schweidnitz in Prussia, to aristocratic parents.

====================================================================================

4/1892, Bomber Harris, British RAF, was born.

25/4/1892, Monday (-19,370) (Railways, Britain) Sir James Joseph Allport, general manager of the Midland Railway from 1853, died in London (born 27/2/1811 in Birmingham). In 1872 he introduced the concept of standard Third Class travel on the railway at one penny per mile on all trains. Subsequently, most other British railways copied this scheme. He also introduced the Pullman carriage to Britain�s railways.

23/4/1892, Saturday (-19,372) Edouard Lalo, French composer, died.

19/4/1892, Tuesday (-19,376) Friedrich Bodenstedt, German author, died in Wiesbaden (born in Hanover 22/4/1819).

17/4/1892, Sunday (-19,378) Easter Sunday; Joaquin Jovellar y Soler, Captain-General of Spain, died (born 28/12/1819).

15/4/1892, Friday (-19,380) Amelia Edwards, English writer on Egyptology, died (born 7/6/1831).

13/4/1892, Wednesday (-19,382) Sir Arthur (Bomber) Harris, RAF Marshal was born. He joined the Royal Flying Corps in 1915, and was appointed Commander in Chief of the RAF Bomber Command in 1942. From 1942 on he developed and applied the technique of �saturation bombing� to Axis occupied cities, totally demolishing them.

11/4/1892, Monday (-19,384) Karl Caspari, German writer on the Orient, died (born 8/2/1814).

4/4/1892, Monday (-19,391) Tom Jameson, squash champion, was born (died 6/2/1965)

=================================================================================

3/1892, First escalator installed.

22/3/1892, Tuesday (-19,404) (Medical) David Agnew, US surgeon died (born 24/11/1818)

16/3/1892, Wednesday (-19,410) Edward Freeman, English historical writer, died (born 2/8/1823)

15/3/1892, Tuesday (-19,411) The world�s first �escalator� was installed at Coney Island, New York. This had a continuous sloping surface. It was called the �Reno inclined elevator�.The American inventor Charles A Wheeler patented the first escalator with flat steps on 2/8/1892.

12/3/1892, Saturday (-19,414) John Cairns, Scottish religious writer, died (born 23/8/1818).

4/3/1892, Friday (-19,422) Jean Jurian de la Graviere, French Admiral, died.

2/3/1892, Wednesday (-19,424) (Britain) Sir John Coode, British engineer, died (born 11/11/1816).

===================================================================================

2/1892,

27/2/1892, Monday (-19,426) (Education-University) Anne Clough, promoter of women�s adult education, died (born 20/1/1820).

20/2/1892, Monday (-19,433) Hermann Kopp, German chemistry writer, died (born 30/10/1817).

16/2/1892, Thursday (-19,437) (Biology) Henry Bates, English naturalist, died 16/2/1892 (born in Leicester 8/2/1825).

15/2/1892, Wednesday (-19,438) Ben Baker, British athletics (high jump) champion, was born (died 10/9/1987)

14/2/1892, Tuesday (-19,439)

13/2/1892, Monday (-19,440) Wilhelm Junker, German explorer of Africa, died (born 6/4/1840).

12/2/1892, Sunday (-19,441) Thomas Hunt, US geologist, was born (died 5/9/1826)

11/2/1892, Saturday (-19,442) James Grant, Scottish explorer of eastern Africa in the 1860s, died (born 11/4/1827).

5/2/1892, Sunday (-19,448) Emilie Flygare, Swedish novelist, died (born 8/8/1807).

3/2/1892, Friday (-19,450) Sir Morell MacKenzie, British physician, died (born 7/7/1837).

===================================================================================

1/1892, US Ellis Island immigration centre opened. Tolkein was born. Basketball first played.

24/1/1892, Sunday (-19,462) (France) Henri Baudrillart, French economist, died in Paris (born in Paris 28/11/1821).

21/1/1892, Thursday (-19,465) (Astronomy) John Couch Adams, English astronomer associated with the discovery of the planet Neptune, died.

20/1/1892, Wednesday (-19,466) The game of basketball, devised by Canadian doctor James Naismith, was first played at the YMCA in Springfield, Massachusetts.

18/1/1892, Monday (-19,468) Oliver Hardy, comedian in the Laurel and Hardy duo, was born in Atlanta, Georgia.

7/1/1892, Thursday (-19,479) (Egypt) Tewfik Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, died; Abbas II (born 1874) became the Khedive of Egypt (ruled to 1914).

3/1/1892. Sunday (-19,483) Author JRR Tolkien, creator of The Lord Of The Rings and The Hobbit, was born in Bloemfontein, Orange Free State, South Africa. He died in Bournemouth in 1973.

2/1/1892, Saturday (-19,484) Sir George Airy, Astronomer-Royal who modernised the Greenwich Observatory, died at Alnwick, Northumberland.

1/1/1892. Friday (-19,485) New York opened an immigration office on Ellis Island to cope with the flood of immigrants. Many were fleeing political and religious persecution in Russia and Central Europe. Named after Samuel Ellis, who owned the island in the 1770s, the new facility replaced older cramped facilities at The Battery on Manhattan Island.

====================================================================================

12/1891,

31/12/1891, Thursday (-19,486) Samuel Adjai Crowther, African missionary bishop, died.

28/12/1891, Monday (-19,489) Alfred Cellier, English composer, died (born 1/12/1844).

24/12/1891, Thursday (-19,493) Johannes Janssen, German historical writer, died (born 10/4/1829)

22/12/1891, Tuesday (-19,495) Paul Lagarde, German orientalist writer, died (born 2/11/1827).

12/12/1891, Saturday (-19,505) Charles Freppel, French politician and Bishop, died (born 1/6/1827).

10/12/1891, Thursday (-19,507) Earl Alexander, British Army Commander in North Africa, and Italy in World War II, was born in County Tyrone, Ireland.

9/12/1891, Wednesday (-19,508) Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay, British geologist (born 31/1/1814) died.

5/12/1891, Saturday (-10,512) Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, died.

=====================================================================================

11/1891, Banting, discoverer of insulin, was born, Rommel, German Field Marshal, was born.

24/11/1891, Tuesday (-19,523) Edward Lytton, English poet, died (born 8/11/1831).

19/11/1891, Thursday (-19,528) Gregor Csiky, Hungarian dramatist, died (born 8/12/1842).

15/11/1891. Sunday (-19,532) Birth of German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, commander of the Afrika Corps, in Heidenheim, Germany

14/11/1891, Saturday (-19,533) Sir Frederick Banting, Canadian co-discoverer of insulin with McLeod and Best in 1922, was born in Alliston, Ontario.

======================================================================================

10/1891, WH Smith, bookseller, died. First charity street collection. Parnell, Irish Home Rule campaigner, died.

28/10/1891, Wednesday (-19,550) (Earthquake, Japan) A severe earthquake hit Osaka, Japan; 10,000 were killed.

20/10/1891, Tuesday (-19,558) Sir James Chadwick, who discovered the neutron in 1932, was born in Manchester.

8/10/1891. Thursday (-19,570) The first street collection for charity took place in Britain. It was on the streets of Manchester and Salford, for Lifeboat Day.

7/10/1891, Wednesday (-19,571) Cyril Lowe, rugby player, was born (died 6/2/1983).

6/10/1891, Tuesday (-19,572) (1) Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish politician and campaigner for Home Rule, died in Brighton, Sussex.

(2) Death of W H Smith, the bookseller.

===================================================================================

9/1891, Blackpool Tower begun. Doentiz, German Admiral, was born.

30/9/1891, Wednesday (-19,578) George Boulanger, French General, committed suicide in Brussels (born in Rennes 29/4/1837).

26/9/1891, Saturday (-19,582) David Davies, Welsh religious writer, died (born 11/5/1826).

25/9/1891, Friday (-19,583) The foundation of Blackpool Tower was laid.

22/9/1891, Tuesday (-19,586) Charles Buchan, footballer, was born (died 25/6/1960).

18/9/1891, Friday (-19,590) (Chile) Chilean President Jose Balmaceda (born in Santiago, 1839) committed suicide following the outbreak of the Chilean Civil War.

16/9/1891, Wednesday (-19,592) (Germany) Karl Doenitz, German Admiral, was born in Berlin.

9/9/1891, Wednesday (-19,601) Francois Grevy, French President 1879-87, died (born 15/1/1813)

===================================================================================

8/1891, First Travellers Cheque. Chilean Civil War continued.

28/8/1891, Friday (-16,611) (Chile) Congressional forces now reached La Placilla, south east of Valparaiso, where battle was engaged with Balmacedist forces under Barbosa. The Balmcedist Army was decimated with 941 killed (including Barbosa himself) and 2,402 wounded; the Congressionalists lost over 1800 men. Valparaiso was occupied this day by the Congressionals, and Santiago taken by them soon after. Fighting in Chile now ceased.

24/8/1891, Monday (-16,615) (Chile) Congressional forces, marching south towards Valparaiso after their victory at Concon (21/8), came up against strong Balmacedist defences at Vina del Mar, held by General Barbosa. However the Congressionalist Army now marched inland and around Vina del Mar, see 28/8/1891.

21/8/1891, Friday (-19,618) (Chile) Balmaceda acted quickly in response to the attack on Quinteros and attacked Congressional troops at Concon on the Aconagua River. Congressional troops stormed across the river, losing 1000 killed and wounded. The Balmacedists lost 1600 killed and wounded. However the Congressionalists captured 36 Balmacedist guns, and took 1500 Balmacedist prisoners, most of who then switched sides and joined the Congressionalists, more than making up their losses.

20/8/1891, Thursday (-19,619) (Chile) Quinteros, north of Valparaiso, was successfully occupied by Congressional forces in a surprise attack from the sea. Valparaiso itself was not far out of range of Congressional artillery now.

12/8/1891, Wednesday (-19,627) James Lowell, US author, died

6/8/1891, Thursday (-19,633) The first traveller�s cheque, devised by American Express, was cashed at the Hotel Hauffe, Leipzig, Germany.

8/1891, First Travellers Cheque. Chilean Civil War continued.

====================================================================================

7/1891,

31/7/1891, Friday (-19,639) Britain claimed African territory north of the Zambezi, up to the Congo basin, to be in its sphere of influence.

20/7/1891, Monday (-19,650) (Arts) Pedro Alarcon, Spanish writer, was died in Madrid (born 10/3/1833 in Guadix).

19/7/1891, Friday (-19,681) Sir Prescott Hewett, British surgeon, died (born 3/7/1812)

4/7/1891, Saturday (-19,666) Hannibal Hamlin, Vice-President of the USA, died (born 27/8/1809).

=====================================================================================

6/1891,

23/6/1891, Tuesday (-19,677) (London) The population of the London Borough of Hornsey was 61,097, up from 19,387 in 1871.

20/6/1891, Saturday (-19,680) (Ireland) John A Costello, Prime Minister of Ireland, was born.

11/6/1891, Thursday (-19,689) (Women�s Rights) Barbara Bodichon, who promoted education and other rights for women, died in Robertsbridge Sussex (born in Watlington, Norfolk 8/4/1827).

8/6/1891, Monday (-19,692) Carlo Curci, Italian theological writer, died (born 1810).

6/6/1891, Saturday (-19,694) (Canada) Sir John Alexander Macdonald, first Prime Minister of Canada, died

3/6/1891, Wednesday (-19,697) Benson Lossing, US historical writer, died.

2/6/1891, Tuesday (-19,698) Sir John Hawkshaw, British engineer, died (born 1811).

===================================================================================

5/1891,

31/5/1891, Sunday (-19,700) Sir Antoine Dorion, Canadian politician, died (born 17/1/1816).

28/5/1891, Thursday (-19,703) (Sport) The first world weightlifting championships were held at the Cafe Monico in Piccadilly, London.

19/5/1891, Tuesday (-19,712) Harold Wagstaff, rugby player, was born (died 19/7/1939).

16/5/1891, Saturday (-19,715) (Romania) Ion Bratianu, Romanian statesman, died (born 2/6/1821).

