Chronography of events from 1 January 1860 to 31 December 1879

Page last modified 8 September 2023

 

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

See also Julian Day Count, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julian_day

 

For dates from 1 January 1880 click here

 

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4 January 1880, Sunday (-23,865) Marthe Montalivet, French statesman, died (born 25 April 1801).

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31 December 1879, Wednesday (-23,869) The USA now possessed 154 co-educational colleges, up from 24 in 1866.

30 December 1879, Tuesday (-23,870) Sri Ramana Maharshi, Hindu Yogi, was born.

29 December 1879, Monday (-23,871)

28 December 1879. Sunday (-23,872) The Tay railway bridge collapsed whilst the 7.15 Edinburgh to Dundee train was crossing it. The train plummeted into the icy river below, killing 90 people.The bridge, between Fife and Angus, was designed by Thomas Bouch.

27 December 1879, Saturday (-23,873) Sydney Greenstreet, actor, was born.

26 December 1879, Friday (-23,874) William Dixon, English author, died (born 30 June 1821).

23 December 1879, Tuesday (-23,877) An unprecedented traffic jam occurred in New York. Horse drawn carts and coaches created a jam that lasted 5 hours.

21 December 1879, Sunday (-23,879) (Russia) Joseph Stalin was born in Gori, Georgia, as Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, son of a shoemaker.

20 December 1879, Saturday (-23,880) Thomas Edison privately demonstrated his �incandescent light� at Menlo Park, New Jersey.

19 December 1879, Friday (-23,881)

18 December 1879, Thursday (-23,882) Paul Klee, artist, was born.

17 December 1879, Wednesday (-23,883) Chilean troops took Lima, Peru.

16 December 1879, Tuesday (-23,884) (South Africa) The Transvaal Republic was founded.

15 December 1879, Monday (-23,885)

13 December 1879, Saturday (-23,887) Edgar Baerlin, tennis player, was born (died 3 June 1971).

12 December 1879, Friday (-23,888) Alfred Shrub, athlete (runner), was born (died 23 April 1964).

7 December 1879, Sunday (-23,893) Rudolf Friml, Bohemian-US composer, was born in Prague (died 12 November 1972 in Los Angeles)

5 December 1879, Friday (-23,895) (Aviation) Clyde Cessna, American aircraft manufacturer, was born in Hawthorne, Iowa.

4 December 1879, Thursday (-23,896) Northern Irish composer Herbert Hamilton Harty was born in Hillsborough.

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30 November 1879, Sunday (-23,900) John Arthur Roebuck, British politician, died in London (born 28 December 1801 in Madras, India)

28 November 1879, Friday (-23,902) Michel Chevalier, French writer in economics, died (born 13 January 1806)

24 November 1879, Monday (-23,906) The London Underground line from West Hampstead to Willesden Green opened.

22 November 1879, Saturday (-23,908) John Delane, editor of The Times, London, died (born 11 October 1817)

16 November 1879, Sunday (-23,914) Franz Anton Schiefner, Russian scholarly writer, died (born 18 July 1817 in Reval)

8 November 1879, Saturday (-23,922) Margaret Eaton, acquaintance of US President Jackson, died (born 1796).

6 November 1879, Thursday (-23,924) (Canada) The first Canadian Thanksgiving Day was observed. It is now generally held on a Monday in October.

5 November 1879, Wednesday (-23,925) (Mathematics) James Clerk Maxwell, Scottish mathematician and physicist, died in Cambridge, England.

4 November 1879. Tuesday (-23,926) James R Ritty of Dayton, Ohio patented the first cash register. Pilfering by bartenders from Ritty�s saloon so undermined his health that he went on a sea voyage to Europe to recover. On board the ship, Ritty saw a machine that recorded the number of revolutions made by the ship�s propellers, which gave him the initial idea. In 1884 he formed the National Cash Register Company.

3 November 1879, Monday (-23,927) The Arctic explorer, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, was born.

2 November 1879, Sunday (-23,928)

1 November 1879, Saturday (-23,929) Zachariah Chandler, US politician, died (born 10 December 1813)

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31 October 1879, Friday (-23,930) (Arts) Jacob Abbott, US writer of books for children, died in Farmington, Maine.

30 October 1879, Thursday (-23,931)

29 October 1879, Wednesday (-23,932) Franz von Papen, German politician and ambassador, was born in Werl, Westphalia.

28 October 1879, Tuesday (-23,933) Marie Reybaud, French writer, died in Paris (born 15 August 1799 in Marseilles)

27 October 1879, Monday (-23,934) The Liverpool Echo printed its first copy.

26 October 1879, Sunday (-23,935) Leon Trotsky was born in Yanovka, Ukraine, as Lev Davidovich Bronstein.

23 October 1879, Thursday (-23,938) Ernie Erdman, US songwriter, was born in Pittsburgh (died 1 November 1946 in Rockford, Illinois)

21 October 1879. Tuesday (-23,940) Thomas Edison successfully demonstrated the first durable light bulb.

20 October 1879, Monday (-23,941) (Germany) Bernhardt von Bulow, German statesman, died (born 2 August 1815).

19 October 1879, Sunday (-23,942) Afghan Emir Yakub was forced to abdicate. He was replaced by his cousin, Adb-er-Rahman. Rahman succeeded in diplomatically balancing competing Britain and Russian competing pressures in Afghanistan.

16 October 1879, Thursday (-23,945)

13 October 1879, Monday (-23,948) (USA) Henry Carey, US economist, died (born 15 December 1793).

12 October 1879, Sunday (-23,949) British forces captured Kabul.

8 October 1879, Wednesday (-23,953) (Chile) The Peruvian Navy was effectively destroyed in fighting with Chile.

6 October 1879, Monday (-23,955) Battle of Charasiab, Second Afghan War. British defeated the Afghans.

5 October 1879, Sunday (-23,956) (Medical) Francis Peyton Rous was born in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1910 he discovered that some animal cancers were caused by viruses.

4 October 1879, Saturday (-23,957)

3 October 1879, Friday (-23,958) Thomas Nicolson, athlete (hammer throwing), was born (died 18 April 1951).

2 October 1879, Thursday (-23,959) The US poet Wallace Stevens was born in Reading, Pennsylvania.

1 October 1879. Wednesday (-23,960) An Austro-German alliance was signed.

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28 September 1879, Sunday (-23,063) Karl Mohr, German chemistry writer, died (born 4 November 1806).

26 September 1879, Friday (-23,965) Robert Crompton, footballer, was born (died 15 March 1941).

22 September 1879, Monday (-23,969) Charles Borel-Clerc, French composer, was born in Pau (died 9 April 1959 in Cannes)

18 September 1879, Thursday (-23,973) Blackpool�s first annual illuminations were switched on.
17 September 1879, Wednesday (-23,974) The International Potato Exhibition opened at Crystal Palace; thousands flocked to it.

14 September 1879, Sunday (-23,977) Bernhard Cotta, German geologist, died (born 24 October 1808).

6 September 1879, Saturday (-23,985) The first British telephone exchange opened, in Lombard Street, London.

5 September 1879, Friday (-23,986) Gottlieb Harless, German religious writer, died (born 21 November 1806).

3 September 1879, Wednesday (-23,988) Afghan rebellion against the British. British envoy Sir Pierre Louis Cavagnari was assassinated.

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30 August 1879, Saturday (-23,992) John Hood, US soldier, died (born 1831)

27 August 1879, Wednesday (-23,995) Sir Rowland Hill, pioneer of the postal service, died.He devised the Penny Post in 1840.

20 August 1879, Wednesday (-24,002) William Rimmer, US artist, died (born in Liverpool, England, 20 February 1816)

18 August 1879, Monday (-24,004) Gus Edwards, US composer, was born in Prussia (died 7 November 1945 in Hollywood)

13 August 1879, Wednesday (-24,009) English composer John Ireland was born in Cheshire.

10 August 1879, Sunday (-24,012) George Long, English scholarly writer, died (born 4 November 1800).

8 August 1879, Friday (-24,014) Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary, was born.

6 August 1879, Wednesday (-24,016) Johann von Lamont, German astronomer, died (born 13 December 1805).

5 August 1879, Tuesday (-24,017) Charles Fechter, actor, died (born 23 October 1824)

3 August 1879, Sunday (-24,019) Joseph Severn, English portrait painter, died in Rome (born 7 December 1793 in Hoxton, London)

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31 July 1879, Thursday (-24,022) (Aviation) Richard Cowen and Charles Page made the first balloon flight in Canada.

28 July 1879, Monday (-24,025) King Cetywayo of the Zulus was captured by the British.He was brought to London in August 1882, where Gladstone decided upon his restoration, but only to a part of his old Kingdom.See 29 January 1883.

22 July 1879, Tuesday (-24,031) Harry Armstrong, US composer, was born in Somerville, Massachusetts (died 28 February 1951 in New York)

14 July 1879, Monday (-24,039) Johann Rosenkranz, German philosopher, died in Konigsberg (born 23 May 1805 in Magdeburg)

9 July 1879, Wednesday (-24,044) Ottorino Respighi, composer, was born.

7 July 1879, Monday (-24,046) George Caleb Bingham, painter, died in Kansas City, USA, aged 68

6 July 1879, Sunday (-24,047) Henry Smart, English organist, died (born 26 October 1813).

5 July 1879, Saturday (-24,048) Dwight F Davis, US Secretary for War 1925-29, who donated the Davis Cup for tennis, was born in St Louis, Missouri.

4 July 1879, Friday (-24,049) The British routed the Zulus at Ulundi, see 11 January 1879 and 28 August 2879.

1 July 1879, Tuesday (-24,052) The London Underground line from Turnham Green to Ealing Broadway opened.

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27 June 1879, Friday (-24,056) John Lawrence, colonial Governor-General of India, died (born 24 March 1811).

26 June 1879, Thursday (-24,057) (USA) Henry Richard Anderson, US soldier, died in Beaufort, South Carolina (born 7 October 1821 in South Carolina)

25 June 1879, Wednesday (-24,058) Ismail, Khedive of Egypt, was deposed by the Ottoman Sultan under pressure from European powers. He was replaced by his son, Tewfik.

24 June 1879, Tuesday (-24,059) The London Underground line from Baker Street to West Hampstead opened.

21 June 1879, Saturday (-24,062) Henry Creamer, US author, was born.

13 June 1879, Friday (-24,070) George Gunn, cricketer, was born (died 29 June 1958).

11 June 1879, Wednesday (-24,072) Max Schrek, actor, died

8 June 1879, Sunday (-24,075) Ethel Larcombe, tennis champion, was born (died 10 August 1965).

3 June 1879, Tuesday (-24,080) Frances Havergal, English hymn-writer, died (born 14 December 1836).

2 June 1879, Monday (-24,081) Louis, Prince Imperial of France and prospective Napoleon IV, was killed by a Zulu assegai. The French suspected British connivance.

1 June 1879, Sunday (-24,082) Raymond Hubbell, US composer, was born in Urbana, Ohio (died 13 December 1954 in Miami)

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30 May 1879, Friday (-24,084) Colin Blythe, cricketer, was born (died 8 November 1917).

26 May 1879, Monday (-24,088) Following the death of Sher Ali, his son Mohammed Yakub was forced by Britain to accept the Treaty of Gandamak this day, intended to end the Second Afghan War. Under this Treaty, Britain occupied the Khyber Pass, close to the NW border of India, in return for an annual payment to the Emir. However the Afghans rebelled against this Treaty, see 3 September 1879.

25 May 1879, Sunday (-24,089) Newspaper tycoon Lord Beaverbrook was born in Maple, Ontario, Canada as William Maxwell Aitken.

24 May 1879, Saturday (-24,090) William Lloyd Harrison, American campaigner for abolition of slavery and for women�s suffrage, died in New York.

19 May 1879, Monday (-24,095) Lady Astor, first woman to sit in the House of Lords, was born.

17 May 1879, Saturday (-24,097) Asa Packer, US industrialist ad philanthropist, died (born 29 December 1805 in Connecticut)

15 May 1879, Thursday (-24,099) Gottfried Semper, German writer on art, died in Rome (born 29 November 1803 in Altona)

11 May 1879, Sunday (-24,103) (Christian) Samuel Gobat, Bishop of Jerusalem, died (born 26 January 1799)

8 May 1879, Thursday (-24,106) George Selden applied for a patent for his car design, but had to wait 20 years to obtain it.

7 May 1879, Wednesday (-24,107) Charles de Coster, Belgian writer, died (20 August 1827).

5 May 1879, Monday (-24,109) (Ireland) Isaac Butt, Irish Nationalist leader, died (born 1813).

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29 April 1879. Tuesday (-24,115) Sir Thomas Beecham, English conductor, was born.

23 April 1879. Wednesday (-24,121) First Royal Shakespeare Theatre opened in Stratford on Avon (replaced by a new one on 23 April 1932).

21 April 1879, Monday (-24,123) John Dix, US politician, died (born 24 July 1798).

13 April 1879, Sunday (-24,131) Easter Sunday

11 April 1878, Friday (-24,133) George Augustus Selwyn, English Bishop, died (born 5 April 1809 in Hampstead, London)

10 April 1879, Thursday (-24,134) John Hertz was born as Sandor Hertz in what is now Slovakia. He founded Hertz vehicle rentals in 1923.

9 April 1879, Wednesday (-24,135) Ernst Richter, German musical theorist, died (born 24 October 1808 in Saxony)

8 April 1879, Tuesday (-24,136) James Nicol, Scottish geologist, died in Aberdeen (born 12 August 1810 in Innerleithen)

7 April 1879, Monday (-24,137)

6 April 1879, Sunday (-24,138) John Dalgairns, English religious writer, died (born 21 October 1818).

5 April 1879, Saturday (-24,139) Chile formally declared war on Bolivia and Peru.

1 April 1879, Tuesday (-24,143)

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30 March 1879, Sunday (-24,145) Teodoro Cottrau, Italian composer, died in Naples (born 27 November 1827 in Naples)

29 March 1879, Saturday (-24,146) Battle of Kambula, Zulu War. The British under Colonel Wood defeated the Zulus under Cetewayo.

28 March 1879, Friday (-24,147) Battle of Inhlobane Mountain, Zulu War. A british force of 1,300 under Colonels Buller and Russell was defeated by a Zulu force.

27 March 1879, Thursday (-24,148)

26 March 1879, Wednesday (-24,149) The Land League was founded by Michael Davitt and Parnell, and campaigned for fair rents for tenants, for secure tenure for tenants, and the right for the tenant to sell on their tenure.

25 March 1879, Tuesday (-24,150) Leicestershire County Cricket Club was formed in Leicester.

23 March 1879, Sunday (-24,152) Conflict between Chile and Bolivia, Peru. Bolivia had seized the assets of the Chilean Nitrate Company at Antofagusta, then in the Bolivian province of Atacama.On this day Chilean militia marched into Bolivian territory.Bolivia had declared war on 1 March 1879 but Peru did not declare war until 5 April 1879; this delay enabled Chile to occupy all Bolivia�s ports, and from there to attack Peru.

20 March 1879, Thursday (-24,155) Johann Huber, writer, died (born 18 August 1830)

14 March 1879. Friday (-24,161) Albert Einstein, physicist and mathematician, was born in Ulm, Bavaria, to Jewish parents.

9 March 1879, Sunday (-24,166) (USA) Elihu Burritt, US philanthropist, died (born 8 December 1810)

8 March 1879, Saturday (-24,167) Birth of Otto Hahn, discoverer of nuclear fission, who received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944.

5 March 1879, Wednesday (-24,170) Lord Beveridge, political economist, was born.

3 March 1879, Monday (-24,172) William Clifford, English mathematician, died (born 4 May 1845).

2 March 1879, Sunday (-24,173) Jules Bastide, French writer, died (born in Paris 2 November 1800)

1 March 1879, Saturday (-24,174)

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27 February 1879. Thursday (-24,176) Chemists Constantin Fahlberg and Professor Ira Pemson in Baltimore reported the discovery of saccharin, at John Hopkins University, Baltimore.

26 February 1879, Wednesday (-24,177) English composer Frank Bridge was born in Brighton.

25 February 1879, Tuesday (-24,178)

23 February 1879, Sunday (-24,180) Albrecht Roon, Prussian Field-Marshall, died (born 30 April 1803).

22 February 1879, Saturday (-24,181) F W Woolworth opened the first Woolworth 5and 10 cent variety store in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. An earlier Woolworths 5 cent store in Utica, New York, had failed.

14 February 1879. Friday (-24,189) The Chilean army under Colonel Emilio Sotomayor Baeza occupied the Bolivian Pacific port of Antofagasta, and on 1 March 1879 Bolivia declared war against Chile. Chile also occupied part of the Peruvian Pacific coast. On 11 December 1883 a peace treaty between Chile and Bolivia was signed whereby Bolivia agreed to the occupation of its seacoast by Chile.

12 February 1879, Wednesday (-24,191) The first artificial ice rink in North America opened, at Madison Square Gardens, New York City.

11 February 1879, Tuesday (-24,192) Honore Daumier, painter, died in Valmondois aged 70.

10 February 1879, Monday (-24,193) Paul Gervais, French palaeontological writer, died (born 26 September 1816)

6 February 1879, Thursday (-24,197) Othen Friesz, French painter, was born in le Havre (died 10 January 1949 in Paris)

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30 January 1879, Thursday (-24,204) Royalist support was declining in France, and the position of President MacMahon became untenable (see 5 January 1879). He resigned this day, and was succeeded by the conservative republican, Fran�ois Paul Jules Grevy.

28 January 1879. Tuesday (-24,206) Hermon MacNeil, Irish religious writer, died.

 

 

 

26 January 1879, Sunday (-24,208) Charles Smith, water polo champion, was born (died 6 April 1951).

24 January 1879, Friday (-24,210) (Technology) Heinrich Geissler, physicist, died (born 26 May 1814)

22 January 1879, Wednesday (-24,212) (South Africa) Battle of Isandhlwana, Zulu War. Six Companies of the 24th Regiment under Colonel Durnford were overwhelmed by a Zulu attack under Matyana.

21 January 1879, Tuesday (-24,313) George Hillard, US author, died (born 22 September 1808).

18 January 1879. Saturday (-24,216) (1) The first issue of Boys Own was published by O S Beaton, husband of the famous cook book writer. Published until 1967, the journal was backed by the Religious Tract Society.

(2) (Football) The first England v Wales football international was played at The Oval, Kennington, London.England won 2 � 1.

11 January 1879. Saturday (-24,223) (South Africa) The British-Zulu war began.Lord Chelmsford entered Zululand, with 13,000 troops.The British accused the Zulu King, Cetywayo, of fomenting revolt against the Boers and British.The British, in December 1878, demanded reparations from Cetywayo, whilst awarding him the territory he claimed from the Boers.See 4 July 1879.

9 January 1879, Thursday (-24,225) Alessandro Gavazzi, Italian religious writer, died (born 21 March 1809).

8 January 1879, Wednesday (-24,226) Baldomero Espartero, Spanish soldier, died (born 27 February 1792).

5 January 1879, Sunday (-24,229) In French Senate elections, the Republicans gained seats but the majority was still Royalist, including President MacMahon. However see 30 January 1879.

3 January 1879, Friday (-24,231) Sofia was designated the capital of Bulgaria.

2 January 1879, Thursday (-24,232) Caleb Cushing, US statesman, died at Newburyport, |Massachusetts.

1 January 1879, Wednesday (-24,233) E M Forster, English novelist, was born.

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28 December 1878, Saturday (-24,237) Pope Leo XIII issued an encyclical, Quod apolostici muneris, condemning the rise of socialism, communism, the nihilists and anarchists.

25 December 1878, Wednesday, (-24,240) Louis Chevrolet, car manufacturer, was born in Switzerland.

23 December 1878, Monday (-24,242) Wilfrid Sanderson, British composer, was born in Ipswich (died 10 December 1935 in Nutfield, Surrey)

19 December 1878, Thursday (-34,246) Bayard Taylor, US author, died in Berlin (born 11 January 1825 in Pennsylvania)

18 December 1878, Wednesday (-24,247) Joseph Wilson Swan, 50, demonstrated an electric light bulb in Newcastle on Tyne, England. However it did not achieve true incandescence.

16 December 1878, Monday (-24,249) Karl Gutzkow, German novelist, died (born 17 March 1811).

14 December 1878, Saturday (-24,251) (Britain) Mary Alice Maud, 3rd child of Queen Victoria, died (born 25 April 1843 in Buckingham Palace).

10 December 1878, Tuesday (-24,255) Henry Wells, partner of William Fargo, died.

3 December 1878, Tuesday (-24,262) Sir Arthur Cecil Tyrrell Beck, British Liberal Party politician, was born (died 22 March 1932).

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29 November 1878, Friday (-24,266) Rob Derbyshire, champion swimmer, was born (died 30 July 1938).

28 November 1878, Thursday (-24,267) George Lewes, British philosophical writer, died.

21 November 1878, Thursday (-24,274) The British Army advanced into Afghanistan from India.

19 November 1878, Tuesday (-24,276) Theresa Essler, wife of Prince Adalbert of Prussia, died (widowed 1873).

17 November 1878, Sunday (-24,278) Karl Keim, German religious writer, died (born 17 December 1825)

10 November 1878, Sunday (-24,285) Louis Marcoussis, painter, was born in Warsaw (died 22 October 1941 near Vichy, France)

6 November 1878, Wednesday (-24,289) William Clark, writer on Shakespeare, died (born 3/1821).

4 November 1878, Monday (-24,291) Jean Schwartz, composer, was born in Budapest (died 30 November 1956 in Sherman Oaks, California)

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31 October 1878, Thursday (-24,295) Louis Garnier-Pages, French politician, died (born 1803).

29 October 1873, Tuesday (-24,297) John, King of Saxony, died (born 12 December 1801). King Albert of Saxony succeeded his father to the throne. He was born on 23 April 1828, and died on 10 June 1902.

24 October 1878, Thursday (-24,302) (Ireland) Paul Cullen, Archbishop of Dublin, died (born 1803).

22 October 1878, Tuesday (-24,304) The first rugby match to be played under floodlights was held at Broughton, Lancashire; they played Swinton.

19 October 1878, Saturday (-24,307) Bismarck passed an anti-Socialist law, placing many restraints on socialist meetings and banning trade union activities.

18 October 1878, Friday (-24,308) David Laing, Scottish writer, died (born 20 April 1793).

16 October 1878, Wednesday (-24,310)

15 October 1878, Tuesday (-24,311) (Electricity) The Edison Electric Light Company was founded.

14 October 1878, Monday (-24,312) (Football) The first football match played under floodlights took place at Bramall Lane, Sheffield.

11 October 1878, Friday (-24,315) Felix Dupanloup, French religious writer, died (born 3 January 1802).

9 October 1878, Wednesday (-24,317) Joseph Kay, economics writer, died (born 27 February 1821).

5 October 1878, Saturday (-24,321) Frederic Chelmsford, Lord Chancellor of England, died (born 15 April 1794).

4 October 1878, Friday (-24,322) The first Chinese Embassy in the USA opened, in Washington DC.

2 October 1878, Wednesday (-24,324) The City of Glasgow Bank crashed, with net debts of �6,213,313, 17s. By comparison a cook in a Scottish country mansion might earn �14 a year, a cheap (steerage) passage on a liner from Glasgow to New York cost �6 6s, and a bottle of vintage champagne cost 5s. The crash wiped out over 10% of Scotland�s banking capital.

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28 September 1878, Saturday (-24,328) (Railways, Britain) George Bidder, English railway engineering expert, died in Dartmouth (born in Moreton Hampstead, Devon 14 June 1806).

23 September 1878, Monday (-24,333) 18 April 1822, Thursday (-44,945) August Heinrich Petermann, German cartographer, died in Gotha (born 16 April 1822)

22 September 1878, Sunday (-24,334) (Cartography) Sir Richard Griffith, who prepared several geological maps of Ireland (1st, 1815), died (born 20 September 1784).

21 September 1878, Saturday (-24,335) (Geology) Thomas Belt, English geologist, died in Denver, USA (born in Newcastle on Tyne 1832).

14 September 1878, Saturday (-24,342)

12 September 1878, Thursday (-24,344) Cleopatra�s Needle, an ancient red granite Egyptian obelisk 68.5 feet high, originally made for Thothmes III in 1460 BC, was presented to Britain and re-erected on the Thames Embankment.

3 September 1878, Tuesday (-24,353) Dorothea Douglass, tennis champion, was born (died 7 January 1960).

2 September 1878, Monday (-24,354) Edna May, US actress, was born in Syracuse, New York (died 2 January 1948 in Lausanne, Switzerland)

1 September 1878, Sunday (-24,355) Emma Nutt became the first woman to work as a telephone operator, on the exchange at Boston, Massachusetts.

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31 August 1878, Saturday (-24,356)

15 August 1878, Thursday (-24,372) Harold Fraser-Simson, British composer, was born in London (died 19 January 1944 in London)

13 August 1878, Tuesday (-24,374) George Gilfillan, Scottish author, died (born 30 January 1813)

12 August 1878, Monday (-24,375) Ambrose McEvoy, English painter, was born in Crudwell, Wiltshire (died 4 January 1927 in London)

9 August 1878, Friday (-24,378)

1 August 1879, Thursday (-24,386) Glasgow Central Railway Station was opened by the Caledonian railway. It was enlarged in 1906.

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31 July 1878, Wednesday (-24,387) (Cricket) Northamptonshire cricket club was founded.

29 July 1879, Monday (-24,389)

23 July 1878, Tuesday (-24,395) The British Army flew its first balloon at Woolwich, London. It cost �71 to build, out of an allocated �150; the first British Government military aviation budget.

22 July 1878, Monday (-24,396) The UK Parliament prohibited medically untrained people from calling themselves �dentists�.

21 July 1878, Sunday (-24,397) Ernest R Ball, US composer, was born in Cleveland, Ohio (died 3 May 1927 in Santa Ana, California).

