Chronography of events from 1 January 1860 to 31 December 1879

Page last modified 30/12/2021

 

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

 

For dates from 1/1/1880 click here

 

4/1/1880, Sunday (-23,865) Marthe Montalivet, French statesman, died (born 25/4/1801).

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31/12/1879, Wednesday (-23,869) The USA now possessed 154 co-educational colleges, up from 24 in 1866.

30/12/1879, Tuesday (-23,870) Sri Ramana Maharshi, Hindu Yogi, was born.

29/12/1879, Monday (-23,871)

28/12/1879. Sunday (-23,872) The Tay railway bridge collapsed whilst the 7.15 Edinburgh to Dundee train was crossing it. The train plummeted into the icy river below, killing 90 people.The bridge, between Fife and Angus, was designed by Thomas Bouch.

27/12/1879, Saturday (-23,873) Sydney Greenstreet, actor, was born.

26/12/1879, Friday (-23,874) William Dixon, English author, died (born 30/6/1821).

23/12/1879, Tuesday (-23,877) An unprecedented traffic jam occurred in New York. Horse drawn carts and coaches created a jam that lasted 5 hours.

21/12/1879, Sunday (-23,879) (Russia) Joseph Stalin was born in Gori, Georgia, as Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, son of a shoemaker.

20/12/1879, Saturday (-23,880) Thomas Edison privately demonstrated his �incandescent light� at Menlo Park, New Jersey.

19/12/1879, Friday (-23,881)

18/12/1879, Thursday (-23,882) Paul Klee, artist, was born.

17/12/1879, Wednesday (-23,883) Chilean troops took Lima, Peru.

16/12/1879, Tuesday (-23,884) (South Africa) The Transvaal Republic was founded.

15/12/1879, Monday (-23,885)

13/12/1879, Saturday (-23,887) Edgar Baerlin, tennis player, was born (died 3/6/1971).

12/12/1879, Friday (-23,888) Alfred Shrub, athlete (runner), was born (died 23/4/1964).

5/12/1879, Friday (-23,895) (Aviation) Clyde Cessna, American aircraft manufacturer, was born in Hawthorne, Iowa.

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28/11/1879, Friday (-23,902) Michel Chevalier, French writer in economics, died (born 13/1/1806)

22/11/1879, Saturday (-23,908) John Delane, editor of The Times, London, died (born 11/10/1817).

8/11/1879, Saturday (-23,922) Margaret Eaton, acquaintance of US President Jackson, died (born 1796).

6/11/1879, Thursday (-23,924) (Canada) The first Canadian Thanksgiving Day was observed. It is now generally held on a Monday in October.

5/11/1879, Wednesday (-23,925) (Mathematics) James Clerk Maxwell, Scottish mathematician and physicist, died in Cambridge, England.

4/11/1879. Tuesday (-23,926) James R Ritty of Dayton, Ohio patented the first cash register. Pilfering by bartenders from Ritty�s saloon so undermined his health that he went on a sea voyage to Europe to recover. On board the ship, Ritty saw a machine that recorded the number of revolutions made by the ship�s propellers, which gave him the initial idea. In 1884 he formed the National Cash Register Company.

3/11/1879, Monday (-23,927) The Arctic explorer, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, was born.

2/11/1879, Sunday (-23,928)

1/11/1879, Saturday (-23,929) Zachariah Chandler, US politician, died (born 10/12/1813)

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31/10/1879, Friday (-23,930) (Arts) Jacob Abbott, US writer of books for children, died in Farmington, Maine.

29/10/1879, Wednesday (-23,932) Franz von Papen, German politician and ambassador, was born in Werl, Westphalia.

27/10/1879, Monday (-23,934) The Liverpool Echo printed its first copy.

26/10/1879, Sunday (-23,935) Leon Trotsky was born in Yanovka, Ukraine, as Lev Davidovich Bronstein.

24/10/1879, Friday (-23,937)

21/10/1879. Tuesday (-23,940) Thomas Edison successfully demonstrated the first durable light bulb.

20/10/1879, Monday (-23,941) (Germany) Bernhardt von Bulow, German statesman, died (born 2/8/1815).

19/10/1879, Sunday (-23,942) Afghan Emir Yakub was forced to abdicate. He was replaced by his cousin, Adb-er-Rahman.

16/10/1879, Thursday (-23,945)

13/10/1879, Monday (-23,948) (USA) Henry Carey, US economist, died (born 15/12/1793).

12/10/1879, Sunday (-23,949) British forces captured Kabul.

8/10/1879, Wednesday (-23,953) (Chile) The Peruvian Navy was effectively destroyed in fighting with Chile.

6/10/1879, Monday (-23,955) Battle of Charasiab, Second Afghan War. British defeated the Afghans.

5/10/1879, Sunday (-23,956) (Medical) Francis Peyton Rous was born in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1910 he discovered that some animal cancers were caused by viruses.

4/10/1879, Saturday (-23,957)

3/10/1879, Friday (-23,958) Thomas Nicolson, athlete (hammer throwing), was born (died 18/4/1951).

2/10/1879, Thursday (-23,959) The US poet Wallace Stevens was born in Reading, Pennsylvania.

1/10/1879. Wednesday (-23,960) An Austro-German alliance was signed.

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28/9/1879, Sunday (-23,063) Karl Mohr, German chemistry writer, died (born 4/11/1806).

26/9/1879, Friday (-23,965) Robert Crompton, footballer, was born (died 15/3/1941).

18/9/1879, Thursday (-23,973) Blackpool�s first annual illuminations were switched on.
17/9/1879, Wednesday (-23,974) The International Potato Exhibition opened at Crystal Palace; thousands flocked to it.

14/9/1879, Sunday (-23,977) Bernhard Cotta, German geologist, died (born 24/10/1808).

6/9/1879, Saturday (-23,985) The first British telephone exchange opened, in Lombard Street, London.

5/9/1879, Friday (-23,986) Gottlieb Harless, German religious writer, died (born 21/11/1806).

3/9/1879, Wednesday (-23,988) Afghan rebellion against the British. British envoy Sir Pierre Louis Cavagnari was assassinated.

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30/8/1879, Saturday (-23,992) John Hood, US soldier, died (born 1831)

27/8/1879, Wednesday (-23,995) Sir Rowland Hill, pioneer of the postal service, died.He devised the Penny Post in 1840.

10/8/1879, Sunday (-24,012) George Long, English scholarly writer, died (born 4/11/1800).

8/8/1879, Friday (-24,014) Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary, was born.

6/8/1879, Wednesday (-24,016) Johann von Lamont, German astronomer, died (born 13/12/1805).

5/8/1879, Tuesday (-24,017) Charles Fechter, actor, died (born 23/10/1824)

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31/7/1879, Thursday (-24,022) (Aviation) Richard Cowen and Charles Page made the first balloon flight in Canada.

28/7/1879, Monday (-24,025) King Cetywayo of the Zulus was captured by the British.He was brought to London in August 1882, where Gladstone decided upon his restoration, but only to a part of his old Kingdom.See 29/1/1883.

9/7/1879, Wednesday (-24,044) Ottorino Respighi, composer, was born.

7/7/1879, Monday (-24,046) George Caleb Bingham, painter, died in Kansas City, USA, aged 68

6/7/1879, Sunday (-24,047) Henry Smart, English organist, died (born 26/10/1813).

5/7/1879, Saturday (-24,048) Dwight F Davis, US Secretary for War 1925-29, who donated the Davis Cup for tennis, was born in St Louis, Missouri.

4/7/1879, Friday (-24,049) The British routed the Zulus at Ulundi, see 11/1/1879 and 28/8/2879.

1/7/1879, Tuesday (-24,052)

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27/6/1879, Friday (-24,056) John Lawrence, colonial Governor-General of India, died (born 24/3/1811).

26/6/1879, Thursday (-24,057) (USA) Henry Richard Anderson, US soldier, died in Beaufort, South Carolina (born 7/10/1821 in South Carolina)

25/6/1879, Wednesday (-24,058) Ismail, Khedive of Egypt, was deposed by the Ottoman Sultan under pressure from European powers. He was replaced by his son, Tewfik.

13/6/1879, Friday (-24,070) George Gunn, cricketer, was born (died 29/6/1958).

11/6/1879, Wednesday (-24,072) Max Schrek, actor, died

8/6/1879, Sunday (-24,075) Ethel Larcombe, tennis champion, was born (died 10/8/1965).

3/6/1879, Tuesday (-24,080) Frances Havergal, English hymn-writer, died (born 14/12/1836).

2/6/1879, Monday (-24,081) Louis, Prince Imperial of France and prospective Napoleon IV, was killed by a Zulu assegai. The French suspected British connivance.

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30/5/1879, Friday (-24,084) Colin Blythe, cricketer, was born (died 8/11/1917).

25/5/1879, Sunday (-24,089) Newspaper tycoon Lord Beaverbrook was born in Maple, Ontario, Canada as William Maxwell Aitken.

24/5/1879, Saturday (-24,090) William Lloyd Harrison, American campaigner for abolition of slavery and for women�s suffrage, died in New York.

19/5/1879, Monday (-24,095) Lady Astor, first woman to sit in the House of Lords, was born.

11/5/1879, Sunday (-24,103) (Christian) Samuel Gobat, Bishop of Jerusalem, died (born 26/1/1799)

7/5/1879, Wednesday (-24,107) Charles de Coster, Belgian writer, died (20/8/1827).

5/5/1879, Monday (-24,109) (Ireland) Isaac Butt, Irish Nationalist leader, died (born 1813).

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29/4/1879. Tuesday (-24,115) Sir Thomas Beecham, English conductor, was born.

23/4/1879. Wednesday (-24,121) First Royal Shakespeare Theatre opened in Stratford on Avon (replaced by a new one on 23/4/1932).

21/4/1879, Monday (-24,123) John Dix, US politician, died (born 24/7/1798).

13/4/1879, Sunday (-24,131) Easter Sunday

6/4/1879, Sunday (-24,138) John Dalgairns, English religious writer, died (born 21/10/1818).

5/4/1879, Saturday (-24,139) Chile formally declared war on Bolivia and Peru.

1/4/1879, Tuesday (-24,143)

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26/3/1879, Wednesday (-24,149) The Land League was founded by Michael Davitt and Parnell, and campaigned for fair rents for tenants, for secure tenure for tenants, and the right for the tenant to sell on their tenure.

25/3/1879, Tuesday (-24,150) Leicestershire County Cricket Club was formed in Leicester.

23/3/1879, Sunday (-24,152) Conflict between Chile and Bolivia, Peru. Bolivia had seized the assets of the Chilean Nitrate Company at Antofagusta, then in the Bolivian province of Atacama.On this day Chilean militia marched into Bolivian territory.Bolivia had declared war on 1/3/1879 but Peru did not declare war until 5/4/1879; this delay enabled Chile to occupy all Bolivia�s ports, and from there to attack Peru.

20/3/1879, Thursday (-24,155) Johann Huber, writer, died (born 18/8/1830)

14/3/1879. Friday (-24,161) Albert Einstein, physicist and mathematician, was born in Ulm, Bavaria, to Jewish parents.

9/3/1879, Sunday (-24,166) (USA) Elihu Burritt, US philanthropist, died (born 8/12/1810)

8/3/1879, Saturday (-24,167) Birth of Otto Hahn, discoverer of nuclear fission, who received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944.

5/3/1879, Wednesday (-24,170) Lord Beveridge, political economist, was born.

3/3/1879, Monday (-24,172) William Clifford, English mathematician, died (born 4/5/1845).

2/3/1879, Sunday (-24,173) Jules Bastide, French writer, died (born in Paris 2/11/1800).

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27/2/1879. Thursday (-24,176) Chemists Constantin Fahlberg and Professor Ira Pemson in Baltimore reported the discovery of saccharin, at John Hopkins University, Baltimore.

23/2/1879, Sunday (-24,180) Albrecht Roon, Prussian Field-Marshall, died (born 30/4/1803).

22/2/1879, Saturday (-24,181) F W Woolworth opened the first Woolworth 5 and 10 cent variety store in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. An earlier Woolworths 5 cent store in Utica, New York, had failed.

14/2/1879. Friday (-24,189) The Chilean army under Colonel Emilio Sotomayor Baeza occupied the Bolivian Pacific port of Antofagasta, and on 1/3/1879 Bolivia declared war against Chile. Chile also occupied part of the Peruvian Pacific coast. On 11/12/1883 a peace treaty between Chile and Bolivia was signed whereby Bolivia agreed to the occupation of its seacoast by Chile.

12/2/1879, Wednesday (-24,191) The first artificial ice rink in North America opened, at Madison Square Gardens, New York City.

11/2/1879, Tuesday (-24,192) Honore Daumier, painter, died in Valmondois aged 70.

10/2/1879, Monday (-24,193) Paul Gervais, French palaeontological writer, died (born 26/9/1816).

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30/1/1879, Thursday (-24,204) Adelardo Lopez de Ayala, Spanish writer, died (born in Guadacanal 1/5/1828).

28/1/1879. Tuesday (-24,206) Hermon MacNeil, Irish religious writer, died.

 

 

 

26/1/1879, Sunday (-24,208) Charles Smith, water polo champion, was born (died 6/4/1951).

24/1/1879, Friday (-24,210) (Technology) Heinrich Geissler, physicist, died (born 26/5/1814)

22/1/1879, Wednesday (-24,212) (South Africa) Battle of Rorke�s Drift, where a few British soldiers fought off a large Zulu army. Eleven VCs were awarded for this action.

21/1/1879, Tuesday (-24,313) George Hillard, US author, died (born 22/9/1808).

18/1/1879. Saturday (-24,216) (1) The first issue of Boys Own was published by O S Beaton, husband of the famous cook book writer. Published until 1967, the journal was backed by the Religious Tract Society.

(2) (Football) The first England v Wales football international was played at The Oval, Kennington, London.England won 2 � 1.

11/1/1879. Saturday (-24,223) (South Africa) The British-Zulu war began.Lord Chelmsford entered Zululand, with 13,000 troops.The British accused the Zulu King, Cetywayo, of fomenting revolt against the Boers and British.The British, in December 1878, demanded reparations from Cetywayo, whilst awarding him the territory he claimed from the Boers.See 4/7/1879.

9/1/1879, Thursday (-24,225) Alessandro Gavazzi, Italian religious writer, died (born 21/3/1809).

8/1/1879, Wednesday (-24,226) Baldomero Espartero, Spanish soldier, died (born 27/2/1792).

5/1/1879, Sunday (-24,229)

3/1/1879, Friday (-24,231) Sofia was designated the capital of Bulgaria.

2/1/1879, Thursday (-24,232) Caleb Cushing, US statesman, died at Newburyport, |Massachusetts.

1/1/1879, Wednesday (-24,233) E M Forster, English novelist, was born.

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28/12/1878, Saturday (-24,237) Pope Leo XIII issued an encyclical, Quod apolostici muneris, condemning the rise of socialism, communism, the nihilists and anarchists.

18/12/1878, Wednesday (-24,247) Joseph Wilson Swan, 50, demonstrated an electric light bulb in Newcastle on Tyne, England. However it did not achieve true incandescence.

16/12/1878, Monday (-24,249) Karl Gutzkow, German novelist, died (born 17/3/1811).

14/12/1878, Saturday (-24,251) (Britain) Mary Alice Maud, 3rd child of Queen Victoria, died (born 25/4/1843 in Buckingham Palace).

10/12/1878, Tuesday (-24,255) Henry Wells, partner of William Fargo, died.

3/12/1878, Tuesday (-24,262) Sir Arthur Cecil Tyrrell Beck, British Liberal Party politician, was born (died 22/3/1932).

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29/11/1878, Friday (-24,266) Rob Derbyshire, champion swimmer, was born (died 30/7/1938).

28/11/1878, Thursday (-24,267) George Lewes, British philosophical writer, died.

21/11/1878, Thursday (-24,274) The British Army advanced into Afghanistan from India.

19/11/1878, Tuesday (-24,276) Theresa Essler, wife of Prince Adalbert of Prussia, died (widowed 1873).

17/11/1878, Sunday (-24,278) Karl Keim, German religious writer, died (born 17/12/1825).

6/11/1878, Wednesday (-24,289) William Clark, writer on Shakespeare, died (born 3/1821).

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31/10/1878, Thursday (-24,295) Louis Garnier-Pages, French politician, died (born 1803).

29/10/1873, Tuesday (-24,297) John, King of Saxony, died (born 12/12/1801). King Albert of Saxony succeeded his father to the throne. He was born on 23/4/1828, and died on 10/6/1902.

24/10/1878, Thursday (-24,302) (Ireland) Paul Cullen, Archbishop of Dublin, died (born 1803).

22/10/1878, Tuesday (-24,304) The first rugby match to be played under floodlights was held at Broughton, Lancashire; they played Swinton.

19/10/1878, Saturday (-24,307) Bismarck passed an anti-Socialist law, placing many restraints on socialist meetings and banning trade union activities.

18/10/1878, Friday (-24,308) David Laing, Scottish writer, died (born 20/4/1793).

16/10/1878, Wednesday (-24,310)

15/10/1878, Tuesday (-24,311) (Electricity) The Edison Electric Light Company was founded.

14/10/1878, Monday (-24,312) (Football) The first football match played under floodlights took place at Bramall Lane, Sheffield.

11/10/1878, Friday (-24,315) Felix Dupanloup, French religious writer, died (born 3/1/1802).

9/10/1878, Wednesday (-24,317) Joseph Kay, economics writer, died (born 27/2/1821).

5/10/1878, Saturday (-24,321) Frederic Chelmsford, Lord Chancellor of England, died (born 15/4/1794).

4/10/1878, Friday (-24,322) The first Chinese Embassy in the USA opened, in Washington DC.

2/10/1878, Wednesday (-24,324) The City of Glasgow Bank crashed, with net debts of �6,213,313, 17s. By comparison a cook in a Scottish country mansion might earn �14 a year, a cheap (steerage) passage on a liner from Glasgow to New York cost �6 6s, and a bottle of vintage champagne cost 5s. The crash wiped out over 10% of Scotland�s banking capital.

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28/9/1878, Saturday (-24,328) (Railways, Britain) George Bidder, English railway engineering expert, died in Dartmouth (born in Moreton Hampstead, Devon 14/6/1806).

22/9/1878, Sunday (-24,334) (Cartography) Sir Richard Griffith, who prepared several geological maps of Ireland (1st, 1815), died (born 20/9/1784).

21/9/1878, Saturday (-24,335) (Geology) Thomas Belt, English geologist, died in Denver, USA (born in Newcastle on Tyne 1832).

14/9/1878, Saturday (-24,342)

12/9/1878, Thursday (-24,344) Cleopatra�s Needle, an ancient red granite Egyptian obelisk 68.5 feet high, originally made for Thothmes III in 1460 BC, was presented to Britain and re-erected on the Thames Embankment.

3/9/1878, Tuesday (-24,353) Dorothea Douglass, tennis champion, was born (died 7/1/1960).

1/9/1878, Sunday (-24,355) Emma Nutt became the first woman to work as a telephone operator, on the exchange at Boston, Massachusetts.

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13/8/1878, Tuesday (-24,374) George Gilfillan, Scottish author, died (born 30/1/1813).

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31/7/1878, Wednesday (-24,387) (Cricket) Northamptonshire cricket club was founded.

23/7/1878, Tuesday (-24,395) The British Army flew its first balloon at Woolwich, London. It cost �71 to build, out of an allocated �150; the first British Government military aviation budget.

22/7/1878, Monday (-24,396) The UK Parliament prohibited medically untrained people from calling themselves �dentists�.

19/7/1878, Friday (-24,399) Charles Hodge, US religious writer, died (born 28/12/1797)

17/7/1878, Wednesday (-24,401) (Arts) Aleardo Aleardi, Italian poet, died.

13/7/1878, Saturday (-24,405) At the Congress of Berlin, (Treaty of Berlin) Britain, Russia, Austria, Germany, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire reached agreement on the future of the Balkan states, superseding the Treaty of San Stefano.Northern Dobruja, formerly part of Bulgaria under Turkish rule, was given to Romania.At the same time, Romania ceded Bessarabia to Russia.Bessarabia was more desirable than Dobruja, and Romania wanted Transylvania, which belonged to Hungary but had a mainly Romanian population. The independence of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro were recognised by Turkey; Bulgaria was also divided into two parts, one of which, Eastern Rumelia, was to be a self-governing Turkish Province.In 1885 an uprising in Eastern Rumelia resulted in the union of that province with Bulgaria. Russian naval expansion was limited, Austro-Hungary was allowed to occupy Bosnia-Hercegovina, the location of Sarajevo.

12/7/1878, Friday (-24,406) Turkey ceded Cyprus to British administration.

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22/6/1878, Saturday (-24,426) At Shumen the Turks capitulated to the Russians; the town of Shumen was ceded by Turkey to Bulgaria.It was renamed Kolarovgrad in 1950.

17/6/1878, Monday (-24,431) William Clarke, British geologist, died (born 2/6/1798).

15/6/1878, Saturday (-24,433) Sir Thomas Hardy, British historical writer, died (born 22/6/1804).

12/6/1878, Wednesday (-24,436) (USA) Benjamin Bonneville, US military engineer and explorer, died in Foret Smith, Arkansas. An extinct glacial lake which once covered NW Utah is named in his honour.

9/6/1878, Sunday (-24,439) Karl Lehrs, German scholarly writer, died (born 2/6/1802).

8/6/1878, Saturday (-24,440) Charles Matthews, English actor, died (born 26/12/1803).

6/6/1878, Thursday (-24,442)

5/6/1878, Wednesday (-24,443) Pancho Villa, Mexican revolutionary, was born.

4/6/1878, Tuesday (-24,444) Britain and Turkey signed a secret agreement by which Britain was allowed to occupy Cyprus in return for protecting Turkey against Russian advances in Anatolia.

1/6/1878, Saturday (-24,447) By French law, all communes now had to purchase their school buildings; the French State set aside �2.4 million for this purpose.

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25/5/1878, Saturday (-24,454) Bill �Bojangles� Robinson, tap dancer, was born

14/5/1878, Tuesday (-24,465) (Medical) Vaseline, a trademarked form of petroleum jelly, was first sold.

13/5/1878, Monday (-24,466) Joseph Henry, electrical scientist, died (born 17/12/1797).

12/5/1878, Sunday (-24,467) Catherine Esther, US writer and educationalist, died in Elmira, New York (born in East Hampton, Long Island 6/9/1800).

8/5/1878, Wednesday (-24,471) Robert Aitken, US sculptor (died 3/1/1949) was born.

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24/4/1878, Wednesday (-24,485) Heinrich Leo, German historical writer, died (born 19/3/1799).

21/4/1878, Sunday (-24,488) Easter Sunday

16/4/1878, Tuesday (-24,493) Reginald Foster, cricketer, was born (died 13/5/1914).

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6/3/1878, Wednesday (-24,534) Serbia was formally constituted an independent kingdom.

3/3/1878, Sunday (-24,537) The Treaty of San Stefano ended the war between Russia and Turkey. Bulgaria, Russia�s ally, was enlarged to include much of Thrace and Macedonia, with ports on the Black Sea and Aegean. Britain objected.The arrival of a British fleet on 15/2/1878 as the Russians stood at the gates of Istanbul persuaded the Russians to make peace. Russia and Britain were now on the brink of war.

1/3/1878, Friday (-24,539) (Germany) Johann Baptist Alzog, German theologian, died (born 29/6/1808 in Ohlau, Silesia).

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21/2/1878, Thursday (-24,547) The first telephone directory was issued by the New Haven Telephone Company, USA. It contained 50 subscribers.

20/2/1878, Wednesday (-24,548) Pope Leo XIII (Gioacchino Vincenzo Pecci) was elected, after a third ballot, following the death of Pope Pius IX (see 7/2/1878). Pope Leo XIII then began negotiating with the German government to end the crackdown on the influence of the church in Germany, or Kulturkampf.

19/2/1878, Tuesday (-24,549) Thomas Edison patented the phonograph.

15/2/1878, Friday (-24,553) A British fleet arrived at Istanbul in support of the faltering Ottoman Empire. An earlier decision to send a fleet had been reversed in January 1878.

12/2/1878, Tuesday (-24,556) The first weekly weather report was published by the Met Office.

10/2/1878, Sunday (-24,558) After some years of pro-independency insurgency in Cuba, the Spanish General Arsenio Martinez de Campos (1831-1900) concluded the Treaty of Zanjon this day with the rebels. However Spain reneged on many of the reforms promised in this Treaty, although they did abolish slavery in 1886.

8/2/1878. Friday (-24,560) Britain dispatched a fleet to Constantinople. A Conference concerning the growth of Russian influence in the Balkans and the waning of Turkish power there had broken down without agreement. In the summer of 1877 war broke out between Russia and Turkey. Britain was concerned that if Russia advanced to the Bosphorus, British interests in the Mediterranean would be threatened so she intervened in favour of Turkey.

7/2/1878, Thursday (-24,561) Pope Pius IX died after a reign of over 31 years was succeeded by Pope Leo XIII (Gioacchino Vincenzo Pecci). See 20/2/1878.

6/2/1878, Wednesday (-24,562)

5/2/1878, Tuesday (-24,563) Andre Citroen, French automobile engineer, was born.

4/2/1878, Monday (-24,564) Heinrich Guericke, German religious writer, died (born 25/2/1803).

3/2/1878, Sunday (-24,565)

2/2/1878, Saturday (-24,566) Greece declared war on Turkey.

1/2/1878, Friday (-24,567) George Cruikshank, English artist, died (born 27/2/1792).

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31/1/1878, Thursday (-24,568) Following the capture of Plevna (see 15/1/1877), and also Plovdiv and Adrianople, the Russians closed in on Istanbul. The Ottoman Turks opened truce negotiations at Adrianople.

30/1/1878, Wednesday (-24,569) Reginald Skrimshire, rugby player, was born (died 20/9/1963).

29/1/1878, Tuesday (-24,570)

28/1/1878, Monday (-24,571) America�s first commercial telephone switchboard exchange opened in New Haven, Connecticut.

27/1/1878, Sunday (-24,572) Sir Edward Creasey, British historical writer, died (born 1812).

26/1/1878, Saturday (-24,573) (Medical) Ernst Heinrich, German physiologist, died in Leipzig, Saxony,

25/1/1878, Friday (-24,574) The first torpedo was fired in warfare; a Russian boat sank a Turkish steamer.

24/1/1878, Thursday (-24,575)

23/1/1878, Wednesday (-24,576) (Russia) In Moscow, a trial of nearly 200 revolutionaries ended in acquittals. However the Russian police arrested most of them afterwards and sent them to Siberia anyway.

22/1/1878, Tuesday (-24,577) Milk was delivered in glass bottles for the first time.