15/5/1891, Friday (-19,716) A Papal Encyclical urged employers to fulfil their moral duty to improve conditions for their workers.

8/5/1891, Friday (-19,723) (Russia) Helena Blavatsky, Russian theosophist, died in London (born at Ekatirnoslav 31/7/1831).

6/5/1891, Wednesday (-19,725) The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy was renewed.

5/5/1891, Tuesday (-19,726) (Arts) New York�s Carnegie Hall opened on west 57th Street. Until 1962 it was the city�s premier concert hall.

3/5/1891, Sunday (-19,728)

2/5/1891, Saturday (-19,729) Douglas Clark, rugby player, was born (died 1/2/1951).

1/5/1891, Friday (-19,730) In a violent clash between striking French workers and French troops, nine workers, including two children, were killed as troops opened fire. 60 more workers were injured. The workers were campaigning for an 8 hour day.

====================================================================================

4/1891, Von Moltke, Prussian General, died. Lego inventor was born. Denamrk introduced Old Age Pensions.

30/4/1891, Thursday (-10,731) Joseph Leidy, naturalist writer, died (born 9/9/1823).

27/4/1891, Monday (-10,734)

24/4/1891, Friday (-10,737) Helmuth von Moltke, Prussian general, died.

23/4/1891, Thursday (-19,738) (Chile) In the Chilean Civil war, the Balmacedists had now acquired naval torpedo ships previously constructed in Europe. This day these torpederas sank the Congressional ship Blanco Encalada in Caldera Bay, severely weakening their naval forces. The Congressionalists only hope of victory now lay, not in a systematic conquest of Chile as a whole, but in a drastic strike at Balmaceda in the capital Valparaiso itself. See 20/8/1891.

22/4/1891, Wednesday (-19,739) (Geology) Harold Jeffreys, geologist, was born at Fatfield, England. In 1940 he published research on the travel of seismic waves through the Earth.

15/4/1891, Wednesday (-19,746) Thomas Edison publicly demonstrated his �kinetoscope�, or moving picture machine, in New York.

13/4/1891, Monday (-19,748) Charlotte Leitch, golfer, was born (died 16/9/1977)

9/4/1891, Thursday (-19,752) Denmark established a system of old age pensions, for those aged over 60.

8/4/1891, Wednesday (-19,753) Edmond Dehault de Pressense, French cleric (born 7/1/1824), died.

7/4/1891, Tuesday (-19,754) (1) Ole Kirk Christiansen, Danish toymaker who invented Lego, was born.

(2) Phineas T Barnum, American circus showman, died aged 80.

5/4/1891, Sunday (-19,756) Arnold Jackson, athlete, was born (died 13/11/1972).

3/4/1891, Friday (-19,758) Edward Rodgerson , English footballer, was born (died 8/1/1962).

1/4/1891, Wednesday (-19,760) Pauline Craven, French author, died (born 12/4/1808).

4/1891, Von Moltke, Prussian General, died. Lego inventor was born. Denmark introduced Old Age Pensions.

==================================================================================

3/1891, Chilean Civil War. London-Paris phone link. US Copyright Act passed.

31/3/1891, Tuesday (-19,761) (Railways) The Tralee and Dingle railway opened.

29/3/1891, Sunday (-19,763) Easter Sunday

21/3/1891, Saturday (-19,771) Joseph Johnston, US Confederate General, died.

20/3/1891, Friday (-19,772) Lawrence Barratt, US actor, died born in Paterson, New Jersey 4/4/1838).

18/3/1891, Wednesday (-19,774) The London-Paris telephone link opened.The first call was between the Prince of Wales and President Carnot. The link opened to the public on 1/4/1891.

16/3/1891, Monday (-19,776) A boundary dispute between Colombia and Venezuela was resolved via mediation by Spain.

15/3/1891, Sunday (-19,777) Sir Joseph William Bazalgette, engineer, died

14/3/1891, Saturday (-19,778) The submarine Monarch laid the first telephone cable across the English Channel.

12/3/1891, Thursday (-19,780)

10/3/1891, Tuesday (-19,782) US undertaker Almon Brown Strowger patented the Strowger Switch, enabling automated dialling. He was motivated by the fact that the wife of a rival undertaker worked at the local phone exchange, and was diverting calls for his business to her husband.

9/3/1891, Monday (-19,783) A very heavy blizzard hit the West Country, England, It lasted for four days, and roofs collapsed under the weight of snow, which entirely filled a 90 metre deep valley on Dartmoor. 200 people and huge numbers of livestock froze to death. At sea gales caused the loss of 65 ships and some 220 people drowned. An express train left London at 3pm for Plymouth but hit the snow near Dartmoor and was stuck for days. A farmer noticed the steam engine funnel poking out of the snow and dug through to rescue the passengers who had been without food, water of heat. The train was dug out and eventually reached Plymouth 8 days later. Cold continued, with snow into May, along with frosts , heavy rain and hail. There was a flu epidemic, and snow persisted in Dartmoor even into June.

7/3/1891, Saturday (-19,785) (Chile) Battle of Pozo Almonte, Chilean Civil War; Congressional forces under Del Canto had superior numbers, and the Balmacedists were defeated. Robles himself was killed. Balmacedist forces in northern Chile now began to give up the conflict.

4/3/1891, Wednesday (-19,788) US Congress passed the Copyright Act, to protect authors, composers and artists.

3/3/1891, Tuesday (-19,789) US Congress voted to establish a US Office of Superintendent of Immigration.

1/3/1891, Sunday (-19,791)

3/1891, Chilean Civil War. London-Paris phone link. US Copyright Act passed.

====================================================================================

2/1891, Chilean Civil War.

26/2/1891, Thursday (-19,794) Fortune du Boisgobey, French fiction writer (born in Granville 11/9/1824) died.

25/2/1891, Wednesday (-19,795) The new Provisional Government of Brazil, having excersised dictatorial powers for a year, now held elections. Manoel Fonseca was elected First President.

19/2/1891, Thursday (-19,801) John White, cricketer, was born (died 2/5/1961).

17/2/1891, Tuesday (-19,803) (Chile) Robles fell back along the railway, called up reinforcements from Iquque, and defeated the Congressional forces at Haura.

16/2/1891, Monday (-19,804) (Chile) In the Chilean Civil War, Iqique fell to Congressional forces.

15/2/1891, Sunday (-19,805) (Chile) Balmacedist forces under Eulojio Robles (who had been expecting reinforcements from Tacna that never came) was defeated at San Francisco.

14/2/1891, Saturday (-19,806) William Sherman, Union Army commander in the American Civil War, died in New York City.

13/2/1891, Friday (-19,807) Grant Wood, US painter, was born in Iowa.

12/2/1891, Thursday (-19,808)

11/2/1891, Wednesday (-19,809) John Hearne, cricketer, was born (died 14/9/1965).

10/2/1891, Tuesday (-19,810) Sophie Kovalevsky, Russian mathematician, died (born 15/1/1850).

2/2/1891, Monday (-19,818)

=====================================================================================

1/1891, Germany instituted Old Age Pensions., Chilean Civil War began. Hausmann, architect of Paris, died.

27/1/1891, Tuesday (-19,824) Jervis McEntee, US artist, died (born 14/7/1828).

26/1/1891, Monday (-19,825) (Chile) Congress forces retook the Chilean town of Pisagua. By now some army personnel, along with munitions supplies, had been gained by Congressional forces.

24/1/1891, Saturday (-19,827) Alexander Kennedy, cricketer, was born (died 15/11/1959).

20/1/1891, Tuesday (-19,831) King David Kalalahua of Hawaii died, aged 54, and was succeeded by his 52-year sister, Queen Lydia Liliuokalani. White settlers who now owned 80% of the land in Hawaii, formed a Hawaiian League to oppose the accession of Queen Liliuokalani, and sought annexation to the USA.

17/1/1891, Saturday (-19,834) (USA) George Bancroft, US politician, died in Washington (born in Worcester, Massachusetts 3/10/1800).

16/1/1891, Friday (-19,835) Clement Delibes, French composer, died (born 21/2/1836).

11/1/1891, Sunday (-19,840) Baron Georges-Eugene Haussman, the architect who designed the broad straight boulevards of Paris, died in poverty.

7/1/1891, Wednesday (-19,844) Charles Devens, US lawyer, died (born 4/4/1820).

6/1/1891, Tuesday (-19,845) Ted McDonald, Australian cricketer was born in Launceston, Australia (died 1937)

5/1/1891, Monday (-19,846) (Arts) Emma Abbot, US opera singer, died in Salt Lake City.

4/1/1891, Sunday (-19,847) Pierre de Decker, Belgian statesman, died (born 1812).

3/1/1809, Saturday (-19,848)

2/1/1891, Friday (-19,849) Alexander Kinglake, English historical writer, died (born 5/8/1809).

1/1/1891, Thursday (-19,850) (1) In Germany, Bismarck�s pension scheme came into operation. Pension age was 70. The rate was graduated with income, the lowest being 7 pfennings a week for those earning under 300 marks a year (�15).

(2) (Chile) The Chilean Civil War broke out. It was caused by a dispute between the Chilean President and the National Representatives, leading to the President, Jose Balmaceda, attempting to govern and collect taxes on his own authority.

=====================================================================================

12/1890, Battle of Wounded Knee; last US-Amerindian clash. Chief Sitting Bull killed.

29/12/1890, Monday (-19,853) The Battle of Wounded Knee in South Dakota. This was the last major conflict between Red Indians, the Sioux, and US troops.

21/12/1890, Sunday (-19,861) Niels Gade, Danish composer, died (born 22/2/1817).

15/12/1890, Monday (-19,867) Chief Sitting Bull, Sioux leader (born ca.1831), was shot dead in a scuffle with police in South Dakota whilst resisting arrest. He had fled to Canada after his victory over General Custer at Little Bighorn in 1876. He returned to the USA in 1881 and was jailed for 2 years. He performed for several years with Buffalo Bill�s travelling Wild West Show, but the suffering of his people led him to join the new Ghost Dance Movement, dedicated to destroying the Whites and restoring the lost Indian world. The US Government sent troops to suppress the Ghost Dance Movement and arrest its leaders; Sitting Bull was shot in the skirmish.

12/12/1890, Friday (-19,870) Sir Joseph Boehm, British sculptor, died in South Kensington (born in Vienna 4/7/1834).

9/12/1890, Tuesday (-19,873) Richard Church, English religious writer, died (born 25/4/1815).

=====================================================================================

11/1890, Japanese new Constitution. Charles de Gaulle born(died 1970).

29/11/1890, Saturday (-19,883) In Japan, the Meiji constitution came into effect.

24/11/1890, Monday (-19,888) (USA) August Belmont, US financier, died in New York (born in Prussia 8/12/1816).

23/11/1890, Sunday (-19,889) Death of King William III of the Netherlands (born 1817)

22/11/1890, Saturday (-19,890) Charles de Gaulle, French President, was born in Lille (died 1970).

21/11/1890, Friday (-19,891) The Lincoln Judgment, concerning the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury, was delivered.

13/11/1890, Thursday (-19,899) Henry Dexter US religious writer, died (born 13/8/1821).

8/11/1890, Saturday (-19,904) Cesar Franck, French composer, died (born 10/12/1822).

7/11/1890, Friday (-19,905) Zanzibar became a German Protectorate.

===================================================================================

10/1890, US President Eisenhower was born (died 1969).

28/10/1890, Tuesday (-19,915) Alexander Ellis, writer, died (born 14/6/1814)

20/10/1890, Monday (-19,923) Sir Richard Burton, writer on the Orient, died (born 19/3/1821).

17/10/1899, Friday (-19,926) Maximilian Gagern, German politician, died (born 26/3/1810).

14/10/1890, Tuesday (-19,929) Birth of US President Dwight Eisenhower. He was the 34th President, who led the US during World War Two, and was known as �Ike�.He was born in Denison, Texas (died 1969).

13/10/1890, Monday (-19,930) (USA) William Belknap, US politician, died in Washington DC (born in Newburgh, New York, 22/9/1829).