19 July 1878, Friday (-24,399) Charles Hodge, US religious writer, died (born 28 December 1797)

17 July 1878, Wednesday (-24,401) (Arts) Aleardo Aleardi, Italian poet, died.

13 July 1878, Saturday (-24,405) At the Congress of Berlin, (Treaty of Berlin) Britain, Russia, Austria, Germany, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire reached agreement on the future of the Balkan states, superseding the Treaty of San Stefano.Northern Dobruja, formerly part of Bulgaria under Turkish rule, was given to Romania.At the same time, Romania ceded Bessarabia to Russia.Bessarabia was more desirable than Dobruja, and Romania wanted Transylvania, which belonged to Hungary but had a mainly Romanian population. The independence of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro were recognised by Turkey; Bulgaria was also divided into two parts, one of which, Eastern Rumelia, was to be a self-governing Turkish Province.In 1885 an uprising in Eastern Rumelia resulted in the union of that province with Bulgaria. Russian naval expansion was limited, Austro-Hungary was allowed to occupy Bosnia-Hercegovina, the location of Sarajevo.

12 July 1878, Friday (-24,406) Turkey ceded Cyprus to British administration.

10 July 1878, Wednesday (-24,408) Otto Freundlich, German painter, was born in Stolp, Pomerania (now Slupsk, Poland).

3 July 1878, Wednesday (-24,415) George Michael Cohan, US actor, was born in Providence, Rhode Island (died 5 November 1942 in New York)

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22 June 1878, Saturday (-24,426) At Shumen the Turks capitulated to the Russians; the town of Shumen was ceded by Turkey to Bulgaria.It was renamed Kolarovgrad in 1950.

17 June 1878, Monday (-24,431) William Clarke, British geologist, died (born 2 June 1798).

15 June 1878, Saturday (-24,433) Sir Thomas Hardy, British historical writer, died (born 22 June 1804).

12 June 1878, Wednesday (-24,436) (USA) Benjamin Bonneville, US military engineer and explorer, died in Foret Smith, Arkansas. An extinct glacial lake which once covered NW Utah is named in his honour.

9 June 1878, Sunday (-24,439) Karl Lehrs, German scholarly writer, died (born 2 June 1802).

8 June 1878, Saturday (-24,440) Charles Matthews, English actor, died (born 26 December 1803).

6 June 1878, Thursday (-24,442)

5 June 1878, Wednesday (-24,443) Pancho Villa, Mexican revolutionary, was born.

4 June 1878, Tuesday (-24,444) Britain and Turkey signed a secret agreement by which Britain was allowed to occupy Cyprus in return for protecting Turkey against Russian advances in Anatolia.

1 June 1878, Saturday (-24,447) By French law, all communes now had to purchase their school buildings; the French State set aside �2.4 million for this purpose.

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28 May 1878, Tuesday (-24,451) John Russell, British statesman, died in Richmond, London (born 1792)

26 May 1878, Sunday (-24,453) Spencer Gore, British landscape painter, was born in Epsom, Surrey (died 27 March 1914 in Richmond, Surrey)

25 May 1878, Saturday (-24,454) Bill �Bojangles� Robinson, tap dancer, was born

21 May 1878, Tuesday (-24,458)

14 May 1878, Tuesday (-24,465) (Medical) Vaseline, a trademarked form of petroleum jelly, was first sold.

13 May 1878, Monday (-24,466) Joseph Henry, electrical scientist, died (born 17 December 1797).

12 May 1878, Sunday (-24,467) Catherine Esther, US writer and educationalist, died in Elmira, New York (born in East Hampton, Long Island 6 September 1800).

8 May 1878, Wednesday (-24,471) Robert Aitken, US sculptor (died 3 January 1949) was born.

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24 April 1878, Wednesday (-24,485) Heinrich Leo, German historical writer, died (born 19 March 1799).

23 April 1878, Tuesday (-24,486) Friedrich Preller, German landscape painter, died in Weimar (born 25 April 1804 in Eisenach)

21 April 1878, Sunday (-24,488) Easter Sunday

16 April 1878, Tuesday (-24,493) Reginald Foster, cricketer, was born (died 13 May 1914).

12 April 1878, Friday (-24,497) Charles Neil Daniels, US composer, was born in Leavenworth, Kansas (died 23 January 1943 in Los Angeles)

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29 March 1878, Friday (-24,511) Albert Von Tilzer, US composer, was born in Indianapolis (died 1 October 1956 in Los Angeles)
27 March 1878, Wednesday (-24,513) Sir George Gilbert Scott, architect, died (born 1811 near Buckingham)

8 March 1878, Friday (-24,532) Wilhelm Siegmund Teuffel, German scholarly writer, died in Tubingen (born 27 September 1820 in Wurttemberg)

6 March 1878, Wednesday (-24,534) Serbia was formally constituted an independent kingdom.

4 March 1878, Monday (-24,536) Charles Ginner, British painter, was born in Cannes (died 6 January 1952 in London)

3 March 1878, Sunday (-24,537) The Treaty of San Stefano ended the war between Russia and Turkey. Bulgaria, Russia�s ally, was enlarged to include much of Thrace and Macedonia, with ports on the Black Sea and Aegean. Britain objected.The arrival of a British fleet on 15 February 1878 as the Russians stood at the gates of Istanbul persuaded the Russians to make peace. Russia and Britain were now on the brink of war.

2 March 1878, Saturday (-24,538) Benjamin Franklin Wade, US statesman, died in Ohio (born 27 October 1800 in Massachusetts)

1 March 1878, Friday (-24,539) (Germany) Johann Baptist Alzog, German theologian, died (born 29 June 1808 in Ohlau, Silesia).

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26 February 1868, Tuesday (-24,542) Angelo Secchi, Italian astronomer, died in Rome (born 29 June 1818 in Reggio, Lombardy)

21 February 1878, Thursday (-24,547) The first telephone directory was issued by the New Haven Telephone Company, USA. It contained 50 subscribers.

20 February 1878, Wednesday (-24,548) Pope Leo XIII (Gioacchino Vincenzo Pecci) was elected, after a third ballot, following the death of Pope Pius IX (see 7 February 1878). Pope Leo XIII then began negotiating with the German government to end the crackdown on the influence of the church in Germany, or Kulturkampf.

19 February 1878, Tuesday (-24,549) Thomas Edison patented the phonograph.

15 February 1878, Friday (-24,553) A British fleet arrived at Istanbul in support of the faltering Ottoman Empire. An earlier decision to send a fleet had been reversed in January 1878.

12 February 1878, Tuesday (-24,556) The first weekly weather report was published by the Met Office.

10 February 1878, Sunday (-24,558) After some years of pro-independency insurgency in Cuba, the Spanish General Arsenio Martinez de Campos (1831-1900) concluded the Treaty of Zanjon this day with the rebels. However Spain reneged on many of the reforms promised in this Treaty, although they did abolish slavery in 1886.

8 February 1878. Friday (-24,560) Britain dispatched a fleet to Constantinople. A Conference concerning the growth of Russian influence in the Balkans and the waning of Turkish power there had broken down without agreement. In the summer of 1877 war broke out between Russia and Turkey. Britain was concerned that if Russia advanced to the Bosphorus, British interests in the Mediterranean would be threatened so she intervened in favour of Turkey.

7 February 1878, Thursday (-24,561) Pope Pius IX died after a reign of over 31 years was succeeded by Pope Leo XIII (Gioacchino Vincenzo Pecci). See 20 February 1878.

6 February 1878, Wednesday (-24,562)

5 February 1878, Tuesday (-24,563) Andre Citroen, French automobile engineer, was born.

4 February 1878, Monday (-24,564) Heinrich Guericke, German religious writer, died (born 25 February 1803).

3 February 1878, Sunday (-24,565)

2 February 1878, Saturday (-24,566) Greece declared war on Turkey.

1 February 1878, Friday (-24,567) George Cruikshank, English artist, died (born 27 February 1792).

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31 January 1878, Thursday (-24,568) Following the capture of Plevna (see 15 January 1877), and also Plovdiv and Adrianople, the Russians closed in on Istanbul. The Ottoman Turks opened truce negotiations at Adrianople.

30 January 1878, Wednesday (-24,569) Reginald Skrimshire, rugby player, was born (died 20 September 1963).

29 January 1878, Tuesday (-24,570)

28 January 1878, Monday (-24,571) America�s first commercial telephone switchboard exchange opened in New Haven, Connecticut.

27 January 1878, Sunday (-24,572) Sir Edward Creasey, British historical writer, died (born 1812).

26 January 1878, Saturday (-24,573) (Medical) Ernst Heinrich, German physiologist, died in Leipzig, Saxony,

25 January 1878, Friday (-24,574) The first torpedo was fired in warfare; a Russian boat sank a Turkish steamer.

24 January 1878, Thursday (-24,575) Percy Greenbank, British singer, was born in London (died 19 December 1968 in Rickmansworth)

23 January 1878, Wednesday (-24,576) (Russia) In Moscow, a trial of nearly 200 revolutionaries ended in acquittals. However the Russian police arrested most of them afterwards and sent them to Siberia anyway.

22 January 1878, Tuesday (-24,577) Milk was delivered in glass bottles for the first time.

21 January 1878, Monday (-24,578)

20 January 1878, Sunday (-24,579) Russian forces attacking Turkey captured Adrianople, threatening Constantinople and the Straits.

19 January 1878, Saturday (-24,580) (Chemistry) Henri Victor Regnault, French chemist, died in Auteuil.

17 January 1878, Thursday (-24,582)

16 January 1878, Wednesday (-24,583) Samuel Bowles, journalist, died in Springfield (born in Springfield, Massachusetts 9 February 1826).

15 January 1878, Tuesday (-24,584) London University awarded degrees to women for the first time.

14 January 1878, Monday (-24,585) Queen Victoria was given a demonstration of Alexander Graham Bell�s new invention, the telephone, at Osborne House.

12 January 1878, Saturday (-24,587)

9 January 1878, Wednesday (-24,590) Victor Emmanuel, who became the first King of Italy in 1863, died of fever in Rome aged 57. He was succeeded by his son Umberto, aged 33, who ruled until his assassination in 1900.

8 January 1878, Tuesday (-24,591) Charles Palikao, French General, died in Versailles (was born in Paris 24 June 1796)

7 January 1878, Monday (-24,592)

6 January 1878, Sunday (-24,593) The US poet Carl Sandburg was born in Galesburg, Illinois.

5 January 1878, Saturday (-24,594) Alfonso la Marmora, Italian statesman, died (born 18 November 1804).

4 January 1878, Friday (-24,595) Sofia was captured by Russian troops from the Ottoman Empire.

3 January 1878, Wednesday (-24,597)

1 January 1878, Tuesday (-24,598) The Grove Park to Bromley line, SE London, opened.

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31 December 1877, Monday (-24,599) Gustave Courbet, French painter, died (born 10 June 1819).

22 December 1877, Saturday (-24,608) Liquid oxygen was made for the first time, in Geneva.

20 December 1877, Thursday (-24,610) Johann Hofmann, German religious writer, died (born 21 December 1810).

17 December 1877, Monday (-24,613) (France) Aurelle de Paladines, French General, died in Versailles (born 9 January 1804 in Malzieu, Lozere).

11 December 1877, Tuesday (-24,619) Englishman Eadward Muybridge, photographer of the American West, used a novel photographic technique to resolve a bet made by the Governor of California, rail magnate Leland Stanford. Stanford believed that all four legs of a racehorse left the ground simultaneously as it galloped. Muybridge proved Stanford right by stringing tripwires across a racecourse and galloping a horse down it, setting off camera shots to obtain a series of still shots. Muybridge then used the novel technique to study dancers and runners in action.

10 December 1877, Monday (-24,620) Russian forces captured the Turkish city of Pleven 9now in northern Bulgaria) after a long siege. Turkey appealed to the European Powers to mediate.

6 December 1877, Thursday (-24,624) The Washington Post Newspaper was founded, and ran a campaign against newly-elected US President Rutherford Hayes as being fraudulently elected.

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29 November 1877, Thursday (-24,631) Thomas Alva Edison made the first recording of a human voice. He spoke Mary had a little lamb into his phonograph. Edison was working to improve the efficiency of the telegraph transmitter, and noticed that the machine gave off sounds resembling the spoken word when played at high speed. He wondered if he could record a telephone message. He attached the diaphragm of a telephone receiver to a needle, using the needle to prick paper to record a message. He then progressed to using a cylinder wrapped in tinfoil instead of paper, which succeeded in playing back the nursery rhyme he had recorded. He patented this device on 6 December 1877.

21 November 1877, Wednesday (-24,639) Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (died 27 January 1919) was born.

18 November 1877, Sunday (-24,642) In the Caucasus, Russia captured the fortress of Kars from Ottoman Turkey.

15 November 1877, Thursday (-24,645) Pierre Lanfrey, French writer, died (born 26 October 1838)

13 November 1877, Tuesday (-24,647) A demonstration by socialist marchers in Trafalgar Square led to violent clashes with mounted police and guardsmen.

12 November 1877, Monday (-24,648) Henry Gray, US painter, died (born 23 June 1819).

9 November 1877, Friday (-24,651) Allama Muhammad Iqbal, poet, was born.

6 November 1877, Tuesday (-24,654) Ernest Irving, British composer, was born in Godalming, Surrey (died 24 October 1953 in London)

3 November 1877, Saturday (-24,657) Carlos Ibanez del campo, Chilean statesman, was born.

2 November 1877, Friday (-24,658) Aga Khan III, spiritual leader, was born.

1 November 1877, Thursday (-24,659) Oliver Morton, US politician, died (born 4 August 1823).

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31 October 1877, Wednesday (-24,660)

29 October 1877, Monday (-24,662) Nathan Forrest, US Confederate General, died (born 13 July 1821).

28 October 1877, Sunday (-24,663) Julia Kavanagh, British novelist, died.

27 October 1877, Saturday (-24,664) Walt Kuhn, US painter, was born in New York (died 13 July 1949 in New York)

26 October 1877, Friday (-24,665) British surgeon Joseph Lister performed the first operation to repair a fractured kneecap.

16 October 1877, Tuesday (-24,675) Theodore Barriere, playwright, died in Paris (born in Paris 1823)

13 October 1877, Saturday (-24,678) Bernard Bosanquet, cricketer, was born (died 12 October 1936).

10 October 1877, Wednesday (-24,681) (Road Traffic) Motoring pioneer William Morris, 1st Viscount Sheffield, Lord Nuffield, was born in Worcester.

8 October 1877, Monday (-24,683) Sir Hans Heysen, German born Australian landscape painter, was born in Hamburg (died 2 July 1968 near Adelaide)

4 October 1877, Thursday (-24,687) (USA) The Indigenous American leader of the Nez Pierce tribe, Chief Joseph, surrendered to the US Army. His people were cold and exhausted after a long march from the tribe�s lands in Oregon after gold was discovered on their lands. Joseph and his people were sent to live on the non Nez Pierce reservation of Colville, eastern Washington, where Joseph died in 1904.

3 October 1877, Wednesday (-24,688) Therese Tietjens, Hungarian soprano singer, died 3 in London (born 17 July 1831 in Hamburg)

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29 September 1877, Saturday (-24,692) (Railways) Henry Meiggs, who was building the Callao Lima and Oroyo Railway, diedaged 66 after a series of strokes, with the project still unfinished.

25 September 1877, Tuesday (-24,696) (Medical) Carl Reinhold Wunderlich, German physician, died in Leipzig, Saxony.

24 September 1877, Monday (-24,697) (Japan) In Japan, a Samurai rebellion which began in Satsuma in January 1876 was over with the suicide of its leader Saigo Takamori. Saigo resigned from the Japanese government when it decided not to invade Korea, and became leader of some 40,000 disaffected samurai, frustrated at being deprived of a foreign war. More seriously for them, the samurai had been overtaken by the establishment of a modern Japanese army, with firearms and other technology. The Samurai were forbidden to wear their distinctive military dress or carry swords; the Japanese government had assumed responsibility for their stipends and cut them sharply.In effect the Samurai had become low grade civil servants.

23 September 1877, Sunday (-24,698) (Astronomy) Urbain Leverrier, French astronomer, died in Paris.

17 September 1877, Monday (-24,704) William Henry Fox Talbot, English pioneer of photography, died at Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire.

13 September 1877. Thursday (-24,708) (Britain) Manchester Town Hall opened.

12 September 1877, Wednesday (-34,709) Chase National Bank was founded by New York banker John Thompson, then aged 75.

11 September 1877, Tuesday (-24,710) The Third Battle of Plevna.

10 September 1877, Monday (-24,711) Katherine Dreier, US painter, was born in New York (died 29 March 1952 in Milford, Connecticut)

8 September 1877, Saturday (-24,713)

6 September 1877, Thursday (-24,715) Charles Bolden, US bandleader, was born in New Orleans (died 4 November 1931 in Jackson, Louisiana.

5 September 1877, Wednesday (-24,716) Crazy Horse, Sioux Chief, one of the leaders at the victory of Little Big Horn in 1876, died

4 September 1877, Tuesday (-24,717)

3 September 1877, Monday (-24,718) Louis Adolphe Thiers, French statesman, died in St Germaine n Laye (born 16 April 1797 in Marseilles)

2 September 1877, Sunday (-24,719) Frederick Soddy, chemist, was born.

1 September 1877, Saturday (-24,720) Frank E Tours, British composer, was born in London (died 2 February 1963 in London)

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29 August 1877. Wednesday (-24,723) The Mormon leader Brigham Young died.

27 August 1877, Monday (-24,725) Charles Stewart Rolls, partner of Rolls Royce, was born in London.

23 August 1877. Thursday (-24,729) Britain passed the Merchandise Act, obliging exporters to indicate the place of manufacture of their goods.

20 August 1877. Monday (-24,732) Arthur Kennedy, the new governor of Queensland, gave assent to a Bill drastically cutting Chinese immigration into Queensland, after the previous governor refused to pass it.

16 August 1877, Thursday (-24,736) Karl Hoschna, US composer, was born in Kuschwarda, Bohemia (died 22 December 1911 in New York)

15 August 1877, Wednesday (-24,737) Thomas Alva Edison produced a hand cranked phonograph which cut grooves to record sound and spoke the words �Mary had a little lamb�. His machine reproduced the words in recognisable form. The phonograph was intended as a business machine but soon revolutionised the music business.

13 August 1877, Monday (-24,739) Birkenhead, near Liverpool, became a borough; John Laird was the first Mayor.

11 August 1877, Saturday (-24,741) (Astronomy) The two small moons of Mars were first seen by US astronomer Asaph Hall.

4 August 1877, Saturday (-24,748) Dame Laura Knight, British painter, was born in Long Eaton, Derbyshire (died 7 July 1970 in London)

2 August 1877, Thursday (-24,750) Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz, Prussian General died in Bad Landbeck (born 27 December 1796 in Eisenach)

1 August 1877. Wednesday (-24,751) In Boston, USA, The Bell Telephone Company was formed, headed by Alexander Graham Bell.

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31 July 1877, Tuesday (-24,752)

30 July 1877, Monday (-24,753) The second Battle of Plevna.

29 July 1877, Sunday (-24,754) (Marine) William Beebe, marine engineer, was born

28 July 1877, Saturday (-24,755)

27 July 1877, Friday (-24,756) Ernst von Dohnanyi, Hungarian pianist (died New York, 9 February 1960) was born in Pozsony, Hungary.

26 July 1877, Thursday (-24,757) In the USA, 19 people were killed when police and cavalry charged striking railwaymen. There was a national strike by railway workers, angered by a 10% wage cut. They protested that a brakeman earned only US$1.75 for a 12 hour day and that this was the second wage cut in four years. Others were concerned about the import of �Communistic� ideas from abroad.

25 July 1877, Wednesday (-24,758) Robert Fox, English geologist, died (born 26 April 1789).

23 July 1877, Monday (-24,760)

21 July 1877, Saturday (-24,762) (Turkey) The British Cabinet resolved to declare war on Russia if it occupied Constantinople.

20 July 1877, Friday (-24,763) Patrick Leahy, athlete, was born.

15 July 1877, Sunday (-24, 768) August Friedrich Pott, German scholarly writer, died in Halle (born 14 November 1802 near Hanover

13 July 1877, Friday (-24,770) Wilhelm Ketteler, German religious writer, died (born 25 December 1811)

12 July 1877, Thursday (-24,771) Georg Adolf Erman, scientific writer, died (born 12 May 1806).

9 July 1877, Monday (-24,774) (Sport) The first lawn tennis championships were staged at Wimbledon, at the original site at Worple Road.

6 July 1877, Friday (-24,777) Friedrich Hacklander, German novelist, died (born 1 November 1816).

2 July 1877, Monday (-24,781) Hermann Hesse, writer, was born.

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29 June 1877, Friday (-24,784) (Aviation) Italian professor Enrico Forlanini tested a steam-powered helicopter at Alexandria.

26 June 1877, Tuesday (-24,787) Giovanni Santini, Italian astronomer, died (born in Arezzo 30 January 1787)

24 June 1877, Sunday (-24,789) (Medical) The St John�s Ambulance brigade was formed, as the Ambulance Association, by the Red Cross.

21 June 1877, Thursday (-24,792) (USA) Eleven members of the Molly Maguires, a secret Irish-American coalminer�s organisation, were hanged after ten years of criminal activity in Pennsylvania. The organisation had been infiltrated by the Pinkerton detective agency.

19 June 1877, Tuesday (-24,794) Henry John Rous, British Admiral, died (born 23 June 1795)

18 June 1877, Monday (-24,795) (Aviation) Samuel Archer King made a 2-hour airmail flight of 26 miles between Nashville and Gallatin in his balloon.

17 June 1877, Sunday (-24,796) Nez Perce indigenous Americans, led by Chief Joseph, succefully resisted US soldiers at White Bird Canyon, where conflict had begun between the Nez Perce and White prospectors seeking gold along the Salmon River. However see 4 October 1877.

16 June 1877, Saturday (-24,797)

15 June 1877, Friday (-24,798) (Race Equality) Henry Ossian Flipper became the first Black American to graduate from the US military Academy. Four years later as a Lieutenant he was court-martialled on embezzlement charges that were later found to be trumped-up.

14 June 1877, Thursday (-24,799) (Education-Schools) Mary Carpenter, English educational reformer, died (born 3 April 1807)

10 June 1877, Sunday (-24,803) Friedrich Tholuck, German religious writer, died in Halle (born 30 March 1799 in Breslau)

4 June 1877, Monday (-24,809) William Frost, English painter, died (born 9/1810)

3 June 1877, Sunday (-24,810) Raoul Duffy, French painter, was born in Le Havre (died 23 March 1953 in Fourcalquier)

1 June 1877, Friday (-24,812) (Britain, Railways) The last railway in Britain to be built on the broad gauge opened, from St Erth to St Ives, Cornwall.

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29 May 1877, Tuesday (-24,815) John Motley, US historical writer, died (born 15 April 1814).

26 May 1877, Saturday (-24,818) Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth, English educational writer, died (born 20 July 804).

24 May 1877, Thursday (-24,820) (Spain) Ramon Cabrera, Spanish General, died (born 27 December 1806).

16 May 1877, Wednesday (-24,828) In the Seize Mai crisis, French President MacMahon forced the resignation of Prime Minister Jules Simon. Simon appeared half-hearted in his opposition to the anti-clericalism movement that had become powerful in France. Some now feared a return to autocratic military rule, but Republicanism reasserted itself.

15 May 1877, Tuesday (-24,829) (Jewish) Jews in Switzerland were granted full citizenship by the Emancipation Law enacted this day.

13 May 1877, Sunday (-24,831) Louis Joseph Ernest Picard, French politician, died in Paris (born 24 December 1821 in Paris)

7 May 1877, Monday (-24,837) Samuel Cousins, English engraver, died (born 9 May 1801).

6 May 1877, Sunday (-24,838) (USA) Chief Crazy Horse and his Sioux Indians gave themselves up to US troops, abandoning claims to Nebraska.

5 May 1877, Saturday (-24,839) (Chemistry) Joseph Bienaime Caventou, French chemist, died in Paris.

3 May 1877, Thursday (-24,841)

2 May 1877, Wednesday (-24,842) Porfirio Diaz became President of Mexico. He ruled as dictator for most of the period until 1911.

1 May 1877, Tuesday (-24,843) (Railways) The first railway in Myanmar opened, Yangon to Prome, 257 km.

====================================================================================

30 April 1877, Monday (-24,844) Alice B Toklas, writer, was born.

24 April 1877, Tuesday (-24,850) After the Turkish Parliament had met on 19 March 1877 and rejected Russian demands, Russia declared war on Turkey.

12 April 1877. Thursday (-24,862) (South Africa) Britain annexed the South African Republic of Transvaal, to the anger of the Boer farmers. The Transvaal treasury was bankrupt following false hopes of gold and a costly war against the Black population. At the Sand River Conference in 1852 Britain had recognised the Transvaal, but now Britain claimed that the republic was unable to defend itself, and that British subjects there were in danger. The Boers offered non-violent resistance, and their leader, Paul Kruger, went to London to present their case.

10 April 1877, Tuesday (-24,864) Andrew Halliday, British writer, died (born 1830).

8 April 1877, Sunday (-24,866) William Muhlenberg, US philanthropist, died (born 16 September 1796).

7 April 1877, Saturday (-24,867) Spanish novelist Cecilia Larrea (Fernan Caballero) died (born 24 December 1796).

3 April 1877, Tuesday (-24,871)

1 April 1877, Sunday (-24,873) Easter Sunday.

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31 March 1877, Saturday (-24,874) Antoine Cournot, French mathematician, died (born 28 August 1801).

28 March 1877, Wednesday (-24,877) Edward Ray, golfing champion, was born (died 26 August 1943).

24 March 1877, Saturday (-24,881) (Sport) The only dead-heat in the history of the Oxford-Cambridge Boat Race took place.

15 March 1877, Thursday (-24,890) (Sport) The first cricket Test Match, in Melbourne between Australia and England, was won by Australia.

14 March 1877, Wednesday (-24,891) Argentine dictator Manuel Juan Rosas, having fled to England, died in Swaythling near Southampton.

13 March 1877, Tuesday (-24,892) Charles Clarke, British writer, died (born 15 December 1787)

8 March 1877, Thursday (-24,897) James Bowerbank, scientific author, died in St Leonards (born in Bishopsgate, London 8 September 1811).

