Chronography of events from 1 January 1800 to 31 December 1829

Page last modified 3/10/2022

 

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

 

For dates from 1/1/1830 click here

 

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31/12/1829, Thursday (-42,131) Thomas Maynard became the last person in England to be hanged for forgery.

25/12/1829, Friday (-42,137) Patrick Gilmore, composer, was born in Athlone, Ireland (died 24/9/1892)

21/12/1829, Monday (-42,141) (USA) Laura Bridgman, US blind deaf mute, was born (died24/5/1889).

18/12/1829, Friday (-42,144) Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Lamarck, French scientist, died aged 75. He believed that extra usage of some feature of an animal strengthened it, and this enhancement could be passed down the generations.

11/12/1829, Friday (-42,151) Sir Henry Clinton, British soldier, died (born 1771).

8/12/1829, Tuesday (-42,154) De Rosas made himself Governor of Buenos Aires.

5/12/1829, Saturday (-42,157) Sir Henri Joly de Lotbiniere, Canadian politician, was born (died 17/11/1908).

4/12/1829, Friday (-42,158) The practice of suttee, immolation of widows, was made illegal in British-controlled India.

1/12/1829, Tuesday (-42,161) Robert Dale, English religious writer, was born (died 13/3/1895).

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20/11/1829, Friday (-42,172) Albert Bellows, US landscape painter, was born in Milford, Massachusetts (died in Auburndale, Massachusetts, 24/11/1883).

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30/10/1829, Friday (-42,193) Roscoe Conkling, US politician, was born (died 18/4/1888).

28/10/1829, Wednesday (-42,195) Immanuel Deutsch, German religious writer, was born (died 12/5/1873).

14/10/1829, Wednesday (-42,209) Joachim Holtzendorff, German legal writer, was born (died 4/2/1889).

9/10/1829, Friday (-42,214) In the US the Carbondale to Honesdale railway was opened by the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company. However the steam locomotives were too heavy for the track, which was initially worked as a gravity line.

6/10/1829, Tuesday (-42,217) Trials began at Rainhill near Liverpool for a locomotive to use on the Liverpool to Manchester railway. The winner was Stephenson�s Rocket.

5/10/1829, Monday (-42,218) Chester A Arthur, 21st US president, was born.

1/10/1829, Thursday (-42,222) (Universities) Cape Town University, South Africa, was founded, as the South African College.

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29/9/1829, Tuesday (-42,224) London police went on duty for the first time.

27/9/1829, Sunday (-42,226) Mount Ararat was first climbed.

22/9/1829, Tuesday (-42,231) (USA) William Belknap, US politician, was born in Newburgh, New York (died in Washington DC 13/10/1890).

17/9/1829, Thursday (-42,236) Karl Hillebrand, German author, was born (died 19/10/1884).

15/9/1829, Tuesday (-42,238) Slavery was abolished in Mexico.

14/9/1829, Monday (-42,239) The Treaty of Adrianople preserved the Ottoman Empire. Reeling under a series of defeats, the Turks faced occupation of Istanbul by the Russians; they held back from this for fear of destroying the Turkish Empire entirely and starting another European War. The Turks retained nominal sovereignty over Wallachia and Moldavia, but Russia had the real power here. Europeans grew anxious over the growing power of Russia.

7/9/1829, Monday (-42,246) Ferdinand Hayden, US geological writer, was born (died 22/12/1887).

5/9/1829, Saturday (-42,248) Pierre Daru, French statesman, died (born 12/1/1767).

4/9/1829, Friday (-42,249) Sir Wilfrid Lawson, English politician, was born (died 1/7/1906).

3/9/1829, Thursday (-42,250) Anton Gindely, German historical writer, was born (died 24/10/1892).

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27/8/1829, Thursday (-42,257) Gustaf Lindstrom, Swedish palaeontologist, was born (died 16/5/1901).

20/8/1829, Thursday (-42,264) Henry Liddon, English religious writer, was born (died 9/9/1890).

19/8/1829, Wednesday (-42,265) Edward Moran, US artist, was born (died 9/6/1901).

18/8/1829, Tuesday (-42,266) (Britain) Sir David Baird, British General, died (born 12/1757).

7/8/1829, Friday (-42,277) The first steam railway engine ran in the USA. It operated on the Delaware and Hudson Bay railways, but was too heavy for the rails so was impractical.

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19/7/1829, Sunday (-42,296) Charles Cherbuliez, French novelist, was born (died 1/7/1899).

18/7/1829, Saturday (-42,297) Paul Dubois, French sculptor, was born (died 1905).

14/7/1829, Tuesday (-42,301) (Britain) Edward Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born in Birmingham (died in Ireland 11/10/1896).

4/7/1829, Saturday (-42,311) The first bus service in Britain began. See 18/3/1662. George Shilibeer operated a horse drawn service between Marylebone and the Bank, via the City Road. The fare was 1s for the full distance or 6d for any intermediate distance.