9/10/1890, Thursday (-19,934) Clement Ader, Frenchman, flew his monoplane, the Ecole, 165 feet. However it was not a truly sustained or controllable flight.

6/10/1890, Monday (-19,937) The Mormons in Utah renounced polygamy.

3/10/1890, Friday (-19,940) Joseph Hergenrother, German religious writer, died (born 15/9/1824)

2/10/1890, Thursday (-19,941) Julius Groucho Marx was born (died 1977).

===================================================================================

9/1890, Salisbury, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) was founded.

29/9/1890, Monday (-19,944) Jean Karr, French novelist, died (born 24/11/1808).

25/9/1890, Thursday (-19,948)

18/9/1890, Thursday (-19,955) Dion Boucicault, Irish playwright, died in New York (born in Dublin 26/12/1822).

17/9/1890, Wednesday (-19,956) Jules Joffrin, French politician, died (born 16/3/1846).

15/9/1890, Monday (-19,958) Agatha Christie, crime writer, was born in Torquay, Devon, as Agatha Mary Clarissa.She died on 12/1/1976.

12/9/1890. Friday (-19,961) (Zimbabwe) The British South Africa Company founded the town of Salisbury, now Harare, after a pioneer march from South Africa.It was named after the British Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury.

9/9/1890, Tuesday (-19,964) Henry Liddon, English religious writer, died (born 20/8/1829).

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8/1890, First execution by electric chair. Franco-British agreement on African colonies.

31/8/1889, Sunday (-19,973) William Wells, boxer, was born (died 11/6/1967)

26/8/1890, Tuesday (-19,978) (Football), Weymouth football club, Dorset, was founded.

 

20/8/1891, Wednesday (-19,984) (Astronomy) Franz Brunnow, German astronomer, died (born 18/11/1821).

 

11/8/1890, Monday (-19,993) Cardinal Newman (born 1801) died in Birmingham, UK. He was appointed as a Cardinal in 1879, and believed in the romantic vision of the Mediaeval Church.

9/8/1890, Saturday (-19,995) Heligoland was formally transferred from Britain to Germany.

6/8/1890, Wednesday (-19,998) (Capital Punishmnent, USA) In New York�s Auburn prison, the electric chair was used for the first time on the murderer William Kemmler. This method of execution was attacked as constituting �cruel and unusual punishment� but was upheld in the US State and Federal Courts. By 1906 115 murderers had been executed by �electrothanasia�, and the method was had also adopted by the US States of Ohio (1896), Massachusetts (1898), New Jersey (1906), Virginia (1908) and North Carolina (1910).

5/8/1890, Tuesday (-19,999) Britain agreed to recognise Madagascar as a French colony and France recognised Zanzibar as a British protectorate. France gave up claims to the lower Niger and retained the desert territories of the Sahara.

2/8/1890, Saturday (-20,002) Louise Ackermann, French poet (born 30/11/1813) died.

====================================================================================

7/1890, Van Gogh died, insane. UK swapped Heligoland for Zanzibar with Germany. Wyoming became 44th US State. Battersea Bridge, London, opened.

29/7/1890, Tuesday (-20,006) Vincent Van Gogh, born 30/3/1853, died after prolonged insanity. He went to the spot where he had painted Cornfield with flight of birds and shot himself in the chest, on 27/7/1890, dying 2 days later.

21/7/1890, Monday (-20,014) Lord Rosebery opened Battersea Bridge.

17/7/1890, Thursday (-20,018) Cecil Rhodes became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony.

15/7/1890, Tuesday (-20,020) Gottfried Keller, German novelist, died (born 19/7/1819).

13/7/1890, Sunday (-20,022) John Fremont, explorer of the US Midwest, died (21/1/1813).

11/7/1890, Friday (-20,024) The first ever elections in Japan; the electorate comprised only 450,000 people.

10/7/1890, Thursday (-20,025) Wyoming was admitted as the 44th state of the USA.

6/7/1890, Sunday (-20,029) Sir Edwin Chadwick, British reformer, died.

3/7/1890, Thursday (-20,032) Idaho became the 43rd State of the Union.

2/7/1890, Wednesday (-20,033) (1) The US government passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, banning trade monopolies. With more than 90% of the US oil trade in the hands of the Rockefeller family, and sugar, wheat, and alcohol prices also governed by mysterious �trusts�, the US government felt that these trusts threatened the economic structure of the USA. A judge, Mr Justice Harlan, said that these trusts were another form of slavery, as capital became concentrated in the hands of a few.

(2) In Brussels, an International Convention for Suppression of the African Slave Trade was signed.

1/7/1890, Tuesday (-20,034) Britain and Germany signed the Heligoland Treaty, by which Germany gave up claims in East Africa, including Zanzibar, in return for the British island of Heligoland in the Elbe estuary. Germany soon made Heligoland a major naval base for the defence of the newly constructed Kiel Canal.

===================================================================================

6/1890, US Census used computer, Stan Laurel was born.

21/6/1890, Saturday (-20,044) William Davies, rugby player, was born (died 26/4/1967).

16/6/1890, Monday (-20,049) Stan Laurel, of the Laurel and Hardy duo, was born as Arthur Stanley Jefferson in Ulverston, Lancashire (now Cumbria). Oliver Hardy was born in America on 18/1/1892.

2/6/1890, Monday (-20,063) (Marine) Sir George Burns, operator of the Cunard Line from 1838, died (born 10/12/1795).

1/6/1890, Sunday (-20,064) The US Census Bureau began using Herman Hollerith�s tabulating machine to count census returns.Hollerith�s company eventually became IBM.

====================================================================================

5/1890, Ho Chi Minh, North Vietnam President, was born, Oklahoma Territory created.

19/5/1890, Monday (-20,077) Birth of Ho Chi Minh, President of North Vietnam (died 1969).

12/5/1890, Monday (-20,084) In the UK, the first ever official County Championship cricket match began in Bristol.Yorkshire beat Gloucestershire by eight wickets.

11/5/1890, Sunday (-20,085) William Applegarth, athletics champion, was born (died 5/12/1958).

7/5/1890, Wednesday (-20,089) James Nasmyth, inventor of the first steam hammer, died in London.

2/5/1890. Friday (-20,094) The Federal territory of Oklahoma was created; it was formerly known as the Indian Territory. On 22/4/1889 the US government, via a single shot fired at noon, had signalled the start of a great race for land by white settlers. An estimated 200,000 people crossed into the land once home to 75,000 Indians, who had to move on. By nightfall 22/4/1889 almost all of Oklahoma�s 2 million acres had been claimed.

====================================================================================

4/1890, Pan-American Union established

27/4/1890, Sunday (-20,099) William Blades, English writer, died in Sutton, Surrey (was born in Clapham, London 5/12/1824).

14/4/1890, Monday (-20,112) The Pan-American Union was established at the first International Congress of American States.

11/4/1890, Friday (-20,115) Birth of Donna Rachele Mussolini, wife of the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini (died 1979)

6/4/1890, Sunday (-20,120) Easter Sunday. Birth of Anthony Fokker, Dutch aircraft manufacturer (died 1939).

4/4/1890, Friday (-20,122) Edmond Hebert, French geologist, died (born 12/6/1812).

4/1890, Pan-American Union established

====================================================================================

3/1890, Bismarck dismissed. Germany allowed Russia to move closer to France, and attempted in vain to forge closer ties to Britain. Forth Railway Bridge opened.

29/3/1890, Saturday (-20,128) Armand Pontmartin, French writer (born 16/7/1811) died.

28/3/1890, Friday (-20,129) Washington State University was established in Pullman, Washington.

27/3/1890, Thursday (-20,130) Spain adopted universal (male) suffrage.

18/3/1890, Tuesday (-20,139) (Germany) Prince Otto von Bismarck was dismissed from the German Chancellorship by Kaiser Wilhelm II, after 29 years as Germany�s first Chancellor. Bismarck�s foremost achievement had been the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership. He had held Germany back from a damaging competitive rush for colonies that would cause conflict with other European powers, and he negotiated the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia that limited the possibility for conflict between them. However when Wilhelm II succeeded his father Kaiser Frederick III, German policy changed. Bismarck was replaced by Leo von Caprivi, who allowed the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia to lapse. This pushed Russia into closer relations with France, Germany�s enemy. Meanwhile Germany pursued a fruitless attempt to make a friendship treaty with Britain.

9/3/1890, Sunday (-20,148) Molotov, Soviet politician, was born in Kukaida under the surname Skriabin.

8/3/1890, Saturday (-20,149) North Dakota State University was founded in Fargo, North Dakota.

4/3/1890, Tuesday (-20,153) The 1,170 foot Forth Railway Bridge, the longest railway bridge so far built at 1,710 feet, was officially opened by the Prince of Wales.The bridge was designed and built by Benjamin Walker and John Fowler.57 workers were killed during its construction. The bridge used 8 million rivets and 55,000 tons of steel.

3/1890, Bismarck dismissed. Germany allowed Russia to move closer to France, and attempted in vain to forge closer ties to Britain. Forth Railway Bridge opened.

====================================================================================

2/1890,

18/2/1890, Tuesday (-20,167) (Hungary) Julius Andrassy, Hungarian statesman, died.

17/2/1890, Monday (-20,168) Christopher Sholes, American inventor of the typewriter, died in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

10/2/1890, Monday (-20,175) Boris Pasternak, Russian writer, author of Dr Zhivago, was born in Moscow.

=====================================================================================

1/1890, Italy established a colony at Eritrea. Cleopatra�s tomb discovered.

30/1/1890, Thursday _20,186) Khaireddin, Turkish statesman, died.

29/1/1890, Wednesday (-20,187) Sir William Gull, English physician, died (born 31/12/1816).

25/1/1890, Saturday (-20,191)

22/1/1890, Wednesday (-20,194) Francis Bowen, US philosophical writer, died in Boston, Massachusetts (born in Charlestown, Massachusetts 8/9/1811).

21/1/1890, Tuesday (-20,195) Nathan Marcus Adler, British chief rabbi (born 15/1/1803) died.

20/1/1890, Monday (-20,196) Boris Mikhailovich Kozo-Polyansky, Russian biologist, was born (died 21/4/1957).

18/1/1890, Saturday (-20,198) Death of King Amadeus I of Spain (born 1845)

14/1/1890, Tuesday (-20,202) Johann Dollinger, German religious writer, died (born 28/2/1799).

10/1/1890, Friday (-20,206) Cleopatra�s tomb was discovered.

8/1/1890, Wednesday (-20,208) Charles Pillman, rugby player, was born (died 13/11/1955).

3/1/1890, Friday (-20,213) Karl Hase, German religious writer, died (born 28/8/1800).

1/1/1890, Wednesday (-20,215) The Kingdom of Italy established the colony of Eritrea in Africa.

=====================================================================================

12/1889,

31/12/1889, Tuesday (-20,216) Sir Ernest Daryl Lindsay, Australian artist, was born (died 25/12/1976).

 

25/12/1889, Wednesday (-20,222) Arthur Kavanagh, Irish politician, died (born 25/3/1831).

24/12/1889, Tuesday (-20,223) Charles MacKay, Scottish writer, died (born 27/3/1814).

 

22/12/1889, Sunday (-20,225) Isaac Hecker, US religious writer, died (born 18/12/1819)

21/12/1889, Saturday (-20,226) Eugene Deslongchamps, writer, died

17/12/1889, Tuesday (-20,231) Wilhelm von Giesebrecht, German historical writer, died (born 5/3/1814)

12/12/1889, Thursday (-20,235) Robert Browning, English poet, died.

10/12/1889, Tuesday (-20,237) Ludwig Anzengruber, Austrian dramatist, died in Vienna (born 29/11/1839 in Vienna)

6/12/1889, Friday (-20,241) Jefferson Davies, US President of the Confederate states, died aged 81.

2/12/1889, Monday (-20,245) Aloys Karolyi, Austro0Hungarian diplomat, died (born 8/8/1825).

======================================================================================

11/1889, North and South Dakota, Montana, Washington, became US States. Brazilian monarchy was overthrown; Growth in coffee demand bosting Brazilian economy. First jukebox appeared.