6 March 1877, Tuesday (-24,899) Joseph Autran, French poet, died in Marseilles (born 20 June 1813 in Marseilles).

4 March 1877, Sunday (-24,901) Tchaikovsky�s ballet Swan lake was first performed, at the Bolshoi theatre, Moscow.

2 March 1877, Thursday (-24,903) The 11/1876 US Presidential election result had been uncertain, with 20 electoral college votes contested, enough to give either Samuel Jones Tilden (Democrat) or Rutherford Birchard Hayes (Republican) victory. On 29 January 1877 an electoral commission was formed, comprising 8 Republicans and 7 Democrats, which on this day awarded the 20 votes to Hayes, who became US President on 4 March 1877.

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25 February 1877, Sunday (-24,908) Bahadur Jung, Prime Minister of Nepal, died aged 61.

24 February 1877, Saturday (-24,909) (Maritime) Avonmouth Docks, Bristol, opened

21 February 1877, Tuesday (-24,913) John Oxenford, English dramatist, died in Southwark (born 12 August 1812 in Camberwell)

17 February 1877, Saturday (-24,916) Donald Brian, Canadian singer, was born in St Johns, Newfoundland (died 22 December 1948 in Great Neck, New York)

14 February 1877, Wednesday (-24,919) Nicolas Changarnier, French General, died (born 26 April 1793)

10 February 1877, Saturday (-24,923) Sir William Fergusson, British surgeon, died (born 20 March 1808)

7 February 1877, Wednesday (-24,926) Henry Boynton Smith, US religious writer, died in New York City (born 21 November 1815 in Portland, Maine)

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26 January 1877, Friday (-24,938) Kees van Dongen, Dutch painter, was born in Delfshaven (died 28 May 1968 in Monte Carlo)

15 January 1877, Monday (-24,949) Russia and Austria agreed that Austria shall be neutral in any war in the Balkans between Turkey and Russia. The two states rejected the idea of a Slav state in the Balkans. Russia declared war on Turkey on 24 April 1877. Rumania entered the war on the side of Russia in May 1877 and a joint Russian/Rumanian army laid siege to the Bulgarian town of Plevna. The Turks in Plevna surrendered in December 1877. See 31 January 1878.

12 January 1877, Friday (-24,952) Wilhelm Hofmeister, German botanical writer, died (born 18 May 1824).

5 January 1877, Friday (-24,959) (Germany) Hermann Brockhaus, Professor of ancient Semitic at Leipzig, died.

4 January 1877, Thursday (-24,960) Cornelius Vanderbilt, who rose from poor agrarian roots to amass a US$100million fortune in shipping and railways, died aged 83. He had started a ferry service to Staten Island at age 16 and by 30 he controlled almost all the Hudson shipping business, by undercutting his competitors.

1 January 1877, Sunday (-24,964)

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29 December 1876, Friday (-24,966) 83 passengers were killed at Ashtabula, Ohio, as a 13-year-old bridge gave way under a train. A junior engineer had been fired in 1863 when he protested that the bridge, built by the railway�s chief engineer, was not strong enough.

27 December 1876, Wednesday (-24,968) Frederik Paludan Miller, Danish poet, died in Copenhagen (was born in Funen 7 February 1809)

23 December 1876, Saturday (-24,972) Grand Vizier Midhat Pasha, aged 54, proclaimed a new Turkish Constitution, allowing for representative Parliamentary Government, and also stated that the Ottoman Empire was �indivisible�.

22 December 1876, Friday (-24,973) Fielding Meek, US geologist, died.

13 December 1876, Wednesday (-24,982)

6 December 1876, Wednesday (-24,989) Manual Klein, composer, was born in London (died 1 June 1919 in New York)

5 December 1876, Tuesday (-24,990) David Forbes, British scientific writer, died (born 6 September 1828).

4 December 1876, Monday (-24,991) Hermann Goetz, German composer, died (born 17 December 1840).

3 December 1876, Sunday (-24,992) Charles Leslie Johnson, US composer, was born in Kansas City (died 28 December 1950 in Kansas City)

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30 November 1876, Thursday (-24,995) George Dawson, English religious writer, died (born 24 February 1821).

28 November 1876, Tuesday (-24,997) (Biology) Karl Baer, embryologist, died in Dorpat (born 29 February 1719 in Piep, Estonia)

27 November 1876, Monday (-24,998) Henry Allen, Irish baritone singer, died in London (born 1809 in Cork)

26 November 1876, Sunday (-24,999) Bart van der Leck, Dutch painter, was born in Utrecht (died 13 November 1958 in Blaricum)

25 November 1876, Saturday (-25,000)

24 November 1876, Friday (-25,001) Walter Burley Griffin, architect, was born.

23 November 1876, Thursday (-25,002) Spanish composer Manuel de Falla was born in Cadiz.

21 November 1876, Tuesday (-25,004)

18 November 1876, Saturday (-25,007) Narcisse Diaz, French painter, died (born 25.8/1808).

17 November 1876, Friday (-25,008) Richard Owen(s), rugby player, was born (died 27 February 1932).

10 November 1876, Friday (-25,015) Karl Eichwald, German scientific writer, died (born 4 July 1795)

8 November 1876, Wednesday (-25,017) Morgan Lewis Smith, US General, died in Bloomington, Illinois (born 8 March 1822 in Oswego, New York)

6 November 1876, Monday (-25,019) (Italy) Giacomo Antonelli, Italian Cardinal, died (born 2 April 1806 in Sonnino).

5 November 1876, Sunday (-25,020) Theodor von Heuglin, German travel writer, died (born 20 March 1824).

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31 October 1876. Tuesday (-25,025) Under pressure from Russia, Turkey agreed to an armistice with Serbia and Montenegro.

29 October 1876, Sunday (-25,027) Wilfred Rhodes, cricketer, was born (died 8 July 1973)

16 October 1876, Monday (-25,040) Wolfgang Waltershausen, German geologist, died in Gottingen (born 28 December 1810 in Gottingen)

14 October 1876, Saturday (-25,042) Norfolk Cricket Club was founded.

10 October 1876, Tuesday (-25,046) Deville Saint Claire, French chemist, died in Paris (born 11 March 1818 in St Thomas, West Indies)

7 October 1876, Saturday (-25,049) The first greyhound race with an artificial hare, the Hendon Cup, was run at the Welsh Harp, Hendon, London.

3 October 1876, Tuesday (-25,053) Johns Hopkins University (see 1877) opened at Baltimore, with a bequest from Baltimore financier Johns Hopkins who died in 1873 aged 78.

====================================================================================

28 September 1876, Thursday (-25,058) Carl Credner, German geologist, died (born 13 March 1809).

27 September 1876, Wednesday (-25,059) Braxton Bragg, US soldier, died in Galveston, Texas (born in North Carolina 22 March 1817).

26 September 1867, Tuesday (-25,060)

25 September 1876, Monday (-25,061) Adolf Glasbrenner, German satirical writer, was born (died 25 September 1876).

24 September 1876, Sunday (-25,062) Battle of Shirogawa, Samurai rebellion. The Imperial Japanese Army under Prince Taruhito defeated the rebels under Takamori Saigo, who was killed.

22 September 1876, Friday (-25,064)

21 September 1876, Thursday (-25,065) Julio Gonzalez, Spanish sculptor, was born in Barcelona (died 27 march 1942 in Arcueil, near Paris)

20 September 1876, Wednesday (-25,066) Sir Titus Salt, born 20 September 1803, died.

19 September 1876, Tuesday (-25,067) Melville R Bissell of Grand Rapids, Michigan patented the Bissell carpet sweeper, the first practical way to sweep carpets of dust. He suffered from headaches caused by his allergy to straw dust which came from the straw packing he used in his china shop. He invented a sweeper with a sprung brush roller that responded to pressure on the handle.

12 September 1876. Tuesday (-25,074) King Leopold of Belgium formed the International African Association to co-ordinate the activities of European explorers in Africa.

7 September 1876, Thursday (-25,079) Bernard Darwin, golfer, was born (died 18 October 1961).

6 September 1876, Wednesday (-25,080) (1) The first railway reached Los Angeles (Southern Pacific Railroad), from San Francisco. The Santa Fe Railroad reached Los Angeles in 1885. For a time the rail fare westwards from Chicago was just 1US$, although considerably more going east. This pricing strategy was adopted to encourage more settlers to move west, so railway income from fruit harvested around Los Angeles would increase.

(2) (Turkey) British public opinion was turned against Turkey by a pamphlet published by Gladstone, �The Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East�. Russia prepared to attack Turkey, see 1877.

3 September 1876, Sunday (-25,083)

1 September 1876, Friday (-25,085) (Turkey) Serbian forces were heavily defeated by Ottoman Turkey at Alexinatz.

=====================================================================================

31 August 1876, Thursday (-25,086) Accession of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. Succeeding his brother Abdul Aziz, Abdul Hamid gained prestige at home for defeating Greece in 1897, and followed a pro-German foreign policy.

29 August 1876, Tuesday (-25,088) Felicien David, French composer, died (born 13 April 1810).

27 August 1876, Sunday (-25,090) Eugene Fromentin, French painter, died (born 1820).

26 August 1876, Saturday (-25,091) Giovanni Peronne, Italian religious writer, died (born 1794 in Piedmont)

19 August 1876, Saturday (-25,098) George Smith, writer on ancient Assyria, died of fever near Aleppo, Syria (born 26 March 1840 in Chelsea, London)

17 August 1876. Thursday (-25,100) Wagner�s opera Gotterdammerung premiered at Bayreuth.

15 August 1876, Tuesday (-25,102) John Frederick Lewis, English painter, died in Walton on Thames (born 14 July 1805 in London)

14 August 1876, Monday (-25,103) (Yugoslavia) Alexander Obrenovich, King of Serbia, was born.

13 August 1876, Sunday (-25,104) The Bayreuth Festepeilhaus opened with the first complete performance of Richard Wagner�s Ring Cycle.

9 August 1876. Wednesday (-25,108) The Turks invaded Serbia and defeated the Serbs at Aleksinac. On 1 September 1876 the Turks again defeated the Serbs at Akleksinac.

7 August 1876. Monday (-25,110) Dutch spy, Mata Hari (Margarete Gertrude Zelle), who passed secrets to the Germans in World War One, was born in Leeuwarden. The French arrested her in 1917 and she was executed by firing squad.

3 August 1876, Thursday (-25,114) Stanley Baldwin, British Prime Minister in the 1920s and 30s, was born.

2 August 1876, Wednesday (-25,115) Death of Wild Bill Hickok, Marshall of Kansas City, who gunned down many outlaws; he was shot in the back this day.

1 August 1876. Tuesday (-25,116) Colorado became the 38th State of the USA.

==================================================================================

28 July 1876, Friday (-25,120) Mortimer Collins, English writer, died (born 29 June 1827).

25 July 1876, Tuesday (-25,123) Robert Childers, scholarly writer on the Orient, died (born 1838).

24 July 1876, Monday (-25,124) President Lerdo de Tejada re-elected as President of Mexico. However he was expelled in 1/1877 by Porfirio Diaz.

18 July 1876, Tuesday (-25,130) Karl Joseph Simrock, German author, died in Bonn (born 28 August 1802 in Bonn)
14 July 1876, Friday (-25,134) James Henry, Irish scholarly writer, died (born 13 December 1798).

8 July 1876. Saturday (-25,140) The Austrian and Russian foreign Ministers, Andrassy and Gorchakov, met at the Reichstadt in Bohemia to discuss the future of the Balkans on the conclusion of the current conflict.

6 July 1876, Thursday (-25,142) Will D Cobb, US singer, was born in Philadelphia (died 20 January 1930 in New York)

2 July 1876, Sunday (-25,146) Wilhelm Cuno, German statesman, was born at Suhl.

1 July 1876, Saturday (-25,147) (1) Montenegro also declared war on Turkey.

(2) (Railways) The railway from Amherst to Riviere du Loup, Canada, opened.

====================================================================================

30 June 1876. Friday (-25,148) Serbia declared war on Ottoman Turkey.

29 June 1876, Thursday (-25,149)

28 June 1876, Wednesday (-25,150) August Wilhelm Ambros, Austrian musician, died in Vienna (born 1816).

27 June 1876, Tuesday (-25,151) Christian Ehrenberg, German naturalist, was born (died 27 June 1876).

25 June 1876, Sunday (-25,153) (USA) Custer�s Last Stand took place at Little Bighorn, Montana. Custer died with all 264 men of his 7th cavalry. The killing was done by Sioux Indians led by Chiefs Crazy Horse and Gall. The Battle was the result of a confused policy by the US government towards the Indigenous Americans. The Eastern Sioux and Northern Cheyennes had been guaranteed exclusive possession of the Dakota territory west of the Missouri River, but white miners were settling in the Black Hills area searching for gold. The US government refused to move the miners and so conflict became inevitable. The Indigenous Americans were asked to leave or be considered hostile and in June 1876 US soldiers moved in. However Custer, with his 650 men, was unaware that the Indigenous Americans had 1,500 warriors close by. After the disaster of Little Bighorn, the US army flooded the area with soldiers, forcing the Indigenous Americans to surrender.

22 June 1876, Thursday (-25,156) Gwen John, British painter, was born in Haverfordwest, Wales (died18 September 1939 in Dieppe)

21 June 1876, Wednesday (-25,157) (Chemistry) Willem Hendrik Keesom, Dutch physicist, was born in Texel, Netherlands. He solidified helium, which can only be achieved at high pressures and low temperatures.

20 June 1876, Tuesday (-25,158) The first commercial telephone service in Canada was started by Hugh Cossart Baker, in Hamilton, Ontario.

17 June 1876, Saturday (-25,161)

13 June 1876, Tuesday (-25,165) (Russia) Mikhail Bakunin, Russian anarchist (born 1814) died in Bern.

12 June 1876, Monday (-25,166) Alfred Bate Richards, English journalist, died (born 17 February 1820 in Worcestershire)

8 June 1876, Thursday (-25,170) George Sand, author, died

6 June 1876, Tuesday (-25,172) Auguste Perier, French diplomat, died in Paris.

5 June 1876, Monday (-25,173) Tony Jackson, US jazz composer, was born in New Orleans (died 20 April 1921 in Chicago)

3 June 1876, Saturday (-25,175) John Eadie, Scottish religious writer, died (born 9 May 1810).

=====================================================================================

30 May 1876, Tuesday (-25,179) Abdul Aziz, 32nd Sultan of Ottoman Turkey, born 9 February 1830, was forced to abdicate. Succeeding his brother, Abdul Mejid, in 1861, he promised economic and political reform, but instead wasted money on personal luxuries and grand building projects. Insurrections occurred in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875. He was assassinated on 3 June 1876.

29 May 1876, Monday (-25,180) Friedrich Diaz, German scholarly writer, died (born 15 March 1794).

28 May 1876, Sunday (-25,181)

27 May 1876, Saturday (-25,182) Joseph Bosworth, English historical writer, died (born 1789).

26 May 1876, Friday (-25,183) Frantisek Palacky, Czech politician, died in Prague (born in Moravia 14 June 1798)

24 May 1876, Wednesday (-25,185) Henry Kingsley, English novelist, died.

19 May 1876, Friday (-25,190) Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer, Dutch historical writer, died (born 21 August 1801).

17 May 1876, Wednesday (-25,192) (Technology, Roads) Nikolaus August Otto patented the world�s first four-stroke internal combustion engine. However the patent office uncovered earlier work done on the four stroke cycle by Frenchman Alphonse Beau de Rochas in 1862. Oto�s patent was deemed invalid and others were free to use his idea. Karl Benz refined the four stroke engine and made it run not on gas but liquid fuel, kerosene or gasoline, thereby making the engine mobile.

16 May 1876, Tuesday (-25,193) Charles W Hunter, US ragtime composer, was born in Columbia, Tennessee (died 23 January 1906 in St Louis)

14 May 1876, Sunday (-25,195)

13 May 1876, Saturday (-25.196) Philip Meadows Taylor, novelist, died in Mentone (born 25 September 1808 in Liverpool)

12 May 1876, Friday (-25,197) Henri Esquiros, French writer, died (born 23 May 1812)

10 May 1876, Wednesday (-25,199)

8 May 1876. Monday (-25,201) The last IndigenousTasmanian, Truganini, died. She was 4 foot 3 inches tall, in her sixties, and was known as the� Queen of the Aborigines�. She saw her mother stabbed to death by white men and at 16 was herself raped by white convicts. She took to hanging around work camps, selling herself for a handful of tea and sugar. Then she met a white man whom she helped to record tribal customs. The coffin lowered into her grave was empty; the authorities feared body snatchers and buried her elsewhere.

7 May 1876, Sunday (-25,202) Samuel Courtauld, British industrialist and arts patron, was born in Braintree, Essex.

4 May 1875, Thursday (-25,205) Georg Ewald, German scholarly writer, died (born 16 November 1803).

1 May 1876, Monday (-25,208) Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India.

==================================================================================

30 April 1876, Sunday (-25,209) (Chemistry) Antoine Balard, chemist, died in Paris ( born in Montpellier, France, 30 September 1802)

29 April 1876, Saturday (-25,210) Empress Zauditu of Ethiopia was born.

27 April 1876, Thursday (-25,212) Cornelius Leahy, athlete, was born.

25 April 1876, Tuesday (-25,214) (Arts) Thomas Aird, Scottish poet, died in Dumfries (born 28 August 1802 in Bowden, Roxburghshire)

23 April 1876, Sunday (-25,216) Aino Ackte, Finnish soprano singer, was born in Helsinki (died 8 August 1944 in Nummela)

17 April 1876, Monday (-25,222) (Arts) Ian Hay, British author, was born.

16 April 1876, Sunday (-25,223) Easter Sunday. Start of Bulgarian uprising against Ottoman rule, which led to Bulgarian independence in 1878.

14 April 1876, Friday (-25,225) Florrie Forde, Australian music hall singer, was born in Fitzroy, near Melbourne (died 18 April 1940 in Aberdeen)

10 April 1876, Monday (-25,229) Alexander Turney Stewart, US merchant, died in New York (born 12 October 1803 near Belfast, Ireland)

======================================================================================

25 March 1876, Saturday (-25,245) The first international football match between Scotland and Wales at Glasgow, was won by Scotland, four-nil.

23 March 1876, Thursday (-25,247) Sir Mulrhead Bone, British draughtsman, was born in Glasgow (died 21 October 1953 in Oxford)

19 March 1876, Sunday (-25,251) Charles Chesney, British military writer, died (born 29 September 1826)

18 March 1876, Saturday (-25,252) Ferdinand Feiligrath, German poet, died (born 17 August 1810).

13 March 1876, Monday (-25,657) Joseph von Fuhrich, Austrian painter, died (born 9 February 1800).

10 March 1876, Friday (-25,260) Alexander Graham Bell transmitted the first telephone message to his assistant, from 5 Exeter Place, Boston, Massachusetts. The words were �Come here Watson, I want you�.

8 March 1876, Wednesday (-25,262) Hertfordshire Cricket Club was founded.

7 March 1876. Tuesday (-25,263) The first telephone was patented by the American Alexander GrahamBell, who was born on 3 March 1847. Bell was just a few hours ahead of a similar patent by Elisha Gray.

6 March 1876, Monday (-25,264)

5 March 1876, Sunday (-25,265) (Arts) Marie Agoult, French author (born 31 December 1805 in Frankfort on Main) died in Paris.

4 March 1876, Saturday (-25,266) Sir Richard Hanson, Chief Justice of South Australia, died (born 6 December 1805).

2 March 1876, Thursday (-25,268) Pope Pius X was born in Rome, as Eugenio Pacelli.

======================================================================================

27 February 1876, Sunday (-25,272) Japan and Korea signed the Treaty of Kanghwa. Until 1873 Korea, governed by the xenophobic Regent Taewon-Gun, had rejected diplomatic approaches by Japan. In 1875 Japanese gunboats off Kanghwa Island, near Seoul, were fired upon by the Koreans. Japan used this incident to force closer commercial and political links with Korea, backed up by the Japanese Navy. The Treaty of Kanghwa encouraged Western powers to also seek closer links with Korea, ending its isolation and its status as a vassal state of China.

24 February 1876, Thursday (-25,275) Victor Moore, US actor, was born in Hammonton, New Jersey (died in East Islip, New York)

20 February 1876, Sunday (-25,279) Feodor Akimenko, Russian composer, was born in Kharkov (died 3 January 1945 in Paris)

19 February 1876, Saturday (-25,280) Constantin Brancusi, Romanian sculptor, was born in Hobitza (died16 March 1957 in Paris)

18 February 1876. Friday (-25,281) A direct telegraph link was set up between Britain and New Zealand.

17 February 1876, Thursday (-25,282) Horace Bushnell, religious writer, died (born 14 April 1802)

14 February 1876, Monday (-25,285)

11 February 1876, Friday (-25,288) Sir John Coleridge, English Judge, died (born 1790).

10 February 1876, Thursday (-25,289) Reverdy Johnson, US politician, died (born 21 May 1796).

7 February 1876, Monday (-25,292)

3 February 1876, Thursday (-25,296) Gino Capponi, Italian historical writer, died (born 13 February 1792).

2 February 1876, Wednesday (-25,297) The Welsh Football Association was formed.

=====================================================================================

31 January 1876, Monday (-25,299) (1) All American Indians were ordered to move to reservations

(2) The �Andrassy Note� (see 30 December 1875) was handed to the Ottoman Sultan in Constantinople.The Sultan promised, but did nothing.

26 January 1876, Wednesday (-25,304) Antoine Frederick-Lemaitre, French actor, died (born 28 July 1800).

22 January 1876, Saturday (-25,308) Sir George Harvey, Scottish painter, died (born 2/1806).

19 January 1876, Wednesday (-25,311) Thomas Palmer, boxer, was born (died 13 February 1949).

14 January 1876, Friday (-25,316) Essex County Cricket Club was founded at a meeting at The Shire Hall, Chelmsford.

12 January 1876, Wednesday (-25,318) Italian composer Ermanno Wolf-ferrari was born in Venice.

9 January 1876, Sunday (-25,321) Samuel Howe, US philanthropist, died (born 10 November 1801).

7 January 1876, Friday (-25,323) Juste Daniel Oliver, Swiss poet, died in Geneva 9born 1807 near Nyon).

5 January 1876, Wednesday (-25,325) Konrad Adenauer, West German Chancellor, was born in Cologne.

3 January 1876, Monday (-25,327) Julius von Mohl, German Orientalist writer, died.

1 January 1876, Saturday (-25,329) The Plimsoll Line became compulsory on all British-registered ships after this date. Its purpose was to prevent ships being dangerously overloaded. The modern Plimsoll Line was first proposed by James Hall of Tynemouth in a report of 7 December .1869. However the Crusader ships employed a cross marked at the waterline for the same purpose, and the 12th century Republic of Venice also made it illegal to operate its ships without a form of the Plimsoll line. Hanseatic ships used the same load line but when the Hanseatic League ceased to exist in the 15th century this safety practice was lost.

=====================================================================================

30 December 1875, Thursday (-25,331) Russia, Germany, and Austro-Hungary agreed on the terms of a note to Constantinople calling for Ottoman Turkey to deliver on its promises of equality for Christians with Muslims and measures to protect Christians in the Balkans from persecution.This was the so-called �Andrassy Note�, see 31 January 1876.

25 December 1875, Saturday (-25,336) The Chicago Daily News began publication. It was priced at 1 cent, whereas other newspapers cost 5 cents.

24 December 1875, Friday (-23,337) Philip Henry 5th Earl Stanhope, historical writer, died (born 30 January 1805)

23 December 1875, Thursday (-25,338) Louis la Gueronniere, French politician, died.

20 December 1875, Monday (-25,341) The Ryde to Newport railway, isle of Wight, opened.

16 December 1875, Thursday (-25,345) James Hinton, English medical writer, died (born 1822)

3 December 1875, Friday (-25,358) Max Meldrum, painter, was born in Edinburgh (died 6 June 1955 in Melbourne, Australia)

2 December 1875, Thursday (-25,359) Charles Latrobe, British colonial Governor of Australia, died

1 December 1875, Wednesday (-25,360) Pauline Dejazet, French actress, died (born 30 August 1798).

====================================================================================

29 November 1875, Monday (-25,362) Thomas Key, English scholarly writer, died (born 20 March 1799).

27 November 1875. Saturday (-25,364) Britain bought Suez Canal shares. Britain bought nearly half the shares for �4million from the Khedive, or ruler, of Egypt. Disraeli, the British Prime Minister, was relieved to have prevented total French control of the Canal. When the Canal was built six years ago with French money and French expertise the British, under Gladstone, took no interest; now Britain accounts for 80% of the Canal traffic. On 15 November 1875 Disraeli learned that the Khedive owned 177,000 of the 400,000 shares but was on the verge of bankruptcy and wanted to sell, or at least mortgage the shares to a French syndicate. The British put pressure on the French syndicate who, without government help, pulled out, whilst Baron Lionel de Rothschild provided finance for the British to buy the shares for UK� 4 million.

23 November 1875, Tuesday (-25,368) Friedrich Lange, German philosophical writer, died (born 28 September 1828).

15 November 1875, Monday (-25,376) In London the River Thames rose 28 feet (8.5 metres) above normal, causing severe flooding.

9 November 1875, Tuesday (-25,382) Karl Fraas, German botanical writer, died (born 8 September 1810).

5 November 1875, Friday (-25,386) Blackburn Rovers football club was formed.

2 November 1875, Tuesday (-25,389) Horatio Hackett, US Biblical scholarly writer, died (born 27 December 1808).

=====================================================================================

30 October 1875. Saturday (-25,392) In the USA, Mary Baker Eddy published Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, arguing that illness is illusory and laying the basis for Christian Science.

