Chronography of events from 1 January 1830 to 31 December 1859

Page last modified 8/11/2022


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1/1/1860, Sunday (-31,173) Spanish General Juan Prim y Prats (1814-70) scored a major victory over Morocco, and captured Tetuan a month later.


28/12/1859, Wednesday (-31,177) Lord Macaulay, English Liberal MP, member of the Supreme Council of India 1834-38 and campaigner for the abolition of slavery, died.

26/12/1859, Monday (-31,179) Johann Hausmann, German mineralogist, died (born 22/12/1782).

22/12/1859, Thursday (-31,183) Jean Leber, French historical writer, died (born 8/5/1780).

21/12/1859, Wednesday (-31,184) Gustave Kahn, French poet, was born.

19/12/1859, Monday (-31,186)

16/12/1859, Friday (-31,189) Wilhelm Grimm, co-author with his brother Jacob of fairy tales, died in Berlin.

15/12/1859, Thursday (-31,190) Ludwig Zimenof, Polish linguist who created the artificial language Esperanto, was born in Bialystock.

8/12/1859, Thursday, (-31,197) Thomas de Quincy, English author, died (born 15/8/1785).

5/12/1859, Monday (-31,200) Admiral Jellicoe, British naval commander, was born in Southampton, son of a sea captain.

2/12/1859, Friday (-31,203) John Brown, American anti-slavery campaigner, was hanged for treason at Charlestown, West Virginia. In 1856 Brown and his sons murdered five pro-slavery settlers in a raid on Kansas. He wanted to found a republic in the Appalachians for runaway slaves and abolitionists. On 16/10/1859 Brown and 21 armed men attacked Harpers Ferry, seized the federal arsenal and occupied the town. Federal troops under General Lee recaptured the town; wounding Brown and killing 10 of his men. In the north of the USA Brown was hailed as a martyr but the south saw him as a traitor.


28/11/1859, Monday (-31,207) Washington Irvine, US writer, died (born 3/4/1783).

25/11/1859, Friday (-31,210) The London Irish Volunteer Rifles was formed.

24/11/1859. Thursday (-31,211) Charles Darwin, born 12/2/1809, published The Origin of the Species.

23/11/1859, Wednesday (-31,212) Billy the Kid, or William Bonney, was shot dead by Sheriff Pat Garrett.

22/11/1859, Tuesday (-31,213) Cecil James Sharp, British author, was born in London (died 23/6/1924 in London)

20/11/1859, Sunday (-31,215) Mountstuart Elphinstone, Indian statesman, died (born 1779).

12/11/1859, Saturday (-31,223) French acrobat Jules Leotard performed the first circus trapeze act at the Cirque Napoleon, Paris, wearing the famous costume named after him.

11/11/1859. Friday (-31,224) The city of Buenos Aires, which broke away from the Argentine Federation in 1853, was compelled to rejoin today.

10/11/1859, Thursday (-31,225) A peace treaty signed at Zurich ended the war between France, allied to Piedmont, and Austria. The effects of the treaty were crucial in the unification of Italy. Under its terms, Lombardy passed from Austria to Piedmont, with the exception of the Quadrilateral forts (see 24/6/1859) which were retained by Austria. Piedmont compensated France 60 million lire for the cost of the war with Austria. Plebiscites were held in various territories to determine which State they would join.

7/11/1859, Monday (-31,228) The railway from Cannock to Rugeley opened.


23/10/1859, Sunday (-31,243) President Justo Jose de Urquiza decided to use force against Bartolome Mitre, leader of independent Buenos Aires (see 1854). This day Urquiza was victorious at the Battle of Cepeda, against Mitre.

22/10/1859, Saturday (-31,244) Spain declared war on Morocco, after Muslim attacks on the Spanish enclave of Ceuta. The Spanish Prime Minister, Leopoldo O�Donnell (1809-67) used the pretext of damages suffered by Spanish citizens in Ceuta, which he alleged that the Moroccan Sultan had failed to offer compensation for. O�Donnell took charge of the war, adssembling a large 40,000-strong army, but his battle plans were flawed. He landed his army at disadvantageous locations, became bogged down by the use of poor roads, and suffered losses from cholera. However see 1/1/1860.

20/10/1859, Thursday (-31,246) John Dewey, US educator, was born in Burlington, Vermont.

16/10/1859, Sunday (-31,250) John Brown, American slavery abolitionist, with 21 followers, seized the US armoury at Harper�s Ferry.He was later hanged for this, see 2/12/1859.

12/10/1859, Wednesday (-31,254) Robert Stephenson, English railway and civil engineer, died in London.

9/10/1859, Sunday (-31,257) Alfred Dreyfus, French army office noted for the �Dreyfus Treason Affair�, was born in Alsace to Jewish parents.

5/10/1859, Wednesday (-31,261) Henry Prince of Battenberg was born (died 20/1/1896).

4/10/1859, Tuesday (-31,262) Death of German publisher Karl Baedeker, whose travel guides became famous.

3/10/1859, Monday (-31,263) John Mason, US politician, died (born 18/4/1799).

1/10/1859, Saturday (-31,265) John James, English religious writer, died (born 6/6/1785).


24/9/1859, Saturday (-31,272)

17/9/1859, Saturday (-31,279) Frank Adams, Canadian geologist (died 29/12/1942) was born.

16/9/1859, Friday (-31,280) Lake Nyasa was discovered by David Livingstone.

15/9/1859. Thursday (-31,281) Railway engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel died at Westminster. He was born on 9/4/1806, in Portsmouth.

6/9/1859, Tuesday (-31,290)

3/9/1859, Saturday (-31,293) Jean Jaures, French Socialist leader, was born.

2/9/1859, Friday (-31,294) (Space) The Carrington Event. A massive solar flare hit the Earth, causing the Aurora to be seen as far south as the Caribbean, and as far north as Santiago, Chile. Telegraph lines and machines were disrupted by the energy surge. The event is named after amateur astronomer Richard Carrington, who first spotted the solar flare.


31/8/1859, Wednesday (-31,296) The Cambrian Railways line from Newtown to Llanidloes, Wales, opened to passengers.

28/8/1859, Sunday (-31,299) James Hunt, English writer, died (born 19/10/1784).

27/8/1859. Saturday (-31,300) The world�s first oil well was drilled at Titusville, Pennsylvania, by Edwin Drake of Seneca Oil. Oil had been known in this area for 300 years. It used to seep from the ground and was used for curing many ailments from blindness to rheumatism, colds, coughs, sprains, and baldness. It was also skimmed from creeks and used for lighting, although it gave off a foul smell when burned. Chemists turned the oil into a better lighting fuel. Drake drilled down 69 feet and got a steady flow of 25 barrels a day from his well. By the end of the year the well once called �Drake�s Folly� had produced 2,000 barrels, and other prospectors joined in the search for more oil.

23/8/1859, Tuesday (-31,304) The first hotel elevator was installed in the 6 storey building of Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York.

2/8/1859, Tuesday (-31,325) Horace Mann, US educatiuonalist writer, died (born 4/5/1796).


30/7/1859, Saturday (-31,328) Henry Lunn, champion skier, was born (died 18/3/1939).

28/7/1859, Thursday (-31,330) Mary Anderson, US actress, was born in Sacramento, California.

17/7/1859, Sunday (-31,341) Luis Munoz Rivera was born. He made great efforts in securing autonomy for Puerto Rico, first from Spain and then from the USA.

14/7/1859, Thursday (-31,344) Petrus Borel, French writer, was born in Lyons (died in Algeria 14/7/1859).

13/7/1859, Wednesday (-31,345) Rufus Choate, US lawyer, died (born 1/10/1799).

12/7/1859. Tuesday (-31,346) (1) William Goodale patented the paper bag manufacturing machine.

(2) Robert Stephenson, engineer, died.

11/7/1859, Monday (-31,347) Big Ben, Westminster, first starting chiming the hours.

10/7/1859, Sunday (-31,348) The Treaty of Villafranca was signed, see 24/6/1859. The war between France (allied with Piedmont) and Austria was finally concluded by the peace treaty signed at Zurich on 10/11/1859.

8/7/1859, Friday (-31,350) King Oskar I of Sweden died aged 60 after a 15-year reign. He was succeeded by his 33-year-old son who reigned as Charles XV until 1872.

6/7/1859, Wednesday (-31,352) Queensland, Australia, was formed into a separate colony.

5/7/1859, Tuesday (-31,353) Charles Cagniard de la Tour, French inventor, died (born 31/3/1777).

3/7/1859, Sunday (-31,355)

1/7/1859, Friday (-31,357) (1) The port city of Nagasaki was opened to foreign commerce, according to the provisions of the Treaty of Edo.

(2) The first mail was transported by balloon. John Wise and three others piloted their machine the 812 miles between St Louis, Missouri, and Henderson, New York State, in 19 hours and 40 minutes.


30/6/1859, Thursday (-31,358) The great tightrope walker, Charles Blondin, crossed Niagara Falls in eight minutes.He traversed a rope 1100 feet long, 160 feet above the water.This was the first crossing of Niagara on a tightrope.

28/6/1859, Tuesday (-31,360) The first dog show in the UK took place at Newcastle on Tyne Town Hall, with 60 entries split between two classes, Pointers and Setters.

24/6/1859, Friday (-31,364) At the Battle of Solferino, Lombardy, Italy, the French under Napoleon III allied to Piedmont defeated the Austrians. However the victory was costly for the French. Napoleon III knew that his armies must next face the Austrians at the �Quadrilateral�, the four fortresses of Legnano, Mantua, Peschiera and Verona, where the Austrians had retreated northwards to, and opposition to the French would increase in this region. Within France, the war against Austria was becoming unpopular as army casualties, and deaths from a typhus epidemic within the ranks, mounted. The war was expensive to France. There was also the question of what Britain might do, being opposed to the extension of French power in Italy. Prussia�s intentions, with its 400,000 strong army, were also uncertain. Therefore Napoleon, without consulting his Piedmont ally, signed the Treaty of Villafranca, see 10/7/1859.

18/6/1859, Saturday (-31,370) Lord Palmerston became Prime Minister.

12/6/1859, Sunday (-31,376) (Medical) Jacob Bell, pharmaceutical chemist, died (born in London 5/3/1810).

11/6/1859, Saturday (-31,377) Clemens Metternich, Austrian statesman, died.

7/6/1859, Tuesday (-31,381) David Cox, English painter, died (born 29/4/1783).

5/6/1859, Sunday (-31,383) (Newspapers) Gamaliel Bailey, US journalist, died (born in New Jersey 3/12/1807).

4/6/1859, Saturday (-31,384) Battle of Magenta; France defeated Austrian forces and captured Milan.

2/6/1859, Thursday (-31,386)


31/5/1859, Tuesday (-31,388) Big Ben on the Houses of Parliament started telling the time.

30/5/1859, Monday (-31,389) Battle of Palestro; Austria defeated by Piedmont.

22/5/1859. Sunday (-31,397) Ferdinand II, King of the Two Sicilies, died (born 12/1/1810).

20/5/1859, Friday (-31,399) Italian Wars of independence, Austria defeated by Piedmont.

19/5/1859, Thursday (-31,400) Dame Nellie Melba, Australian singer, was born.

18/5/1859, Wednesday (-31,401) (Geology) Geophysicist Harry Reid was born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He showed that earthquakes were caused when rocks either side of fault lines moved; previous theories suggested that the earthquakes caused the faults, not the other way round.

17/5/1859, Tuesday (-31,402)

16/5/1859, Monday (-31,403) Horace Hutchinson, golfer, was born (died 28/7/1932).

15/5/1859, Sunday (-31,404) Pierre Curie, French scientist, was born in Paris. He was the son of a physician.

12/5/1859, Thursday (-31,407) (Italy) France declared war on Austria, in the Piedmont War.

8/5/1859, Sunday (-31,411) (Italy) The Austrians were defeated by the Italians at Casale.

5/5/1859, Thursday (-31,414) Charles Leslie, English painter, died (born 19/10/1794).

4/5/1859, Wednesday (-31,415) The Cornwall railway opened through to Truro, making a through rail route from London to Penzance.

3/5/1859, Tuesday (-31,416) France declared war on Austria.

2/5/1859, Monday (-31,417) Jerome K Jerome, author, was born at Walsall.

1/5/1859, Sunday (-31,418)


30/4/1859, Saturday (-31,419) Sergei Aksakov, Russian writer (born 20/9/1791) died.

29/4/1859, Friday (-31,420) Dionysius Lardner, Irish scientific writer, died (born 3/4/1793).

28/4/1859, Thursday (-31,421)

27/4/1859, Wednesday (-31,422) George Doane, US religious writer, died (born 27/5/1799).

26/4/1859, Tuesday (-31,423) The Austro-Piedmontese war began. Piedmont was backed by France, who was more interested in weakening Austria than in the ambitions of Piedmont.

25/4/1859. Monday (-31,424) Construction of the 100 mile Suez Canal began. Constructed by both Egyptian and French companies, under the direction of Ferdinand de Lesseps, it opened on 17/11/1869. It was 163 km long and had a minimum width of 60 metres. In 2000, some 25,000 ships used this canal.

24/4/1859, Sunday (-31,425) Easter Sunday

23/4/1859, Saturday (-31,426) Austria issued an ultimatum to Piedmont to disarm. This followed an agreement between France and Piedmont to ally against Austria. This agreement was strengthening the power of Italy (see 14/1/1858) and was a significant threat to the southern flank of Austria. See also 3/5/1859.

22/4/1859, Friday (-31,427)

21/4/1859, Thursday (-31,428) Carl Nagelsbach, German scholarly writer, died (born 28/3/1806).

20/4/1859, Wednesday (-31,429) Charles Dicken�s novel A Tale of Two Cities was published.

14/4/1859, Thursday (-31,435) Sydney Morgan, British authoress, died.

11/4/1859, Monday (-31,438) In Mexico, Liberal forces under Santos Degollado were defeated by the Conservatives at Tacubaya.

8/4/1859, Friday (-31,435) Edmund Husserl, philosopher, was born.


26/3/1859, Saturday (-31,454) Alfred Edward Housmam, poet, was born.

22/3/1859, Tuesday (-31,458) Major earthquake at Quito, 5,000 killed.

10/3/1859, Thursday (-31,470) Kenneth Grahame, children�s writer, was born.

9/3/1959, Wednesday (-31,471) (Italy) Piedmont called up its reserve troops, to fight Austria.

7/3/1859, Monday (-31,473) The USA�s Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was upheld by the Supreme Court in the case of Ableman v. Booth, which reversed the Wisconsin Court ruling of 1854.

1/3/1859, Tuesday (-31,479) Kent County Cricket Club was founded at Maidstone.


27/2/1859, Sunday (-31,481) Friedrich Bleek, German scholar, died (born in Holstein 4/7/1793).

21/2/1859, Monday (-31,487) (1) Viscount Palmerston left office as Prime Minister.

(2) George Lansbury, British Labour politician and party leader, was born near Lowestoft, Suffolk.

19/2/1859, Saturday (-31,489) Svante August Arrhenius, Swedish physicist and chemist, was born near Uppsala.

17/2/1859, Thursday (-31,491) French forces took Saigon, Vietnam.

15/2/1859, Tuesday (-31,493) (Britain) Frederick William Hervey, Fifth Earl of Bristol, died (born 2/10/1769).

14/2/1859, Monday (-31,494) (1) Oregon became the 33rd state of the USA.

(2) The railway reached St Joseph, Missouri River, USA.

13/2/1859, Sunday (-31,495) Sir Edward Walter founded the Corps of Commissionaires for the employment of ex-soldiers.

10/2/1859, Thursday (-31,498) Ib the Ibdian Mutiny, General Horsford defeated the Begum of Oude and Nana Sahib.

5/2/1859, Saturday (-31,503) Alexander Cuza was nominated as Prince of Walachia by the Assembly at Bucharest See 17/1/1859. This united the two principalities with Cuza as Prince Alexander John I; however such a union was forbidden by the Congress of Paris (18/10/1858). The Sultan of Turkey did not recognise this Union until 23/12/1861, when the State of Romania was formally proclaimed.

1/2/1859, Tuesday (-31,507) Victor Herbert, cellist and conductor, was born.


27/1/1859, Thursday (-31,512) Kaiser Wilhelm II was born in Potsdam, near Berlin. He was the son of the German Emperor and the grandson of Queen Victoria.

21/1/1859, Friday (-31,518) Henry Hallam, English historical writer, died (born 21/1/1859).

20/1/1859, Thursday (-31,519) Elisabeth Arnim, German authoress, died in Berlin (born 4/4/1785 in Frankfort am Main).

17/1/1859, Monday (-31,522) Alexander Cuza was nominated as Prince of Moldavia by the Assembly at Jassy. See 5/2/1859.

11/1/1859, Tuesday (-31,528) George Curzon, English statesman, was born.

9/1/1859, Sunday (-31,530) Carrie Chapman, suffragette, was born.

6/1/1859, Thursday (-31,533) Henry E Dixey, US actor, was born in Boston (died 25/2/1943)

1/1/1859, Saturday (-31,538) (Italy) French Emperor Napoleon III warned the Austrian Ambassador of possible French military action against Austria, in the Piedmont War.


25/12/1858, Saturday (-31,545) James Gadsden, US diplomat, died (born 15/5/1788).

23/12/1858, Serbian Prince Alesandr Karageorgevic was deposed, aged 52, after a weak 16-year reign. He was succeeded by 79-year-old Milos Obrenovoc, who had been deposed in 1839, amd now ruled until his death in 1860.

22/12/1858, Wednesday (-31,548) Composer Puccini was born in Lucca, Italy.

20/12/1858, Monday (-31,550)

17/12/1858, Friday (-31,553) The Geologists Association, London was formed. The newly constructed railway cuttings and tunnels had stimulated the science.

16/12/1858, Thursday (-31,554) (Medical) Physician Richard Bright died in London, England.

13/12/1858, Monday (-31,557)

10/12/1858, Friday (-31,560) (Italy) Having obtained Russian approval, Napoleon III of France signed a scecret treaty of support with Count Cavour, PM of Piedmont.

9/12/1858, Thursday (-31,561) (Canada) Robert Baldwin, Canadian statesman, died; born in York (now Toronto), 12/5/1804

3/12/1858, Friday (-31,567) Joseph Durocher, French geologist, died (born 31/5/1817).


25/11/1858, Thursday (-31,575) Alfred Capus, French author, was born.

24/11/1858, Wednesday (-31,576) (Railways-social, Britain) A legal case in Dorset caused the UK Parliament to standardise time to GMT across the country. A judge in a land case in Dorset ruled against a man who had failed to turn up for a 10.00 am case, at 10.06. Two minutes later he turned up and claimed he was on time, by the station clock of his home town, Carlisle in Cumbria. At that time all towns set their clocks by their own, local, noon, meaning accurate rail timetables were problematic. By 1850 the rail companies all used London time, adding to confusion as provincial clocks often had two minute hands, one for local time, one for London time. The case was re-tried, and in 1880 Parliament ordered the entire country to keep Greenwich Mean Time.

23/11/1858, Tuesday (-31,577) The General Medical Council held its first meeting in London.

16/11/1858, Tuesday (-31,584)

11/11/1858, Thursday (-31,589) Alessandro Moreschi, last castrato singer, died.

9/11/1858, Tuesday (-31,591) The New York Symphony Orchestra gave its first concert.

8/11/1858, Monday (-31,592) (Mathematics) George Peacock, mathematician, died in Ely, England

4/11/1858, Thursday (-31,596) Francis Benson, English actor, was born in Tunbridge Wells.

1/11/1858, Monday (-31,599) Queen Victoria was proclaimed ruler of India. The East India Company, formed in 1600 to exploit trade with the East, but accused of imperial abuse from the early 1700s, was abolished and administration of India was transferred to the British crown. Misconduct by the East India Company had been partially curbed by the Regulating Act (1773) and Pitt�s India Act (1784). The Indian Mutiny broke the Company�s power, British influence being totally regained with the conquest of Lucknow in March 1858.


27/10/1858, Wednesday (-31,604) Theodore Roosevelt, American Republican and 26th President, was born in New York City, the son of a port officer. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end the Russo-Japanese war.

13/10/1858, Wednesday (-31,618) John Brown, Scottish religious writer, died (born 12/7/1784).

12/10/1858, Tuesday (-31,619) Painter Ando Hiroshige died in Edo, Japan, aged 61.

7/10/1858, Thursday (-31,624) Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia was certified insane, and his brother, 61-year-old Wilhelm, was made Regent.


24/9/1858, Friday (-31,637) Allan Steel, cricketer, was born (died 15/6/1914).

16/9/1858, Thursday (-31,645) Andrew Bonar Law, UK Prime Minister, was born.

12/9/1858, Sunday (-31,649) Fernand Khnopff, Belgian painter, was born.

9/9/1958, Thursday (-31,652) Walter George, athlete, was born (died 4/6/1943).

1/9/1858, Wednesday (-31,660) (Chemistry) Karl Auer, later Baron von Welsbach, was born in Vienna, Austria. In 1885 he discovered that what was thought to be one chemical element was in fact two. He named these neodymium (�new twin) and praseodymium (�green twin�) for the colour of its spectrum.


31/8/1858, Tuesday (-31,661) (Vietnam) French forces under Admiral Rigault de Genouilly attacked the Vietnamese city of Tourane, to use it as a military base. The city fell to the French on 2/9/1858.

14/8/1858, Saturday (-31,678) George Combe, Scottish phrenologist, died (born 21/10/1788)

11/8/1858, Wednesday (-31,681) The summit of the Eiger, in the Swiss Alps, was reached for the first time, by Charles Barrington of Bray, Ireland.

7/8/1858, Saturday (-31,685) (Canada) Ottawa was selected as capital of Canada.

5/8/1858, Thursday (-31,687) The first transatlantic cable was completed, by Sir Charles Tilston Bright (1832 � 1888), and opened by Queen Victoria and President Buchanan. See 7/9/1866.

4/8/1858, Wednesday (-31,688) Liberal forces in Mexico, outgunned by the Conservatives who were supported by the church and the wealthy, established a capital at the Mexican port of Vera Cruz. The US Government favoured the Liberal faction.

3/8/1858, Tuesday (-31,689) John Speke, 31, English explorer, discovered Lake Victoria, source of the Nile.

2/8/1858, Monday (-31,690) (1) The Government of India transferred the East India Company to the British Government.

(2) British Columbia was constituted a British Colony; it became part of the Dominion of Canada in 1871.

(3) Under the Medical Act, UK doctors were now required to be registered.


31/7/1858, Saturday (-31,692)

30/7/1858, Friday (-31,693) Charles Bambridge, English footballer, was born (died 8/11/1935).

29/7/1858, Thursday (-31,694) The Treaty of Edo was signed between Japan and the USA. This extended US trading rights gained under the Treaty of Kanagawa (1854) and further opened up Japan to Western influence.

28/7/1858. Wednesday (-31,695) The first use of fingerprinting. William Herschel, a British civil servant in India, took the entire palm print of a Bengali hired to surface roads, to ensure that he did not back out of the contract.

26/7/1858, Monday (-31,697) Thomas William Garrett, cricketer for Australia, was born in Wollongong, New South Wales (died 6/8/1943 in Sydney).

23/7/1858, Friday (-31,700) In Britain, the Oath of Allegiance was modified so as to allow Jews to sit in Parliament.

21/7/1858, Wednesday (-31,702) Maria Christina, Queen-Regent of Spain, widow of Alphonso XII and mother of Alphonso XIII, was born.

14/7/1858, Wednesday (-31,709) The suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst was born in Manchester, as Emmeline Goulden.

13/7/1858, Tuesday (-31,710) US anthropologist Robert Culin was born in Philadelphia (died 8/4/1929)

12/7/1858, Monday (-31,711)

10/7/1858, Saturday (-31,713) (France, Italy) Napoleon III of France secretly met Count Cavour at Plombieres. The two agreed to jointly attack Austria.

9/7/1858, Friday (-31,714) Framz Boaz, anthropologist, was born,

7/7/1858, Wednesday (-31,716) (Communications) Work began on laying the first transatlantic cable.

2/7/1858. Friday (-31,721) Czar Alexander II of Russia ordered all serfs working on imperial land to be freed.

1/7/1858. Thursday (-31,722) Charles Darwin first presented his theory of evolution, to the Linnean Society.


29/6/1858, Tuesday (-31,724) The Treaty of Tientsin ended the Anglo-Chinese War. China agreed to open up more ports to trade.

24/6/1858, Thursday (-31,729) Jean Laguerre, French politician, was born.

19/6/1858, Saturday (-31,734) George Alexander, English actor, was born in Reading.

18/6/1858, Friday (-31,735) Charles Darwin received a letter from Alfred Russell Wallace, who had formulated a theory of evolution through survival of the fittest. This was close to Darwin�s ideas in his as yet unpublished Origin of the Species.

17/6/1858, Thursday (-31,736)

16/6/1858, Wednesday (-31,737) (1) In a speech at Springfield, Illinois, US Senate candidate Abraham Lincoln said the slavery issue had to be addressed. He declared �a house divided against itself cannot stand�.

(2) Gustav V, King of Sweden from 1907 to 1950, was born the son of Oscar II.

15/6/1858, Tuesday (-31,738) Christians were massacred in Jeddah.

12/6/1858, Saturday (-31,241) Sir Henry Johnston, British colonial administrator, was born.

10/6/1858, Thursday (-31,243) (Biology) Robert Brown, botanist, died (born 21/12/1773)

3/6/1858, Thursday (-31,750) Edward Moxon, British poet, died.

2/6/1858, Wednesday (-31,751) G B Donati, Italian astronomer, discovered the comet now named after him.