30/11/1889, Saturday (-20,247) Edgar Adrian, English physiologist, was born. He studied the neurons of the nervous system.

24/11/1889, Sunday (-20,253) Frederic Clay, English composer, died (born 3/8/1838).

23/11/1889, Saturday (-20,254) The first jukebox was installed, in the Palais Royal Saloon in San Francisco.

21/11/1889, Thursday (-20,256) Frederic Blachford, British politician, died (born in London 31/1/1811)

18/11/1889, Monday (-20,259) William Allingham, Irish poet, died in Hampstead, London (born 19/3/1824 in Ballyshannon, Donegal).

15/11/1889, Friday (-20,262) (Brazil) The Brazilian monarchy was overthrown in a military revolt. Dom Pedro was dethroned as Emperor of Brazil, and the First Republic was proclaimed. Pedro II went into exile in Paris. Global demand for coffee was boosting the Brazilian economy.

14/11/1889, Thursday (-20,263) Pandit Nehru, first Prime Minister of India, was born in Allahabad.

13/11/1889, Wednesday (-20,264)

12/11/1889, Tuesday (-20,265) Waterlow Park, Highgate, London, 29 acres, was given as a free gift to London by Sir Sidney Waterlow.

11/11/1889, Monday (-20,266) Washington became the 42nd State of the Union.

10/11/1889, Sunday (-20,266) Edwin Hatch, English religious writer, died (born 14/9/1835).

8/11/1889, Friday (-20,269) Montana became the 41st State of the Union.

2/11/1889, Saturday (-20,275) (1) Suffragettes Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were arrested whilst attempting to vote in the national elections.

(2) North and South Dakota became the 39th and 40th States of the Union.

11/1889, North and South Dakota, Montana, Washington, became US States. Brazilian monarchy was overthrown; Growth in coffee demand bosting Brazilian economy. First jukebox appeared.

====================================================================================

10/1889, 1st Pan American Congress in Washington. Moulin Rouge opened in Paris. James Joule, scientist, died. Charter granted to the British South Africa Company.

29/10/1889. Tuesday (-20,279) Britain granted a charter to the British South Africa Company, under Cecil Rhodes, to colonise Bechuanaland and other parts of southern Africa.

26/10/1889, Saturday (-20,282) Carel Cobet, Dutch scholarly writer, died (born 28/11/1813).

25/10/1889, Friday (-20,283) Guillaume Augier, French dramatist, died in Croissy (born 17/9/1820 in Valence, Drome).

21/10/1889, Monday (-20,287) (Biology) John Ball, Irish politician and naturalist, died in London (born in Dublin 20/8/1818).

19/10/1889, Saturday (-20,289) King Luis I of Portugal died aged 51 (born 1838). He was succeeded by his son, Carlos I, aged 26.

15/10/1889, Tuesday (-20,293) (Railways GB) Sir Daniel Gooch, engineer and railway administrator, died (born 16/8/1816). He turned the Great Western railway around from near bankruptcy in 1866, when he became Chairman of the Board, to healthy profitability in 1889; his last year on the Board.

11/10/1889, Friday (-20,297) James Joule, who established the First Law of Thermodynamics, died.

10/10/1889, Thursday (-20,298) Adolf von Henselt, German composer, died (12/5/1814).

8/10/1889, Tuesday (-20,300)

6/10/1889, Sunday (-20,302) The Moulin Rouge cabaret opened in Paris.

5/10/1889, Saturday (-20,303) (Chemistry) Dirk Coster was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In 2923 he discovered, along with Gyorgy Hevesy, the element Hafnium. It was named after the Latin for Copenhagen, where the discovery was made.

2/10/1889, Wednesday (-20,306) the first Pan-American Congress met, in Washington. Its aim was to create closer relations between the States of the Americas.

10/1889, 1st Pan American Congress in Washington. Moulin Rouge opened in Paris. James Joule, scientist, died. Charter granted to the British South Africa Company.

=====================================================================================

9/1889, The Nintendo Company was founded, making playing cards.

29/9/1889, Sunday (-20,309) Louis Faidherbe, French general, died (born 3/6/1818).

24/9/1889, Tuesday (-20,314) Daniel Hill, US Confederate soldier, died (born 11/7/1821).

23/9/1889, Monday (-20,315) The Nintendo Company was founded, as a playing card company.

16/9/1889, Monday (-20,322) (London) The Great London Docks Strike ended (began 15/8/1889).

12/9/1889, Thursday (-20,326) Fustel de Coulanges, French historical writer, died (born 18/3/1830).

10/9/1889, Tuesday (-20,328) Amy Levy, English novelist, died.

2/9/1889, Monday (-20,336) Samuel Austin Allibone, US author, died in Lucerne, Switzerland (born 17/4/1816 in Philadelphia Pennsylvania).

====================================================================================

8/1889, Savoy Hotel London opened. Screw bottle top and coin phone patented. London Docks strike.

19/8/1889. Monday (-20,350) In London, a strike by 30,000 dock workers began.The strike ended on 14/9/1889 with victory for the dockworkers. They had won their claim for a pay rise from 5d to 6d an hour � the dockers� tanner, also 8d an hour for overtime.The strike had major public support, over �50,000 being contributed to the strike fund, whilst dock owners found blackleg labour hard to come by. Even The City supported the strike, being opposed to casualisation of labour which was seen as penalising men who wanted to do an honest day�s work.

15/8/1889, Thursday (-20,354) (Arts) James Albery, English dramatist, died (born 4/5/1838 in London).

13/8/1889, Tuesday (-20,356) The coin operated phone was patented in the USA by William Gray of Hartford, Connecticut.

10/8/1889, Saturday (-20,359) The screw bottle top was patented by Dan Ryelands of Barnsley.

8/8/1889, Thursday (-20,361) (Italy) Benedetto Cairoli, Italian statesman, died (born 28/1/1825).

6/8/1889, Tuesday (-20,363) The Savoy Hotel in London was opened.

5/8/1889, Monday (-20,364) Fanny :Lewald, German author, died.

1/8/1889, Thursday (-20,368)

===================================================================================

7/1889, Wall Street Journal appeared. Barry Docks, south Wales, opened.

31/7/1889, Wednesday (-20,369) Horatius Bonar, Scottish clerical writer, died (born in Edinburgh 19/12/1808).

30/7/1889, Tuesday (-20,370) (Biology) Miles Berkeley, English botanist, died in Sibbertoft (born in Northamptonshire 1/4/1803).

21/7/1889, Sunday (-20,379) Michael Baumgarten, German theological writer, died (born in Haseldorf 25/3/1812).

18/7/1889, Thursday (-20,382) (Docks) Barry Docks, S Wales, opened; construction had begun in 11/1884, as colliery owners in the South Wales Valleys sought an alternative export route for their coal to Cardiff Docks.

13/7/1889, Saturday (-20,287) Robert Hamerling, Austrian poet, died (born 24/3/1830).

8/7/1889, Monday (-20,392) The Wall Street Journal was first published.

7/7/1889, Sunday (-20,393) Giovanni Bottesini, Italian composer, died in Parma (born in Lombardy 24/12/1823).

===================================================================================

6/1889, Long distance power transmission in USA. Armagh train disaster provoked signal reform. Germany to pay pensions and sickness insurance.

26/6/1889, Wednesday (-20,404) (USA) Simon Cameron, US politician, died (born 8/3/1799).

22/6/1889, Saturday (-20,408) Bismarck�s government passed a bill for the welfare payment of old age pensions and sickness insurance.

17/6/1889, Monday (-20,413) John Gilbert, US actor, died (born 27/2/1810).

14/6/1889, Friday (-20,416) (Geology) Henry William Bristow, English geologist, died (born 17/5/1817).

12/6/1889, Wednesday (-20,418) A train crash in Armagh caused 80 deaths and 250 injured. As a result of this accident the Regulation of Railways Act 1889 was passed. This Act made block signalling, continuous brakes and interlocking points compulsory for rail companies.

4/6/1889, Tuesday (-20,426) (Geology) German-US geologist Beno Gutenberg was born in Darmstadt, Germany. In 1914 he discovered a discontinuity in the behaviour of earthquake waves at 3,000 km below the earth�s surface. This is the Gutenberg discontinuity, between the mantle and the outer core.

3/6/1889, Monday (-20,427) The first �long-distance� electric power transmission line in the US was completed.It ran 14 miles from a generator at Williamette Falls to downtown Portland, Oregon.

6/1889, Long distance power transmission in USA. Armagh train disaster provoked signal reform. Germany to pay pensions and sickness insurance.

====================================================================================

5/1889, Italian-Ethiopian Treaty, Britain entered naval arms race against Russia, France.

31/5/1889, Friday (-20,430) Britain passed the Naval Defence Act in response to the growing naval power of both Russia and France.

26/5/1889, Sunday (-20,435) William Batten, rugby player, was born (died 27/1/1959).

25/5/1889, Saturday (-20,436) Igor Sikorsky, American engineer who pioneered the helicopter, was born in Kiev.

24/5/1889, Friday (-20,437) (USA) Laura Bridgman, US blind deaf mute, died (born 21/12/1829).

21/5/1889, Tuesday (-20,440)

17/5/1889, Friday (-20,444) William Beverley, English painter, died in Hampstead, London (born in Richmond, Surrey).

16/5/1889, Thursday (-20,445) Henry Chandler, scholarly writer, died (born 31/1/1828). 16/5/1889).

8/5/1889, Wednesday (-20,453) Arthur Cumming, figure skater, was born (died 8/5/1914).

5/5/1889, Sunday (-20,456) The Netherlands prohibited children under 12 from working except in agriculture, forestry and fishing, and restricted permissible work hours for those aged under 16.

4/5/1889, Saturday (-20,457) The National Portrait Gallery, London, was presented to the nation.

3/5/1889, Friday (-20,458) Charles Lory, French geologist, died (born 30/7/1823).

2/5/1889, Thursday (-20,459) Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia, signed a treaty of friendship with Italy, giving Italy full control over the territory of Eritrea.

1/5/1889, Wednesday (-20,460) Asa Briggs Candler of Atlanta bought the exclusive rights to a local drink called Coca Cola.

===================================================================================

4/1889, Charlie Chaplin born, Adolf Hitler born, US Land Rush, Stafford Cripps, Labour Chancellor, born.

27/4/1889, Saturday (-20,464) (Science) Frederick Barnard, scientist, died in New York City (born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, 5/5/1809)

24/4/1889, Wednesday (-20,467) Sir Stafford Cripps, the Labour Chancellor who introduced austerity measures in Britain after the Second World War, was born.

23/4/1889, Tuesday (-20,468) Jules Barbey, French writer, died in Paris (born 2/11/1808).

22/4/1889, Monday (-20,469) The great land rush in the US, see 2/5/1890.

21/4/1889, Sunday (-20,470) Easter Sunday

20/4/1889, Saturday (-20,471) Birth of Adolf Hitler, in Braunau, Austria (died 1945); his father was a customs official who changed his name from Schicklgruber.

19/4/1889, Friday (-20,472) (Astronomy) Warren de la Rue, British astronomer, died in London.

18/4/1869, Thursday (-20,473)

16/4/1889, Tuesday (-20,475) Birth of comedian Sir Charles Chaplin in Kennington, London (died 1977). He was the son of two music hall entertainers.

15/4/1889, Monday (-20,476) (Christian) Joseph de Veuster, missionary to Hawaii, died (born 3/1/1840)

9/4/1889, Tuesday (-29,482) Michel Chevreul, chemist, died (born 31/8/1786)

6/4/1889, Saturday (-29,485) Benjamin Kennedy, English scholarly writer, died (born 6/11/1804).

4/4/1889, Thursday (-20,487) (Railway Tunnels) The Ronco rail tunnel, Italy, 8.291 km long, opened on the Genoa-Milan line.

4/1889, Charlie Chaplin born, Adolf Hitler born, US Land Rush, Stafford Cripps, Labour Chancellor, born.

====================================================================================

3/1889, Eiffel Tower completed in Paris.