25 October 1875, Monday (-25,397) Jacques Migne, French religious writer, died.

20 October 1875, Wednesday (-25,402) Walter Hook, English religious writer, died (born 13 March 1798)

19 October 1875, Tuesday (-25,403) Sir Charles Wheatstone, English physicist who pioneered telegraphy, died in Paris.

18 October 1875, Monday (-25,404) Leonard Braund, cricketer, was born (died 23 December 1955)

15 October 1875, Friday (-25,407)

12 October 1875, Tuesday (-25,410) Jean Carpeaux, French sculptor, died (born 11 May 1827)

11 October 1875, Monday (-25,411) Jean Baptiste Carpeaux, French sculptor, died in Courbevoie (born 11 May 1827 in Valenciennes)

10 October 1875, Sunday (-25,412) Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, novelist and poet, died.

8 October 1875, Friday (-25,414) Alexander Forbes, Scottish religious writer, died (born 6 June 1817).

6 October 1875, Wednesday (-25,416) The Sandown to Newport railway, Isle of Wight, opened.

4 October 1875, Monday (-25,418) Alexander Runciman, Scottish historical painter, died in Edinburgh (born 1736 in Edinburgh)

3 October 1875, Sunday (-25,419) Gerardo Murillo Atl, Mexican painter, was born in Guadalajara (died14 august 1964 in Mexico City)

2 October 1875, Saturday (-25,420) (USA) San Francisco�s Palace Hotel opened.

===================================================================================

30 September 1875, Thursday (-25,422) Fred Fisher, US composer, was born in Cologne (died 14 January 1942 in New York)

19 September 1875, Sunday (-25,433) Thomas Wade, English poet, died in Jersey (born 1805 in Woodbridge, Suffolk)

17 September 1875, Friday (-25,435) Guillaume Duchenne, French physician, died (born 17.9/1806).

16 September 1875, Thursday (-25,436) Following the anti-Turkish uprising in Bosnia and Hercegovina on 29 July 1875, the Bulgarians rebelled against the Turks, led by Khristo Botev, in Stara Zagora.

11 September 1875, Saturday (-25,141) (Football) Bournemouth Rovers football club was founded.

8 September 1875, Wednesday (-25,144) John George Pinwell, English water colour painter, died (born 1842 in Wycombe)

3 September 1875, Friday (-25,449) Ferdinand Porsche, motor car engineer, was born.

1 September 1875, Wednesday (-25,451) Edgar Rice Burroughs, creator of Tarzan, was born in Chicago. He never visited Africa where his stories were set.

===================================================================================

26 August 1875, Thursday (-25,457) John Buchan, Lord Tweedsmuir, British administrator, and author, was born.

25 August 1875. Wednesday (-25,458) Matthew Webb, 27, from Shropshire, became the first person to swim the English Channel. He took 21 hours 45 minutes, using the breast-stroke, from Admiralty Pier, Dover, to Calais.

21 August 1875, Saturday (-25,462)

19 August 1875, Thursday (-25,464) Hermann Ebel, German scholarly writer, died (born 10 May 1820).

18 August 1875, Wednesday (-25,465) Somerset County Cricket Club was founded.

17 August 1875, Tuesday (-25,466) Wilhelm Beek, German scholarly writer, died in Cape Town.

15 August 1875, Sunday (-25,468) Robert Hawker, English poet, died (born 3 December 1803).

10 August 1875, Tuesday (-25,473) (Cartography) Karl Andree, German cartographer and geographer, died in Wildungen (born 20 October 1808 in Brunswick).

9 August 1875, Monday (-25,474) Reynaldo Hahn, Venezuelan-French composer, was born in Caracas (died 28 January 1947 in Paris)

7 August 1975, Saturday (-24,476)

5 August 1875, Thursday (-24,478) William Henwood, English geological writer, died (born 16 January 1805)

4 August 1875, Wednesday (-24,479) Hans Christian Andersen, the Danish writer famous for his fairy stories, died aged 70.

2 August 1875, Monday (-24,481) Britain�s first roller skating rink opened, in Belgravia, London.

====================================================================================

31 July 1875, Saturday (-25,483) Andrew Johnson, American Democrat and 17th president from 1865 to 1869, died in Carter County, Tennessee.

30 July 1875, Friday (-25,484) Billy Meredith, footballer, was born (died 19 April 1958).

29 July 1875, Thursday (-25,485) The peasants of the two mountain provinces of Bosnia and Hercegovina put up resistance to the Ottoman Turks.The Bosnians wanted to join Serbia but the Hercegovinians wanted to join Montenegro. See 16 September 1875.

28 July 1875, Wednesday (-25,486) Lewisham Town Hall, S London, officially opened. It was replaced by a new building in 1959.

27 July 1875, Tuesday (-25,487) Connop Thirlwall, English historical writer, died in Bath (born 11 January 1797 in Stepney, London)

26 July 1875, Monday (-25,488) Carl Jung, Swiss psychoanalyst, was born in Kesswil.

24 July 1875, Saturday (-25,490) Athanase Coquerel, French theologian, died.

23 July 1875, Friday (-25,491) Isaac Singer, American inventor of the modern sewing machine, died in Torquay, Devon.

22 July 1875, Thursday (-25,492)

21 July 1875, Wednesday (-25,493) Colvin Smith, Scottish portrait painter, died in Edinburgh (born 1795 in Brechin)

20 July 1875, Tuesday (-25,494) The first US State agricultural experimental station was established at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut.

16 July 1875, Friday (-25,498) France ratified its new Constitution. This provided for a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate, with a President serving a seven-year term. Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de MacMahon continued as President.

14 July 1875, Wednesday (-25,500) (Cartography) Wilhelm Dufour, Swiss General who mapped Geneva at 1:25,000 and went on to complete a survey of all of Switzerland at 1:100,000 between 1842 and 1865, died (born 15 September 1787).

8 July 1875, Thursday (-25,506) (Britain) John Cairnes, British political economist, died (born 1823).

===================================================================================

29 June 1875, Tuesday (-25,515) Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria, died (born 19 April 1793)

25 June 1875, Friday (-25,519) Antoine Barye, French sculptor, died (born in Paris 24 September 1796).

22 June 1875, Tuesday (-25,522) Sir William Logan, British geologist, died (born 20 April 1798).

10 June 1875, Thursday (-25,534) Duff Green, US politician, died (born 15 August 1791).

9 June 1875, Wednesday (-25,535) Gerard Deshayes, French geologist, died (born 13 May 1797).

8 June 1875, Tuesday (-25,536)

6 June 1875, Sunday (-25,538) Thomas Mann, writer, was born.

5 June 1875, Saturday (-25,539) Frederick Walker, English artist, died in Perthshire (born 24 May 1840 in Marylebone, London)

4 June 1875, Friday (-25,540) Eduard Morike, German poet, died (born 8 September 1804).

3 June 1875, Thursday (-25,541) Georges Bizet, French composer of the opera Carmen, died in Bougival near Paris.

===================================================================================

24 May 1875, Monday (-25,551)

17 May 1875, Monday (-25,558) The Kentucky Derby horse race, USA, was first run.

16 May 1875, Sunday (-25,559) Earthquake affected Colombia and Venezuela; 16,000 killed.

14 May 1875, Friday (-25,561) Gottfried Bernhardy, scholarly writer, died (born in Landsberg 20 March 1800)

10 May 1875, Monday (-25,565) Gustave Adolphe Thuret, French botanist, diedin Nice (born 23 May 1817 in Paris)

1 May 1875, Saturday (-25,574) Alfred Stevens, British sculptor, died in London (born 28 January 1818 in Blandford, Dorset)

====================================================================================

29 April 1875, Thursday (-25,576) Paul A Rubens, British composer, was born in London (died 25 February 1917 in Falmouth)

26 April 1875, Monday (-25,579) Synghman Rhee, South Korean statesman, was born.

24 April 1875, Saturday (-25,581) Samuel Prideaux Tregelles, English religious writer, died in Plymouth (born near Falmouth, 30 January 1813)

13 April 1875, Tuesday (-25,592) The Alexandra Docks Railway, Newport, south Wales, opened

11 April 1875, Sunday (-25,594) Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, German astronomer, died in Dessau (born 25 October 1789 in Dessau)

8 April 1875, Thursday (-25,597) Albert I, King of Belgium, was born.

7 April 1875, Wednesday (-25,598) Georg Herwegh, German poet, died (born 31 May 1817).

6 April 1875, Tuesday (-25,599)

4 April 1875, Sunday (-25,601) Joseph Szulc, Polish composer, was born in Warsaw (died 10 April 1956 in Paris)

2 April 1875, Friday (-25,603) Walt Chrysler, founder of Chrysler Corporation, was born.

1 April 1875, Thursday (-25,604) The Times became the first newspaper to publish a daily weather chart.

=====================================================================================

31 March 1875, Wednesday (-25,605)

28 March 1875, Sunday (-25,608) Easter Sunday

27 March 1875, Saturday (-25,609) Edgar Quinet, French historical writer, died in Versailles (born 17 February 1803 in Bourg en Bresse)

26 March 1875, Friday (-25,610) Albert Marquet, French painter, was born in Bordeaux (died 14 June 1947 in Paris)

22 March 1875, Monday (-25,614) Hezekiah Bateman, US actor, died (born in Baltimore, Maryland 6 December 1812)).

18 March 1875, Thursday (-25,618) Hawaii signed a treaty giving exclusive trading rights with the islands to the USA.

8 March 1875, Monday (-25,628) Franco Alfano, Italian composer, was born near Naples (died 27 October 1954 in San Remo)

7 March 1875, Sunday (-25,629) Maurice Ravel, French composer, was born in Ciboure in the Basque Country.

6 March 1875, Saturday (-25,630) John Timbs, English writer, died in London (born 17 August 1801 in Clerkenwell, London)

3 March 1875, Wednesday (-25,633) (2) Canada�s first organised ice hockey match was played at the Victoria Ice Skating Rink, Montreal.

(1) George Bizet�s opera Carmen was first performed for the first time, in Paris.

1 March 1875, Monday (-25,635) The US Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, giving equal rights to all races in transport, theatres, inns, and juries.

=====================================================================================

28 February 1875, Sunday (-25,636) Sir Goldsworth Gurney, inventor, died

25 February 1875, Thursday (-26,639)

22 February 1875, Monday (-26,642) Tensions between London and Beijing increased after Augustus Margary, a British official, was killed by bandits close to the Burma-China border.

21 February 1875, Sunday (-26,643) (Biology) Jean Calment was born, going on to live for 122 years 164 days, the longest confirmed human lifespan.

17 February 1875, Wednesday (-26,647) (Astronomy) Friedrich Argelander, German astronomer, died 17 February 1875 in Bonn (born 22 March 1799 in Memel).

15 February 1875, Monday (-26,649) Sir William Bennett, English composer, died in St Johns Wood, London (born in Sheffield 13 April 1816).

9 February 1875, Tuesday (-25,655) The Hoosac rail tunnel USA, 7 km long, opened.

2 February 1875, Tuesday (-25,662) Austrian born US composer Fritz Kreisler was born in Vienna.

1 February 1875, Monday (-25,663) English composer William Sterndale Bennett died in London.

====================================================================================

29 January 1875, Friday (-25,666) Edward St Leonards, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, died in Thames Ditton (born 28 February 1781 in Westminster, London)

26 January 1875, Tuesday (-25,669) The first battery electric powered dental drill was used. Mains-powered dental drills were not used until 1908.

24 January 1875, Sunday (-25,671) Arthur Wood, British composer, was born in Heckmondwike, Yorkshire (died 18 January 1953 in London)

23 January 1875, Saturday (-25,672) Charles Kingsley, English novelist, died (born 12 June 1819).

22 January 1875, Friday (-25,673) Ferdinand Hitzig, German religious writer, died (born 23 June 1807).

20 January 1875, Wednesday (-25,675) French painter Jean Francois Millet died in Barbizon.

15 January 1875, Friday (-25,680) Jean Omalius D�Halloy, Belgian geologist, died (born in Liege 16 February 1783)

14 January 1875, Thursday (-25,681) Albert Schweitzer, physician, was born.

6 January 1875, Wednesday (-25,689) Charles Remusat, French politician, died in Paris (born 13 March 1797 in Paris)

1 January 1875, Friday (-25,694)

===================================================================================

31 December 1874, Thursday (-25,695) Alexandre Ledru-Rollin, French politician, died (born 2 February 1807).

30 December 1874, Wednesday (-25,696) Ludwig Dessoir, German actor, died (born 15 December 1810)

28 December 1874, Monday (-25,698) Gerritt Smith, US anti-slavery campaigner, died in New York City (born 6 March 1797 in Utica, New York)

26 December 1874, Saturday (-25,700) Boxing Day was first recognised as a Bank Holiday in the UK.

23 December 1874, Wednesday (-25,703) John Romilly, English Judge, died in London (born 10 January 1802)

17 December 1874, Thursday (-25,709) William Cushing, US naval officer, died (born 4 November 1842).

9 December 1874, Wednesday (-25,717) Ezra Cornell, US industrialist who founded Cornell University in Ithaca, died.

7 December 1874, Monday (-25,719) (USA) Race riots in Vicksburg, Mississippi, 75 Black people were killed.

3 December 1874, Thursday (-25,723) Arthur Wimperis, British author, was born in London (died 14 October 1953 in London)

1 December 1874, Tuesday (-25,725) (Spain) The 17-year-old Alphonso XII of Spain issued a proclamation from Sandhurst announcing himself as sole heir to the Spanish throne, and formally beginning his reign.

===================================================================================

30 November 1874, Monday (-25,726) Sir Winston Churchill was born at Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire.

29 November 1874, Sunday (-25,727) (Medical) Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz was born in Avanca, Portugal. In 1935 he developed prefrontal lobotomy as a treatment for mental illness.

26 November 1874, Thursday (-25,730) Vesta Victoria, British music hall singer, was born in Leeds (died 7 April 1951 in London)

24 November 1874, Tuesday (-25,732)

21 November 1874, Saturday (-25,735) Mariano Fortuny, Spanish painter, died (born 11 June 1838).

20 November 1874, Friday (-25,736) Tom Hood, English writer, died (born 19 January 1835).

18 November 1874, Wednesday (-25,738) In the USA, the National Women�s Christian Temperance Union was founded.

Women would invade saloons and sing hymns and pray; the point being that drunkenness and ill-treatment of women often went together.

14 November 1874, Saturday (-25,742) William Sewell, English author, died (born 23 January 1804 in Newport, Isle of Wight)

12 November 1874, Thursday (-25,744) Bert Williams, US actor, was born in Antigua (died 4 February 1922 in New York)

6 November 1874, Friday (-25,750) Argentine troops under Sarmiento defeated an insurrection by Bartolome Mitre, who believed he had been deprived of victory in the 1874 Presidential elections by fraud.

4 November 1874, Wednesday (-25,752) Charles Despiau, French sculptor, was born in Mont de Marsan (died 28 October 1946 in Paris)

=====================================================================================

26 October 1874, Monday (-23,761) Carl Cornelius, German poet, died (born 24 December 1824).

23 October 1874, Friday (-23,764) Abraham Geiger, German scholarly writer, died (born 24 May 1810).

20 October 1874, Tuesday (-23,767) Karl Homeyer, German jurist, died (born 13 August 1795).

18 October 1874, Sunday (-23,769) Peter O�Connor, athlete (long jump), was born (died 9 November 1957)

10 October 1874, Saturday (-25,777) Thomas Shotter Boys, English watercolour painter, died in London (born 2 January 1803 in London)

9 October 1874, Friday (-25,778) The Universal Postal Union was established, with its headquarters in Berne, Switzerland.

5 October 1874, Monday (-25,782) Bryan Waller Proctor, English poet, died (born 21 November 1787 in Leeds)

===================================================================================

29 September 1874, Tuesday (-25,788) Bert Feldman, British music publisher, was born in Hull (died 25 March 1945 in Blackpool)

21 September 1874, Monday (-25,796) Gustav Holst, English composer, who wrote The Planets, was born in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, as Gustavus Theodore von Holst, of Swedish origin.

17 September 1874, Thursday (-25,800) (USA) The White League rioted against the Black Government in New Orleans, USA.

15 September 1874, Tuesday (-25,802) The Prince of Wales visited France. This was the first visit there by a member of the British Royal Family since the French revolution.

13 September 1874, Sunday (-25,804) Arnold Schoenberg, composer, was born.

12 September 1874, Saturday (-25,805) Francois Guizot, French statesman, died (born 4 October 1787).

3 September 1874, Thursday (-25,814) Hans Gabelentz, German scholarly writer, died (born 13 October 1807).

===================================================================================

30 August 1874, Sunday (-25,818) In Britain, the Factory Act limited the working week to 56.5 hours.

27 August 1874, Thursday (-25,821) John Foley, Irish sculptor, died (born 24 May 1818).

24 August 1874, Monday (-25,824) William Betty, English actor, died (born in Shrewsbury 13 September 1791).

22 August 1874, Saturday (-25,826) Sydney Dobell, English poet, died (born 5 April 1824).

19 August 1874, Wednesday (-25,829) Abraham Holzmann, US composer, was born in New York (died 16 January 1939 in East Orange, New Jersey)

18 August 1874, Tuesday (-25,830) Sir William Fairbairn, Scottish engineer, died (born 19 February 1789).

17 August 1874, Monday (-25,831) Jack Pleasants, comedian, was born in Bradford, Yorkshire (died 26 December 1923 in Bradford)

15 August 1874, Saturday (-25,833) Charles Richard Sumner, English Bishop, died in Farnham

10 August 1874, Monday (-25,838) Herbert Hoover, Republican politician and 31st US President, 1929-33, was born in West Branch, Iowa, the son of a blacksmith.

======================================================================================

31 July 1874, Friday (-25,848) (Africa) Charles Beke, explorer of Africa and the Bible Lands, died in Bromley, Kent (born in Stepney, London, 10 October 1800).

30 July 1874, Thursday (-25,849) William Meredith, footballer, was born (died 19 April 1958).

28 July 1874, Tuesday (-25,851) The Sutherland and Caithness Railway opened from Helmsdale to Wick and Thurso.

26 July 1874, Sunday (-25,853) Russian born US conductor and double bass player Serge Koussevitzky was born in Vyshny Volochyok.

20 July 1874, Monday (-25,859) The Barnstaple to Ilfracombe railway opened. The Bath and Evercreech railway opened.

15 July 1874, Wednesday (-25,864) Erith Nicholls, rugby player, was born (died 24 March 1939).

14 July 1874, Tuesday (-25,865) Abbas II (Abbas Hilmi Pasha), the last Khedive of Egypt, was born in Cairo (died 21 December 1944).

10 July 1874, Friday (-25,869)

8 July 1874, Wednesday (-25,871) Agnes Strickland, English historical writer, died (born 1806 in Suffolk)

7 July 1874, Tuesday (-25,872) John Jesse, English historical writer, died (born 1815).

6 July 1874, Monday (-25,873) Fox Dalhousie, British statesman, died (born 22 April 1801).

4 July 1874, Saturday (-25,875) The railway east from St Louis, USA, opened, crossing the Mississippi by the Eads Bridge.

2 July 1874, Thursday (-25,877) The US Government ordered General George A Custer to lead a reconnaissance expedition into the Black Hills territory of the Sioux Indigenous Americans.

1 July 1874, Wednesday (-25,878) Stafford Common railway station, UK, opened/

====================================================================================

28 June 1874, Sunday (-25,881) Oley Speaks, US composer, was born in Canal Winchester, Ohio (died 27 August 1948 in New York)

22 June 1874, Monday (-25,887) Howard Staunton, British writer on chess, died in London (born 1810)

21 June 1874, Sunday (-25,888) (Science) Anders Jonas Angstrom, Swedish physicist (born 13 August 1814 in Logdo) died in Upsala.

19 June 1874, Friday (-25,890) Jules Janin, French writer, died (born 16 February 1804).

14 June 1874, Sunday (-25,895) Edward Bowes, US theatrical producer, was born in San Francisco (died 13 June 1946 in Rumson, New Jersey)

9 June 1874, Tuesday (-25,900) Cochise, Apache chief and war leader against White settlers, died.

7 June 1874, Sunday (-25,902) Karl Hagenbach, German Church history writer, died (born 4 March 1801).

1 June 1874, Monday (-25,908) Pullman carriages were introduced in Britain, by the Midland Railway, running between London and Bradford.

==============================================================================

29 May 1874, Friday (-25,911) G K Chesterton, English writer, was born.

22 May 1874, Friday (-25,918) Daniel Malan, the South African politician who was responsible for the apartheid policy, was born in Riebeck West, Cape Province.

19 May 1874, Tuesday (-25,921) Gilbert Jessop, cricketer, was born (died 11 May 1955)

9 May 1874, Saturday (-25,931) Lilian Baylis, founder of the Old Vic and Sadler�s Wells ballet company, was born in London.

8 May 1874, Friday (-25,932) (Women�s Rights) Massachusetts legislated to limit women�s work days to 10 hours.

5 May 1874, Tuesday (-25,935) Marc Gleyre, French painter, died (born 2 May 1806).

======================================================================================

29 April 1874, Wednesday (-25,941) In Britain, the Cremation Society was formed.

25 April 1874, Saturday (-25,945) Guglielmo Marconi, Italian scientist and radio pioneer, was born in Bologna.

24 April 1874, Friday (-25,946) Harry Houdini, American magician and escapologist, was born in Appleton, Wisconsin, as Ehrich Weiss. He was the son of a rabbi from Budapest.

21 April 1874, Tuesday (-25,949)

19 April 1874, Sunday (-25,951) Owen Jones, British architect, died (born 1809).

18 April 1874, Saturday (-25,952) David Livingstone�s remains were interred in Westminster Abbey. He died in Africa on 1 May 1873.

15 April 1874, Wednesday (-25,955) First art exhibition by the new Impressionist school

12 April 1874, Sunday (-25,958) Bill Foulke, footballer, was born.

7 April 1874, Tuesday (-25,963) Wilhelm von Kaulbach, German painter, died.

5 April 1874, Sunday (-25,965) Birkenhead Park, the first publically-funded park in Britain and model for Central Park, New York, opened.

4 April 1874, Saturday (-25,966) Charles Beule, French writer, died (born in Saumur 29 June 1826),

=====================================================================================

30 March 1874, Monday (-25,971) Ned Wayburn, US musicals director, was born in Pittsburgh (died 2 September 1942 in New York)

28 March 1874, Saturday (-25,973) Peter Hansen, Danish astronomer, died (born 8 December 1795).

26 March 1874, Thursday (-25,975) Robert Frost, poet, was born.

20 March 1874, Friday (-25,981) Hans Christian Lumbye, Danish composer, died in Copenhagen (born 2 May 1810 in Copenhagen)

19 March 1874, Thursday (-25,982) Wilkie Bard, British comedian, was born in Manchester (died 5 March 1944 in London)

12 March 1874, Thursday (-25,989) Edmund Eysler, Austrian composer, was born in Vienna (died4 October 1949 in Vienna)

10 March 1874, Tuesday (-25,991) Charles Sumner, US statesman, died (born in Boston, Massachusetts 6 January 1811)

9 March 1874, Monday (-25,992) John Duncan Fergusson, Scottish painter, was born in Leith (died 30 January 1961 in Glasgow)

8 March 1874, Sunday (-25,993) 12 people met to discuss forming a building society, which came to be known as the Abbey Building Society (originally the Abbey Road Benefits Society, formed in Kilburn, London)

4 March 1874, Wednesday (-25,997)

3 March 1874, Tuesday (-25,998) Francis Mason, US missionary to the Karens in Myanmar from 1830, died (born 2 April 1799).

2 March 1874, Monday (-25,999) Neil Arnott, Scottish physician (born 15 May 1788) died.

1 March 1874, Sunday (-26,000) Holborn Viaduct railway station opened.

====================================================================================

26 February 1874, Thursday (-26,003)

24 February 1874, Tuesday (-26,005) Thomas Binney, English cleric, died (born 1798).

23 February 1874, Monday (-26,006) Major Walker Wingfield patented the game of lawn tennis, under the name of �Sphairistike�, a version of the Greek for �playing ball�. Between July 1874 and June 1875, 1,050 of his tennis sets were sold.

21 February 1874, Saturday (-26,008) Disraeli became UK Prime Minister; he served until 1880.

17 February 1874, Tuesday (-26,013) William Gladstone left office as Prime Minister.

15 February 1874, Sunday (-26,014) Sir Ernest Shackleton, British Antarctic explorer, was born in born in Kilkee, County Clare, Eire.

9 February 1874, Monday (-26,020) Jules Michelet, French historical writer, died (born 21 August 1798).

8 February 1874, Sunday (-26,021) Herman Merivale, English writer, died.

6 February 1874, Friday (-26,023)

5 February 1874, Thursday (-26,024) Moritz Haupt, German scholarly writer, died (born 27 February 1808).

4 February 1874, Wednesday (-26,025) The Battle of Kumasi ended the Second Ashanti War.

2 February 1874, Monday (-26,027) Liverpool Street Station, London, opened, replacing an earlier terminus at Shoreditch.

====================================================================================

31 January 1874, Saturday (-26,029) Battle of Amoaful, Second Ashanti War.

29 January 1874, Friday (-25,031) John D Rockefeller, US entrepreneur, was born.

25 January 1874, Monday (-25,035) William Somerset Maugham, writer, was born.

24 January 1874, Saturday (-26,036) Adam Black, Scottish book publisher, died (born in Edinburgh 20 February 1784).

22 January 1874, Thursday (-26,038)

20 January 1874, Tuesday (-26,040) Stephen Bloomer, footballer, was born (died 16 April 1938).

19 January 1874, Monday (-26,041) August Hoffmann, German writer, died (born 2 April 1798).

18 January 1874, Sunday (-26,042)

17 January 1874, Saturday (-26,043) The original Siamese Twins, Chang and Eng Bunker, died within three hours of each other, aged 62. Chang and Eng meant Left and Right in Thailand, where they were born.

16 January 1874, Friday (-26,044) Robert William Service, Canadian poet, was born.

13 January 1874, Tuesday (-26,047) (Russia) Conscription was introduced in Russia.

7 January 1874, Wednesday (-26,053) Henry Bell, Scottish writer, died (born in Glasgow 8 November 1803)

4 January 1874, Sunday (-26,056) Czech composer Josef Suk was born in Krecovice.

1 January 1874, Thursday (-26,059)

=====================================================================================

25 December 1873, Thursday (-26,066) Heinrich Hotho, German art historian, died (born 1802).

24 December 1873, Wednesday (-26,067) (Railways) The railway from Auckland, North Island, New Zealand, to Onehunga opened.

23 December 1873, Tuesday (-26,068) Sarah Grimke, US social reformer, died (born 6 November 1792).

16 December 1873, Tuesday (-26,075) Nino Bixio, Italian soldier, died (born 2 October 1821).

14 December 1873, Sunday (-26,077) (Geology) Louis Agassiz, who developed the theory of Ice ages, died �see 28 May 1807, when born.