28/5/1858, Friday (-31,756) Russia under Czar Alexander II acquired from China large swathes of territory, over which they generally already had de facto control. These included land to the north of the Amur River and east of thye Ussuri River, to the Pacific coast, also land between Lake Baikal and the present-day frontier woth western Choina and the NW Mongolian frontier. Russia was exploiting the weakness of the Chinese State at the time, with both Eng;land and France waging war against it. This was the Treaty of Aigun. It was signed by a local Chinese Commander, in the city of Aigun, locsate edon the Amur River. However the Manchu Dynasty refused to recognise this Treaty. Then, further incursions into China by the English and French, even to the looting of the Forbidden City, also the Taiping Rebellion, gave China little choice but to sign the Treaty of Peking, on 14/11/1860, affirming the transfer of territories form China to Russia.

17/5/1858, Monday (-31,767) Ebenezer Henderson, Scottish religious writer, died (born 17/11/1784).

11/5/1858, Tuesday (-31,773) Minnesota became the 32nd state of the USA.

8/5/1858, Saturday (-31,776) Heinrich Berte, Hungarian composer, was born in Galgocz (died 25/8/1924 in Vienna)

4/5/1858, Tuesday (-31,780) Aime Bonpland, botanist, died (born in La Rochelle 22/8/1773).

3/5/1858, Monday (-31,781) Julien Brizeux, poet, died (born 12/9/1803)


28/4/1858, Wednesday (-31,786) Johannes Muller, German anatomist, died.

24/4/1858, Saturday (-31,790) William Gregory, chemistry writer, died (born 25/12/1803).

23/4/1858, Friday (-31,791) Frank Osmond Carr, British composer, was born in Uxbridge (died 29/8/1916 in Uxbridge)

20/4/1858, Tuesday (-31,764)

17/4/1858, Saturday (-31,797) James Dunfermline, British statesman, died (born 7/11/1776).

16/4/1858, Friday (-31,798) Johann Cramer, English composer, died (born 24/2/1771).

10/4/1858, Saturday (-31,804) Big Ben, the bell inside the famous Westminster clock, was cast in Whitechapel, London. The bell, weighing 13 � tons, was named after Sir Benjamin Hall, Commissioner for Works, who was a large tall man nicknamed �Big Ben�.

7/4/1858, Wednesday (-31,807) Davis Dewey, US economics writer, was born.

6/4/1858, Tuesday (-31,808) Charles Bennett, US scholarly writer, was born in Providence, Rhode Island.

4/4/1858, Sunday (-31,810) Easter Sunday


31/3/1858, Wednesday (-31,814) China gave in to British and French demands for trade concessions.

30/3/1858, Tuesday (-31,815) William de Wolf Hopper, US actor, was born in New York (died in Kansas City, Missouri, 23/9/1935)

20/3/1858, Saturday (-31,825) Johannes Gossner, German preacher and philanthropist, died (born 14/12/1773).

18/3/1858, Thursday (-31,827) Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the diesel engine, was born in Paris.

16/3/1858, Tuesday (-31,829) Christian Nees von Esenbeck, botanical writer, died (born 14/2/1776).

13/3/1858, Saturday (-31,832) Felice Orsini, Italian revolutionary, was executed for his part in the assassination attempt on Napoleon III in Paris.

11/3/1858, Thursday (-31,834) (India) William Hodson, British cavalry leader, was killed during the attack on Begum Kotee, Lucknow.


21/2/1858. Sunday (-31,852) (1) The first electric burglar alarm was installed by Edwin T Holmes of Boston Massachusetts.

(2) Corinth, Greece, was destroyed by an earthquake.

16/2/1858, Tuesday (-31,857) Georg Creuzer, German historical writer, died (born 10/3/1771).

14/2/1858, Sunday (-31,859) Carl Marr, US artist, was born.

11/2/1858. Thursday (-31,862) At Lourdes, a 14 year old peasant girl, Bernadette Soubirous, claimed to have seen a vision of a lady surrounded by light in a grotto.

1/2/1858, Monday (-31,872) (Aviation) Englishman William Dean made the first balloon ascent in Australia, flying for seven miles over Melbourne.


31/1/1858, Sunday (-31,873) The liner Great Eastern, 692 feet long, with five funnels, built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel and John Scott Russell, was launched at Millwall Docks, London, three months behind schedule.

30/1/1858, Saturday (-31,874) The Halle Opera in Manchester, England, gave its first public concert.

28/1/1858, Thursday (-31,876) Herbert Adams, US sculptor (died 21/5/.1945) was born.

25/1/1858, Monday (-31,879) �The Wedding March�, by Felix Mendelssohn, became popular at weddings after it was played at the marriage of Queen Victoria�s daughter, Victoria, to Friedrich of Prussia.

24/1/1858, Sunday (-31,880) Constance Naden, English author, was born (died 23/12/1889).

23/1/1858, Saturday (-31,881) Luigi Lablache, French-Italian singer, died (born 6/12/1794).

22/1/1858, Friday (-31,882) Beatrice Webb, founder member of the Fabian Society, was born.

19/1/1858, Tuesday (-31,885) Eugene Brieux, French dramatist, was born.

14/1/1858, Thursday (-31,890) An Italian assassin threw a bomb at French Emperor Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie as they drove to the Paris Opera. The bomb, thrown by Felici Orsini, missed its target but killed eight bystanders and injured 100. Orsini planned the attack in London, causing anti-British sentiment in France. Napoleon III, now convinced of the magnitude of nationalist sentiment in Italy, invited Count Cavour to the spa town of Plombieres in the Vosges Mountains where the Plombieres Agreement of July 1858 was worked out. This Agreement provided that Piedmont would provide 100,000 men along with 200,000 French to fight Austria. After victory against Austria, three kingdoms would be set up in Italy. Northern Italy would include Lombardy, Romagna, Sardinia and Venetia. Central Italy would include Tuscany and the Duchy of Parma; the Papal lands however would continue under the rule of the Pope. Thirdly, southern Italy, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, would be ruled by Luciano Murat, if its current ruler, Ferdinand II, abdicated. A secret agreement of 24/1/1859 between France and Piedmont provided that both would respect the sovereignty of the Pope.

12/1/1858, Tuesday (-31,892) Robert Crewe, English statesman, was born.

5/1/1858, Tuesday (-31,899) Joseph Radedtsky, Austrian Field-Marshal and national hero, died in Milan aged 91.

1/1/1858, Friday (-31,903) (Britain) John Britton, English antiquary died (born 7/7/1771).


9/12/1857, Wednesday (-31,926) Edgar Smith, US actor, was born in Brooklyn, New York (died 2/1/1936 in Atlantic City, New Jersey)

6/12/1857, Sunday (-31,929)

3/12/1857, Thursday (-31,932) Joseph Conrad, writer, was born.


30/11/1857, Monday (-31,935) Bobby Abel, cricketer, was born (died 10/12/1936).

26/11/1857, Thursday (-31,939) The Legislative Assembly in Victoria, Australia, proclaimed universalmale suffrage, the first in Australia.

25/11/1857, Wednesday (-31,940) (Race Equality) Anti-slavery campaigner James Birney died in Perth Amboy, New Jersey (born in Danville, Kentucky 4/2/1792).

24/11/1857, Tuesday (-31,941) (India) Sir Henry Havelock, British soldier, died in India.

22/11/1857, Sunday (-31,943) George Gissing, English novelist, was born (died 28/12/1903).

19/11/1857, Thursday (-31,946) Albert Harkness, US scholarly writer, was born.

2/11/1857, Monday (-31,963) Paul Hervieu, French novelist, was born,


28/10/1857, Wednesday (-31,968) Louis Cavaignac, French General, died (born 15/10/1802)

24/10/1857, Saturday (-31,972) A group of Cambridge University Old Boys formed the first Football Club, in Sheffield.

10/10/1857, Saturday (-31,986) The Nationalist Irish Republican Brotherhood, whose members were known as Fenians, was founded in New York. Its aim was the ending of British rule in Itreland.

7/10/1857, Wednesday (-31,989) Louis McLane, US politician, died (born 28/5/1786).

1/10/1857, Thursday (-31,995) Marjorie Kennedy-Fraser, Scottish composer, was born in Perth (died 22/11/1930 in Edinburgh)


25/9/1857, Friday (-32,001) The British lifted the siege of Lucknow, ending the Indian Mutiny.

22/9/1857, Tuesday (-32,004) Daniele Manin, Venetian statesman, died (born 13/5/1804).

20/9/1857, Sunday (-32,006) The British recaptured Delhi from Indian mutineers.

17/9/1857, Thursday (-32,009) (Space Exploration) Russian physicist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was born in Izhevsk. In 1985 he proposed the use of liquid-fuelled rockets to propel vehicles into space.

16/9/1857, Wednesday (-32,010) The tune Jingle Bells by James Pierpoint was copyrighted under its original title One Horse Open Sleigh. In 1965 it became the first song to be broadcast from space.

15/9/1857, Tuesday (-32,011) William Howard Taft, American Republican and 27th President, was born in Cincinnati.

13/9/1857, Sunday (-32,013) Birth of William Snaveley Hershey, US chocolate manufacturer who built the world�s largest chocolate factory. He also established the Hershey Foundation, to promote education.

11/9/1858, Friday (-32,015) The Mountain Meadows Massacre in Utah. 135 migrants on the Fancher wagon train were ambushed, and nearly all killed, by Pahute Indians; however the Indians were acting under instructions from the Mormon leader, Brigham Young.

8/9/1857, Tuesday (-32,018) Jean Boissonade, French scholarly writer, died (born in Paris 12/8/1774).

6/9/1857, Sunday (-32,020) (Science) Johann Salomo Schweigger, physicist, died in Halle, Germany

5/9/1857, Saturday (-32,021) Auguste Comte, French philosopher and sociologist, founder of Positivism, died.


30/8/1857, Sunday (-32,027) The first railway in Argentina opened, Parque to Floresta.

27/8/1857, Thursday (-32,030) Rufus Griswold, US writer, died (born 15/2/1815).

19/8/1857, Wednesday (-32,038) Edgar D�Abernon, British diplomat, was born.

18/8/1857, Tuesday (-32,039) Work began on the 7.5 mile Mont Cenis rail tunnel under the Alps, linking France and Italy.

12/8/1857, Wednesday (-32,045) Sir John Coode, geologist, died (born 7/6/1787)

10/8/1857, Monday (-32,047) John Croker, British author, died (born 20/12/1780).

5/8/1857, Wednesday (-32,052) Charles Blomfield, English cleric, died (born in Bury St Edmunds 29/5/1786).


29/7/1857, Wednesday (-32,059) Thomas Dick, Scottish writer on astronomy, died (born 24/11/1774).

25/7/1857, Saturday (-32,063) Nathaniel Goodwin, US actor, was born.

17/7/1857, Friday (-32,071) In Spain, education for all children aged from 6 to 9 became compulsory.

16/7/1857, Thursday (-32,072) Pierre Beranger, French songwriter, died (born in Paris 19/8/1780).

15/7/1857, Wednesday (-32,073) Karl Czerny, Austrian composer, died (born 21/2/1791).

11/7/1857, Saturday (-32,077) Alfred Binet, psychologist who invented the IQ test, was born.

9/7/1857, Thursday (-32,079) Robert Blum, US artist, was born in Cincinnatti, Ohio, (died in New York City 8/6/1903).

4/7/1857, Saturday (-32,084) Sir Henry Lawrence, British colonial administrator in India, died (born 28/6/1806).

2/7/1857, Thursday (-32,086) The siege of Lucknow began.

1/7/1857, Wednesday (-32,087) The Leicester to Hitchin railway opened, enabling Midland Railway trains to reach London on the Great Northern line to Kings Cross.


26/6/1857, Friday (-32,092) The first investiture ceremony of Victoria Crosses took place, in Hyde Park. 67 servicemen were awarded.

8/6/1857, Monday (-32,110) Douglas Jerrold, English writer, died (born 3/1/1803).

4/6/1857, Thursday (-32,114) In the Indian Mutiny, the British garrison of Kanpur (Cawnpore) in Uttar Pradesh, northern India, came under siege by Indian rebels against British rule. After a three-week siege the British, under Sir Hugh Wheeler, were promised safe passage to Allahabad, on thatched barges. However as they departed the barges were fired upon, and set ablaze. The survivors were transferred to a house called the Bibighar, where they were massacred on 15/7/1857 by Indian rebels. 197 died.

2/6/1857, Tuesday (-32,116) Sir Edward Elgar, British composer, was born in Broadheath, near Worcester, the son of a music seller and organist.


31/5/1857, Sunday (-32,118) Pope Pius XI was born.

30/5/1857, Saturday (-31,119) Anti-British mutiny at Oudh, India.

28/5/1857, Thursday (-32,121) Jean Hyde de Neuville, French politician, died (born 24/1/1776).

24/5/1857, Sunday (-32,125) Richard Mansfield, US actor, was born (died 30/8/1907).

23/5/1857, Saturday (-32,126) Augustin Cauchy, mathematician, died (born 21/8/1789)

12/5/1857, Tuesday (-32,137) The New York Infirmary for Women and Children opened in New York.

10/5/1857. Sunday (-32,139) Outbreak of the Indian (Sepoy) Mutiny in Meerat. On 6/5/1857, 85 men of the 90-strong 3rd Cavalry Regiment in Meerut had refused to bite off the greased and of the new cartridges for Lee Enfield rifles, which they claimed contained both pig and cow fat, so offending both Muslims and Hindus. The British had 24 hours warning of the mutiny but refused to take the threat seriously. The Indian mutineers seized Delhi on 11/5/1857.

2/5/1857, Saturday (-32,147) French inventor Felix du Temple patented designs for an aircraft with a retractable undercarriage.

1/5/1857, Friday (-32,148) (Nicaragua) Nicaraguan President William Walker surrendered to the US Navy. He was wanted for confiscating railway property in Nicaragua belonging to a company owned by Cornelius Vanderbilt. Eventually he was executed by the USA in 1860.


27/4/1857, Monday (-32,152) The Longchamps horseracing track opened in the Bois de Bolougne, Paris.

22/4/1857, Wednesday (-32,157) The Parliament in South Australia first opened.

21/4/1857, Tuesday (-32,158) Paul Dresser, US composer, was born in Terre Haute, Indiana (died 30/11906 in New York)

20/4/1857, Monday (-32,159) West African Muslim leader Al Hajj Uman besieged the French fort at Medine, Senegal.

18/4/1857, Saturday (-32,161) Clarence Darrow, US attorney famous for h9s part in the Scopes �Monkey Trial�, was born.

12/4/1857, Sunday (-32,167) Easter Sunday

11/4/1857, Saturday (-32,168) John Davidson, British writer, was born (died 23/3/1909).

5/4/1857, Sunday (-32,174) (Bulgaria) Alexander of Battenberg, First Prince of Bulgaria, was born (died 23/10/1893).

1/4/1857, Wednesday (-32,178) (Railways) The railway from Charleston to Memphis, USA, opened.


26/3/1857, Thursday (-32,184) John Kemble, English scholarly writer, died.

23/3/1857, Monday (-32,187) The first passenger lift was installed in a department store, in the 5-storey building of E V Haughwout and Co on Broadway, New York. The elevator system cost US$ 300.

21/3/1857, Saturday (-32,189) (Earthquake) Earthquake in Japan killed 107,000.

20/3/1857, Friday (-32,190) (Geology) Ours Dufrenoy, French geologist, died (born 5/9/1792).

16/3/1857, Monday (-32,194) Charles Firth, British historical writer, was born.

8/3/1857, Sunday (-32,202) In revenge for the killing of several Sioux by a White trader, a band of Sioux under Chief Inkpaduta this day raided a newly built White settlement near Spirit Lake, northwestern Iowa. They killed 32 people and took 4 mpore captive. The Sioux were pursued by troops from Fort Ridgeley, Minnesota, but they failed to catch them.

7/3/1857, Saturday (-32,203) (Medical) Julius Wagner von Jauregg was born in Wels, Austria. In 1927 he was awarded the Nobel prize for his treatment of some forms of paralysis using malaria inoculation to induce the fever.

6/3/1857, Friday (-32,204) The United States Supreme Court, in the Dredd Scott Decision, decreed seven to two that 1) it was unconstitutional for Congress to outlaw slavery in the United States, and 2) that no slave could claim US citizenship. Dredd Scott was a slave owned by Elizabeth Blow of Missouri (a slave State), who was subsequently sold to John Emerson, an army surgeon who took Scott to the free State of Illinois, and later to Wisconsin Territory, where slavery was outlawed by the Missouri Compromise of 1820. In 1838 Emerson took Scott back to Missouri. Scott was in fact set free by his Abolitionist �owners�. The Dredd Scott Decision only served to inflame the slave/Abolitionist dispute further and probably hastened on the US Civil War.

5/3/1857, Thursday (-32,205)

4/3/1857, Wednesday (-32,206) By the Treaty of Paris, Afghanistan�s independence was recognised by Britain and France, and forced upon Persia.

3/3/1857, Tuesday (-32,207) Britain and France declared war on China, using the killing of a missionary as a pretext.


28/2/1857. Saturday (-32,210) British and French troops ended their occupation of Piraeus, which began on 26/5/1854.

24/2/1857, Tuesday (-32,214) The first shipment of perforated postage stamps was received by the US Government.

22/2/1857, Sunday (-32,216) Robert Baden-Powell, British army officer and founder of the Boy Scouts movement in 1908, was born in London, the son of an Oxford Professor.

18/2/1857, Wednesday (-32,220) Francis Ellesmere, English politician, died (born 1/1/1800).

16/2/1857, Monday (-32,222) Elisha Kane, US hgeographical writer, died.

12/2/1857, Thursday (-32,226) Robert Peel, cricketer, was born (died 12/8/1941).

7/2/1857, Saturday (-32,231) Alfred Lyttelton, cricketer, was born (died 5/7/1913).

2/2/1857, Monday (-32,236) Charles Davis, US landscape painter, was born.


24/1/1857, Saturday (-32,245) Calcutta (Kolkata) University was founded.

23/1/1857, Friday (-32,246) (Geology) Andrija Mohorovicic was born in Volosko, Yugoslavia. In 1909 he discovered the boundary in the Earth�s crust 30 km down where earthquake waves change. This Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the boundary between the crust and mantle.

20/1/1857, Tuesday (-32,249) The Wiltshire Somerset & Weymouth Railway was extended to Weymouth.

11/1/1857. Sunday (-32,258) Birth of Henry Gordon Selfridge, founder of Britain�s first large department store. Also on this day was born the champion jockey Fred Archer.

7/1/1857, Wednesday (-32,262) The London Central Omnibus Company began running a London bus service. See 30/8/1860.

1/1/1857, Thursday (-32,268)


28/12/1856, Sunday (-32,272) Woodrow Wilson, American Democrat and 28th President 1913-21, was born in Staunton, Virginia, the son of a Presbyterian Minister.

23/12/1856, Tuesday (-32,277) James Buchanan Duke, US industrialist, was born in Durham, North Carolina (died 10/10/1925 in New York).

22/12/1856, Monday (-32,278) Frank B Kellogg, US politician, was born.

18/12/1856, Thursday (-32,282) Sir Joseph John Thomson, discoverer of the electron, was born in Cheetham Hill near Manchester.He was the son of a bookseller.

13/12/1856, Saturday (-32,287) Abbott Lowell, US educationalist writer, was born.

8/12/1856, Monday (-32,292) (Alcohol) Theobald Mathew, Irish Temperance preacher, died (born 10/10/1790).

1/12/1856, Monday (-32,299) First railway in Sweden opened; Gothenburg to Jonsered and Malmo to Lund.


29/11/1856, Saturday (-32,301) (Cartography) Frederick Beechey, English explorer and cartographer, died (born in London 17/2/1796).

23/11/1856, Sunday (-32,307) Joseph Hammer-Purgstall, German orientalist writer, died (born 9/6/1774).

9/11/1856, Sunday (-32,321) John Clayton, US politician, died (born 24/7/1796).

4/11/1856, Tuesday (-32,326) Ernest Crosby, US writer, was born (died 1907).

3/11/1856, Monday (-32,327) Marcelino Menendez y Pelayo, Spanish scholarly writer, was born.

2/11/1856, Sunday (-32,328) Samuel Hoar, US lawyer, died (born 18/5/1778)

1/11/1856, Saturday (-32,329) Britain declared war on Persia, after Persia invaded Afghanistan to try and recover Herat. In 1/1857 Britain seized the port of Bushehr, and Persia sued for peace in 3/1857. Britain made no demands on Persia except that it withdraw from all Afghan territory.


31/10/1856, Friday (-32,330)

29/10/1856, Wednesday (-32,332) (Science) Paul Curie, physicist, was born.

28/10/1856, Tuesday (-32,333) First railway in Portugal opened; Lisbon to Carregado, 39 km.

27/10/1856, Monday (-32,334) Kenyon Cox, US painter, was born in Ohio.

24/10/1856, Friday (-32,337) Pieter Melvill van Carnbee, Dutch cartographer of the East Indies, died (born 20/5/1816).

12/10/1856, Sunday (-32,349) Richard Guyon, General in the Hungarian Revolutionary Army, died

9/10/1856, Thursday (-32,352) (Geology) Charles Beecher, UA palaeontologist, was born in Dunkirk, New York (died 14/2/1904).


28/9/1856, Sunday (-32,363) Franz Movers, German religious writer, died (born 17/7/1806).

24/9/1856, Wednesday (-32,367) Henry Hardinge, British colonial Governor-General of India, died (born 30/3/1785).

23/9/1856, Tuesday (-32,368) William Archer, English writer, was born in Perth.

20/9/1856, Saturday (-32,371) John Brown, Scottish writer, died (born 23/2/1817).

2/9/1856, Tuesday (-32,389) Jeremiah Jenks, US economist, was born.

1/9/1856, Monday (-32,390) The Frome to Yeovil railway opened.


27/8/1856, Wednesday (-32,395) The first Australian parliamentary election held by secret ballot took place in Victoria, Australia.

25/8/1856, Monday (-32,397) William Clarke, cricketer, died (born 24/12/1798)

24/8/1856, Sunday (-32,398) William Buckland, geologist, died (born 12/3/1784)

21/8/1856, Thursday (-32,401)

19/8/1856, Tuesday (-32,403) (Chemistry) Charles Frederic Gerhardt, chemist, died

18/8/1856, Monday (-32,404) Condensed milk was patented.

17/8/1856, Sunday (-32,405) Constant Prevost, French geologist, born 4/6/1787, died.

15/8/1856, Friday (-32,407) Kier Hardie, Labour leader, was born near Holytown, Lanarkshire.He helped found the Labour Party.

8/8/1856, Friday (-32,414) Thomas Guthrie, English novelist, was born.

7/8/1856, Thursday (-32,415) The Ayr to Dalmellington railway opened to passengers.

6/8/1858, Wednesday (-32,416)

4/8/1856, Monday (-32,418) Isaac Weld, Irish topographical writer, died (born 15/3/1774).

3/8/1856, Sunday (-32,419) London was divided into postal districts to speed up the mail delivery.

1/8/1856, Friday (-32,421)


31/7/1856, Thursday (-32,422) John Henry Hodges, cricketer for Australia, was born in Collingwood, Victoria (died 22/4/1899 in Sydney)

30/7/1856, Wednesday (-32,423) Viscount Richard Burdon Haldane (British Army) was born.

29/7/1856, Tuesday (-32,424) Robert Schumann, German composer, died in an asylum near Bonn.

26/7/1856, Saturday (-32,427) George Bernard Shaw, playwright, was born in Dublin. A failed novelist, he was 36 when his first play, Widower�s Houses, was performed.

12/7/1856, Saturday (-32,441) Natal was made a British colony.

10/7/1856, Thursday (-32,443) Nikola Tesla was born.His father, the Reverend Milutin Tesla, was a Greek Orthodox priest, and his mother Duka Mandic was the daughter of a priest who made handcraft tools.

9/7/1856, Wednesday (-32,444) (Science) Amedeo Avogadro, Count of Quarenga, died in Turin, Italy

2/7/1856, Wednesday (-32,451) Thomasine Gyllembourg, Danish writer, died (born 9/11/1773).


30/6/1856, Monday (-32,453) The Salisbury to Warminster railway opened.

22/6/1856, Sunday (-32,461) Henry Haggard, English novelist was born.

11/6/1856, Wednesday (-32,472) Friedrich Hagen, German scholarly writer, died (born 19/2/1780).


27/5/1856, Tuesday (-32,487) At Fort Lane, where the Oregon indigenous Americans were supposed to formally surrender to the US Army (after attacks by White settlers on their villages in the Red River area of Oregon through 1855, to seize their lands), the Indians instead attacked the soldiers. The next day (28/5) US reinforcements arrived and the Indians fled. However within a month they had surrendered and were herded into Pacific Coast Reservations.

24/5/1856, Saturday(-32,490) (USA) Slavery Abolitionist John Brown led a raid on pro-slavery men at Pottawaomie Creek, Kansas.

21/5/1856, Wednesday (-32,493) The town of Lawrence, Kansas, was sacked by a pro-slavery mob who wanted to pack the Kansas Legislature with pro-slavers, inspired by Stephen A Douglas.

6/5/1856, Tuesday (-32,508) (1) Sigmund Freud, Austrian pioneer of psychoanalysis, was born in Freiburg, Moravia.

(2) Robert Peary, American Arctic explorer, was born in Cresson Springs, Pennsylvania.

3/5/1856, Saturday (-32,511) Adolphe Adam, French composer (born 24/7/1803) died.


25/4/1856, Friday (-32,519) Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, or Lewis Carroll, met the young Alice Liddell, who was the inspiration for his Alice books.

24/4/1856, Thursday (-32,520) Philippe Petain, French Army Marshall, was born in Cuchy a la Tour.

23/4/1856, Wednesday (-32,521) Arthur Hadley, US economics writer, was born.

22/4/1856, Tuesday (-32,522) The first railway bridge to cross the Mississippi River opened between Rock Island, Illinois and Davenport, Iowa. Boat operators on the Mississippi mounted an unsuccessful legal challenge, claiming that the bridge was a nuisance.

21/4/1856, Monday (-32,523) The Adelaide to Port Adelaide railway, Australia, opened.

18/4/1856, Friday (-32,526) Aldershot Camp was publically inaugurated by Queen Victoria.

15/4/1856, Tuesday (-32,529) Jean Moreas, French poet, was born (died 31/3/1910).