21/1/1878, Monday (-24,578)

20/1/1878, Sunday (-24,579) Russian forces attacking Turkey captured Adrianople, threatening Constantinople and the Straits.

19/1/1878, Saturday (-24,580) (Chemistry) Henri Victor Regnault, French chemist, died in Auteuil.

17/1/1878, Thursday (-24,582)

16/1/1878, Wednesday (-24,583) Samuel Bowles, journalist, died in Springfield (born in Springfield, Massachusetts 9/2/1826).

15/1/1878, Tuesday (-24,584) London University awarded degrees to women for the first time.

14/1/1878, Monday (-24,585) Queen Victoria was given a demonstration of Alexander Graham Bell�s new invention, the telephone, at Osborne House.

9/1/1878, Wednesday (-24,590) Victor Emmanuel, who became the first King of Italy in 1863, died of fever in Rome aged 57. He was succeeded by his son Umberto, aged 33, who ruled until his assassination in 1900.

6/1/1878, Sunday (-24,593) The US poet Carl Sandburg was born in Galesburg, Illinois.

5/1/1878, Saturday (-24,594) Alfonso la Marmora, Italian statesman, died (born 18/11/1804).

4/1/1878, Friday (-24,595) Sofia was captured by Russian troops from the Ottoman Empire.

3/1/1878, Wednesday (-24,597)

1/1/1878, Tuesday (-24,598) William Llewellyn, rugby player, was born (died 22/3/1973).

===================================================================================

31/12/1877, Monday (-24,599) Gustave Courbet, French painter, died (born 10/6/1819).

22/12/1877, Saturday (-24,608) Liquid oxygen was made for the first time, in Geneva.

20/12/1877, Thursday (-24,610) Johann Hofmann, German religious writer, died (born 21/12/1810).

17/12/1877, Monday (-24,613) (France) Aurelle de Paladines, French General, died in Versailles (born 9/1/1804 in Malzieu, Lozere).

11/12/1877, Tuesday (-24,619) Englishman Eadward Muybridge, photographer of the American West, used a novel photographic technique to resolve a bet made by the Governor of California, rail magnate Leland Stanford. Stanford believed that all four legs of a racehorse left the ground simultaneously as it galloped. Muybridge proved Stanford right by stringing tripwires across a racecourse and galloping a horse down it, setting off camera shots to obtain a series of still shots. Muybridge then used the novel technique to study dancers and runners in action.

6/12/1877, Thursday (-24,624) Thomas Alva Edison made the first recording of a human voice. He spoke Mary had a little lamb into his phonograph. Edison was working to improve the efficiency of the telegraph transmitter, and noticed that the machine gave off sounds resembling the spoken word when played at high speed. He wondered if he could record a telephone message. He attached the diaphragm of a telephone receiver to a needle, using the needle to prick paper to record a message. He then progressed to using a cylinder wrapped in tinfoil instead of paper, which succeeded in playing back the nursery rhyme he had recorded.

====================================================================================

21/11/1877, Wednesday (-24,639) Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (died 27/1/1919) was born.

18/11/1877, Sunday (-24,642) In the Caucasus, Russia captured the fortress of Kars from Ottoman Turkey.

15/11/1877, Thursday (-24,645) Pierre Lanfrey, French writer, died (born 26/10/1838)

13/11/1877, Tuesday (-24,647) A demonstration by socialist marchers in Trafalgar Square led to violent clashes with mounted police and guardsmen.

12/11/1877, Monday (-24,648) Henry Gray, US painter, died (born 23/6/1819).

9/11/1877, Friday (-24,651) Allama Muhammad Iqbal, poet, was born.

6/11/1877, Tuesday (-24,654)

3/11/1877, Saturday (-24,657) Carlos Ibanez del campo, Chilean statesman, was born.

2/11/1877, Friday (-24,658) Aga Khan III, spiritual leader, was born.

1/11/1877, Thursday (-24,659) Oliver Morton, US politician, died (born 4/8/1823).

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31/10/1877, Wednesday (-24,660)

29/10/1877, Monday (-24,662) Nathan Forrest, US Confederate General, died (born 13/7/1821).

28/10/1877, Sunday (-24,663) Julia Kavanagh, British novelist, died.

16/10/1877, Tuesday (-24,675) Theodore Barriere, playwright, died in Paris (born in Paris 1823)

13/10/1877, Saturday (-24,678) Bernard Bosanquet, cricketer, was born (died 12/10/1936).

10/10/1877, Wednesday (-24,681) (Road Traffic) Motoring pioneer William Morris, 1st Viscount Sheffield, Lord Nuffield, was born in Worcester.

4/10/1877, Thursday (-24,687) (USA) The Amerindian leader of the Nez Pierce tribe, Chief Joseph, surrendered tp the US Army. His people were cold and exhausted after a long march from the tribe�s lands in Oregon after gold was discovered on their lands. Joseph and his people were sent to live on the non Nez Pierce reservation of Colville, eastern Washington, where Joseph died in 1904.

===================================================================================

29/9/1877, Saturday (-24,692) (Railways) Henry Meiggs, who was building the Callao Lima and Oroyo Railway, diedaged 66 after a series of strokes, with the project still unfinished.

25/9/1877, Tuesday (-24,696) (Medical) Carl Reinhold Wunderlich, German physician, died in Leipzig, Saxony.

24/9/1877, Monday (-24,697) (Japan) In Japan, a Samurai rebellion which began in Satsuma in January 1876 was over with the suicide of its leader Saigo Takamori. Saigo resigned from the Japanese government when it decided not to invade Korea, and became leader of some 40,000 disaffected samurai, frustrated at being deprived of a foreign war. More seriously for them, the samurai had been overtaken by the establishment of a modern Japanese army, with firearms and other technology. The Samurai were forbidden to wear their distinctive military dress or carry swords; the Japanese government had assumed responsibility for their stipends and cut them sharply.In effect the Samurai had become low grade civil servants.

23/9/1877, Sunday (-24,698) (Astronomy) Urbain Leverrier, French astronomer, died in Paris.

17/9/1877, Monday (-24,704) William Henry Fox Talbot, English pioneer of photography, died at Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire.

13/9/1877. Thursday (-24,708) (Britain) Manchester Town Hall opened.

12/9/1877, Wednesday (-34,709) Chase National Bank was founded by New York banker John Thompson, then aged 75.

11/9/1877, Tuesday (-24,710) The Third Battle of Plevna.

5/9/1877, Wednesday (-24,716) Crazy Horse, Sioux Chief, one of the leaders at the victory of Little Big Horn in 1876, died

2/9/1877, Sunday (-24,719) Frederick Soddy, chemist, was born.

1/9/1877, Saturday (-24,720)

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29/8/1877. Wednesday (-24,723) The Mormon leader Brigham Young died.

27/8/1877, Monday (-24,725) Charles Stewart Rolls, partner of Rolls Royce, was born in London.

23/8/1877. Thursday (-24,729) Britain passed the Merchandise Act, obliging exporters to indicate the place of manufacture of their goods.

20/8/1877. Monday (-24,732) Arthur Kennedy, the new governor of Queensland, gave assent to a Bill drastically cutting Chinese immigration into Queensland, after the previous governor refused to pass it.

13/8/1877, Monday (-24,739) Birkenhead, near Liverpool, became a borough; John Laird was the first Mayor.

11/8/1877, Saturday (-24,741) (Astronomy) The two small moons of Mars were first seen by US astronomer Asaph Hall.

1/8/1877. Wednesday (-24,751) In Boston, USA, The Bell Telephone Company was formed, headed by Alexander Graham Bell.

=================================================================================

30/7/1877, Monday (-24,753) The second Battle of Plevna.

29/7/1877, Sunday (-24,754) (Marine) William Beebe, marine engineer, was born

28/7/1877, Saturday (-24,755)

27/7/1877, Friday (-24,756) Ernst von Dohnanyi, Hungarian pianist (died New York, 9/2/1960) was born in Pozsony, Hungary.

26/7/1877, Thursday (-24,757) In the USA, 19 people were killed when police and cavalry charged striking railwaymen. There was a national strike by railway workers, angered by a 10% wage cut. They protested that a brakeman earned only US$1.75 for a 12 hour day and that this was the second wage cut in four years. Others were concerned about the import of �Communistic� ideas from abroad.

25/7/1877, Wednesday (-24,758) Robert Fox, English geologist, died (born 26/4/1789).

23/7/1877, Monday (-24,760)

21/7/1877, Saturday (-24,762) (Turkey) The British Cabinet resolved to declare war on Russia if it occupied Constantinople.

20/7/1877, Friday (-24,763) Patrick Leahy, athlete, was born.

16/7/1877, Monday (-24, 767)

13/7/1877, Friday (-24,770) Wilhelm Ketteler, German religious writer, died (born 25/12/1811)

12/7/1877, Thursday (-24,771) Georg Adolf Erman, scientific writer, died (born 12/5/1806).

9/7/1877, Monday (-24,774) (Sport) The first lawn tennis championships were staged at Wimbledon, at the original site at Worple Road.

6/7/1877, Friday (-24,777) Friedrich Hacklander, German novelist, died (born 1/11/1816).

2/7/1877, Monday (-24,781) Hermann Hesse, writer, was born.

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29/6/1877, Friday (-24,784) (Aviation) Italian professor Enrico Forlanini tested a steam-powered helicopter at Alexandria.

24/6/1877, Sunday (-24,789) (Medical) The St John�s Ambulance brigade was formed, as the Ambulance Association, by the Red Cross.

18/6/1877, Monday (-24,795) (Aviation) Samuel Archer King made a 2-hour airmail flight of 26 miles between Nashville and Gallatin in his balloon.

17/6/1877, Sunday (-24,796) Nez Perce indigenous Americans, led by Chief Joseph, succefully resisted US soldiers at White Bird Canyon, where conflict had begun between the Nez Perce and White prospectors seeking gold along the Salmon River. However see 4/10/1877.

16/6/1877, Saturday (-24,797)

15/6/1877, Friday (-24,798) (Race Equality) Henry Ossian Flipper became the first Black American to graduate from the US military Academy. Four years later as a Leiutenant he was court-martialled on embezzlement charges that were later found to be trumped-up.

14/6/1877, Thursday (-24,799) (Education-Schools) Mary Carpenter, English educational reformer, died (born 3/4/1807).

4/6/1877, Monday (-24,809) William Frost, English painter, died (born 9/1810).

1/6/1877, Friday (-24,812) (Britain, Railways) The last railway in Britain to be built on the broad gauge opened, from St Erth to St Ives, Cornwall.

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29/5/1877, Tuesday (-24,815) John Motley, US historical writer, died (born 15/4/1814).

26/5/1877, Saturday (-24,818) Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth, English educational writer, died (born 20/7/804).

24/5/1877, Thursday (-24,820) (Spain) Ramon Cabrera, Spanish General, died (born 27/12/1806).

15/5/1877, Tuesday (-24,829) (Jewish) Jews in Switzerland were granted full citizenship by the Emancipation Law enacted this day.

7/5/1877, Monday (-24,837) Samuel Cousins, English engraver, died (born 9/5/1801).

6/5/1877, Sunday (-24,838) (USA) Chief Crazy Horse and his Sioux Indians gave themselves up to US troops, abandoning claims to Nebraska.

5/5/1877, Saturday (-24,839) (Chemistry) Joseph Bienaime Caventou, French chemist, died in Paris.

3/5/1877, Thursday (-24,841)

1/5/1877, Tuesday (-24,843) (Railways) The first railway in Myanmar opened, Yangon to Prome, 257 km.

====================================================================================

30/4/1877, Monday (-24,844) Alice B Toklas, writer, was born.

24/4/1877, Tuesday (-24,850) After the Turkish Parliament had met on 19/3/1877 and rejected Russian demands, Russia declared war on Turkey.

12/4/1877. Thursday (-24,862) (South Africa) Britain annexed the South African Republic of Transvaal, to the anger of the Boer farmers. The Transvaal treasury was bankrupt following false hopes of gold and a costly war against the Black population. At the Sand River Conference in 1852 Britain had recognised the Transvaal, but now Britain claimed that the republic was unable to defend itself, and that British subjects there were in danger. The Boers offered non-violent resistance, and their leader, Paul Kruger, went to London to present their case.

10/4/1877, Tuesday (-24,864) Andrew Halliday, British writer, died (born 1830).

8/4/1877, Sunday (-24,866) William Muhlenberg, US philanthropist, died (born 16/9/1796).

7/4/1877, Saturday (-24,867) Spanish novelist Cecilia Larrea (Fernan Caballero) died (born 24/12/1796).

3/4/1877, Tuesday (-24,871)

1/4/1877, Sunday (-24,873) Easter Sunday.

===================================================================================

31/3/1877, Saturday (-24,874) Antoine Cournot, French mathematician, died (born 28/8/1801).

28/3/1877, Wednesday (-24,877) Edward Ray, golfing champion, was born (died 26/8/1943).

24/3/1877, Saturday (-24,881) (Sport) The only dead-heat in the history of the Oxford-Cambridge Boat Race took place.

15/3/1877, Thursday (-24,890) (Sport) The first cricket Test Match, in Melbourne between Australia and England, was won by Australia.

13/3/1877, Saturday (-24,895) Charles Clarke, British writer, died (born 15/12/1787)

8/3/1877, Thursday (-24,897) James Bowerbank, scientific author, died in St Leonards (born in Bishopsgate, London 8/9/1811).

6/3/1877, Tuesday (-24,899) Joseph Autran, French poet, died in Marseilles (born 20/6/1813 in Marseilles).

4/3/1877, Sunday (-24,901) Tchaikovsky�s ballet Swan lake was first performed, at the Bolshoi theatre, Moscow.

====================================================================================

25/2/1877, Sunday (-24,908) Bahadur Jung, Prime Minister of Nepal, died aged 61.

24/2/1877, Saturday (-24,909) (Maritime) Avonmouth Docks, Bristol, opened

14/2/1877, Wednesday (-24,919) Nicolas Changarnier, French General, died (born 26/4/1793)

10/2/1877, Saturday (-24,923) Sir William Fergusson, British surgeon, died (born 20/3/1808).

====================================================================================

15/1/1877, Monday (-24,949) Russia and Austria agreed that Austria shall be neutral in any war in the Balkans between Turkey and Russia. The two states rejected the idea of a Slav state in the Balkans. Russia declared war on Turkey on 24/4/1877. Rumania entered the war on the side of Russia in May 1877 and a joint Russian/Rumanian army laid siege to the Bulgarian town of Plevna. The Turks in Plevna surrendered in December 1877. See 31/1/1878.

12/1/1877, Friday (-24,952) Wilhelm Hofmeister, German botanical writer, died (born 18/5/1824).

5/1/1877, Friday (-24,959) (Germany) Hermann Brockhaus, Professor of ancient Semitic at Leipzig, died.

4/1/1877, Thursday (-24,960) Cornelius Vanderbilt, who rose from poor agrarian roots to amass a US$100million fortune in shipping and railways, died aged 83. He had started a ferry service to Staten Island at age 16 and by 30 he controlled almost all the Hudson shipping business, by undercutting his competitors.

===================================================================================

29/12/1876, Friday (-24,966) 83 passengers were killed at Ashtabula, Ohio, as a 13-year-old bridge gave way under a train. A junior engineer had been fired in 1863 when he protested that the bridge, built by the railway�s chief engineer, was not strong enough.

23/12/1876, Saturday (-24,972) Grand Vizier Midhat Pasha, aged 54, proclaimed a new Turkish Constitution, allowing for representative Parliamentary Government, and also stated that the Ottoman Empire was �indivisible�.

22/12/1876, Friday (-24,973) Fielding Meek, US geologist, died.

13/12/1876, Wednesday (-24,982)

5/12/1876, Tuesday (-24,990) David Forbes, British scientific writer, died (born 6/9/1828).

4/12/1876, Monday (-24,991) Hermann Goetz, German composer, died (born 17/12/1840).

====================================================================================

30/11/1876, Thursday (-24,995) George Dawson, English religious writer, died (born 24/2/1821).

28/11/1876, Tuesday (-24,997) (Biology) Karl Baer, embryologist, died in Dorpat (born 29/2/1719 in Piep, Estonia)

24/11/1876, Friday (-245,001) Walter Burley Griffin, architect, was born.

18/11/1876, Saturday (-25,007) Narcisse Diaz, French painter, died (born 25.8/1808).

17/11/1876, Friday (-25,008) Richard Owen(s), rugby player, was born (died 27/2/1932).

10/11/1876, Friday (-25,015) Karl Eichwald, German scientific writer, died (born 4/7/1795).

6/11/1876, Monday (-25,019) (Italy) Giacomo Antonelli, Italian Cardinal, died (born 2/4/1806 in Sonnino).

5/11/1876, Sunday (-25,020) Theodor von Heuglin, German travel writer, died (born 20/3/1824).

====================================================================================

31/10/1876. Tuesday (-25,025) Under pressure from Russia, Turkey agreed to an armistice with Serbia and Montenegro.

29/10/1876, Sunday (-25,027) Wilfred Rhodes, cricketer, was born (died 8/7/1973).

7/10/1876, Saturday (-25,049) The first greyhound race with an artificial hare, the Hendon Cup, was run at the Welsh Harp, Hendon, London.

3/10/1876, Tuesday (-25,053) Johns Hopkins University (see 1877) opened at Baltimore, with a bequest from Baltimore financier Johns Hopkins who died in 1873 aged 78.

====================================================================================

28/9/1876, Thursday (-25,058) Carl Credner, German geologist, died (born 13/3/1809).

27/9/1876, Wednesday (-25,059) Braxton Bragg, US soldier, died in Galveston, Texas (born in North Carolina 22/3/1817).

25/9/1876, Monday (-25,061) Adolf Glasbrenner, German satirical writer, was born (died 25/9/1876).

20/9/1876, Wednesday (-25,066) Sir Titus Salt, born 20/9/1803, died.

19/9/1876, Tuesday (-25,067) Melville R Bissell of Grand Rapids, Michigan patented the Bissell carpet sweeper, the first practical way to sweep carpets of dust. He suffered from headaches caused by his allergy to straw dust which came from the straw packing he used in his china shop. He invented a sweeper with a sprung brush roller that responded to pressure on the handle.

12/9/1876. Tuesday (-25,074) King Leopold of Belgium formed the International African Association to co-ordinate the activities of European explorers in Africa.

7/9/1876, Thursday (-25,079) Bernard Darwin, golfer, was born (died 18/10/1961).

6/9/1876, Wednesday (-25,080) (1) The first railway reached Los Angeles (Southern Pacific Railroad), from San Francisco. The Santa Fe Railroad reached Los Angeles in 1885. For a time the rail fare westwards from Chicago was just 1US$, although considerably more going east. This pricing strategy was adopted to encourage more settlers to move west, so railway income from fruit harvested around Los Angeles would increase.

(2) (Turkey) British public opinion was turned against Turkey by a pamphlet published by Gladstone, �The Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East�. Russia prepared to attack Turkey, see 1877.

3/9/1876, Sunday (-25,083)

1/9/1876, Friday (-25,085) (Turkey) Serbian forces were heavily defeated by Ottoman Turkey at Alexinatz.

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31/8/1876, Thursday (-25,086) Accession of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. Succeeding his brother Abdul Aziz, Abdul Hamid gained prestige at home for defeating Greece in 1897, and followed a pro-German foreign policy.

29/8/1876, Tuesday (-25,088) Felicien David, French composer, died (born 13/4/1810).

27/8/1876, Sunday (-25,090) Eugene Fromentin, French painter, died (born 1820).

17/8/1876. Thursday (-25,100) Wagner�s opera Gotterdammerung premiered at Bayreuth.

14/8/1876, Monday (-25,103) (Yugoslavia) Alexander Obrenovich, King of Serbia, was born.

9/8/1876. Wednesday (-25,108) The Turks invaded Serbia and defeated the Serbs at Aleksinac. On 1/9/1876 the Turks again defeated the Serbs at Akleksinac.

7/8/1876. Monday (-25,110) Dutch spy, Mata Hari (Margarete Gertrude Zelle), who passed secrets to the Germans in World War One, was born in Leeuwarden. The French arrested her in 1917 and she was executed by firing squad.

3/8/1876, Thursday (-25,114) Stanley Baldwin, British Prime Minister in the 1920s and 30s, was born.

2/8/1876, Wednesday (-25,115) Death of Wild Bill Hickok, Marshall of Kansas City, who gunned down many outlaws; he was shot in the back this day.

1/8/1876. Tuesday (-25,116) Colorado became the 38th State of the USA.

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28/7/1876, Friday (-25,120) Mortimer Collins, English writer, died (born 29/6/1827).

25/7/1876, Tuesday (-25,123) Robert Childers, scholarly writer on the Orient, died (born 1838).

24/7/1876, Monday (-25,124) President Lerdo de Tejada re-elected as President of Mexico. However he was expelled in 1/1877 by Porfirio Diaz.
14/7/1876, Friday (-25,134) James Henry, Irish scholarly writer, died (born 13/12/1798).

8/7/1876. Saturday (-25,140) The Austrian and Russian foreign Ministers, Andrassy and Gorchakov, met at the Reichstadt in Bohemia to discuss the future of the Balkans on the conclusion of the current conflict.

2/7/1876, Sunday (-25,146) Wilhelm Cuno, German statesman, was born at Suhl.

1/7/1876, Saturday (-25,147) (1) Montenegro also declared war on Turkey.

(2) (Railways) The railway from Amherst to Riviere du Loup, Canada, opened.

====================================================================================

30/6/1876. Friday (-25,148) Serbia declared war on Ottoman Turkey.

29/6/1876, Thursday (-25,149)

28/6/1876, Wednesday (-25,150) August Wilhelm Ambros, Austrian musician, died in Vienna (born 1816).

27/6/1876, Tuesday (-25,151) Christian Ehrenberg, German naturalist, was born (died 27/6/1876).

25/6/1876, Sunday (-25,153) (USA) Custer�s Last Stand took place at Little Bighorn, Montana. Custer died with all 264 men of his 7th cavalry. The killing was done by Sioux Indians led by Chiefs Crazy Horse and Gall. The Battle was the result of a confused policy by the US government towards the Indians. The Indians, Eastern Sioux, and Northern Cheyennes, had been guaranteed exclusive possession of the Dakota territory west of the Missouri River, but white miners were settling in the Black Hills area searching for gold. The US government refused to move the miners and so conflict became inevitable. The Indians were asked to leave or be considered hostile and in June 1876 US soldiers moved in. However Custer, with his 650 men, was unaware that the Indians had 1,500 warriors close by. After the disaster of Little Bighorn, the US army flooded the area with soldiers, forcing the Indians to surrender.

21/6/1876, Wednesday (-25,157) (Chemistry) Willem Hendrik Keesom, Dutch physicist, was born in Texel, Netherlands. He solidified helium, which can only be achieved at high pressures and low temperatures.

20/6/1876, Tuesday (-25,158) The first commercial telephone service in Canada was started by Hugh Cossart Baker, in Hamilton, Ontario.

13/6/1876, Tuesday (-25,165) (Russia) Mikhail Bakunin, Russian anarchist (born 1814) died in Bern.

8/6/1876, Thursday (-25,170) George Sand, author, died

3/6/1876, Saturday (-25,175) John Eadie, Scottish religious writer, died (born 9/5/1810).

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30/5/1876, Tuesday (-25,179) Abdul Aziz, 32nd Sultan of Ottoman Turkey, born 9/2/1830, was forced to abdicate. Succeeding his brother, Abdul Mejid, in 1861, he promised economic and political reform, but instead wasted money on personal luxuries and grand building projects. Insurrections occurred in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875. He was assassinated on 3/6/1876.

29/5/1876, Monday (-25,180) Friedrich Diaz, German scholarly writer, died (born 15/3/1794).

27/5/1876, Saturday (-25,182) Joseph Bosworth, English historical writer, died (born 1789).

24/5/1876, Wednesday (-25,185) Henry Kingsley, English novelist, died.

19/5/1876, Friday (-25,190) Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer, Dutch historical writer, died (born 21/8/1801).

17/5/1876, Wednesday (-25,192) (Technology, Roads) Nikolaus August Otto patented the world�s first four-stroke internal combustion engine. However the patent office uncovered earlier work done on the four stroke cycle by Frenchman Alphonse Beau de Rochas in 1862. Oto�s patent was deemed invalid and others were free to use his idea. Karl Benz refined the four stroke engine and made it run not on gas but liquid fuel, kerosene or gasoline, thereby making the engine mobile.

12/5/1876, Friday (-25,197) Henri Esquiros, French writer, died (born 23/5/1812).

8/5/1876. Monday (-25,201) The last Tasmanian aborigine, Truganini, died. She was 4 foot 3 inches tall, in her sixties, and was known as the Queen of the Aborigines. She saw her mother stabbed to death by white men and at 16 was herself raped by white convicts. She took to hanging around work camps, selling herself for a handful of tea and sugar. Then she met a white man whom she helped to record tribal customs. The coffin lowered into her grave was empty; the authorities feared body snatchers and buried her elsewhere.

7/5/1876, Sunday (-25,202) Samuel Courtauld, British industrialist and arts patron, was born in Braintree, Essex.

4/5/1875, Thursday (-25,205) Georg Ewald, German scholarly writer, died (born 16/11/1803).

1/5/1876, Monday (-25,208) Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India.

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30/4/1876, Sunday (-25,209) (Chemistry) Antoine Balard, chemist, died in Paris ( born in Montpellier, France, 30/9/1802)

29/4/1876, Saturday (-25,210) Empress Zauditu of Ethiopia was born.

27/4/1876, Thursday (-25,212) Cornelius Leahy, athlete, was born.

25/4/1876, Tuesday (-25,214) (Arts) Thomas Aird, Scottish poet, died in Dumfries (born 28/8/1802 in Bowden, Roxburghshire).

17/4/1876, Monday (-25,222) (Arts) Ian Hay, British author, was born.

16/4/1876, Sunday (-25,223) Easter Sunday

======================================================================================

25/3/1876, Saturday (-25,245) The first international football match between Scotland and Wales at Glasgow, was won by Scotland, four-nil.

19/3/1876, Sunday (-25,251) Charles Chesney, British military writer, died (born 29/9/1826)

18/3/1876, Saturday (-25,252) Ferdinand Feiligrath, German poet, died (born 17/8/1810).

13/3/1876, Monday (-25,657) Joseph von Fuhrich, Austrian painter, died (born 9/2/1800).

10/3/1876, Friday (-25,260) Alexander Graham Bell transmitted the first telephone message to his assistant, from 5 Exeter Place, Boston, Massachusetts. The words were �Come here Watson, I want you�.

8/3/1876, Wednesday (-25,262) Louise Colet, French poet, died (born 15/9/1810).

7/3/1876. Tuesday (-25,263) The first telephone was patented by the American Alexander GrahamBell, who was born on 3/3/1847. Bell was just a few hours ahead of a similar patent by Elisha Gray.