31/3/1889. Sunday (-20,491) (France) The 300 metre Eiffel Tower was completed, in time for the Universal Exhibition in Paris, and opened by Premier Tirard on 6/5/1889.Many people said it was ugly.

27/3/1889, Tuesday (-20,495) (Britain) John Bright, British statesman, died (born 16/11/1811).

24/3/1889, Sunday (-20,498) (Medical) Franciscus Cornelia Donders, Dutch physiologist, died in Utrecht.

23/3/1889, Saturday (-20,499) (Islam) The Ahmadiyya Islamic Movement was founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in India.

20/3/1889, Wednesday (-20,502) (Cartography) Franz Hauer, geologist, who made the first geological map of Austro-Hungary in 1871, died (born 30/1/1822).

18/3/1889, Monday (-20,504) (Russia) Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria, Russian secret police chief from 1938 and one of the most feared men in the USSR until his execution in 1953, was born.

16/3/1889, Saturday (-20,506) Samuel Hall, English journalist, died (born 9/5/1800).

9/3/1889, Saturday (-20,513) King Yohannes IV was killed in the Battle of Metemma; Sudanese forces, almost routed, rallied and destroyed the Ethiopian Army.

8/3/1889, Friday (-20,514) John Ericsson, Swedish-US inventor and engineer, died in New York City (born in Langbanshyttan, Sweden, 31/7/1803).

6/3/1889, Wednesday (-20,516) King Milan Obrenovic IV of Serbia abdicated aged 34 and went to live in Paris. He was succeeded by his 13-year-old son Alexander I.

4/3/1889, Monday (-20,518) Grover Cleveland, 22nd US President (1885-1889) was succeeded by Benjamin Harrison (1889 � 1893).

3/1889, Eiffel Tower completed in Paris.

===================================================================================

2/1889, Meiji, new Japanese Constitution, Westernised

22/2/1889, Friday (-20,528) US President Grover Cleveland signed a Bill admitting North and South Dakota, Montana, and Washington, as US States.

15/2/1889, Friday (-20,535) Ernst Dechen, German geologist, died (born 25/3/1800).

11/2/1889. Monday (-20,539) The Meiji Emperor in Japan, dressed for the occasion in a European field-marshal�s uniform, took his seat on a Prussian armchair in the European-looking throne room of the palace of his new capital, Tokyo, and announced a new constitution providing for Japan�s first parliamentary elections. �Meiji� denoted an Age of Brightness and it was hoped this would be the start of Japan as one of the great modern nations of the world. Japanese cities did indeed become more �modern� and European; cinemas and dance halls appeared, frequented by �liberated� young Japanese. However the constitution was based on a Prussian model, tied to the Confucian tradition of respect for authority, and the electorate was very limited; ministers were still picked by the emperor, not parliament. Japan remained a nation where the emperor and the military had most of the real power, leading ultimately to its participation in the Second World War. Some see 1964, when the Olympics were held in Tokyo, as the turning point when the war and US occupation were put behind and Japan became a �western� nation.

10/2/1889, Sunday (-20,540) The Church of England approved the use of the revised Bible.
7/2/1889, Thursday (-20,543)

5/2/1889, Tuesday (-20,545) Elias Hendren, cricketer, was born (died 4/10/1962).

4/2/1889, Monday (-20,546) Joachim Holtzendorff, German legal writer, died (born 14/10/1829).

2/2/1889, Saturday (-20,458)

2/1889, Meiji, new Japanese Constitution, Westernised

==================================================================================

1/1889, Electric computer patented. Electric chair adopted by New York State. French protectorate over Ivory Coast.

31/1/1889, Thursday (-20,550) Josef Gung�l, Hungarian composer, died (born 1/12/1810).

30/1/1889, Wednesday (-20,551) Archduke Rudolph of Austria was found deat at his hunting lodge at Mayerling outside Vienna. He had shot his 17-year-old mistress Baroness Marie Vetser and then himself. He left no direct heir, so his 25-year-old nephew Franz Ferdinand became heir-apparent.

28/1/1889, Monday (-20,553) (Race Equality) Prudence Crandall, campaigner for education for Black people in the US, died (born 3/9/1803)

21/1/1889, Monday (-20,560) Karl Elze, German literary writer, died (born 22/5/1821).

12/1/1889, Saturday (-20,569) (Britain) Churchill Babington, English archaeologist, died in Suffolk (born in Roecliffe, 11/3/1821).

10/1/1889. Thursday (-20,571) France declared a protectorate over the Ivory Coast.

8/1/1889. Tuesday (-20,573) The first electric computer for data processing was patented by Dr Herman Hollerith in New York. The company Dr Hollerith formed to market his invention became the giant IBM. Charles Babbage had designed and partially built a mechanical �Analytical Engine� between 1821 and 1871. The 1889 computer was designed to compute the results of the 1890 census, using punched cards. The first electronic computer was built secretly at Bletchley Park; it began operations in December 1943 to crack the German Enigma codes. It worked with punched tape and could scan and analyse 5,000 characters a second. In 1946 the US military developed the first all-purpose, i.e. programmable, electronic computer. Called ENIAC, it weighed 30 tons and contained some 18,000 vacuum tubes. It was used for calculating trajectories of artillery shells, accounting for variables like wind velocity, air temperature, and type of shell.

5/1/1889, Saturday (-20,576)

3/1/1889, Thursday (-20,578) James Halliwell-Phillips, English writer on Shakespeare, died (born 21/6/1820).

2/1/1889, Wednesday (-20,579) Roger Adams, US chemist, was born.

1/1/1889, Tuesday (-20,580) The State of New York adopted the electric chair for capital punishment.

1/1889, Electric computer patented. Electric chair adopted by New York State. French protectorate over Ivory Coast.

===================================================================================

12/1888, Film magnate Arthur Rank was born.

28/12/1888, Friday (-20,584) Charles Eversley, Speaker of the British House of Commons, died (born 22/2/1794).

26/12/1888, Wednesday (-20,586) Gotthard Lechler, German religious writer, died (born 18/4/1811).

23/12/1888. Sunday (-20,589) (1) The film magnate J Arthur Rank was born. Born in Hull, England, he was born into a Yorkshire flour milling family. He entered the film business in his mid 30s, seeing it as a way to propagate his Methodist faith. He failed to secure distribution for a religious film called The Turn of the Tide and so began his own production, distribution, and exhibition of films in 1933. By the 1940s the Rank Organisation owned half the film studios in Britain and over 1,000 cinemas, including the well-known Odeon chain. However Rank failed to establish Britain as a rival to Hollywood. The Rank Organisation survives but with films as a secondary interest behind hotels, real estate, ballrooms, bingo, and, most profitable of all, copying machines.

(2) The artist Vincent Van Gogh cut off his left ear lobe.

22/12/1888, Saturday (-20,590) Michael Loris-Melikov, Russian statesman, died.

20/12/1888, Thursday (-20,592) The Battle of Suakin.

14/12/1888, Friday (-20,598) The railway from Lourenco Marques, Mozambique, to the Transvaal frontier, South Africa, opened. The Boer Government had agreed to extend this line south to Pretoria.

===================================================================================

11/1888,

25/11/1888, Sunday (-20,617) Josef Jirecek, Czech scholarly writer, died (born 9/10/1825).

23/11/1888, Friday (-20,619) Harpo Marx, one of the Marx Brothers comedy team, was born in New York City.

9/11/1888, Friday (-20,633) Mary Kelly, fifth and last of The Ripper�s victims, was found dead in her room at 13 Millers Court, London.

7/11/1888, Wednesday (-20,635) Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born. In 1931 he won the Nobel Physics Prize for his discovery of the changing wavelengths of light when it passed through a transparent material.

1/11/1888, Thursday (-20,641) (Russia) Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, Russian explorer, died.

===================================================================================

10/1988, Pneumatic bicycle tyres patented, Ball point pen patented.

31/10/1888. Wednesday (-20,642) Pneumatic bicycle tyres (see 10/12/1845) were patented by the Scottish inventor John Royd Dunlop.

30/10/1888, Tuesday (-20,643) The first patent for a ball point pen was issued to the American, John H Loud.

29/10/1888, Monday (-20,644) Britain, Germany, Austria, France, Spain, Italy, The Netherlands, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire signed an agreement that the Suez Canal was neutral and open in wartime as well as peacetime to all ships.

28/10/1888, Sunday (-20,645) Dumitru Carlaonț, Romanian General, was born.

27/10/1888, Saturday (-20,646) (Colombia) Colombia and the UK signed an extradition of criminals treaty.

25/10/1888, Thursday (-20,648) (Aviation, Arctic) Richard Byrd, US naval officer and polar explorer, was born in Winchester, Virginia. In 1926 he became the first person to fly over the North Pole.

9/10/1888, Tuesday (-20,664) The 555-foot high white marble Washington Monument was opened.It was designed by Robert Mills.

4/10/1888, Thursday (-20,669) Cesare Correnti, Italian Revolutionary, died (born 3/1/1815).

1/10/1888, Monday (-20,672) (USA) In an attempt to curb Chinese immigration, US Congress ruled that any Chinese worker who had left the USA could not return again.

===================================================================================

9/1888, Eastman patented first camera film roll. First beauty contest. Jack the Ripper killed more women.

30/9/1888. Sunday (-20,673) Jack the Ripper butchered 2 more women. They were Liz Stride found behind 40 Berber

Street, and Kate Eddowes, in Miter Square, both in London�s East End.

28/9/1888,Friday (-20,675)

27/9/1888. Thursday (-20,676) The Central London News Agency received a letter which began �Dear Boss, I keep on

hearing the police have caught me but they won�t fix me just yet..�. It was signed �Jack the Ripper�

the first time the name had been used.

26/9/1888. Wednesday (-20,677) The poet T S Eliot was born � see 4/1/1965.

23/9/1888, Sunday (-20,680) (France) Achille Bazaine, French Marshal, died in Madrid (born in Versailles 13/2/1811).

19/9/1888. Wednesday (-20,684) The world�s first beauty contest took place at Spa, Belgium. The winner was 18-year-old Bertha Soucaret from Guadeloupe, who won a5,000 Franc prize.

8/9/1888, Saturday (-20,695) Jack the Ripper claimed his 2nd victim, Annie Chapman, who was found disembowelled at 29 Hanbury Street, London.

4/9/1888, Tuesday (-20,699) George Eastman, founder of the Kodak film company, patented the first camera film roll.

===================================================================================

8/1888, First airship, powered by petrol engine, tested. John Logie Baird, TV pioneer, was born. First victim of Jack the Ripper found.

31/8/1888, Friday (-20,703) Mary Ann �Polly� Nichols, the first victim of Jack the Ripper, was found mutilated in Bucks Row in the early hours of the morning.

24/8/1888, Friday (-20,710) (Innovation) Rudolf Clausius, German physicist, died (born 2/1/1822).

23/8/1888, Thursday (-20,711) Philip Gosse, English naturalist writer, died (born 6/4/1810).

19/8/1888, Sunday (-20,715)

15/8/1888, Wednesday (-20,719) T E (Thomas Edward) Lawrence, British soldier and writer known as Lawrence of Arabia, was born at Tremadoc, Wales.

14/8/1888, Tuesday (-20,720) Carl Hall, Danish statesman, died (born 25/2/1812).

13/8/1888, Monday (-20,721) Birth of television pioneer John Logie Baird in Helensburgh, Firth of Clyde, Scotland.

12/8/1888, Sunday (-20,722) (1) An airship designed by the German, Karl Woelfort, was tested with a Daimler petrol engine. The invention of a light yet powerful engine, along with the invention in 1886 of a method of mass producing the lightweight metal aluminium (using electrolysis) meant that practical steerable airships, or dirigibles, were now possible.

(2) The railway from Budapest to Constantinople opened.

6/8/1888, Monday (-20,728) Elected County Councils were established in Britain through the local Government Act.

4/8/1888, Saturday (-20,730) John Burgon, English Christian writer, died (born 21/8/1813).