11/4/1856, Friday (-32,533) Arthur Shrewsbury, cricketer, was born (died 19/5/1903).

7/4/1856, Monday (-32,537) The Perth to Dunkeld railway opened.

6/4/1856, Sunday (-32,538) Adolphe Monod, French religious writer, died (born 21/1/1802).


30/3/1856, Sunday (-32,545) (Russia, Finland) The Treaty of Paris ended the Crimean War. Russia agreed to demilitarise the Black Sea, demolishing its naval bases at Sevastopol and three other locations. It also renounced its claim to protect the Holy Places in Palestine.Russia ceded a part of Bessarabia, forcing it back from the Danube River. The Treaty also stipulated that the Aland Islands should not be fortified, by the army or navy. This allayed British fears over threats to its trade in the Baltic, see Russia-1854.

23/3/1856, Sunday (-32,552) Easter Sunday

20/3/1856, Thursday (-32,555) Frederick Winslow Taylor, the inventor of modern scientific time-management, was born.

9/3/1856, Sunday (-32,566) (Chemistry) Edward Goodrich Acheson was born in Washington, Pennsylvania, USA. In 1891 he discovered a process for making carborundum (silicon carbide), a material almost as hard as diamond.

8/3/1856, Saturday (-32,567) Tom Roberts, painter, was born.

7/3/1856, Friday (-32,568)

6/3/1856, Thursday (-32,569) The Maryland Agricultural College, now University of Maryland, received its Charter.

5/3/1856, Wednesday (-32,570) London�s Covent Garden Opera House was destroyed by fire.


27/2/1856, Wednesday (-32,577) Agnes Duclaux, English poet, was born.

24/2/1856, Sunday (-32,580) Nicolas Lobachevsky, Russian mathematician, died (born 2/11/1793)

22/2/1856, Friday (-32,582) The Sacramento to Folsom railway, California, 35.4 km, opened.

18/2/1856, Monday (-32,586) Abdul Mejid, the Ottoman Sultan, issued the Hatt-i-Humayun Edict. This guaranteed full civic rights for his Christian subjects, abolished torture and reformed prisons. These reforms were effectively forced upon the Sultan by the western European Allies.

17/2/1856, Sunday (-32,587) John Braham, English vocalist, died.

15/2/1856. Friday (-32,589) Birth of Emil Kraepelin, pyschiatrist who differentiated schizophrenia and ,manic-depressive illness.

13/2/1856, Wednesday (-32,591) The Annexation of Awadh (Oudh) by the British East India Company. The loss of rights by hereditary landowners caused resentment which contributed to the Indian Mutiny.

7/2/1856, Thursday (-32,597) The Tasmanian Parliament became the first in the world to pass legislation(Electoral Act 1856) providing for elections by a secret ballot.

1/2/1856, Friday (-32,603) Russia agreed to preliminary peace conditions for ending the Crimean War.


29/1/1856, Tuesday (-32,606) Queen Victoria instituted the Victoria Cross, Britain�s highest military decoration. Awarded for conspicuous bravery or great devotion to duty. The award was backdated to 1854 to cover the Crimean War; on 26/6/1856 62 men were given the Victoria Cross for deeds during this war. The VC has been awarded 1,354 times since then, to 2002, but has only been given posthumously since 1920. It has been awarded only 11 times since 1945, the last 2 being in the Falklands War of 1982. The medal is made of metal from Russian guns captured in the Crimean War.

22/1/1856, Tuesday (-32,613) Walter Gay, US artist, was born.

12/1/1856, Saturday (-32,623) Henry Goulburn, English statesman, died (born 19/3/1784).

4/1/1856, Friday (-32,631) Pierre David, sculptor, died (born 12/3/1789)

1/1/1856, Tuesday (-32,634)


31/12/1855, Monday (-32.635) Karl Hermann, German scholarly writer, died (born 4/8/1804).

26/12/1855, Wednesday (-32,640) August Follen, German poet, died (born 21/1/1794).

20/12/1855, Thursday (-32,646) Thomas Cubitt, English builder, died (born 25/2/1788).

15/12/1855, Saturday (-32,651) Maurice Bouchor, French poet, was born in Paris.

14/12/1855, Friday (-32,652) Henry Trotere (Trotter), British composer, was born in London (died 10/4/1912)

11/12/1855, Tuesday (-32,653) Julian Edwards, British composer, was born in Manchester (died 5/9/1910 in Yonkers, New York)


23/11/1855, Friday (-32,673) Mexico enacted the Ley (Law) Juarez, removing the privelige of clergy to be tried solely by ecclesiastical courts, and a similar privelige enjoyed by the military was also removed. The clergy protested, and s9okme church property was confiscated by thye State; this confiscation was subsequently partially reversed.

17/11/1855, Saturday (-32,679) The Scottish explorer David Livingstone discovered, on the River Zambezi, a large waterfall. He called it the Victoria Falls.

16/11/1855, Friday (-32,680) Josef Lauff, German poet, was born.

15/11/1855, Thursday (-32,681) Frank Kidson, British folk song collector, was born in Leeds (died 7/11/1926 in Leeds)

11/11/1855, Sunday (-32,685) Earthquake hit Edo (now Tokyo), Japan. 6,700 were killed.


30/10/1855, Tuesday (-32,697) Lord Desborough, Olympics administrator, was born (died 9/1/1945).

22/10/1855, Monday (-32,705) Sir William Molesworth, English politician, died.

17/10/1855, Wednesday (-32,710) Henry Bessemer patented a steel-making process.

5/10/1855, Friday (-32,722) Sir Thomas Mitchell, Scottish explorer of Australia, died (born 16/7/1792).

1/10/1855, Monday (-32,726) (Africa) Edward Flegel, German explorer of Africa, was born (died 11/9/1886)


30/9/1855, Sunday (-32,727) Edward Solomon, British composer, was born in London (died 25/1/1895 in London)

28/9/1855, Friday (-32,729) George Brush, US painter, was born.

26/9/1855, Wednesday (-32,731) (Railways) The first railway in New South Wales opened, Sydney to Parramatta.

24/9/1855, Monday (-32,733) General Carrera, provisional President of Mexico, proved too centralist and was replaced by Alvarez.

18/9/1855, Tuesday (-32,739) Robert Horton, British divine, was born.

13/9/1855, Thursday (-32,744) Johann Engelhardt, German religious writer, died (born 12/11/1791).

11/9/1855, Tuesday (-32,746) During the Crimean War, the Russian Black Sea port of Sevastopol fell to Anglo-French forces after an 11 month siege. The Russians demolished the fort as they abandoned it. However the Allies were unable to occupy the port facilities before winter set in and British troops faced a second winter in the Crimea.

3/9/1855, Monday (-32,754) (London) The last Bartholomews fair was held in London. It was first held on 24/8/1133. It grew to be a huge national market, the main centre for cloth sales in England. However by the 1850s it had become a magnet for thieves and muggers, and the event was disapproved of by the upper classes in London.


29/8/1855, Wednesday (-32,759) An accident on the Camden and Amboy Railway near Burlington, New Jersey, USA, killed 21 and injured 75.

18/8/1855, Saturday (-32,770) Abbott Lawrence, US statesman, died (born 16/12/1792).

16/8/1855, Thursday (-32,772) Battle of Chermaia, in the Crimean War; the Russians were defeated by a combined force of British troops and Piedmontese soldiers sent by Count Cavour of Savoy.

11/8/1854, Saturday (-32,777) Macedonio Melloni, Italian physicist, died (born 11/4/1798).

3/8/1855, Friday (-32,785) Henry Bunner, US writer, was born (died 11/5/1896).


30/7/1855, Monday (-32,789) Georg Wilhelm von Seimens, German industrialist, was born.

25/7/1855, Wednesday (-32,794) Tony Hart, comedian, was born in Worcester, Massachusetts (died in Worcester 4/11/1891)

21/7/1855, Saturday (-32,798) Daniel Atterbom, Swedish poet, died.

8/7/1855, Sunday (-32,811) Sir William Edward Parry, British explorer of the Arctic, was born.

7/7/1855, Saturday (-32,812) (Earthquake) Earthquake in northern Persia killed 40,000 people.

4/7/1855. Wednesday (-32,815) New York became the 13th state to ban the production or sale of alcoholic beverages.

1/7/1855, Sunday (-32,818) A labourer�s wage was 3s 9d a week.More skilled workers such as bricklayers, carpenters, and masons earned 6s 8d a week, and engineers got 7s 6d a week.2lb (0.9 kg) bread cost 4d, as did 2 to 4 pints of beer (depending on quality).


30/6/1855, Saturday (-32,819) In Britain, the Newspaper Stamp Tax was abolished.

29/6/1855, Friday (-32,820) The Daily Telegraph was first published, in London.The first editor was Alfred Bate Richards.

28/6/1855, Thursday (-32,821) Lord Raglan, British Army officer and commander of the expeditionary force in the Crimea, died.

24/6/1855, Sunday (-32,825) Johann Flugel, German writer, died (born 22/11/1788).

11/6/1855, Monday (-32,838) The last market for live animals was held at Smithfield, London. Thereafter live animals were traded further north, at Copenhagen Fields. Central London Meat Market (Smithfield) was begun in 1862 and opened for meat trading in 1868.

2/6/1855, Saturday (-32,847) Thomas Gaisford, English scholarly writer, died (born 22/12/1779).

1/6/1855, Friday (-32,848) The railway from Gloucester via Ross to Hereford opened.


30/5/1855, Wednesday (-42,850) Marshall Brooks, athletics (high jump) was born (died 5/1/1944).


30/4/1855, Monday (-32,880) Sir Henry Bishop, composer, died (born in London 18/11/1786).

18/4/1855, Wednesday (-32,892) (alcoholic drinks) The classification of the wine estates of Bordeaux, according to quality of wine produced, was agreed.

16/4/1855, Monday (-32,894) (Internat) The Declaration of Paris was signed.

11/4/1855, Wednesday (-32,899) London�s first six �pillar boxes� were installed, and were painted green.

8/4/1855, Sunday (-32,902) Easter Sunday

2/4/1855, Monday (-32,908) George Greenough, English geologist, died (born 18/1/1778).

1/4/1855, Sunday (-32,909) Icelandic trade was made completely free, open to anybody, not just Danish citizens.


31/3/1855, Saturday (-32,910) Charlotte Bronte, oldest of the three literary sisters, died during pregnancy.

30/3/1855, Friday (-32,911) Afghan leader Dost Mohammed signed a peace treaty ending 12 years of hostility with Britain. This agreement, the Treaty of Peshawar, was intended to thwart a Persian occupation of Afghanistan.

26/3/1855, Monday (-32,915) Jean Lacretelle, historical writer, died (born 3/9/1766).

21/3/1855, Wednesday (-32,920) (Denmark) Trade between the Faroe Islands and the rest of the world was opened to all. Until this date this trade had been a monopoly, first of a merchant house in Copenhagen, then of the Danish Government.

13/3/1855, Tuesday (-32,928) Percival Lowell, US astronomer, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

10/3/1855, Saturday (-32,931) (Spain) Don Carlos, claimant to the Spanish throne, died (born 29/3/1788).

2/3/1855, Friday (-32,939) Tsar Nicholas I of Russia died during hostilities during the Crimean War.His successor, Alexander was more disposed to make peace with Britain, but negotiations broke down.


27/2/1855, Tuesday (-32,942) Jakub Schikaneder, Bohemian painter, was born (died 15/11/1924).

23/2/1855, Friday (-32,946) (Mathematics) Johann Karl Friedrich Gauss, mathematician, died in Gottingen, Germany

22/2/1855, Thursday (-32,947) 13 gold diggers were acquitted of rioting and manslaughter in Melbourne, Australia after fighting broke out at the Eureka gold mine. In 1854, at the Eureka Stockade, Ballarat, New South Wales, armed gold prospectors fought with a combined military and police force; 30 gold miners and 5 policemen died. Miners objected to an expensive licence imposed by the Australian Government, Public opinion went behind the miners, and juries refused to convict them, causing the Government to back down over the issue.

21/2/1855, Wednesday (-32,948)

20/2/1855, Tuesday (-32,949) Joseph Hume, British politician, died (born 22/1/1777).

19/2/1855, Monday (-32,950) Bread riots broke out in Liverpool.

18/2/1855, Sunday (-32,951) Jean Jusserand, French author, was born.

11/2/1855, Sunday (-32,958) Kassa Hailu crowned as Tewodros II, Emperor of Ethiopia.

9/2/1855, Friday (-32,960) Mysterious hoof-prints appeared in the snow in Devon, as if a two legged creature had walked 100 miles over fields, walls, and roof-tops. No explanation was ever found.

6/2/1855, Tuesday (-32,963) Whig/Liberal Lord Palmerston became Prime Minister. He succeeded Lord Aberdeen, who resigned on 20/1/1855.

4/2/1855, Sunday (-32,965) Gottfried Lucke, German religious writer, died (born 24/8/1791).

1/2/1855, Thursday (-32,968) Claus Harms, German religious writer, died (born 25/5/1778).


28/1/1855, Sunday (-32,972) The 47-mile Panama Railway, linking the Atlantic and Pacific across the Isthmus of Panama, opened.

26/1/1955, Friday (-32,974) (Italy) The Piedmont Prime Minister, Count Cavour, anxious to secure Franco-British support in the cause of Italian Unification, sent troops to join in the Croimean war againbst Russia.

25/1/1855, Thursday (-32,975) Gerard de Nerval, French writer, died (born 22/5/1808).

23/1/1855, Tuesday (-32,977) Julius Hare, English religious writer, died (born 13/9/1795).

19/1/1855, Friday (-32,981) Jean Guerin, French painter, died (born 25/3/1783).

10/1/1855, Wednesday (-32,990) Mary Mitford, English novelist, died.

5/1/1855, Friday (-32,995) King Camp Gillette, American inventor of the safety razor, was born in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin.

3/1/1855, Wednesday (-32,997) Janos Maljath, Hungarian historical writer, died (born 5/10/1786).

1/1/1855, Monday (-32,999)


31/12/1854, Sunday (-33,000) William Peall, billiards champion, was born (died 6/6/1952).

23/12/1854, Saturday (-33,008) Earthquake in Shikoku, Japan, 3,000 killed.

22/12/1854, Friday (-33,009) Benedict Fogelberg, Swedish sculptor, died (born 8/8/1786).

19/12/1854, Tuesday (-33,012)

14/12/1854, Thursday (-33,017) Leonard Faucher, French political writer, died (born 8/9/1803).

13/12/1854, Wednesday (-33,018) GH Chirgwin, British singer, was born in Seven Dials, London (died 14/11/1922 in London)

11/12/1854, Monday (-33,030)

9/12/1854, Saturday (-33,022) Joao Garrett, Portuguese poet, died (born 1799).

8/12/1854. Friday (-33,023) Pope Pius IX settled an ancient controversy by declaring that Christ�s mother, Mary, was free of all sin the moment she was born.

5/12/1854, Tuesday (-33,026)

3/12/1854, Sunday (-33,028) The Eureka Stockade incident. 150 gold miners, or �diggers�, resisted the military behind a wooden stockade. See 22//2/1855.

2/12/1854, Saturday (-33,029) Austria formed a strategic alliance with Britain and France.


30/11/1854, Thursday (-33,031) The Frenchman Ferdinand de Lesseps obtained, from the Egyptian ruler Said Pasha, a 99-year concession to build a canal between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean.

25/11/1854, Saturday (-33,036) John Kitto, English Biblical writer, died (born 4/12/1804).

18/11/1854, Saturday (-33,043) Edward Forbes, British scientific writer, died (12/2/1815).

14/11/1854, Tuesday (-33,047) The railway from Snow Hill, Birmingham, to Wolverhampton opened.

13/11/1854, Monday (-33,048) The Necropolis Railway, London Waterloo to Brookwood Cemetery, opened

12/11/1854, Sunday (-33,049) Charles Kemble, actor, died

11/11/1854, Saturday (-33,050) Mussolini�s father, Alessandro, was born in Montemaggiore, close to Predappio.

8/11/1854, Wednesday (-33,053)

6/11/1854, Monday (-33,055) John Philip Sousa, composer, inventor of the sousaphone (a sort of large tuba), was born.

5/11/1854, Sunday (-33,056) The combined English and French armies defeated the Russians at the Battle of Inkerman, in the Crimean War. British forces now spent their first winter in the Crimea, poorly supplied. Public opinion in Britain began to turn against the war, outraged by daily reports in The Times from war correspondent W H Russell.

4/11/1854, Saturday (-33,057) Florence Nightingale arrived at Scutari.

3/11/1854, Friday (-33,058) (Biology) Jokichi Takamine was born in Takaoka, Japan. In 1901 he artificially synthesised adrenaline.


31/10/1854, Tuesday (-33,061) (Egypt) Johann Erman, Egyptologist, was born.

27/10/1854, Friday (-33,065) Sir William Smith, Scottish founder of the Boys Brigade movement in Glasgow in 1883, was born.

26/10/1854, Thursday (-33,066) US entrepreneur CW Post was born.

25/10/1854, Wednesday (-33,067) Battle of Balaclava and the Charge of the Light Brigade, led by Lord Cardigan. The Russians were attacking a combined force of English, French, and Turks, who were themselves besieging Sevastopol. Of the 607 who rode out, only 198 returned. In poor visibility, Lord Raglan noted that the Russians, at the north end of a valley, were attempting to move some guns, and ordered the Light Brigade to capture them; he was unaware of other Russian artillery along the valley. However the British and French won the battle in the end.

22/10/1854, Sunday (-33,070) Milan Obrenovich IV, King of Serbia, was born.

18/10/1854, Wednesday (-33,074) (Sweden) Salomon August Andree, Swedish engineer, was born in Grenna.

17/10/1854, Tuesday (-33,075) The Allies (French and British) laid siege to the Russians at Sevastopol.

16/10/1854, Monday (-33,076) Oscar Wilde, Irish author and playwright, was born in Dublin, the son of a surgeon.

15/10/1854, Sunday (-33,077)

14/10/1854, Saturday (-33,078) The first baby show was held, at Springfield, Ohio. There were127 exhibits.

13/10/1854, Friday (-33,079) William Mitchell, billiards champion, was born.

10/10/1854, Tuesday (-33,082) Jeronimo Gimenez, Soanish composer, was born in Seville (died 19/2/1923 in Madrid)

7/10/1854, Saturday (-33,085) (South Africa) Christian de Wet, Boer General, was born.


27/9/1854, Wednesday (-33,095) The Lady Isabella waterwheel at Laxey, Isle of Man was completed.It was the largest in the UK, at 72 foot 6 inches in diameter, and was once used for draining a lead mine.

26/9/1854, Tuesday (-33,096) Thomas Denman, English Judge, died (born 23/7/1779).

20/9/1854, Wednesday (-33,102) The Allies, on the banks of the River Alma, gained a major victory over a 40,000 strong Russian force in the Crimean War; 2,000 British casualties

14/9/1854, Thursday (-33,108) Allied French and British troops landed in the Crimea.

12/9/1854, Tuesday (-33,110) The Flinders Street to Port Melbourne railway opened, the first steam railway in Australia.

1/9/1854, Friday (-33,121) (Railways) First railway in Norway opened, Oslo (Christiania) to Eidsvoll, 70 km.


8/8/1854, Tuesday (-33, 145) Britain and France put forward the Vienna Four Points they considered essential for a peace settlement with Russia in the Crimean War. These were, firstly guarantees of the independence of Serbia, secondly free passage for vessels along the Danube, thirdly a revision of the Straits Convention, and fourthly that Russia abandoned its claim to a protectorate over the Sultan of Turkey�s Christian subjects. Russia rejected these terms.

7/8/1854, Monday (-33,146) Charles Dickens� tenth book, Hard Times, was published in entirety.

4/8/1854. Friday (-33,149) Japan adopted the Hinomaru � a red sun on a white background � as its official naval flag. The symbol dates back to the 12th century when it was displayed by trhe Samurai on their fans.

2/8/1854, Wednesday (-33,151) Francis Crawford, US author, was born (died 9/4/1909).


31/7/1854, Monday (-33,153) The North Eastern Railway (NER) was formed by an amalgamation of the York & North Midland, the Leeds Northern and the York Newcastle and Berwick Railways. The NER absorbed the Stockton and Darlington Railway on 1/7/1863.

13/7/1854, Thursday (-33,171) (Egypt) Abbas I, Khedive of Egypt, was murdered, aged 41. He was succeeded by his uncle, 32-year old Said Pasha.

12/7/1854, Wednesday (-33,172) George Eastman, USA photographic pioneer who founded Kodak, was born in Waterville, New York State. (see 7/5/1888).

10/7/1854, Monday (-33,474)

8/7/1854, Saturday (-33,176) Johann Gieseler, German church history writer, died (born 3/3/1792).

7/7/1854, Friday (-33,177) George Ohm, German scientist who pioneered work on electricity, died in Munich

6/7/1854, Thursday (-33,178) Earthquake in Yamato, Iga, Ise, area of Japan killed 2,400.

5/7/1854, Wednesday (-33,179) (USA) In America, the Republican Party was officially founded.

4/7/1854, Tuesday (-33,180) Karl Eichhorn, German legal writer, died (born 20/11/1781).

3/7/1854, Monday (-33,181) Leos Janacek, composer, was born

1/7/1854, Saturday (-33,183) Albert Hart, US historical writer, was born.


26/6/1854, Monday (-33,188) Robert Borden, Canadian politician, was born in Grand Pre, Nova Scotia.

21/6/1854, Wednesday (-33,193) The first Victoria Cross was awarded, to Charles Lucas, a 20-year-old Irishman who threw an unexploded Russian bomb overboard, whilst on HMS Hecla at Bomarsund in the Baltic.

13/6/1854, Tuesday (-33,201) Sir Charles Parsons, engineer who invented the steam turbine, was born in London.

12/6/1854, Monday (-33,202) (Electrical) Charles Algernon Parsons was born in London. In 1884 he designed and installed the first steam turbine generator for electric power.

10/6/1854, Saturday (-33,204) (London) Queen Victoria opened the Crystal Palace on its new site in Sydenham, south London.


30/5/1854, Tuesday (-33,215) (USA) US Congress adopted the Kansas-Nebraska Act, nullifying the Missouri Compromise.

29/5/1854, Monday (-33,216) (Railways) Paddington Station, London, was opened.

26/5/1854, Friday (-33,219) (1) (Greece) Franco-British forces occupied the port of Piraeus to prevent Greece from joining the Crimean War with Russia against Turkey. See 28/2/1857.

(2) A Boston mob attacked a Federal courthouse in a vain attempt to prevent the return of fugitive slave Anthony Burns. Federal troops were called in to escort him to Boston Docks in order to return him to his Southern owner; outraged citizens staged a silent protest along the street.

22/5/1854, Monday (+33,223) The Russian Baltic fort of Gustavfarm was destroyed by a British fleet (Crimean War), with 1,500 Russian PoWs being captured.

18/5/1854, Thursday (-33,227) (Railways) The Port Elliot & Goolwa railway, South Australia, opened. Drawn by horse, this was the first public railway in Australia, carrying goods and people.

15/5/1854, Monday (-33,230) (Railways) The Semmering Pass railway, Austria, opened.

11/5/1854, Thursday (-33,234) John McArthy Blackham, cricketer for Australia, was born in Melbourne (died in Sydney, 20/8/1930).


30/4/1854, Sunday (-33,245) (Railways) The first railway in Brazil opened.

29/4/1854, Saturday (-33,246) (Mathematics) Jules Henri Poincare, French mathematician, was born in Nantes. In 1895 he effectively founded the science of topology, although some of its principles were already known.

26/4/1854, Wednesday (-33,249) Henry Cockburn, Scottish Judge, died (born 26/10/1779).

24/4/1854, Monday (-33,251) Elizabeth married Archduke Ferdinand, Emperor of Austria.

19/4/1854, Wednesday (-33,256) Robert Jameson, Scottish geological writer, died (born 11/7/1774).

16/4/1854, Sunday (-33,259) Easter Sunday

15/4/1854, Saturday (-33,260) (Chemistry) Arthur Aikin, English chemist, died in London (born 19/5/1773 in Warrington).

14/4/1854, Friday (-33,261)

13/4/1854, Thursday (-33,262) Richard Ely, US economist, was born.

12/4/1854, Wednesday (-33,263) Atmospheric traction on the Dalkey extension of the Dublin and Kingstown Railway was abandoned.


31/3/1854. Friday (-33,275) The USA and Japan signed the Treaty of Kanagawa, opening up the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade.

27/3/1854. Monday (-33,279) Crimean War began; Britain and France declared war on Russia.On 12/3/1854 the British and French formally allied with Turkey. See 30/11/1853. The ostensible cause of the Crimean War was a dispute between Russia, France, and Turkey over control of the Christian Holy Places in Turkish-controlled Palestine. The Turks refused Russia�s demands and Russia marched into the Turkish vassal states of Wallachia and Serbia. This threatened Russian occupation of Istanbul and hence Britain�s communications with its Indian Empire, so Britain entered the war against Russia.

23/3/1854, Thursday (-33,283) Alfred Milner, British colonial administrator of South Africa, was born.

20/3/1854, Monday (-33,286) (Russia, Turkey) Russia sent troops southwards across the Danube, threatening Ottoman Turkey. Ultimately this posed the threat of Russia on the Mediterranean, putting communications between Britain and India at risk, and so was unacceptable to the UK.

18/3/1854, Saturday (-33,288) The Alhambra Theatre, London, opened in Leicester Square

15/3/1854, Wednesday (-33,291) Emil von Behring, bacteriologist who won the Nobel Prize in 1901 for his work on immunisation against diphtheria, was born.

14/3/1854, Tuesday (-33,292) Paul Erlich, bacteriologist, was born in Strehlen, Silesia (now Poland); died 20/8/1915.

12/3/1854, Sunday (-33,294) Britain and France made an alliance with Ottoman Turkey.