6/3/1876, Monday (-25,264)

5/3/1876, Sunday (-25,265) (Arts) Marie Agoult, French author (born 31/12/1805 in Frankfort on Main) died in Paris.

4/3/1876, Saturday (-25,266) Sir Richard Hanson, Chief Justice of South Australia, died (born 6/12/1805).

2/3/1876, Thursday (-25,268) Pope Pius X was born in Rome, as Eugenio Pacelli.

======================================================================================

27/2/1876, Sunday (-25,272) Japan and Korea signed the Treaty of Kanghwa. Until 1873 Korea, governed by the xenophobic Regent Taewon-Gun, had rejected diplomatic approaches by Japan. In 1875 Japanese gunboats off Kanghwa Island, near Seoul, were fired upon by the Koreans. Japan used this incident to force closer commercial and political links with Korea, backed up by the Japanese Navy. The Treaty of Kanghwa encouraged Western powers to also seek closer links with Korea, ending its isolation and its status as a vassal state of China.

19/2/1876, Saturday (-25,280) Constantin Brancusi, sculptor, was born in Romania.

18/2/1876. Friday (-25,281) A direct telegraph link was set up between Britain and New Zealand.

17/2/1876, Thursday (-25,282) Horace Bushnell, religious writer, died (born 14/4/1802)

14/2/1876, Monday (-25,285)

11/2/1876, Friday (-25,288) Sir John Coleridge, English Judge, died (born 1790).

10/2/1876, Thursday (-25,289) Reverdy Johnson, US politician, died (born 21/5/1796).

7/2/1876, Monday (-25,292)

3/2/1876, Thursday (-25,296) Gino Capponi, Italian historical writer, died (born 13/2/1792).

2/2/1876, Wednesday (-25,297) The Welsh Football Association was formed.

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31/1/1876, Monday (-25,299) (1) All American Indians were ordered to move to reservations

(2) The �Andrassy Note� (see 30/12/1875) was handed to the Ottoman Sultan in Constantinople.The Sultan promised, but did nothing.

26/1/1876, Wednesday (-25,304) Antoine Frederick-Lemaitre, French actor, died (born 28/7/1800).

22/1/1876, Saturday (-25,308) Sir George Harvey, Scottish painter, died (born 2/1806).

19/1/1876, Wednesday (-25,311) Thomas Palmer, boxer, was born (died 13/2/1949).

14/1/1876, Friday (-25,316) Essex County Cricket Club was founded at a meeting at The Shire Hall, Chelmsford.

9/1/1876, Sunday (-25,321) Samuel Howe, US philanthropist, died (born 10/11/1801).

5/1/1876, Wednesday (-25,325) Konrad Adenauer, West German Chancellor, was born in Cologne.

3/1/1876, Monday (-25,327) Julius von Mohl, German Orientalist writer, died.

1/1/1876, Saturday (-25,329) The Plimsoll Line became compulsory on all British-registered ships after this date. Its purpose was to prevent ships being dangerously overloaded. The modern Plimsoll Line was first proposed by James Hall of Tynemouth in a report of 7/12/.1869. However the Crusader ships employed a cross marked at the waterline for the same purpose, and the 12th century Republic of Venice also made it illegal to operate its ships without a form of the Plimsoll line. Hanseatic ships used the same load line but when the Hanseatic League ceased to exist in the 15th century this safety practice was lost.

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30/12/1875, Thursday (-25,331) Russia, Germany, and Austro-Hungary agreed on the terms of a note to Constantinople calling for Ottoman Turkey to deliver on its promises of equality for Christians with Muslims and measures to protect Christians in the Balkans from persecution.This was the so-called �Andrassy Note�, see 31/1/1876.

25/12/1875, Saturday (-25,336) The Chicago Daily News began publication. It was priced at 1 cent, whereas other newspapers cost 5 cents.

23/12/1875, Thursday (-25,338) Louis la Gueronniere, French politician, died.

16/12/1875, Thursday (-25,345) James Hinton, English medical writer, died (born 1822)

2/12/1875, Thursday (-25,359) Charles Latrobe, British colonial Governor of Australia, died

1/12/1875, Wednesday (-25,360) Pauline Dejazet, French actress, died (born 30/8/1798).

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29/11/1875, Monday (-25,362) Thomas Key, English scholarly writer, died (born 20/3/1799).

27/11/1875. Saturday (-25,364) Britain bought Suez Canal shares. Britain bought nearly half the shares for �4million from the Khedive, or ruler, of Egypt. Disraeli, the British Prime Minister, was relieved to have prevented total French control of the Canal. When the Canal was built six years ago with French money and French expertise the British, under Gladstone, took no interest; now Britain accounts for 80% of the Canal traffic. On 15/11/1875 Disraeli learned that the Khedive owned 177,000 of the 400,000 shares but was on the verge of bankruptcy and wanted to sell, or at least mortgage the shares to a French syndicate. The British put pressure on the French syndicate who, without government help, pulled out, whilst Baron Lionel de Rothschild provided finance for the British to buy the shares for UK� 4 million.

23/11/1875, Tuesday (-25,368) Friedrich Lange, German philosophical writer, died (born 28/9/1828).

15/11/1875, Monday (-25,376) In London the River Thames rose 28 feet (8.5 metres) above normal, causing severe flooding.

9/11/1875, Tuesday (-25,382) Karl Fraas, German botanical writer, died (born 8/9/1810).

5/11/1875, Friday (-25,386) Blackburn Rovers football club was formed.

2/11/1875, Tuesday (-25,389) Horatio Hackett, US Biblical scholarly writer, died (born 27/12/1808).

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30/10/1875. Saturday (-25,392) In the USA, Mary Baker Eddy published Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, arguing that illness is illusory and laying the basis for Christian Science.

25/10/1875, Monday (-25,397) Jacques Migne, French religious writer, died.

20/10/1875, Wednesday (-25,402) Walter Hook, English religious writer, died (born 13/3/1798)

19/10/1875, Tuesday (-25,403) Sir Charles Wheatstone, English physicist who pioneered telegraphy, died in Paris.

18/10/1875, Monday (-25,404) Leonard Braund, cricketer, was born (died 23/12/1955).

12/10/1875, Tuesday (-25,410) Jean Carpeaux, French sculptor, died (born 11/5/1827).

10/10/1875, Sunday (-25,412) Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, novelist and poet, died.

8/10/1875, Friday (-25,414) Alexander Forbes, Scottish religious writer, died (born 6/6/1817).

2/10/1875, Saturday (-25,420) (USA) San Francisco�s Palace Hotel opened.

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17/9/1875, Friday (-25,435) Guillaume Duchenne, French physician, died (born 17.9/1806).

16/9/1875, Thursday (-25,436) Following the anti-Turkish uprising in Bosnia and Hercegovina on 29/7/1875, the Bulgarians rebelled against the Turks, led by Khristo Botev, in Stara Zagora.

11/9/1875, Saturday (-25,141) (Football) Bournemouth Rovers football club was founded.

3/9/1875, Friday (-25,449) Ferdinand Porsche, motor car engineer, was born.

1/9/1875, Wednesday (-25,451) Edgar Rice Burroughs, creator of Tarzan, was born in Chicago. He never visited Africa where his stories were set.

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26/8/1875, Thursday (-25,457) John Buchan, Lord Tweedsmuir, British administrator, and author, was born.

25/8/1875. Wednesday (-25,458) Matthew Webb, 27, from Shropshire, became the first person to swim the English Channel. He took 21 hours 45 minutes, using the breast-stroke, from Admiralty Pier, Dover, to Calais.

21/8/1875, Saturday (-25,462)

19/8/1875, Thursday (-25,464) Hermann Ebel, German scholarly writer, died (born 10/5/1820).

18/8/1875, Wednesday (-25,465) Somerset County Cricket Club was founded.

17/8/1875, Tuesday (-25,466) Wilhelm Beek, German scholarly writer, died in Cape Town.

15/8/1875, Sunday (-25,468) Robert Hawker, English poet, died (born 3/12/1803).

10/8/1875, Tuesday (-25,473) (Cartography) Karl Andree, German cartographer and geographer, died in Wildungen (born 20/10/1808 in Brunswick).

5/8/1875, Thursday (-24,478) William Henwood, English geological writer, died (born 16/1/1805)

4/8/1875, Wednesday (-24,479) Hans Christian Andersen, the Danish writer famous for his fairy stories, died aged 70.

2/8/1875, Monday (-24,481) Britain�s first roller skating rink opened, in Belgravia, London.

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31/7/1875, Saturday (-25,483) Andrew Johnson, American Democrat and 17th president from 1865 to 1869, died in Carter County, Tennessee.

30/7/1875, Friday (-25,484) Billy Meredith, footballer, was born (died 19/4/1958).

29/7/1875, Thursday (-25,485) The peasants of the two mountain provinces of Bosnia and Hercegovina put up resistance to the Ottoman Turks.The Bosnians wanted to join Serbia but the Hercegovinians wanted to join Montenegro. See 16/9/1875.

28/7/1875, Wednesday (-25,486) Lewisham Town Hall, S London, officially opened. It was replaced by a new building in 1959.

26/7/1875, Monday (-25,488) Carl Jung, Swiss psychoanalyst, was born in Kesswil.

24/7/1875, Saturday (-25,490) Athanase Coquerel, French theologian, died.

23/7/1875, Friday (-25,491) Isaac Singer, American inventor of the modern sewing machine, died in Torquay, Devon.

20/7/1875, Tuesday (-25,494) The first US State agricultural experimental station was established at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut.

14/7/1875, Wednesday (-25,500) (Cartography) Wilhelm Dufour, Swiss General who mapped Geneva at 1:25,000 and went on to complete a survey of all of Switzerland at 1:100,000 between 1842 and 1865, died (born 15/9/1787).

8/7/1875, Thursday (-25,506) (Britain) John Cairnes, British political economist, died (born 1823).

===================================================================================

29/6/1875, Tuesday (-25,515) Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria, died (born 19/4/1793).

25/6/1875, Friday (-25,519) Antoine Barye, French sculptor, died (born in Paris 24/9/1796).

22/6/1875, Tuesday (-25,522) Sir William Logan, British geologist, died (born 20/4/1798).

10/6/1875, Thursday (-25,534) Duff Green, US politician, died (born 15/8/1791).

9/6/1875, Wednesday (-25,535) Gerard Deshayes, French geologist, died (born 13/5/1797).

8/6/1875, Tuesday (-25,536)

6/6/1875, Sunday (-25,538) Thomas Mann, writer, was born.

4/6/1875, Friday (-25,540) Eduard Morike, German poet, died (born 8/9/1804).

3/6/1875, Thursday (-25,541) Georges Bizet, French composer of the opera Carmen, died in Bougival near Paris.

===================================================================================

24/5/1875, Monday (-25,551)

17/5/1875, Monday (-25,558) The Kentucky Derby horse race, USA, was first run.

16/5/1875, Sunday (-25,559) Earthquake affected Colombia and Venezuela; 16,000 killed.

14/5/1875, Friday (-25,561) Gottfried Bernhardy, scholarly writer, died (born in Landsberg 20/3/1800).

====================================================================================

26/4/1875, Monday (-25,579) Synghman Rhee, South Korean statesman, was born.

8/4/1875, Thursday (-25,597) Albert I, King of Belgium, was born.

7/4/1875, Wednesday (-25,598) Georg Herwegh, German poet, died (born 31/5/1817).

1/4/1875, Thursday (-25,604) The Times became the first newspaper to publish a daily weather chart.

=====================================================================================

28/3/1875, Sunday (-25,608) Easter Sunday

22/3/1875, Monday (-25,614) Hezekiah Bateman, US actor, died (born in Baltimore, Maryland 6/12/1812)).

18/3/1875, Thursday (-25,618) Hawaii signed a treaty giving exclusive trading rights with the islands to the USA.

7/3/1875, Sunday (-25,629) Maurice Ravel, French composer, was born in Ciboure in the Basque Country.

3/3/1875, Wednesday (-25,633) (2) Canada�s first organised ice hockey match was played at the Victoria Ice Skating Rink, Montreal.

(1) George Bizet�s opera Carmen was first performed for the first time, in Paris.

1/3/1875, Monday (-25,635) The US Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, giving equal rights to all races in transport, theatres, inns, and juries.

=====================================================================================

28/2/1875, Sunday (-25,636) Sir Goldsworth Gurney, inventor, died

25/2/1875, Thursday (-26,639)

22/2/1875, Monday (-26,642) Tensions between London and Beijing increased after Augustus Margary, a British official, was killed by bandits close to the Burma-China border.

21/2/1875, Sunday (-26,643) (Biology) Jean Calment was born, going on to live for 122 years 164 days, the longest confirmed human lifespan.

17/2/1875, Wednesday (-26,647) (Astronomy) Friedrich Argelander, German astronomer, died 17/2/1875 in Bonn (born 22/3/1799 in Memel).

15/2/1875, Monday (-26,649) Sir William Bennett, English composer, died in St Johns Wood, London (born in Sheffield 13/4/1816).

9/2/1875, Tuesday (-25,655) The Hoosac rail tunnel USA, 7 km long, opened.

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26/1/1875, Tuesday (-25,669) The first battery electric powered dental drill was used. Mains-powered dental drills were not used until 1908.

23/1/1875, Saturday (-25,672) Charles Kingsley, English novelist, died (born 12/6/1819).

22/1/1875, Friday (-25,673) Ferdinand Hitzig, German religious writer, died (born 23/6/1807).

14/1/1875, Thursday (-25,681) Albert Schweitzer, physician, was born.

7/1/1874, Thursday (-25,688)

===================================================================================

31/12/1874, Thursday (-25,695) Alexandre Ledru-Rollin, French politician, died (born 2/2/1807).

30/12/1874, Wednesday (-25,696) Ludwig Dessoir, German actor, died (born 15/12/1810).

26/12/1874, Saturday (-25,700) Boxing Day was first recognised as a Bank Holiday in the UK.

17/12/1874, Thursday (-25,709) William Cushing, US naval officer, died (born 4/11/1842).

9/12/1874, Wednesday (-25,717) Ezra Cornell, US industrialist who founded Cornell University in Ithaca, died.

7/12/1874, Monday (-25,719) (USA) Race riots in Vicksburg, Mississippi, 75 Black people were killed.

1/12/1874, Tuesday (-25,725) (Spain) The 17-year-old Alphonso XII of Spain issued a proclamation from Sandhurst announcing himself as sole heir to the Spanish throne, and formally beginning his reign.

===================================================================================

30/11/1874, Monday (-25,726) Sir Winston Churchill was born at Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire.

29/11/1874, Sunday (-25,727) (Medical) Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz was born in Avanca, Portugal. In 1935 he developed prefrontal lobotomy as a treatment for mental illness.

24/11/1874, Tuesday (-25,732)

21/11/1874, Saturday (-25,735) Mariano Fortuny, Spanish painter, died (born 11/6/1838).

20/11/1874, Friday (-25,736) Tom Hood, English writer, died (born 19/1/1835).

18/11/1874, Wednesday (-25,738) In the USA, the National Women�s Christian Temperance Union was founded.

Women would invade saloons and sing hymns and pray; the point being that drunkenness and ill-treatment of women often went together.

6/11/1874, Friday (-25,750) Argentine troops under Sarmiento defeated an insurrection by Bartolome Mitre, who believed he had been deprived of victory in the 1874 Presidential elections by fraud.

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26/10/1874, Monday (-23,761) Carl Cornelius, German poet, died (born 24/12/1824).

23/10/1874, Friday (-23,764) Abraham Geiger, German scholarly writer, died (born 24/5/1810).

20/10/1874, Tuesday (-23,767) Karl Homeyer, German jurist, died (born 13/8/1795).

18/10/1874, Sunday (-23,769) Peter O�Connor, athlete (long jump), was born (died 9/11/1957).

9/10/1874, Friday (-25,778) The Universal Postal Union was established, with its headquarters in Berne, Switzerland.

===================================================================================

21/9/1874, Monday (-25,796) Gustav Holst, English composer, who wrote The Planets, was born in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, as Gustavus Theodore von Holst, of Swedish origin.

17/9/1874, Thursday (-25,800) (USA) The White League rioted against the Black Government in New Orleans,USA.

15/9/1874, Tuesday (-25,802) Benjamin Curtis, US jurist, died (born 4/11/1809).

13/9/1874, Sunday (-25,804) Arnold Schoenberg, composer, was born.

12/9/1874, Saturday (-25,805) Francois Guizot, French statesman, died (born 4/10/1787).

3/9/1874, Thursday (-25,814) Hans Gabelentz, German scholarly writer, died (born 13/10/1807).

===================================================================================

30/8/1874, Sunday (-25,818) In Britain, the Factory Act limited the working week to 56.5 hours.

27/8/1874, Thursday (-25,821) John Foley, Irish sculptor, died (born 24/5/1818).

24/8/1874, Monday (-25,824) William Betty, English actor, died (born in Shrewsbury 13/9/1791).

22/8/1874, Saturday (-25,826) Sydney Dobell, English poet, died (born 5/4/1824).

18/8/1874, Tuesday (-25,830) Sir William Fairbairn, Scottish engineer, died (born 19/2/1789).

10/8/1874, Monday (-25,838) Herbert Hoover, Republican politician and 31st US President, 1929-33, was born in West Branch, Iowa, the son of a blacksmith.

======================================================================================

31/7/1874, Friday (-25,848) (Africa) Charles Beke, explorer of Africa and the Bible Lands, died in Bromley, Kent (born in Stepney, London, 10/10/1800).

30/7/1874, Thursday (-25,849) William Meredith, footballer, was born (died 19/4/1958).

25/7/1874, Saturday (-25,854)

15/7/1874, Wednesday (-25,864) Erith Nicholls, rugby player, was born (died 24/3/1939).

14/7/1874, Tuesday (-25,865) Abbas II (Abbas Hilmi Pasha), the last Khedive of Egypt, was born in Cairo (died 21/12/1944).

10/7/1874, Friday (-25,869)

7/7/1874, Tuesday (-25,872) John Jesse, English historical writer, died (born 1815).

6/7/1874, Monday (-25,873) Fox Dalhousie, British statesman, died (born 22/4/1801).

4/7/1874, Saturday (-25,875) The railway east from St Louis, USA, opened, crossing the Mississippi by the Eads Bridge.

2/7/1874, Thursday (-25,877) The US Government ordered General George A Custer to lead a reconnaissance expedition into the Black Hills territory of the Sioux Indians.

====================================================================================

21/6/1874, Sunday (-25,888) (Science) Anders Jonas Angstrom, Swedish physicist (born 13/8/1814 in Logdo) died in Upsala.

19/6/1874, Friday (-25,890) Jules Janin, French writer, died (born 16/2/1804).

9/6/1874, Tuesday (-25,900) Cochise, Apache chief and war leader against White settlers, died.

7/6/1874, Sunday (-25,902) Karl Hagenbach, German Church history writer, died (born 4/3/1801).

1/6/1874, Monday (-25,908) Pullman carriages were introduced in Britain, by the Midland Railway, running between London and Bradford.

==============================================================================

29/5/1874, Friday (-25,911) G K Chesterton, English writer, was born.

22/5/1874, Friday (-25,918) Daniel Malan, the South African politician who was responsible for the apartheid policy, was born in Riebeck West, Cape Province.

19/5/1874, Tuesday (-25,921) Gilbert Jessop, cricketer, was born (died 11/5/1955).

8/5/1874, Friday (-25,932) (Women�s Rights) Massachusetts legislated to limit women�s work days to 10 hours.

5/5/1874, Tuesday (-25,935) Marc Gleyre, French painter, died (born 2/5/1806).

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29/4/1874, Wednesday (-25,941) In Britain, the Cremation Society was formed.

25/4/1874, Saturday (-25,945) Guglielmo Marconi, Italian scientist and radio pioneer, was born in Bologna.

24/4/1874, Friday (-25,946) Harry Houdini, American magician and escapologist, was born in Appleton, Wisconsin, as Ehrich Weiss. He was the son of a rabbi from Budapest.

21/4/1874, Tuesday (-25,949)

19/4/1874, Sunday (-25,951) Owen Jones, British architect, died(born 1809).

18/4/1874, Saturday (-25,952) David Livingstone�s remains were interred in Westminster Abbey. He died in Africa on 1/5/1873.

15/4/1874, Wednesday (-25,955) Jules Gabriel Fisher, Louisiana State Senator, was born (died 14/5/1943).

12/4/1874, Sunday (-25,958) Bill Foulke, footballer, was born.

7/4/1874, Tuesday (-25,963) Wilhelm von Kaulbach, German painter, died.

5/4/1874, Sunday (-25,965) Birkenhead Park, the first publically-funded park in Britain and model for Central Park, New York, opened.

4/4/1874, Saturday (-25,966) Charles Beule, French writer, died (born in Saumur 29/6/1826),

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28/3/1874, Saturday (-25,973) Peter Hansen, Danish astronomer, died (born 8/12/1795).

26/3/1874, Thursday (-25,975) Robert Frost, poet, was born.

8/3/1874, Sunday (-25,993) 12 people met to discuss forming a building society, which came to be known as the Abbey Building Society (originally the Abbey Road Benefits Society, formed in Kilburn, London).

3/3/1874, Tuesday (-25,998) Francis Mason, US missionary to the Karens in Myanmar from 1830, died (born 2/4/1799).

2/3/1874, Monday (-25,999) Neil Arnott, Scottish physician (born 15/5/1788) died.

1/3/1874, Sunday (-26,000) Holborn Viaduct railway station opened.

====================================================================================

26/2/1874, Thursday (-26,003)

24/2/1874, Tuesday (-26,005) Thomas Binney, English cleric, died (born 1798).

23/2/1874, Monday (-26,006) Major Walker Wingfield patented the game of lawn tennis, under the name of �Sphairistike�, a version of the Greek for �playing ball�. Between July 1874 and June 1875, 1,050 of his tennis sets were sold.

21/2/1874, Saturday (-26,008) Disraeli became UK Prime Minister; he served until 1880.

17/2/1874, Tuesday (-26,013) William Gladstone left office as Prime Minister.

15/2/1874, Sunday (-26,014) Sir Ernest Shackleton, British Antarctic explorer, was born in born in Kilkee, County Clare, Eire.

9/2/1874, Monday (-26,020) Jules Michelet, French historical writer, died (born 21/8/1798).

8/2/1874, Sunday (-26,021) Herman Merivale, English writer, died.

6/2/1874, Friday (-26,023)

5/2/1874, Thursday (-26,024) Moritz Haupt, German scholarly writer, died (born 27/2/1808).

4/2/1874, Wednesday (-26,025) The Battle of Kumasi ended the Second Ashanti War.

2/2/1874, Monday (-26,027) Liverpool Street Station, London, opened, replacing an earlier terminus at Shoreditch.

====================================================================================

31/1/1874, Saturday (-26,029) Battle of Amoaful, Second Ashanti War.

24/1/1874, Saturday (-26,036) Adam Black, Scottish book publisher, died (born in Edinburgh 20/2/1784).

20/1/1874, Tuesday (-26,040) Stephen Bloomer, footballer, was born (died 16/4/1938).

19/1/1874, Monday (-26,041) August Hoffmann, German writer, died (born 2/4/1798).

18/1/1874, Sunday (-26,042)

17/1/1874, Saturday (-26,043) The original Siamese Twins, Chang and Eng Bunker, died within three hours of each other, aged 62. Chang and Eng meant Left and Right in Thailand, where they were born.

16/1/1874, Friday (-26,044) Robert William Service, Canadian poet, was born.

13/1/1874, Tuesday (-26,047) (Russia) Conscription was introduced in Russia.

7/1/1874, Wednesday (-26,053) Henry Bell, Scottish writer, died (born in Glasgow 8/11/1803).

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25/12/1873, Thursday (-26,066) Heinrich Hotho, German art historian, died (born 1802).

24/12/1873, Wednesday (-26,067) (Railways) The railway from Auckland, North Island, New Zealand, to Onehunga opened.

23/12/1873, Tuesday (-26,068) Sarah Grimke, US social reformer, died (born 6/11/1792).

16/12/1873, Tuesday (-26,075) Nino Bixio, Italian soldier, died (born 2/10/1821).

14/12/1873, Sunday (-26,077) (Geology) Louis Agassiz, who developed the theory of Ice ages, died �see 28/5/1807, when born.

======================================================================================

27/11/1873, Thursday (-26,094) (Science) Auguste de la Rive, Swiss physicist, died (born 9/10/1801).

26/11/1873, Wednesday (-26,095) Georg Naumann, German geological writer, died (born 30/5/1797).

24/11/1873, Monday (-26,097) Herbert Roper Barrett, tennis champion, was born (died 27/7/1943).

22/11/1873, Saturday (-26,099) John Tyldesley, cricketer, was born (died 27/11/1930).

20/11/1873, Thursday (-26,101) Marie Garnier, French explorer of south east Asia, died (born 25/7/1839).

19/11/1873, Wednesday (-26,102) John Hale, US politician, died (born 31/3/1806).

13/11/1873, Thursday (-26,108)

8/11/1873, Saturday (-26,113) Manuel Breton de los Herreros, Spanish dramatist, died (born 19/12/1796).

7/11/1873, Friday (-26,114) The Conservative Prime Minister, Sir John Macdonald, was defeated, over the Pacific Railway affair.

5/11/1873, Wednesday (-26,116)

4/11/1873, Tuesday (-26,117) Laura Keene, actress, died

3/11/1872, Monday (-26,118) Vladimir Dahl, Russian author, died (born 1802).

1/11/1873, Saturday (-26,120) Sir William Bovill, English judge, died in Kingston, Surrey (born in Barking, London 26/5/1814).

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30/10/1873, Thursday (-26,122) Harry Foster, rackets champion, was born (died 23/6/1950)

29/10/1873, Wednesday (-26,123) King Albert of Saxony succeeded his father to the throne. He was born on 23/4/1828, and died on 10/6/1902.

27/10/1873, Monday (-26,125) Ernest-Aime Feydeau, French writer, died (born 16/3/1821).

24/10/1873, Friday (-26,128) (Chemistry) Frederick Calvert, English chemist, died (born 14/11/1819).

19/10/1873, Sunday (-26,133) Robert Candlish, Scottish religious writer, died (born 23/3/1806).

10/10/1873, Friday (-26,142) Hermann Kurz, German author, died.

9/10/1873, Thursday (-26,143) Charles Walgreen, US entrepreneur who founded Walgreens, was born.

6/10/1873, Monday (-26,146) Sir Paul Edmund Strzelecki, explorer of Australia, died.

4/10/1873, Saturday (-26,148) Margaret Gatty, English writer, died (born 1809),

3/10/1873, Friday (-26,149) Indigenous American Modoc Chief Kintpuash (Captain Jack) was hanged at Fort Klamath, after leading an insurrection against forced location on the Klamath Reseervation.