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27/6/1829, Saturday (-42,318) James Smithson, British scientist whose bequest established the Smithsonian Institute at Washington to encourage scientific research, died in Genoa.

19/6/1829, Friday (-42,326) The London Metropolitan Police was founded, set up by the Home Secretary, Sir Robert Peel. The policemen were known as �Peelers�, or �Bobbies�. 3,314 professional police now guarded London.

16/6/1829, Tuesday (-42,329) Geronimo, Apache indigenous American Chief, was born.

11/6/1829, Thursday (-42,334) The Russians defeated the Turks at the Battle of Kulecheva, opening up a route to the Balkan Mountains.

10/6/1829, Wednesday (-42,335) The first Oxford and Cambridge boat race took place, 2 � miles from Hambledon Lock to Henley Bridge. It was won easily by Oxford.

8/6/1829, Monday (-42,337) Sir John Millais, English painter, was born (died 13/8/1896).

5/6/1829, Friday (-42,340) George Mountstephen, Canadian financier, was born.

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29/5/1829, Friday (-42,347) Sir Humphrey Davy, born 17/12/1778, inventor of the safety lamp (see 9/1/1816) died in Geneva.

18/5/1829, Monday (-42,358) (Railways, Britain) Sir George Findlay, English railway manager, was born (died 26/3/1893).

17/5/1829, Sunday (-42,359) John Jay, US statesman, died (born 12/12/1745).

15/5/1829, Friday (-42,361) US Congress declared the slave trade to be piracy.

12/5/1829, Tuesday (-42,364) George Childs, US publisher, was born (died 3/2/1894).

9/5/1828, Saturday (-42,367) (USA) Charles Cramp, US shipbuilder, was born

8/5/1829, Friday (-42,368) Charles Colchester, British politician, died (born 1757).

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30/4/1829, Thursday (-42,376) Ferdinand Hochstetter, Austrian geologist, was born (died 18/7/1884).

26/4/1829, Sunday (-42,380) Albert Billroth, surgeon, was born in Rugen (died 6/2/1894).

19/4/1829, Sunday (-42,387) Easter Sunday

13/4/1829, Monday (-42,393) The Catholic Emancipation Act became law. Catholics were allowed to hold every public office except those of Regent, Lord Chancellor, and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. This was a concession reluctantly granted by the British Conservative government of the Duke of Wellington, following Catholic agitation in Ireland by Daniel O�Connell and the Catholic Association.

11/4/1829, Saturday (-42,395) Alexander Buchan, Scottish meteorologist, was born.

10/4/1829, Friday (-42,396) William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, was born in Nottingham, the son of a builder.

9/4/1829, Thursday (-42,397)

7/4/1829, Tuesday (-42,399) (Germany) Moritz Brosch, German historian was born (died 14/7/1907).

6/4/1829, Monday (-42,400) (Mathematics) Neils Abel, Norwegian mathematician (born 1802) died in Arendal.

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31/3/1829, Tuesday (-42,406) Pope Pius VIII (253rd Pope) acceded.

24/3/1829, Tuesday (-42,413) Jean Cavaignac, French politician, died (born 1762).

22/3/1829, Sunday (-42,415) (Greece) At a conference in London, the boundaries of the independent state of Greece were agreed, after nearly 400 years of Ottoman rule.

18/3/1829, Wednesday (-42,419) Alexandre Lameth, French politician, died (born 20/10/1760).

6/3/1829, Friday (-42,431) Sir Arthur Blomfield, English architect, was born (died 30/10/1899).

5/3/1829, Thursday (-42,432) Jean Henner, French painter, was born (died 1905).

4/3/1829, Wednesday (-42,433) Andrew Jackson began his first term as US President.

2/3/1829, Monday (-42,435) (USA) William Boyd Allison, US legislator, was born in Perry, Ohio (died in Dubuque, Iowa, 4/8/1908).

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26/2/1829, Thursday (-42,439) Levi Strauss, clothes maker, was born

24/2/1829, Tuesday (-42,441) (Spain) Cadiz was made a free port.

20/2/1829, Friday (-42,445) (Britain) Odo Ampthill, British diplomat, was born in Florence (died 25/8/1884 in Potsdam).

19/2/1829, Thursday (-42,446) Johann von Miquel, German statesman, was born (died 8/9/1901).

16/2/1829, Monday (-42,449) Francois Gossec, French composer, died (born 1734).

11/2/1829, Wednesday (-42,454) Alexander Griboyedov, Russian author, died (born 1795).

10/2/1829, Tuesday (-42,455) Pope Leo XII died.

5/2/1829, Thursday (-42,460) Jean Gail, French writer on Greece, died (born 4/7/1755).

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30/1/1829, Friday (-42,466) Edward Cook, English author, was born (died 11/9/1883).