9/3/1854, Thursday (-33,297) Eddie Foy, US comedian, was born in New York (died 16/2/1928 in Kansas City)

8/3/1854, Wednesday (-33,298) Thomas Patrick Horan, cricketer for Australia, was born in Middleton, Ireland (died 16/4/1916 in Melbourne).

1/3/1854, Wednesday (-33,305)


28/2/1854, Tuesday (-33,306) The United States Republican Party was formed, in Ripon, Wisconsin.

27/2/1854, Monday (-33,307) Hugues Lannenais, French political writer, died (born 19/6/1782)

22/2/1854, Wednesday (-33,312) The Chicago and Rock Island Railroad was completed to Rock Island, Illinois.

17/2/1854, Friday (-33,317) Britain signed the Convention of Bloemfontein, agreeing to withdraw from territory in South Africa north of the Orange River. This left the Orange Free State for Boer settlers.

13/2/1854, Monday (-33,321) Britain�s first public school for girls, Cheltenham Ladies College, opened.

10/2/1854, Friday (-33,324) Giovanni Muzzioli, Italian painter, was born (died 5/8/1894).

9/2/1854, Thursday (-33,325) Richmond Mayo-Smith, US economics writer, was born (died 11/11/1901).

6/2/1854, Monday (-33,328) Russia broke off diplomatic relations with Britain and France.

1/2/1854, Tuesday (-33,334) New York�s Astor Libraty opened, with 80,000 books.


16/1/1854, Monday (-33,349) The South Wales railway reached Haverfordwest

13/1/1854, Friday (-33,352) The accordion was patented by Anthony Faas.

9/1/1854, Monday (-33,356) Lady Randolph Churchill, mother of Winston Churchill, was born.

8/1/1854, Sunday (-33,357) William Beresford, British General, died in Kent (born 2/10/1768)

3/1/1854, Tuesday (-33,362) An Anglo-French squadron entered the Black Sea, and insisted that the Russian fleet withdraw from attacking Turkey.

1/1/1854, Sunday (-33,364)


30/12/1853, Friday (-33,366) The Gadsden Purchase was agreed with Mexico. The USA paid Mexico US$10 million, and received a tract of land south of the Gila River. This was arranged by James Gadsden, aged 65.

27/12/1853, Tuesday (-33,369) William Jay, religious writer, died (born 6/5/1769).

26/12/1853, Monday (-33,370) Rene Bazin, French novelist, was born in Angers.

23/12/1853, Friday (-33,372) Giacomo Puccini, composer, was born.

21/12/1853, Wednesday (-33,375)

16/12/1853, Friday (-33,380) Santa Anna made himself Dictator of Mexico.

15/12/1853, Thursday (-33,381) Georg Grotefrend, German writer, died (born 9/6/1775).

13/12/1853, Tuesday (-33,383)

11/12/1853, Sunday (-33,385) John Murphy, US landscape painter, was born.

10/12/1853, Saturday (-33,386) Tommaso Grossi, Lombard poet and novelist, died (born 20/7/1791).


30/11/1853, Wednesday (-33,396) The Russians destroyed a Turkish fleet at Sinope. On 3/1/1854 British and French fleets entered the Black Sea to protect Ottoman Turkish coasts and shipping. See 4/10/1853, and 23/3/1854.

16/11/1853, Wednesday (-33,410) Henry lewis, US geologist, was born (died 21/7/1888).

15/11/1853, Tuesday (-33,411) Maria II of Portugal died, aged 34. She was succeeded by her 16-year-old son, Pedro V.

5/11/1853, Saturday (-33,421) Janos Garay, Hungarian poet, died (born 10/10/1812).


21/10/1853, Friday (-33,436) Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm.

10/10/1853, Monday (-33,447) Pierre Fontaine, French architect, died (born 20/9/1762).

6/10/1853, Thursday (-33,451) Simon Greanleaf, US legal writer, died (born 5/12/1783).

4/10/1853, Tuesday (-33,453) (Russia, Turkey) The Russians refused to withdraw from the Danubian Principalities, and Turkey declared war on Russia. On 23/10/1853 the Turks, under Omar Pasha, crossed the Danube into Wallachia. See 30/11/1853.

2/10/1853, Sunday (-33,455) (Science) Dominique Arago, physicist, died in Paris (born 26/2/1786 in Estagel, Perpignan)


30/9/1853, Friday (-33,457) John Stromberg, US composer, was born in New York (died12/7/1902 in New York)

24/9/1853, Saturday (-33,463) Britain�s first provincial newspaper, the Northern Daily Times, was founded in Liverpool.

23/9/1853, Friday (-33,464) The British fleet was ordered to Istanbul.

22/9/1853, Thursday (-33,465)

21/9/1853, Wednesday (-33,466) (1) (Thailand) Phra Paramindr Maha Chulalongkorn, King of Siam, eldest son of King Maha Mongkut, was born (died 1910).

(2) (Chemistry) Heike Kammerlingh was born in Groningen, Netherlands. In 1908 he liquefied helium.

20/9/1853, Tuesday (-33,467) Elisha Graves Otis opened a factory in New York State for the production of the first modern lifts.

15/9/1853, Thursday (-33,472)

13/9/1853, Tuesday (-33,474) (Medical) Bacteriologist Hans Christian Joachim Gram was born in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 1884 he developed a dye that could distinguish between two classes of bacteria, those that took up the dye and those that didn�t. The groups react differently to antibiotics.

12/9/1853, Monday (-33,475) Charles Dickens� ninth book, Bleak House, was published in entirety.

7/9/1853, Wednesday (-33,480) (China) Shanghai fell to rebels as the Taiping Rebellion continued.

5/9/1853, Monday (-33,482) (Railways) The Waterford to Tramore railway opened.

4/9/1853, Sunday (-33,483) Jonathan Blewitt, British composer, died in London (born 1782 in London)

2/9/1853, Friday (-33,485) Wilhelm Ostwald, chemist, was born.


29/8/1853, Monday (-33,489) Sir Charles Napier, British statesman, died.

24/8/1853, Wednesday (-33,494) Crisps were invented by George Crum, a chef in the Moon Lake Lodge Hotel in Saratoga Springs, New York State, when his customers complained that his potato chips were cut too thickly. So he cut the potatoes wafer-thin. Perople loved the new �Saratoga chips�. Crisps reached the UK in 1913.

22/8/1853, Monday (-33,496) Karl Karsten, German mineralogist, died (born 26/11/1782).

21/8/1853, Sunday (-33,497) Charles Montholon, French soldier, died.

17/8/1853, Wednesday (-33,501) (Britain) Sir Frederick Adam, British General, died (born 1781).

8/8/1853, Monday (-33,510) A Russian fleet arrived at Nagasaki on a trading mission.

4/8/1853, Thursday (-33,514) Newspaper advertisements duty was abolished in Britain.


23/7/1853, Saturday (-33,526) The Japanese Shogun Ieoshi died, aged 61. He was succeeded by his brother, Iesada, who agreed to open two Japanese ports to foreign trade.

14/7/1853, Thursday (-33,535) The first US World Fair opened in New York. The event was modelled on London�s 1851 Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace.

8/7/1853, Friday (-33,541) US Commodore Matthew Perry steamed into Japan�s Edo Bay (now Tokyo) with his �black ships� and demanded that the country open up to US trade. He backed up his demand with cannon fire. For 250 years Japan had been a feudal state run by the Tokugawa shoguns.

5/7/1853, Tuesday (-33,544) The colonial administrator Cecil Rhodes, Prime Minister of Cape Colony 1890-96, was born at Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire, the 7th of 11 children..His father was a vicar.


29/6/1853, Wednesday (-33,550) Adrien de Jussieu, natiuralist, died (born 23/12/1797).

22/6/1853, Wednesday (-33,557) A Russian Army attacking Turkey, under Prince Mikhail Gorchakov, invaded Turkey�s Danubian Principalities.

4/6/1853, Saturday (-33,575) The Oxford to Evesham railway opened (extended to Wolverhampton 10/1854)

3/6/1853, Friday (-33,576) Cesare Balbo, Italian writer, died (born 1/11/1789 in Turin)


31/5/1853, Tuesday (-33,579) (Russia, Turkey) Tsar Nicholas I of Russia despatched troops to protect Christian minorities in Ottoman-ruled Moldavia and Wallachia.

21/5/1853, Saturday (-23,589) Jacques Cavaignac, French politician, was born (died 25/9/1905).

14/5/1853, Saturday (-33,596) Thomas Caine, British novelist, was born.

7/5/1853, Saturday (-33,603) Matthias Castren, Finnish scholarly writer, died (born 2/12/1813).

6/5/1853, Friday (-33,604) Cortes Donoso, Spanish author, died (born 6/5/1809).

4/5/1853, Wednesday (-33,606) Philander Knox, US politician, was born.


27/4/1853, Wednesday (-33,613) Francois Lemaitre, French dramatist, was born.

23/4/1853, Saturday (-33,617) Jules Lemire, French social reformer, was born.

18/4/1853, Monday (-33,622) First railway in India opened; Mumbai to Thana, 30 km. By 1856 rail lines linked Mumbai, Kolkata, Madras and Nagpur.

13/4/1853, Wednesday (-33,627) Leopold Gmelin, German chemist, died (born 1788).

7/4/1853, Thursday (-33,633) Queen Victoria used chloroform to help her through the birth of her seventh child, Prince Leopold. This established chloroform as the favoured anaesthetic in Britain.

4/4/1853, Monday (-33,636) The customs union signed by various German states was extended for another 12 years; Austria remained excluded.

1/4/1853, Friday (-33,639) Manchester, UK, was constituted a city.


30/3/1853, Wednesday (-33,641) The artist Vincemt Van Gogh was born in the Dutch village of Groot-Zundert. He was the son of a Lutheran pastor.

29/3/1853, Tuesday (-33,642) Elihu Thomson, English inventor who co-founded the General Electric Company with Thomas Edison, was born.

27/3/1853, Sunday (-33,644) Easter Sunday

25/3/1853, Friday (-33,646) Muzaffar ed Din, Shah of Persia from 8/6/1896, was born (died 8/1/1907).

19/3/1853, Saturday (-33,652) Taiping (Heavenly Peace) rebels in China, a Protestant movement, challenged the ruling Manchu Ch�ing dynasty by taking the city of Nanjing.

17/3/1853, Thursday (-33,654) Death of Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who coined the term Doppler effect to explain the apparent change of frequency of a wave when the source is moving relative to the observer.

14/3/1853, Monday (-33,657) Julius Haynau, Austrian general, died (born 1786).

6/3/1853, Sunday (-33,665) Albert Cook, US scholarly writer, was born.

4/3/1853, Friday (-33,667) Pope Pius IX set up five new bishoprics in The Netherlands, at Breda, Haarlem, s�Hertogenbosh and Roermond, also the Archbishopric of Utrecht, Until then The Netherlands had had no proper Catholic hierarchy since the Reformation, and had been classified as a �mission area�. The imposition of this new hierarchy started the April Movement, an anti-Catholic protest in which Catholics were harried on the streets and dismissed from their jobs. The Netherlands Government was forced to resign and eventually the anti-Catholic protests faded away.


18/2/1853, Friday (-33,681) (Railways) August Belmont, US railway financier, was born in New York.

3/2/1853, Thursday (-33,696) August Kopisch, German poet, died (born 29/5/1799).


29/1/1853, Saturday (-33,701) Napoleon III of France married Eugenie de Montijo in Paris.

26/1/1853, Wednesday (-33,704) Sylvester Judd, US religious writer, died (born 23/7/1813).

22/1/1853, Saturday (-33,708) The University of Melbourne, Australia, was established by Act of Incorporation.

21/1/1853, Friday (-33,709) Russell L Hawes patented the envelope-folding machine.

19/1/1853, Wednesday (-33,711)

17/1/1853, Monday (-33,713) Thomas Harrison, US artist, was born.

16/1/1853, Sunday (-33,714) Andre Michelin, founder of Michelin Tyres, was born born in Paris, France.

15/1/1853, Saturday (-33,715) Rutland Barrington, British actor, was born I Penge, London (died 31/5/1922 in London)

10/1/1853, Monday (-33,720) Jessie Bond, British actress, was born in Camden Town, London (died 17/6/1942 in Worthing)

1/1/1853, Saturday (-33,729)


31/12/1852, Friday (-33,730) (USA) Henry Carter Adams, US economist, was born.

18/12/1852, Saturday (-33,743) Horatio Greenhough, US sculptor, died (born 6/9/1805).

14/12/1852, Tuesday (-33,747) (Britain) Charles Berry, English cleric, was born in Leigh, Lancashire (died 31/1/1899).

10/12/1852, Friday (-33,751) Henri Gervex, French Painter, was born.

2/12/1852. Thursday (-33,759) Louis Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor of France as Napoleon III.The Second French Empire was proclaimed.


27/11/1852, Saturday (-33,764) Ada Lovelace, computer science pioneer, died.

23/11/1852. Tuesday (-33,768) Britain�s first pillar box was erected, in St Helier on Jersey.

18/11/1852, Thursday (-33,773) Funeral of Lord Wellington in St Paul�s Cathedral

10/11/1852, Wednesday (-33,781) Gideon Mantel, English geologist, died.

4/11/1852, Thursday (-33,787) (1) The building of the new House of Commons, following the fire of 1834, was completed, to the designs of Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin.

(2) (Italy) Count Camillio de Cavour became Prime Minister of Piedmont.

3/11/1852, Wednesday (-33,788) Hito Mutso, Japanese Emperorfrom 1/1867, was born.

2/11/1852, Tuesday (-33,789) The Dean of Exeter Cathedral ordered that the cathedral clock be advanced 14 minutes to conform with Greenwich mean time. This was a result of the railways spreading across Britain, and operating on a standard time. Nationwide standardisation of time had begun when the horse-drawn Irish mail coaches began running from London to Ireland via Chester and Holyhead; the mail coach guard carried a watch set to Greenwich time, and was required to inform the innkeepers along the way of the correct time. In 1830 the Manchester and Liverpool railway operated on Greenwich Time. But there was resistance to this nationwide time in the West Country and Wales.

1/11/1852, Monday (-33,790) Dame Emma Albani, Canadian singer (died 3/4/1930) was born.


26/10/1852, Tuesday (-33,796) (Britain) Henry Elkington, founder of the Birmingham electroplating industry, died.

24/10/1852, Sunday (-33,798) Henry Clinton, English scholarly writer, died (born 14/1/1781).

22/10/1852, Friday (-33,800) Hans Gagern, German political writer, died (born 25/1/1766).

15/10/1852, Friday (-33,807) Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, founder of the gymnastic movement (Turnverein) in Germany, died at Freyburg aged 74.

14/10/1852, Thursday (-33,808) (Railways GB) Kings Cross Station, London, opened.The former terminus had been � miles north, between Copenhagen and Gasworks Tunnels, at Maiden Lane, see 7/8/1850.

13/10/1852, Wednesday (-33,809) Birth of Lilly Langtry, actress and mistress to King Edward VII

12/10/1852, Tuesday (-33,810)

11/10/1852, Monday (-33,811) The South Wales Railway was extended from landore to Carmarthen Junction.

10/10/1852, Sunday (-33,812) The first train ran on the Rock Island line, 70 km from Chicago to Joliet, Illinois, in 2 hours. In 2/1854 this line reached Rock Island on the Mississippi to link Chicago to this major waterway. This railway eventually reached Minneapolis-St Paul, Galveston, Denver, Colorado Springs, Santa Rosa and Memphis

9/10/1852, Saturday (-33,813) (Cartography) Thomas Colby, director of the Ordnance Survey, who surveyed Ireland, died (born 1/9/1784).

6/10/1852, Wednesday (-33,816)

2/10/1852, Saturday (-33,820) Lord Ramsay, who discovered the inert gases, was born in Glasgow.

1/10/1852, Friday (-33,821) (Railways) The Londonderry to Newtown Limavady railway, 18 � miles, opened.


30/9/1852, Thursday (-33,822) Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, Irish composer, was born.

29/9/1852, Wednesday (-33,823) Arthur Roberts, British comedian, was born in London (died 27/2/1933 in London)

28/9/1852, Tuesday (-33,824) Henri Moussan, French chemist, was born (died 20/2/1907).

26/9/1852, Sunday (-33,826)

25/9/1852, Saturday (-33,827) (Aviation) The Mechanic�s Magazine published the plans of a heavier-than-air glider capable of carrying a person.

24/9/1852, Friday (-33,828) (Aviation) The first airship made its maiden flight from the Hippodrome, Paris, travelling 17 miles to Trappes at 8 mph. It was piloted by Henri Giffard. However the craft could only travel in calm weather.

23/9/1852, Thursday (-33,829) (Medical) Surgeon William Halstead was born in New York City. In 1890 he introduced the practice of wearing sterilised rubber gloves during surgery.

20/9/1852, Monday (-33,832) William Finden, English line engraver, died (born 1787).

14/9/1852, Tuesday (-33,838) (1) Lord Pugin, co-designer of the Houses of Parliament with Sir Charles Barry, died at Ramsgate.

(2) The Duke of Wellington, victor at Waterloo, died at Walmer Castle, Kent, aged 83, as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.

13/9/1852, Monday (-33,839) The Newton Stewart to Omagh railway, 9 � miles, opened.

12/9/1852, Sunday (-33,840) Herbert Henry Asquith, British Liberal and Prime Minister, was born in Morley, Yorkshire. He introduced the Old Age Pension.

6/9/1852, Monday (-33,846) The first free public lending library opened in Manchester.

4/9/1852, Saturday (-33,848) William MacGillivray, Scottish naturalist writer, died (born 25/1/1796).

2/9/1852, Thursday (-33,850) Paul Bourget, French novelist, was born in Amiens.


25/8/1852, Wednesday (-33,858) The Redruth to Truro railway opened.

5/8/1852, Thursday (-33,878) The re-erection of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, south London.

4/8/1852, Wednesday (-33,879) The first steamship arrived in Australia, from England.


17/7/1852, Saturday (-33,897) Argentina recognised the independence of Paraguay.

15/7/1852, Thursday (-33,899) The Great Northern Railway opened from Peterborough to Retford for goods trains (passengers from 1/8/1852), and in London the line was extended south from Maiden Lane to Kings Cross.

10/7/1852, Saturday (-33,904) Rene Exelmans, Marshal of France, died (born 13/12/1775).


29/6/1852, Tuesday (-33,915) Henry Clay, US politician, died (born 12/4/1777).

25/6/1852, Friday (-33,919) Antoni Gaudi, architect, was born.

24/6/1852, Thursday (-33,920) Viktor Adler, Austrian politician (died 12/11/1918) was born.

21/6/1852, Monday (-33,923) Friedrich Froebel, German educationalist who founded the Kindergarten system in 1837 at Blankenberg, died.

12/6/1852, Saturday (-33,932) Xavier de Maistre, French writer, died.

10/6/1852, Thursday (-33,934) (Railways) The Wellington Inn to Mullaglass railway, 6 miles, opened.

7/6/1852, Monday (-33,937) Hosea Ballou, US writer, died in Boston (born in Richmond, New Hampshire, 30/4/1771).

4/6/1852, Friday (-33,940) Lucas Malet, English noivelist, was born.

2/6/1852, Wednesday (-33,942) Charles B Lawlor, composer, was born in Dublin (died 30/5/21925 in New York)


28/5/1852, Friday (-33,947) Eugene Burnouf, French writer on the Orient, died (born 8/4/1801).

3/5/1852, Monday (-33.972) (Railways) The Tipperary to Clonmel railway, 24 � miles, opened.

1/5/1852, Saturday (-33,974) Calamity Jane, Wild West performer, was born.


21/4/1852, Wednesday (-33,984) The Shrewsbury to Ludlow railway, 27 miles, opened.

20/4/1852, Tuesday (-33,985) Bela Edwards, US writer, died (born 4.7.1802).

17/4/1852, Saturday (-33,988) Etienne Gerard, French General, died (born 4/4/1773).

14/4/1852, Wednesday (-33,991) (India) British and Indian forces captured Rangoon.

13/4/1852, Tuesday (-33,992) Frank Winfield Woolworth, the American chain store pioneer, was born in Rodman, Jefferson County, New York State.

12/4/1852, Monday (-33,993) (Mathematics) Ferdinand Lindemann was born in Hannover, Germany. In 1882 he proved that Pi is a transcendental number.

11/4/1852, Sunday (-33,994) Easter Sunday. (India) The British began bombarding Rangoon, starting the Second Burman War.

5/4/1852, Monday (-34,000) John Keate, who restored discipline and order at Eton School, died

1/4/1852, Thursday (-34,004) (Arts) Edwin Austin Abbey, US painter, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


30/3/1852, Tuesday (-34,006) (Africa) James Bent, explorer of Africa, was born near Leeds (died in London 5/5/1897).

22/3/1852, Monday (-34,014) Auguste Marmont, Marshal of France, died (born 20/7/1774).

11/3/1852, Thursday (-34,025) The West Cornwall Railway opened the Penzance to Hayle line, 7 miles.

6/3/1852, Saturday (-34,030) Joseph Deniker, French scientific writer, was born.

5/3/1852, Friday (-34,031) Marie Gay, French author, died (born 1/7/1776).

1/3/1852, Monday (-34,035) Theophile Delcasse, French statesman, was born.


25/2/1852, Wednesday (-34,040) Thomas Moore, Irish poet, died (born 28/5/1779).

21/2/1852, Saturday (-34,044) Nikolia Gogol, Russian story writer and novelist, died in Moscow.

20/2/1852, Friday (-34,045) The first through train from the eastern USA reached Chicago on the Chicago Southeastern Railway. The railway helped make Chicago into a major grain and meat packing centre.

16/2/1852, Monday (-34,049) Charles Taze Russell, American who organised the start of modern-day Jehovah�s Witnesses, was born in Pittsburgh.

14/2/1852, Saturday (-34,051) London�s famous children�s hospital, in Great Ormond Street, opened. The first patient admitted was Eliza Armstrong.

11/2/1852, Wednesday (-34,054) The first flushing public toilet for women opened in Fleet Street, London. The cost was 2d. See 2/2/1852.

9/2/1852, Monday (-34,056) The Strabane to Newton Stewart railway, 9 � miles, opened.

5/2/1852, Thursday (-34,060) Arnail Jaucourt, French politician, died (born 14/11/1757).

3/2/1852, Tuesday (-34, 062) Argentina abandoned plans to annex Uruguay after De Rosas, Argentine dictator, was defeated by a force of Brazilians and Uruguayans at the Battle of Caseros. De Rosas fled to Britain.

2/2/1852, Monday (-34,063) (1) The first public convenience for men opened in Fleet Street, London. See 11/2/1852.

(2) The second Woodhead railway tunnel, between Sheffield and Manchester, opened.See 22/12/1845, 3/6/1954.

1/2/1852, Sunday (-34,064) The railway from Battle to Hastings, 5 miles, opened.


29/1/1852, Thursday (-34,067) Frederic Cowen, English composer, was born.

26/1/1852, Monday (-34,070) (Africa) Pierre Paul Brazza, French explorer of Africa and founder of the French Congo (Brazzaville), was born (died 4/9/1905).

19/1/1852, Monday (-34,077) Robert Adamson, Scottish philosopher (died 5/2/1902) was born.

17/1/1852, Saturday (-34,079) Britain recognised the independence of the Transvaal Boers.

12/1/1852, Monday (-34,084) Joseph Joffre, French Army Marshall and Commander in Chief on the Western Front, was born in Rivesaltes.

6/1/1852, Tuesday (-34,090) (1) The railway from Portadown to Mullaglass, 16 � miles, opened.

(2) Louis Braille, who invented the raised-dot system of writing used by the blind, died.

1/1/1852, Thursday (-34,095) The Robertsbridge to Battle railway, 16 miles, opened.


31/12/1851, Wednesday (-34,096) Richard Marsh, horse racing champion, was born (died 20/5/1933).

28/12/1851, Sunday (-34,099) (USA) Perry Belmont, US politician, was born in New York.

25/12/1851, Thursday (-34,102) (Railways) First railway in Chile opened. It ran from the port of Caldera to Copiapo, 80.5 km.

24/12/1851, Wednesday (-34,103) Large fire at the Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA. 35,000 books were destroyed, including most of Thomas Jefferson;�s personal collection, acquired in 1815.

19/12/1851, Friday (-34,108) Painter Joseph Turner died in his house in Chelsea, London, under the assumed name of Booth.

10/12/1851, Wednesday (-34,117) Melvil Dewey, US librarian who devised a system of library cataloguing, was born in Adams Centre, New York State.

8/12/1851, Monday (-34,119) The railway from Cork to Bailinhassig, 10 miles, fully opened (Bandon to Bailinhassig had opened 1/8/1849).

3/12/1851, Wednesday (-34,124) Cecil Lawson, English landscape painter, was born (died 10/6/1882).

2/12/1851, Tuesday (-34,125) In France, President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte extended his term in office and ended the Second Republic. He ordered troops to occupy Paris, arrest Parliamentary Deputies, and to fire on unarmed protestors.


18/11/1851, Tuesday (-34,139) Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, died (born 5/6/1771).

13/11/1851, Thursday (-34,144) (1) A telegraphic service between London and Paris was started.

(2) The railway between Moscow and St Petersburg opened.

10/11/1851, Monday (-34,147) (Biology) Embryologist Francis Balfour was born in Edinburgh (died in Switzerland 19/7/1882).

5/11/1851, Wednesday (-34,152) Charles Dupuy, French statesman, was born.

3/11/1851, Monday (-34,154) Clovis Hugues, French poet, was born (died 11/6/1907).

1/11/1851, Saturday (-34,156) Thomas Galloway, Scottish mathematician, died (born 26/2/1796).


22/10/1851, Wednesday (-34,166) (USA) Archibald Alexander, US Presbyterian clergyman, died in Princeton, New Jersey (born 17/4/1772 in Virginia).

21/10/1851, Tuesday (-34,167) George Ulyett, cricketer, was born (died 18/6/1898).

20/10/1851, Monday (-34,168)

19/10/1851, Sunday (-34,169) (Korea) Myeongseong, Empress of Korea, was born.