2/10/1873, Thursday (-26,150) Pelham Warner, cricketer, was born (died 30/1/1963).

1/10/1873, Wednesday (-26,151) Sir Edwin Landseer, painter, died in London

=================================================================================

28/9/1873, Sunday (-26,154) Emile Gaboriau, French novelist, died (born 9/11/1833).

26/9/1873, Friday (-26,156) Julius Benedix, German dramatist, died in Leipzig (born in Leipzig 21/1/1811).

20/9/1873, Saturday (-26,162) Battista Donati, Italian astronomer, died (born 16/12/1826).

16/9/1873, Tuesday (-26,166) Last German troops left France. An economic recovery of France had taken place, which was to enable it to build up its military forces.However a recession began in France from 1873 onwards.

15/9/1873, Monday (-26,167) (Russia) Alexis Fedchenko, Russian explorer of central Asia, died (born 7/2/1844).

6/9/1873, Saturday (-26,176) (1) The railway to Fiume / Rijeka opened from Karlstadt / Karlovac; a branch from the Vienna-Trieste line.

(2) Austin Reed, men�s outfitter, was born in Newbury, Berkshire.

===================================================================================

26/8/1873, Tuesday (-26,187) Birth of Lee de Forest, inventor of the Audion vacuum tube which made broadcasting possible.

23/8/1873, Saturday (-26,190) The Albert Bridge across the Thames was opened.

12/8/1873, Tuesday (-26,201) Tom Reece, billiards champion, was born (died 16/10/1953).

6/8/1873, Wednesday (-26,207) (France) Camille Barrot, French politician, died in Bougival (born in Villefort, Lozere 19/9/1791).

5/8/1873, Tuesday (-26,208) Edward Cope, English scholarly writer, died (born 28/7/1818).

1/8/1873, Friday (-26,212) (USA, Railways) The first street cable cars in the world were installed in San Francisco, on Clay Street Hill; the steep terrain made horse buses impractical. They were the invention of engineer Andrew Smith Hallidie, 37.

====================================================================================

18/7/1873, Friday (-36,226) Victor Chasles, French writer, died (born 8/11/1798).

13/7/1873, Sunday (-36,231) Caroline Clive, English authoress, died (born 1801).

4/7/1873, Friday (-26,240) Johann Kaup, German naturalist, died (born 10/4/1803)

1/7/1873, Tuesday (-26,243) Prince Edward Island was made part of the Dominion of Canada.

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29/6/1873, Sunday (-26,245) Michael Dutt, Indian poet, died (born 25/1/1824).

21/6/1873, Saturday (-26,253) Heinrich Meyer, German religious writer, died (born 10/1/1800).

14/6/1873, Saturday (-26,260) King Priam�s treasure of 8,700 priceless pieces was discovered in Turkey by the German � American Heinrich Schliemann. In disinterring this treasure he destroyed what was left of ancient Troy.

5/6/1873, Thursday (-26,269) The slave markets in Zanzibar were closed by Sultan Bargash Sayyid, under pressure from the British.

1/6/1873, Sunday (-26,273) Joseph Howe, Canadian statesman, died (born 13/12/1804).

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27/5/1873, Tuesday (-26,278) Pierre Lebrun, French poet, died (born 29/11/1785).

24/5/1873, Saturday (-26,281) M Thiers ceased to be President of France.

23/5/1873, Friday (-26,282) The North West Mounted Police were established in Canada. Their name was changed to The Royal Canadian Mounted Police on 1 February 1920.

22/5/1873, Thursday (-26,283) Alexander Ewing, Scottish religious writer, died (born 25/1/1814).

21/5/1873, Wednesday (-26,284) Herbert Cannon, champion jockey, was born (died 1/6/1962).

20/5/1873, Tuesday (-26,285) A tailor, Jacob Davis from Nevada, had been experimenting with reinforcing miners� denim trousers with rivets in order to improve their durability, which was a major problem at the time. He was afraid someone would steal his idea but could not afford the US$ 658 cost of a patent so he approached Levi Strauss, a migrant from Germany who operated a clothes store in San Francisco used by Davis, and they appliefd for a patent together. Ths day they were granted US patent no. 139,121, for their jeans. In 1891 the patent expired, and many others copied the idea of jeans with rivets.

15/5/1873, Thursday (-26,290) Alexander Cuza, former Prince of Romania, died in Heidelberg

12/5/1873, Monday (-26,293) Immanuel Deutsch, German religious writer, died (born 28/10/1829).

10/5/1873, Saturday (-26,295) Sir George Cartier, Canadian statesman, died (born 6/9/1814).

9/5/1873, Friday (-26,296) Howard Carter, who discovered Tutankhamen�s tomb in 1922, was born at Swaffham, Norfolk.

8/5/1873, Thursday (-26,297) English economist and philosopher John Stuart Mill died.

7/5/1873, Wednesday (-26,298) Salmon Chase, US jurist, died (born 13/1/1808).

6/5/1873, Tuesday (-26,299) (USA) John Brodhead, US historical scholar, died (born 2/1/1814).

5/5/1873, Monday (-26,300) The Midland Hotel, adjacent to St Pancras Station, London, opened. It closed in 1935 due to lack of custom and became railway offices.

3/5/1873, Saturday (-26,302)

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30/4/1873. Wednesday (-26,305) Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone died of malaria near Lake Bangweulu in Zambia, aged 60. He was found dead at Chitambo, kneeling in prayer by his bed. He had worked from age 10 to 24 in a cotton factory, and when aged 27 was ordained under the London Missionary Society. He discovered Victoria Falls when aged 41 and Lake Nyasa aged 46. He was buried on 18/4/1874 in Westminster Abbey.

29/4/1873, Tuesday (-26,306) James Hope-Scott, English barrister, died (born 15/7/1812).

27/4/1873, Sunday (-26,308) William MacReady, English actor, died (born 3/3/1793).

23/4/1873, Wednesday (-26,312) Wolfgang Menzel, German poet, died.

20/4/1873, Sunday (-26,315) (Medical) Henry Bence-Jones, English physician, died in London (born in Suffolk, 1814).

19/4/1873, Saturday (-26,316) Sidney Barnes, cricketer, was born (died 26/12/1967)

16/4/1873, Wednesday (-25,319) Joseph Glatigny, French poet, died (born 21/5/1839).

13/4/1873, Sunday (-26,322) Easter Sunday. In the USA, the Colfax Massacre occurred when 300 armed White men clashed with militant African-Americans over a disputed local election result in Louisiana. Over 100 African Americans were killed.

11/4/1873, Friday (-26,324) Christopher Hansteen, Norwegian scientific writer, died (born 26/9/1784).

10/4/1873, Thursday (-26,325) Justus von Liebig, German chemist, died.

6/4/1873, Sunday (-26,329)

2/4/1873, Wednesday (-26,333) British trains were fitted with toilets, but only in sleeping cars.

1/4/1873, Tuesday (-26,334) Sergei Rachmaninov, last of the great Russian romantic composers, was born in Oneg, Nijni Novgorod. He later settled in the USA.

======================================================================================

30/3/1873, Sunday (-26,336) Sir Richard Church, British military officer, born 1784, died.

22/3/1873, Saturday (-26,344) Slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico.

13/3/1873, Thursday (-26,353) The Scottish Football Association was formed at a meeting attended by representatives from eight clubs.

9/3/1873, Sunday (-26,357) Charles Knight, English author, died (born 15/3/1791).

8/3/1873, Saturday (-26,358) Sir Frederic Madden, English historical writer, died (born 16/2/1801).

4/3/1873, Tuesday (-26,362) The New York Daily Graphic became the world�s first illustrated daily newspaper.

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25/2/1873, Tuesday (-26,369) Enrico Caruso, Italian operatic tenor, was born in Naples.

24/2/1873, Monday (-26,370) Thomas Guthrie, Scottish social affairs writer, died (born 12/7/1803)

19/2/1873, Wednesday (-26,375) John Reed Swanton, anthropologist and ethnologist, was born.

18/2/1873, Tuesday (-26,376)

15/2/1873, Saturday (-26,379) (Biology) Hans von Euler Chelpin, Swedish, was born in Augsburg, Germany. In 1929 he, along with Sir Arthur Harden, were awarded the Nobel Prize for their research into sugar fermentation.

14/2/1873, Friday (-26,380) (Railways) The railway from Delhi to Rewari, India, 84km, opened.

12/2/1873, Wednesday (-26,382) (Spain) Amadeus I of Spain abdicated and a Republic was proclaimed. Foreign Minister Emilio Cistelar y Ripoli became Prime Minister.

9/2/1873, Sunday (-26,385) Julius Furst, German writer on the Orient, died (12/5/1805).

7/2/1873, Friday (-26,387) Charles Dixon, tennis champion, was born (died 29/4/1939).

2/2/1873, Sunday (-26,392) Gertrudis Gomez, Spanish novelist, died (born 23/3/1814).

1/2/1873, Saturday (-26,393) Matthew Maury, US naval officer, died (born 24/1/1806).

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18/1/1873, Saturday (-26,407) Edward Lytton, English novelist, died.

10/1/1873, Friday (-26,415) Francesco Dall�Ongaro, Italian writer, died (born 1808).

9/1/1873, Thursday (-26,416) Napoleon III of France, nephew of Bonaparte, died in exile at Chislehurst, Kent, to where he had withdrawn following his defeat by the Prussians and his imprisonment at Wilhelshohe Castle.

8/1/1873, Wednesday (-26,417) Harvey Corbett, US architect, was born in San Francisco.

5/1/1873, Sunday (-26,420) Joseph Gillott, English pan maker, died (born 11/10/1799).

1/1/1873, Wednesday (-26,424) The cities of Pest, Buda and Obuda were merged to form Budapest.

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23/12/1872, Monday (-26,433) Theophile Gautier, French poet, died (born 31/8/1811).

22/12/1872, Sunday (-26,434) George Catlin, US scholarly writer, died (born 1796).

20/12/1872, Friday (-26,436)

13/12/1872, Friday (-26,443) Haenlein fitted the first internal combustion engine to an airship. However the craft only made a tethered display and further development was shelved for lack of funds.

12/12/1872, Thursday (-26,444) Edwin Forrest, US actor, died (born 9/3/1806).

5/12/1872. Thursday (-26,451) The Marie Celeste was spotted drifting, crewless, in the Atlantic near The Azores, and was boarded by the crew of the Dei Gratia. The 206 ton Marie Celeste had left New York on 7/11/1872, captained by Benjamin Briggs, with his wife, daughter and eight crew on its way to Genoa, with a cargo of 1,700 barrels of alcohol, which was found intact. The lifeboat was missing but the captain�s table was set for a meal that was never eaten.

=====================================================================================

30/11/1872, Saturday (-26,456) The first football international took place at Partick, Glasgow; Scotland and England drew 0 � 0.

29/11/1872, Friday (-26,457) (Germany) Johann Baehr, German scholar, died in Heidelberg, 29/11/1872 (born in Darmstadt 13/6/1798).

25/11/1872, Monday (-26,461) Gilbert Smith, footballer, was born (died 6/12/1943).

23/11/1872, Saturday (-26,463) Australia was connected by undersea cable to the rest of the world. The cable ran from Darwin in the north to Java, and also into southern Australia.

14/11/1872, Thursday (-26,472) James Hadley, US scholarly writer, died (born 30/3/1821).

11/11/1872, Monday (-26,475) Maude Adams, US actress, was born (died 17/7/1953).

9/11/1872, Saturday (-26,477) (USA) A great fire broke out in the commercial district of Boston, USA, on the Saturday night. It burned until Sunday 10th, and destroyed 767 buildings filled with merchandise. 14 lives and an estimated US$75million of goods were lost. Very little residential property was lost and the commercial district was soon rebuilt with better buildings and straighter roads.

7/11/1872, Thursday (-26,479) (Maritime) The 282 ton brigantine Marie Celeste set sail from New York on her ill-fated journey.

6/11/1872, Wednesday (--26,480) George Meade, US soldier, died.

5/11/1872, Tuesday (-26,481) (USA) Ulysses S Grant was elected President of the USA for a second term.

3/11/1873, Sunday (-26,483)

1/11/1872, Friday (-26,485) (Abortion) US Congress [assed the Comstock Law, prohibiting the transport or postage of any article intended to prevent conception or to cause abortion. The law was named after New York moralist Anthony Comstock, aged 28, head of the Society for the Suppression of Vice.

=====================================================================================

31/10/1873, Thursday (-26,486) The Spanish in Cuba seized the steamer Virginius, a rebel-owned ship carrying arms but disguised under a false US flag. The Spanish executed many of the crew, including some US nationals, almost causing a war between the US and Spain.

22/10/1872, Tuesday (-26,495) George Mason, English painter, died.

16/10/1872, Wednesday (-26,501) Walter Buckmaster, polo player, was born (died 30/10/1942).

15/10/1872, Tuesday (-26,502) (Universities) University College of Wales was founded, at Aberystwyth.

14/10/1872, Monday (-26,503) (Railways) The Yokohama to Shinagawa line was extended to Tokyo.

12/10/1872, Saturday (-26,505) Ralph Vaughan Williams, composer, was born.

2/10/1872, Wednesday (-26,515) Francis Lieber, US-German writer, died (born 18/3/1800).

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30/9/1872, Monday (-26,517) (France-Germany) The last date for the inhabitants of Alsace, conquered by Germany in 1870, to opt for either German nationality and remain or French nationality and leave for France. Around 45,000 opted to leave for France.

25/9/1872, Wednesday (-26,522) (USA) Peter Cartwright, US Methodist preacher, died (born 1/9/1785).

18/9/1872, Wednesday (-26,529) (Sweden) Charles IV of Sweden died at Malmo, aged 46. He was succeeded by his 43-year-old brother, as Oscar II.

13/9/1872, Friday (-26,534) (Railways) Work began on the St Gotthard railway tunnel.

8/9/1872, Sunday (-26,539) Paolo Guidici, Italian writer, died in Tonbridge, England (born 1812).

2/9/1872, Monday (-26,545) Nikolai Grundtvig, Danish writer, died (born 8/9/1783).

====================================================================================

24/8/1872, Saturday (-26,554) Aubrey Beardsley, English artist, was born in Brighton (died in Mentone 16/3/1898).

11/8/1872, Sunday (-26,567) Lowell Mason, US musician, died.

10/8/1872, Saturday (-26,568) Bill Johnson, musician, was born.

7/8/1872, Wednesday (-26,571) Gustav Devreint, German actor, died (born 4/9/1803).

3/8/1872, Saturday (-26,575) (Norway) King Haakon VII of Norway was born in Charlottenlund. He refused to surrender to the Germans in World War Two.

======================================================================================

18/7/1872, Thursday (-26,591) (Britain) Britain passed the Ballot Act, providing for secret ballots at elections.

16/7/1872, Tuesday (-26,593) (Antarctica) Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer who was the first to reach the South Pole in 1911, was born in Borge.

12/7/1872, Friday (-26,597) (Cartography) Arnold Escher, Swiss geologist, died (born 8/6/1807). In 1852-53 he produced the first detailed geological map of Switzerland.

9/7/1872, Tuesday (-26,600) (Food) John Blondel patented the first doughnut cutter in America. A sea captain, he is said to have invented the hole so he could slip the doughnut over the handle of the ship�s wheel and enjoy his snack whilst steering.

4/7/1872, Thursday (-26,605) (USA) Calvin Coolidge, American Republican and 30th President, was born in Plymouth, Vermont.He was the son of a storekeeper.

1/7/1872, Monday (-26,608) (1) (Aviation) Louis Bleriot, French aviation pioneer, was born.

(2) (London) The Albert Memorial in Hyde Park, London, was unveiled by Queen Victoria.

====================================================================================

27/6/1872, Thursday (-26,612) Paul Dunbar, US author, was born (died 8/2/1906).

25/6/1872, Tuesday (-26,614) (1) William Ellis, missionary to Polynesia, died (born 29/8/1794).

(2) Jesuits expelled from Germany, as part of the new Kultirkampf.

24/6/1872, Monday (-26,615) (London) The Museum of Childhood (toys, games, dolls etc.) was opened in Bethnal Green, London, originally as an extension of the Victoria and Albert Museum. It became a dedicated museum in its own right in 1972.

20/6/1872, Thursday (-26,619) Elie Forey, Marshal of France, died (born 5/1/1804).

16/6/1872, Sunday (-26,623) Norman MacLeod, Scottish religious writer, died (born 3/6/1812).

12/6/1872, Wednesday (-26,627) (Railways) The first railway in Japan opened; Yokohama to Shinagawa.

11/6/1872, Tuesday (-26,628) (Crime & Punishment) The stocks were last used as an official form of punishment in Britain.Their last recorded use was at Adpar, west Wales.

9/6/1872, Sunday (-26,630) (Russia) Peter I, Tsar of Russia, was born.

7/6/1872, Friday (-26,632) Matthew Hill, English prison reformer, died (born 6/8/1792).

1/6/1872, Saturday (-26,638) (Newspapers) James Bennett, US journalist, died in New York.

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31/5/1872, Friday (-26,639) The illustrator and cartoonist Heath Robinson was born. He was famous for his drawings of absurdly complicated machinery performing simple tasks.

27/5/1872, Monday (-26,643)

23/5/1872, Thursday (-26,647) Sir Henry Bulwer, British author, died (born 13/2/1801).

22/5/1872, Wednesday (-26,648) In Germany, the foundation stone of the Bayreuth Theatre was laid. It was built specially for the performance of Wagner�s works.

18/5/1872, Saturday (-26,652) Bertrand Russell, philosopher, mathematician, nuclear disarmer, and Nobel Prize winner for literature, was born at Ravenscroft, near Trelleck, Monmouthshire, Wales.

13/5/1872, Monday (-26,657) Moritz Hartmann, German poet, died (born 15/10/1821).

9/5/1872, Thursday (-26,661) Georg Maurer, German historical writer, died (born 22/11/1790).

====================================================================================

25/4/1872, Thursday (-26,675) Charles Fry, cricketer, was born (died 7/9/1956).

14/4/1872, Sunday (-26,686) Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Islamic scholar, was born.

13/4/1872, Saturday (-26,687) (Britain) Samuel Bamford, British politician, died in Harpurhey (born in Miston, Lancashire, 28/2/1788).

12/4/1872, Friday (-26,688) (Chemistry) Georges Urbain was born in Paris. In 1907 he discovered the element Lutetium, named after the Roman settlement that preceded Paris.

9/4/1872, Tuesday (-26,691) Erastus Corning, US politician and industrialist, died (born 14/12/1994).

2/4/1872, Tuesday (-26,698) (Telephone & Radio) Samuel Finley Breese Morse, American inventor of the Morse Code for telegraphy, died in New York City aged 80.

1/4/1872, Monday (-26,699) Hugo von Mohl, German botanical writer, died (born 8/4/1805).

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31/3/1872, Sunday (-26,700) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1872, Saturday (-26,715) (Football) The first English FA Cup Final took place at the Oval. Wanderers, made up of ex public school and university men, beat the Royal Engineers 1-0.

10/3/1872, Sunday (-26,721) (Italy) Guiseppe Mazzini, Italian revolutionary who fought for his country�s unity and independence, died in Pisa.

7/3/1872, Thursday (-26,724) Piet Mondrian, painter, was born.

6/3/1872, Wednesday (-26,725) Theodor Goldstucker, German writer on Sanskrit, died (born 18/1/1821).

4/3/1872, Monday (-26,727) the Boston Daily Globe began publication in the USA.

1/3/1872, Friday (-26,730) (USA) The first National Park in America, and its largest, Yellowstone National Park, was established.

===================================================================================

27/2/1872, Tuesday (-26,733) John Campbell, Scottish religious writer, died (born 1800).

24/2/1872, Saturday (-26,736) John Jarvis, champion swimmer, was born (died 9/5/1933).

8/2/1872, Thursday (-26,752) (India) Lord Mayo, British Viceroy to India, was murdered by nationalists.

6/2/1872, Tuesday (-26,754) Auguste Gratry, French author, died (born 10/3/1805).

3/2/1872, Saturday (-26,757) Sydney Smith, tennis champion, was born (died 27/3/1947).

1/2/1872, Thursday (-26,759) Bogumil Dawison, German actor, died (born 1818).

===================================================================================

31/1/1872, Wednesday (-26,760) Zane Grey, American Western writer, was born.

25/1/1872, Thursday (-26,766) Richard Ewell, US soldier, died (born 2/2/1817).

23/1/1872, Tuesday (-26,768) Gustav Hindersin, Prussian General, died (born 18/7/1804).

21/1/1872, Sunday (-26,770) Franz Grillparzer, Austrian poet, was born (died 21/1/1872).

20/1/1872, Saturday (-26,771) The Cavite Mutiny. Some 200 Filipino soldiers in the Spanish Army in the fort of San Felipe in the Philippines mutinied. They were swiftly repressed and later heavily punished. The incident was used by Spain as an excuse to crack down heavily on the fledgling Philippine independence movement, with intellectuals and priests being executed. However this simply created martyrs for the movement.

16/1/1872, Tuesday (-26,775)

12/1/1872, Friday (-26,779) (Ethiopia) Yohannas IV crowned King of Ethiopia.

11/1/1872, Thursday (-26,780) Wilfred and Herbert Baddeley, twins, tennis champions, were born.

9/1/1872, Tuesday (-26,782) Henry Halleck, US writer, died (born 1815).

6/1/1872, Saturday (-26,785) James Fisk, US financier, was shot and killed (born 1/4/1834).

2/1/1872, Tuesday (-26,789) Johann Lohe, German religious writer, died.

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22/12/1871, Friday (-26,800) (Britain) Edward Ellenborough, English politician, died (born 8.9.1790).

19/12/1871, Tuesday (-26,803) (USA) The city of Birmingham, Alabama, was incorporated. In 1870 the site of Birmingham was a cotton field crossed by two railways. Birmingham was founded by a land company backed by the railways.

16/12/1871, Saturday (-26,806) Willibald Alexis, novelist (born 26/9/1798 in Breslau) died in Arnstadt, Thuringia.

14/12/1871, Thursday (-26,808) (Railways) Henry Hudson, British railway developer, died. He was a speculative capitalist based in York, and financed the East Coast Line and the North Midland Railway.He was eventually disgraced for financial fiddling.

4/12/1871, Monday (-26,818) Germany adopted the mark as its currency unit.

1/12/1871, Friday (-26,821) Archibald MacLaren, cricketer, was born (died 17/11/1944).

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11/11/1871, Saturday (-26,841) William Lonsdale, English geologist, died (born 9/9/1794).

10/11/1871, Friday (-26,842) Historic meeting of explorer and missionary David Livingstone (born 19/3/1813, in Blantyre, Lanarkshire) with Sir Henry Morton Stanley at Ujiji (now in Tanzania). Livingstone died on 1/5/1873.

8/11/1871, Wednesday (-26,844) Charles Hall, US Arctic explorer, died (born 1821).

2/11/1871, Thursday (-26,850) In Britain, systematic photographing of convicted prisoners began.This was the start of the �rogue�s gallery�.

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27/10/1871, Friday (-26,856) In South Africa, Britain annexed the diamond-rich region of Griqualand West.

26/10/1871, Thursday (-26,857) Thomas Ewing, US politician, died (born 28/12/1789).

25/10/1871, Wednesday (-26,858)

24/10/1871, Tuesday (-26,859) (1) In Los Angeles, 19 Chinese were killed in anti-Chinese riots.

(2) The Aurora Borealis was seen as far south as southern England.

22/10/1871, Sunday (-26,861) Sir Roderick Murchison, British geologist, died.

19/10/1871, Thursday (-26,864) (Medical) Physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon was born in Prarie du Chien, Wisconsin. He devised the use of bismuth compounds to make soft organs visible on X-rays.

18/10/1871, Wednesday (-26,865) (Computing) Charles Babbage, pioneer of computing, died.

17/10/1871, Tuesday (-26,866) (USA) Death of Sylvester Mowry (born 17/1/1833). He was a miner and land speculator who promoted the establishment of the Arizona Territory.

11/10/1871, Wednesday (-26,872) (USA) The Great Fire of Chicago ended.

8/10/1871, Sunday (-26,875) (USA) The Great Fire of Chicago started, killing 300 people. 90,000 were made homeless and US$ 200 million damage was done.The fire ended on 11/10/1871; it was supposedly started in Mrs O�Leary�s barn in De Koven Street, by a cow upsetting a lantern. Four square miles of the city were destroyed, as a long spell of dry weather had made buildings tinder-dry.

7/10/1871, Saturday (-26,876) (Britain) Sir John Burgoyne, British Field-Marshal, died (born 1782).

4/10/1871, Wednesday (-26,879) John Scott, champion jockey, died (born 39/11/1794).

2/10/1871, Monday (-26,881) Mormon leader Brigham Young was arrested for bigamy.

====================================================================================

27/9/1871, Wednesday (-26,886) Brazil passed a law that children of slave mothers must serve their mother�s master from age 8 to 21 without pay, but then became free citizens.

17/9/1871, Sunday (-26,896) The 14 km Mont Cenis Tunnel, carrying the main railway from Lyons to Turin, was opened.

10/9/1871, Sunday (-26,903) Richard Bentley, book publisher, died (born in London 1794).

7/9/1871, Thursday (-26,906) George Hirst, cricketer, was born (died 10/5/1954).

6/9/1871, Wednesday (-26,907) (Turkey) Death of Pasha Aali Mehmet, Turkish statesman (born 1815). He strongly promoted Western style reforms of his country.

3/9/1871, Sunday (-26,910)

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30/8/1871, Wednesday (-26,914) Lord Rutherford, British scientist noted in the field of atomic research, was born in Spring Grove, near Nelson, South Island, New Zealand.

29/8/1871, Tuesday (-26,915) (France) Albert Lebrun, French President, was born.

22/8/1871, Tuesday (-26,922)

19/8/1871. Saturday (-26,925) (Aviation) Orville Wright, American aviation pioneer, was born in Dayton, Ohio, the younger of two brothers.

18/8/1871, Friday (-26,926) (Aviation) French pioneer Alphonse Penaud achieved a 13 second flight in his glider.

====================================================================================

31/7/1871, Monday (-26,944) Phoebe Cary, US poet, (born 4/9/1824) died.

13/7/1871, Thursday (-26,962) The first cat show took place.It was held at Crystal Palace, London, organised by Harrison Weir.

12/7/1871, Wednesday (-26,963) In New York, 31 civilians and 2 policemen were dead after fighting between Scots/Irish Presbyterians and Irish Catholics.

11/7/1871, Tuesday (-26,964) (USA) In New York City the ferryboat SS Westfield exploded, killing 104 people. Her

boiler was severely corroded, but safety standards remained lax.

10/7/1871, Monday (-36,965) Marcel Proust, writer, was born.