======================================================================================

27 November 1873, Thursday (-26,094) (Science) Auguste de la Rive, Swiss physicist, died (born 9 October 1801).

26 November 1873, Wednesday (-26,095) Georg Naumann, German geological writer, died (born 30 May 1797).

24 November 1873, Monday (-26,097) Herbert Roper Barrett, tennis champion, was born (died 27 July 1943).

22 November 1873, Saturday (-26,099) John Tyldesley, cricketer, was born (died 27 November 1930).

20 November 1873, Thursday (-26,101) Marie Garnier, French explorer of south east Asia, died (born 25 July 1839).

19 November 1873, Wednesday (-26,102) John Hale, US politician, died (born 31 March 1806).

16 November 1873, Sunday (-26,105) William Christopher Handy, band leader, �Father of the Blues�, was born.

13 November 1873, Thursday (-26,108)

8 November 1873, Saturday (-26,113) Manuel Breton de los Herreros, Spanish dramatist, died (born 19 December 1796).

7 November 1873, Friday (-26,114) The Conservative Prime Minister, Sir John Macdonald, was defeated, over the Pacific Railway affair.

4 November 1873, Tuesday (-26,117) Laura Keene, actress, died

1 November 1873, Saturday (-26,120) Sir William Bovill, English judge, died in Kingston, Surrey (born in Barking, London 26 May 1814).

======================================================================================

31 October 1873, Friday (-26,121)

30 October 1873, Thursday (-26,122) Harry Foster, rackets champion, was born (died 23 June 1950)

29 October 1873, Wednesday (-26,123) King Albert of Saxony succeeded his father to the throne. He was born on 23 April 1828, and died on 10 June 1902.

27 October 1873, Monday (-26,125) Ernest-Aime Feydeau, French writer, died (born 16 March 1821).

24 October 1873, Friday (-26,128) (Chemistry) Frederick Calvert, English chemist, died (born 14 November 1819).

19 October 1873, Sunday (-26,133) Robert Candlish, Scottish religious writer, died (born 23 March 1806).

14 October 1873, Tuesday (-26,138) Jose Simeon Serrano, Spanish composer, was born in Sueca, Valencia (died 8 March 1943 in Madrid)

10 October 1873, Friday (-26,142) Hermann Kurz, German author, died.

9 October 1873, Thursday (-26,143) Charles Walgreen, US entrepreneur who founded Walgreens, was born.

6 October 1873, Monday (-26,146) Sir Paul Edmund Strzelecki, explorer of Australia, died.

4 October 1873, Saturday (-26,148) Margaret Gatty, English writer, died (born 1809),

3 October 1873, Friday (-26,149) Indigenous American Modoc Chief Kintpuash (Captain Jack) was hanged at Fort Klamath, after leading an insurrection against forced location on the Klamath Reseervation.

2 October 1873, Thursday (-26,150) Pelham Warner, cricketer, was born (died 30 January 1963).

1 October 1873, Wednesday (-26,151) Sir Edwin Landseer, painter, died in London

=================================================================================

28 September 1873, Sunday (-26,154) Emile Gaboriau, French novelist, died (born 9 November 1833).

26 September 1873, Friday (-26,156) Julius Benedix, German dramatist, died in Leipzig (born in Leipzig 21 January 1811).

20 September 1873, Saturday (-26,162) Battista Donati, Italian astronomer, died (born 16 December 1826).

17 September 1873, Wednesday (-26,165) Ohio State University, founded 1870, admitted its first students.

16 September 1873, Tuesday (-26,166) Last German troops left France. An economic recovery of France had taken place, which was to enable it to build up its military forces.However a recession began in France from 1873 onwards.

15 September 1873, Monday (-26,167) (Russia) Alexis Fedchenko, Russian explorer of central Asia, died (born 7 February 1844).

11 September 1873, Thursday (-26,171) Augustin Riansares, husband of Maria Christina, Queen of Spain, died near Le Havre.

6 September 1873, Saturday (-26,176) (1) The railway to Fiume / Rijeka opened from Karlstadt / Karlovac; a branch from the Vienna-Trieste line.

(2) Austin Reed, men�s outfitter, was born in Newbury, Berkshire.

===================================================================================

26 August 1873, Tuesday (-26,187) Birth of Lee de Forest, inventor of the Audion vacuum tube which made broadcasting possible.

23 August 1873, Saturday (-26,190) The Albert Bridge across the Thames was opened.

19 August 1873, Tuesday (-26,194) Fred Stone, US actor, was born in Valmont, Colorado (died 6 March 1959 in Hollywood)

18 August 1873, Monday (-26,195) Otto Harbach, US singer, was born in Salt :Lake City (died 24 January 1963 in New York City)

15 August 1873, Friday (-26,198)

12 August 1873, Tuesday (-26,201) Tom Reece, billiards champion, was born (died 16 October 1953).

11 August 1873, Monday (-26,202) Rosamond Johnson, US composer, was born in Jacksonville, Florida (died 11 November 1854 in New York)

8 August 1873, Friday (-26,205)

6 August 1873, Wednesday (-26,207) (France) Camille Barrot, French politician, died in Bougival (born in Villefort, Lozere 19 September 1791).

5 August 1873, Tuesday (-26,208) Edward Cope, English scholarly writer, died (born 28 July 1818).

1 August 1873, Friday (-26,212) (USA, Railways) The first street cable cars in the world were installed in San Francisco, on Clay Street Hill; the steep terrain made horse buses impractical. They were the invention of engineer Andrew Smith Hallidie, 37.

====================================================================================

21 July 1873, Monday (-36,223) In Australia, English explorer William Gosse announced his discovery of the world�s largest monolith, which he named Ayers Rock, after South Australian Prime Minister William Ayers. In 1985 it was returned to the Mutitjulu Nation and regained the name Uluru.

18 July 1873, Friday (-36,226) Victor Chasles, French writer, died (born 8 November 1798).

13 July 1873, Sunday (-36,231) Caroline Clive, English authoress, died (born 1801).

4 July 1873, Friday (-26,240) Johann Kaup, German naturalist, died (born 10 April 1803)

1 July 1873, Tuesday (-26,243) Prince Edward Island was made part of the Dominion of Canada.

======================================================================================

29 June 1873, Sunday (-26,245) Michael Dutt, Indian poet, died (born 25 January 1824).

27 June 1873, Friday (-26,247) Hiram Powers, US sculptor died (born in Woodstock, Vermont, 29 June 1805)

21 June 1873, Saturday (-26,253) Heinrich Meyer, German religious writer, died (born 10 January 1800).

14 June 1873, Saturday (-26,260) King Priam�s treasure of 8,700 priceless pieces was discovered in Turkey by the German � American Heinrich Schliemann. In disinterring this treasure he destroyed what was left of ancient Troy.

5 June 1873, Thursday (-26,269) The slave markets in Zanzibar were closed by Sultan Bargash Sayyid, under pressure from the British.

1 June 1873, Sunday (-26,273) Joseph Howe, Canadian statesman, died (born 13 December 1804).

======================================================================================

29 May 1873, Thursday (-26,276) Philippe Verneuil, French palaeontologist, died Paris (born 13 February 1805 in Paris)

27 May 1873, Tuesday (-26,278) Pierre Lebrun, French poet, died (born 29 November 1785).

24 May 1873, Saturday (-26,281) M Thiers ceased to be President of France.

23 May 1873, Friday (-26,282) The North West Mounted Police were established in Canada. Their name was changed to The Royal Canadian Mounted Police on 1 February 1920.

22 May 1873, Thursday (-26,283) Alexander Ewing, Scottish religious writer, died (born 25 January 1814).

21 May 1873, Wednesday (-26,284) Herbert Cannon, champion jockey, was born (died 1 June 1962).

20 May 1873, Tuesday (-26,285) A tailor, Jacob Davis from Nevada, had been experimenting with reinforcing miners� denim trousers with rivets in order to improve their durability, which was a major problem at the time. He was afraid someone would steal his idea but could not afford the US$ 658 cost of a patent so he approached Levi Strauss, a migrant from Germany who operated a clothes store in San Francisco used by Davis, and they appliefd for a patent together. Ths day they were granted US patent no. 139,121, for their jeans. In 1891 the patent expired, and many others copied the idea of jeans with rivets.

15 May 1873, Thursday (-26,290) Alexander Cuza, former Prince of Romania, died in Heidelberg

12 May 1873, Monday (-26,293) Immanuel Deutsch, German religious writer, died (born 28 October 1829).

10 May 1873, Saturday (-26,295) Sir George Cartier, Canadian statesman, died (born 6 September 1814).

9 May 1873, Friday (-26,296) Howard Carter, who discovered Tutankhamen�s tomb in 1922, was born at Swaffham, Norfolk.

8 May 1873, Thursday (-26,297) English economist and philosopher John Stuart Mill died.

7 May 1873, Wednesday (-26,298) Salmon Chase, US jurist, died (born 13 January 1808).

6 May 1873, Tuesday (-26,299) (USA) John Brodhead, US historical scholar, died (born 2 January 1814).

5 May 1873, Monday (-26,300) The Midland Hotel, adjacent to St Pancras Station, London, opened. It closed in 1935 due to lack of custom and became railway offices.

3 May 1873, Saturday (-26,302)

======================================================================================

30 April 1873. Wednesday (-26,305) Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone died of malaria near Lake Bangweulu in Zambia, aged 60. He was found dead at Chitambo, kneeling in prayer by his bed. He had worked from age 10 to 24 in a cotton factory, and when aged 27 was ordained under the London Missionary Society. He discovered Victoria Falls when aged 41 and Lake Nyasa aged 46. He was buried on 18 April 1874 in Westminster Abbey.

29 April 1873, Tuesday (-26,306) James Hope-Scott, English barrister, died (born 15 July 1812).

27 April 1873, Sunday (-26,308) William MacReady, English actor, died (born 3 March 1793)

24 April 1873, Thursday (-26,311) Andre Bauchant, French painter, was born in Inder et Loire (died 12 August 1958 in Montoire sur Loire)

23 April 1873, Wednesday (-26,312) Wolfgang Menzel, German poet, died.

22 April 1873, Tuesday (-26,313)

20 April 1873, Sunday (-26,315) (Medical) Henry Bence-Jones, English physician, died in London (born in Suffolk, 1814).

19 April 1873, Saturday (-26,316) Sidney Barnes, cricketer, was born (died 26 December 1967)

16 April 1873, Wednesday (-25,319) Joseph Glatigny, French poet, died (born 21 May 1839)

13 April 1873, Sunday (-26,322) Easter Sunday: In the USA, the Colfax Massacre occurred when 300 armed White men clashed with militant African-Americans over a disputed local election result in Louisiana. Over 100 African Americans were killed.

12 April 1873, Saturday (-26,323)

11 April 1873, Friday (-26,324) Christopher Hansteen, Norwegian scientific writer, died (born 26 September 1784).

10 April 1873, Thursday (-26,325) Justus von Liebig, German chemist, died.

6 April 1873, Sunday (-26,329)

2 April 1873, Wednesday (-26,333) British trains were fitted with toilets, but only in sleeping cars.

1 April 1873, Tuesday (-26,334) Sergei Rachmaninov, last of the great Russian romantic composers, was born in Oneg, Nijni Novgorod. He later settled in the USA.

======================================================================================

30 March 1873, Sunday (-26,336) Sir Richard Church, British military officer, born 1784, died.

27 March 1873, Thursday (-26,339) Joseph Louis Elzear Ortolan, French jurist, died in Paris (born 21 August 1802 in Toulon).

22 March 1873, Saturday (-26,344) Slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico.

19 March 1873, Wednesday (-26,347) German composer Max Reger was born in Brand, Bavaria.

18 March 1873, Tuesday (-26,348) Anna Held, actress, was born in Warsaw (died 13 August 1918 in New York)

13 March 1873, Thursday (-26,353) The Scottish Football Association was formed at a meeting attended by representatives from eight clubs.

10 March 1873, Monday (-26,356) John Torrey, US botanist, died in New York (born 15 August 1876 in New York)

9 March 1873, Sunday (-26,357) Charles Knight, English author, died (born 15 March 1791).

8 March 1873, Saturday (-26,358) Sir Frederic Madden, English historical writer, died (born 16 February 1801).

7 March 1873, Friday (-26,359) John Evelyn Denison Ossington, English statesman, died (born 27 January 1800 in Ossington, Nottinghamshire

4 March 1873, Tuesday (-26,362) The New York Daily Graphic became the world�s first illustrated daily newspaper.

======================================================================================

25 February 1873, Tuesday (-26,369) Enrico Caruso, Italian operatic tenor, was born in Naples.

24 February 1873, Monday (-26,370) Thomas Guthrie, Scottish social affairs writer, died (born 12 July 1803)

19 February 1873, Wednesday (-26,375) John Reed Swanton, anthropologist and ethnologist, was born.

18 February 1873, Tuesday (-26,376)

15 February 1873, Saturday (-26,379) (Biology) Hans von Euler Chelpin, Swedish, was born in Augsburg, Germany. In 1929 he, along with Sir Arthur Harden, were awarded the Nobel Prize for their research into sugar fermentation.

14 February 1873, Friday (-26,380) (Railways) The railway from Delhi to Rewari, India, 84km, opened.

12 February 1873, Wednesday (-26,382) (Spain) Amadeus I of Spain abdicated and a Republic was proclaimed. Foreign Minister Emilio Cistelar y Ripoli became Prime Minister.

9 February 1873, Sunday (-26,385) Julius Furst, German writer on the Orient, died (12 May 1805).

7 February 1873, Friday (-26,387) Charles Dixon, tennis champion, was born (died 29 April 1939).

5 February 1873, Wednesday (-26,389) The Bonanza Vein, with huge rerves of silver, was discovered in the Panamint Range, SE California.

4 February 1873, Tuesday (-26,390) Reverend George Bennard, US composer, was born in Youngstown, Ohio (died 10 October 1958 in Reed City, Michigan)

3 February 1873, Monday (-26,391)

2 February 1873, Sunday (-26,392) Gertrudis Gomez, Spanish novelist, died (born 23 March 1814).

1 February 1873, Saturday (-26,393) Matthew Maury, US naval officer, died (born 24 January 1806).

=====================================================================================

31 January 1873, Friday (-26,394)

28 January 1873, Tuesday (-26,397) Henry Hugo Pierson, English composer, died in Leipzig (born 1815 in Oxford)

27 January 1873, Thursday (-26,398) Adam Sedgwick, English geologist, died in Cambridge (born 28 August 1821 in London)

18 January 1873, Saturday (-26,407) Edward Lytton, English novelist, died.

10 January 1873, Friday (-26,415) Francesco Dall�Ongaro, Italian writer, died (born 1808).

9 January 1873, Thursday (-26,416) Napoleon III of France, nephew of Bonaparte, died in exile at Chislehurst, Kent, to where he had withdrawn following his defeat by the Prussians and his imprisonment at Wilhelshohe Castle.

8 January 1873, Wednesday (-26,417) Harvey Corbett, US architect, was born in San Francisco.

5 January 1873, Sunday (-26,420) Joseph Gillott, English pan maker, died (born 11 October 1799).

1 January 1873, Wednesday (-26,424) The cities of Pest, Buda and Obuda were merged to form Budapest.

=====================================================================================

24 December 1872, Tuesday (-26,432) William Rankine, Scottish scientific writer, died in Glasgow (born in Edinburgh 5 July 1820)

23 December 1872, Monday (-26,433) Theophile Gautier, French poet, died (born 31 August 1811).

22 December 1872, Sunday (-26,434) George Catlin, US scholarly writer, died (born 1796).

20 December 1872, Friday (-26,436)

13 December 1872, Friday (-26,443) Haenlein fitted the first internal combustion engine to an airship. However the craft only made a tethered display and further development was shelved for lack of funds.

12 December 1872, Thursday (-26,444) Edwin Forrest, US actor, died (born 9 March 1806).

5 December 1872. Thursday (-26,451) The Marie Celeste was spotted drifting, crewless, in the Atlantic near The Azores, and was boarded by the crew of the Dei Gratia. The 206 ton Marie Celeste had left New York on 7 November 1872, captained by Benjamin Briggs, with his wife, daughter and eight crew on its way to Genoa, with a cargo of 1,700 barrels of alcohol, which was found intact. The lifeboat was missing but the captain�s table was set for a meal that was never eaten.

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30 November 1872, Saturday (-26,456) The first football international took place at Partick, Glasgow; Scotland and England drew 0 � 0.

29 November 1872, Friday (-26,457) (Germany) Johann Baehr, German scholar, died in Heidelberg, 29 November 1872 (born in Darmstadt 13 June 1798).

28 November 1872, Thursday (-26,458) Suzanne Adams, US soprano singer, was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts (died 5 February 1953 in London)

25 November 1872, Monday (-26,461) Gilbert Smith, footballer, was born (died 6 December 1943).

23 November 1872, Saturday (-26,463) Australia was connected by undersea cable to the rest of the world. The cable ran from Darwin in the north to Java, and also into southern Australia.

18 November 1872, Monday (-26,468|) US suffragette Susan B Anthony was arrested for trying to vote in a US election.

14 November 1872, Thursday (-26,472) James Hadley, US scholarly writer, died (born 30 March 1821).

11 November 1872, Monday (-26,475) Maude Adams, US actress, was born (died 17 July 1953).

9 November 1872, Saturday (-26,477) (USA) A great fire broke out in the commercial district of Boston, USA, on the Saturday night. It burned until Sunday 10th, and destroyed 767 buildings filled with merchandise. 14 lives and an estimated US$75million of goods were lost. Very little residential property was lost and the commercial district was soon rebuilt with better buildings and straighter roads.

7 November 1872, Thursday (-26,479) (Maritime) The 282 ton brigantine Marie Celeste set sail from New York on her ill-fated journey.

6 November 1872, Wednesday (--26,480) George Meade, US soldier, died.

5 November 1872, Tuesday (-26,481) (USA) Ulysses S Grant was elected President of the USA for a second term.

4 November 1872, Monday (-26,482) Herman Finck, British composer, was born in London (died 21 April 1939 in London)

3 November 1872, Sunday (-26,483) Vladimir Dahl, Russian author, died (born 1802).

2 November 1872, Saturday (-26,484)

1 November 1872, Friday (-26,485) (Abortion) US Congress [assed the Comstock Law, prohibiting the transport or postage of any article intended to prevent conception or to cause abortion. The law was named after New York moralist Anthony Comstock, aged 28, head of the Society for the Suppression of Vice.

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31 October 1873, Thursday (-26,486) The Spanish in Cuba seized the steamer Virginius, a rebel-owned ship carrying arms but disguised under a false US flag. The Spanish executed many of the crew, including some US nationals, almost causing a war between the US and Spain.

29 October 1872, Tuesday (-26,488) Eliza O�Neill, Irish actress, died (born 1791).

22 October 1872, Tuesday (-26,495) George Mason, English painter, died.

16 October 1872, Wednesday (-26,501) Walter Buckmaster, polo player, was born (died 30 October 1942).

15 October 1872, Tuesday (-26,502) (Universities) University College of Wales was founded, at Aberystwyth.

14 October 1872, Monday (-26,503) (Railways) The Yokohama to Shinagawa line was extended to Tokyo.

12 October 1872, Saturday (-26,505) Ralph Vaughan Williams, composer, was born.

10 October 1872, Thursday (-26,507) Henry William Seward, US statesman, died (born 16 March 1801 in New York State)

3 October 1872, Thursday (-26,514) Henri Evenepoel, Belgian painter, was born in Nice (died 27 December 1899 in Paris)

2 October 1872, Wednesday (-26,515) Francis Lieber, US-German writer, died (born 18 March 1800).

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30 September 1872, Monday (-26,517) (France-Germany) The last date for the inhabitants of Alsace, conquered by Germany in 1870, to opt for either German nationality and remain or French nationality and leave for France. Around 45,000 opted to leave for France.

25 September 1872, Wednesday (-26,522) (USA) Peter Cartwright, US Methodist preacher, died (born 1 September 1785).

18 September 1872, Wednesday (-26,529) (Sweden) Charles IV of Sweden died at Malmo, aged 46. He was succeeded by his 43-year-old brother, as Oscar II.

13 September 1872, Friday (-26,534) (Railways) Work began on the St Gotthard railway tunnel.

8 September 1872, Sunday (-26,539) Paolo Guidici, Italian writer, died in Tonbridge, England (born 1812).

2 September 1872, Monday (-26,545) Nikolai Grundtvig, Danish writer, died (born 8 September 1783).

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28 August 1872, Wednesday (-26,558) Alfred Baldwin Sloane, US composer, was born in Baltimore (died 21 February 1926 in red Bank, New Jersey)

24 August 1872, Saturday (-26,554) Sir Max Beerbohm, British writer, was born in London (died 20 May 1956 in Rapallo)

21 August 1872, Wednesday (-26,557) Aubrey Beardsley, English artist, was born in Brighton (died in Mentone 16 March 1898).

11 August 1872, Sunday (-26,567) Lowell Mason, US musician, died.

10 August 1872, Saturday (-26,568) In Britain it was made an offence to be drunk in charge of a carriage, horse, cattle, or a steam engine. Penalties went up to a 50 shilling fine or one month in prison.

7 August 1872, Wednesday (-26,571) Gustav Devreint, German actor, died (born 4 September 1803).

3 August 1872, Saturday (-26,575) (Norway) King Haakon VII of Norway was born in Charlottenlund. He refused to surrender to the Germans in World War Two.

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18 July 1872, Thursday (-26,591) (Britain) Britain passed the Ballot Act, providing for secret ballots at elections.

16 July 1872, Tuesday (-26,593) (Antarctica) Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer who was the first to reach the South Pole in 1911, was born in Borge.

15 July 1872, Monday (-26,594) Harry Clifton, British author, died in Shepherd�s Bush, London

12 July 1872, Friday (-26,597) (Cartography) Arnold Escher, Swiss geologist, died (born 8 June 1807). In 1852-53 he produced the first detailed geological map of Switzerland.

9 July 1872, Tuesday (-26,600) (Food) John Blondel patented the first doughnut cutter in America. A sea captain, he is said to have invented the hole so he could slip the doughnut over the handle of the ship�s wheel and enjoy his snack whilst steering.

8 July 1872, Monday (-26,601) Harry Von Tilzer, US composer, was born in Detroit (died 10 January 1946 in New York)

4 July 1872, Thursday (-26,605) (USA) Calvin Coolidge, American Republican and 30th President, was born in Plymouth, Vermont.He was the son of a storekeeper.

1 July 1872, Monday (-26,608) (1) (Aviation) Louis Bleriot, French aviation pioneer, was born.

(2) (London) The Albert Memorial in Hyde Park, London, was unveiled by Queen Victoria.

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27 June 1872, Thursday (-26,612) Paul Dunbar, US author, was born (died 8 February 1906).

25 June 1872, Tuesday (-26,614) (1) William Ellis, missionary to Polynesia, died (born 29 August 1794).

(2) Jesuits expelled from Germany, as part of the new Kultirkampf.

24 June 1872, Monday (-26,615) (London) The Museum of Childhood (toys, games, dolls etc.) was opened in Bethnal Green, London, originally as an extension of the Victoria and Albert Museum. It became a dedicated museum in its own right in 1972.

22 June 1872, Saturday (-22,617)

21 June 1872, Friday (-26,618) Robert Eduard Prutz, German writer, died in Stettin (born 30 May 1816 in Stettin)

20 June 1872, Thursday (-26,619) Elie Forey, Marshal of France, died (born 5 January 1804).

16 June 1872, Sunday (-26,623) Norman MacLeod, Scottish religious writer, died (born 3 June 1812).

12 June 1872, Wednesday (-26,627) (Railways) The first railway in Japan opened; Yokohama to Shinagawa.

11 June 1872, Tuesday (-26,628) (Crime & Punishment) The stocks were last used as an official form of punishment in Britain.Their last recorded use was at Adpar, west Wales.

9 June 1872, Sunday (-26,630) (Russia) Peter I, Tsar of Russia, was born.

7 June 1872, Friday (-26,632) Matthew Hill, English prison reformer, died (born 6 August 1792)

5 June 1872, Wednesday (-26,634) Thomas Sully, US artist, died in Philadelphia (born 8 June 1782 in Horncastle, England)

1 June 1872, Saturday (-26,638) (Newspapers) James Bennett, US journalist, died in New York.

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31 May 1872, Friday (-26,639) The illustrator and cartoonist Heath Robinson was born. He was famous for his drawings of absurdly complicated machinery performing simple tasks.

27 May 1872, Monday (-26,643)

23 May 1872, Thursday (-26,647) Sir Henry Bulwer, British author, died (born 13 February 1801).

22 May 1872, Wednesday (-26,648) In Germany, the foundation stone of the Bayreuth Theatre was laid. It was built specially for the performance of Wagner�s works.

18 May 1872, Saturday (-26,652) Bertrand Russell, philosopher, mathematician, nuclear disarmer, and Nobel Prize winner for literature, was born at Ravenscroft, near Trelleck, Monmouthshire, Wales.

13 May 1872, Monday (-26,657) Moritz Hartmann, German poet, died (born 15 October 1821).

9 May 1872, Thursday (-26,661) Georg Maurer, German historical writer, died (born 22 November 1790).

1 May 1872, Wednesday (-26,669) Hugo Alfven, Swedish composer, was born in Stockholm (died 8 May 1960 in Uppsala)

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25 April 1872, Thursday (-26,675) Charles Fry, cricketer, was born (died 7 September 1956).

14 April 1872, Sunday (-26,686) Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Islamic scholar, was born.

13 April 1872, Saturday (-26,687) (Britain) Samuel Bamford, British politician, died in Harpurhey (born in Miston, Lancashire, 28 February 1788).

12 April 1872, Friday (-26,688) (Chemistry) Georges Urbain was born in Paris. In 1907 he discovered the element Lutetium, named after the Roman settlement that preceded Paris.

10 April 1872, Wednesday (-26,690)

9 April 1872, Tuesday (-26,691) Erastus Corning, US politician and industrialist, died (born 14 December 1994).

8 April 1872, Monday (-26.692) Thurland Chattaway, US composer, was born in Springfield, Massachusetts (died 12 November 1947 in Milford, Connecticut)

4 April 1872, Thursday (-26.696) Gilbert Bayes, British sculptor, was born in London (died 10 July 1953 in London)

2 April 1872, Tuesday (-26,698) (Telephone & Radio) Samuel Finley Breese Morse, American inventor of the Morse Code for telegraphy, died in New York City aged 80.