===================================================================================

7/1888, First record company founded

31/7/1888, Tuesday (-30,734) Frank Holl, English painter, died (born 4/7/1845).

25/7/1888, Wednesday (-20,740) Herman Bonitz, German scholarly writer, died in Berlin (born in Saxony 29/7/1814).

23/7/1888, Monday (-20,742) Johannes Ebrard, German religious writer, died (born 18/1/1818).

22/7/1888, Sunday (-20,743) Selman Abraham Waksman, Russian microbiologist whose search for antimicrobial substances in soil led to the discovery of actinomycin and streptomycin, was born.

21/7/1888, Saturday (-20,744) Henry Lewis, US geologist, died (born 16/11/1853).

14/7/1888, Saturday (-20,751) Businessman Jesse L Lippincott founded the world�s first record company, the North American Phonograph Company, in Pennsylvania.

9/7/1888, Monday (-20,756) Simon Marks, British retailer, was born in Leeds.

====================================================================================

6/1888, First appendectomy performed in UK.

29/6/1888, Friday (-20,766) The first appendectomy was carried out in the UK, at the London Hospital by Professor Frederick Treves.

23/6/1888, Saturday (-20,772) Edmund Gurney, English psychologist, died (born 23/3/1847).

20/6/1888, Wednesday (-20,775) Karl Kahnis, German religious writer, died (born 22/12/1814).

15/6/1888, Friday (-20,780) Frederick III, Emperor of Germany, died. He was succeeded by his 29-year son, Wilhelm II, who was the last German monarch.

8/6/1888, Friday (-20,787) James Clarke, US religious writer, died (born 4/4/1810)).

7/6/1888, Thursday (-20,788) Edmond Leboeuf, Marshal of France, died (born 5/11/1809)

===================================================================================

5/1888, Slavery abolished in Brazil. Kodak founded. British Protectorate over North Borneo.

25/5/1888, Friday (-20,801)

17/5/1888, Thursday (-20,809) Alfred Freeman, cricketer, was born (died 28/1/1965).

16/5/1888, Wednesday (-20,810) Emile Berliner demonstrated the first gramophone, to the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia.

15/5/1888, Tuesday (-20,811)

13/5/1888. Sunday (-20,813) Slavery was abolished in Brazil despite heavy opposition from the landowners. Brazil had agreed to abolish the slave trade, under pressure from Britain, in 1831, but this trade did not cease completely in Brazil until 1853. In the 1860s there was pressure to abolish all slavery in Brazil, and in 1871 the Brazilian parliament passed a law that all children of slave mothers were free. In 1884 Cearas and Amazonas freed their slaves, and in 1885 all Brazilian slaves aged over 65 were freed. Complete emancipation without compensation to landowners was decreed on 13/5/1888 and about 700,000 slaves valued at �40 million were freed.

12/5/1888. Saturday (-20,814) Britain established a protectorate over North Borneo.

11/5/1888, Friday (-20,815) Irving Berlin, US songwriter, was born as Israel Baline in Tyumen, Russia.

7/5/1888. Monday (-20,819) George Eastman, a former bank clerk aged 34 (see 12/7/1854), founded the Kodak photographic company. He chose the name Kodak because he thought it would be easy to remember.

3/5/1888, Thursday (-20,823) (Science) Sir Charles Bright, English telegraph engineer, died (born 8/6/1832).

=====================================================================================

4/1888, UK Football League first met.

19/4/1888, Thursday (-20,837) (Poland) Zygmunt Florenty von Wrobleski, Polish physicist, died in Cracow.

18/4/1888, Wednesday (-20,838) (USA) Roscoe Conkling, US lawyer and politician, died in New York City (born 30/10/1829 in Albany, New York).

17/4/1888, Tuesday (-20,839) (Football) The first formal meeting of the UK Football league took place in the Royal Hotel, Manchester.

15/4/1888, Sunday (-20,841) Matthew Arnold, British poet, died in Liverpool (born 24/12/1822 in Laleham, Staines).

9/4/1888, Monday (-20,847) Lodovico Corti, Italian diplomat, died (born 28/10/1823).

6/4/1888, Friday (-20,850) Bill Bailey, cycling champion, was born (died 12/2/1971).

2/4/1888, Monday (-20,854) Daniel F Ahearne, athletics triple jump champion, was born.

1/4/1888, Sunday (-20,855) Easter Sunday

====================================================================================

3/1888, Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia died. English Football League formed. British Protectorate over Sarawak.

26/3/1888, Monday (-20,861) Francis Bache, composer, died in London (born 14.9/1833 in Birmingham)

22/3/1888, Thursday (-20,865) (Football) The English Football League was founded by 12 clubs meeting in Anderton�s Hotel, Fleet Street, London.

17/3/1888, Saturday (-20,870) Britain established a protectorate over Sarawak in the Malaysian archipelago.

16/3/1888, Friday (-20,871) In France, Emile Roger made the first recorded purchase of a motor car, a Benz.

13/3/1888, Tuesday (-20,874) Volcanic eruption on Ritter Island (New Guinea), causing a large tsunami and obliterating most of the island itself

11/3/1888, Sunday (-20,876) A great blizzard began in the USA.

9/3/1888, Friday (-20,878) Death of Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia, aged 90. He was succeeded by his 57-year old son, Friedrich Wilhelm, but he died of cancer later in the year, on 15/6/1888.

6/3/1888, Tuesday (-20,881) Louisa Alcott, US author, died (born 29/11/1832)

5/3/1888, Monday (-20,862) Charles King, English historical writer, died (5/9/1818).

4/3/1888, Sunday (-20,883) Amos Alcott, US educationalist, born 29/11/1799, died.

3/3/1888, Saturday (-20,884) Sir Astley Key, British Admiral, died

====================================================================================

2/1888, Franco-Italian trade war

27/2/1888, Monday (-20,889) As Italian-French relations deteriorated, France imposed selective duties against Italian products. Italy retaliated in kind on 1/3/1888.

22/2/1888, Wednesday (-20,894) (Arts) Jean Alard, French violinist, died in Paris (born 8/5/1815 in Bayonne).

10/2/1888, Friday (-20,906) Heinrich Fleischer, German writer on The Orient, died (born 21/2/1801).

2/2/1888, Thursday (-20,914) Kenneth MacLeod, rugby player (also cricket, athletics) was born (died 7/3/1967).

====================================================================================

1/1888,

30/1/1888, Monday (-20,917) (Arts) Edward Lear, English author and artist, who wrote the Book of Nonsense, died in San Remo, Italy.

23/1/1888, Monday (-20,924) Eugene Labiche, French dramatist, died (born 5/5/1815).

19/1/1888, Thursday (-20,928) Heinrich DeBary, German botanist, died (born 26/1/1831).

18/1/1888. Wednesday (-20,929) (Aviation) Birth of aviation pioneer Sir Thomas Sopwith

14/1/1888, Saturday (-20,933) Stephen Heller, Austrian composer, died (born 15/5/1815).

3/1/1888, Tuesday (-20,944) Herbert Morison, Labour politician, was born in Lambeth, London.

=====================================================================================

12/1887, UK petition to close pubs on Sundays failed. World�s first mountaintop telescope installed.

31/12/1887, Saturday (-20,947) (1) (Astronomy) The Lick 91 centimetre refracting telescope was installed on Mount Hamilton, near San Francisco, USA. This was the world�s first mountaintop telescope.

(2) US telephone listings reached 200,000.

30/12/1887, Friday (-20,948) A petition signed by over one million women was presented to Queen Victoria, asking for pubs to be closed on Sundays. The petition failed.

28/12/1887, Wednesday (-20,950) John Jarvis, horse racing champion, was born (died 19/12/1968).

25/12/1887, Sunday (-20,953) Conrad Hilton, American hotelier, was born in San Antonio, New Mexico.

22/12/1887, Thursday (-20,956) Ferdinand Hayden, US geological writer, died (born 7/9/1829).

5/12/1887, Monday (-20,973) Richard Lyons, British diplomat, died (born 26/4/1817).

2/12/1887, Friday (-20,976) Francois Grevy, President of France from 30/1/1879, resigned after a scandal involving his son in law Daniel Wilson

=====================================================================================

11/1887, Violence as demonstrators clashed with police in Trafalgar Square, London. Manchester Ship Canal begun. Von Manstein, military advisor to Hitler, was born,

25/11/1887, Friday (-20,983) (Biology) Russian botanist Nikolay Vavilov was born in Moscow.

24/11/1887, Thursday (-20,984) (Germany) Erich von Manstein, military adviser to Adolf Hitler in World War Two, was born in Berlin He died on 9/6/1973, having been imprisoned by the British in August 1945. His advice on attacking France through the Ardennes in 1940 was crucial to Nazi success here.

23/11/1887. Wednesday (-20,985) Violence erupted in a sugar cane workers strike in Louisiana, and at least 20 Black people were killed.

21/11/1887,

20/11/1887, Sunday (-20,988) Louis Gaillat, Belgian painter, died (born 9/5/1810).

19/11/1887, Saturday (-20,989) (Biology) James Batcheller Sumner was born in Canton, Massachusetts, USA. In 1926 he crystallised urea, the first enzyme to be crystallised, and established that is was a protein.

18/11/1887, Friday (-20,990) Frank Dobson, English sculptor, was born.

17/11/1887, Thursday (-20,991) Viscount Montgomery, World War Two army commander who defeated Rommel in Africa in World War Two, was born in Kensington, London, the son of a vicar.

15/11/1887, Tuesday (-20,993) Georgia O�Keefe, artist, was born in Wisconsin.

13/11/1887, Sunday (-20,995) Bloody Sunday in Trafalgar Square, London, when police clashed with Socialist demonstrators. The protestors were calling for the end of a ban on open air meetings and the release of an Irish MP who had been jailed for supporting a rent strike. Two protestors were killed.

11/11/1887, Friday (-20,997) The first sod of the Manchester Ship Canal was cut.

6/11/1887, Sunday (-21,002) Celtic Football Club., Glasgow, was founded, to help the poor of Glasgow�s East End.

2/11/1887, Wednesday (-21,006) Alfred Domett, English poet, died (born 20/5/1811).

1/11/1887, Tuesday (-21,007) The artist L S (Laurence Stephen) Lowry was born in Rusholme, Manchester.

11/1887, Violence as demonstrators clashed with police in Trafalgar Square, London. Manchester Ship Canal begun. Von Manstein, military advisor to Hitler, was born,

====================================================================================

10/1887, Le Corbusier was born, Chiang Kai Shek born. British in India annexed Baluchistan.

31/10/1887, Monday (-21,008) Chiang Kai-Shek, Chinese military leader and politician, was born in Fenghua, Chekiang province.

21/10/1887, Friday (-21,018) Jean Jaureguiberry, French Admiral, died (born 26/8/1815).

17/10/1887, Monday (-21,022) Robert Hunt, English scientist, died (born 6/9/1807).

12/10/1887, Wednesday (-21,027) Dinah Craik, English novelist, died (born 20/4/1826).

11/10/1887, Tuesday (-21,028) George Fordham, horse racing champion, died.

6/10/1887, Thursday (-21,033) Le Corbusier, who promoted the idea of a house as a �machine for living�, was born in Switzerland.

1/10/1887, Saturday (-21,038) The British in India annexed Baluchistan, an area strategic to the North-West Frontier.

====================================================================================

9/1887, First gramophone player. Barnes Wallis, WW2 bomb expert, was born.

30/9/1887, Friday (-21,039) Bernhard Langenbeck, German surgeon, died (born 9/11/1810).

26/9/1887, Monday (-21, 043) (1) The first gramophone player, invented by Emile Berliner, a German immigrant living in Washington DC, was patented.

(2) Barnes Wallis, inventor of the bouncing bomb used in World War Two, and inventor and designer of aircraft, was born.

16/9/1887, Friday (-21,053) Arthur Fulton, shooting champion, was born (died 26/1/1972).

===================================================================================

8/1887,

19/8/1887, Friday (-21,081) (Biology) Spencer Baird, US naturalist, died in Massachusetts (born in Reading, Pennsylvania 3/2/1823).