18/10/1851, Saturday (-34,170) Herman Melville�s work, Moby Dick, was published in London.

15/10/1851, Wednesday (-34,173) The Great Exhibition at Hyde Park, London, closed.It had opened on 1/5/1851. A total of 6 million visitors had attended. The Exhibition made a profit of �186,000 which was used to buy land in South Kensington where the Victoria and Albert Museum now stands.

11/10/1851, Saturday (-34,177) (Electricity) Paul Erman, electrical scientist, died (born 29/2/1764).

10/10/1851, Friday (-34,178) Melvil Dewey, US librarian, was born.

8/10/1851, Wednesday (-34,180) George Lee, English musician, died.

4/10/1851, Saturday (-34,184) Alvarez Godoy, Spanish statesman, died (born 12/5/1767).

2/10/1851, Thursday (-34,186) Marshal Ferdinand Foch, French General who led the counteroffensive that defeated Germany in 1918, was born in Tarbes, France.


30/9/1851, Tuesday (-34,188) Auguste Molinier, French historical writer, was born (died 19/5/1904).

28/9/1851, Sunday (-34,190) Henry Jones, English dramatist, was born.

19/9/1851, Friday (-34,199) William Lever, soap maker and philanthropist, later Lord Leverhulme, was born in Bolton.He was the son of a grocer.

18/9/1851, Thursday (-34,200) The New York Times was first published.It was founded by Henry Jarvis Raymond.

17/9/1851, Wednesday (-34,201) (Science) Chemist and physician John Kidd died in Oxford, England.

14/9/1851, Sunday (-34,204) James Cooper, US novelist, died (born 15/9/1789).

12/9/1851, Friday (-34,206) Francis Clark, religious writer, was born.

11/9/1851, Thursday (-34,207) Sylvester Graham, US writer on dietetics, died (born 1794).

9/9/1851, Tuesday (-34,209)

7/9/1851, Sunday (-34,211) John Kidd, English scientific writer, died (born 10/9/1775).

6/9/1851, Saturday (-34,212) Karl Koenig, German geologist, died.

5/9/1851, Friday (-34,213) (USA) Thomas Gallaudet, US educator of the deaf and dumb, died (born 10/12/1787).

1/9/1851, Monday (-34,217)


25/8/1851, Monday (-34,224) George Lathrop, US writer, was born.

24/8/1851, Sunday (-34,225) Thomas Kendall, cricketer for Australia, was born in Bedford, England (died 17/8/1924 in Hobart, Tasmania).

22/8/1851, Friday (-34,227) The US schooner Americas won a race around the Isle of Wight. The Americas Cup is named after this ship. It was originally known as the Hundred Guinea Cup.

19/8/1851, Tuesday (-34,230)

17/8/1851, Sunday (-34,232) Henry Drummond, Scottish scholarly writer, was born (died 11/3/1897).

16/8/1851, Saturday (-34,233) (Railways) The railway from Laprarie, Quebec, Canada to Rouses Point, New York, USA, opened.

15/8/1851, Friday (-34,234)

14/8/1851, Thursday (-34,235) Doc Holliday, US Western gunfighter, was born.

13/8/1851, Wednesday (-34,236) (Education) Felix Adler, US educationalist (died 24/4/1933) was born.

12/8/1851, Tuesday (-34,237) Isaac Singer of New York, USA patented his sewing machine.

9/8/1851, Saturday (-34,240) Karl Gutzlaff, German missionary to China, died (born 8/7/1803).

7/8/1851, Thursday (-34,242) Johann Gruber, German writer, died (born 29/11/1774).

1/8/1851, Friday (-34,248) (Railways) The Dublin to Galway railway opened.


31/7/1851, Thursday (-34,249) (Railways) Canada legislated to make the 1676 mm gauge, the �Provincial Gauge�, a pre-condition of financial aid to any railway, thereby introducing a standard gauge for the country.

27/7/1851, Sunday (-34,253)

24/7/1851, Thursday (-34,256) In Britain the Window Tax was abolished.

23/7/1851, Wednesday (-34,257) Sioux Chieftains ceded all their land in Iowa, as well as some in Minnesota, to the US Government.

17/7/1851, Thursday (-34,263) John Lingard, English historical writer, died (born 5/2/1771)

12/7/1851, Saturday (-34,268) Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, French pioneer in photography, died.

8/7/1851, Tuesday (-34,272) Sir Arthur John Evans, British archaeologist who excavated Knossos on Crete, was born.

6/7/1851, Sunday (-34,274) David Moir, Scottish writer, died (born 5/1/1798).

4/7/1851, Friday (-34,276) Construction began at St Louis on the Missouri Pacific Railway. This railway was extended to serve the Mississippi Valley south to Memphis and New Orleans, and the Missouri Valley west to Kansas City and Pueblo, Colorado.

2/7/1851, Wednesday (-34,278) Gyorgy Fejer, Hungarian author, died (born 23/4/1766).


19/6/1851, Thursday (-34,291) William Evans Midwinter, cricketer for Australia, was born in St briavels, Gloucestershire, England (died in Melbourne, 3/12/1890).

15/6/1851, Sunday (-34,295) The first factory-produced ice cream was made in the USA by John Fussell. He wanted to avoid wastage of cream so he froze it; his new food became very popular, and his factory ice cream cost less than a third of the same amount of handmade ice cream.

12/6/1851, Thursday (-34,298) Sir Oliver Lodge, English scientific writer, was born.

3/6/1851, Tuesday (-34,307) George Adams, US historian (died 26/5/1925) was born.

2/6/1851, Monday (-34,308) The Rockingham to Luffenham railway opened.


31/5/1851, Saturday (-34,310)

21/5/1851, Wednesday (-34,320) Victor Bourgeois, French statesman, was born in Paris.

20/5/1851, Tuesday (-34,321) Oxford�s second railway station, linking to Verney Junction, opened.

17/5/1851, Saturday (-34,324) First railway in Peru opened. It ran 15 km from the port of Callao to Lima.

15/5/1851, Thursday (-34,326) The Erie Railway (begun 1832) reached Dunkirk on Lake Erie, linking New York with the Great Lakes and competing with the 1825 Erie Canal.

7/5/1851, Wednesday (-34,334) Adolf Harnack, German religious writer, was born.

6/5/1851, Tuesday (-34,335) Linus Yale patented the Yale lock.

4/5/1851, Sunday (-34,337) Thomas Dewing, US figure painter, was born.

1/5/1851, Thursday (-34,340) The Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace was opened by Queen Victoria, in Hyde Park, London. There were 13,000 exhibits from around the world in an 1,840 foot long, 408 foot wide, 108 foot high steel and glass hall, designed by Joseph Paxton in only 10 days and prefabricated before being brought to Hyde Park by rail. The hall took 17 weeks to erect. 6 million people, 17% of the UK population, visited, also mainly on the new railways across the nation. The exhibition ended on 15/10/1851. After the Great Exhibition, the Crystal Palace was re-erected at Sydenham where it stood till destroyed by fire in 1936. Prince Albert conceived the idea of the Great Exhibition to promote trade between nations and worldwide peace. The Exhibition was open for 6 months and in that time Queen Victoria visited 41 times. Profits from the event funded the opening of the Royal Albert Hall, the Science Museum, the Natural History Museum, and the Victoria and Albert Museum.


29/4/1851, Tuesday (-34,342) Charles Cottenham, Lord Chancellor of England, died (born 29/4/1781).

28/4/1851, Monday (-34,343) Sir Edward Codrington , British Admiral, died (born 1770).

26/4/1851, Saturday (-34,345) Charles Godfrey, British singer, was born in London (died 28/3/1900 in Brierly Hill, Staffordshire)

24/4/1851, Thursday (-34,347)

21/4/1851, Monday (-34,350) (Geology) Charles Barrois, French geologist, was born in Lille.

20/4/1851, Sunday (-34,351) Easter Sunday

1/4/1851, Tuesday (-34,370) Rama IV (1804-68) took the Thai throne.


30/3/1851, Sunday (-34,372) Christian) In Britain this day, 7.25 million out of a total population of 17 million reportedly attended Church. This was thought to be a disturbingly small proportion.

29/3/1851, Saturday (-34,373) Marble Arch, London, was moved from Buckingham Palace to its present position on Oxford Street.

28/3/1851, Friday (-34,374) Gabor Dobrentei, Hungarian writer, died (born 1786).

27/3/1851, Thursday (-34,375) Karl Dindorf, German scholarly writer, died (2/1/1802).

21/3/1851, Friday (-34,381) The Yosemite Valley, in California, USA, was discovered by European explorers.

14/3/1851, Friday (-34,388) Ferdinand Hand, German scholarly writer, died (born 15/2/1786).

13/3/1851, Thursday (-34,389) Karl Lachmann, German scholarly writer, died (born 4/3/1793).

12/3/1851, Wednesday (-34,390) (Medical) Bacteriologist Charles Chamberland was born in Chilly le Vignoble, France. He improved sterilisation techniques and invented filters to trap bacteria, which led to the discovery of viruses.

11/3/1851, Tuesday (-34,391) Verdi�s opera Rigoletto was first performed, in Venice.

9/3/1851, Sunday (-34,393) The University of Manchester was founded, as Owens College, Manchester.


18/2/1851, Tuesday (-34,411) Karl Jacobi, German mathematician, died (born 10/12/1804).

15/2/1851, Saturday (-34,415) The issue of escaped slaves was brought into prominence in the USA when a group of Black protestors liberated a runaway slave, Shadrach, from Boston jail. A similar incident occurred on 1/10/1851 at Syracuse, New York.

13/2/1851, Thursday (-34,417) The railway from Ashford to Robertsbridge, 16 miles, opened.

12/2/1851, Wednesday (-34,418) The Australian Gold Rush began, after Edward Hargreaves discovered gold at Summerhill Creek, 20 miles north of Bathurst, New South Wales.

8/2/1851, Saturday (-34,422) Nicholas Bexley, English politician, died in Foots Cray, Kent (born in London 29/4/1766).

3/2/1851, Monday (-34,427) Argentina�s planned annexation of Uruguay was abandoned following the defeat of Argentine dicatator Juan Manuel de Rosas this day at the Battle of Caseros. Uruguayan insurgent Justo de Urquiza, aged 51, was backed by Brazil, and Rosas fled to England.

1/2/1851, Saturday (-34,429) Mary Shelley, author of Frankenstein, died.


27/1/1851, Monday (-34,434) (Biology) John James Audubon, US naturalist, died in New York.

21/1/1851, Tuesday (-34,440) Gustav Lortzing, German composer, died.

16/1/1851, Thursday (-34,445) Friedrich Muffling, Prussian General Field Marshal, died

1/1/1851, Wednesday (-34,460)


29/12/1850, Sunday (-34,463) Tomas Breton Y Hernandez, Spanish composer, was born in Salamanca (died 2/12/1923 in Madrid)

24/12/1850, Tuesday (-34,468) (France) Frederic Bastiat, French economist, died in Rome (born in Bayonne 29/6/1801).

21/12/1850, Saturday (-34,471) James Lane Allen, US novelist, was born near Lexington, Kentucky.

10/12/1850, Tuesday (-34,482) Francois Beudant, French geologist, died (born in Paris 5/9/1787).

4/12/1850, Wednesday (-34,488) William Sturgeon, who devised the first electro-magnet, died at Prestwich, near Manchester.

3/12/1850, Tuesday (-34,489) George Manson, Scotish water colour painter, was born (died 27/2/1876)


29/11/1850, Friday (-34,493) An uprising began in Warsaw against Russian rule.

19/11/1850, Tuesday (-34,503) Alfred Lord Tennyson was appointed Poet Laureate, a post he held until his death in 1892.

14/11/1850, Thursday (-34,508) (1) In Kilkenny, Ireland, the Bagenalstown to Laristown Junction railway, 10 � miles, opened.

(2) Charles Dickens� eighth book, David Copperfield, was published in entirety.

13/11/1850, Wednesday (-34,509) The writer Robert Louis Stevenson was born in Edinburgh, at 8 Howard Place.His father and grandfather were lighthouse builders.

3/11/1850, Sunday (-34,519) John Watson, writer, was born (died 6/5/1907).


28/10/1850, Monday (-34,525) The Glasgow and South Western Railway was formed by an amalgamation of the Dumfried and Carlisle Railway and the Ayrshire Railways.

15/10/1851, Tuesday (-34,538) Geoirge Moore, US Biblical writer, was born.

5/10/1850, Saturday (-34,548) William Gibson, US writer, was born (died 16/7/1896).

4/10/1850, Friday (-34,549) The bowler hat went on general sale in London.


18/9/1850, Wednesday (-34,565) (Slavery) US Congress passed a new Fugitive Slave Act reinforcing the provisions of the 1793 Act, by substituting Federal for State jurisdiction. New York freedman James Hamlet was arrested in New York as a fugitive from Baltimore, the first arrest under the new Act, but public indignation secured his release. Chicago City Council, 21/10/1850, stated it would not uphold the new Act; however New York, 30/10/1850, said it would enforce it.

9/9/1850, Monday (-34,574) (USA) California became the 31st State of the USA.

6/9/1850, Friday (-34,577) (Brazil) Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil enacted a law authorising steam navigation on the River Amazon, The Compania de Navigicao e Commercio do Amazonas was tghen formed in Rio de Janeiro in 1852 and in 1853 it began operating steamships on the Amazon.

5/9/1850, Thursday (-34,578) James Ingram, English writer, died (born 21/12/1774).

2/9/1850, Monday (-34,581) The Gtreat Western opened the Oxford to Banbury line, 24 miles.


29/8/1850, Thursday (-34,585) The Borders railway bridge at Tweedmouth was formally opened (goods traffic had begun using it from 20/7/1850).

28/8/1850, Wednesday (-34,586) The Channel telegraph was laid between Dover and Cap Gris Nez.

27/8/1850, Tuesday (-34,587) Thomas Kidd, English scholarly writer, died.

26/8/1850, Monday (-34,588) Death of Louis Philippe, the �citizen king�, who abdicated rather than face a middle-class revolt

22/8/1850, Thursday (-34,592) Nikolaus von Strehlenau, Austrian poet, died (born 15/8/1802).

18/8/1850, Sunday (-34,596) Honore de Balzac, French writer, died in Paris.

13/8/1850, Tuesday (-34,601) Philip Marston, English poet, was born (died 13/2/1887).

7/8/1850, Wednesday (-34,607) The Great Northern railway opened from Peterborough 79 miles south to their London terminus at Maiden Lane.

6/8/1850, Tuesday (-34,608) Henri Chantavoine, French writer, was born.

5/8/1850, Monday (-34,609) Henri Maupassant, French novelist, was born (died 6/7/1893).


25/7/1850, Thursday (-34,620) (Denmark, Germany) Battle of Idstedt; Denmark defeated Germany.

14/7/1850, Sunday (-34,631) Johann Neander, German religious writer, died (born 17/1/1789).

9/7/1850, Tuesday (-34,636) Zachary Taylor, American general and Whig, 12th US President for only 16 months, died in Washington DC.The remainder of his term was completed by Millard Fillmore.

8/7/1850, Monday (-34,637) (Britain) Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge, died (born 24/2/1774).

7/7/1850, Sunday (-34,638) Scottish explorer, Edward Eyre arrived in Albany, Western Australia, having crossed the Nullarbor Plain, the first White man to do this.

4/7/1850, Thursday (-34,641) William Kirby, entomological writer, died (born 19/9/1759).

2/7/1850, Tuesday (-34,643) Sir Robert Peel, British Conservative Prime Minister and founder of the police force in 1829, died in London due to a riding accident.


28/6/1850, Friday (-34,647) Richard Heuberger, Austrian composer, was born in Graz (died 27/10/1914 in Vienna)

27/6/1850, Thursday (-34,648) Lafcadio Hearn, writer on Japan, was born (died 26/9/1904).

24/6/1850, Monday (-34,651) Lord Kitchener, British army commander and Secretary of State for War in 1914, was born near Ballylongford, County Kerry, Eire.

22/6/1850, Saturday (-34,653) Ignaz Goldziher, Hungarian Orientalist writer, was born.

18/6/1850, Tuesday (-34,657) The South Wales Railway, from Chepstow to Swansea, opened, on a 7 foot guage

16/6/1850, Sunday (-34,659) Margaret Fuller, US authoress, died (born 23/5/1810).

9/6/1850, Sunday (-34,666) The French administration of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte banned many clubs and meeting places, to counter a surge in political support for radical Parties.

3/6/1850, Monday (-34,672) Five Cayuse Amerindians were executed in the USA by the military following raids by the Cayeuse on White settlements.

2/6/1850, Sunday (-34,673) Jesse Boot, founder of Boots chemists, was born in Nottingham. As a child he accompanied his father, a herbalist, into the woods to identify plants for herbal remedies. Jesse�s father died when Jesse was aged 10, and from age 13 he helped his mother in their small household soap and cleaning products shop. By raising sales volume to above �20 a week he was able to secure wholesale discounts and undercut the established chemists. The dispute with these other shops only gave him kore publicity and his sales reached �40 a week.


31/5/1850, Friday (-34,675) France passed a law requiring voters to be resident in the same place for three years before qualifying for a vote.This was to exclude migratory workers, who tended to be radical.

28/5/1850, Tuesday (-34,687) Frederic Maitland, English historical writer, was born (died 19/12/1906).

25/5/1850, Saturday (-34,681) The first hippopotamus to be kept in Britain arrived at London Zoo.

24/5/1850, Friday (-34,682) Jane Porter, English novelist (born 1776) died.

20/5/1850, Monday (-34,686) The Galston to Newmilns railway opened.

12/5/1850, Sunday (-34,694) Henry Lodge, US author, was born.

10/5/1850, Friday (-34,696) Sir Thomas Lipton, British grocer and philanthropist, was born in Glasgow.

7/5/1850, Tuesday (-34,699) Anton Seidl, Hungarian operatic conductor, was born (died 28/3/1898).

6/5/1850, Monday (-34,700) The railway from Belfast to Newtonards, 13 � miles, opened.

1/5/1850, Wednesday (-34,705) The Buckinghamshire railway opened, 31 miles from Bletchley to Banbury via Verney Junction, with a branch to Oxford.


26/4/1850, Friday (-34,710) Harry Bates, British sculptor, was born in Stevenage, Hertfordshire (died in London 30/1/1899).

23/4/1850, Tuesday (-34,713) Sir William Wordsworth, Poet Laureate from 1843, died of pleurisy at midday at Rydal Mount, Grasmere, aged 80

20/4/1850, Saturday (-34,716) Daniel French, US sculptor, was born.

19/4/1850, Friday (-34,717) (USA, Britain, Central America, Canals) The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty between the USA and UK was signed. It was an agreement on the terms for building a canal across Nicaragua; under this treaty, neither party would exercise exclusive control over such a canal or fortify it. The US and the UK each had territorial interests in Central America, and were suspicious of each other�s activities in the region. Ultimately this Treaty was superseded by a similar neutralisation policy regarding the Panama Canal under the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1902.

16/4/1850, Tuesday (-34,720) Swiss waxworks show proprietor Madame Marie Tussaud died. She was born on 1/12/1761 in Strasbourg. She learnt the art of wax modelling from her uncle, Philippe Curtius. Before the French Revolution Mme Tussaud was art tutor at Versailles to Louis XVI�s sister, Elizabeth. After a period in prison she was tasked with making death masks from the heads of those guillotined, some of whom she recognised as friends. She left Paris in 1802, along with her waxwork models, and two sons from a failed marriage to a French engineer, Francois Tussaud. She spent 33 years touring Britain before opening a permanent display in London.

12/4/1850, Friday (-34,724) Adoniram Judson, US missionary to Burma, died (born 9/8/1788).

7/4/1850, Sunday (-34,729) William Bowles, English poet, died in Salisbury (born in Northamptonshire 24/9/1762).

1/4/1850, Monday (-34,735) Through trains from London to Aberdeen began running.


31/3/1850, Sunday (-34,736) Easter Sunday

25/3/1850, Monday (-34,742) Edward Bellamy, US writer, was born in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts (died in Chicopee Falls 22/5/1898).

18/3/1850, Monday (-34,749) (1) The American Express Company was set up in Buffalo, New York

(2) The Chester and Holyhead Railway was completed, instituting an important link between London and Ireland, used by the Royal Mail trains.

15/3/1850, Friday (-34,752) In France, the Loi Falloux made provision for clergy to be able to teach in secondary schools without need for further qualifications than their religious certificate, whereas lay teachers needed a university degree. It also made provision for separate girls� schools, and for adult and apprentice education.

7/3/1850, Thursday (-34,760) Thomas Masaryk, the first President of Czechoslovakia in 1918, was born in Hodonin, Moravia.


25/2/1850, Monday (-38,770) Daoguang, Emperor of China, died.

22/2/1850, Friday (-38,773) Sir William Allan, Scottish painter, died.

16/2/1850, Saturday (-34,779) Octave Mirabeau, French dramatist, was born.

15/2/1850, Friday (-34,780) Albert Cummins, US politician, was born (died 30/7/1926).

14/2/1850, Thursday (-34,781) The railway from Drogheda to Navan, 17 miles, opened.

1/2/1850, Friday (-34,794) The railway from Hounslow to Feltham Junction, weat London opened.


29/1/1850, Tuesday (-34,797) Sir Ebenezer Howard, who started the Garden City movement, was born in London.

27/1/1850, Sunday (-34,799) Samuel Gompers, US trades union leader, was born.

26/1/1850, Saturday (-34,800) Francis Jeffrey, Scottish writer, died (born 23/10/1773).

24/1/1850, Thursday (-34,802) Charles Craddock, US author, was born.

19/1/1850, Saturday (-34,807) Augustine Birrell, author, was born near Liverpool.

18/1/1850, Friday (-34,808) Seth Low, US politician, was born.

17/1/1850, Thursday (-34,809)

15/1/1850, Tuesday (-34,811) (Greece) The British fleet blocked the Greek port of Piraeus to force the Greek Government to pay compensation to Gibraltar-born Jew Don Pacifico, whose home had been ransacked during an anti-Semitic riot in 12/1849. The Greek Government agreed to pay on 26/4/1850. However the episode annoyed France and Russia, who were also guarantors of Greek independence. This marked a new level of British imperialism abroad.

14/1/1850, Monday (-34,812) Louis Viaud, French author, was born.

3/1/1850, Thursday (-34,823) Work began in Hyde Park, London, on the glass and iron Crystal Palace, built for the Great Exhibition.

1/1/1850, Tuesday (-34,825)


29/12/1849, Saturday (-34,828) (Britain) William Cunningham, English economist, was born.

26/12/1849, Wednesday (-34,831) Francis Brown, USA Semitic scholar and writer, was born.

20/12/1849, Thursday (-34,837) Michail Eminescu, Romanian poet, was born (died 1889).

17/12/1849, Monday (-34,840) Landowner Edward Coke tested a new type of hat he had ordered to protect his head from low-hanging branches whilst out hunting; top hats were too easily knocked off. This day he visited the Lockes hatters shop in St James, London, to test the new bowler hat, named after its designed, by jumping on it twice. It withstood the test and he bought it.

15/12/1849, Saturday (-34,842) Alfred East, English painter, was born.

14/12/1849, Friday (-34,843) Konradin Kreutzer, German composer, died (born 22/11/1780).

12/12/1849, Wednesday (-34,845) Sir Marc Isambard Kingdom Brunel, builder of the Thames Tunnel from Wapping to Rotherhithe, died in London aged 80.

1/12/1849, Saturday (-34,856) Queen Adelaide, wife of King William IV, died.


24/11/1849, Saturday (-34,683) Frances Burnett, novelist, was born.

21/11/1849, Wednesday (-34,686) Francois Granet, French painter, died (born 17/12/1777).

16/11/1849, Friday (-34,691) Edward Dana, scientific writer, was born.

1/11/1849, Thursday (-34,886) The Mallow to Cork railway, 19 � miles, opened.


29/10/1849, Monday (-34,889) The railway from Edinburgh reached Hawick

17/10/1849, Wednesday (-34,901) Frederic Chopin, born 1/3/1810 near Warsaw, Poland, died aged 39 of tuberculosis in Paris.

14/10/1849, Sunday (-34,904) Edward Coplestone, English Bishop, died

7/10/1849, Sunday (-34,911) Edgar Allen Poe, US fiction writer, died aged 40, in Baltimore, Maryland.

5/10/1849, Friday (-34,913) (Hungary) Count Louis Batthyany, Hungarian statesman, died (born 1806 in Pressburg).

1/10/1849, Monday (-34,917) Anne Edgren-Leffler, Swedish author, was born (died 21/10/1892).


26/9/1849, Wednesday (-34,922) Ivan Pavlov, son of a village priest, was born this day near Ryazan, Russia. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1904 for his discovery of conditioned reflexes.

25/9/1849, Tuesday (-34,923) Johann Strauss the Elder died, aged 45, of scarlet fever.

21/9/1849, Friday (-34,927) Edmund Gosse, English poet, was born.

3/9/1849, Monday (-34,945) Ernst Feuchtersleben, Austrian poet, died (born 29/4/1806).


29/8/1849, Wednesday (-34,950) Jean Buchon, French scholarly writer, died (born 21/5/1791).

24/8/1849, Friday (-34,955) Karl Marx moved from France to England.

23/8/1849, Thursday (-34,956) William Henley, British poet, was born (died 11/7/1903)

22/8/1849, Wednesday (-34,957) Amaral, the Portuguese Governor of Macao, was assassinated for his pro-Chinese policies.

20/8/1848, Monday (-34,959) The Manchester to Altrincham railway opened.

18/8/1849, Saturday (-34,961) Benjamin Godard, French composer, was born (died 10/1/1895).

15/8/1849, Wednesday (-34,964) The first passenger train crossed the High Level bridge over the Tyne at Newcastle.

13/8/1849, Monday (-34,966) The Hungarian General, Gorgey, surrendered unconditionally to the Russian Commander in Chief, Field Marshall Paskevic. The Hungarian leader, Kossuth, who had urged the continuation of the conflict right up to the end, escaped to Turkey.