1 April 1872, Monday (-26,699) Hugo von Mohl, German botanical writer, died (born 8 April 1805).

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31 March 1872, Sunday (-26,700) Easter Sunday. Russian ballet dancer Sergei Diaghilev was born born in Selischi.

28 March 1872, Thursday (-26,703) William Henry Smith, English author, died in Brighton (born 1808 in Hammersmith, London)

23 March 1872, Saturday (-26,708) HW Berry, British actor, was born in London (died 2 May 1951 in London)

16 March 1872, Saturday (-26,715) (Football) The first English FA Cup Final took place at the Oval. Wanderers, made up of ex public school and university men, beat the Royal Engineers 1-0.

15 March 1872, Friday (-26,716) Francois Jules Pictet de la Rive, Swiss zoologist, died in Geneva (born in Geneva 27 September 1809)

10 March 1872, Sunday (-26,721) (Italy) Guiseppe Mazzini, Italian revolutionary who fought for his country�s unity and independence, died in Pisa.

8 March 1872, Friday (-26,723) Cornelius Krieghoff, painter, died in Chicago (born 19 June 1815 in Amsterdam)

7 March 1872, Thursday (-26,724) Piet Mondrian, painter, was born.

6 March 1872, Wednesday (-26,725) Theodor Goldstucker, German writer on Sanskrit, died (born 18 January 1821).

4 March 1872, Monday (-26,727) the Boston Daily Globe began publication in the USA.

1 March 1872, Friday (-26,730) (USA) The first National Park in America, and its largest, Yellowstone National Park, was established.

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27 February 1872, Tuesday (-26,733) John Campbell, Scottish religious writer, died (born 1800).

24 February 1872, Saturday (-26,736) John Jarvis, champion swimmer, was born (died 9 May 1933).

19 February 1872, Monday (-26,741) Friedrich Gustav Oehler, German religious writer, died in Tubingen (born 10 June 1812 in Wurttemberg)

8 February 1872, Thursday (-26,752) (India) Lord Mayo, British Viceroy to India, was murdered by nationalists.

6 February 1872, Tuesday (-26,754) Auguste Gratry, French author, died (born 10 March 1805).

3 February 1872, Saturday (-26,757) Sydney Smith, tennis champion, was born (died 27 March 1947).

1 February 1872, Thursday (-26,759) Bogumil Dawison, German actor, died (born 1818).

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31 January 1872, Wednesday (-26,760) Zane Grey, American Western writer, was born.

28 January 1872, Sunday (-26,763)

25 January 1872, Thursday (-26,766) Richard Ewell, US soldier, died (born 2 February 1817)

24 January 1872, Wednesday (-26,767) Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg, German philosopher, died (born near Lubeck 30 November 1802)

23 January 1872, Tuesday (-26,768) Gustav Hindersin, Prussian General, died (born 18 July 1804).

22 January 1872, Monday (-26,769) Luise von Ploennies, German poet, died in Darmstadt (born in Hanau 7 November 1803)

21 January 1872, Sunday (-26,770) Franz Grillparzer, Austrian poet, was born (died 21 January 1872).

20 January 1872, Saturday (-26,771) The Cavite Mutiny. Some 200 Filipino soldiers in the Spanish Army in the fort of San Felipe in the Philippines mutinied. They were swiftly repressed and later heavily punished. The incident was used by Spain as an excuse to crack down heavily on the fledgling Philippine independence movement, with intellectuals and priests being executed. However this simply created martyrs for the movement.

16 January 1872, Tuesday (-26,775) Gordon Craig, British artist, was born in Stevenage (died29 July 1966 in Venice)

12 January 1872, Friday (-26,779) (Ethiopia) Yohannas IV crowned King of Ethiopia.

11 January 1872, Thursday (-26,780) Wilfred and Herbert Baddeley, twins, tennis champions, were born.

9 January 1872, Tuesday (-26,782) Henry Halleck, US writer, died (born 1815).

6 January 1872, Saturday (-26,785) James Fisk, US financier, was shot and killed (born 1 April 1834).

2 January 1872, Tuesday (-26,789) Johann Lohe, German religious writer, died.

1 January 1872, Monday (-26,790)

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24 December 1871, Sunday (-26,798) First performance in Cairo of Verdi�s opera Aida. It was commissioned by the Khedive of Egypt, not to commemorate the opening of the Suez Canal or of the Cairo Opera House.

22 December 1871, Friday (-26,800) (Britain) Edward Ellenborough, English politician, died (born 8.9.1790).

19 December 1871, Tuesday (-26,803) (USA) The city of Birmingham, Alabama, was incorporated. In 1870 the site of Birmingham was a cotton field crossed by two railways. Birmingham was founded by a land company backed by the railways.

16 December 1871, Saturday (-26,806) Willibald Alexis, novelist (born 26 September 1798 in Breslau) died in Arnstadt, Thuringia.

14 December 1871, Thursday (-26,808) (Railways) Henry Hudson, British railway developer, died. He was a speculative capitalist based in York, and financed the East Coast Line and the North Midland Railway.He was eventually disgraced for financial fiddling.

13 December 1871, Wednesday (-26,809) Emily Carr, Canadian expressionist painter, was born in Victoria, British Columbia (died 2 March 1945 in Victoria)

9 December 1871, Saturday (-26,813) Josef Manes, Czech painter, died in Prague (born 12 April 1820 in Prague)

4 December 1871, Monday (-26,818) Germany adopted the mark as its currency unit.

1 December 1871, Friday (-26,821) Archibald MacLaren, cricketer, was born (died 17 November 1944).

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28 November 1871, Tuesday (-26,824) Daniel Rock, English religious writer, died in South Kensington, London (born 31 August 1799 in Liverpool)

24 November 1871, Friday (-26,828) Staffordshire Cricket club was founded.

18 November 1871, Saturday (-26,834) Amadeo Vives, Spanish composer, was born near Barcelona (died 1 December 1932 in Madrid)

11 November 1871, Saturday (-26,841) William Lonsdale, English geologist, died (born 9 September 1794).

10 November 1871, Friday (-26,842) Historic meeting of explorer and missionary David Livingstone (born 19 March 1813, in Blantyre, Lanarkshire) with Sir Henry Morton Stanley at Ujiji (now in Tanzania). Livingstone died on 1 May 1873.

8 November 1871, Wednesday (-26,844) Charles Hall, US Arctic explorer, died (born 1821).

2 November 1871, Thursday (-26,850) In Britain, systematic photographing of convicted prisoners began.This was the start of the �rogue�s gallery�.

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27 October 1871, Friday (-26,856) In South Africa, Britain annexed the diamond-rich region of Griqualand West.

26 October 1871, Thursday (-26,857) Thomas Ewing, US politician, died (born 28 December 1789).

25 October 1871, Wednesday (-26,858)

24 October 1871, Tuesday (-26,859) (1) In Los Angeles, 19 Chinese were killed in anti-Chinese riots.

(2) The Aurora Borealis was seen as far south as southern England.

22 October 1871, Sunday (-26,861) Sir Roderick Murchison, British geologist, died.

19 October 1871, Thursday (-26,864) (Medical) Physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon was born in Prarie du Chien, Wisconsin. He devised the use of bismuth compounds to make soft organs visible on X-rays.

18 October 1871, Wednesday (-26,865) (Computing) Charles Babbage died in London (born 26 December 1792 in Teignmouth, Devon).

17 October 1871, Tuesday (-26,866) (USA) Death of Sylvester Mowry (born 17 January 1833). He was a miner and land speculator who promoted the establishment of the Arizona Territory.

15 October 1871, Sunday (-26,868) Frederick Knight Logan, US composer, was born in Oskaloosa, Iowa (died 11 June 1928 in Oskaloosa)

11 October 1871, Wednesday (-26,872) (USA) The Great Fire of Chicago ended.

8 October 1871, Sunday (-26,875) (USA) The Great Fire of Chicago started, killing 300 people. 90,000 were made homeless and US$ 200 million damage was done.The fire ended on 11 October 1871; it was supposedly started in Mrs O�Leary�s barn in De Koven Street, by a cow upsetting a lantern. Four square miles of the city were destroyed, as a long spell of dry weather had made buildings tinder-dry.

7 October 1871, Saturday (-26,876) (Britain) Sir John Burgoyne, British Field-Marshal, died (born 1782).

4 October 1871, Wednesday (-26,879) John Scott, champion jockey, died (born 39 November 1794).

2 October 1871, Monday (-26,881) Mormon leader Brigham Young was arrested for bigamy.

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28 September 1871, Thursday (-26,885) Philip Potter, English musician, died (born 1792 in London)

27 September 1871, Wednesday (-26,886) Brazil passed a law that children of slave mothers must serve their mother�s master from age 8 to 21 without pay, but then became free citizens.

24 September 1871, Sunday (-26,889) Louis Joseph Papineau, Canadian politician, died (born 7 September 1871)

22 September 1871, Friday (-26,891) Frantisek Kupka, Czech painter, was born in Opocno, Bohemia (died 24 June 1957 in Paris)

20 September 1871, Wednesday (-26,893) John Coleridge Patterson, English missionary to Melanesia, Pacific, died Nukapu (born in London 1 April 1827)

18 September 1871, Monday (-26,895) The Nunhead to Blackheath line, SE London, opened.

17 September 1871, Sunday (-26,896) The 14 km Mont Cenis Tunnel, carrying the main railway from Lyons to Turin, was opened.

10 September 1871, Sunday (-26,903) Richard Bentley, book publisher, died (born in London 1794).

7 September 1871, Thursday (-26,906) George Hirst, cricketer, was born (died 10 May 1954).

6 September 1871, Wednesday (-26,907) (Turkey) Death of Pasha Aali Mehmet, Turkish statesman (born 1815). He strongly promoted Western style reforms of his country.

3 September 1871, Sunday (-26,910)

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30 August 1871, Wednesday (-26,914) Lord Rutherford, British scientist noted in the field of atomic research, was born in Spring Grove, near Nelson, South Island, New Zealand.

29 August 1871, Tuesday (-26,915) (France) Japan reformed its currency, now based on the Yen. This was part of a wider set of reforms, replacing feudal fiefs with Western-based prefectures, also taxation and civil rights were reformed to make all subjects equal, and free compulsory school education was introduced.

22 August 1871, Tuesday (-26,922)

19 August 1871. Saturday (-26,925) (Aviation) Orville Wright, American aviation pioneer, was born in Dayton, Ohio, the younger of two brothers.

18 August 1871, Friday (-26,926) (Aviation) French pioneer Alphonse Penaud achieved a 13 second flight in his glider.

8 August 1871, Tuesday (-26,936) William Henry Squire, British composer, was born in Ross, Hereford (died 17 March 1963 in London)

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31 July 1871, Monday (-26,944) Phoebe Cary, US poet, (born 4 September 1824) died.

29 July 1871, Saturday (-26,946) John Slidell, US politician, died in London, UK (born 1793 in New York City)

20 July 1871, Thursday (-26,955) British Columbia joined the Dominion of Canada.

18 July 1871, Tuesday (-26,957) Giacomo Balla, Italian painter and sculptor, was born in Turin (died 1 March 1958 in Rome)

17 July 1871, Monday (-26,958) Lyonel Feininger, US painter, was born in New York (died13 January 1956 in New York)

15 July 1871, Saturday (-26,960)

13 July 1871, Thursday (-26,962) The first cat show took place.It was held at Crystal Palace, London, organised by Harrison Weir.

12 July 1871, Wednesday (-26,963) In New York, 31 civilians and 2 policemen were dead after fighting between Scots/Irish Presbyterians and Irish Catholics.

11 July 1871, Tuesday (-26,964) (USA) In New York City the ferryboat SS Westfield exploded, killing 104 people. Her

boiler was severely corroded, but safety standards remained lax.

10 July 1871, Monday (-26,965) Marcel Proust, writer, was born.

9 July 1871, Sunday (-26,966) Alexander Johnston, Scottish geographical writer, died (born 28 December 2804).

8 July 1871. Saturday (-26,967) Bismarck launched a cultural offensive against the Catholic Church, abolishing the Catholic Department for Spiritual Affairs.

4 July 1871, Tuesday (-26,971) Russian troops occupied the Ili area of Chinese Turkestan.

====================================================================================

29 June 1871, Thursday (-26,976) In Britain, the Trades Union Act granted legal status to unions.

27 June 1871, Tuesday (-26,978) Japan adopted the yen as a new currency.

20 June 1871, Tuesday (-26,985) Auguste Jean Marie Vermorel, French journalist, died (born 21 June 1841)

18 June 1871, Sunday (-26,987) The Test Act allowed students at Oxford and Cambridge universities to gain degrees and fellowships without subscribing to any particular religion.

17 June 1871, Saturday (-26,988) James Weldon Johnson, Black civil rights leader, was born in Jacksonville, Florida.

14 June 1871, Wednesday (-26,991) Josiah Tattnall, US Confederate Naval officer, died (born 1795)

9 June 1871, Friday (-26,996) Friedrich Ueberweg, German historical writer, died (born 22 January 1826)

7 June 1871, Wednesday (-26,998) (Germany) August Bekker, German philosopher, died in Berlin (born 21 May 1785).

6 June 1871, Tuesday (-26,999) (Railways) The first railway in Western Australia opened. It was a private timber line from Lockville to Yoganup, south of Perth.

3 June 1871, Saturday (-27,002) London gained direct communication with Shanghai via an undersea cable laid via San Francisco.

1 June 1871, Thursday (-27,004) US Rear-Admiral John Rodgers attempted to emulate Commodore Perry�s opening up of Japan to US trade, by arriving off Seoul in his ship, the Colorado. His ship[s were fired upon as he approached Fort Chojijin on the Salee River. Receiving no apology for this, Rodgers then destroyed the fort, then left believing he had made his point of US dominance. However the Koreans believed they had repulsed the enemy. It was not until 1876 that Japan succeeded in forcing open Korea to trade and then only for Japan. US trade with Korea only began in 1883.

===================================================================================

29 May 1871, Monday (-27,007) (Britain) Whit Monday, became the first Bank Holiday in Britain.

28 May 1871, Sunday (-27,008) (France) The Paris Commune, set up on 28 March 1871, was brutally suppressed by French government troops. Urban warfare in Paris had killed 33,000 and left sections of the city in ruins. Other Communes in Lyons and Marseilles had also collapsed. The Paris Communards had failed to adequately man a fort defending the west of Paris.

27 May 1871, Saturday (27,009)

26 May 1871, Friday (-27,010) (Egypt) Ismailia was annexed to Egypt.

25 May 1871. Thursday (-27,011) (Britain) The House of Commons passed the Bank Holiday Act, creating public holidays on Easter Monday, Whit Monday, and Christmas Day. Monday.

23 May 1871, Tuesday (-27,013)

22 May 1871, Monday (-27,014) Eligius Munch-Bellinghausen, Austrian poet, died.

21 May 1871, Sunday (-27,015) (France-Germany) The Treaty of Frankfurt was ratified.

19 May 1871, Friday (-27,017)

18 May 1871, Thursday (-27,018) Denis Horgan, athletics (shot put), was born (died 2 June 1922).

17 May 1871, Wednesday (-27,019) (France) Georges Darboy, Bishop of Paris, died (born 16 January 1813).

14 May 1871, Sunday (-27,022)

12 May 1871, Friday (-27,024) In the USA, the Louisville District Court ruled that streetcars in Kentucky can no longer be segregated by race.

11 May 1871, Thursday (-27,025) (Astronomy) Sir John Frederick Herschel, English astronomer, died at Collingwood, Hawkhurst, Kent.

10 May 1871. Wednesday (-27,026) (France-Germany) Germany and France signed a peace treaty at Frankfurt. France surrendered all of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany. France also had to pay an indemnity of 5 billion francs to Germany, the equivalent amount that Napoleon I imposed on Prussia in 1807; a German army was to remain in France till this is paid. The British Prime Minister, Gladstone, protested that Alsace and Lorraine should not be handed over without a vote by the people living there. Prussia�s Prime Minister, Bismarck, placed no limit in the treaty on the size of France�s future army, gambling that France was already isolated and humbled by her defeat at Sedan.

8 May 1870, Monday (-27,028)

1 May 1870, Monday (-27,035) Fuller Pilch, cricketer, died (born 17 March 1804)

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30 April 1871, Sunday (-27,036) Around 150 White men and Papago Indigenous Americans, who had traditionally hated the Apache, raided camp Grant in southern Arizona and attacked the Arivaipa Apache tribe. 108 were killed but most of the victims were women and children, because the men were mostly away hunting. Only 8 of the victims were men. N29 children were taken hostage and later sold as slaves in Mexico. The leaders of the raid were arrested but soon acquitted, and the massacre precipitated the Apache Wars of 1871-73, as US President Ulysses S Grant stepped up measures to confine the Apache to reservations, where they could be forcibly �civilised�.

29 April 1871, Saturday (-27,037) Charlotte Dodd, tennis champion, was born (died 27 June 1960)

28 April 1871, Friday (-27,038) James Mason, US politician, died (born 3 November 1798).

27 April 1871, Thursday (-27,039) Charles Kock, French novelist, died (born 21 May 1793).

24 April 1871, Monday (-27,042) Blanche Ring, US actress, was born in Boston (died 13 January 1961 in Santa Monica, California)

22 April 1871, Saturday (-27,044) Melchior Meyr, German writer, died (born 28 June 1810).

20 April 1871, Thursday (-27,046) (Race equality, USA) In the US, the Klu Klux Klan Act outlawed paramilitary organisations such as the Klu Klux Klan.

19 April 1871, Wednesday (-27,047) The new German Parliament, the Reichstag, began planning for a permanent home. This was not started until 9 June 1884.

14 April 1871, Friday (-27,052)

13 April 1871, Thursday (-27,053) Ellaline Terriss, actress, was born in Stanley, Falkland Islands (died 16 June 1971 in Richmond, Surrey)

9 April 1871, Sunday (-27,057) Easter Sunday

8 April 1871, Saturday (-27,058) Chemistry) Jean Guimet, French industrial chemist, died (born 20 July 1795). In 1828 he won an award for inventing artificial ultramarine, as a substitute for the ultramarine prepared from lapis lazuli.

7 April 1871, Friday (-27,059) Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, Austrian Admiral, died (born in Marburg, Styria 23 December 1827)

5 April 1871, Wednesday (-27,061)

3 April 1871, Monday (-27,063) Gustave Flourens, French writer, died (born 4 August 1838).

2 April 1871, Sunday (-27,064) William Sturgess, champion walker, was born (died 27 June 1945).

==================================================================================

31 March 1871, Friday (-27,066)

29 March 1871. Wednesday (-27,068) Queen Victoria opened the Royal Albert Hall in London; named in memory of Prince Albert. The Hall was intended as a cultural centre following on from the success of the Great Exhibition of 1851. The original plan was to have an auditorium seating 30,000 but due to financial difficulties they ended up with an oval hall with a glass and iron dome with 7,000 seats. The foundation stone was laid on 20 May 1867.

28 March 1871, Tuesday (-27,069) French proletarian radicals proclaimed a �Paris Commune�, backed by intellectuals and workers, hoping to exploit popular discontent at France�s humiliating loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany. The French Government fled to Versailles. See 28 May 1871.

27 March 1871. Monday (-27,070) The first international rugby match was played between Scotland and England at Edinburgh; Scotland won.

26 March 1871, Sunday (-27,071) Francois Fetis, Belgian composer, died (born 25 March 1784)

25 March 1871, Saturday (-27,072) American sculptor, Gutzon Borglum, was born near Bear Lake, Idaho.

21 March 1871, Tuesday (-27,076)

19 March 1871, Sunday (-27,078) Wilhelm Haidinger, German geological writer, died (born 5 February 1795).

18 March 1871, Saturday (-27,079) The Commune insurrection against the French Government began in Paris.

17 March 1871, Friday (-27,080) Robert Chambers, Scottish author, died (born 10 July 1802)

13 March 1871, Monday (-27,084) Igor Grabar, painter, was born in Budapest (died 16 May 1960 in Moscow)

5 March 1871, Sunday (-27,092) Rosa Luxemburg, German Socialist leader and founder of the left-wing Spartacus movement, was born.

3 March 1871, Friday (-27,094) The first all-German elections were held, and returned a Parliament dominated by the National Liberal Party. The German Union was changed by this Parliament from a Bund (Federation, as proposed by Bismarck, to reassure states reluctant to join a Prussian-dominated union such as Baden and Wurttemberg that their autonomy would not be lost), to the more centralist term Reich, organised from Berlin. This was the Second Reich, (First Reich = Holy Roman Empire) which fell in 1918. The red-black-white colours of its flag inspired the colours of the Nazi Third Reich.

2 March 1871, Thursday (-27,095) Billy Bancroft, Welsh rugby player, was born (died 3 March 1959)

1 March 1871, Wednesday (-27,096) In France, Napoleon III was deposed and the Paris Commune set up.

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26 February 1871. Sunday (-27,099) Prussia and France signed a preliminary peace treaty at Versailles.

20 February 1871, Monday (-27,105) Paul Kane, landscape painter, died in Toronto, Canada (born in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland, 3 September 1810)

17 February 1871, Friday (-27,108) The Pact of Bordeaux was signed.

16 February 1871, Thursday (-27,109) The French fortress of Belfort capitulated to the Germans.

12 February 1871, Sunday (-27,113) Alice Cary, US poet, died (born 26 April 1820)

7 February 1871, Tuesday (-27,118) Henry Steinway, founder of the famous piano construction firm, died in New York.

4 February 1871, Saturday (-27,121) Hermann Puckler-Muskau, German author, died in Branitz (born 30 October 1785 in Muskau, Lusatia)

3 February 1871, Friday (-27,122) Thomas William Robertson, English actor, died in London (born 9 January 1829 in Newark)

2 February 1871, Thursday (-27,123) Jozsef Eotvos, Hungarian writer, died (born 13 September 1813).

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30 January 1871, Monday (-27,126) Edward Seymour Hicks, British actor, was born in St Helier, Jersey (died in London 6 April 1954)

28 January 1871. Saturday (-27,128) (France-Germany) Starving and surrounded by Prussian troops, Paris surrendered to Germany. During the 5-month siege, balloons were used to maintain contact with the rest of France. The Prussians tried to shoot the balloons down, so the French switched to night flights. Finally, a 3-week artillery bombardment destroyed all resistance. All the animals at Paris Zoo had been eaten (which one was eaten last?).

27 January 1871, Friday (-27,129) German forces grew impatient with the length of the siege of Belfort and on this day General von Tresckow launched an attack on the city which was repulsed and the siege operations resumed.

26 January 1871. Thursday (-27,130) The Rugby Football Union was founded in London, England, by 20 clubs.

25 January 1871, Wednesday (-27,131) (India) Sir Proby Cautley, British engineer of canals in India, died (born 1802).

22 January 1871, Sunday (-27,134) The Moselle railway bridge at Fontenoy was blown up.

20 January 1871, Friday (-27,136) Peirre Ponson du Terrail, French romantic writer (born 8 July 1829) died.

19 January 1871, Thursday (-27,137) (France-Germany) Germany defeated the French at the Battle of St Quentin.

18 January 1871, Wednesday (-27,138) (France-Germany) William I, King of Prussia, was declared Emperor of Germany at Versailles. Within Germany, William I had created a united State out of what was formerly Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg, also 5 Grand Duchies, 13 Duchies and Principalities, and the Free Cities of Hamburg, Bremen and Lubeck.

17 January 1871, Tuesday (-27,139) David Earl Beatty, British Admiral and Fleet Commander in World War One, was born in Nantwich, Cheshire.

16 January 1871, Monday (-27,140) Oscar Asche, actor, was born in Geelong, Australia (died in London23 March 1936)

15 January 1871, Sunday (-27,141) (France-Germany) Battle of Lisaine, near Belfort; Germany defeated France.

12 January 1871, Thursday (-27,144) (Britain) Henry Alford, English scholar (born 7 October 1810 in London) died in Canterbury,

10 January 1871, Tuesday (-27,146) (France-Germany) The Battle of Le Mans began; Germany defeated France.

9 January 1871, Monday (-27,147) (France-Germany) The Battle of Beaugency, near Orleans; Germany defeated France. Germany advanced towards Tours.

8 January 1871, Sunday (-27,148) (France-Germany) Prussian troops bombarded Paris.

7 January 1871, Saturday (-27,149) (Chemistry) Mendeleev announced that the gaps in his Periodic table represented undiscovered elements. These elements were discovered in 1875, 1879 and 1885, making Mendeleev famous.

3 January 1871, Wednesday (-27,152) In the USA, Henry W Bradley claimed the US patent for oleomargarine, the bgutter substitute based on clarified beef fat developed by chemist Hippolyte Mege Mouries in 1869 in France.

2 January 1871, Monday (-27,154) (France-Germany) Germany defeated France at the Battle of Baupame.

1 January 1871, Sunday (-27,155)

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30 December 1870, Friday (-27,157) Juan Prim, Prime Minister of Spain (born 1814) was assassinated.

28 November 1870, Wednesday (-27,159) Frederic Bazille, French painter, died in Beaune la Rolande (born 6 December 1841 in Montpellier)

25 December 1870, Sunday (-27,162) (Rail Tunnels) The Mont Cenis Tunnel through the Alps, 12.9 km long, was completed (work began 1857) when the tunnelers met in the middle.

24 December 1870, Saturday (-27,163) (USA) Albert Barnes, US theologian, died in Philadelphia (born in Rome, New York State, 1 December 1798).

23 December 1870, Friday (-27,164) (France-Germany) Germany defeated France at the Battle of Hallue, near Amiens. German forces now advanced south west towards Rouen.

22 December 1870, Thursday (-27,165) Gustavo Becquer, Spanish writer, died in Madrid (born in Seville 17 February 1836).

18 December 1870, Sunday (-27,169) Thomas Doubleday, English author, died (born 2/1790)

13 December 1870, Tuesday (-27,174) The tramway from Blackheath Hill to New Cross, London, opened.

12 December 1870, Monday (-27,175) Joseph H Rainey became the first Black member of the House of Representatives in the USA. The Reverend Hiram H Revels became the first Black member of the Senate in February 1871.