16/8/1887, Tuesday (-21,084) Thursday (-50,510) Augustine Brohan, French actress, died (born 22/1/1807).

15/8/1887, Monday (-21,085) Sir Johann Haast, British-German geologist, died (born 1/5/1824).

14/8/1887, Sunday (-21,086) Richard Jefferies, English naturalist writer, died (born 6/11/1848).

====================================================================================

7/1887, Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian Nazi traitor, was born. Krupp, German industrialist died.

29/7/1887, Wednesday (-21,104) Agostino Depretis, Italian politician, died (born 31/1/1813).

19/7/1887, Sunday (-21,114) Lewis Edwards, Welsh religious writer, died (born 27/10/1809).

18/7/1887, Saturday (-21,115) Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian diplomat who turned traitor, was born in Fyresdal, Telemark province, southern Norway.

17/7/1887, Friday (-21,116) Dorothy Lynde Dix, pioneer in the humane treatment of the mentally disabled in the US (born 4/4/1802 in Hampden, Maine), died in Trenton, New Jersey.

16/7/1887, Thursday (-21,117) Laurent Koninck, Belgian scientific writer, died (born 3/5/1809).

15/7/1887, Wednesday (-21,118)

14/7/1887, Tuesday (-21,119) Alfred Krupp, German manufacturer of arms in Essen, the Ruhr, died.

13/7/1887, Monday (-21,120) Elme Carlo, French scholarly writer, died (born 4/3/1826).

8/7/1887, Wednesday (-21,125) (India) Sir Ashley Eden, British administrator of India, died (born 13/11/1831).

======================================================================================

6/1887, Hammersmith Bridge London opened.

20/6/1887, Monday (-21,141) Queen Victoria met Annie Oakley, the famous American markswoman who could slice a playing card in two at 30 paces sideways on.

18/6/1887, Saturday (-21,143) Hammersmith Bridge, London, was opened.

17/6/1887, Friday (-21,144) Mark Hopkins, US philosopher, died in Williamstown, Massachusetts.

16/6/1887, Thursday (-21,145) Roswell Hitchcock, US writer, died (born 15/8/1817).

3/6/1887, Friday (-21,158) The foundation stone of the opening lock of the Kiel Canal was laid.

=====================================================================================

5/1887, Britain to colonise Kenya and Uganda. Railway reached Vancouver

31/5/1887, Tuesday (-21,161) Thomas Baynes, English writer, died (born in Wellington, Somerset 24/3/1823).

28/5/1887, Saturday (-21,164) Frank Woolley, cricketer, was born (died 18/10/1978)

26/5/1887, Thursday (-21,166) The Imperial British East Africa Company received a charter to colonise Kenya and Uganda.

23/5/1887, Monday (-21,169) (1) The Canadian Pacific Railway reached Vancouver

(2) The French crown jewels went on sale and raised six million francs.

14/5/1887, Saturday (-21,178) Manoel Fonseca called for more political rights for officers in the Brazilian Army.

11/5/1887, Wednesday (-21,181) (1) (Biology) Jean Baptiste Dieudonne Boussingault died in Paris. In 1840 he proved that plants obtain their nitrogen from nitrates in the soil.

(2) (Poland) Maryan Langiewicz, leader of the Polish revolt in 1863, died in Constantinople. After defeat by the Russian she had escaped to Austria, where he was interned at Josephstadt fortress until release in 1865; he then joined the Turkish military.

5/5/1887, Thursday (-21,187) James Grant, British novelist, died (born 1/8/1822).

===================================================================================

4/1887, First appendectomy performed. First motor car race, in Paris. First woman mayor, in USA.

27/4/1887, Wednesday (-21,195) The first appendix operation, for removing an infected appendix, was carried out by George Thomas Morton on a 26-year-old man with acute appendicitis, in Philadelphia, USA.

20/4/1887, Wednesday (-21,202) The world�s first motor race took place, along the banks of the River Seine from the centre of Paris to Neuilly. There was only one entrant, Georges Bouton, who completed the course in his steam quadricycle to become the winner.

16/4/1887, Saturday (-21,206) Cecil Boyd-Rochfort, horse racing, was born (died17/3/1983).

10/4/1887, Sunday (-21,212) Easter Sunday

4/4/1887, Monday (-21,218) Susanna Salter became the world�s first woman mayor. She was elected at Argona, Kansas.

====================================================================================

3/1887, First Daimler car made,

19/3/1887, Saturday (-21,234) Joseph Kraszewski, Polish novelist, died (born 28/7/1812).

9/3/1887, Wednesday (-21,244) Philip Mead, cricketer, was born (died 26/3/1958).

8/3/1887, Tuesday (-21,245) (USA) Henry Beecher, US preacher, died in Brooklyn (born in Litchfield, Connecticut 24/6/1813).

4/3/1887, Friday (-21,249) The first Daimler cars appeared on the road.

2/3/1877, Wednesday (-21,251) (Universities USA) US Congress passed the Hatch Act, authorising the establishment of agricultural experimental stations in all States having land-grant colleges.

=====================================================================================

2/1887, Brussels-Paris telephone link inaugurated. Borodin, composer, died. US Dawes Act regulated Amerindians.

28/2/1887, Monday (-21,253) Alexander Borodin, Russian composer, died in St Petersburg.

24/2/1887, Thursday (-21,257) The telephone link between Paris and Brussels was inaugurated, the first such link between national capitals.

23/2/1887, Wednesday (-21,258) (Earthquake) The town of Bussana Vecchia, Liguria, Italy, was abandoned after an earthquake which killed 2,000 people. 80 years later the town was repopulated as an artist�s colony.

21/2/1887, Monday (-21,260) James Geddes, US soldier, died (born 19/3/1827).

19/2/1887, Saturday (-21,262) Edward Dekker, Dutch writer, died (born 2/3/1820).

16/2/1887, Wednesday (-21,265) Queen Victoria�s Jubilee was marked in India by the freeing of 25,000 prisoners.

11/2/1887, Friday (-21,270) Francois Laurent, Belgian legal writer, died.

8/2/1887, Tuesday (-21,273) (USA) The USA passed the Dawes Act. This granted US citizenship to Amerindians living outside the reservations, but also allowed the President to overrule Indian governments and sell traditional communally-owned tribal lands to private owners.

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1/1887, Ethiopia-Italy war. Queen Victoria Empress of India.

29/1/1887, Saturday (-21,283) (France) Construction work began on the Eiffel Tower, Paris.

25/1/1887, Tuesday (-21,287) War broke out between Ethiopia and Italy. The Ethiopians routed an Italian army at Dogali.

22/1/1887, Saturday (-21,290) Sir Joseph Whitworth, the engineer who standardised screw threads, died at Monte Carlo.

21/1/1887, Friday (-21,291) (Medical) Wolfgang Kohler, psychologist, was born in Revel, Estonia. He was one of the founders of the gestalt school.

20/1/1887, Thursday (-21,292) (1) A renewal of the reciprocity agreement between the USA and Hawaii contained an amendment giving the USA exclusive rights to a coaling station in Pearl Harbour.

(2) New Zealand annexed the Kermadec Islands.

19/1/1887, Wednesday (-21,293) Abraham Mitchell, golfer, was born (died 1947).

16/1/1887, Sunday (-21,296) Thomas Richardson, figure skating champion, was born (died 7/1/1971).

14/1/1887, Friday (-21,298) Bismarck dissolved the Reichstag because it refused to vote for the military budget.

12/1/1887, Wednesday (-21,300) Stafford Iddesleigh, British statesman, died (born 27/10/1818).

11/1/1887, Tuesday (-21,301) Bismarck proposed an expansion of the German Army.

9/1/1887, Sunday (-21,303) (Britain) William Ballantine, famous English lawyer, died in Margate (born in London 3/1/1812).

1/1/1887, Saturday (-21,311) Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India in Delhi.

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12/1886, Olympia, west London, opened. Clarence Birdseye, frozen food pioneer, was born.

27/12/1886, Monday (-21,316) The Olympia Exhibition Hall in west London opened.

26/12/1886, Sunday (-21,317) John Logan, US politician, died.

23/12/1868, Thursday (-21,320) (India) Sir Herbert Edwardes, British soldier in India, died (born 12/11/1819.

9/12/1886, Thursday (-21,334) Clarence Birdseye, US inventor of a process for deep-freezing foodstuffs, was born in New York City.

5/12/1886, Sunday (-21,338) Petrus Hofstede, Dutch religious writer, died (born 8/10/1802).

1/12/1886, Wednesday (-21,342) Jack Crawford,cricketer, was born (died 2/5/1963).

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11/1886,

25/11/1886, Thursday (-21,348) Percy Holmes, cricketer, was born (died 3/9/1971).

21/11/1886, Sunday (-21,352) (USA) Charles Adams, US diplomat (born 18/8/1807 in Boston) died in Boston.

18/11/1886, Thursday (-21,355) Chester Alun Arthur, American Republican and 21st President from 1881 to 1885, died in New York City.

11/11/1886, Thursday (-21,362) (Medical) Paul Bert, French physiologist, died in Hanoi (born in Auxerre 17/10/1833).

8/11/1886, Monday (-21,365) Frederick Archer, horseracing jockey, died.

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10/1886, Slavery abolished in Cuba. Statue of Liberty unveiled. Religious teaching curbed in France.

30/10/1886, Saturday (-21,374) Only lay persons were now allowed to teach in France; specifically religious teaching was abolished.

28/10/1886, Thursday (-21,376) The Statue of Liberty in New York was unveiled by President Grover Cleveland.It was presented by France to mark the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, and designed by the French sculptor Auguste Bartholdi; it took more than nine years to complete.

24/10/1886, Sunday (-21,380) Friedrich Beust, Austrian statesman, died near Vienna (born in Dresden 13/1/1809).

16/10/1886, Saturday (-21,388) David Ben Gurion, the first Prime Minister of Israeli in 1948, was born in Plonsk, Poland, as David Green.He changed his name to Ben Gurion because of its Biblical connotations.

10/10/1886, Sunday (-21,394) The dinner jacket made its first appearance in public when it was worn by its creator at a ball in the Tuxedo Park Country Club, New York.Hence it was later known as the Tuxedo.

7/10/1886, Thursday (-21,397) Spain abolished slavery in Cuba.

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9/1886, Severn Tunnel railway opened. Geronimo surrendered to US Army.

26/9/1886, Sunday (-21,408) Clement Ingleby, English writer on Shakespeare, died (born 29/10/1823).

20/9/1886, Monday (-21,414) The city of Johannesburg was founded.

17/9/1886, Friday (-21,417) Asher Durand, US painter, died (born 21/8/1796).

16/9/1886, Thursday (-21,418) Louis Decazes, French politician, died (born 1819).

11/9/1886, Saturday (-21,423) (Africa) Edward Flegel, German explorer of Africa, died (born 1/10/1855)

8/9/1886, Wednesday (-21,426) Thousands flocked to Witwatersrand, South Africa, as public gold digging was permitted.

4/9/1886, Saturday (-21,430) Apache chief Geronimo surrendered to General Nelson Miles of the US army. He was born in what is now New Mexico in 1829.After returning home to find his wife and three children murdered by Spanish troops from Mexico he terrorized European settlements. He was the leader of the last American Indian force to surrender, and had outwitted the US army with its superior numbers for 10 years. His ten years of guerrilla action was intended to deter white settlers from New Mexico and Arizona. He died a prisoner in 1909, unable to return to his homeland, and was buried in the Apache cemetery at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

1/9/1886, Wednesday (-21,433) In Britain the railway tunnel under the Severn Estuary, 7 km long, opened to regular train services. It was then the world�s longest underwater tunnel. The railway from Crymmych Arms to Cardigan opened.

9/1886, Severn Tunnel railway opened. Geronimo surrendered to US Army.

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8/1886,

31/8/1886, Tuesday (-21,434) (Earthquake, USA) Earthquake hit Charleston, USA. .27 were killed and 90% of the city�s buildings were damaged, with US$5 million incurred. However the city soon recovered.