9/7/1871, Sunday (-26,966) Alexander Johnston, Scottish geographical writer, died (born 28/12/2804).

8/7/1871. Saturday (-26,967) Bismarck launched a cultural offensive against the Catholic Church, abolishing the Catholic Department for Spiritual Affairs.

4/7/1871, Tuesday (-26,971) Russian troops occupied the Ili area of Chinese Turkestan.

====================================================================================

29/6/1871, Thursday (-26,976) In Britain, the Trades Union Act granted legal status to unions.

27/6/1871, Tuesday (-26,978) Japan adopted the yen as a new currency.

18/6/1871, Sunday (-26,987) The Test Act allowed students at Oxford and Cambridge universities to gain degrees and fellowships without subscribing to any particular religion.

17/6/1871, Saturday (-26,988) James Weldon Johnson, Black civil rights leader, was born in Jacksonville, Florida.

13/6/1871, Tuesday (-26,992)

7/6/1871, Wednesday (-26,998) (Germany) August Bekker, German philosopher, died in Berlin (born 21/5/1785).

6/6/1871, Tuesday (-26,999) (Railways) The first railway in Western Australia opened. It was a private timber line from Lockville to Yoganup, south of Perth.

3/6/1871, Saturday (-27,002) London gained direct communication with Shanghai via an undersea cable laid via San Francisco.

1/6/1871, Thursday (-27,004) US Rear-Admiral John Rodgers attempted to emulate Commodore Perry�s opening up of Japan to US trade, by arriving off Seoul in his ship, the Colorado. His ship[s were fired upon as he approached Fort Chojijin on the Salee River. Receiving no apology for this, Rodgers then destroyed the fort, then left believing he had made his point of US dominance. However the Koreans believed they had repulsed the enemy. It was not until 1876 that Japan succeeded in forcing open Korea to trade and then only for Japan. US trade with Korea only began in 1883.

===================================================================================

29/5/1871, Monday (-27,007) (Britain) Whit Monday, became the first Bank Holiday in Britain.

28/5/1871, Sunday (-27,008) (France) The Paris Commune, set up on 28/3/1871, was brutally suppressed by French government troops. Urban warfare in Paris had killed 33,000 and left sections of the city in ruins. Other Communes in Lyons and Marseilles had also collapsed. The Paris Communards had failed to adequately man a fort defending the west of Paris.

27/5/1871, Saturday (27,009)

26/5/1871, Friday (-27,010) (Egypt) Ismailia was annexed to Egypt.

25/5/1871. Thursday (-27,011) (Britain) The House of Commons passed the Bank Holiday Act, creating public holidays on Easter Monday, Whit Monday, and Christmas Day. Monday.

23/5/1871, Tuesday (-27,013)

22/5/1871, Monday (-27,014) Eligius Munch-Bellinghausen, Austrian poet, died.

21/5/1871, Sunday (-27,015) (France-Germany) The Treaty of Frankfurt was ratified.

19/5/1871, Friday (-27,017)

18/5/1871, Thursday (-27,018) Denis Horgan, athletics (shot put), was born (died 2/6/1922).

17/5/1871, Wednesday (-27,019) (France) Georges Darboy, Bishop of Paris, died (born 16/1/1813).

14/5/1871, Sunday (-27,022)

12/5/1871, Friday (-27,024) In the USA, the Louisville District Court ruled that streetcars in Kentucky can no longer be segregated by race.

11/5/1871, Thursday (-27,025) (Astronomy) Sir John Frederick Herschel, English astronomer, died at Collingwood, Hawkhurst, Kent.

10/5/1871. Wednesday (-27,026) (France-Germany) Germany and France signed a peace treaty at Frankfurt. France surrendered all of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany. France also had to pay an indemnity of 5 billion francs to Germany, the equivalent amount that Napoleon I imposed on Prussia in 1807; a German army was to remain in France till this is paid. The British Prime Minister, Gladstone, protested that Alsace and Lorraine should not be handed over without a vote by the people living there. Prussia�s Prime Minister, Bismarck, placed no limit in the treaty on the size of France�s future army, gambling that France was already isolated and humbled by her defeat at Sedan.

8/5/1870, Monday (-27,028)

1/5/1870, Monday (-27,035) Fuller Pilch, cricketer, died (born 17/3/1804)

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30/4/1871, Sunday (-27,036) Around 150 White men and Papago Amerindians, who had traditionally hated the Apache, raided camp Grant in southern Arizona and attacked the Arivaipa Apache tribe. 108 were killed but most of the victims were women and children, because the men were mostly away hunting. Only 8 of the victims were men. N29 children were taken hostage and later sold as slaves in Mexico. The leaders of the raid were arrested but soon acquitted, and the massacre precipitated the Apache Wars of 1871-73, as US President Ulysses S Grant stepped up measures to confine the Apache to reservations, where they could be forcibly �civilised�.

29/4/1871, Saturday (-27,037) Charlotte Dodd, tennis champion, was born (died 27/6/1960)

28/4/1871, Friday (-27,038) James Mason, US politician, died (born 3/11/1798).

27/4/1871, Thursday (-27,039) Charles Kock, French novelist, died (born 21/5/1793).

22/4/1871, Saturday (-27,044) Melchior Meyr, German writer, died (born 28/6/1810).

20/4/1871, Thursday (-27,046) (Race equality, USA) In the US, the Klu Klux Klan Act outlawed paramilitary organisations such as the Klu Klux Klan.

19/4/1871, Wednesday (-27,047) The new German Parliament, the Reichstag, began planning for a permamnent home. This was not started until 9/6/1884.

14/4/1871, Friday (-27,052)

9/4/1871, Sunday (-27,057) Easter Sunday

8/4/1871, Saturday (-27,058) Chemistry) Jean Guimet, French industrial chemist, died (born 20/7/1795). In 1828 he won an award for inventing artificial ultramarine, as a substitute for the ultramarine prepared from lapis lazuli.

5/4/1871, Wednesday (-27,061)

3/4/1871, Monday (-27,063) Gustave Flourens, French writer, died (born 4/8/1838).

2/4/1871, Sunday (-27,064) William Sturgess, champion walker, was born (died 27/6/1945).

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31/3/1871, Friday (-27,066)

29/3/1871. Wednesday (-27,068) Queen Victoria opened the Royal Albert Hall in London; named in memory of Prince Albert. The Hall was intended as a cultural centre following on from the success of the Great Exhibition of 1851. The original plan was to have an auditorium seating 30,000 but due to financial difficulties they ended up with an oval hall with a glass and iron dome with 7,000 seats. The foundation stone was laid on 20/5/1867.

28/3/1871, Tuesday (-27,069) French proletarian radicals proclaimed a �Paris Commune�, backed by intellectuals and workers, hoping to exploit popular discontent at France�s humiliating loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany. The French Government fled to Versailles. See 28/5/1871.

27/3/1871. Monday (-27,070) The first international rugby match was played between Scotland and England at Edinburgh; Scotland won.

26/3/1871, Sunday (-27,071) Francois Fetis, Belgian composer, died (born 25/3/1784)

25/3/1871, Saturday (-27,072) American sculptor, Gutzon Borglum, was born near Bear Lake, Idaho.

21/3/1871, Tuesday (-27,076)

19/3/1871, Sunday (-27,078) Wilhelm Haidinger, German geological writer, died (born 5/2/1795).

18/3/1871, Saturday (-27,079) The Commune insurrection against the French Government began in Paris.

17/3/1871, Friday (-27,080) Robert Chambers, Scottish author, died (born 10/7/1802).

5/3/1871, Sunday (-27,092) Rosa Luxemburg, German Socialist leader and founder of the left-wing Spartacus movement, was born.

3/3/1871, Friday (-27,094) The first all-German elections were held, and returned a Parliament dominated by the National Liberal Party. The German Union was changed by this Parliament from a Bund (Federation, as proposed by Bismarck, to reassure states reluctant to join a Prussian-dominated union such as Baden and Wurttemberg that their autonomy would not be lost), to the more centralist term Reich, organised from Berlin. This was the Second Reich, (First Reich = Holy Roman Empire) which fell in 1918. The red-black-white colours of its flag inspired the colours of the Nazi Third Reich.

2/3/1871, Thursday (-27,095) Billy Bancroft, Welsh rugby player, was born (died 3/3/1959)

1/3/1871, Wednesday (-27,096) In France, Napoleon III was deposed and the Paris Commune set up.

====================================================================================

26/2/1871. Sunday (-27,099) Prussia and France signed a preliminary peace treaty at Versailles.

17/2/1871, Friday (-27,108) The Pact of Bordeaux was signed.

16/2/1871, Thursday (-27,109) The French fortress of Belfort capitulated to the Germans.

14/2/1871, Tuesday (-27,111)

13/2/1871, Monday (-27,112)

12/2/1871, Sunday (-27,113) Alice Cary, US poet, died (born 26/4/1820).

2/2/1871, Friday (-27,123) Jozsef Eotvos, Hungarian writer, died (born 13/9/1813).

=====================================================================================

28/1/1871. Saturday (-27,128) (France-Germany) Starving and surrounded by Prussian troops, Paris surrendered to Germany. During the 5-month siege, balloons were used to maintain contact with the rest of France. The Prussians tried to shoot the balloons down, so the French switched to night flights. Finally, a 3-week artillery bombardment destroyed all resistance. All the animals at Paris Zoo had been eaten (which one was eaten last?).

27/1/1871, Friday (-27,129) German forces grew impatient with the length of the siege of Belfort and on this day General von Tresckow launched an attack on the city which was repulsed and the siege operations resumed.

26/1/1871. Thursday (-27,130) The Rugby Football Union was founded in London, England, by 20 clubs.

25/1/1871, Wednesday (-27,131) (India) Sir Proby Cautley, British engineer of canals in India, died (born 1802).

22/1/1871, Sunday (-27,134) The Moselle railway bridge at Fontenoy was blown up.

20/1/1871, Friday (-27,136) Peirre Ponson du Terrail, French romantic writer (born 8/7/1829) died.

19/1/1871, Thursday (-27,137) (France-Germany) Germany defeated the French at the Battle of St Quentin.

18/1/1871, Wednesday (-27,138) (France-Germany) William I, King of Prussia, was declared Emperor of Germany at Versailles.

17/1/1871, Tuesday (-27,139) David Earl Beatty, British Admiral and Fleet Commander in World War One, was born in Nantwich, Cheshire.

15/1/1871, Sunday (-27,142) (France-Germany) Battle of Lisaine, near Belfort; Germany defeated France.

12/1/1871, Thursday (-27,144) (Britain) Henry Alford, English scholar (born 7/10/1810 in London) died in Canterbury,

10/1/1871, Tuesday (-27,146) (France-Germany) The Battle of Le Mans began; Germany defeated France.

9/1/1871, Monday (-27,147) (France-Germany) The Battle of Beaugency, near Orleans; Germany defeated France. Germany advanced towards Tours.

8/1/1871, Sunday (-27,148) (France-Germany) Prussian troops bombarded Paris.

7/1/1871, Saturday (-27,149) (Chemistry) Mendeleev announced that the gaps in his Periodic table represented undiscovered elements. These elements were discovered in 1875, 1879 and 1885, making Mendeleev famous.

3/1/1871, Wednesday (-27,152) In the USA, Henry W Bradley claimed the US patent for oleomargarine, the bgutter substitute based on clarified beef fat developed by chemist Hippolyte Mege Mouries in 1869 in France.

2/1/1871, Monday (-27,154) (France-Germany) Germany defeated France at the Battle of Baupame.

====================================================================================

25/12/1870, Sunday (-27,162) (Rail Tunnels) The Mont Cenis Tunnel through the Alps, 12.9 km long, was completed (work began 1857) when the tunnelers met in the middle.

24/12/1870, Saturday (-27,163) (USA) Albert Barnes, US theologian, died in Philadelphia (born in Rome, New York State, 1/12/1798).

23/12/1870, Friday (-27,164) (France-Germany) Germany defeated France at the Battle of Hallue, near Amiens. German forces now advanced south west towards Rouen.

22/12/1870, Thursday (-27,165) Gustavo Becquer, Spanish writer, died in Madrid (born in Seville 17/2/1836).

18/12/1870, Sunday (-27,169) Thomas Doubleday, English author, died (born 2/1790)

12/12/1870, Monday (-27,175) Joseph H Rainey became the first Black member of the House of Representatives in the USA. The Reverend Hiram H Revels became the first Black member of the Senate in February 1871.

10/12/1870, Saturday (-27,177) Adolf Loos, architect, was born.

9/12/1870, Friday (-27,178) (Arts) Maximillian Ainmuller, German artist, died (born in Munich, 14/2/1807).

8/12/1870, Thursday (-27,179) (Railways-GB) Thomas Brassey, railway engineer, died (born 1805).

5/12/1870, Monday (-27,182) Alexandre Dumas, French novelist, died (born 24/7/1802).

2/12/1870, Friday (-27,185) (France-Germany) Germany defeated France at the Battle of Loigny, near Orleans.

====================================================================================

28/11/1870, Monday (-27,189) (France-Germany) The Germans in the Franco-German War took Amiens.

21/11/1870, Monday (-27,196) Stanley Jackson, cricketer, was born (died 9/3/1947).

 

12/11/1870, Saturday (-27,205) Bogumil Goltz, German writer, died (born 20/3/1801).

9/11/1870, Wednesday (-27,208) (France-Germany) The Battle of Coulmiers, near Orleans; France defeated Germany.

4/11/1870, Friday (-27,213) Derbyshire County Cricket club was founded at a meeting in the Guildhall, Derby.

3/11/1870, Thursday (-27,214) (France-Germany) The Prussians besieged Belfort, 275 miles ESE of Paris. The siege continued until the armistice of 15/2/1871.

1/11/1870, Tuesday (-27,216) Stephen Crane, US writer, was born (died 5/6/1900).

====================================================================================

27/10/1870, Thursday (-27,221) (France) The French at Metz, 140,000 troops, surrendered to Prussia after a two-month siege. In November 1870 the southern German states of Wurttemberg and Bavaria joined with the North German Confederation, ensuring Prussian political hegemony. Francois-Achille Bazaine (1811-88), Marshall of France and commander of the 180,000 men besieged at Metz, was accused of treachery and after a court martial at Versailles in 1873 was sentenced to death. This was commuted by President Macmahon to 20 years imprisonment. In August 1874 Bazaine escaped from the island fortress of Ste Marguerite and fled to Madrid. His supporters maintained that Bazaine was a scapegoat for general French military inefficiency and for the failures of other Field Commanders from more distinguished families.

20/10/1870, Thursday (-27,228) Michael Balfe, Irish composer, died (born in Dublin 13/5/1808).

18/10/1871, Tuesday (-27,230) (Mathematics) Charles Babbage was born in Teignmouth, Devon died in London (born 26/12/1792 in Teignmouth, Devon).

12/10/1870, Wednesday (-27,236) Robert E Lee, US Confederate General during the Civil War, died in Lexington, Virginia.

7/10/1870, Friday (-27,241) Gambetta, French Minister of the Interior, escaped the siege of Paris in a balloon.Reaching the safety of Tours, he encouraged the French troops.

2/10/1870, Sunday (-27,246) In a plebiscite, the Papal States voted to unite with Italy. The capital of Italy was moved from Florence to Rome. This was under the reign of Pope Pius IX.

1/10/1870, Saturday (-27,247) The first British halfpenny stamp was introduced, for pre-paid postcards.

====================================================================================

30/9/1870, Friday (-27,248) (Technology) Physicist Jean Baptiste Perrin was born in Lille, France.

28/9/1870. Wednesday (-27,250) Strasbourg, under siege by Prussia since August 1870, was surrendered by the French.

26/9/1870, Monday (-27,252) King Christian X of Denmark was born.

24/9/1870, Saturday (-27,254) (Lighting) Georges Claude was born in Paris. In 1910 he introduced the neon light to Paris.

23/9/1870, Friday (-27,255) The French defenders, surrounded and under siege in Paris, succeeded in sending a balloon out with 227 pounds of mail. It passed over and beyond Prussian lines, giving news to the French provisional Government at Tours. The balloon was piloted by James Durouf.

22/9/1870, Thursday (-27,256) Charlotte Cooper, tennis champion, was born (died 10/10/1966).

21/9/1870, Wednesday (-27,257)

20/9/1870. Tuesday (-27,258) Taking advantage of the French defeat at Sedan, Italian troops under Victor Emmanuel II entered Rome and expelled the Papal troops. Garibaldi had made several attempts to take Rome with his people�s army, the last in 1867, but had been defeated by the French. Now however Napoleon III had his troops away from Rome to fight the Prussians. There was little resistance from Rome; the walls were shelled, and breached at Porta Pia, and only a few lives were lost.

19/9/1870. Monday (-27,259) Siege of Paris by the Germans began.

13/9/1870, Tuesday (-27,265) Peter Lehmann, Danish statesman, died (born 15/5/1810).

6/9/1870. Tuesday (-27,272) The last British troops serving in Australia were withdrawn.

4/9/1870. Sunday (-27,274) France formed a Republic (The Third Republic) and a government of national defence was formed.

2/9/1870. Friday (-27,276) Napoleon III of France capitulated to Prussia at Sedan. Fighting had lasted 44 days, and the 380,000 strong Prussian army had triumphed over the 235,0000 strong French army. Only a hastily assembled French National Guard stood between the Prussians and Paris. Empress Eugenie and the prince imperial fled to England. Napoleon III was held as prisoner in the comfortable royal apartments of Wilhelmshohe Castle. The French had sent a force to relieve their main Army besieged at Metz but this army, 84,000 men, 2,700 officers, 39 generals, surrendered to Prussia.

1/9/1870, Thursday (-27,277) (1) The Battle of Sedan; the Germans defeated the French.

(2) The siege of Metz began.

==================================================================================

31/8/1870, Wednesday (-27,278) Maria Montessori, who developed the Montessori system for teaching children, was born.

30/8/1870, Tuesday (-27,279) Battle of Beaumont; Germany defeated France.

24/8/1870, Wednesday (-27,285) A rebellion by Louis Reil (1844-85) was suppressed by British forces under Colonel Garnet J Wolseley (1833-1913), who captured his stronghold at Fort Garry (Winnipeg) without a fight. Riel fled the country. Riel and his Metis (French-Indigenous Indian Canadians) had been concerned that when the Hudson Bay Company sold its rights to the Canadian Government, the Metis would lose their traditional rights in the Red River area. See 12/5/1870.

18/8/1870. Thursday (-27,291) Prussian forces defeated the French at the Battle of Gravelotte.

17/8/1870, Wednesday (-27,292) Mount Rainier, Washington, was first successfully climbed.

16/8/1870, Tuesday (-27,293) The French lost to the Prussians at the Battle of Vionville.

15/8/1870, Monday (-27,294) In the US, the Transcontinental Railway was completed in Colorado.

14/8/1870. Sunday (-27,295) John Galsworthy, English author, was born in Combe, Surrey. When his Forsyte Saga was dramatised on BBC TV on Sundays in the 1960s, clergymen had to change times of their evening service to get a congregation.

13/8/1870, Saturday (-27,296) Germany defeated France at the Battle of Noisseville.

12/8/1870, Friday (-27,297)

11/8/1870, Thursday (-27,298) Thomas Richardson, cricketer, was born (died 2/7/1912).

10/8/1870, Wednesday (-27,299) Reinhold Klotz, German scholarly writer, died (born 13/3/1807).

9/8/1870, Tuesday (-27,300) (Women�s Rights) In Britain the Married Women�s Property Act was passed. It allowed women to retain �200 (around �70,000 in 2000 terms) of their own earnings.

8/8/1870, Monday (-27,301) Maximillian Ainmiller, German glass painter (born 14/2/1807) died.

7/8/1870, Sunday (-27,302) (Christian) Jozef Brems, Bishop of Roskilde, was born.

6/8/1870, Saturday (-27,303) Battle of Froeschwiller, in NE France; Germany defeated France.

5/8/1870, Friday (-27,304) At a public meeting in London, a resolution was passed calling for the formation of a British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War. This was the forerunner to the Red Cross.

4/8/1870. Thursday (-27,305) Germany defeated France at the Battle of Wissembourg, in NE France.

3/8/1870, Wednesday (-27,306)

2/8/1870, Tuesday (-27,307) Prussia had mobilised rapidly and now had 380,000 troops on the French border

1/8/1870. Monday (-27,308) Britain passed the Irish Land Act, providing compensation for Irish tenant farmers evicted from their land.

==================================================================================

27/7/1870, Wednesday (-27,313) Edward Foss, English legal writer, died (born 16/10/1787).

24/7/1870. Sunday (-27,316) The first transcontinental train arrived in New York from San Francisco.

22/7/1870, Friday (-27,318) Josef Strauss, composer, died

20/7/1870, Wednesday (-27,320) Lucien Anatole Prevost-Paradol, French writer, born 8/8/1829, died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.

19/7/1870. Tuesday (-27,321) France declared war on Prussia. The origins of this war lay in the vacancy of the Spanish throne, which the French regarded as their sphere of influence. There was a Hohenzollern (German) candidate for the Spanish throne, and Napoleon III demanded, not only the withdrawal of the Hozenhollern claim to the Spanish throne, but the guarantee from Germany never again to claim this position. In the Ems Telegram of 13/7/1870 the Prussian King, in Ems, wrote to Bismarck declining to give such a guarantee. France was unprepared for war and its army disorganised, and within a month the main French Army was besieged at Metz. See 2/9/1870.

18/7/1870. Monday (-27,322) Pope Pius IX obtained a declaration from the Vatican General Council that the papacy was infallible in all its pronouncements, per se and not by virtue of the assent of the Church.

16/7/1870, Saturday (-27,324)

14/7/1870, Thursday (-27,326) David Farragut, US naval hero of the Civil War, died in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

13/7/1870, Wednesday (-27,327) Victoria Embankment, London, constructed by Sir J W Bazalgette, was opened by the Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII.

12/7/1870, Tuesday (-27,328) John Dahlgreen, US Admiral, died.

9/7/1870. Saturday (-27,331) The Elementary Education Act was passed in the UK, giving compulsory free education to every child in England and Wales.

5/7/1870, Tuesday (-27,335) Gustav Flugel, German writer on the Orient, died (born 18/2/1802).

==================================================================================

27/6/1870, Monday (-27,343) George Clarendon, British statesman, died (born 12/1/1800).

25/6/1870, Saturday (-27,345) Queen Isabella of Spain abdicated. This precipitated the Franco-Prussian War, see 19/7/1870. One possible candidate for the vacant Spanish throne was the German Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. He was a Catholic, but France was alarmed at the thought of a German monarch to its south as well as to the north.

24/6/1870, Friday (-27,346) Adam Gordon, Australian poet, died (born 1833).

23/6/1870, Thursday (-27,347)

22/6/1870, Wednesday (-27,348) The US Department of Justice was established.

21/6/1870, Tuesday (-27,349) The Teintsin Massacre. Many Chinese resented the arrival of Christian missionaries, and to stir up trouble they spread rumours that the foreigners were sorcerers. At Tientsin the French Sisters of Mercy ran an orphanage and gave small cash rewards to people who brought in homeless or unwanted children; this gave rise to rumours of child kidnap and abuse. This day an angry Chinese crowd led by a magistrate assembled outside the orphanage; the French consul ordered his guards to fire on the crowd to disperse it. The Chinese now stormed the orphanage, killing 18 Europeans including the consul and 10 nuns. France demanded punishment as both Rome and France protested. Western naval ships sailed to Teintsin, 16 Chinese were executed and China made an official apology to France.

20/6/1870, Monday (-27,350) Paraguay signed a peace treaty with Argentina and Brazil, ceding 55,000 square miles of territory to these two countries.

 

9/6/1870, Thursday (-27,361) Charles Dickens, born 7/2/1812 at Landport, Portsmouth, died at Godshill, near Rochester, Kent, of a brain haemorrhage the previous evening.

3/6/1870, Friday (-27,367) (Slavery) The USA and Britain signed a Convention agreeing to suppress the African slave trade.

===================================================================================

31/5/1870, Tuesday (-27,370) (Biology) Jean Claparede, Swiss naturalist, died (born 24/4/1832).

27/5/1870, Friday (-27,374) Further Fenian raids took place from US territpry into Canada (see 1/6/1866). However public opinion had turned against them and there was a crackdown by the authorities, ending the raids.

24/5/1870, Tuesday (-27,377) Jan Christian Smuts, South African soldier and Prime Minister, was born in Malmesbury, Cape Colony.

23/5/1870, Monday (-27,378) Mark Lemon, editor of Punch magazine, died (born 30/11/1809).

14/5/1870, Saturday (-27,387) The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, USA, received iits Charter.

12/5/1870, Thursday (-27,389) Manitoba, previously called the Red River Colony and controlled by the Hudson Bay Company, was bought by Canada and made a province.

9/5/1870, Monday (-27,392) Harry Vardon, golfer, was born (died 20/3/1937).

==================================================================================

25/4/1870, Monday (-27,406) Daniel MacLise, Irish painter, died.

24/4/1870, Sunday (-27,407) Louisa Costello, authoress, died (born 1799).

22/4/1870, Friday (-27,409) Vladimir Illyich Lenin, Russian Communist leader, was born in Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk), as Vladimir Ilyitch Ulyanov, the son of a schools inspector.

17/4/1870, Sunday (-27,414) Easter Sunday.

13/4/1870, Wednesday (-27,418) The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA, received its Charter.

7/4/1870, Thursday (-27,424) Gustav Landauer, German anarchist, was born.

4/4/1870, Monday (-27,427) Heinrich Magnus, German chemist, died (born 2/5/1802).

1/4/1870, Friday (-27,430) Francisco Lopez, Commander in Chief of the Paraguayan Army, was killed as he attempted to escape from an ambush by Brazilian forces.

==================================================================================

20/3/1870, Sunday (-27,442) Thomas Erskine, Scottish religious writer, died (born 13/10/1788).

17/3/1870, Thursday (-27,445) Karl Neumann, German Orientalist writer, died (born 28/12/1793).

16/3/1870, Wednesday (-27,446) Henry Dixon, English sports writer, died (born 16/5/1822).

13/3/1870, Sunday (-27,449) Charles Montalambert, French historical writer, died (born 15/3/1810).

10/3/1870, Thursday (-27,452) Ignaz Moschelles, Bohemian pianist, died (born 30/5/1794).

4/3/1870, Friday (-27,458) John McClintock, US Methodist religious writer, died (born 27/10/1814).

1/3/1870, Tuesday (-27,461) President Lopez of Paraguay was killed.

====================================================================================

26/2/1870, Saturday (-27,464) The first underground railway in the USA opened, in New York.

25/2/1870, Friday (-27,465) Henrik Hertz, Danish poet, died (born 25/8/1798).

23/2/1870, Wednesday (-27,467) (USA) Anson Burlingame, US statesman, died (born 14/11/1820).