11 December 1870, Sunday (-27,176)

10 December 1870, Saturday (-27,177) Adolf Loos, architect, was born.

9 December 1870, Friday (-27,178) (Arts) Maximillian Ainmuller, German artist, died (born in Munich, 14 February 1807).

8 December 1870, Thursday (-27,179) (Railways-GB) Thomas Brassey, railway engineer, died (born 1805).

5 December 1870, Monday (-27,182) Alexandre Dumas, French novelist, died (born 24 July 1802).

2 December 1870, Friday (-27,185) (France-Germany) Germany defeated France at the Battle of Loigny, near Orleans.

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28 November 1870, Monday (-27,189) (France-Germany) The Germans in the Franco-German War took Amiens.

25 November 1870, Friday (-27,192) Maurice Denis, French painter, was born in Granville, Normandy (died 13 November 1943 in Paris)

21 November 1870, Monday (-27,196) Stanley Jackson, cricketer, was born (died 9 March 1947).

16 November 1870, Wednesday (-27,201) Amadeus I (1845-90), Duke of Aosta and son of King Victor Emmanuel of Italy, was elected King of Spain. He attempted to govern constitutionally but was thwarted by the existing undemocratic institutions of the country. He abdicated in 1873 and retired to Italy as Duke of Aosta.

12 November 1870, Saturday (-27,205) Bogumil Goltz, German writer, died (born 20 March 1801).

9 November 1870, Wednesday (-27,208) (France-Germany) The Battle of Coulmiers, near Orleans; France defeated Germany.

4 November 1870, Friday (-27,213) Derbyshire County Cricket club was founded at a meeting in the Guildhall, Derby.

3 November 1870, Thursday (-27,214) (France-Germany) The Prussians besieged Belfort, 275 miles ESE of Paris. The siege continued until the armistice of 15 February 1871.

1 November 1870, Tuesday (-27,216) Stephen Crane, US writer, was born (died 5 June 1900).

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27 October 1870, Thursday (-27,221) (France) The French at Metz, 140,000 troops, surrendered to Prussia after a two-month siege. In November 1870 the southern German states of Wurttemberg and Bavaria joined with the North German Confederation, ensuring Prussian political hegemony. Francois-Achille Bazaine (1811-88), Marshall of France and commander of the 180,000 men besieged at Metz, was accused of treachery and after a court martial at Versailles in 1873 was sentenced to death. This was commuted by President Macmahon to 20 years imprisonment. In August 1874 Bazaine escaped from the island fortress of Ste Marguerite and fled to Madrid. His supporters maintained that Bazaine was a scapegoat for general French military inefficiency and for the failures of other Field Commanders from more distinguished families.

20 October 1870, Thursday (-27,228) Michael Balfe, Irish composer, died (born in Dublin 13 May 1808).

12 October 1870, Wednesday (-27,236) Robert E Lee, US Confederate General during the Civil War, died in Lexington, Virginia.

7 October 1870, Friday (-27,241) Gambetta, French Minister of the Interior, escaped the siege of Paris in a balloon.Reaching the safety of Tours, he encouraged the French troops.

6 October 1870, Thursday (-27,242) Rome became the capital of newly-united Italy.

4 October 1870, Tuesday (-27,244)

2 October 1870, Sunday (-27,246) In a plebiscite, the Papal States voted to unite with Italy. The capital of Italy was moved from Florence to Rome. This was under the reign of Pope Pius IX.

1 October 1870, Saturday (-27,247) The first British halfpenny stamp was introduced, for pre-paid postcards.

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30 September 1870, Friday (-27,248) (Technology) Physicist Jean Baptiste Perrin was born in Lille, France.

28 September 1870. Wednesday (-27,250) Strasbourg, under siege by Prussia since August 1870, was surrendered by the French.

26 September 1870, Monday (-27,252) King Christian X of Denmark was born.

24 September 1870, Saturday (-27,254) (Lighting) Georges Claude was born in Paris. In 1910 he introduced the neon light to Paris.

23 September 1870, Friday (-27,255) The French defenders, surrounded and under siege in Paris, succeeded in sending a balloon out with 227 pounds of mail. It passed over and beyond Prussian lines, giving news to the French provisional Government at Tours. The balloon was piloted by James Durouf.

22 September 1870, Thursday (-27,256) Charlotte Cooper, tennis champion, was born (died 10 October 1966).

21 September 1870, Wednesday (-27,257)

20 September 1870. Tuesday (-27,258) Taking advantage of the French defeat at Sedan, Italian troops under Victor Emmanuel II entered Rome and expelled the Papal troops. Garibaldi had made several attempts to take Rome with his people�s army, the last in 1867, but had been defeated by the French. Now however Napoleon III had his troops away from Rome to fight the Prussians. There was little resistance from Rome; the walls were shelled, and breached at Porta Pia, and only a few lives were lost.

19 September 1870. Monday (-27,259) Siege of Paris by the Germans began.

13 September 1870, Tuesday (-27,265) Peter Lehmann, Danish statesman, died (born 15 May 1810).

6 September 1870. Tuesday (-27,272) The last British troops serving in Australia were withdrawn.

4 September 1870. Sunday (-27,274) France formed a Republic (The Third Republic) and a government of national defence was formed.

2 September 1870. Friday (-27,276) Napoleon III of France capitulated to Prussia at Sedan. Fighting had lasted 44 days, and the 380,000 strong Prussian army had triumphed over the 235,0000 strong French army. Only a hastily assembled French National Guard stood between the Prussians and Paris. Empress Eugenie and the prince imperial fled to England. Napoleon III was held as prisoner in the comfortable royal apartments of Wilhelmshohe Castle. The French had sent a force to relieve their main Army besieged at Metz but this army, 84,000 men, 2,700 officers, 39 generals, surrendered to Prussia.

1 September 1870, Thursday (-27,277) (1) The Battle of Sedan; the Germans defeated the French.

(2) The siege of Metz began.

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31 August 1870, Wednesday (-27,278) Maria Montessori, who developed the Montessori system for teaching children, was born.

30 August 1870, Tuesday (-27,279) Battle of Beaumont; Germany defeated France.

28 August 1870, Sunday (-27,281)

25 August 1870, Thursday (-27,284) German composer Richard Wagner, then aged 57, married Cosima Liszt, daughter of Franz Liszt, in Lucerne, Switzerland.

24 August 1870, Wednesday (-27,285) A rebellion by Louis Reil (1844-85) was suppressed by British forces under Colonel Garnet J Wolseley (1833-1913), who captured his stronghold at Fort Garry (Winnipeg) without a fight. Riel fled the country. Riel and his Metis (French-Indigenous Indian Canadians) had been concerned that when the Hudson Bay Company sold its rights to the Canadian Government, the Metis would lose their traditional rights in the Red River area. See 12 May 1870.

21 August 1870, Sunday (-27,288)

18 August 1870. Thursday (-27,291) Prussian forces defeated the French at the Battle of Gravelotte.

17 August 1870, Wednesday (-27,292) Mount Rainier, Washington, was first successfully climbed.

16 August 1870, Tuesday (-27,293) The French lost to the Prussians at the Battle of Vionville.

15 August 1870, Monday (-27,294) In the US, the Transcontinental Railway was completed in Colorado.

14 August 1870. Sunday (-27,295) John Galsworthy, English author, was born in Combe, Surrey. When his Forsyte Saga was dramatised on BBC TV on Sundays in the 1960s, clergymen had to change times of their evening service to get a congregation.

13 August 1870, Saturday (-27,296) Germany defeated France at the Battle of Noisseville.

12 August 1870, Friday (-27,297) Arthur J Lamb, US actor, was born in Somerset, UK (died 11 August 1928 in Providence, USA)

11 August 1870, Thursday (-27,298) Thomas Richardson, cricketer, was born (died 2 July 1912).

10 August 1870, Wednesday (-27,299) The Dingwall and Skye Railway opened to Strome Ferry.

9 August 1870, Tuesday (-27,300) (Women�s Rights) In Britain the Married Women�s Property Act was passed. It allowed women to retain �200 (around �70,000 in 2000 terms) of their own earnings.

8 August 1870, Monday (-27,301) Maximillian Ainmiller, German glass painter (born 14 February 1807) died.

7 August 1870, Sunday (-27,302) (Christian) Jozef Brems, Bishop of Roskilde, was born.

6 August 1870, Saturday (-27,303) Battle of Froeschwiller, in NE France; Germany defeated France.

5 August 1870, Friday (-27,304) At a public meeting in London, a resolution was passed calling for the formation of a British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War. This was the forerunner to the Red Cross.

4 August 1870. Thursday (-27,305) Germany defeated France at the Battle of Wissembourg, in NE France.

3 August 1870, Wednesday (-27,306)

2 August 1870, Tuesday (-27,307) Prussia had mobilised rapidly and now had 380,000 troops on the French border

1 August 1870. Monday (-27,308) Britain passed the Irish Land Act, providing compensation for Irish tenant farmers evicted from their land.

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27 July 1870, Wednesday (-27,313) Edward Foss, English legal writer, died (born 16 October 1787).

24 July 1870. Sunday (-27,316) The first transcontinental train arrived in New York from San Francisco.

22 July 1870, Friday (-27,318) Josef Strauss, composer, died

21 July 1870, Thursday (-27,319) Charles Sloman, British composer, died in London (born 1808 in London)

20 July 1870, Wednesday (-27,320) Lucien Anatole Prevost-Paradol, French writer, born 8 August 1829, died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.

19 July 1870. Tuesday (-27,321) France declared war on Prussia. The origins of this war lay in the vacancy of the Spanish throne, which the French regarded as their sphere of influence. There was a Hohenzollern (German) candidate for the Spanish throne, and Napoleon III demanded, not only the withdrawal of the Hozenhollern claim to the Spanish throne, but the guarantee from Germany never again to claim this position. In the Ems Telegram of 13 July 1870 the Prussian King, in Ems, wrote to Bismarck declining to give such a guarantee. France was unprepared for war and its army disorganised, and within a month the main French Army was besieged at Metz. See 2 September 1870.

18 July 1870. Monday (-27,322) Pope Pius IX obtained a declaration from the Vatican General Council that the papacy was infallible in all its pronouncements, per se and not by virtue of the assent of the Church.

16 July 1870, Saturday (-27,324)

14 July 1870, Thursday (-27,326) David Farragut, US naval hero of the Civil War, died in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

13 July 1870, Wednesday (-27,327) Victoria Embankment, London, constructed by Sir J W Bazalgette, was opened by the Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII.

12 July 1870, Tuesday (-27,328) Prince Leopold, the Hohenzollern candidate for the Spanish throne, withdrew, not keen on such an insecure position as Spanish monarch. France rejoiced, but Bismarck of Prussia felt humiliated; he wanted war with France. Bismarck received news of Leopold�s withdrawal by telegram at Ems on 13 July 1870. Benedetti of France had sought assurances from King William of Prussia of Leopold�s withdrawal, which until now William had refused to give.When Leopold himself withdrew, William regarded the affair as closed and saw no further need for meetings with Benedetti. It was this news that was in the telegram to Bismarck. However Bismarck edited the telegram to a shorter version that made it appear as if King William had declined to meet with Benedetti, not due to Leopold�s withdrawal, but due to the demands made by Benedetti. This was the version of the telegram released to the media. It now looked as if Benedetti had been discourteous to William, and William had curtly rebuffed the French. Once this version was reported by the press, both the French and German peoples wanted war.

9 July 1870. Saturday (-27,331) The Elementary Education Act was passed in the UK, giving compulsory free education to every child in England and Wales.

6 July 1870, Wednesday (-27,334) The French Foreign Minister stated that unless Prince Leopold, the Hohenzollern candidate for the Spanish throne, was withdrawn, France would treat it as a cause for war. The King of Prussia was part of the Hohenzollern family, and France feared encirclement by pro-German States.

5 July 1870, Tuesday (-27,335) Gustav Flugel, German writer on the Orient, died (born 18 February 1802).

1 July 1870, Friday (-27,339)

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27 June 1870, Monday (-27,343) George Clarendon, British statesman, died (born 12 January 1800).

26 June 1870, Sunday (-27,344) Richard Wagner�s opera Valkyrie premiered in Munich.

25 June 1870, Saturday (-27,345) Queen Isabella of Spain abdicated. This precipitated the Franco-Prussian War, see 19 July 1870. One possible candidate for the vacant Spanish throne was the German Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. He was a Catholic, but France was alarmed at the thought of a German monarch to its south as well as to the north.

24 June 1870, Friday (-27,346) Adam Gordon, Australian poet, died (born 1833).

23 June 1870, Thursday (-27,347)

22 June 1870, Wednesday (-27,348) The US Department of Justice was established.

21 June 1870, Tuesday (-27,349) The Teintsin Massacre. Many Chinese resented the arrival of Christian missionaries, and to stir up trouble they spread rumours that the foreigners were sorcerers. At Tientsin the French Sisters of Mercy ran an orphanage and gave small cash rewards to people who brought in homeless or unwanted children; this gave rise to rumours of child kidnap and abuse. This day an angry Chinese crowd led by a magistrate assembled outside the orphanage; the French consul ordered his guards to fire on the crowd to disperse it. The Chinese now stormed the orphanage, killing 18 Europeans including the consul and 10 nuns. France demanded punishment as both Rome and France protested. Western naval ships sailed to Teintsin, 16 Chinese were executed and China made an official apology to France.

20 June 1870, Monday (-27,350) Paraguay signed a peace treaty with Argentina and Brazil, ceding 55,000 square miles of territory to these two countries.

11 June 1870, Saturday (-27,359) William Gilmore Simms, US author, died in Charleston (born 17 April 1806 in Charleston, South Carolina)

9 June 1870, Thursday (-27,361) Charles Dickens, born 7 February 1812 at Landport, Portsmouth, died at Godshill, near Rochester, Kent, of a brain haemorrhage the previous evening.

3 June 1870, Friday (-27,367) (Slavery) The USA and Britain signed a Convention agreeing to suppress the African slave trade.

===================================================================================

31 May 1870, Tuesday (-27,370) (Biology) Jean Claparede, Swiss naturalist, died (born 24 April 1832).

27 May 1870, Friday (-27,374) Further Fenian raids took place from US territpry into Canada (see 1 June 1866). However public opinion had turned against them and there was a crackdown by the authorities, ending the raids.

24 May 1870, Tuesday (-27,377) Jan Christian Smuts, South African soldier and Prime Minister, was born in Malmesbury, Cape Colony.

23 May 1870, Monday (-27,378) Mark Lemon, editor of Punch magazine, died (born 30 November 1809).

14 May 1870, Saturday (-27,387) The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, USA, received iits Charter.

12 May 1870, Thursday (-27,389) Manitoba, previously called the Red River Colony and controlled by the Hudson Bay Company, was bought by Canada and made a province.

9 May 1870, Monday (-27,392) The North Metropolitan tramway, London, opened along the Mile End Road from Whitechapel Church to Bow Church, 4 km.

6 May 1870, Friday (-27,395) Sir James Young Simpson, Scottish physician, died in Edinburgh (born 7 June 181 in Bathgate)

2 May 1870, Monday (-27,399) Princes Street, Edinburgh, railway station opened.

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30 April 1870, Saturday (-27,401) Franz Lehar, composer, was born in Komorn, Hungary (died 24 October 1948 in Bad Ischl, Austria)

25 April 1870, Monday (-27,406) Daniel MacLise, Irish painter, died.

24 April 1870, Sunday (-27,407) Louisa Costello, authoress, died (born 1799).

22 April 1870, Friday (-27,409) (1) Vladimir Illyich Lenin, Russian Communist leader, was born in Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk), as Vladimir Ilyitch Ulyanov, the son of a schools inspector.

(2) The Mitsubishi Group was founded this day by Yataro Iwasaki, as a shipping group. Its first car, the Mitsubishi Model A, was manufactured in 1917.

17 April 1870, Sunday (-27,414) Easter Sunday. Ray Stannard Baker, US author, was born in Lansing, Michigan (died 12 July 1946 in Amherst, Massachusetts.

13 April 1870, Wednesday (-27,418) The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA, received its Charter.

7 April 1870, Thursday (-27,424) Gustav Landauer, German anarchist, was born.

6 April 1870, Wednesday (-27,425) Oscar Strauss, Austrian composer, was born in Vienna 9died 11 January 1954 in Ischl)

4 April 1870, Monday (-27,427) Heinrich Magnus, German chemist, died (born 2 May 1802).

1 April 1870, Friday (-27,430) Francisco Lopez, Commander in Chief of the Paraguayan Army, was killed as he attempted to escape from an ambush by Brazilian forces.

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28 March 1870, Monday (-27,434) George Henry Thomas, US General, died in San Francisco (born 31 July 1816 in Virginia)

20 March 1870, Sunday (-27,442) Thomas Erskine, Scottish religious writer, died (born 13 October 1788).

18 March 1870, Friday (-27,444) Nellie Wallace, British comedienne, was born in Glasgow (died 24 November 1948 in London)

17 March 1870, Thursday (-27,445) Karl Neumann, German Orientalist writer, died (born 28 December 1793).

16 March 1870, Wednesday (-27,446) Henry Dixon, English sports writer, died (born 16 May 1822).

15 March 1870, Tuesday (-27,447)

14 March 1870, Monday (-27,448) The Christchurch to Bournemouth railway opened.

13 March 1870, Sunday (-27,449) Charles Montalambert, French historical writer, died (born 15 March 1810).

10 March 1870, Thursday (-27,452) Ignaz Moschelles, Bohemian pianist, died (born 30 May 1794).

5 March 1870, Saturday (-27,457) Frank Norris, US novelist, was born in Chicago (died 25 October1902 in San Francisco).

4 March 1870, Friday (-27,458) John McClintock, US Methodist religious writer, died (born 27 October 1814).

1 March 1870, Tuesday (-27,461) President Lopez of Paraguay was killed.

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26 February 1870, Saturday (-27,464) The first underground railway in the USA opened, in New York.

25 February 1870, Friday (-27,465) Henrik Hertz, Danish poet, died (born 25 August 1798).

23 February 1870, Wednesday (-27,467) (USA) Anson Burlingame, US statesman, died (born 14 November 1820).

13 February 1870, Sunday (-27,477) Polish-born US composer Leopold Godowsky was born in Vilnius.

12 February 1870, Saturday (-27,478) Marie Lloyd, British comedienne, was born in Hoxton, London (died 7 October 1922 in Golders Green, London)

11 February 1870, Friday 9-27,479)

10 February 1870, Thursday (-27,480) The YWCA (Young Women�s Christian Association) was founded.

9 February 1870, Wednesday (-27,481) The United States weather service was published.

8 February 1870, Tuesday (-27,482)

7 February 1870, Monday (-27,483) Alfred Adler, psychoanalyst who introduced the idea of the inferiority complex, was born.

6 February 1870, Sunday (-27,484) James Braid, golfer, was born (died 27 November 1950)

5 February 1870, Saturday (-27,485)

4 February 1870, Friday (-27,486) Lynn Udall, US composer, was born in Council Bluffs, Iowa (died 5 December 1963 in Downey, California)

3 February 1870, Thursday (-27,487) (Race equality, USA) In the US, the Fifteenth Amendment gave every US citizen, regardless of race, the right to vote.

2 February 1870, Wednesday (-27,488) Press agencies Reuters, Havas, and Wolff signed an agreement whereby they could cover the world�s news between them.

1 February 1870, Tuesday (-27,489) The Midland Railway opened between Sheffield and Chesterfield.

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29 January 1870, Saturday (-27,492) (Italy) Leopold II, Grand-Duke of Tuscany, died (born 3 October 1797).

25 January 1870, Tuesday (-27,496) (France) Achille Duc de Broglie, French statesman, died (born 28 November 1785).

21 January 1870, Friday (-27,500) Alexander Hertzen, Russian author, died (born 1812).

18 January 1870, Tuesday (-27,503) Samuel Bailey, British author (born in Sheffield 1791) died.

10 January 1870, Monday (-27,511) John D Rockerfeler and his brother William founded the Standard Oil Company of Ohio, later known as Esso.

9 January 1870, Sunday (-27,512) Sir George Evans, British soldier, died (born 1787)

6 January 1870, Thursday (-27,515)

3 January 1870, Monday (-27,518) Work began on the Brooklyn � New York bridge over the East River.

2 January 1870, Sunday (-27,519) Ernst Barlach, German sculptor, was born in Wedel, near Hamburg (died24 October 1938 in Rostock)

1 January 1870, Saturday (-27,520)

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31 December 1869, Friday (-27,521) Henry Matisse, artist, was born.

24 December 1869, Friday (-27,528) (Britain) James Lee, English divine, died.

23 December 1869, Thursday (-27,529) The Glasgowand South Western Railway opened to Greenock.

18 December 1869, Saturday (-27,534) Louis Moreau Gottschalk, US composer, died in Rio de Janiero (born 8 May 1829 in New Orleans)

10 December 1869, Friday (-27,542) Wyoming became the first USA State to grant women the vote.

8 December 1869, Wednesday (-27,544) (Canada) In Toronto, T Eaton Ltd, shop, opened at 178 Yonge Street. It had fixed prices and no bartering or credit was allowed.

7 December 1869, Tuesday (-27,545) The East London Railway opened from New Cross Gate to Wapping.

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29 November 1869, Monday (-27,553) Giulia Grisi, Italian opera singer, died (born 1811).

23 November 1869, Tuesday (-27,559) Valdemar Poulson, Danish inventor of the tape recorder, was born.

17 November 1869, Wednesday (-27,565) The Suez Canal was opened after 10 years of construction. The 100-mile canal, from Port Said to Port Tewfik, 26 feet deep, with bays and use of lakes to provide passing places for ships and avoid the need for locks, was designed by Ferdinand De Lesseps. The distance from London to Bombay by sea was reduced from 11,220 to 6,332 miles. The Canal concession was granted to de Lesseps by Said Pasha, after whom Port Said is named. The cost was 400million francs, ten times the original estimate. See 25 April 1859. By 1875 Britain was the largest shareholder in the Canal. In 1870 there were 486 transits, and in 1966/67, 20,326 transits. President Nasser nationalised the Canal in 1956, see 29 October 1956.

11 November 1869, Thursday (-27,571) Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy, was born.

9 November 1869, Tuesday (-27,573) Marie Dressler, US actress, was born in Coburg, Canada (died 28 July 1934 in Santa Barbara, California)

8 November 1869, Monday (-27,574) Bodewalte J Lampe, US composer, was born in Ribe, Denmark (died 26 May 1929 in New York)

6 November 1869, Saturday (-27,576) Blackfriars Bridge, London, opened

4 November 1869, Thursday (-27,578) The weekly scientific journal Nature began publication.

===================================================================================

29 October 1869, Friday (-27,484) Emile Deschamps, French poet, died (born 20 February 1791).

23 October 1869, Saturday (-27,490) John Conington, English classical writer, died (born 10 August 1825).

19 October 1869, Tuesday (-27,594) First railway in Romania opened; Bucharest to Giurgiu.

16 October 1869, Saturday (-27,597) Girton College, the oldest women�s college in Cambridge, was opened.

14 October 1869, Thursday (-27,599) Joseph Duveen, English art expert, was born in Hull (died 25 May 1939 in London)

13 October 1869, Wednesday (-27,600) Charles Saint Beuve, French writer, died in Paris (born 23 December 1804in Boulogne sur Mer)

11 October 1869, Monday (-27,602)

9 October 1869, Saturday (-27,604) Otto Erdmann, physician who introduced vaccination into Saxony, died (born 11 April 1804).

8 October 1869, Friday (-27,605) Franklin Pearce, US Democrat and 14th President from 1853 to 1857, died in Concord, New Hampshire.

5 October 1869, Tuesday (-27,608)

2 October 1869, Saturday (-27,611) Mahatma Ghandi, Indian nationalist leader, was born in Porbandar, Gujarat.

1 October 1869, Friday (-27,612) Austria issued the world�s first official post card.

====================================================================================

24 September 1869, Friday (-27,619) An American financial disaster, �Black Friday�, occurred when a shrewd and unscrupulous investor, Jay Gould, attempted to corner the gold market.

22 September 1869, Wednesday (-27,621) Richard Wagner�s opera Das Rheingold premiered in Munich.

20 September 1869, Monday (-27,623) George Robey, British actor, was born in London (died 29 November 1954 in Saltdean, Sussex)

18 September 1869, Saturday (-27,625) Henry Phillpotts, English Bishop died (born in Bridgewater 6 May 1778)

10 September 1869, Friday (-27,633) (USA) John Bell, US politician, died (born near Nashville, Tennessee 15 February 1797).

9 September 1869, Thursday (-27,634) Otto Jahn, German historical writer, died (born 16 June 1813)

8 September 1869, Wednesday (-27,635)

7 September 1869, Tuesday (-27,636) Thomas Peronnet Thompson, English scholarly writer, died in Blackheath, London (born 1783 in Hull)

6 September 1869, Monday (-27,637) William Fessenden, US politician, died (born 16 October 1806).

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31 August 1869, Tuesday (-27,643) Gregor MacGregor,cricketer, was born (died 20 August 1919)

26 August 1869, Thursday (-27,648) Henri Leys, Belgian painter, died in Antwerp (born 18 February 1815 in Antwerp)

25 August 1869, Wednesday (-27,649) Thomas Kiely, athlete, was born (died 6 November 1951).

13 August 1869, Friday (-27,661) Adolphe Niel, Marshal of France, died in Paris (born 4 October 1802 in Muret).

10 August 1869, Tuesday (-27,664) Laurence Binyon, English poet, was born in Lancaster.

2 August 1869, Monday (-27,672) John William Salter, English naturalist, died (born 15 December 1820)

1 August 1869, Sunday (-27,673) Alexandrine Tinne, Dutch explorer of Africa, died in Africa (born 17 October 1839 in The Hague)

====================================================================================

31 July 1869, Saturday (-27,674)

29 July 1869, Thursday (-27,676) Joseph Jukes, English geologist, died (born 10 October 1811).

28 July 1869, Wednesday (-27,677) (Medical) Karl Carus, German physician, died (born 1789)

22 July 1869, Thursday (-27,683) (USA) John Augustus Roebling, US engineer, died in Brooklyn (born 6 June 1806 in Prussia)

18 July 1869, Sunday (-27,687) Louis Bouilhet, French poet, died in Rouen (born in Cany 27 May 1822).

16 July 1869, Friday (-27,689) Karl Graf, German religious writer, died (born 28 February 1815).

15 July 1869, Thursday (-27,690) (Food) Hippolyte Mege Mouries of Paris patented margarine in France.

14 July 1869, Wednesday (-27,691) Lucie Duff-Gordon, writer, died (born 24 June 1821)

13 July 1869, Tuesday (-27,692) Anti-Chinese-labourer riots in San Francisco.

11 July 1869, Sunday (-27,694) William Jerdan, Scottish journalist, died (born 16 April 1782).

4 July 1869, Sunday (-27,701) (Railways) The Kansas City to Chicago railway opened.

2 July 1869, Friday (-27,703) Harry Fragson, composer, was born in London (died 30 December 1913 in Paris)

====================================================================================

26 June 1869, Saturday (-27,709) (London) Southwark Park was opened to the public; it cost �55,000.

18 June 1869, Friday (-27,717) Henry Jarvis Raymond, US journalist, died in New York City (born 24 January 1820 in New York State)

17 June 1869, Thursday (-27,718) Wilhelmshaven, Germany�s first military port, was officially inaugurated.

16 June 1869, Wednesday (-27,719) Charles Sturt, British explorer who ventured into the Australian interior to discover the Darling and Lower Murray Rivers, died aged 74 in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire.