27/8/1886, Friday (-21,438) Randolph Lycett, tennis champion, was born (died 9/2/1935).

22/8/1886, Sunday (-21,443) Amos Lawrence, US philanthropist, died (born 31/7/1814).

10/8/1886, Tuesday (-21,455) (Biology) George Busk, zoologist, died (born 12/8/1807)

9/8/1886, Monday (-21,456) Sir Samuel Ferguson, Irish poet, died (born 10/3/1810).

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7/1886, First petrol car. Burmese British protectorate recognised by China. Liszt, composer, died.

31/7/1886, Saturday (-21,465) Franz Liszt, Hungarian composer, died aged 74, in Bayreuth, Bavaria.

26/7/1886, Monday (-21,470) William Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury following defeat of the Irish Home Rule Bill.

24/7/1886, Saturday (-21,472) After a third Anglo-Burmese War, China recognised Burma as a British Protectorate.

23/7/1886, Friday (-21,473) Birth of Sir Arthur Brown, future co-pilot in the first ever trans-Atlantic flight

21/7/1886, Wednesday (-21,475) Maximillian Duncker, German historical writer, died (born 15/10/1811).

10/7/1886, Saturday (-21,486) Henry Brown, US sculptor, died (born 24/2/1814).

6/7/1886, Tuesday (-21,490) Box numbers were used in advertisements for the first time, by the Daily Telegraph.

3/7/1886, Saturday (-21,493) The first successful petrol powered car made its first public run at Mannheim, Germany. Designed by Karl Benz, it travelled half a mile at 9mph.

1/7/1886, Thursday (-21,495) (Geology) Otto Abich, German mineralogist (born 11/12/1806) died in Vienna.

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6/1886, Fluorine first isolated, First trans-Canada train.

30/6/1886, Wednesday (-21,496) Queen Victoria opened the buildings of the Royal Holloway College, Egham, Surrey.

29/6/1886, Tuesday (-21,497) Robert Schuman, French politician and Prime Minister, was born in Luxembourg.

28/6/1886, Monday (-21,498) (Railways) The first through train for the Pacific left Montreal.

26/6/1886, Saturday (-21,500) (Chemistry) Elemental fluorine was first isolated by Ferdinand Frederic Henri Moissan. He was born on 28/9/1852 in Paris, and died aged 54, probably poisoned by fluorine. Moissan received the Nobel Prize for this feat in 1906.

21/6/1886, Monday (-21,505) Daniel Home, Scottish spiritualist writer, died (born 20/3/1833).

19/6/1886, Saturday (-21,507) (Turkey) Pasha Hobart, naval commander for Britain and Turkey, died (born 1/4/1822).

13/6/1886, Sunday (-21,513) (Germany) Ludwig II, King of Bavaria, drowned, probably suicide

7/6/1886, Monday (-21,519) Richard Hoe, inventor of an improved printing press, died (born 12/9/1812).

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5/1886, USA strikes for 8-hour day. Riots in Chicago.

28/5/1886, Friday (-21,529) (USA) John Bartlett, US historian, died in Providence (born in Providence, Rhode Island 23/10/1805).

17/5/1886, Monday (-21,540) Thomas Farnborough, English historical writer, died (born 8/2/1815).

15/5/1886, Saturday (-21,542) Emily Dickinson, US poet, died in Amherst, Massachusetts.

4/5/1886, Tuesday (-21,553) The Haymarket Square Riot in Chicago. A bomb exploded at a trade union rally, killing 7 policemen and injuring 70 other people. Four people were executed by the State of Illinois, and the incident greatly eroded public support for the trades union movement.

1/5/1886, Saturday (-21,556) Over 100,000 workers across the USA went on strike for an 8 hour day. A bomb thrown by Anarchists in Chicago on 4/5/1886 killed 7 police and strikers and injured 60 more. The perpetrator was never found but a judge ruled that seven who had incited the event were as guilty and sentenced them to death. One committed suicide, four were executed, and two had their sentences commuted.

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4/1886,

30/4/1886, Friday (-21,557) Agostino Bertani, Italian revolutionary, died (born in Milan 19/10/1812).

25/4/1886, Sunday (-21,562) Easter Sunday

13/4/1886, Tuesday (-21,574) Anna Bosboom-Toussaint, Dutch novelist, died in The Hague (born in Alkmaar 16/9/1812)

12/4/1886, Monday (-21,575) (Technology) Thaddeus Fairbanks, inventor, died (born 17/1/1796)

6/4/1886, Tuesday (-21,581) William Forster, British statesman, died (born 11/7/1818).

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3/1886, Coca-Cola launched. First Crufts dog show.

29/3/1886, Monday (-21,589) Coca-Cola, invented by Dr John S Pemberton of Atlanta, Georgia, was launched as an �esteemed brain tonic and intellectual beverage�. Claimed to cure almost anything from hysteria to the common cold, the beverage faced competition from drinks such as Imperial Inca Cola.

27/3/1886, Saturday (-21,591) Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, architect, was born in Aachen, Germany.

20/3/1886, Saturday (-21,598) (Biology) Thomas Cobbold, helminthologist, died (born 1828).

13/3/1886, Saturday (-21,605) Austin Flint, heart research pioneer, died (born 20/10/1812)

10/3/1886, Wednesday (-21,608) The first Cruft�s dog show in London took place; the first ever Cruft�s was in 1859 in Newcastle on Tyne.

5/3/1886, Friday (-21,613) Paul Radmilovic, swimming champion, was born (died 29/9/1968).

2/3/1886, Tuesday (-21,616) John Forster, British surgeon, died (born 1823).

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2/1886, Gold discovered in Transvaal. Unemployed protested in London.

22/2/1886, Monday (-21,624) The Times became the first newspaper to have a �personal� column on its classified page.

18/2/1886, Thursday (-21,628) Cecil Parker, cricketer, was born (died 15/6/1943)

16/2/1886, Tuesday (-21,630) Andrew Ducat cricketer, was born (died 23/7/1942).

15/2/1886, Monday (-21,631) (Britain) Edward Cardwell, English politician, died (born 24/7/1813).

12/2/1886, Friday (-21,634) Randolph Caldecott, English artist, died (born 22/3/1846).

10/2/1886, Wednesday (-21,636) Henry Bradshaw, scholarly writer, died (born in London 2/2/1831)

8/2/1886, Monday (-21,638) Unemployed people protested in London�s Trafalgar Square; there was looting and rioting in Pall Mall and Oxford Street.

6/2/1886. Saturday (-21,640) An English carpenter, George Walker, discovered gold in the Transvaal, South Africa. Whilst digging the foundations for a cottage for a gold prospector, his shovel uncovered a seam of gold; specks of the metal had been found in rivers for the past 30 years but geologists now believed the Witwatersrand Ridge, in the Boer Republic, contained large gold fields. Boers feared a large influx of foreigners.

1/2/1886, Monday (-21,645) William Gladstone resumed office as Prime Minister.

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1/1886, Mersey rail tunnel opened. First practical petrol car built. British seized upper Burma.

29/1/1886. Friday (-21,648) Karl Benz patented the first practical car with a petrol-driven internal combustion engine. It had three rubber tyres and went at 9.3 mph.

28/1/1886, Thursday (-21,649) The Marquess of Salisbury left office as Prime Minister.

25/1/1886, Monday (-21,652) William Smith, billiards champion, was born (died 2/6/1982).

23/1/1886, Saturday (-21,654) Jean Bressant, French actor, died (born 23/10/1815).

20/1/1886, Wednesday (-21,657) The Mersey rail tunnel was formally opened by the Prince of Wales, at James Street station. Begun in 1881, it is 1,100 metres long.

16/1/1886, Saturday (-21,661) Frederic Falloux, French politician died (born 11/5/1811). He organised the Loi Falloux (Education-Schools, France, 15/3/1850).

9/1/1886, Saturday (-21,668) James Ferguson, Scottish architectural writer, died (born 22/1/1808).

3/1/1886, Sunday (-21,674) (Britain) Sheldon Amos, English jurist, died in Alexandria, Egypt (born 1835).

1/1/1886, Friday (-21,676) The British seized Upper Burma.

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12/1885, Polish Socialists were executed or exiled to Siberia.

27/12/1885, Sunday (-21,681) Samuel Birch, Egyptologist, died (born in Woolwich, London 3/11/1813).

24/12/1885, Wednesday (-21,684) Louis Gachard, Belgian writer, died (born 12/3/1800).

20/12/1885, Sunday (-21,688) The trial of Proletariat Party members in Poland ended (began 23/11/1885). The trial produced the first socialist martyrs; the Russian Piotr Bardovsky, also Stanislaw Kunicki, Michal Ossowski (shoemaker), and Jan Petrusinski (weaver) were hanged on 28/1/1886. Warysnki was also found guilty, and died in the Schlusselberg fortress in St Petersburg in 1889. Maria Bohuszewicz took over leadership of the Party and was herself condemned to exile; she died on the way to Siberia. Stefan Ulrych became the next leader, and was sentenced to exile in Siberia in 1888. Marcin Kasprzak and Ludwik Kulczycki became the next leaders. The movement laid the foundations of Polish socialism.

15/12/1885, John Howson, English religious writer, died (born 5/5/1816)

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11/1895, The Canadian Pacific Railway was completed. The British entered what is now Myanmar.

28/11/1885, Saturday (-21,710) The British entered Mandalay.

26/11/1885, Thursday (-21,712) (Chemistry) Thomas Andrews, Irish chemist, died (born 19/12/1813 in Belfast).

24/11/1885, Tuesday (-21,714) Alphonso XII of Spain died of tuberculosis, aged 27. He was later succeeded by his posthumous son, Alphonso XIII. Born in 1857, son of the exiled Queen Isabella, he was chosen as monarch to succeed Amadeus of Aosta in 1874. He successfully suppressed the Carlist Rebellion of 1876.

23/11/1885, Monday (-21,715) The (political) trial of Proletariat Party members in Poland began.

22/11/1885, Sunday (-21,716)

20/11/1885, Friday (-21,718) Albert Kesselring, German Air Force Commander, was born in Markstedt.

19/11/1885, Thursday (-21,719) William Benjamin Carpenter, English naturalist, died (born 29/11/1813).

16/11/1885, Monday (-21,722) Louis Riel, leader of the Canadian Metis Rebellion, was hanged by the British.

14/11/1885, Saturday (-21,724) Horace Chaflin, US merchant, died (born 18/12/1811).

11/11/1885, Wednesday (-21,727) George Patton, US military commander in World War Two, was born in San Gabriel, California.

8/11/1885, Sunday (-21,730) John McCullough, US actor, died.

7/11/1885, Saturday (-21,731) The last spikes were driven in at Craigellachie in British Columbia, completing the Canadian Pacific Railway after 4 � years work. The Government of British Columbia had stipulated that they would only join the Canadian federation, rather than the USA, if they were connected by railway to the rest of Canada by 1891. Trains running from Montreal to Port Moody, capital of British Columbia from 1886, took 5 to 6 days.

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10/1895, Britain claimed Botswana as a colony.

29/10/1885, Thursday (-21,740) James Hannington, first Bishop of eastern Africa, died

22/10/1885, Thursday (-21,747) (Britain) James Fraser, English Bishop, died (born 18/8/1818). He did much to secure the provision of churches for the rapidly-growing population of Manchester, exceeding even the efforts of his predecessor, James Lee, who had consecrated 130 Manchester churches.

14/10/1885, Wednesday (-21,755) (Geology) Thomas Davidson, British palaeontologist, died (born 17/5/1817).

10/10/1885, Saturday (-21,759) (Christian) John McCloskey, US Cardinal, died (born 20/3/1810).

8/10/1885, Thursday (-21,761) Britain claimed the Bechuanaland Protectorate (now Botswana).

7/10/1885, Wednesday (-21,762) (Atomic) Niels Henrik Bohr was born in Copenhagen. In 1911 he first attempted to link Planck�s constant to atomic structure.

4/10/1885, Sunday (-21,765)

1/10/1885, Thursday (-21,768) Lord Shaftesbury, reformer who made it illegal for children t