12/8/1849, Sunday (-34,967) Albert Gallatin, US statesman, died (born 29/1/1761).

10/8/1849, Friday (-34,969)

4/9/1849, Saturday (-34,975) The Great Northern Railway opened the 17 mile line from Retford to Doncaster.

3/8/1849, Friday (-34,976) William Henley, British poet, was born (died 11/7/1903).

2/8/1849, Thursday (-34,977) Mohammed Ali, ruler of Egypt from 1805 to 1848, died. Apart from his military successes, he laid the foundations of a modern educational and administrative system, and revolutionised the Egyptian economy.

1/8/1849, Wednesday (-34,978) The Bandon to Ballinhassig railway, Cork, (10 miles), opened. The Standedge rail tunnel, UK, 5 km long, opened.


30/7/1849, Monday (-34,980) The railway from Deptford via Blackheath, Charlton and Woolwich to Gravesend, 21 � miles, opened.

28/7/1849, Saturday (-34,982) Hungary�s Diet passed the Nationalities Law, granting the non-Magyar peoples of Hungary substantial rights in the use of their native languages, also regional autonomy. This was a last-ditch effort by the Diet to win over the loyalty of the peasants and make them more willing to fight against Austria; a string of Hungarian defeats, and the entry of Russia on Austria�s side, had demoralised the Hungarian Army and created a shortage of recruits.

27/7/1849, Friday (-34,983) John Hopkinson, English engineer, was born (died 27/8/1898).

25/7/1849, Wednesday (-34,984) James Kenney, English dramatist, died.

19/7/1849, Thursday (-34,991) Sayid Ali Mohammed, founder of the Bahai religion, was executed in Persia by order of the Shah.

17/7/1849, Tuesday (-34,993) The Woodhouse (Sheffield) to Gainsborough railway opened.

6/7/1849, Friday (-35,004) Goffredo Mameli, Italian poet, died.

1/7/1849, Sunday (-35,009) John Selby, cricketer for England, was born in Nottingham (died 11/3/1894 in Nottingham)


26/6/1849, Tuesday (-35,014) (Britain) Britain repealed the Navigation Acts, protectionst legislation favouring the Merchant Navy that dated back to the mid-17th century.

22/6/1849, Friday (-35,018) Francis Lathrop, US artist, was born (died 18/10/1909).

20/6/1849, Wednesday (-35,020) James Mangan, Irish poet, died (born 1/5/1803).

17/6/1849, Sunday (-35,023) Russian troops invaded Hungary.

16//6/1849, Saturday (-35,024) Wilhelm de Wette, German religious writer, died (born 12/1/1780).

15/6/1849, Friday (-35,025) James Knox Polk, American Democrat and 11th President from 1845 to 1849, died in Nashville, Tennessee.

12/6/1849, Tuesday (-35,028) Angelica Catalani, Italian opera singer, died (born 1780).

10/6/1849, Sunday (-35,030) (France) Thomas Bugeaud, Marshal of France, died (born 15/10/1784).

8/6/1849, Friday (-35,032) Julien Dillens, Belgian sculptor, was born (died 11/1904).

6/6/1849, Wednesday (-35,034) Kossuth entered Budapest in triumph; however his rule was to last only a few weeks.

4/6/1849, Monday (-35,036) Marguerite Blessington, Irish novelist, died in Paris (born in County Tipperary 1/9/1789).


28/5/1849, Monday (-35,043) (1) Anne Bronte, English novelist, died in Scarborough, Yorkshire, aged 29.

(2) The railway from Newry to Warrenpoint, 5 � miles, opened.

22/5/1849, Tuesday (-34,049) Maria Edgeworth, Irish novelist, died (born 1/7/1767).

21/5/1849, Monday (-34,050) Buda Castle was stormed by Austrian forces.

20/5/1849, Sunday (-34,051)

19/5/1849, Saturday (-34,052) William Hamilton attempted to assassinate Queen Victoria.

16/5/1849, Wednesday (-34,055) Victor Bruce, 9th earl of Elgin, was born.

10/5/1849, Thursday (-35,061) In New York, 22 died and 56 were injured as troops fired on anti-British riots sparked by Irish gangs. The mob, armed with bricks and clubs, had gathered outside the Astor Place Opera House to revile the British actor Charles Macready, who had scorned the vulgarity of Americans.

6/5/1849, Sunday (-35,065) Wyatt Eaton, US portrait painter, was born (died 7/6/1896).

3/5/1849, Thursday (-37,260) (Germany) Bernhard, Prince von Bulow, German Chancellor and Prime Minister of Prussia (1900-09) was born.

1/5/1849, Tuesday (-35,070) The railway from Colwich to Stone, Staffordshire, opened.


30/4/1849, Monday (-35,071)

29/4/1849, Sunday (-35,072) Alexander Johnston, US historical writetr, was born (died 21/7/1889).

27/4/1849, Friday (-35,074) Severino Fabriani, Italian writer, died (born 7/1/1792).

24/4/1849, Tuesday (-35,077) Joseph Gallieni, French soldier, was born.

22/4/1849, Sunday (-35,079) (Denmark) Schleswig-Holstein troops defeated the Danes at Kolding.

13/4/1849, Friday (-35,088) The Hungarian Diet proclaimed a Republic, with Lajos Kossuth as President.

12/4/1849, Thursday (-35,089) Albert Heim, Swiss geologist, was born.

11/4/1849, Wednesday (-35,090)

10/4/1849. Tuesday (-35,091) Walter Hunt of New York patented the safety pin. He made it in only three hours, then sold the rights for $400 to pay off debts.

8/4/1849, Sunday (-35,093) Easter Sunday

5/4/1849, Thursday (-35,096) Denmark sent the wooden battleship Christian VIII into Eckernforde Bay to destroy a German gun battery. However the ships rudder jammed and she ran aground, caught fire, and then exploded.


29/3/1849, Thursday (-35,103) Britain annexed the Sikh province of Punjab.

28/3/1849, Wednesday (-35,104) James Darmesteter, French author, was born (died 19/10/1894).

27/3/1849, Tuesday (-35,105)

25/3/1849, Sunday (-35,107) Agenor Goluchowski, Austrian statesman, was born.

24/3/1849, Saturday (-35,108) Johann Dobereiner, German chemist, died (born 15/12/1780).

23/3/1849, Friday (-35,109) Victor Emmanuel II became King of Sardinia, on the abdication of his father, Charles Albert (1789-1849), following the defeat of Charles at the Battle of Novara, against Austria. Charles had been assisting the Lombards in a rebellion against Austrian rule, and had been defeated once before by Austria, at the Battle of Custozza (25/7/1848), by forces under Radetzky (following this 1848 defeat, the Salasco Armistice was signed).

19/3/1849, Monday (-35,113) Alfred von Tirpitz, German Admiral, was born in Kustrin, Brandenburg, Prussia.

17/3/1849, Saturday (-35,115) (1) Elastic bands patented, by Stephen Perry�s London rubber company.

(2) The railway from Limerick Junction to Mallow opened.

15/3/1849, Thursday (-35,117) (Christian) Guiseppe Mezzofanti, Italian Cardinal, died (born 17/9/1774)

11/3/1849, Sunday (-35,121) William Etty, British painter, died (born 10/3/1787).

5/3/1849, Monday (-35,127) The US Department of the Interior was created. It became custodian of the nations�s resources.

4/3/1849, Sunday (-35,128) A final new constitution was introduced in Austria, with watered-down reforms including limited siuffrage, a reformed judiciary and the abolition of feudalism and serfdom. The population was coereced into accepting this by the invitation to Russian troops (issued 5/1849) to �protect� Austro-Hungasry


21/2/1849. Wednesday (-35,139) Sikh forces were decisively defeated by the British at the Battle of Gujerat. This concluded the Second Sikh War; Britain annexed Punjab.

15/2/1849, Thursday (-35,145) The Dundalk to Drogheda (22 miles) and the Dundalk to Castle Blayney (18 miles) opened.

13/2/1849, Tuesday (-35,147) Lord Randolph Churchill, British Conservative politician and father of Winston Churchill, was born at Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire.

10/2/1849, Saturday (-35,150) Bernard Barton, English poet, died in Woodbridge (born in Carlisle 31/1/1784).

9/2/1849, Friday (-35,151) The Republic of Rome was proclaimed by Garibaldi. His Nationalist Army came under attack (from 30/4/1849) from a combined force of French, Austrian, Tuscan, Spanish and Neapolitan troops.

6/2/1849, Tuesday (-35,154)

1/2/1849, Thursday (-35,159) The line from Edinbiurgh to Galashiels opened for goods.


31/1/1849, Wednesday (-35,160) Britain�s Corn Laws were abolished.

30/1/1849, Tuesday (-35,161) Peter de Wint, English landscape painter, died (born 21/1/1784).

26/1/1849, Friday (-35,165) Thomas Beddoes, English dramatist, died (born in Clifton 20/7/1803).

23/1/1849, Tuesday (-35,168) English-born Elizabeth Blackwell graduated from a New York medical school to become the first female doctor.

22/1/1849, Monday (-35,169) August Strindberg, playwright, was born in Stockholm, Sweden.

18/1/1849, Thursday (-35,173) Sir Edmund Burton, the first Prime Minister of Australia in 1901, was born in Glebe, Sydney.

13/1/1849, Saturday (-35,178) British forces defeated the Sikh armies at Jallianwalla

6/1/1849, Saturday (-35,185) Hartley Coleridge, English writer, died (born 19/9/1796).

5/1/1849, Friday (-35,186) Franz Josef�s Austrian troops arrived in Buda, to occupy Buda and Pest, and suppress the Hungarian Revolution.

4/1/1849, Thursday (-35,187) (India) British forces captured the city of Multan, India.

1/1/1849, Monday (-35,190)


31/12/1848, Sunday (-35,191) Johann Hermann, German scholarly writer, died (born 28/11/1772).

20/12/1848, Wednesday (-35,202) Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed President of France.

19/12/1848. Tuesday (-35,203) Emily Bronte, English novelist who wrote Wuthering Heights, born 30/7/1818, died from tuberculosis, aged 30.

18/12/1848, Monday (-55,204) Bernhard Bolzano, Austrian clerical writer, died in Prague (born in Prague 5/10/1781).

16/12/1848, Saturday (-35,206)

15/12/1848, Friday (-35,207) Edwin Blashfield, US artist, was born in New York City.

14/12/1848, Thursday (-35,208) Jean Letronne, French archeological writer, died.

11/12/1848, Monday (-35,211) Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of the French Republic by a large majority.

2/12/1848, Saturday (-35,220) Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated in favour of his nephew, Francis Joseph. The Reichstag was moved out to Moravia, then dismissed entirely.


29/11/1848, Wednesday (-35,223) (Britain) Charles Buller, MP for Liskeard, died (born 6/8/1806).

24/11/1848, Friday (-35,228) William Fielding, Canadian politician, was born.

23/11/1848, Thursday (-35,229) (Britain) Sir John Barrow, British politician died (born near Ulverstone, Lancashire, 19/6/1764).

16/11/1848, Thursday (-35,236) Charles Bemont, scholarly writer, was born in Paris

11/11/1848, Saturday (-35,241) Hans Delbruck, German historical writer, was born.

9/11/1848, Thursday (-35,243) Robert Blum, German politician, was executed.

6/11/1848, Monday (-35,246) Richard Jefferies, English naturalist writer, was born (died 14/8/1887).

3/11/1848, Friday (-35,249) (Rail travel) First railway in Guyana opened. It ran from Georgetown to Mahiba.

1/11/1848. Wednesday (-35,251) W H Smith opened his first bookstall at Euston Station, London, the start of multiple retailing in Britain.


28/10/1848, Saturday (-35,255) (Rail travel) The first railway in Spain opened, Barcelona to Matara, 27 km.

25/10/1848, Wednesday (-35,258) Karl Franzos, German novelist, was born (died 28/1/1904).

14/10/1848, Saturday (-35,269) The railway from Ruabon to Shrewsbury opened, completing the line from Chester.

13/10/1848, Friday (-35,270) Persia�s Kajar Shah Mohammed Ali died aged 38, after a 13-year reign during which he has nearly bankrupted the country and almost precipitated a revolution. He was succeeded by his 17-year-old son, Nasr-ed-Din, who reigned until 1896. He was assisted, until 1852, by the capable Finance Minister, Taki Khan.

9/10/1848, Monday (-35,274) Frank Duvenek, US portrait painter, was born.

6/10/1848, Friday (-35,277) Renewed popular uprising in Vienna, as reforms stalled. It was harshly suppressed three days later.

5/10/1848, Thursday (-35,278) Jean Detaille, French painter, was born.

4/10/1848, Wednesday (-35,279) Frederic Edward Weatherley, Britis songwriter, was born in Portishead, Somerset (died 7/9/1929 in Weybridge, Surrey)

2/10/1848, Monday (-35,281) Georg Goldfuss, German palaeontological writer, died (born 18/4/1782).


26/9/1848, Tuesday (-35,287) William Scott, champion jockey, was born.

23/9/1848, Saturday (-35,290) Chewing gum was commercially produced for the first time. It was called �State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum�.

21/9/1848, Thursday (-35,292) Lord William Bentinck, British politician, died in Welbeck (born 27/2/1802).

12/9/1848, Tuesday (-35,301) (Switzerland) Switzerland adopted a Federal constitution.

10/9/1848, Sunday (-35,303) The South Devon Railway ceased using atmospheric traction between Extere and Newton Abbot. The system meant locomotoves could be dispensed with, but was prone to huge technical problems and was very expensive.

9/9/1848, Saturday (-35,304) France limited the work hours for all adults to 12 in any 24 hour period, at usines et manufactures. The workplaces covered by this law were clarified in 1851 as 1) industrial establishments with motor power or continual furnaces and 2) workshops with over 20 employees. Previously, in 1841, France had banned all childen aged undee 8 from factory employment, and proscribed all night labour for children aged under 13. From 1892, daytime factory labour for children aged under 13 was also illegal. From 1900, for children or women, the 12-hour limit was reduced to 11 and at 2-year intervals from April 1900, was to be cut at 10.5 and then 10 hours.

8/9/1848, Friday (-35,305) (Chemistry) Viktor Meyer, German organic chemist, was born in Berlin.

7/9/1848. Thursday (-35,306) The Congress in Vienna, which opened on 22/7/1848, abolished serfdom, and the feudal system of land tenure. This greatly benefited the Czechs, who since the Battle of the White Mountains, 1620, had become a peasant nation, with only the beginnings of a middle class by 1800. After serfdom was abolished, the system of peasant ownership of land allowed national wealth to be built up, and personal liberty enabled an educational system to be established.

5/9/1848, Tuesday (-35,308) The Wiltshire Somerset & Weymouth Railway opened from Thingley Junction to Westbury, 17 miles.


26/8/1848. Saturday (-35,318) (1) Garibaldi was defeated by the Austrians at Morrazone.

(2) Denmark and Prussia signed a truce at Malmo. Both agreed to evacuate the disputed territory of Schleswig-Holstein.

24/8/1848, Thursday (-35,320) John Cramer, English geographical writer, died (born 1793).

22/8/1848, Tuesday (-35,322) (1) Mathieu Louisi became the first Black MP to sit in a European Parliament when he was elected representative for Guadeloupe to the French Parliament. His maiden speech in November calling for more harmonious relations between the races was met with disapproval, and he lost his seat at the next election.

(2) The world�s first aerial bombing raid was carried out by the Austrians against the defenders of Venice. Unmanned hot air balloons with 30 pound bombs were sent across; they caused little damage but much bemusement.

12/8/1848, Saturday (-35,332) George Stephenson, the engineer who built the first modern railway in 1825, from Stockton to Darlington, died at Tapton, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire.

10/8/1848, Thursday (-35,334)

9/8/1848, Wednesday (-35,335) Frederick Marryat, English novelist, died.

8/8/1849, Tuesday (-35,336) (Italy) Ugo Bassi, Italian patriot, was executed.

7/8/1848, Monday (-35,337) (Chemistry) Jons Berzelius, chemist, died in Stockholm

2/8/1848, Wednesday (-35,342) The railway from Belfast to Holywood opened.


26/7/1848, Wednesday (-35,349) (Italy) Battle of Volta; along with Custozza 24-55 July), Italians being forced back by Austrians

25/7/1848, Tuesday (-35,350) Arthur James Balfour, British Conservative and Prime Minister, was born in East Lothian, Scotland.

24/7/1848, Monday (-35,351) (1) (Italy) At the Battle of Custozza, Piedmontese forces were defeated by Austrian Field Marshal Count Radetzky. Austria continued to rule Lombardy.

(2) The Carlow to Bagenalstown railway, 10 miles, opened.

22/7/1848, Saturday (-35,353)

19/7/1848, Wednesday (-35,356) At the first women�s rights convention, at Seneca Falls, New York State, female rights campaigner Amelia Bloomer, born on 27/5/1818 in New York, introduced �bloomers� to the world. She described these as �the lower part of a rational female dress�. The wearing of trousers by a woman caused much concern. She was campaigning for women�s equality in voting, religion, marriage, work, education, and society. New York, in 1848, passed the Married Women�s Property Act allowing divorced women to keep some of their possessions.

18/7/1848, Tuesday (-35,357) The cricketer W G Grace was born at Downend near Bristol.

13/7/1848, Thursday (-35,362) The first train arrived at London�s new Waterloo Station, from Southampton, see 1/7/1848.

11/7/1848, Tuesday (-35,364) The London & South Western Railway extended its line from Nine Elms to the more central London terminus of Waterloo.

9/7/1848, Sunday (-35,366) Jaime Balmes, Spanish writer, died in Vich ( born in Vich, Catalonia, 28/8/1810).

6/7/1848, Thursday (-35,369) (Railways) Gabor Baross, who developed the Austro-Hungarian railway system, was born in Trencsen (died in Hungary 8/5/1892).

5/7/1848, Wednesday (-35,370) William Butler, Irish writer, died.

4/7/1848, Tuesday (-35,371) The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels, was published.

3/7/1848, Monday (-35,372) The Thurles to Limerick Junction railway, 20 � miles, opened.

1/7/1848, Saturday (-35,374) Waterloo Station, London, was completed.Previously, trains had terminated at Nine Elms, 2 � miles south-west, and rail passengers took a steamboat to The City.See 13/7/1848.


27/6/1848, Tuesday (-25,378) (France) Denis Affre, Archbishop of Paris (born 27/9/1793) died.

26/6/1848, Monday (-25,379) (France) Riots in Paris from the 23rd to the 26th June. See 27/2/1848.

25/6/1848, Sunday (-25,380)

24/6/1848, Saturday (-35,381) Brooks Adams, US historian, (died 13/2/1927) was born.

23/6/1848, Friday (-35,382) Adolfe Sax, born on 6/11/1814 in Dinant, Belgium, was awarded a patent for the saxophone. The instrument came to be associated with immorality, causing The Vatican to officially condemn its use.

22/6/1848, Thursday (-35,383) (Medical) Sir William Macewen, surgeon, was born.

20/6/1848, Tuesday (-35,385)

18/6/1848, Sunday (-35,387) (India) A Sikh force was defeated by the British at Kinyeri

17/6/1848, Saturday (-35,388) The revolt in Prague was suppressed by Austrian troops.

12/6/1848, Monday (-35,393) Revolution by students and workers in Prague

9/6/1848, Friday (-35,396) (Italy) Austrian forces recaptured Vicenza from the Italians.

7/6/1848, Wednesday (-35,398) Paul Gauguin, French painter, was born in Paris.He was the son of a journalist.


30/5/1848, Tuesday (-35,406) (Italy) Battle of Goito (also fighting at Curtatone,29/5), Italians fighting Austrians.

29/5/1848, Monday (-35,407) Wisconsin became the 30th State of the Union.

24/5/1848, Wednesday (-35,412) Annette Droste-Hulshoff, German poet, died (born 10/1/1797).

22/5/1848, Monday (-35,410) The Scottish Central Railway opened the 33 mile line between Perth and Stirling.

13/5/1848, Saturday (-35,423) Alexander Baring, British financier and politician, died (born 27/10/1774)

11/5/1848, Thursday (-35,425) The Kilkenny to Thomastown railway, 10 � miles, opened.

10/5/1848, Wednesday (-35,426) The French Assembly spurned the proposal of Louis Blanc to establish a Ministry of Labour and Progress, a bold measure to implement Blanc's socialist agenda.

9/5/1848, Tuesday (-35,427) The Limerick to Tipperary railway, 24 � miles, opened.

7/5/1848, Sunday (-35,429)

6/5/1848, Saturday (-35,430) (Italy) Battle of St Lucia di Verona, Italian forces attempting toforce back Austrians

5/5/1848, Friday (-35,431) The South Devon Railway was extended to Plymouth

3/5/1848, Wednesday (-35,433)

2/5/1848. Tuesday (-35,434) Prussia invaded Denmark over the Schleswig-Holstein question.

1/5/1848, Monday (-35,435) The Chester anfd Holyhead Railway opened from Chester to Bangor.


29/4/1848, Saturday (-35,437) (Italy) Italian forces halted at Pastrengo by Austrians.

25/4/1848, Tuesday (-35,441) Thomas Armitage, cricketer for England, was born in Sheffield (died in Chicago, USA, 21/9/1922)

23/4/1848, Sunday (-35,443) Easter Sunday.

22/4/1848, Saturday (-35,444) To placate a restive peasantry, the governor of Galicia, Franz von Stadion, ordered that peasant tenant farmers should receive the freehold to their land and the gentry landlords be compensated by the State. Furthermore on 7/9/1848 (see date above also) the peasants were granted unrestricted access to woods, meadows and pastures.

21/4/1848, Friday (-35,445)

20/4/1848, Thursday (-35,446) Friedrich Balduin, German soldier, died (born 24/10/1794).

19/4/1848, Wednesday (-35,447) (Italy) An Italian attack on Mantua was repulsed by the Austrians.

16/4/1848, Sunday (-35,450)

14/4/1848, Friday (-35,452) (Italy) Italian troops began a siege of Austrian forces at Peschiera; the town held out until end-May.

13/4/1848. Thursday (-35,453) Sicily declared itself independent from Naples.

12/4/1848, Wednesday (-35,454) Charles Dickens� seventh book, Dombey and Son, was published in entirety.

11/4/1848, Tuesday (-35,455) The railway from Belfast to Ballymena, 33 � miles, also the Carrickfergus branch (3 miles) and the Randalstown branch (2 miles) opened.

10/4/1848, Monday (-35,456) A further Chartist petition was rejected (see 28/2/1837).

9/4/1848, Sunday (-35,457) (Italy) Italian troops fighting Austria forced a passage across the River Mincio toits eastern bank.

8/4/1848, Saturday (-35,458) A new Austrian constitution, the Pillersdorf Constitution, was prepared. This proposed a constitutional monarchy and universal suffrage. However the Austrian Prime Minister attempted to block its implementatoion by dissolving trhe Reichstag and arresting reformers. The entire reforming process then stalled because Austria was facing regional problems.

5/4/1848, Wednesday (-35,461)

1/4/1848, Saturday (-35,465) Gaetano Donizetti, Italian composer, died (born 1798).


31/3/1848, Friday (-35,466) The Emperor of Austria was forced to agree to Hungarian demands for autonomy (voirtual independence); however he planned a military strategy to crush the Hungarian rebels.

30/3/1848, Thursday (-35,467) Niagara Falls ceased to flow for 30 hours, as an ice dam built up in Lake Erie.

29/3/1848, Wednesday (-35,468) (USA) John Jacob Astor, US fur merchant and philanthropist, died in New York City (born 17/7/1763 in Walldorf, Germany).

26/3/1848, Sunday (-35,471) John Collins, English literary critic, was born (died 15/9/1908).

23/3/1848. Thursday (-35,474) (1) Hungary proclaimed its independence from Austria.On 5/1/1849 Budapest surrendered to the Austrians.

(2) The first official settlement at Dunedin, New Zealand.

(3) (Italy) Following the Milan Revolution, Piedmont declared a patriotic war against Austria.

20/3/1848, Monday (-35,477) Ludwig I, King of Bavaria, abdicated.

19/3/1848, Sunday (-35,478) Wyatt Earp, American law enforcer, was born in Monmouth, Illinois.

18/3/1848, Saturday (-35,479) Revolution broke out in Milan. This was the Cinque Giornate, �Five Days� of street fighting that heralded the start of the anti-Austrian Revolution in Lombardy. Radetzky was driven from Milan, and a provisional government established under Carlo Cattaneo.

17/3/1848, Friday (-35,480) Protests in Berlin against the conservatism of Prussian ruler Frederick William IV

16/3/1848, Thursday (-35,481)

15/3/1848, Wednesday (-35,482) Emperor Ferdinand of Austria made concessions to the Hungarian agitants, promising a liberal conasitution amnd freedom of the press.

14/3/1848, Tuesday (-35,483) (Cartography) Adrian Balbi, Italian geographer, died 14/3/1848 in Padua (born in Venice 25/4/1782).

13/3/1848, Monday (-35,484) Peaceful demonstrations in central Vienna, demanding political reform, turned violent and spread to the suburbs. The Austrian Government was frightened.

7/3/1848, Tuesday (-35.490) Irish Nationalist leader Thomas Francis Meagher unveiled the current Irish flag at a meeting in Waterford. He explained the design as the central white third representing a truce between the Protestant Orange and the Catholic Green factions.

3/3/1848, Friday (-35,494) Louis-Philippe of France arrived in England, following his abdication. Meanwhile economic depression and hunger, and discontent amongst the growing middle classes, was spurring revolution across Europe. Demonstrations occurred in Vienna and across Hungarian cities; ethnic minorities within the Austro-Hungarian Empire were demanding self-rule. Venice proclaimed independence from Austria.

2/3/1848, Thursday (-35,495) (France) Universal male suffrage was enacted in France, giving the country nine million new voters.

1/3/1848, Wednesday (-35,496) The Portadown to Armagh railway, 10 � miles, opened.


29/2/1848, Tuesday (-35,497) Arthur Giry, French historical writer, was born (died 13/11/1899).