15 June 1869, Tuesday (-27,720) A thermoplastic called celluloid, a technically-improved version of the plastic invented by the British chemist Alexander Parkes, was patented by American inventor John Wesley Hyatt of Albany, New York.

10 June 1869, Thursday (-27,725) Frederic Hurlstone, English painter, died (born 1800).

3 June 1869, Thursday (-27,732) John Broughton, English writer, died (born 27 June 1786).

====================================================================================

31 May 1869, Monday (-27,735) Walter Bayes, English painter, was born in London (died 21 January 1956 in London)

28 May 1869, Friday (-27,738) Ernst Hengstenberg, German religious writer, died (born 29 October 1802).

20 May 1869, Thursday (-27,746) Joshua Pim, tennis champion, was born (died 15 April 1942).

15 May 1869, Saturday (-27,751) Alexander Dyce, English historical writer, died (born 30 June 1798).

10 May 1869, Monday (-27,756) (USA, Railways) The first railroad across the USA from east to west, 1,776 miles long, was completed after three years work at a ceremony west of Ogden, in Utah. The Union Pacific Line finally met with the Central Pacific Line. Both companies raced to lay as much track as possible as they converged, spurred on by government payments of US$16,000 per mile, more for mountainous areas. A golden spike was driven in at Promontory Point, Utah, where the railways met. Travel time between New York and San Francisco was slashed from 3 months to 8 days.

3 May 1869, Monday (-27,763) The Great Western opened a goods station below Smithfield Market, connected to Paddington via the Metropolitan Line.

2 May 1869, Sunday (-27,764) Alexander Menshikov, Russian statesman, died (born 11/7.1787).

1 May 1869, Saturday (-27,765) The Folies-Bergere music hall opened in Paris.

===================================================================================

30 April 1869, Friday (-27,766) Philip de Laszlo, portrait painter, was born in Budapest (died 22 November 1937 in London)

28 April 1869, Wednesday (-27,768) Frances Hodgkins, New Zealand painter, was born in Dunedin (died13 May 1947)

20 April 1869, Tuesday (-27,776) Johann Lowe, German composer, died (30 November 1796).

9 April 1869, Friday (-27,787) (Canada) The Hudson Bay Company ceded its territory to Canada.

8 April 1869, Thursday (-27,788) Harvey Cushing, US surgeon, was born.

5 April 1869, Monday (-27,791)

2 April 1869, Friday (-27,794) Christian Meyer, German palaeontological writer, died (born 3 September 1801).

1 April 1869, Thursday (-27,795) Edmond Rostand, French dramatist, was born.

===================================================================================

31 March 1869, Wednesday (-27,796)

29 March 1869, Monday (-27,798) Sir Edward Lutyens, British architect, was born in London.

28 March 1869, Sunday (-27,799) Easter Sunday

26 March 1869, Friday (-27,801)

24 March 1869, Wednesday (-27,803) Antoine Jomini, French General, died (born 6 March 1779)

23 March 1869, Tuesday (-27,804) Calouste Gulbenkian, art expert, was born in Constantinople (died 20 July 1955 in Lisbon)

22 March 1869, Monday (-27,805) Emilio Aguinaldo, fighter for independence of the Philippines, was born (died 6 February 1964).

18 March 1869, Thursday (-27,809) (Britain) Neville Chamberlain, British Conservative Prime Minister 1937 to 1940 was born in Birmingham.

14 March 1869, Sunday (-27,813) (New Zealand) The third Maori rebellion in 15 years ended with the defeat of the rebel leader, Titokowaru.

10 March 1869, Wednesday (-27,817) The first scientifically-designed cremator was used, in Padua, Italy, by Dr L Brunetti to cremate the body of a 35-year-old woman.

8 March 1869. Monday (-27,819) The French composer Berlioz died in Paris.

6 March 1869, Saturday (-27,821) (Chemistry) Dmitri Mendeleev, Russian scientist (1834-1907), published his first version of the Periodic Table. By grouping the elements by properties, it was now possible to see where gaps existed and new elements awaited discovery.

3 March 1869, Wednesday (-27,824) English conductor Henry Wood was born in London.

2 March 1869, Tuesday (-27,825) Hugh Gough, British Field Marshal, died (born 3 November 1779).

1 March 1869, Monday (-27,826) (London Underground) London�s Metropolitan railway, opened 10 January 1863 and operating on both broad and standard gauge, changed to standard gauge only.

===================================================================================

28 February 1869, Sunday (-27,827) Alphonse Lamartine, French poet and writer, died (born 21 October 1790).

27 February 1869, Saturday (-27,828) The US passed the 15th amendment, entitling all southern Black citizens to vote. No State could be admitted to the Union without ratifying this amendment. However poll tax and literacy qualifications could still be used to debar Black people from voting, and the Klu Klux Klan intimidated many Black people from claiming their rights.

22 February 1869, Monday (-27,833) (Railways GB) The railway from Bishops Stortford to Braintree opened.

12 February 1869, Friday (-27,843) (South Africa) Sir John Brand, President of the Orange Free State, concluded a second Treaty with the Basuto, the Treaty of Aliwal North, after they had resumed hostilities following the Treaty of 3 April 1866.

6 February 1869, Saturday (-27,849) Greece agreed to withdraw its forces from Crete, after threats from Ottoman Turkey.

===================================================================================

30 January 1869, Saturday (-27,856) William Carleton, Irish novelist, died (born 4 March 1794).

27 January 1869, Wednesday (-27,859) William Bassett, English footballer, was born (died 8 April 1937).

26 January 1869, Tuesday (-27,860) Ernest Jones, English Chartist, died (born 25 January 1819).

25 January 1869, Monday (-27,861) Francis Wilkinson Pickens, US politician, died in South Carolina (born 7 April 1805 in South Carolina)

23 January 1869, Saturday (-27,863) William Ewart, English politician, died (born 1 May 1798).

20 January 1869, Wednesday (-27,866) Carl Gottling, German scholarly writer, died (born 19 January 1793).

15 January 1869, Friday (-27,871) Sir Henry Ellis, writer, died (born 29 November 1777)

12 January 1869, Tuesday (-27,874) Harold Hilton, golf champion, was born (died 5 March 1942).

10 January 1869, Sunday (-27,876) (Earthquake) Severe earthquake at Cachar, Assam, India

9 January 1869, Saturday (-27,877) (Chemistry) Richard Wilhelm Heinrich Abegg, German chemist, was born in Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland). He showed that the outer electron shell of an atom determines its chemical properties.

8 January 1869, Friday (-27,878) (Russia) Russian priest Grigory Rasputin was born, to parents Yefim and Anna in Pokrivskoe.

4 January 1869, Monday (-27,882) Tommy Corcoran, baseball player, was born.

1 January 1869, Friday (-27,885)

=====================================================================================

31 December 1868, Thursday (-27,886) The Triple Alliance forces occupied Asuncion, capital of Paraguay.

24 December 1868, Thursday (-27,893) (Geology) Etienne Archiac, French geologist, died (born 24 September 1802 in Reims).

23 December 1868, Wednesday (--27,894) (India) Sir Herbert Edwardes, British soldier in India, died (born 12 November 1819).

22 December 1868, Tuesday (-27,895) Solon Borglum, US sculptor, was born in Ogden, Utah.

13 December 1868, Sunday (-27,904) Carl Martius, German botanist, died (born 17 April 1794).

11 December 1868, Friday (-27,906) Greece and some European nations had sent aid to the Christians in Crete; this day Turkey threatened to blockade Greece unless it stopped this aid. Greece, to avoid another war, complied, but see 1896.

10 December 1868, Thursday (-27,907) (1) (Road Traffic) London�s first traffic lights were installed in Parliament Square, Westminster, to help MPs get to the House of Commons. The lights were like a railway signal, and operated by gas; they later exploded, killing a policeman. The lights were removed in 1872 and traffic lights were not used again until 3 August 1926.

(2) The first edition of Whitakers Almanack was published.

9 December 1868, Wednesday (-27,908) Following a Liberal General Election victory, William Ewart Gladstone formed the next UK government, defeating Disraeli.This was the first of Gladstone�s four terms of office as Prime Minister.

8 December 1868, Tuesday (-27,909) Norman Douglas, British writer (died in Capri, Italy, 9 February 1952) was born in Deeside, Scotland.

6 December 1868, Sunday (-27,911) August Schliecher, German scholarly writer, died in Jena (born 10 February 1821 in Meiningen)

1 December 1868, Tuesday (-27,916)

====================================================================================

29 November 1868, Sunday (-27,918) (France) Antoine Berryer, French statesman, died in Augerville (born 1790).

28 November 1868, Saturday (-27,919) Frantisek Drdla, Czech composer, was born

27 November 1868, Friday (-27,920) Lieutenant Colonel George Custer and his 7th cavalry attacked the village of Cheyenne Indian chief Black Kettle. The Indians had been resisting the building of a railway in their territory.

25 November 1868, Wednesday (-27,922)

24 November 1868, Tuesday (-27,923) London�s Smithfield Market was opened by the Lord Mayor.

23 November 1868, Monday (-27,924) Friedrich Hermann, German economics writer, died 5 December 1795).

21 November 1868, Saturday (-27,926)

20 November 1868, Friday (-27,927) The foundation stone of the Albert Hall, London, was laid by Queen Victoria.

19 November 1868, Thursday (-27,928) William Mount, US artist, died (born 26 January 1807).

13 November 1868, Friday (-27,934) Giovanni Genelli, German painter, died (born 28 September 1798).

11 November 1868, Wednesday (-27,936) Phra Paramindr Maha Chulalongkorn was crowned King of King of Siam,

8 November 1868, Sunday (-27,939) Viscount Lee of Fareham, who gave the Buckinghamshire country house Chequers to the nation in 1921, was born.

7 November 1868, Saturday (-27,940) Royal Samuel Copeland, US politician, was born in Michigan.

6 November 1868, Friday (-27,941) Oglala Sioux Indigenous Americans, led by Chief Red Cloud, signed a peace treaty with General William Sherman, representing the US Government, at Fort Laramie. This ended 2 years of fighting between Indigenous Americans and gold miners.

5 November 1868, Thursday (-27,942)

4 November 1868, Wednesday (-27,943) Moritz Hornes, Austrian palaeontologist, died (born 14 July 1815).

3 November 1868, Tuesday (-27,944) Ulysses S Grant, ultimate commander of the Union armies in the Civil War, was elected president of the USA.

===================================================================================

31 October 1868, Saturday (-27,947) Emperor Mutsuhito of Japan was officially crowned, at Osaka.

27 October 1868, Tuesday (-27,951) (Britain) Charles Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury, died

26 October 1868, Monday (-27,952) Thomas Edison applied for a patent for his electronic voting machine.

24 October 1868, Saturday (-27,954) Charles Conder, English painter, was born in London (died 9 February 1909 in Virginia Water, Surrey)

21 October 1868, Wednesday (-27,957) (1) Sir Ernest Swinton, one of the inventors of the military tank, was born in Bamgalore, India.

(2) San Francisco was devastated by an earthquake, causing US$3million damage.

18 October 1868, Sunday (-27,960) La Prensa, which was to become the highest-circulation newspaper in South America, began publication in Buenos Aires.

17 October 1868, Saturday (-27,961) Bernhard Beskow, Swedish dramatist, died (born 10 April 1796).

12 October 1868, Monday (-27,966) August Horch, founder of the Audi car company, was born in Winningen, Rhenish Prussia. Having worked for Karl Benz from 1896, he then founded A Horch and Co in 1899. He then left his own company in after a legal dispute with investors but was unable to use the Horch name on another company. His son suggested Audi, which means �to listen�, the same as �horch� in German.

10 October 1868, Saturday (-27,968) A major rebellion against Spanish rule began, initiating a 10-year civil war. Cuban patriots proclaimed a revolution at Yara, issued the Grito de Yara, demanding independence from Spain.

9 October 1868, Friday (-27,969) Howell Cobb, US politician, died (born 7 September 1815).

7 October 1868, Wednesday (-27,971) A non-stop stage coach covered the 2,600 miles from St Louis to Los Angeles in a record 20 days.

5 October 1868, Monday (-27,973) In Spain, Marshal Juan Prim formed a provisional Government. Universal suffrage and a free press were established, and the Jesuits were banned.

1 October 1868, Thursday (-27,977) (1) In London, St Pancras station, terminus of the Midland Railway, was formally opened. The line from Bedford via Luton and St Albans to St Pancras opened.

(2) Mongkut, King of Siam, died aged 64. In his 17-year reign he made considerable reforms, with Western help. His decision to roll back centuries of isolation was taken during his travels as a Buddhist monk for 27 years. In 1863 France had forced him to relinquish his vassal state of Cambodia, which became a French protectorate.

====================================================================================

29 September 1868, Tuesday (-27,979) Queen Isabella fled Spain into France.

28 September 1868, Monday (-27,980) Arthur Eugene Godfrey, British composer, was born in London (died in London 23 February 1939)

26 September 1868, Saturday (-27,982) August Mobius, German mathematician, died (born 17 November 1790).

24 September 1868, Thursday (-27,984) Henry Milman, English historical writer, died.

22 September 1868, Tuesday (-27,986) Eustace Miles, rackets and tennis player, was born (died 20 December 1948).

21 September 1868, Monday (-27,987) Joseph Cumming, English geologist, died (born 15 February 1812).

19 September 1868, Saturday (-27,989)

18 September 1868, Friday (-27,990) Admiral Juan Batista Topete y Carballo proclaimed the end of absolutist rule in Spain.

17 September 1868, Thursday (-27,991) In Spain, the Liberal military staged a coup against Queen Isabella.

1 September 1868, Tuesday (-28,007)

====================================================================================

29 August 1868, Saturday (-28,010) Christian Schonbein, German chemist, died near Baden Baden (born 18 October 1799 in Swabia)

28 August 1868, Friday (-28,011) Antoine Clot, French physician, died (born 7 November 1793).

26 August 1868, Wednesday (-28,013)

25 August 1868, Tuesday (-28,014) Jacob van Lennep, Dutch poet and novelist, died.

24 August 1868, Monday (-28,015) (USA) George J Adler, US lexicographer (born 1821) died.

21 August 1868, Friday (-28,018) Karl Immanuel Nitzsch, German religious writer, died (born near Leipzig 21 September 1787).

18 August 1868, Tuesday (-28,021) British astronomer Norman Lockyer and French astronomer Jules Janssen discovered helium in the Sun.

13 August 1868, Thursday (-28,026) (Earthquake) A major earthquake killed over 25,000 people and devastated four cities in Peru and Ecuador

12 August 1868, Wednesday (-28,027) Under duress, Navajo Chiefs signed a Treaty with the US Government agreeing to live on a 3.5 million reservation which was only a small portion of the former Navajo domain. The reservation later grew to 14.5 million acres, but was mostly desert and semi-desert, with just 68,000 acres of farmland. Meanwhile during a 5-year period of Navajo internment their population had fallen from 10,000 to 8,000 and of their former 200,000 sheep, just 940 were left.

11 August 1868, Tuesday (-28,028) Halfdan Kjerulf, Norwegian composer, died (born 15 September 1815).

10 August 1868, Monday (-28,029) Adah Menken, US actress, died.

7 August 1868, Friday (-28,032) Sir Granville Bantock, British composer, was born in London (died 16 October 1946)

4 August 1868, Tuesday (-28,035) Jacques Boucher, French writer, died in Abbeville (born in Rethel 10 September 1788).

2 August 1868, Sunday (-28,037) (Greece) Constantine, King of the Hellenes, was born in Athens (died 11 January 1923 of a brain haemorrhage in Palermo).

====================================================================================

29 July 1868, Wednesday (-27,041) John Elliotson, English physician, died (born 29 October 1791).

28 July 1868, Tuesday (-27,042) (USA) The USA and China signed the Burlingame Treaty at Washington DC, defining mutual rights of migration between the two countries.

27 July 1868, Monday (-27,043)

26 July 1868, Sunday (-27,044) (Britain) Robert Cranworth, Lord Chancellor of England, died in London

25 July 1868, Saturday (-27,045) (USA) President Johnson signed an Act creating the territory of Wyoming.

24 July 1868, Friday (-27,046) George Cattermole, English painter, died (born 1800).

23 July 1868, Thursday (-27,047)

21 July 1868, Tuesday (-27,049) Heinrich Grafe, educationalist writer, died (born 3 May 1802).

20 July 1868, Monday (-27,050) Miron Cristea, Prime Minister of Romania, was born.

18 July 1868, Saturday (-27,052) Emanuel Leutze, US artist, died (born 24 May 1816)

15 July 1868, Wednesday (-27,055) (Medical) William Thomas Morton, US dentist, died in New York City, New York.

14 July 1868, Tuesday (-27,056) Dynamite was first tested in Sweden; it was invented by Alfred Nobel.

12 July 1868, Sunday (-27,058) The Scottish Reform Act was passed.

9 July 1868, Thursday (-27,061) (Race Equality, USA) The US passed the Fourteenth Amendment, during the period of �reconstruction� following the conclusion of the Civil War. It guaranteed equality before the law for Blacks and Whites alike, specifically including ex-slaves here, and prohibited any State from �abridging their privileges� or denying them �equal protection of the laws�. However, due to the fact that corporations are also �persons� before the law, the 14th Amendment began to be used for purposes it was not intended for. The 14th Amendment was used to shield companies from government regulation, and even, before the 1950s, to justify racial discrimination because it contained the words �separate but equal�. Later, in the 1980s, it was still being used to block so-called �positive discrimination in favour of racial minorities.

6 July 1868, Monday (-27,064) Samuel Lover, Irish novelist, died (born 24 February 1797).

4 July 1868, Saturday (-27,066) The last resistance in Japan by pro-Tokugawa forces ceased, as they were defeated at the Battle of Ueno, near Edo (eastern capital), now known as Tokyo.

===================================================================================

29 June 1868, Monday (-28,071) Julius Beresford, rower, was born (died 29 September 1959).

25 June 1868, Thursday (-28,075) (Prisons) Strangeways Prison, Manchester, opened; it replaced the New Bailey Prison, Salford, which closed in 1868.

21 June 1868, Sunday (-28,076) First performance, in Munich, of Wagner�s opera Die Meistersinger von Nuremberg

20 June 1868, Saturday (-28,080) Daniel Eyers Godfrey, Brit8ish musician, was born in London (died 20 July 1939 in Bournemouth)

16 June 1868, Tuesday (-28,084)

11 June 1868, Thursday (-28,089) (Malaysia) Sir James Brooke, British colonial administrator of Borneo, died (born 29 April 1803).

10 June 1868, Wednesday (-28,090) Serbian Prince Michael III Obrenovic was assassinated near Belgrade, aged 43. He was succeeded by his 13-year-old cousin Milan, who became King in 1882, and ruled until 1889.

9 June 1868, Tuesday (-28,091)

7 June 1868, Sunday (-28,093) Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Scottish architect, was born.

6 June 1868, Saturday (-28,094) Robert Falcon Scott, British explorer of the Antarctic, was born near Devonport, Devon.

4 June 1868, Thursday (-28,096)

2 June 1868, Tuesday (-28,098) The first Trades Union Congress was held in Manchester. It lasted until 6 June 1868.

1 June 1868, Monday (-28,099) James Buchanan, American Democrat and 15th President from 1857 to 1861, and the only bachelor President, died in Wheatland, near Lancaster, Pennsylvania, aged 77.

=====================================================================================

29 May 1868, Friday (-28,102) Franz Pfeiffer, German scholarly writer, died 29 May 1868 in Vienna (born 27 February 1815)

26 May 1868, Tuesday (-28,105) The last public execution in Britain took place outside Newgate Prison. Michael Barrett, the hanged man, had murdered 12 people with a bomb.

25 May 1868, Monday (-28,106) Rene Weil (Romain Coolus), French dramatist, was born in Rennes.

24 May 1868, Sunday (-28,107)

23 May 1868, Saturday (-28,108) (USA) Kit Carson, US soldier and fur trapper who did much to open up the West to White settlers, died (born 24 December 1809).

22 May 1868, Friday (-28,109) (Mathematics) Julius Plucker, German mathematician, died in Bonn, Germany.

20 May 1868, Wednesday (-28,111)

19 May 1868, Tuesday (-28,112) (Geology) John Fillmore Hayford was born in Rouses Point, New York. He used the new science of geodesy to determine the exact shape of the Earth.

18 May 1868, Monday (-28,113) (Russia) Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia, was born, the son of Alexander III.

11 May 1868, Monday (-28,120) John Crawfurd, Scottish writer on the Orient, died (born 13 August 1783).

7 May 1868, Thursday (-28,124) (Britain) Henry Brougham, Lord Chancellor of England, died (born 19 September 1778)

6 May 1868, Wednesday (-28,125) Louis Cormenin, French political lobbyist, died (born 6 January 1788).

1 May 1868, Friday (-28,130) The SER main line to Tonbridge via Sevenoaks opened.

=====================================================================================

28 April 1868, Tuesday (-28,133) Emile Bernard, French painter, was born in Lille (died16 April 1941 in Paris)

23 April 1868, Thursday, (-28,138) Ramon Maria Narvaez, reactionary Prime Minister of Spain, Duke of Valencia, died

21 April 1868, Tuesday (-28,140) (Crime & Punishment) In the UK, a Bill to abolish capital punishment, introduced by Mr Gilpin MP, was defeated by 127 votes to 23.

13 April 1868, Monday (-28,148) (Ethiopia) Magdala, Abyssinia, was finally taken by the British.

12 April 1868, Sunday (-28,149) Easter Sunday

10 April 1868, Friday (-28,151) Britain took military action against Abyssinia following mistreatment and detention of British missionaries and traders. Tewoderos II, Emperor of Ethiopia, committed suicide before the British reached his capital at Magdala, and freed the British captives. The Ethiopian State now collapsed.

7 April 1868, Tuesday (-28,154) Thomas McGee, Canadian writer, died.

6 April 1868, Monday (-28,155) The Japanese Government under Emperor Meiji issued a general policy statement known as the Charter Oath, following the overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate. This Oath declared that ancient feudal social ranks and other practices would be eliminated from Japanese society, and that a programme of modernisation based on Western values would be followed.

5 April 1868, Sunday (-28,156) William Cabell Rives, US politician, died in Virginia (born 4 May 1793 in Virginia)

1 April 1868, Wednesday (-28,160)

======================================================================================

30 March 1868, Monday (-28,162) The intended impeachment of US President Andrew Johnson began before the Senate, but enough Democrats rallied with the Republicans to prevent by a single vote the intended trial.

29 March 1868, Sunday (-28,163) Felix Slade, English arts patron, died (born August 1790 in Lambeth, London)

28 March 1868. Saturday (-28,164) The Earl of Cardigan, who led the Charge of the Light Brigade (25 October 1854) to disaster at Balaclava, in the Crimean War, died. He is best remembered for the woollen garment named after him.

27 March 1868, Friday (-28,165)

26 March 1868, Thursday (-28,166) (Egypt) King Fuad I of Egypt was born.

25 March 1868, Wednesday (-28,167) William Lockwood, cricketer, was born (died 26 April 1932)

24 March 1868, Tuesday (-28,168)

23 March 1868, Monday (-28,169) The University of California was founded at Berkeley

22 March 1868, Sunday (-28,168) Scottish composer Hamish McCunn was born in Greenock.

18 March 1868, Wednesday (-28,174)

14 March 1868, Saturday (-28,178) (Maritime) London�s Milwall Docks opened.

13 March 1868, Friday (-28,179) First impeachment trial of a US President. Andrew Johnson was accused of illegally removing a federal office holder. He was found not guilty and remained in office until the end of his term.

11 March 1868, Wednesday (-28,181) (Islam) Emir Talal of Arabia, suffering from an incurable illness, committed suicide.

======================================================================================

29 February 1868, Saturday (-28,192) (Germany) Ex-King Louis of Bavaria died in Munich, aged 81. Louis was a patron of the arts and his capital, Munich, was a centre of culture. Louis had an affair with an Irish dancer, Marie Gilbert (stage name Lola Montez). This affair provoked a revolution; Louis had to abdicate in 1848, and Marie died destitute in New York in 1861, aged 43.

25 February 1868, Tuesday (-28,196) (USA) Andrew Johnson, 17th US President 1865-69, was impeached.

22 February 1868, Saturday (-28,199) Ren Shields, US writer, was born in Chicago (died 25 October 1913 in Massapequa, New York)

21 February 1868, Friday (-28,200) The US House of representatives voted to impeach President Andrew Johnson.

20 February 1868, Thursday (-28,201)

18 February 1868, Tuesday (-28,203) In the USA, President Andrew Johnson dismissed Secretary of War Edwin M Stanton,and contravened a law requiring the Senate�s approval for dismissal of certain elected officials. Johnson was attempting to protect White supremacists in the South.

17 February 1868. Monday (-28,204) (Britain) Ill health caused the resignation of the Conservative Prime Minister Lord Derby. He was succeeded by Benjamin Disraeli on 29 February 1868.

14 February 1868, Friday (-28,207)

11 February 1868,