10/2/1870, Thursday (-27,480) The YWCA (Young Women�s Christian Association) was founded.

9/2/1870, Wednesday (-27,481) The United States weather service was published.

8/2/1870, Tuesday (-27,482)

7/2/1870, Monday (-27,483) Alfred Adler, psychoanalyst who introduced the idea of the inferiority complex, was born.

6/2/1870, Sunday (-27,484) James Braid, golfer, was born (died 27/11/1950)

4/2/1870, Friday (-27,486)

3/2/1870, Thursday (-27,487) (Race equality, USA) In the US, the Fifteenth Amendment gave every US citizen, regardless of race, the right to vote.

2/2/1870, Wednesday (-27,488) Press agencies Reuters, Havas, and Wolff signed an agreement whereby they could cover the world�s news between them.

==================================================================================

29/1/1870, Saturday (-27,492) (Italy) Leopold II, Grand-Duke of Tuscany, died (born 3/10/1797).

25/1/1870, Tuesday (-27,496) (France) Achille Duc de Broglie, French statesman, died (born 28/11/1785).

21/1/1870, Friday (-27,500) Alexander Hertzen, Russian author, died (born 1812).

18/1/1870, Tuesday (-27,503) Samuel Bailey, British author (born in Sheffield 1791) died.

10/1/1870, Monday (-27,511) John D Rockerfeler and his brother William founded the Standard Oil Company of Ohio, later known as Esso.

9/1/1870, Sunday (-27,512) Sir George Evans, British soldier, died (born 1787).

3/1/1870, Monday (-27,518) Work began on the Brooklyn � New York bridge over the East River.

===================================================================================

31/12/1869, Friday (-27,521) Henry Matisse, artist, was born.

24/12/1869, Friday (-27,528) (Britain) James Lee, English divine, died.

10/12/1869, Friday (-27,542) Wyoming became the first USA State to grant women the vote.

8/12/1869, Wednesday (-27,544) (Canada) In Toronto, T Eaton Ltd, shop, opened at 178 Yonge Street. It had fixed prices and no bartering or credit was allowed.

7/12/1869, Tuesday (-27,545) The East London Railway opened from New Cross Gate to Wapping.

===================================================================================

29/11/1869, Monday (-27,553) Giulia Grisi, Italian opera singer, died (born 1811).

23/11/1869, Tuesday (-27,559) Valdemar Poulson, Danish inventor of the tape recorder, was born.

17/11/1869, Wednesday (-27,565) The Suez Canal was opened after 10 years of construction. The 100-mile canal, from Port Said to Port Tewfik, 26 feet deep, with bays and use of lakes to provide passing places for ships and avoid the need for locks, was designed by Ferdinand De Lesseps. The distance from London to Bombay by sea was reduced from 11,220 to 6,332 miles. The Canal concession was granted to de Lesseps by Said Pasha, after whom Port Said is named. The cost was 400million francs, ten times the original estimate. See 25/4/1859. By 1875 Britain was the largest shareholder in the Canal. In 1870 there were 486 transits, and in 1966/67, 20,326 transits. President Nasser nationalised the Canal in 1956, see 29/10/1956.

11/11/1869, Thursday (-27,571) Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy, was born.

6/11/1869, Saturday (-27,576) Blackfriars Bridge, London, opened.

===================================================================================

29/10/1869, Friday (-27,484) Emile Deschamps, French poet, died (born 20/2/1791).

23/10/1869, Saturday (-27,490) John Conington, English classical writer, died (born 10/8/1825).

19/10/1869, Tuesday (-27,594) First railway in Romania opened; Bucharest to Giurgiu.

16/10/1869, Saturday (-27,597) Girton College, the oldest women�s college in Cambridge, was opened.

9/10/1869, Saturday (-27,604) Otto Erdmann, physician who introduced vaccination into Saxony, died (born 11/4/1804).

8/10/1869, Friday (-27,605) Franklin Pearce, US Democrat and 14th President from 1853 to 1857, died in Concord, New Hampshire.

5/10/1869, Tuesday (-27,608)

2/10/1869, Saturday (-27,611) Mahatma Ghandi, Indian nationalist leader, was born in Porbandar, Gujarat.

1/10/1869, Friday (-27,612) Austria issued the world�s first official post card.

====================================================================================

24/9/1869, Friday (-27,619) An American financial disaster, �Black Friday�, occurred when a shrewd and unscrupulous investor, Jay Gould, attempted to corner the gold market.

10/9/1869, Friday (-27,633) (USA) John Bell, US politician, died (born near Nashville, Tennessee 15/2/1797).

9/9/1869, Thursday (-27,634) Otto Jahn, German historical writer, died (born 16/6/1813).

6/9/1869, Monday (-27,637) William Fessenden, US politician, died (born 16/10/1806).

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31/8/1869, Tuesday (-27,643) Gregor MacGregor,cricketer, was born (died 20/8/1919).

25/8/1869, Wednesday (-27,649) Thomas Kiely, athlete, was born (died 6/11/1951).

10/8/1869, Tuesday (-27,664) (Arts) Laurence Binyon, English poet, was born in Lancaster.

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29/7/1869, Thursday (-27,676) Joseph Jukes, Engliush geologist, died (born 10/10/1811).

28/7/1869, Wednesday (-27,677) (Medical) Karl Carus, German physician, died (born 1789).

21/7/1889, Wednesday (-27,684) Alexander Johnston, US historical writer, died (born 29/4/1849).

18/7/1869, Sunday (-27,687) (Arts) Louis Bouilhet, French poet, died in Rouen (born in Cany 27/5/1822).

16/7/1869, Friday (-27,689) Karl Graf, German religious writer, died (born 28/2/1815).

15/7/1869, Thursday (-27,690) (Food) Hippolyte Mege Mouries of Paris patented margarine in France.

14/7/1869, Wednesday (-27,691) Lucie Duff-Gordon, writer, died (born 24/6/1821)

13/7/1869, Tuesday (-27,692) Anti-Chinese-labourer riots in San Francisco.

11/7/1869, Sunday (-27,694) William Jerdan, Scottish journalist, died (born 16/4/1782).

4/7/1869, Sunday (-27,701) (Railways) The Kansas City to Chicago railway opened.

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26/6/1869, Saturday (-27,709) (London) Southwark Park was opened to the public; it cost �55,000.

17/6/1869, Thursday (-27,718) Wilhelmshaven, Germany�s first military port, was officially inaugurated.

16/6/1869, Wednesday (-27,719) Charles Sturt, British explorer who ventured into the Australian interior to discover the Darling and Lower Murray Rivers, died aged 74 in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire.

15/6/1869, Tuesday (-27,720) A thermoplastic called celluloid, a technically-improved version of the plastic invented by the British chemist Alexander Parkes, was patented by American inventor John Wesley Hyatt of Albany, New York.

10/6/1869, Thursday (-27,725) Frederic Hurlstone, English painter, died (born 1800).

3/6/1869, Thursday (-27,732) John Broughton, English writer, died (born 27/6/1786).

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28/5/1869, Friday (-27,738) Ernst Hengstenberg, German religious writer, died (born 29/10/1802).

20/5/1869, Thursday (-27,746) Joshua Pim, tennis champion, was born (died 15/4/1942).

15/5/1869, Saturday (-27,751) Alexander Dyce, English historical writer, died (born 30/6/1798).

10/5/1869, Monday (-27,756) (USA, Railways) The first railroad across the USA from east to west, 1,776 miles long, was completed after three years work at a ceremony west of Ogden, in Utah. The Union Pacific Line finally met with the Central Pacific Line. Both companies raced to lay as much track as possible as they converged, spurred on by government payments of US$16,000 per mile, more for mountainous areas. A golden spike was driven in at Promontory Point, Utah, where the railways met. Travel time between New York and San Francisco was slashed from 3 months to 8 days.

3/5/1869, Monday (-27,763) The Great Western opened a goods station below Smithfield Market, connected to Paddington via the Metropolitan Line.

2/5/1869, Sunday (-27,764) Alexander Menshikov, Russian statesman, died (born 11/7.1787).

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20/4/1869, Tuesday (-27,776) Johann Lowe, German composer, died (30/11/1796).

9/4/1869, Friday (-27,787) (Canada) The Hudson Bay Company ceded its territory to Canada.

8/4/1869, Thursday (-27,788) Harvey Cushing, US surgeon, was born.

2/4/1869, Friday (-27,794) Christian Meyer, German palaeontological writer, died (born 3/9/1801).

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29/3/1869, Monday (-27,798) Sir Edward Lutyens, British architect, was born in London.

28/3/1869, Sunday (-27,799) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1869, Wednesday (-27,803) Antoine Jomini, French General, died (born 6/3/1779).

18/3/1869, Thursday (-27,809) (Britain) Neville Chamberlain, British Conservative Prime Minister 1937 to 1940 was born in Birmingham.

14/3/1869, Sunday (-27,813) (New Zealand) The third Maori rebellion in 15 years ended with the defeat of the rebel leader, Titokowaru.

10/3/1869, Wednesday (-27,817) The first scientifically-designed cremator was used, in Padua, Italy, by Dr L Brunetti to cremate the body of a 35-year-old woman.

8/3/1869. Monday (-27,819) The French composer Berlioz died in Paris.

6/31869, Saturday (-27,821) (Chemistry) Dmitri Mendeleev, Russian scientist (1834-1907), published his first version of the Periodic Table. By grouping the elements by properties, it was now possible to see where gaps existed and new elements awaited discovery.

2/3/1869, Tuesday (-27,825) Hugh Gough, British Field Marshal, died (born 3/11/1779).

1/3/1869, Monday (-27,826) (London Underground) London�s Metropolitan railway, opened 10/1/1863 and operating on both broad and standard gauge, changed to standard gauge only.

===================================================================================

28/2/1869, Sunday (-27,827) Alphonse Lamartine, French poet and writer, died (born 21/10/1790).

27/2/1869, Saturday (-27,828) The US passed the 15th amendment, entitling all southern Black citizens to vote. No State could be admitted to the Union without ratifying this amendment. However poll tax and literacy qualifications could still be used to debar Black people from voting, and the Klu Klux Klan intimidated many Black people from claiming their rights.

22/2/1869, Monday (-27,833) (Railways GB) The railway from Bishops Stortford to Braintree opened.

12/2/1869, Friday (-27,843) (South Africa) Sir John Brand, President of the Orange Free State, concluded a second Treaty with the Basuto, the Treaty of Aliwal North, after they had resumed hostilities following the Treaty of 3/4/1866.

===================================================================================

30/1/1869, Saturday (-27,856) William Carleton, Irish novelist, died (born 4/3/1794).

27/1/1869, Wednesday (-27,859) William Bassett, English footballer, was born (died 8/4/1937).

26/1/1869, Tuesday (-27,860) Ernest Jones, English Chartist, died (born 25/1/1819).

23/1/1869, Saturday (-27,863) William Ewart, English politician, died (born 1/5/1798).

20/1/1869, Wednesday (-27,866) Carl Gottling, German scholarly writer, died (born 19/1/1793).

15/1/1869, Friday (-27,871) Sir Henry Ellis, writer, died (born 29/11/1777)

12/1/1869, Tuesday (-27,874) Harold Hilton, golf champion, was born (died 5/3/1942).

10/1/1869, Sunday (-27,876) (Earthquake) Severe earthquake at Cachar, Assam, India

9/1/1869, Saturday (-27,877) (Chemistry) Richard Wilhelm Heinrich Abegg, German chemist, was born in Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland). He showed that the outer electron shell of an atom determines its chemical properties.

8/1/1869, Friday (-27,878) (Russia) Russian priest Grigory Rasputin was born, to parents Yefim and Anna in Pokrivskoe.

4/1/1869, Monday (-27,882) Tommy Corcoran, baseball player, was born.

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31/12/1868, Thursday (-27,886) James Forbes, Scottish scientific writer, died (born 20/4/1809).

24/12/1868, Thursday (-27,893) (Geology) Etienne Archiac, French geologist, died (born 24/9/1802 in Reims).

22/12/1868, Tuesday (-27,895) Solon Borglum, US sculptor, was born in Ogden, Utah.

13/12/1868, Sunday (-27,904) Carl Martius, German botanist, died (born 17/4/1794).

11/12/1868, Friday (-27,906) Greece and some European nations had sent aid to the Christians in Crete; this day Turkey threatened to blockade Greece unless it stopped this aid. Greece, to avoid another war, complied, but see 1896.

10/12/1868, Thursday (-27,907) (1) (Road Traffic) London�s first traffic lights were installed in Parliament Square, Westminster, to help MPs get to the House of Commons. The lights were like a railway signal, and operated by gas; they later exploded, killing a policeman. The lights were removed in 1872 and traffic lights were not used again until 3/8/1926.

(2) The first edition of Whitakers Almanack was published.

9/12/1868, Wednesday (-27,908) Following a Liberal General Election victory, William Ewart Gladstone formed the next UK government, defeating Disraeli.This was the first of Gladstone�s four terms of office as Prime Minister.

8/12/1868, Tuesday (-27,909) Norman Douglas, British writer (died in Capri, Italy, 9/2/1952) was born in Deeside, Scotland.

1/12/1868, Tuesday (-27,916)

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29/11/1868, Sunday (-27,918) (France) Antoine Berryer, French statesman, died in Augerville (born 1790).

28/11/1868, Saturday (-27,919) Frantisek Drdla, Czech composer, was born

27/11/1868, Friday (-27,920) Lieutenant Colonel George Custer and his 7th cavalry attacked the village of Cheyenne Indian chief Black Kettle. The Indians had been resisting the building of a railway in their territory.

25/11/1868, Wednesday (-27,922)

24/11/1868, Tuesday (-27,923) London�s Smithfield Market was opened by the Lord Mayor.

23/11/1868, Monday (-27,924) Friedrich Hermann, German economics writer, died 5/12/1795).

21/11/1868, Saturday (-27,926)

20/11/1868, Friday (-27,927) The foundation stone of the Albert Hall, London, was laid by Queen Victoria.

19/11/1868, Thursday (-27,928) William Mount, US artist, died (born 26/1/1807).

13/11/1868, Friday (-27,934) Giovanni Genelli, German painter, died (born 28/9/1798).

11/11/1868, Wednesday (-27,936) Phra Paramindr Maha Chulalongkorn was crowned King of King of Siam,

8/11/1868, Sunday (-27,939) Viscount Lee of Fareham, who gave the Buckinghamshire country house Chequers to the nation in 1921, was born.

7/11/1868, Saturday (-27,940) Royal Samuel Copeland, US politician, was born in Michigan.

6/11/1868, Friday (-27,941) Oglala Sioux Indians, led by Chief Red Cloud, signed a peace treaty with General William Sherman, representing the US Government, at Fort Laramie. This ended 2 years of fighting between Indians and gold miners.

5/11/1868, Thursday (-27,942)

4/11/1868, Wednesday (-27,943) Moritz Hornes, Austrian palaeontologist, died (born 14/7/1815).

3/11/1868, Tuesday (-27,944) Ulysses S Grant, ultimate commander of the Union armies in the Civil War, was elected president of the USA.

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31/10/1868, Saturday (-27,947) Emperor Mutsuhito of Japan was officially crowned, at Osaka.

27/10/1868, Tuesday (-27,951) (Britain) Charles Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury, died

26/10/1868, Monday (-27,952) Thomas Edison applied for a patent for his electronic voting machine.

21/10/1868, Wednesday (-27,957) (1) Sir Ernest Swinton, one of the inventors of the military tank, was born in Bamgalore, India.

(2) San Francisco was devastated by an earthquake, causing US$3million damage.

17/10/1868, Saturday (-27,961) Bernhard Beskow, Swedish dramatist, died (born 10/4/1796).

10/10/1868, Saturday (-27,968) A major rebellion against Spanish rule began, initiating a 10-year civil war. Cuban patriots proclaimed a revolution at Yara, issued the Grito de Yara, demanding independence from Spain.

9/10/1868, Friday (-27,969) Howell Cobb, US politician, died (born 7/9/1815).

7/10/1868, Wednesday (27,971) A non-stop stage coach covered the 2,600 miles from St Louis to Los Angeles in a record 20 days.

1/10/1868, Thursday (-27,977) (1) In London, St Pancras station, terminus of the Midland Railway, was formally opened. The line from Bedford via Luton and St Albans to St Pancras opened.

(2) Mongkut, King of Siam, died aged 64. In his 17-year reign he made considerable reforms, with Western help. His decision to roll back centuries of isolation was taken during his travels as a Buddhist monk for 27 years. In 1863 France had forced him to relinquish his vassal state of Cambodia, which became a French protectorate.

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26/9/1868, Saturday (-27,982) August Mobius, German mathematician, died (born 17/11/1790).

24/9/1868, Thursday (-27,984) Henry Milman, English historical writer, died.

22/9/1868, Tuesday (-27,986) Eustace Miles, rackets and tennis player, was born (died 20/12/1948).

21/9/1868, Monday (-27,987) Joseph Cumming, English geologist, died (born 15/2/1812).

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28/8/1868, Friday (-28,011) Antoine Clot, French physician, died (born 7/11/1793).

25/8/1868, Tuesday (-28,014) Jacob van Lennep, Dutch poet and novelist, died.

24/8/1868, Monday (-28,015) (USA) George J Adler, US lexicographer (born 1821) died.

19/8/1868, Wednesday (-28,020)

13/8/1868, Thursday (-28,026) (Earthquake) A major earthquake killed over 25,000 people and devastated four cities in Peru and Ecuador

12/8/1868, Wednesday (-28,027) Under duress, Navajo Chiefs signed a Treaty with the US Government agreeing to live on a 3.5 million reservation which was only a small portion of the former Navajo domain. The reservation later grew to 14.5 million acres, but was mostly desert and semi-desert, with just 68,000 acres of farmland. Meanwhile during a 5-year period of Navajo internment their population had fallen from 10,000 to 8,000 and of their former 200,000 sheep, just 940 were left.

11/8/1868, Tuesday (-28,028) Halfdan Kjerulf, Norwegian composer, died (born 15/9/1815).

10/8/1868, Monday (-28,029) Adah Menken, US actress, died.

4/8/1868, Tuesday (-28,035) Jacques Boucher, French writer, died in Abbeville (born in Rethel 10/9/1788).

2/8/1868, Sunday (-28,037) (Greece) Constantine, King of the Hellenes, was born in Athens (died 11/1/1923 of a brain haemorrhage in Palermo).

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29/7/1868, Wednesday (-27,041) John Elliotson, English physician, died (born 29/10/1791).

28/7/1868, Tuesday (-27,042) (USA) The USA and China signed the Burlingame Treaty at Washington DC, defining mutual rights of migration between the two countries.

27/7/1868, Monday (-27,043)

26/7/1868, Sunday (-27,044) (Britain) Robert Cranworth, Lord Chancellor of England, died in London

25/7/1868, Saturday (-27,045) (USA) President Johnson signed an Act creating the territory of Wyoming.

24/71868, Friday (-27,046) George Cattermole, English painter, died (born 1800).

23/7/1868, Thursday (-27,047)

21/7/1868, Tuesday (-27,049) Heinrich Grafe, educationalist writer, died (born 3/5/1802).

20/7/1868, Monday (-27,050) Miron Cristea, Prime Minister of Romania, was born.

18/7/1868, Saturday (-27,052) Emanuel Leutze, US artist, died (born 24/5/1816).

15/7/1868, Wednesday (-27,055) (Medical) William Thomas Morton, US dentist, died in New York City, New York.

14/7/1868, Tuesday (-27,056) Dynamite was first tested in Sweden; it was invented by Alfred Nobel.

12/7/1868, Sunday (-27,058) The Scottish Reform Act was passed.

9/7/1868, Thursday (-27,061) (Race Equality, USA) The US passed the Fourteenth Amendment, during the period of �reconstruction� following the conclusion of the Civil War. It guaranteed equality before the law for Blacks and Whites alike, specifically including ex-slaves here, and prohibited any State from �abridging their privileges� or denying them �equal protection of the laws�. However, due to the fact that corporations are also �persons� before the law, the 14th Amendment began to be used for purposes it was not intended for. The 14th Amendment was used to shield companies from government regulation, and even, before the 1950s, to justify racial discrimination because it contained the words �separate but equal�. Later, in the 1980s, it was still being used to block so-called �positive discrimination in favour of racial minorities.

6/7/1868, Monday (-27,064) Samuel Lover, Irish novelist, died (born 24/2/1797).

4/7/1868, Saturday (-27,066) The last resistance in Japan by pro-Tokugawa forces ceased, as they were defeated at the Battle of Ueno, near Edo (eastern capital), now known as Tokyo.

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29/6/1868, Monday (-28,071) Julius Beresford, rower, was born (died 29/9/1959).

25/6/1868, Thursday (-28,075) (Prisons) Strangeways Prison, Manchester, opened; it replaced the New Bailey Prison, Salford, which closed in 1868.

11/6/1868, Thursday (-28,089) (Malaysia) Sir James Brooke, British colonial administrator of Borneo, died (born 29/4/1803).

10/6/1868, Wednesday (-28,090) Serbian Prince Michael III Obrenovic was assassinated near Belgrade, aged 43. He was succeeded by his 13-year-old cousin Milan, who became King in 1882, and ruled until 1889.

9/6/1868, Tuesday (-28,091)

7/6/1868, Sunday (-28,093) Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Scottish architect, was born.

6/6/1868, Saturday (-28,094) Robert Falcon Scott, British explorer of the Antarctic, was born near Devonport, Devon.

4/6/1868, Thursday (-28,096)

2/6/1868, Tuesday (-28,098) The first Trades Union Congress was held in Manchester. It lasted until 6/6/1868.

1/6/1868, Monday (-28,099) James Buchanan, American Democrat and 15th President from 1857 to 1861, and the only bachelor President, died in Wheatland, near Lancaster, Pennsylvania, aged 77.

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28/5/1868, Thursday (-28,103)

26/5/1868, Tuesday (-28,105) The last public execution in Britain took place outside Newgate Prison. Michael Barrett, the hanged man, had murdered 12 people with a bomb.

25/5/1868, Monday (-28,106) Rene Weil (Romain Coolus), French dramatist, was born in Rennes.

24/5/1868, Sunday (-28,107)

23/5/1868, Saturday (-28,108) (USA) Kit Carson, US soldier and fur trapper who did much to open up the West to White settlers, died (born 24/12/1809).

22/5/1868, Friday (-28,109) (Mathematics) Julius Plucker, German mathematician, died in Bonn, Germany.

20/5/1868, Wednesday (-28,111)

19/5/1868, Tuesday (-28,112) (Geology) John Fillmore Hayford was born in Rouses Point, New York. He used the new science of geodesy to determine the exact shape of the Earth.

18/5/1868, Monday (-28,113) (Russia) Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia, was born, the son of Alexander III.

11/5/1868, Monday (-28,120) John Crawfurd, Scottish writer on the Orient, died (born 13/8/1783).

7/5/1868, Thursday (-28,124) (Britain) Henry Brougham, Lord Chancellor of England, died (born 19/9/1778)

6/5/1868, Wednesday (-28,125) Louis Cormenin, French political lobbyist, died (born 6/1/1788).

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23/4/1868, Thursday, (-28,138) Renn Hampden, English religious writer, died (born 1793).

21/4/1868, Tuesday (-28,140) (Crime & Punishment) In the UK, a Bill to abolish capital punishment, introduced by Mr Gilpin MP, was defeated by 127 votes to 23.

13/4/1868, Monday (-28,148) (Ethiopia) Magdala, Abyssinia, was finally taken by the British.

12/4/1868, Sunday (-28,149) Easter Sunday

10/4/1868, Friday (-28,151)

7/4/1868, Tuesday (-28,154) Thomas McGee, Canadian writer, died.

6/4/1868, Monday (-28,155) The Japanese Government under Emperor Meiji issued a general policy statement known as the Charter Oath, following the overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate. This Oath declared that ancient feudal social ranks and other practices would be eliminated from Japanese society, and that a programme of modernisation based on Western values would be followed.

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28/3/1868. Saturday (-28,164) The Earl of Cardigan, who led the Charge of the Light Brigade (25/10/1854) to disaster at Balaclava, in the Crimean War, died. He is best remembered for the woollen garment named after him.

26/3/1868, Thursday (-28,166) (Egypt) King Fuad I of Egypt was born.

25/3/1868, Wednesday (-28,167) William Lockwood, cricketer, was born (died 26/4/1932).

18/3/1868, Wednesday (-28,174)

14/3/1868, Saturday (-28,178) (Maritime) London�s Milwall Docks opened.

13/3/1868, Friday (-28,179) First impeachment trial of a US President. Andrew Johnson was accused of illegally removing a federal office holder. He was found not guilty and remained in office until the end of his term.

11/3/1868, Wednesday (-28,181) (Islam) Emir Talal of Arabia, suffering from an incurable illness, committed suicide.

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29/2/1868, Saturday (-28,192) (Germany) Ex-King Louis of Bavaria died in Munich, aged 81. Louis was a patron of the arts and his capital, Munich, was a centre of culture. Louis had an affair with an Irish dancer, Marie Gilbert (stage name Lola Montez). This affair provoked a revolution; Louis had to abdicate in 1848, and Marie died destitute in New York in 1861, aged 43.

25/2/1868, Tuesday (-28,196) (USA) Andrew Johnson, 17th US President 1865-69, was impeached.

17/2/1868. Monday (-28,204) (Britain) Ill health caused the resignation of the Conservative Prime Minister Lord Derby. He was succeeded by Benjamin Disraeli on 29/2/1868.

11/2/1868, Tuesday (-28,210) (Science) Jean Foucault, French physicist who invented the gyroscope and measured the speed of light, died in Paris.

10/2/1868, Monday (-28,211) (Science) Sir David Brewster, Scottish physicist, died in Allerly, Roxburghshire.

7/2/1868, Friday (-28,214)

4/2/1868, Tuesday (-28,217) (Women�s Rights) Birth of Constance Markievicz, Irish Republican and first woman elected to the UK House of Commons.

3/2/1868, Monday (-28,218) (Germany, Newspapers) Karl Mathy, Baden statesman who worked for German unity, and who helped found the newspaper Deutsche Zeitung, which promoted the unification of the German states, died (born 17/3/1807).

===================================================================================

28/1/1868, Tuesday (-28,224) Sir Edmund Head, British colonial Governor of Canada, died (born 1805).

23/1/1868, Thursday (-28,229) Janos Erdelyi, Hungarian poet, died (born 1814).

16/1/1868, Thursday (-28,236) A patent for a refrigerator car, called an �ice box on wheels�, was granted to William Davis, a fish dealer in Michigan, USA.

10/1/1868, Friday (-28,242) Athanase Coquerel, French religious writer, died (born 17/8/1795).

9/1/1868, Thursday (-28,243) (Chemistry) Soren Peter Lauritz Sorensen, Danish chemist, was born in Javreberg. In 1909 he introduced pH as a measure of acidity and alkalinity.