28/2/1848, Monday (-35,498) (France) French workers demonstrated in the Place de l'H�tel-de-Ville, Paris, to demand a Ministry of Labour and the 10-hour day.

27/2/1848. Sunday (-35,499) France created national workshops to relieve unemployment.

26/2/1848, Saturday (-35,500) The Second French Republic was proclaimed. See 24/2/1848

25/2/1848, Friday (-35,501) (France) Lamartine rejected the proposed Socialist Red Flag as the new French flag, preferring the �liberal democratic� Tricolour to the �Blood Flag of anarchy�.

24/2/1848. Thursday (-35,502) The French monarchy fell as King Louis Philippe fled to exile in England. See 26/2/1848

23/2/1848, Wednesday (-35,503) John Quincy Adams, 6th American President from 1825 to 1829, died in the White House

22/2/1848, Tuesday (-35,504) (France) In France a socialist �banquet�, or political meeting, to commemorate the birthday of George Washington was banned. This ban caused major unrest and riots in the following days.

21/2/1848, Monday (-35,505) The Communist Manifesto was first published.

19/2/1848, Saturday (-35,507) The line from Edinbiurgh to Galashiels opened for passengers.

15/2/1848, Tuesday (-35,511) The Caldeonian Railway opened from Beattock to Glasgow.

12/2/1848, Saturday (-35,514) In France, the Liberal Opposition to the Conservative Guizot Government in France reduced Guizot�s majority to 43 in the Chamber of Deputies.

11/2/1848, Friday (-35,515) Thomas Cole, US landscape painter, died (born 1/2/1801).

5/2/1848, Saturday (-35,521) Joris Huysmans, French novelist, was born (died 13/5/1907).

2/2/1848. Wednesday (-35,524) Mexico finally collapsed after nearly 2 years of war with the USA, in which 13,000 US soldiers were killed. Under the Treaty of Hidalgo, signed at Vera Cruz, Mexico surrendered Texas, New Mexico, and California for a payment of US$15million. The size of the USA was thus increased by nearly a third. The Mexicans feared US occupation of their own country and had no money left to fund the war.


29/1/1848, Saturday (-35,528) Johann Gorres, German writer, died (born 25/1/1776).

24/1/1848. Monday (-35,533) Gold was discovered at Sutlers Mill in California, by James Marshall. This started the Gold Rush. In 1841 a prospector, Francisco Lopez, found gold traces in the roots of a freshly dug onion. Farmers, clerks, even church ministers, headed west, although some suspected that the US government fostered the Gold Rush to encourage population growth in the former Mexican territory. A major gold find was made by prospector J A Shutter, and by 1849 over 80,000 people had flooded into the area; in 1840 California had just 14,000 inhabitants. US Congress agreed to the issue of a US$20 �double eagle�. Many gambling houses sprang up in the area, along with bars and brothels. San Francisco grew from a small village to a town of 25,000 within a few months. Food prices rocketed; apples were $5 each, eggs $10 a dozen, and a small whisky sold for a pinch of gold dust.

20/1/1848, Thursday (-35,537) Christian VIII of Denmark died aged 50, after a reign of less than 9 years. He was succeeded by his 39-year-old son, Frederick VI, who ruled until 1863, and fought a war with Germany over Schleswig-Holstein.

19/1/1848, Wednesday (-35,538) Matthew Webb, the first person to swim the English Channel, was born in Dawley, Shropshire, the son of a doctor.

12/1/1848, Wednesday (-35,545) In Palermo, an uprising began against the misrule of Ferdinand II of Naples.

10/1/1848, Monday (-35,547) The South Devon Railway began atmospheric traction between teignmouth and Newton Abbot.

9/1/1848, Sunday (-35,548) Caroline Herschel, English astronomer, died (born 16/3/1750).

2/1/1848, Sunday (-35,555) Cigar workers began a 3-day riot in Naples.

1/1/1848, Saturday (-35,556)


29/12/1847, Wednesday (-35,559) William Crotch, English musician, died (born 5/7/1775).

26/12/1847, Sunday (-35,562) Hugh Conway, novelist, was born (died 15/5/1885).

25/12/1847, Saturday (-35,563) Frederick Dielmann, US painter, was born.

21/12/1847, Tuesday (-35,567) John Chard, British soldier, was born (died 1/11/1897).

18/12/1847, Saturday (-35,570) Marie Louise, 2nd wife of Napoleon I, died (born 12/12/1791).

17/12/1847, Friday (-35,571) Emile Faguet, French writer, was born.

12/12/1847, Sunday (-35,576) James Kent, US legal writer, died (born 31/7/1763).

9/12/1847, Thursday (-35,579) George Grossmith, English comedian, was born.

8/12/1847. Wednesday (-35,580) In Britain, an international convention of the Communist League adopted Karl Marx�s principles of the overthrow of the middle classes and the dictatorship of the proletariat.

7/12/1847, Tuesday (-35,581) Robert Liston, surgeon, died (born 28/10/1794)


29/11/1847. Monday (-35,589)

27/11/1847, Saturday (-35,591) Cayeuse Amerindians killed 14 White settlers in the Oregon area, whom they blamed for the measles epidemic that had killed many of the Cayeuse.

26/11/1847, Friday (-35,592) Harvey Elmes, British architect, died (born 1813).

24/11/1847, Wednesday (-35,594) In Switzerland, end of the brief and almost bloodless Sonderbund War. Protestant Swiss Liberals attempted to impose their policies, which included a stronger central government, mfreedom of worship, amnd secularised education (entailing expulsion of the Jesuits) on all of Switzerland. This was strongly opposed by Swiss Catholics, and seven mainly Catholic cantons (Lucern, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Fribourg, Zyg and Valais) formed, in 1845, the Sonderbund (Separatist League). This move was voted down by the Reformist majority in the Sweiss Diet, who ordered the dissolution of the Sonderbund in 1847. The Sonderbund appealed, vainly, for outside help and Federal troops under General Guillaume Henri Dufour (1787-1875) moved in against the Sonderbund forces, who were greatly outnumbered. This episode led to the establishment of a strong Federal Government in Switzerland.

20/11/1847, Saturday (-35,598) Henry Lyte, religious writer, died (born 1/6/1793).

19/11/1847, Friday (-35,599) Mary Foote, US author, was born.

14/11/1847, Sunday (-35,604)

10/11/1847, Wednesday (-35,608) Frederick Bridgman, painter, was born

9/11/1847, Tuesday (-35,609) Obstetrician Sir James Simpson, Professor of Midwifery at the University of Edinburgh demonstrated a new anaesthetic, trichloromethane, better known as chloroform. Claimed to be three times as effective as ether, it was to be of great use during difficult childbirths; however Scottish Calvinists opposed the use of any anaesthetic during childbirth.

8/11/1847. Monday (-35,610) Bram Stoker, author of Dracula, was born in Dublin.

4/11/1847. Thursday (-35,614) Composer Felix Mendelssohn died in Leipzig of a stroke, aged 38.


16/10/1847, Saturday (-35,633) Jane Eyre was first published.

13/10/1847, Wednesday (-35,636) Johann Ess, German religious writer, died (born 15/2/1772).

7/10/1847, Thursday (-35,642) (Geology) Alexandre Brogniart, French geologist, died (born 5/2/1770).

2/10/1847, Saturday (-35,647) Paul von Hindenburg, German politician, was born.

1/10/1847, Friday (-35,648) Annie Besant, social reformer and theosophist, was born. With radical atheist Charles Bradlaugh, she promoted birth control, for which she was prosecuted.


27/9/1847, Monday (-35,652) (Arts) Marie Lajeunesse, or Albani, Canadian singer, was born in Chambly, Quebec.

16/9/1847, Thursday (-35,663) Shakespeare�s birthplace in Stratford on Avon was purchased by the specially-formed Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. This was one of the first buildings acquired purely for preservation.

14/9/1847. Tuesday (-35,665) US troops stormed and captured Mexico City, ending the US war with Mexico. With US forces capturing Texas, New Mexico and California, Mexico lost a third of its territory.

13/9/1847, Monday (-35,666) The South Devon Railway began atmospheric traction between Exeter and Teignmouth.

10/9/1847, Friday (-35,669) The Caledonian railway opened from Carlisle to Beattock.

5/9/1847. Sunday (-35,674) Jesse James, American outlaw, was born near Kansas City. With his elder brother, Frank, he led the first gang to carry out train robberies.

3/9/1847, Friday (-35,676) James Hannington, first Bishop of Equatorial Africa, was born.


24/8/1847, Tuesday (-35,686) Charles McKim, US architect, was born (died 14/9/1909).

23/8/1847, Monday (-35,687) The Higham and Strood Canal Tunnels in Kent were drained and converted into railway tunnels.

22/8/1847, Sunday (-35,688) Sir John Forrrest, explorer and surveyor of Australia in the 1870s, was born.

20/8/1847, Friday (-35,690) Andrew Greenwood, cricketer for England, was born in Yorkshire (died 12/2/1889 in Huddersfield).

14/8/1847, Saturday (-35,696) Frans Franzen Swedish poet, died (born 9/2/1772).

9/8/1847, Monday (-35,701) Andrew Combe, physiologist, died (born 27/10/1797)


28/7/1849, Wednesday (-35,713) (Italy) Albert Charles, King of Sardinia, died (born 2/10/1789).

26/7/1847, Monday (-35,715) (Liberia) Liberia became the first African colony to attain independence.

25/7/1847, Sunday (-35,716) (Medical)Physician Paul Langerhans was born in Berlin, Germany. In 1869 he discovered the small groups of cells in the pancreas now known as the islets of Langerhans. They were later discovered to be the source of insulin.

24/7/1847. Saturday (-35,717) A group of Mormons under Brigham Young founded a settlement on the banks of the Great Salt Lake, Utah. The Mormons had been driven by mobs from their former homes in Illinois.

17/7/1847, Saturday (-35,724) James Cotton, writer on India, was born.

10/7/1847, Saturday (-35,731) The first Chinese migrants arrived in the USA. They came on the shipKee Ying, from Canton (Guangzhou).

1/7/1847, Thursday (-35,740) (1) The first adhesive stamps went on sale in the USA; the 5-cent Benjamin Franklin and the 10-cent George Washington.

(2) The Newcastle and Berwick Railway was completed through to Tweedmouth, giving a through service from England to Scotland.


26/6/1847, Saturday (-35,745) (1) The first railway in Denmark opened; Copenhagen to Roskilde. The Altona to Kiel railway, opened 1844, was in Danish territory when built but is now in German territory.

(2) The London North Western railway opened the line from Rugby through Lichfield to Stafford

11/6/1847, Friday (-35,760) Sir John Franklin, the British Arctic explorer, died in Canada attempting to discover the north-west passage.

10/6/1847, The Chicago Tribune began publication, as the Chicago Daily Tribune.

8/6/1847. Tuesday (-35,763) Britain passed an Act limiting the working day of women and children aged 13 to 18 to ten hours.

1/6/1847. Tuesday (-35,770) (1) The Communist Party, then called the League of the Just, met at a congress in London organised by Joseph Moll. The purpose of the meeting was to secure the co-operation of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in formulating the Party programme. Marx did not attend because of the cost of travel from Brussels. The Party aims were the downfall of the bourgeoisie, the rule of the proletariat, and the establishment of a new society without class or private property. The first Russian Communist meeting was at Minsk on 1 � 3 March 1898, where 9 delegates met. All were subsequently arrested and none played a significant role in later politics.

(2) The London and South Western railway opened the line from Southampton to Dorchester.


30/5/1847, Sunday (-35,772) Thomas Chalmers, Scottish religious writer, died (born 17/3/1780).

29/5/1847, Saturday (-35,773) Alexander Everett, US writer, died (born 19/3/1790).

24/5/1847, Monday (-35,778) A cast iron railway bridge over the River Dee at Chester collapsed as a train passed over it. The bridge�s designer, Robert Stephenson, came close to being convicted for manslaughter.

15/5/1847, Saturday (-35,787) Daniel O�Connell (born 6/8/1775, County Kerry) died in Genoa on his way to Rome. He fought against the 1801 Act of Union between Ireland and Great Britain. Irish Catholics could not sit in the United Kingdom Parliament, and also had to pay taxes towards the Protestant Church of England. Catholic anger caused the UK Government to pass a Bill emancipating Catholics in 1829. However O�Connell�s ultimate goal, repeal of the Act of Union and Home Rule for Ireland, was not achieved in his lifetime,

14/5/1847, Friday (-35,788) HMS Driver arrived at Spithead, England, having become the first steamship to complete a round the world voyage.

10/5/1847, Monday (-35,792) The London Brighton and South Coast railway opened the line from West Croydon to Epsom, 8 miles, to cater for the large crowds attending Epsom Races.

7/5/1847, Friday (-35,795) The American Medical Association was founded.


30/4/1847, Friday (-35,802) Charles, Archduke of Austria, died (born 5/9/1771).

23/4/1847, Friday (-35,809) Erik Geijer, Swedish historical writer, died (born 12/1/1783).

19/4/1847, Monday (-35,813) The railway from Londonderry to Strabane, 14 � miles, opened.

18/4/1847, Sunday (-35,814) US troops under General Winfield Scott defeated Mexican forces under Santa Anna at Cerro Gordo.

12/4/1847, Monday (-35,820) During the war between the USA and Mexico (1846-1848), this day US General Winfield Scott met the first serious resistance to his advance on Mexico City.

10/4/1847, Saturday (-35,822) Joseph Pulitzer, newspaper proprietor who founded the Pulitzer Prize for achievements in journalism or literature, was born.

7/4/1847, Wednesday (-35,825) Jens Jacobsen, Danish writer, was born (died 30/4/1885).

4/4/1847, Sunday (-35,828) Easter Sunday

2/4/1847, Friday (-35,830) Gustave Mesurier, French politician, was born.


30/3/1847, Tuesday (-45,833) Christian Jacobs, German scholarly writer, died (born 6/10/1764).

23/3/1847, Tuesday (-45,840) Edmund Gurney, English psychologist, was born (died 23/6/1888).

20/3/1847, Saturday (-35,843) Anne Boutet, French actress, died (born 9/2/1779).

17/3/1847, Wednesday (-35,846) Jean Gerard, French caricaturist, died (born 13/9/1803)

10/3/1847, Wednesday (-35,853) Kate Sheppard, suffragist, was born.

8/3/1847, Monday (-35,855) Louis Masson, French historical writer, was born.

4/3/1847, Thursday (-35,859) US ships landed troops 13 miles from Vera Cruz, witrh the ultimate objectibe of capturing the capital, Mexico City.

3/3/1847, Wednesday (-35,860) The inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, was born in Edinburgh.He was the son of a teacher of elocution.

2/3/1847, Tuesday (-35,861) Richard Temple, British actor, was born in London (died 19/10/1912 in London)


23/2/1847, Tuesday (-35,868) US forces under General Zachary Taylor defeated the Mexicans under Santa Anna at Buena Vista. The US had ambitions to occupy the entire North American continent (the Manifest Destiny), including possibly Mexico itself. The US had taken what is now New Mexico and California (Upper California to Mexico).

16/2/1847, Tuesday (-35,875) Arthur Kinnaird, footballer, was born (died 30/1/1923).

11/2/1847, Thursday (-35,880) Thomas Alva Edison, American inventor, was born.

10/2/1847, Wednesday (-35,881) Albert Hornby, cricketer, was born (died 17/12/1925).

8/2/1847, Monday (-35,883) Hugh Hughes, British religious writer, was born (died 17/11/1902).

4/2/1847, Thursday (-35,887) (Biology) Rene Dutrochet, physiologist, died (born 14/11/1776)


30/1/1847, Saturday (-35,892) Yerba Buena, California, was renamed San Francisco.

28/1/1847, Thursday (-35,894) Severe depression, unemployment, and food shortages provoked rioting amongst agricultural workers in central France. See 27/2/1848.

26/1/1847, Tuesday (-35,896) John Clark, US economist, was born.

14/1/1847, Thursday (-35,908) Wilson Carlile, English clergyman who founded the Church Army, was born in Buxton, Derbyshire.

1/1/1847, Friday (-35,921)


31/12/1846, Thursday (-35,922) Conclusion of the �Year of the Railway mania�.An unprecedented 272 Railway Acts were passed for lines in Britain.

30/12/1846, Wednesday (-35,923) The South Devon Railway opened the 5 mile line from Teignmouth to Newton Abbot.

28/12/1846, Monday (-35,925) Iowa was admitted as the 29th (non-slave) State of the USA.

25/12/1846, Friday (-35,928) US troops defeated the Mexicans near Las Cruces, virtually completing the conquest of New Mexico.

23/12/1846, Wednesday (-35,930) (Biology) Jean Boiry, French naturalist, died.

22/12/1846, Tuesday (-35,931) (Sweden) Oscar Josef Alin, Swedish politician, was born in Falun (died 31/12/1900 in Uppsala).

21/12/1846, Monday (-35,932) Anaesthetic was used in a British hospital for the first time (see 16/10/1846).It was used by surgeon Robert Liston during a leg amputation at University College Hospital, London.

19/12/1846, Saturday (-35,934) The first dental extraction under anaesthetic was performed in Britain.

17/12/1846, Thursday (-35,936) The line from Oxenholme to Carlisle opened.

12/12/1846, Saturday (-35,941) The USA and Colombia agreed to grant the USA transit rights on the narrow isthmus of Panama between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

11/12/1846, Friday (-35,942) Francois Martin, US writer, died (born 17/3/1762).

10/12/1846, Thursday (-35,943) Frederico Confalioneri, Italian Revolutionary, died (born 1785).

8/12/1846, Tuesday (-35,945)

1/12/1846, Tuesday (-35,952) The South eastern Railway opened the Ramsgate to Margate Sands railway.


30/11/1846, Monday (-35,953) Friedrich List, German economics writer, died (born 6/8/1789).

23/11/1846, Monday (-35,960) George Darley, Irish poet, died (born 1795).

6/11/1846, Friday (-35,977) Following uprisings in March 1846, the small republic of Cracow was annexed to Austrian-controlled Galicia, losing its independence.

4/11/1846, Wednesday (-35.979) The railway from Chester to Shrewsbury opened to as far south as Ruabon

3/11/1846, Tuesday (-35,980) Francis Millet, US artist, was born.


27/10/1846, Tuesday (-35,987) Louis Bourmont, Marshal of France, died

24/10/1846, Saturday (-35,990) Denis Luchaire, French historical writer, was born (died 14/11/1908).

21/10/1846, Wednesday (-35,993) Edmondo de Amicis, Italian writer, was born in Oneglia, Liguria (died in Bordighera, 12/3/1908).

16/10/1846, Friday (-35,998) Anaesthetic was used successfully for the first time in a major operation, at Massachusetts General Hospital. Dentist William Morton Warren used diethyl ether before removing a tumour from a man�s jaw.

9/10/1846, Friday (-36,005) Holger Drachmann, Danish poet, was born (died 14/1/1908).

6/10/1846, Tuesday (-36,008) George Westinghouse, US engineer and inventor of the railway air brake, was born in Central Bridge, New York State.

2/10/1846, Friday (-36,012) The Midland Railway opened the Stamford branch railway from Peterborough


26/9/1846, Saturday (-36,018) (Race Equality) Thomas Clarkson, British anti-slavery campaigner, died (born 28/3/1760).

23/9/1846. Wednesday (-36,021) German astronomer Johann Galle discovered the planet Neptune.This followed predictions made by Leverrier and Adams.

22/9/1846, Tuesday (-36,022) The:Lancaster to Oxenholme line opened.

16/9/1846, Wednesday (-36,028)

10/9/1846, Thursday (-36,034) Elias Howe received the patent for his sewing machine. It could sew at 250 stitches per minute, five times faster than any human could.

9/9/1846, Wednesday (-36,035) Henri Marion, French philosophical writer, was born (died 5/4/1896).

7/9/1846, Monday (-36,037)

5/9/1846, Saturday (-36,039) Charles Metcalfe, British colonial administrator of India, died (born 30/1/1785).

4/9/1846, Friday (-36,040) The Syston (Leicester) to Melton Mowbray Line opened.

2/9/1846, Wednesday (-36,042) Paul Deroulede, French author, was born.


31/8/1846, Monday (-36,044) The Surrey Iron Railway, Wandsworth to Croydon, closed; it was dismantled in 1848.

24/8/1846, Monday (-36,051) Adam Krusenstern, Russian geographiucal writer, died (born 19/11/1770).

13/8/1846, Thursday (-36,062) US forces took Los Angeles from Mexico.

10/8/1846, Monday (-36,065) The Smithsonian Institute was founded in Washington DC; it was established by a bequest from the British scientist James Smithson.

4/8/1846, Tuesday (-36,071) The Dublin to Carlow railway, 56 � miles, opened. The line from Nottingham to Lincoln via Newark opened.


31/7/1846, Friday (-36,075) Theodore Fix, Swiss writer, died (born 1800).

30/7/1846, Thursday (-36,076) The USA moved towards a free trade policy, with Congress passing the Walker Tariff Act. This lowered import duties and increased the range of duty-free goods, encouranging growth in US trade.

27/7/1846, Monday (-36,079) The London, Brighton and South Coast railway was formed by an amalgamation of the London and Brighton and the London and Croydon Railways.

20/7/1846, Monday (-36,086) The railway from Barrow in Furness to Dalton and Kirkby opened.

16/7/1846, Thursday (-36,090) The London and North Western Railway Company was formed from an amalgamation of the London and Birmingham, the Birmingham and Manchester and Grand Junction railways.

15/7/1846, Wednesday (-36,091) The first railway in Hungary opened; Pest to Vacs, 35 km.

13/7/1846, Monday (-36,893) Laurence Gronlund, US socialist writer, was born (died 15/10/1899).

9/7/1846, Thursday (-36,097) US forces took San Francisco from Mexico.

7/7/1846. Tuesday (-36,099) A US squadron under Commodore John D Sloat sailed into Monterrey Bay and formally claimed California for the USA, during the Mexican-US War. Pro Mexican revolts in California on 6/12/1846 were put down by US troops. On 13/1/1847 pro-Mexico fighters finally surrendered to the US in California, ending 25 years of Mexican rule.

5/7/1846, Sunday (-36,101) Joseph Foraker, US politician, was born.

1/7/1846, Wednesday (-36,105) The Leeds to Bradford via Shipley railway opened.


29/6/1846. Monday (-36,107) The protectionist wing of the Tory Party, led by Benjamin Disraeli, which was bitterly opposed to the repeal of the Corn Laws, mounted a revolt against Robert Peel�s Tory government, forcing Peel to resign as Prime Minister.

28/6/1846, Sunday (-36,108) Defeat of Ranjit Singh by British forces at Aliwal, during the First Sikh War.

27/6/1846, Saturday (-36,109) The London and Brighton Railway opened the 24 � mile line from Lewes to Hasrings.

25/6/1846. Thursday (-36,111) Britain repealed the Corn Laws after a 5 month debate in Parliament. Import duties on wheat, oats, and barley were to be scrapped in 3 years, and meanwhile set at a nominal rate only, of one shilling a quarter. This was opposed by Tory protectionists, but the Irish potato famine in 1845 added urgency to the repeal. Bread would now be cheaper but the farming of the landed estates less profitable. The Irish potato blight spread from America and first appeared in the UK in the Isle of Wight. Hot dry weather in July gave way to chilly rain and fog, and the potatoes soon rotted. 4 million people in Ireland and 2 million in Britain relied almost totally on potatoes for food. Public works schemes were devised for some 750,000 workers which meant 3 million people relied on these for income. Many Irish migrated to the USA, even though the voyage was almost as deadly as the famine; one in six died on the voyage across the Atlantic. The Irish blamed English oppression for the famine even though England had provided almost �8million in relief.

23/6/1846, Tuesday (-36,113) Gaston Maspero, French Egyptological writer, was born.

22/6/1846, Monday (-36,114) The Caledonian Railway Company was formed. In 1848 it opened its first lines, from Glasgow to Carlisle via Carstairs and Lockerbie, with a branch from Carstairs to Edinburgh

20/6/1846, Saturday (-36,116)

19/6/1846, Friday (-36,117) The first baseball code of rules was drawn up in the USA, by the Knickerbocker Club of New York. The first game played under these rules was played this day at Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.

18/6/1846, Thursday (-36,118) The North British Railway opened the 67 � mile line from Edinburgh to Berwick

17/6/1846, Wednesday (-36,119)

16/6/1846, Tuesday (-36,120) Pope Pius IX was elected, beginning the longest reign in the history of the Papacy.

15/6/1846. Monday (-36,121) Britain agreed with the USA that Oregon was US territory. All land west of the Rockies and below the 49th parallel was to be US territory.

14/6/1846, Sunday (-36,122) The start of the Black Bear revolt against Mexican rule in California. Settlers in the Sacramento Valley demanded an independent republic.

8/6/1846, Monday (-36,128) The London and Brighton Railway opened the line from Arundel Junction to Chichester, and the 8 mile line from Brighton to Lewes.

1/6/1846, Monday (-36,135) Pope Gregory XVI died.


31/5/1846, Sunday (-36,136) Philip Marheineke, German religious writer, died (born 1/5/1780).

30/5/1846, Saturday (-36,137) The South Devon Railway opened the 15 mile line from Exeter to Teignmouth.

20/5/1846, Wednesday (-36,147) Sir George Goldie, who played a major role in the creation of the British colony of Nigeria, was born.

14/5/1846, Thursday (-36,153) Pieter Cort van der Linden, Dutch politician, was born.

13/5/1846, Wednesday (-36,154) The USA declared war on Mexico. US Congress authorised US$ 10 million to fund the war and to recruit 50,000 troops. Mexican troops had crossed the Rio Grande into US territory (Texas), sparking the war. See 28/3/1845.

11/5/1846, Monday (-36,156)

9/5/1846, Saturday (-36,158) Battle of Resaca de la Palma. Mexico was heavily defeated, and withdrew across the Rio Grande.