8/1/1868, Wednesday (-28,244) (Astronomy) Sir Frank Dyson, British astronomer, was born in Measham, then in Derbyshire.

5/1/1868, Sunday (-28,247)

3/1/1868, Friday (-28,249) The 16-year-old Emperor Meiji seized control of Japan from the Tokugawa Shogun, ending 700 years of military rule. Japan was now more open to the outside world.

2/1/1868, Thursday (-28,250) Arthur Gore, tennis champion, was born (died 1/12/1928).

1/1/1868, Wednesday (-28,251) In New York, Susan B Anthony began publication of a suffragist journal called The Revolution.

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27/12/1867, Friday (-28,256) (Light) Antoine Claudet, pioneer of photography, died (born 12/8/1797).

22/12/1867, Sunday (-28,261) Painter Theodore Rousseau died in Barbizon, aged 55.

13/12/1867, Friday (-28,270) Twelve people died when Irish Fenian bombers blew up the outer wall of the Clerkenwell prison in London in an attempt to rescue a jailed colleague. In fact the bomb not only brought down the outer wall of the prison but wrecked a row of houses opposite, killing 12 and injuring 120. They failed to release the prisoner. The Fenians also attempted to set off a bomb in Manchester. The Fenians, who originated in the USA, were named after Finn McCool, leader of a legendary band of 3rd century Fianna warriors who defended Ireland against the evil Fomor giants.

12/12/1867, Thursday (-28,271) Charles Daubeny, scientific writer, died (born 11/2/1795).

10/12/1867, Tuesday (-28,273)

9/12/1867, Monday (-28,274) (Railways) The line to Lyttleton, from Christchurch, was opened, and the short section to Ferrymead was abandoned.

8/12/1867, Sunday (-28,273) (Medical) Jean Pierre Flourens, French physiologist, died.

7/12/1867, Saturday (-28,274)

6/12/1867, Friday (-28,275) Karl Bitter, US sculptor, was born in Vienna.

5/12/1867, Thursday (-28,276) (Italy) France stated that it would never permit the Italians to occupy Rome. Bismarck of Prussia was not slow to take advantage of the resultant anti-French sentiment in Italy, to prevent any future Franco-Italian alliance against Prussia.

2/12/1867, Monday (-28,281) English author Charles Dickens drew large crowds in New York to his readings of his novels there.

===================================================================================

27/11/1867, Wednesday (-28,286) (Chemistry) Thomas Clark, Scottish chemist, died (born 31/1/1801).

26/11/1867, Tuesday (-28,287) Mrs Lily Maxwell of Manchester, who had been placed on the electoral register by mistake, was escorted by a police bodyguard to the voting booth to protect her from opponents to women�s suffrage.

19/11/1867, Tuesday (-28,294) Fitz-Greene Halleck, US poet, died (born 8/7/1790).

14/11/1867, Thursday (-28,299) Jacques Brunet, French writer, died (born 2/11/1780).

13/11/1867, Wednesday (-28,300) Adolphe Didron, French archeological writer, died (born 13/3/1806).

12/11/1867, Tuesday (-28,301) The Conservative Party held their first Annual Party Conference, in a London pub, the Freemasons in Great Queen Street.

9/11/1867, Saturday (-28,304) The Japanese Shogun Yoshinobo abdicated as pressure increased to end the Shogun rule and restore the pre 12th century rule by the Emperors. The late Emperor Komei�s son Mutsohito took power, aged 15.

7/11/1867, Thursday (-28,306) Marie Curie, who discovered radium, was born in Warsaw, as Marie Sklodowska.

3/11/1867, Sunday (-28,310) The Battle of Mentana. Garibaldi was defeated by French troops rushed to Italy by Napoleon III to defend Rome. Garibaldi�s poorly-organised and diplomatically ill-advised attempt to march on the Papal capital resulted in France revoking on the September Convention, under which French troops had been withdrawn from Italy in December 1966.

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30/10/1867, Wednesday (-28,314) (USA) John Albion Andrew, US politician, died in Boston (born 31/5/1818 in Windham, Maine).

23/10/1867, Wednesday (-28,321) Franz Bopp, German scholarly writer, died (born in Mainz 14/7/1791).

18/10/1867, Friday (-28,326) (USA) Sovereignty of Alaska was formally transferred from Russia to the USA at a ceremony at Sitka.

15/10/1867, Tuesday (-28,329) (Mathematics) Jacques Inaudi, Italian child calculating prodigy, was born.

14/10/1867, Monday (-28,330) Okubo Toshimichi, a senior courtier of the feudal Japanese House of Satsuma, travelled from the capital, Edo, to the provincial town of Yamguchi to meet with leaders of the Choshu clan. Toshimichi proposed to overthrow the ruling Satsuma House, and succeeded in forming the secret Satcho alliance, along with the Toza and Hizen clans.

12/10/1867, Saturday (-28,332)

10/10/1867, Thursday (-28,334) Julius Mosen, German writer, died.

9/10/1867, Wednesday (-28,335) (Italy) Carlo Filangieri, Neapolitan soldier and statesman, died (born 1784).

3/10/1867, Thursday (-28,341) Elias Howe, inventor of the first practical sewing machine in 1846, died. He made US$ 2 million from his invention.

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26/9/1867, Thursday (-28,348) Charles Fowler, English architect, died (born 26/9/1867)

20/9/1867, Friday (-28,354) Michael Lacy, Irish musician, died in London.

17/9/1867, Tuesday (-28,357) Francis Blackburne, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, died (born in County Meath 11/11/1782).

14/9/1867, Saturday (-28,360) Charles Gibson, US artist, was born.

11/9/1867, Wednesday (-28,363) (Italy) Italian General Cadorna marched with 60,000 men into Papal Territory. Cittavecchia surrendered, but the Pope decided to use his force of 10,000 men in Rome to show that he was at least making some resistance to this incursion.

10/9/1867, Tuesday (-28,364) Simon Schechter, composer, died

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31/8/1867, Saturday (-28,374) Charles Baudelaire, French poet, died in Paris (born in Paris 9/4/1821).

28/8/1867, Wednesday (-28,377) The Midway Islands, in the Pacific Ocean, were claimed for the US by Captain Reynolds.

25/8/1867, Sunday (-28,380) Michael Faraday, scientist and inventor, pioneer in electromagnetism, died at Hampton Court.

24/8/1867, Saturday (-28,381) (Railways) The Brenner Pass railway, from Italy into Austria, opened.

23/8/1867, Friday (-28,382) Auguste Barthelemy, French poet, died in Marseilles (born 1796).

19/8/1867, Monday (-28,386) James Gordon became the first person to cross the English Channel by canoe, taking 11 hours to travel from Boulogne to Dover.

16/8/1867, Friday (-28,389) Friedrich Haase, German scholarly writer, died (4/1/1808).

15/8/1867, Thursday (-28,390) (Great Britain) By a Parliamentary Reform Act, one million more voters were added to the UK electorate, mostly urban ratepayers. Those who owned house and paid rates, or lodgers paying more than �10 a year rent, could now vote.The enfranchised population of the UK now stood at 7.9%.

6/8/1867, Tuesday (-28,399)

4/8/1867, Sunday (-28,401) John Galsworthy, English novelist, was born.

3/8/1867, Saturday (-28,402) Stanley Baldwin, British Conservative and three times Prime Minister between 1923 and 1937, was born at Bewdley, Worcestershire, the only son of a wealthy industrialist and member of parliament. The author Rudyard Kipling was Baldwin's cousin on his mother's side of the family.

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29/7/1867, Monday (-28,407) (USA) Charles Anthon, US classicist, died in New York (born 19/11/1797 in New York City).

26/7/1867. Friday (-28,410) (1) Russia formed the governor-generalship of Turkestan, having moved into the area to prevent Muslim incursions into their territory.

(2) King Otto I of Greece died.

21/7/1867, Sunday (-28,415) Christian Brandis, German historical writer, died (born 1790)

18/7/1867, Thursday (-28,418) William Dodd, archery champion, was born (died 8/10/1954).

16/7/1867, Tuesday (-28,420) Joseph Monier of Paris patented reinforced concrete.

14/7/1867. Sunday (-28,422) Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel first demonstrated the use of dynamite in Merstham Quarry, Redhill, Surrey.

10/7/1867, Wednesday (-28,426) Finley Dunne, US journalist, was born.

1/7/1867. Monday (-28,435) (1) Britain granted Canada self-governing dominion status. Britain still maintained control over foreign policy. The Dominion of Canada was set up by the British North America Act. It comprised four million people and four provinces, Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.

(2) The German Federal Constitution came into force.

===================================================================================

25/6/1867. Tuesday (-28,441) The first barbed wire was patented by Lucien B Smith of Kent, Ohio. The barbs protruded from small pieces of wood along the wire; this may not have been commercially manufactured but in 1868 a more successful design was commercially produced. This invention was vital for opening up the American west to ranchers since there was insufficient wood for cattle fencing. Barbed wire for defence was first used by American troops in the Spanish � American War of 1898.

24/6/1867, Monday (-28,442) Horatio McCulloch, Scottish landscape painter, died.

21/6/1867, Friday (-28,445) Santa Anna, Mexican leader, died.

19/6/1867, Wednesday (-28,447) Emperor Maximillian of Mexico was executed by firing squad, despite international appeals for clemency. Born in Vienna, brother of Emperor Francis Joseph and Archduke of Austria, he became Emperor of Mexico in 1864, following France�s invasion of Mexico in 1862. Mexicans opposed his rule, and further resentment arose from Maximillian�s lavish lifestyle, and the corruption and inefficiency of his regime. In October 1866 he fled Mexico, intending to abdicate, but was persuaded to return, then arrested and court-martialled.

18/6/1867, Tuesday (-28,448) Turkey passed a law allowing, for the first time, foreigners to own land within Turkey, except in Hejaz.

17/6/1867. Monday (-28,449) Joseph Lister performed a mastectomy on his sister Isabella, using carbolic acid as an antiseptic. It was the first operation under antiseptic conditions.

8/6/1867, Saturday (-28,458) The Hapsburg Emperor, Francis Joseph I, was crowned Apostolic King of Hungary at Buda.

4/6/1867, Tuesday (-28,462) Carl Mannerheim, Finnish soldier and politician, President, was born in Vilnas.

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5/1867,

27/5/1867, Monday (-28,470) Enoch Arnold Bennett, British novelist, was born.

26/5/1867, Sunday (-28,471) Queen Mary, wife of King George V, was born in Kensington Palace as Princess Mary of York.

24/5/1867, Friday (-28,473)

22/5/1867, Wednesday (-28,475) Edward Baily, British sculptor, died in Holloway (born in Bristol 10/3/1788).

21/5/1867, Tuesday (-28,476) Frances Theresa Densmore was born in Red Wing, Minnesota. She recorded and documented the songs and music of over 30 Amerindian tribes before her death at age 87.

20/5/1867, Monday (-28,477) The foundation stone of the Royal Albert Hall was laid by Queen Victoria.

15/5/1867, Wednesday (-28,482) Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico, surrendered to Juarez�s forces

12/5/1867, Sunday (-28,485) Friedrich Gerhard, German archaeological writer, died (born 29/11/1795).

3/5/1867, Friday (-28,494) John Hearne, cricketer, was born (died 17/4/1044).

1/5/1867, Wednesday (-28,496) The Confederate leader Jefferson Davies walked out of a Virginia courtroom, free after 2 years in prison. But he still faced treason charges, as well as involvement in the assassination of President Lincoln.

===================================================================================

26/4/1867, Friday (-28,501) (Serbia) Under influential pressure from Russia, France and Austria, Turkey withdrew its troops from the fortress at Belgrade.

21/4/1867, Sunday (-28,506) Easter Sunday.

18/4/1867, Thursday (-28,509) John Smirke, who designed the fa�ade of the British Museum, died.

17/4/1867, Wednesday (-28,510) The North German Reichstag adopted the new Federal Constitution.Four years later all of the German Empire had adopted it.

16/4/1867, Tuesday (-28,511) The American aviation pioneer, Wilbur Wright, was born. He was the elder of the two brothers.

14/4/1867, Sunday (-28,513) Edgar Seligman, fencing champion, was born (died 27/9/1958).

12/4/1867, Friday (-28,515) Robert Bell, Irish writer, died (born in Cork 16/1/1800).

3/4/1867, Wednesday (-28,524) Gustav Klimt founded the Vienna Secessionist art movement.

1/4/1867, Monday (-28,526) In Paris, the World Fair opened. The first hydraulic lift was demonstrated by the engineer Edoux, and Japanese art was on show in the West for the first time.

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30/3/1867, Saturday (-28,528) The USA purchased Alaska from Russia. Senate voted for the purchase by a single vote. The price was US$7.2 million, less than 2 cents per acre for Alaska�s 375 million acres. Some derided the purchase of this vast wasteland, calling it �Icebergia� or �Polaria�. However William Seward, Secretary for the Interior, said that Alaska had great riches in the form of furs, minerals, and fisheries.

29/3/1867, Friday (-28,529) The British North America Act created the dominion of Canada, comprising the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.

25/3/1867, Monday (-28,533) Jacques Hittorff, French architect, died (born 20/8/1792).

15/3/1867. Friday (-28,543) Austria and Hungary buried their differences and agreed to joint rule, sharing defence, foreign, and financial matters but with separate parliaments. However the Czechs, annoyed by the minor role they were given in this arrangement, walked out of the Parliament on 22/8/1868.

6/3/1867, Wednesday (-28,552) John Goodsir, Scottish anatomist, died (born 20/3/1814).

5/3/1867, Tuesday (-28,553) Fenian uprising in Ireland against British rule failed.

1/3/1867, Friday (-28,557) (USA) Nebraska became the 37th State of the Union.

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17/2/1867, Sunday (-28,569) (Hungary) Julius Andrassy was appointed first constitutional premier of Hungary.

13/2/1867, Wednesday (-18,573) Harold Mahoney, tennis champion, was born (died 27/6/1905).

11/2/1867, Monday (-18,575) Thomas Kingsdown, English lawyer, died (born 11/2/1793).

8/2/1867, Friday (-28,578) (Austria, Germany) As Prussia became increasingly powerful under Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck and King Wilhelm I, political differences between Germany and the Hapsburgs of Austria, who had ruled Austria since 1278, grew. This weakened Austria to the point where Hungary threatened to break away, and to save the unity of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was forced to agree to a Dual Monarchy, where each State had a separate government and a convoluted system of joint Ministers to oversee the Empire. However this in turn alienated ethnic minorities within Austro-Hungary, ultimately sparking off demands for Serbian independence and the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand that led to World War One.

5/2/1867, Tuesday (-28,581) (Railways) The Invercargill to Bluff railway, New Zealand, opened.

====================================================================================

31/1/1867. Thursday (-28,586) The four great bronze lions at the base of Nelson�s Column were completed by painter Sir Edward Landseer and positioned in Trafalgar Square.

22/1/1867, Tuesday (-28,595) (Electricity) Sir William Harris, electrical scientist, died (born 1/4/1791).

17/1/1867, Thursday (-28,600) Jacques Deslongchamps, French geologist, died (born 17/1/1794).

15/1/1867, Tuesday (-28,602) 40 people died when ice gave way in a lake in Regents Park, London. The depth of the lake was subsequently reduced to four feet.

14/1/1867, Monday (-28,603) Painter Jean Auguste Ingres died aged 86 in Paris.

13/1/1867, Sunday (-28,604) Victor Cousin, French philosophical writer, died (born 28/11/1792).

11/1/1867, Friday (-28,606) Mexican President Benito Juarez returned to Mexico City after the defeat of French forces.

7/1/1867, Monday (-28,610) Henri, Marquis de la Rochejacquelin, died (born 28/9/1805).

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31/12/1866, Monday (-28,617) August Haxthausen, German economics writer, died (born 3/2/1792).

21/12/1866, Friday (-28,627) The Bozeman Trail, built by the US Government to enable miners to export their product to the east coast, was encroaching on Sioux hunting grounds and Chief Red Cloud (1822-1909) warned that this was unacceptable. The US built Fort Phil Kearney to guard the trail in northern Wyoming, but was then attacked by the Sioux. An 82-strong force under William Judd Fetterman was sent to rescue the fort but was lured into a trap and massacred by some 1,500 Sioux under Chief High Backbone this day. Parts of the Bozeman trail were subsequently closed.

4/12/1866, Tuesday (-28,644) Wassily Kandinsky, painter, was born.

1/12/1866, Saturday (-28,647) (Cartography) Sir George Everest, British surveyor of India, died (born 4/7/1790).

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28/11/1866, Wednesday (-28,650) Arthur Lilley, cricketer, was born (died 17/11/1929).

22/11/1866, Thursday (-28,656) (France) Amable Barante, French historian, died (born 10/6/1782 in Riom).

17/11/1866, Saturday (-28,661) the railway from Oldenburg to Delmenhorst opened; in July 1867 was extended to Bremen followed, and in September 1866 the section from Oldenburg to Heppens was completed.

14/11/1866, Wednesday (-28,664) Miguel I, King of Portugal, died.

13/11/1866, Tuesday (-28,665) Rossini, Italian composer, died in Passy, France, aged 76.

12/11/1866, Monday (-28,666) Sun Yat Sen, President of China, was born.

8/11/1866, Thursday (-28,670) The Birmingham car manufacturer Herbert Austin was born in Little Missenden.

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19/10/1866, Friday (-28,690) (Football) Chesterfield football club was formed.

13/10/1866, Saturday (-28,696) William Hopkins, English geologist, died (born 2/2/1793).

12/10/1866, Friday (-28,697) Ramsay MacDonald, who in 1924 became Britain�s first Labour Prime Minister, was born in Lossiemouth, Morayshire, Scotland.

6/10/1866, Saturday (-28,703) George Cotton, English educationalist, died (born 20/10/1813).

3/10/1866, Wednesday (-28,706) (1) A peace treaty was concluded between Austria and Italy.Austria surrendered Venetia to Italy.Prussia annexed Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, and Frankfurt Am Main.The southern German states agreed that their troops should come under the command of Prussia in the event of war.

(2) The states north of the Mainz joined a new North German Confederation under Prussian leadership.Austria was finally excluded from the German Confederation.The formerly independent duchy of Nassau, Germany, 1,830 square miles, was incorporated with the Kingdom of Prussia.

2/10/1866, Tuesday (-28,707) Carl Buck, US scholarly writer, was born.

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25/9/1866, Tuesday (-28,714)

22/9/1866, Saturday (-28,717) President Lopez of Paraguay won the Battle of Curupayti, after several defeats by the Triple Alliance., but this was only a temporary respite for him.

21/9/1866, Friday (-28,718) The author H G Wells was born at Bromley, Kent.He was the son of a professional cricketer.

18/8/1866, Tuesday (-28,721)

15/9/1866, Saturday (-28,724) Augustus Gould, US writer on conchology, died (born 23/4/1805).

14/9/1866, Friday (-28,725) Leon Gozlan, French novelist, died (born 1/9/1806).

10/9/1866, Monday (-28,729) Charles MacLaren, editor, died (born 7/10/1782).

6/9/1866, Thursday (-28,733) Three British tea clippers reached London within hours of each other after a 16,000 mile race from China. The Serica, Taiping and Ariel left Foochow at the end of May 1866 ; the 200 foot clippers were the fastest ships yet built, sailing at over 20 mph.

1/9/1866, Saturday (-28,738) Cannon Street railway station, London, was opened.

=================================================================================

27/8/1866, Monday (-28,743) Eugene de Bully, French writer, died in Paris (born in Paris 8/11/1806).

26/8/1866, Sunday (-28,744) Hermann Goldschmidt, German painter, died (born 17/6/1802).

23/8/1866, Thursday (-28,747) The Treaty of Prague was signed, ending the war between Austria and Prussia.

9/8/1866, Thursday (-28,761) An order from Italian General Lamamora reached Garibaldi; that he was to desist from attacking the Austrians and evacuate the province of Trentino. Prussia would not allow Italian expansion into Austria this far north. Garibaldii now retired again to Caprera, to plan an attack on Rome (Papal States).

6/8/1866, Monday (-28,764) Christian Fahlcrantz, Swedish author, died (born 30/8/1790).

1/8/1866, Wednesday (-28,769) Luigi Farini, italian statesman, died (born 22/10/1812).

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28/7/1866, Saturday (-28,773) Beatrix Potter, author and illustrator of children�s books, and creator of Peter Rabbit, was born in South Kensington, London.

27/7/1866. Friday (-28,774) The first successful transatlantic cable was laid by the Great Eastern, which arrived this day at Hearts Content, Newfoundland. Attempts had been made to do this since 1856.

25/7/1866, Wednesday (-28,776) The Italians were defeated in a sea battle against Austria off Lissa.

22/7/1866, Sunday (-28,779) A Plebiscite in Venetia produced an overwhelming majority in favour of unification with Italy; 647,246 votes for, and only 69 against.

21/7/1866, Saturday (-28,780) Italy defeated Austria at Bezzecca.

19/7/1866, Thursday (-28,782) Italy defeated Austria at Amploa.

16/7/1866, Monday (-28,785) Italy defeated Austria at Condino.

11/7/1866, Wednesday (-28,790) James Lane, US politician, died.

10/7/1866, Tuesday (-28,791) Italy defeated Austria at Darso.

7/7/1866, Saturday (-28,794) (Education-Schools) Friedrich Diesterweg, German educationalist, died (born 29/10/1790).

3/7/1866, Tuesday (-28,798) (1) In northern Czechoslovakia, the Austrian army was routed by Prussian forces at the Battle of Sadowa (Koniggratz). The victory by Bismarck was sealed at the Treaty of Prague, by which Austria renounced her claim to Schleswig-Holstein, where Germany would later build a great naval base at Kiel and build the Kiel Canal linking the Baltic and North Seas.

(2) Italy defeated Austria at Monte Saello.

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29/6/1866, Friday (-28,802) (Germany)The Hanoverian army was forced to capitulate to the Prussians after a defeat in the Battle of Lasngensalza. King George V of Hanover had refused, contrary to the wishes of his Parliament, to agree to Prussian demands that the Kingdom of Hanover remain neutral in the war between Prussia and Austria. In 9/1866 Hanover was formally annexed by Prussia.

25/6/1866, Monday (-28,806) (Biology) Thomas Hunt Morgan was born in Lexington, Kentucky. In 1907 he began his work with fruit flies, drosophila melanogaster, to establish the laws of heredity.

24/6/1866, Sunday (-28,807) The Italians fighting the Austrians were defeated at Custozza.

17/6/1866, Sunday (-28,814) The New York Athletic Club was founded by John G Babcock, who also invented a sliding seat for rowers.

15/6/1866, Friday (-28,816) Prussian troops crossed the frontiers of Hanover, Saxony, and Hesse-Cassel.

14/6/1866, Thursday (-28,817) (Germany, Austria) The brief Austro-Prussian War began, over a dispute between Prussia and Austria over the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.

7/6/1866, Thursday (-28,824) Prussian troops entered Holstein.This was the start of the Austro-Prussian War.

1/6/1866, Friday (-28,830) The Irish-American Fenian Brotherhood hoped to liberate Ireland from British rule by starting a was between Britain and America. To achieve this, this day they mounted a raid across from Buffalo, New York State, on the Canadian town of Eerie. It took Canadian forces three days to push the 1,500 Fenians back across the US border. A similar raid was made the following week from Vermont across into eastern Canada.

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24/5/1866, Thursday (-28,838) John Etheridge, English religious writer, died (born 24/2/1804).

18/5/1866, Friday (-28,844) Francis Mahony, Irish author, died.

12/5/1866, Saturday (-28,850) The direct railway from Cork to Macroom opened.

11/5/1866, Friday (-28,851) London was hit by a financial panic, �Black Friday�.

10/5/1866, Thursday (-28,852) The American Equal Rights Association was founded.

2/5/1866, Wednesday (-28,860) Spain bombarded the Peruvian port of Callao. A week later Spain ceased hostilities.

====================================================================================

24/4/1866, Tuesday (-28,868) The Klu Klux Klan was formed by White Supremacists, in reaction to US President Andrew Johnson�s programme of reconstruction following the American Civil War, which included enlarging the civil rights of the Black population.

23/4/1866, Monday (-26,869) Charles Glenelg, British politician, died (born 26/10/1778).

13/4/1866, Friday (-28,879) Butch Cassidy, USA outlaw, was born

10/4/1866, Tuesday (-28,882) The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) was founded by New York shipbuilder�s son Henry Bergh, 43, who served as the first president of the ASPCA. It�s main objective was preventing the abuse of horses.

8/4/1866. Sunday (-28,884) Bismarck arranged an alliance between Italy and Germany. Italy promised to join Germany in war against Austria if war broke out in the next three months.

3/4/1866, Tuesday (-28,889) (South Africa) Sir John Brand, President of the Orange Free State,concluded the Treaty of Thaba Bosigo with the Basuto people of South Africa, against whose incursions he had been fighting since 1865. See 12/2/1869.

2/4/1866, Monday (-28,890)

1/4/1866, Sunday (-28,891) Easter Sunday; Chester Harding, US portrait painter, died (born 1/9/1792).

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31/3/1866, Saturday (-28,892) A Spanish fleet under Admiral Casto Mendez Nunez bombarded the port of Valparaiso, Chile. Peru allied with Chile.

29/3/1866, Thursday (-23,894) John Keble, English poet, died.

26/3/1866, Monday (-23,897) Jack McAuliffe, boxer, was born (died 5/11/1937).

24/3/1866, Saturday (-23,899) Roualeyn Gordon-Cumming, Scottish writer, died (born 15/3/1820).

22/3/1866, Thursday (-23,901) (Football) First official match played by Nottingham Forest football club (formed 1865); the match was against Nottingham County FC.

21/3/1866, Wednesday (-23,902) Charles Cooper, English writer, died (born 20/3/1808).

17/3/1866, Saturday (-23,906)

13/3/1866, Tuesday (-23,910) (Sound) Dayton Miller was born in Strongsville, Ohio. In 1912 he invented the photodeik, a device that made sound visible as patterns of light.

12/3/1866, Monday (-23,911) (Road traffic) Giovanni Agnelli, founder of the FIAT (Fabrica Italiano Automobili Torino) was born. He founded the FIAT company in 1899.

4/3/1866, Sunday (-23,919) (USA) Alexander Campbell, US religious leader, died (born 12/9/1788).

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23/2/1866, Friday (-23,928) Laurent de Jussieu, scholarly writer, died.

22/2/1866, Thursday (-23,929) After a period of financial mismanagement, Alexander Cuza of Romania was compelled to abdicate, and give safe conduct out of the country.

21/2/1866, Wednesday (-23,930) (Medical) August von Wasserman, German bacteriologist who invented a test for syphilis, was born.

17/2/1866, Saturday (-28,934)

12/2/1866, Monday (-28,939) (Mexico, USA) Invoking the Monroe Doctrine, the USA called for the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico. Maximilian, having failed to secure recognition of his regime from the US, now sought help from Napoleon III and the Pope, but his cause was hopeless.

11/2/1866, Sunday (-28,940) William Brande, English chemist, died in Tunbridge Wells (born in London 11/1/1788).

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27/1/1866, Saturday (-28,955) John Gibson, English sculptor, died (born 1790).

20/1/1866, Saturday (-28,962) Richard le Gallienne, English poet, was born.

14/1/1866, Sunday (-28,968) Resentment in Peru at the terms of the treaty woth Spain (see 27/1/1865) allowed General Mariano Ignacio Prado (1826-1901) to take control of government. He then made defensive alliances with Bolivia and Ecuadoir, then declared war on Spain.

12/1/1866, Friday (-28,970) (Aviation) The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain was formed. The only means of flying was then by balloon.

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31/12/1865, Sunday (-28,982) Fredrika Bremer, novelist, died (born 17/8/1801)

30/12/1865, Saturday (-28,983) Rudyard Kipling, story and verse writer, was born in Bombay.

28/12/1865, Thursday (-28,985)

25/12/1865, Monday (-28,988) (USA) The Union stockyards at Chicago opened, on 345 acres of reclaimed swampland SW of the city. The shutdown of the Mississippi River as a trade route due to the US Civil War meant that Chicago replaced Cincinnati, Louisville and St Louis as the nation�s meat packing centre, along with the railways now serving Chicago. The new stockyards could hold 10,000 cattle and 100,000 hogs.

24/12/1865, Sunday (-28,989) (Race equality, USA) The Klu Klux Klan was founded in the US by six men in Pulaski, Tennessee.

18/12/1865, Monday (-28,995) (Race Equality, USA) Slavery was officially abolished in the USA with the ratification of the 13th Amendment, signed on 1/2/1865. See 16/6/1858. The slave trade to the United States had been prohibited in 1807 but slavery continued in the southern States as the cotton trade grew. The publication of Harriet Beecher�s Uncle Tom�s Cabin in 1852 convinced many of the evils of slavery but Northerners were still reluctant to back a full abolitionist policy. But they did not wish to see slavery spread from the South either and this led to the American Civil War of 1861-65 after the election of Abraham Lincoln as president. Slaves were freed in areas joining the Northern side and in all areas after the 13th Amendment was passed.

14/12/1865, Thursday (-28,999) The Buenos Aires to Chascomus railway, 70 miles, opened.

10/12/1865, Sunday (-29,003) Leopold I, King of Belgium, its first sovereign after separation from The Netherlands, died aged 74. He was succeeded by his 30-year old son, Leopold II.

8/12/1865, Friday (-29,005) Jean Sibelius, Finnish composer, was born in Hameenlinna, the son of a surgeon.

1/12/1865, Friday (-29,012) Abraham Frohlich, Swiss poet, died (born 1/2/1796).

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28/11/1865, Tuesday (-29,015) Johann Lappenberg, German historical writer, died (born 30/7/1894).

25/11/1865, Saturday (-29,018) (Africa) Heinrich Barth, German explorer of Africa, died in Berlin (born in Hamburg 16/2/1821).

12/11/1865, Sunday (-29,031) Elizabeth Gaskell, English novelist, died (born 29/9/1810).

8/11/1865, Wednesday (-29,035) Andre Dupin, French statesman, died (born 1/2/1783).

7/11/1865, Tuesday (-29,036) The Repeating Light Company, Springfield, Massachusetts, made the first pocket lighter.

6/11/1865, Monday (-29,037) (Medical) William Leishman was born in Glasgow, Scotland. In 1900 he discovered that the disease now known as Leishmaniasis is spread by a parasite of sandflies.

4/11/1865, Saturday (-29,039)

2/11/1865, Thursday (-29,041) Warren Harding, American Republican and 29th President, was born near Corsica (now called Blooming Grove), Ohio, the son of a rural doctor.

1/11/1865, Wednesday (-29,042) John Lindley, botanical writer, died (born 5/2/1799)

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26/10/1865, Thursday (-29,048) Benjamin Guggenheim, US businessman, was born

24/10/1865, Tuesday (-29,050) Nobel was granted a patent in the USA for his new invention of dynamite.

18/10/1865, Wednesday (-29,056) Lord Palmerston died, two days short of his 81st birthday. He was staying at his wife�s house, Brockett Hall in Welwyn, Hertfordshire, when struck by fever. He was Secretary for war, Foreign Secretary, and then Prime Minister during a time when Britain was the richest and most powerful nation on Earth.When he was born, on 20/10/1784, Britain had a population of 9 million, 80% of whom worked in agriculture. When he died, Britain had a population of 29 million, 60% of whom worked in manufacturing.

15/10/1865, Sunday (-29,059) Andres Bello, poet, died in Santiago, Chile (born in Caracas, Venezuela, 29/11/1781)

12/10/1865, Thursday (-29,062) Arthur Harden, chemist, was born.

11/10/1865, Wednesday (-29,063) Race riots at Morant Bay, Jamaica, as Black people attacked White people.

8/10/1865, Sunday (-29,066) Heinrich Ernst, German composer, died (born 1814).

2/10/1865, Monday (-29,072) The first railway in Sri Lanka opened, from Colombo to Ambepussa.

1/10/1865, Sunday (-29,073) Paul Dukas, French composer, was born in Paris, France (died17/5/1935 in Paris).

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30/9/1865, Saturday (-29,074) Dudley Costello, English novelist, died (born 1803).

29/9/1865, Friday (-29,075) Francois Heim, French painter, died (born 16/12/1787)

28/9/1865, Thursday (-29,076) Elizabeth Garrett Anderson was admitted to the register as the first qualified woman surgeon and physician in Britain.

26/9/1866, Tuesday (-29,078) Francis Hawks, US religious writer, died (born 10/6/1798)

22/9/1865, Friday (-29,082) (Britain) George Elkington, founder of the Birmingham electroplating industry, died.

15/9/1865, Friday (-29,089) (Ireland) The British arrested Fenian leaders in Ireland who were preparing an uprising.

11/9/1865, Monday (-29,093) Christophe Lamoriciere, French General, died (born 11/9/1806).

2/9/1865, Saturday (-29,102) Sir William Hamilton, Scottish mathematician, died (born 4/8/1805).

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27/8/1865, Sunday (-29,108) Thomas Haliburton, English writer, died (born 1796).

26/8/1865, Saturday (-29,109) Johann Encke, German astronomer, died (born 23/9/1791).

18/8/1865, Friday (-29,117) Alexander Mavrocordato, Greek statesman, died (born 11/2/1791).

13/8/1865, Sunday (-29,122) (Medical) Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis died in Vienna, Austria, of childbed fever, a disease he had tried hard to eliminate.

12/8/1865, Saturday (-29,123) (Medical) British surgeon Joseph Lister, 38, operating at Glasgow Royal Infirmary, pioneered the use of carbolic acid as a disinfectant, aiming to reduce the 50% mortality rate amongst amputees.

10/8/1865, Thursday (-29,125) Alexander Glazunov, Russian composer, was born.

7/8/1865. Monday (-29,128) In the continuing Muslim rebellion in Chinese Turkestan, Ya�qub Beg captured the oasis towns of Kucha and Aksu and took the ruler Burhanuddin as prisoner. On 7/9/1865 Ya�qub Beg captured Kashgar, slaughtering some 4,000 Han Chinese.

4/8/1865, Friday (-29,131) William Aytoun, Scottish poet, died in Blackhills near Elgin (born 21/6/1813).

2/8/1865, Wednesday (-29,133) Alice�s Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll (Charles Dodgson) was published.

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31/7/1865, Monday (-29,135) (Railways) The Ipswich to Grantchester railway, 21 miles, opened. The first railway in Queensland.

27/7/1866, Thursday (-29,139) The Atlantic Telegraph Cable was completed.

13/7/1865, Thursday (-29,153) Edward Whymper became the first person to climb the Matterhorn.

11/7/1865, Tuesday (-29,155) Richard Hildreth, US writer, died (born 28/6/1807).

8/7/1865. Saturday (-29,158) Four of the conspirators involved in the murder of President Lincoln (see 15/4/1865) were hanged. Another three were sentenced to life imprisonment.

7/7/1865, Friday (-29,159)

6/7/1865, Thursday (-29,160) Emile Jacques Dalcroze, inventor of eurhythmics dancing, was born.

5/7/1865, Wednesday (-29,161) The Locomotives and Highways Act in Britain introduced a speed limit for road vehicles of 4mph in the countryside and 2mph in the towns.

2/7/1865. Sunday (-29,164) The Salvation Army was founded, by William Booth, with a revival meeting in Whitechapel, London.

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13/6/1865, Tuesday (-29,183) Irish writer William Butler Yeats was born.

9/6/1865, Friday (-29,187) Carl Nielson, composer, was born.

8/6/1865, Thursday (-29,188) Sir Joseph Paxton, ornamental gardener and architect who designed the Crystal Palace for the 1851 Great Exhibition, died.

6/6/1865, Tuesday (-29,190) USA civil war southern supporter William Quantrill, born 1837,, died from wounds sustained whilst trying to escape from Unionist soldiers.

3/6/1865, Saturday (-29,193) King George V, second son of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra, was born at Marlborough House in London.

2/6/1865, Friday (-29,194) George Lohmann, cricketer, was born (died 1/12/1901).

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29/5/1865, Monday (-29,198) Nicolas Geruzez, French writer, died (born 6/1/1799)

26/5/1865. Friday (-29,201) The Confederate Army under General Kirby Smith surrendered in Texas, fully ending the American Civil War.

25/5/1865, Thursday (-29,202) (Science) Pieter P Zeeman was born in Sommaire, Netherlands. In 1896 he discovered that spectral lines of gases in a magnetic field are split, now known as the Zeeman effect.

18/5/1865, Thursday (-29,209) Peter Latham, tennis champion, was born (died 27/11/1953).

10/5/1865. Wednesday (-29,217) (USA) Jefferson Davies, Confederate President of the USA, was taken prisoner by Union forces in the American Civil War.

5/5/1865. Friday (-29,222) The world�s first train robbery took place, at North Bend, Ohio.

4/5/1865, Thursday (-29,223) Henry Christy, English scholarly writer, died (born 26/7/1818).

2/5/1865, Tuesday (-29,225)

1/5/1865. Monday (-29,226) Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay formed a triple alliance against Paraguay. This war began when Paraguayan President Lopez tried to force a pro-Paraguayan president on the people of Uruguay. Brazil intervened in support of the legitimate candidate, and Lopez declared war on Brazil. He also declared war on Argentina, for refusing passage for his troops across its territory, and for good measure declared war on Uruguay too. A few months later Brazil had sunk the Paraguayan navy in the Parana River and by 1867 the alliance�s land forces under Argentine General Bartolome Mitre had penetrated deep into Paraguayan territory. By January 1869 the Paraguayan capital Asuncion was in ruins and two thirds of the adult population of Paraguay was either dead or missing.

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30/4/1865, Sunday (-29,227) (Climate) Meteorologist Robert Fitzroy died in London.

29/4/1865, Saturday (-29,228) Abtaham Gesner, Canadian geologist, died (born 1790)

28/4/1865, Friday (-29,229) Samuel Cunard, Canadian ship owner and founder of the British steamship company, Cunard Line, died.

27/4/1865, Thursday (-29,230) In the US, the paddle steamer Sultana exploded on the Mississippi River, killing 1,600 people on board.

26/4/1865, Wednesday (-29,231) John Wilkes Booth, the assassin of President Abraham Lincoln, died of a bullet wound incurred whilst resisting arrest in a burning barn on a farm near Bowling Green, Virginia.

18/4/1865, Tuesday (-29,239) Uruguay joined Argentina in fighting Paraguay.

16/4/1865, Sunday (-29,241) Easter Sunday.

15/4/1865, Saturday (-29,242) The Vice President, Andrew Johnson, was sworn in as President. See 14/4/1856.

14/4/1865. Friday (-29,243) President Lincoln was shot by an assassin. He died the following day, 15/4/1865.The assassin, John Wilkes Booth, a failed actor, was himself shot dead on 26/4/1865. He had entered the Box Seven of Ford�s Theatre and shot the President in the back of the head with a single bullet. The audience was laughing, and few heard the shot. Booth then slashed at a soldier who rushed him, jumped on stage and shouted �Thus always to tyrants � the South is avenged�. Booth managed to escape the theatre, but was tracked down by police and federal agents. President Lincoln was buried on 4/5/1865 at Springfield, Illinois, where he began his legal career and where he married. See 8/7/1865.

13/4/1865, Thursday (-29,244) Lopez, dictator of Paraguay, seized two Argentine warships, and the next day occupied the Argentine town of Corrientes.

11/4/1865, Tuesday (-29,246)

9/4/1865. Sunday (-29,248) The American Civil War ended when General Robert E Lee surrendered his Confederate army to General Ulysses S Grant at the Appomattox Court House, Virginia. The 27,000-strong Confederate army was effectively beaten but was seeking to gain access to a railway which could have taken them south to join with General Johnson�s forces in North Carolina. But Union forces blocked this move. The Confederate soldiers were allowed to keep their horses and small arms, on condition that they did not take up arms against the North again. This surrender effectively ended a conflict that had set brother against brother, and taken over half a million lives. See 26/5/1865.

8/4/1865, Saturday (-29,249) Erich von Ludendorff, German soldier, was born.

7/4/1865, Friday (-29,250) Battle of Farmville, Virginia, USA/.

6/4/1865, Thursday (-29,251) The Battle of Sailor's Creek was fought near Farmville, Virginia, as part of the Appomattox Campaign, near the end of the American Civil War. The Confederates were defeated.

5/4/1865. Wednesday (-29,252) Union troops destroyed the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia.

4/4/1865, Tuesday (-29,253) London�s Southern Outfall Sewer, at Plumstead Marshes, was opened by King Edward VII (as Prince of Wales).

3/4/1865, Monday (-29,254) Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign)

2/4/1865, Sunday (-29,255) (USA) Grant broke through at Petersburg, forcing the Confederates to abandon Richmond.

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31/3/1865, Friday (-29,257)

19/3/1865, Sunday (-29,269) Joseph Lebeau, Belgian statesman, died (born 3/1/1794).

13/3/1865, Monday (-29,275) During the American Civil War, the Confederates passed a law allowing African Americans to enlist in their army. Whilst their freedom was not explicitly promised, their being armed made them effectively free.

10/3/1865, Friday (-28,278) Charles Morny, French statesman, died (born 21/10/1811)

8/3/1865, Wednesday (-29,280) Construction of the Amsterdam � North Sea Canal began.

3/3/1865. Friday (-29,285) (1) The USA established the Bureau of Freed Slaves, offering them education, medical care, and financial assistance.

(2) Worcestershire County Cricket Club was founded at a meeting at the Stag Hotel, Worcester.

2/3/1865, Thursday (-29,286) President Lincoln rejected Confederate attempts to negotiate, demanding unconditional surrender.

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27/2/1865, Monday (-29,289) Miklos Josika, Hungarian novelist, died.

25/3/1865, Saturday (-29,291) Otto Ludwig, German novelist, died.

22/2/1865, Wednesday (-29,294) Wilmington, the last Confederate port, fell to the Union forces.

21/2/1865, Tuesday (-29,295) Stapleton Cotton Combermere, British Field-Marshal, (born 14/11/1773) died at Clifton.

17/2/1865, Friday (-29,299) (USA) Confederate troops abandoned Charleston. Sherman�s forces occupied Columbia, South Carolina.

7/2/1865, Tuesday (-29,309) The first issue of the Pall Mall Gazette.

6/2/1865, Monday (-29,310) Robert E Lee became Commander of the Confederate forces in America.

3/2/1865, Friday (-29,313)

1/2/1865, Wednesday (-29,315) President Abraham Lincoln signed a Resolution proposing the Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery in the USA.

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31/1/1865, Tuesday (-29,316) Hugh Falconer, palaeontologist, died (born 29/2/1808)

27/1/1865, Friday (-29,320) Spain and Peru agreed a treaty where Spain recognised Peruvian independence and Peru would pay a 3 million peso indemnity for losses suffered by Spanish subjects at Talambo, and for the return of the Chincha Islands.

21/1/1865, Saturday (-29,326) (USA) Sherman left Savannah, starting an advance through the Carolinas.

18/1/1865, Wednesday (-29,329) Charles Greville, English diarist, died (born 2/4/1794).

15/1/1865, Sunday (-29,332) Edward Everett, US writer, died (born 11/4/1794).

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31/12/1864, Saturday (-29,347) Robert Aitken, US astronomer (died 29/10/1951) was born.

25/12/1864, Sunday (-29,353) The tradition of a Christmas Day swim in the Serpentine, Hyde Park, London, began.

24/12/1864. Saturday (-29,354) General Sherman captured Savannah, Georgia, from the Confederates.

11/12/1864, Sunday (-29,367) Maurice Leblanc, French novelist, was born.

8/12/1864, Thursday (-29,370) Brunel�s Clifton Suspension Bridge over the River Avon in Bristol was opened.

5/12/1864, Monday (-29,373) (Britain) Easter Sunday; George Howard, 7th Earl of Carlisle, died (born 18/4/1802)

4/12/1864, Sunday (-29,374) (Farming) John Fowler, agricultural innovator, died (born 11/7/1826)

3/12/1864, Saturday (-29,375) Hermann Heijermans, Dutch writer, was born

2/12/1864, Friday (-29,376)

1/12/1864, Thursday (-29,377) George Dallas, US statesman, died (born 10/7/1792).

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30/11/1864, Wednesday (-29,378) (Africa) William Baikie, explorer of Africa, died in Sierra Leone (born 21/8/1824 in Kirkwall, Orkney).

29/11/1864, Tuesday (-29,379) The Sand Creek massacre; Cheyenne and Arapahoe indigenous Americans were waiting to surrender to US forces when soldiers under the command of Colonel Chivington slaughtered them.

24/11/1864, Thursday (-29,384) Henri de Toulouse Lautrec, painter, was born.

15/11/1864, Tuesday (-29,393) General Sherman set out on his march to Savannah, leaving Atlanta a ruin so the Confederates could not use it. He destroyed all arsenals, public buildings, machine shops, and depots, having evacuated all civilians.

12/11/1864, Saturday (-29,396) Paraguay seized a Brazilian arms ship.

11/11/1864, Friday (-29,397) John McCulloch, British economics writer, died(born 1/3/1789).

10/11/1864, Thursday (-29,398)

9/11/1864, Wednesday (-29,399) (Biology) Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky was born in Gdov. In 1892 he proved the existence of viruses.

8/11/1864. Tuesday (-29,400) (USA) Abraham Lincoln was re-elected President of the USA for a second term. Supported by a coalition of Republicans and War Democrats, Lincoln won 55% of the vote.

1/11/1864, Tuesday (-29,407)

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31/10/1864, Monday (-29,408) (USA) Nevada became the 36th State of the Union.

30/10/1864, Sunday (-29,409) By the Peace of Vienna, Denmark gave up Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenberg.These provinces came under Austrian and Prussian rule.

29/10/1864, Saturday (-29,410) (Greece) The Greek Constitution was adopted. It provided for a single-House Assembly elected by universal male suffrage. In 1911 a second Chamber was added.

24/10/1864, Monday (-29,415)

20/10/1864, Thursday (-29,419) Charles Lowell, US soldier, died (born 2/1/1835)

19/10/1864, Wednesday (-29,420) (1) At the Battle of Cedar Creek, in the American Civil War, General Sheridan defeated the Confederates.

(2) The Saint Albans raid. During the US Civil War, some 25 Confederate agents crossed from Canada into Union territory and attacked the town of Saint Albans, Vermont. They killed a man and fled back to Canada, having stolen around US$200,000 from three banks. A US posse pursued the perpetrators into Canada and captured them, but were forced to hand them over to Canadian authories. A Canadian Court then released them unpunished, sparking fears of a war between the USA and Canada/Britain. The raiders were rearrested and charged with breaking Canadian neutrality. The money was returned. However the war scare did not go away, and in 1865 some 2,000 Canadian militiamen were stationed along the US border.

13/10/1864, Thursday (-29,426)

10/10/1864, Monday (-29,429) Arthur Gould, rugby player, was born (died 2/1/1919).

9/10/1864, Sunday (-29,430) Maud Watson, tennis champion, was born (died 5/6/1946).

4/10/1864, Tuesday (-29,435) (Prisons) Theodor Fliedner, German prison reformer, died (born 21/1/1800).

1/10/1864, Saturday (-29,488) A cyclone destroyed most of Calcutta, killing 70,000.

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28/9/1864, Wednesday (-29,441) Socialist radicals in London formed an International Workingmen�s Association to help unite the world�s workers in revolution, led by Marx and Engels.

24/9/1864, Saturday (-29,445) (USA) Joshua Bates, US financier, died in London (born in Weymouth, Massachusetts 10/10/1788).

19/9/1864, Monday (-29,450) (USA) Sheridan repulsed Early at the Battle of Winchester, Virginia.

18/9/1864, Sunday (-29,451) English explorer John Hanning Speke died in a shooting accident aged 37.

17/9/1864, Saturday (-29,452) Walter Landor, English writer, died (born 30/1/1775).

15/9/1864, Thursday (-29,454) (1) Under the �September Convention�, Napoleon agreed to evacuate Rome and Italy agreed to move her capital from Turin to Florence.

(2) John Speke, English explorer in Africa who discovered Lake Victoria, accidentally shot himself whilst partridge shooting.

5/9/1864, Monday (-29,464) A fleet of 17 ships, from France the UK, the USA and The Netherlands approached the Choshu coast of Japan and systematically destroyed all the shore batteries., They then negotiated a free trade agreement and also the payment of a large indemnity. Japoan then changed policy; rather than excluding foreigners, they began to learn form and imitate their technology.

4/9/1864, Sunday (-29,465) John Morgan, US Confederate soldier, died (born 1/6/1825).

3/9/1864, Saturday (-29,466)

2/9/1864, Friday (-29,467) (USA) Sherman took Atlanta, then marched across Georgia towards Savannah.

1/9/1864, Thursday (-29,468) Sir Roger Casement, British civil servant and Irish nationalist, was born in Kingstown, near Dublin.

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31/8/1864, Wednesday (-29,469) President Francesco Lopez of Paraguay issued an ultimatum to Brazil not to interfere in Uruguay. In October 1864 Brazil invaded Paraguay.

23/8/1864, Tuesday (-29,477) Eleutherios Venizelos, Greek politician, was born in Crete.

17/8/1864, Wednesday (-29,483) Eight crewmen on the Confederate submarine HL Hunley sank the Union warship Housatonic with an explosive charge, killing five Northern sailors. This was the first time a submarine had sunk an enemy ship in wartime. The Hunley surfaced to signal success to shore with a blue light, then resubmerged. She never resurfaced.

7/8/1864, Sunday (-29,493) (USA) Philip Sheridan replaced Hunter.

5/8/1864, Friday (-29,495) (USA) A Federal fleet under David Farragut won the Battle of Mobile Bay.

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31/7/1864, Sunday (-29,500) Louis Hachette, French publisher, died (born 5/5/1800).

28/7/1864, Thursday (-29,503) (1) At the Second Battle of Atlanta, the South under General Hood was again defeated.

(2) US General Alfred Sully (1821-79) heavily defeated the Sioux at Killdeer Mountain.

26/7/1864, Tuesday (-29,505) Andras Fay, Hungarian poet, died (born 30/5/1786)

22/7/1864, Friday (-29,509) General Sherman defeatedSouthern troops under General John Bell Hood, aged 33, at the Battle of Atlanta.

12/7/1864, Tuesday (-29,519) (USA) Federal forces defending Washington DC repulsed Early.

5/7/1864, Tuesday (-29,526) (USA) Early invaded Maryland, aiming at Washington DC.

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29/6/1864, Wednesday (-29,532) Samuel Crowther, Bishop of Niger, became the first Black Church of England Bishop.

27/6/1864, Monday (-29,534) Battle of Kenesaw Mountains, Georgia. Confederate troops defeated Sherman�s forces, killing 2,000 of them to losses of only 270 of themselves.

21/6/1864, Tuesday (-29,540) In New Zealand the Tauranga Campaign, the Maori-British wars, ended with both sides having suffered major losses.

18/6/1864, Saturday (-29,543) The USS Kearsarge, captained by John Wilmslow, sank the British built warship Alabama, a Confederate ship, off Cherbourg.

17/6/1864, Friday (-29,544) William Cureton, British orientalist, born 1808, died.

15/6/1864, Wednesday (-29,546) Arlington Cemetery, the site of the Unknown Soldier, was established near Washington.

12/6/1864, Sunday (-29,549) Maximilian arrived in Mexico City. French troops helped him drive Juarez�s forces over the border into the USA.

11/6/1864, Saturday (-29,550) Richard Strauss, composer, was born in Munich, Germany.

9/6/1864, Thursday (-29,552) Charles Dickens was involved in a train crash at Staplehurst in Kent. He had to return to the wreckage to salvage the manuscript for a part of the story Our Mutual Friend.

6/6/1864, Monday (-29,555) King George of Greece entered the Ionian Islands. They had been ceded by Britain to Greece.

5/6/1864, Sunday (-29,556) Battle of Wilderness; Unionist victory.

3/6/1864, Friday (-29,558) Battle of Cold Harbor. Fought in Virginia during the American Civil War, General Ulysses S Grant�s Unionist forces suffered heavy losses, 12,000 men, in an ill-judged attack on General Robert E Lee�s well-defended Confederate position. Although a Confederate victory, this battle served to maintain the Unionist strategy of maintaining unremitting pressure on the South.

1/6/1864, Wednesday (-29,560) John Gordon, Scottish painter, died (born 1788).

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27/5/1864, Friday (-29,765) (Race Equality) Joshua Giddings, prominent US anti-slavery campaigner, died (born 6/10/1795).

23/5/1864, Monday (-29,769) Battle of North Anna; Confederate victory

21/5/1864, Saturday (-29,571) The Battle of Spottsylvania Courthouse ended.

20/5/1864, Friday (-29,572) John Clare, English poet, died (born 13/7/1793).

19/5/1864, Thursday (-29,573) (USA) David Hunter replaced Sigel as Union Commander in the Shenandoah Valley.

18/5/1864, Wednesday (-29,574) Milton Aborn, US operatic singer, was born (died 12/11/1933).

15/5/1864, Sunday (-29,577) Battle of Drewry�s Bluff; Confederate victory.

11/5/1864, Wednesday (-29,581) Battle of Yellow Tavern; Unionist victory.

7/5/1864, Saturday (-29,585) (USA) Sherman launched a campaign against Joseph Johnston in Georgia.