8/5/1846, Friday (-36,159) Battle of Palo Alto. US General Zachary Taylor defeated a Mexican force of 6,000 soldiers with his 2,000 troops, forcing their withdrawal back across the Rio Grande.

5/5/1846, Tuesday (-36,162) Frederico Chueca, Spanish composer, was born in Madrid (died 20/6/1908 in Madrid)


27/4/1846, Monday (-36,170)

24/4/1846, Friday (-36,173) Marcus Clarke, US author, was born (died 2/8/1881).

23/4/1846, Thursday (-36,174) Thomas Cannon, champion jockey, was born (died 13/7/1917).

16/4/1846, Thursday (-36,181) Domenico Dragonetti, musician, died (born 7/4/1763)

13/4/1846, Monday (-36,184) (1) To quell peasant unrest, the Polish government abolished the duty on them of extra day�s unpaid labour previously due to their manorial lord. There was an ongoing famine in Poland, aggravated by cholera and typhus outbreaks; in 1847 there were 380,000 deaths in Poland, compared to the previous annual average of 153,000.

(2) The South Eastern Railway opened the 16 mile line from Canterbury to Ramsgate

12/4/1846, Sunday (-36,185) Easter Sunday.


31/3/1846, Wednesday (-36,196) Comte de Lautreamont, writer, was born.

25/3/1846, Thursday (-36,202) Michael Davitt, dedicated Irish Nationalist, was born (died 31/5/1906).

22/3/1846, Monday (-36,205) Randolph Caldecott, English artist, was born (died 12/2/1886).

17/3/1846, Tuesday (-36,211) Friedrich Bessel, German astronomer, died in Konigsberg (born in Minden 22/7/1784).

16/3/1846, Monday (-36,212) The London and Brighton Railway opened the 7 � mile line from Worthing to Arundel Junction.

11/3/1846, Wednesday (-36,217) Johann Hug, German religious writer, died (born 1/6/1765).


27/2/1846, Friday (-36,229) Joaquin Valverde, Spanish composer, was born in Badajoz (died 17/3/1910 in Madrid)

26/2/1846, Thursday (-36,230) Buffalo Bill, American Army Scout and showman, was born on a farm in Scott County, Iowa, as William Frederick Cody.

24/2/1846, Tuesday (-36,232) Luigi Denza, Italian composer, was born in Campania (died 26/1/1922 in London)

20/2/1846, Friday (-36,236) (Italy) Francis IV, Duke of Modena, died

19/2/1846, Thursday (-36,237) Charles Clermont-Ganneau, writer on the Orient, was born.

18/2/1846, Wednesday (36,238) The Pittsburgh Disptach was first published.

17/2/1846, Tuesday (-36,239) (Maritime) The coal ship Rocket was wrecked off St Helena.

16/2/1846, Monday (-36,240) Gefroi Flach, French historical writer, was born.

15/2/1846, Sunday (-36,241) Sir William Clinton, British soldier, died (born 1769).

9/2/1846, Monday (-36,247) Wilhelm Maybach, car engineer, was born.

6/2/1846, Friday (-36,250) The South Eastern Railway opened the 14 mile line from Ashford to Canterbury.

5/2/1846, Thursday (-36,251) John Most, German anarchist, was born (died 17/4/1906).


28/1/1846, Wednesday (-36,259) Battle of Aliwal, First Anglo-Sikh War. General Sir Harry Smith leading a joint Anglo-Indian force defeated the Sikhs.

21/1/1846. Wednesday (-36,266) The Daily News, the newspaper edited by Charles Dickens, was first published in London.

17/1/1846, Saturday (-36,270) Henry Inman, US artist, died (born 20/10/1801).

15/1/1846, Thursday (-36,272) In France, Angelique Cottin, aged 14, of La Perriere, began to experience frightening paranormal phenomena in which objects including furniture violently retreated at her touch. Many witnessed these events, which lasted for some 10 weeks.

13/1/1846, Tuesday (-36,274) (Mexico, USA) The USA attempted to buy the territory of New Mexico from Mexico, but negotiations failed. US troops were directed to advance to the Rio Grande, in anticipation of the failure of negotiations with Mexico.

7/1/1846, Wednesday (-36,280) John Frere, English author, died (born 21/5/1769).

6/1/1846, Tuesday (-36,281) Lewis Goldsmith, Anglo-French writer, died.

5/1/1846, Monday (-36,282) Rudolf Eucken, scholarly writer, was born.

1/1/1846, Thursday (-36,286)


29/12/1845, Monday (-36,289) Texas became the 28th State of the Union.

24/12/1845, Wednesday (-36,294) George I, King of Greece, was born.

22/12/1845, Monday (-36,296) The first of the original two single-track Woodhead railway tunnels, on the line between Sheffield and Manchester, opened to traffic.See 2/2/1852.

21/12/1845, Sunday (-36,297) The Battle of Ferozeshah began.

16/12/1845, Tuesday (-36,302)

11/12/1845, Thursday (-36,307) In India, a Sikh attack on British-held territory in Hindiustan led to the First Sikh War.

10/12/1845. Wednesday (-36,308) The Scottish civil engineer Robert Thompson patented the first pneumatic tyres (see 31/10/1888). However the invention failed to catch on in the absence of a method of hardening the rubber.

1/12/1845, Monday (-36,317)


25/11/1845, Tuesday (-36,323) Jose Maria Eca del Quieroz, Portuguese writer was born (died in Paris, 16/8/1900).

24/11/1845, Monday (-36,324) The London and Brighton Railway opened the 5 mile line between Shoreham and Worthing.

21/11/1845, Friday (-36,327) The first railway in Jamaica opened. It ran 20 km between Kingston and Spanish Town.

11/11/1845, Tuesday (-36,337) Jules Guesde, French socialist, was born.


30/10/1845, Thursday (-36,349) Nicolas Charlet, French painter, died (born 20/12/1792)

26/10/1845, Sunday (-36,353) Edward Harrigan, US actor, was born.

24/10/1845, Friday (-36,355) Melchior Neumayr, German paleontoligical writer, was born (died 29/1/1890)

22/10/1845, Wednesday (-36,357) Sarah Bernhardt, French actress, was born in Paris.

19/10/1845, Sunday (-36,360) Wagner�s opera �Tannhauser� was first performed at Dresden.Wagner�s music inspired either wonder or loathoing, and he was highly anti-semitic.

18/10/1845, Saturday (-36,361) (Cartography) Jacques Cassini died (born 30/6/1748). He completed his father�s map of France (published 1793), despite difficulties caused by the French Revolution.

12/10/1845, Sunday (-36,367) (Prisons) The social worker and prison reformer Elizabeth Fry died.

10/10/1845, Friday (-36,369) William Minto, Scottish writer, was born (died 1/3/1893).


23/9/1845, Tuesday (-36,386) Jonathan Hartley, US sculptor was born.

20/9/1845, Saturday (-36,389) The South Eastern Railway opened the 4 mile line from Tonbridge to Tunbridge Wells.

15/9/1845, Monday (-36,394) Thomas Davis, Irish poet, died (born 14/10/1814).

13/9/1845, Saturday (-36,396) Sir Henry Cotton, British administrator in India, was born.

8/9/1845, Monday (-36,401) William Muller, English painter, died (born 28/6/1812).


28/8/1845, Thursday (-36,412) The first edition of Scientific American was published at New York.

26/8/1845, Tuesday (-36,414) Philippe Gerard, French inventor, died (born 1/2/1775).

25/8/1845, Monday (-36,415) Ludwig II, King of Bavaria, was born.

22/8/1845, Friday (-36,418) Surrey County Cricket Club was founded at a meeting at The Horns, Kennington.

15/8/1845, Friday (-36,425) Walter Crane, English painter, was born.

10/8/1845, Sunday (-36,430) British naval forces destroyed a pirate�s lair on the Maradu River, Borneo, which had previously harassed British shipping.

6/8/1845, Wednesday (-36,434) In the UK the Gauge Commission opened. It decided in favour of standard gauge, 4� 8 ��, with exception for the Great Western Railway.

4/8/1845, Monday (-36,436) Thomas Cook organised the first holiday excursion by rail, to North Wales, leaving Leicester at 5am.


30/7/1845, Wednesday (-36,441) (1) (Music) The French Army introduced the saxophone to its band.

(2) The Eastern Counties railway opened the 56 mile line between Bishop�s Stortford and Brandon, Norfolk.

26/7/1845, Saturday (-36,445) Robert Moberly, English religious writer, was born (died 8/6/1903).

25/7/1845, Friday (-36,446) (1) China granted Belgium equal trading rights with Britain, France, and the USA. See 24/10/1844.

(2) Brunel�s 320 foot iron ship, the Great Britain, left Liverpool on her maiden voyage, to New York.

21/7/1845, Monday (-36,450) (Britain) Charles Canterbury, British politician, died (born 29/1/1780).

17/7/1845, Thursday (-36,454) Charles Grey, English statesman, died (born 13/3/1764).

8/7/1845, Tuesday (-36,463) The York and North Midland Railway opened 48 � miles of line from York to Scarborough and Pickering.

4/7/1845, Friday (-36,467) Thomas John Barnardo was born in Dublin. In 1867 he started homes for some of London�s many destitute children. They became known as Dr Barnardo�s Homes although he never qualified as a medical doctor.


28/6/1845, Saturday (-30,573) Sir William Follett, English lawyer, died (2/12/1798).

18/6/1845, Wednesday (-36,483) Sidney Colvin, literary critic, was born.

17/6/1845, Tuesday (-36,484) Richard Barham, English writer, died (born in Canterbury 6/12/1788).

8/6/1845, Sunday (-36,493) Andrew Jackson, American General and Democrat politician, 7th President from 1829 to 1837, died at the Hermitage in Nashville, Tennessee.

2/6/1845, Monday (-36,499) The London and Birmingham railway opened a 47 mile line branching off at Blisworth, to Peterborough.


30/5/1845, Friday (-36,502) Ferdinando Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, Italy, was born (died 18/1/1890).

29/5/1845, Thursday (-36,503) Under an amnesty, Santa Anna was allowed to depart from Mexico for Cuba, with his wife and daughter. A provisional government was established under General Herrera. Mexicans rejoiced in the streets at Anna�s departure.

25/5/1845, Sunday (-36,507) Thomas Duncan, Scottish portrait painter, died (born 1807).

18/5/1845, Sunday (-36,514) Don Carlos relinquished his right to the Spanish Crown in favour of his son.

16/5/1845, Friday (-36,516) (Britain) Charles Chubb, English locksmith and safe-maker, died.

13/5/1845, Tuesday (-36,519) (Britain) Alexander Baring Ashburton, English baron and financier, died.

12/5/1845, Monday (-36,520) The Great Western railway opened the line from Kemble to Gloucester, with an 1,855 yard tunnel at Sapperton.

8/5/1845, Thursday (-36,524) The UK passed the Railway Clauses Consolidation Act, bringing various rrailway legislation under one Act.

5/5/1845, Monday (-36,527) The London and South Western Railway opened the Woking to Guildford railway.

4/5/1845, Sunday (-36,528) William Clifford, English mathematician, was born (died 3/3/1879).

3/5/1845, Saturday (-36,529) Thomas Hood, poet, died.


30/4/1845, Wednesday (-36,532) Henry Crane, US actor, was born.

19/4/1845, Saturday (-36,543) Michael Muraviev, Russian statesman, was born (died 21/6/1900).

15/4/1845, Tuesday (-36,547) The new House of Lords buildings were completed, after a fire in 1834, to the designs of Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin.

14/4/1845, Monday (-36,548) Friedrich Krummacher, German religious writer, died (born 13/7/1767).


29/3/1845, Saturday (-36,564) (Mexico, USA) The UK and France laid proposals before Mexico, that Texas should become independent but should not seek to ally with any other country; they were concerned about the rapid growth of the US (see 1/3/1845)

28/3/1845. Friday (-36,565) Mexico severed relations with the USA following America�s ratification of the annexation of Texas on 1/3/1845, after an almost unanimous vote in favour by the Texas electorate. On 29./12/1845 Texas became the 28th state of the USA. See 13/5/1846.

27/3/1845, Thursday (-36,566) Wilhelm von Roentgen, German scientist and discoverer of X-Rays, was born in Lennep, Prussia.

26/3/1845. Wednesday (-36,567) The sticking plaster was patented.

23/3/1845, Sunday (-36,570) Easter Sunday

17/3/1845, Monday (-36,576) Rubber bands were patented and first made by Perry and Co of London.

13/3/1845, Thursday (-36,580) John Daniell, English chemist, died (born 12/3/1790).

11/3/1845, Tuesday (-36,582) (1) Self-raising flour was patented by Henry Jones of Bristol.

(2) (New Zealand) In New Zealand, a Maori uprising against the British began. The Maori were protesting at European settlement of Maori lands, in breach of the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi.

10/3/1845, Monday (-36,583) (Russia) Alexander III, Emperor of Russia, second son of Alexander II, was born (died 1894).

9/3/1845, Sunday (-36,584) (Biology) Botanist Wilhelm Pfeffer was born in Grebenstein, Hesse, Germany.

7/3/1845, Friday (-36,586) Edward Lloyd, English tenor vocalist, was born.

4/3/1845, Tuesday (-36,589) (USA) The Democrat Charles Polk was sworn in as 11th President of the USA, following his landslide victory in the November 1944 elections. He strongly supported further westwards expansion of the USA.

3/3/1845, Monday (-36,590) (USA) Florida became the 27th State of the Union.

1/3/1845, Saturday (-36,592) (USA) US President Tyler approved the decision to annex Texas to the United States, just three days before the accession of President James K Polk. Both the UK and France were now concerned at the great expansion of the USA. See 29/3/1845.


27/2/1845, Thursday (-36,594) Gilbert Hastings McDermott, British comedian, was born in London (died 8/5/1901 in London)

19/2/1845, Wednesday (-36,602) (Britain) Sir Thomas Buxton, English philanthropist, died (born 1/4/1786).

15/2/1845, Saturday (-36,606) Samuel Blanchard, British author, died (born in Great Yarmouth 15/2/1804).

14/2/1845, Friday (-36,607) Quintin Hogg, founder of polytechnics, was born.

10/2/1845, Monday (-36,611) The Thames and Medway Canal opened 7 miles of line between Gravesend and Rochester, which later became part of the South Eastern Railway.

1/2/1845, Saturday (-36,620) Karl Marx settled in Brussels after being expelled from France.


28/1/1845, Tuesday (-36,624) Christoph Houwald, German author, died (born 28/11/1778)

11/1/1845, Saturday (36,641) (Geology) Etheldred Benett, one of the earliest woman geologists, died (born 1776).

4/1/1845, Saturday (-36,648) Santa Anna was deposed as President of Mexico in a coup by Paredes. Santa Anna attempted to flee towards the coast but was captured at the village of Jaco, to be arrested and held at Jaco.

1/1/1845, Wednesday (-36,651)


23/12/1844, Monday (-36,660) Sebastian Munster, German palaeontologist, died (born 17/2/1776).

21/12/1844, Saturday (-36,662) A group of unemployed workers in the mill-town of Rochdale, Lancashire, formed the first Co-operative shop in Toad (T�owd) Lane. They called themselves the Rochdale Pioneers, and soon had 50 members. Each member received a dividend, or share, of the shop�s profits. It cost one shilling to join. Changes in the law now meant no-one under 18 years of age could work over 12 hours a day, and it was proposed to limit teenagers to a 10 hour day. Children under 13 were restricted to a 48 hour week and had to attend school for 2 hours a week.

18/12/1844, Wednesday (-36,665) (Germany) Ludwig Brentano, German economist, was born.

14/12/1844, Saturday (-36,669) China relaxed a ban on the Roman Catholic Church.

11/12/1844, Wednesday (-36,671) Dr John M Riggs, of Hartford Connecticut, successfully extracted a tooth painlessly from Dr Horace Wells using nitrous oxide gas. He performed 40 more such operations, but abandoned them after a patient nearly died from an overdose of the gas; Dr Riggs was unaware that the nitrous oxide should be mixed with oxygen.

5/12/1844. Thursday (-36,678) The French garrison at Biskra, Algeria, was massacred by the Arabs.

1/12/1844, Sunday (-36,682) Queen Alexandra, wife of Edward VII, was born, the eldest daughter of King Christian of Denmark.


25/11/1844, Monday (-36,688) Karl Friedrich Benz, German engineer and motor car pioneer, was born in Karlsruhe.

21/11/1844, Thursday (-36,692) (Agriculture) Philipp Fellenberg, promoter of agricultural education, died (born 27/6/1771).

14/11/1844, Thursday (-36,699) (Medical) John Abercrombie, Scottish physician (born 10/10/1780) died in Edinburgh.

2/11/1844, Saturday (-36,711) Sir Francis Gould, caricaturist, was born.


28/10/1844, Monday (-36,716) London�s third Royal Exchange Building opened.

26/10/1844, Saturday (-36,718) Edward Harrigan, comedian, was born in New York (died 6/6/1911 in New York)

24/10/1844. Thursday (-36,720) France and China signed the Treaty of Whampoa, opening up Chinese ports to French trade. French traders came under French, not Chinese, law, and the French gained the right to build Catholic churches in the treaty ports of China.

23/10/1844, Wednesday (-36,721) Robert Bridges, poet laureate, was born.

22/10/1844, Tuesday (-36,722) Sarah Bernhardt, actress, was born.

15/10/1844, Tuesday (-36,729) Friedrich Wilhelm Neitzsche, German philosopher, was born.

12/10/1844, Saturday (-36,732) George Cable, US author, was born.

11/10/1844. Friday (-36,733) Baked beans magnate H J Heinz was born of German parents in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

8/10/1844, Tuesday (-36,736) Martin Navarette, Spanish historical writer, died (born 9/11/1765).


24/9/1844, Tuesday (-36,750) Robert Jamieson, Scottish writer, died .

15/9/1844, Sunday (-36,759) Gustav Hugo, German jurist, died (born 23/11/1764).

11/9/1844, Wednesday (-36,763) Basil Hall, British travel writer, died (born 31/12/1788).

10/9/1844. Tuesday (-36,764) France and Morocco signed the Treaty of Tangiers, ending their conflict. France withdrew from Morocco.


30/8/1844, Friday (-36,775) (Astronomy) Edward Baily, British astronomer, died in London on 30/8/1844. He was born in Newbury, Berkshire, 10/3/1788.

28/8/1844, Wednesday (-36,777) Karl Marx met Friedrich Engels in Paris; their lifelong collaboration began.

22/8/1844, Thursday (-36,783) (Polar) George Delong, US Arctic explorer, was born (died 30/10/1881).

17/8/1844, Saturday (-36,788) Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia, was born.

14/8/1844, Wednesday (-36,791) (Algeria) The French under Bugeaud defeated el Kader�s 45,000 strong army at the Isly River. Abd el Kader again took refuge in Morocco, from where he mounted continued attacks against the French.

9/8/1844, Friday (-36,796) The British Government (Gladstone) legislated to force railway companies to run at least one train a day on all of their routes at a fare of more than 1d per mile, at at least 12 mph (overall, including stops); the so-called Workmen�s Trains. The carriages had to be covered and protected from the weather. Chuildren under 3 were to be carried free on these trains, and those between 3 and 12 to be carried at half-fare. Some companies ran such trains at unpopular hours such as 6am.

8/8/1844. Thursday (-36,797) The Mormons chose Brigham Young as leader to replace Joseph Smith, see 27/6/1844.

7/8/1844, Wednesday (-36,798) Auguste Levy, French geologist, was born.

6/8/1844, Tuesday (-36,799) (Britain) Albert Ernst Albert, 4th child of Queen Victoria (died 30/7/1900) was born at Windsor Castle.

1/8/1844, Thursday (-36,804)


28/7/1844, Sunday (-36,808) Gerard Manley Hopkins, poet, was born.

27/7/1844, Saturday (-36,809) John Dalton, chemist and physicist, died.He developed modern atomic theory and also made advances in meteorology.

26/7/1844. Friday (-36,810) The first ocean cruise left Southampton for a four month steamship tour of the Mediterranean.

25/7/1844, Thursday (-26,811) Thomas C Eakins, US artist, was born (died 25/6/1916).

22/7/1844, Monday (-36,814) The Reverend William Spooner, educationalist and originator of �spoonerisms�, was born in London.

16/7/1844, Tuesday (-36,820) Charles Dickens� sixth book, The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit, was published in entirety.

15/7/1844, Monday (-36,821) Claude Fauriel, French historical writer, died (born 21/10/1772).

13/7/1844, Saturday (-36,823) Johann Gansbacher, Austrian composer, died (born 1778).

6/7/1844, Saturday (-36,830) The Bristol and Gloucester Railway opened. Initially on Briunel�s wide 7 ft guage, it was converted to standard guage on 3/8/1846 wjhen it was taken over by the Midland Railway.

3/7/1844. Wednesday (-36,833) (1) China and the USA signed the Treaty of Wanghiya, giving US citizens similar rights to those of the UK in the Treaty of Nanjing signed in 1843. US traders now had access to the same five Chinese trading ports as Britain did.

(2) The Great Auk became extinct when fishermen killed the last breeding pair of the flightless birds in Iceland.

1/7/1844. Monday (-36,835) A French squadron under the Duke of Joinville bombarded Tangiers.


27/6/1844. Thursday (-36,839) Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon Church, died. He was killed, along with his brother Hyrum, by a 200-strong mob in Carthage prison, Illinois, where they had been held on riot charges. The brothers had destroyed the offices of a rival Mormon newspaper. This followed months of tension between the Mormon settlers, who came to Nauvoo, Illinois, in 1839, and locals who resented Mormon political and economic power. Mormon polygamy was also a contentious issue. See 8/8/1844.

26/6/1844, Wedmesday (-36,840) Thomas Hudson, British composer, died in London

19/6/1844, Wednesday (-36,847) Saint-Hilaire Geoffroy, French naturalist writer, died (born 15/4/1772).

17/6/1844, Monday (-36,849) Hartwig Derenbourg, writer, was born (died 1908).

15/6/1844. Saturday (-36,851) (1) The first railway in Switzerland opened, Basle to St Ludwig.

(2) Charles Goodyear patented the vulcanised rubber process in the USA. This made possible the commercial use of rubber, such as for motor vehicle tyres.

12/6/1844, Wednesday (-36,854) The Great western Railway from Didcot to Oxford opened.

6/6/1844, Thursday (-36,860) George Williams founded the YMCA at 72 St Paul�s Churchyard, London.

3/6/1844, Monday (-36,863) Garrett Hobart, US Vice-President, was born (died 21/11/1899).

2/6/1844, Sunday (-36,864) Jean Marbot, French soldier, died.


26/5/1844, Sunday (-36,871) The Dublin to Drogheda railway opened.

24/5/1844, Friday (-36,873) Samuel Morse sent the first telegraph message, from his home in Washington to a friend in Baltimore, 40 miles away. The message was �What hath God wrought�.

22/5/1844, Wednesday (-36,875) Mary Cassall, Impressionist painter, was born.

21/5/1844, Tuesday (-36,876) Guiseppe Baini, Italian musician, died in Rome (born in Rome 21/10/1775).

16/5/1844, Thursday (-36,881) Sir John Hare, English actor, born

14/5/1844, Tuesday (-36,883) John Doyle, English historical writer, was born (died 4/8/1907).

13/5/1844, Monday (-36,884) Spain set up a military peacekeeping force, the Guardia Civil.

10/5/1844, Friday (-36,887) George Hudson, the �Railway King�, formed the Midland Railway from an amalgamation of the North Midland, the Midland Counties, and theBirmingham and Derby Junction Railways.

8/5/1844, Wednesday (-36,889) Earthquake hit Echigo, Japan, 12,000 killed.

3/5/1844, Friday (-36,894) Richard D�Oyly Carte, who produced the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, was born.

1/5/1844, Wednesday (-36,896) (1) The Bricklayer�s Arms railway terminus opened in south London, for passengers from Kent wishing to access the West End. The South Eastern Railway was faced with excessive charges to use the terminus at London Bridge.However it was unpopular with passengers and became a goods terminus from 1/1852.

(2) The Yarmouth and Norwich Railway, UK, opened.


29/4/1844, Monday (-36,898) The Dalkey extension of the Dublin and Kingstown railway officially opened, using atmospheric traction. The system was abandoned on 12/4/1854.

26/4/1844, Friday (-36,901) (USA) Robert Keep, US educator, was born (died 3/6/1904).

16/4/1844, Tuesday (-36,911) Anatole France, French novelist, was born.

15/4/1844, Monday (-36,912) Charles Bulfinch, US architect, died (born 8/8/1763).

7/4/1844, Sunday (-36,920) Easter Sunday. James Scarlett Abinger, British statesman (born 13/12/1796) died.


31/3/1844, Sunday (-36,927) Andrew Lang, British writer, was born.

24/3/1844, Sunday (-36,934) Antoine Lemonnier, Belgian poet, was born.

18/3/1844, Monday (-36,940) Rimsky Korsakoov, Russian composer, was born in Novgorod.

15/3/1844, Friday (-36,943) Bransby Beauchamp Cooper, cricketer for Australia, was born in India (died 7/8/1914 in Geelong, Victoria)

14/3/1844, Thursday (-36,944) Umberto I, King of Italy, was born in Turin, the son of King Victor Emmanuel I.

11/3/1844, Monday (-36,947) In New Zealand, Maoris rose up against British rule.

9/3/1944, Saturday (-36,949) First performance, in Venice, of Verdi�s opera Ermani

8/3/1844, Friday (-36,950) Charles XIV, King of Sweden, died aged 81, after a 26-year reign. He was succeeded by his son, Oskar I, aged 44.

7/3/1844, Thursday (-36,951) Anthony Comstock, US moralist, was born in Connecticut (died 21/9/1913 in New York).

6/3/1844, Wednesday (-36,952) Britain concluded an agreement with the indigenous Chiefs of the Gold Coast, giving the UK control over the territory�s legal system and judicial punishments.


27/2/1844, Tuesday (-36,960) The Dominican Republic became independent.

23/2/1844, Friday (-36,964) Duncan Gregory, mathematics writer, died (born 13/4/1813).