25/1/1829, Sunday (-42,471) William Shield, British composer, died in London (born 5/3/1748 in Swalwell, Durham)

21/1/1829, Wednesday (-42,475) Oscar II, King of Sweden and Norway, was born.

20/1/1829, Tuesday (-42,476) (Britain) Thomas Bridgett, English priest, was born (died 17/2/1899).

2/1/1829, Friday (-42,494) Melchiorre Gioja, Italian writer, died (born 20/9/1767).

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28/12/1828, Sunday (-42,499) Earthquake at Echigo, Japan, killed 30,000.

24/12/1828, Wednesday (-42,503) The trial of bodysnatcher William Burke began in Edinburgh, see 31/10/1828. The other bodysnatcher, William Hare, had turned King�s Evidence and was not brought to trial. Sentenced to death, Burke was hanged on 28/1/1829 in front of a large crowd.

21/12/1828, Sunday (-42,506) (Medical) Sir John Burdon-Sanderson, physiologist, was born (died 23/11/1905).

20/12/1828, Saturday (-42,507) (USA) Cherokee Indians ceded their traditional lands in Arkansas territory to the USA and agreed to migrate to lands west of the Mississippi River.

8/12/1828, Monday (-42,529) Pierre Levasseur, French scholarly writer, was born.

6/12/1828, Saturday (-42,531) Sir William Hoste, British Naval Captain, died (26/8/1780).

4/12/1828, Thursday (-42,533) Robert Jenkinson, 2nd earl of Liverpool, died.

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29/11/1828, Saturday (-42,528) Nathaniel Lindley, English Judge, was born.

26/11/1828, Wednesday (-42,531) Rene Goblet, French politician, was born (died 13/9/1905).

19/11/1828, Wednesday (-42,538) Franz Schubert, born 31/1/1797, died of typhus, aged 31.

16/11/1828, Sunday (-42,541) (Greece) By the London Protocol, Btritain, Russia and France recognised the independence of Greek Morea (Peleponnese) and the Cyclades Islands.

15/11/1828, Saturday (-42,542) Joseph Gourko, Russian General, was born (died29/1/1901).

14/11/1828, Friday (-42,543) Charles Freycinet, French statesman, was born.

8/11/1828, Saturday (-42,549) Thomas Bewick, wood engraver, died (born near Newcastle on Tyne 8/1753).

6/11/1828, Thursday (-42,551) Hiram Corson, US scholarly writer, was born.

1/11/1828, Saturday (-42,556) Balfour Stewart, Scottish physician, was born (died 19/12/1887).

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31/10/1828, Friday (-42,557) (1) Sir Joseph Swan, inventor of the electric light bulb independently of Edison, was born in Sunderland.

(2) Edinburgh body snatchers Burke and Hare claimed their last victim, a beggar woman named Docherty. See 24/12/1828.

30/10/1828, Thursday (-42,558) Henry James of Hereford, English lawyer, was born.

29/10/1828, Wednesday (-42,559) (USA) Thomas Bayard, US statesman, was born in Wilmington, Delaware (died in Dedham, Massachusetts, 28/9/1898).

28/10/1828, Tuesday (-42,560) Luke Hansard, British printer, died (born 5/7/1752).

27/10/1828, Monday (-42,561) Jacob Cox, US General, was born (died 4/1/1900).

26/10/1838, Sunday (-42,562) Pierre Lanfrey, French writer, was born (died 15/11/1877)

25/10/1828, Saturday (-42,563) London�s St Katharine Docks opened. 1,250 houses, 11,300 people, and the old St Katharine Hospital had been cleared (foundation stone laid on 3/5/1827) to make way for the Docks.

22/10/1828, Wednesday (-42,566) Karl Mack von Leiberich, Austrian soldier, died (born 25/8/1752).

14/10/1829, Tuesday (-42,574) Eduard Lasker, German politician, was born (died 5/1/1884).

10/10/1810, Friday (-42,578)

2/10/1828, Thursday (-42,586) Charles Floquet, French politician, was born (died 18/1/1896).

1/10/1828, Wednesday (-42,587) (Railways) The horse-drawn St Etienne to Andrezieux railway opened; this was the first railway in France. It was converted to steam in 1844.

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28/9/1828, Sunday (-42,590) Friedrich Lange, German philosophical writer, was born 9died 23/11/1875).

24/9/1828, Wednesday (-42,594) Several German states founded the Commercial Union of Central Germany, signing a customs agreement with Prussia.

22/9/1828, Monday (-42,596) Shaka, the Zulu King who founded the Zulu Kingdom in southern Africa, was murdered, aged 41, by his brothers Dingane and Mhlangane; they now ruled jointly.

16/9/1828, Tuesday (-42,602) Abraham Kuenen, Dutch religious writer, was born (died 10/12/1891).

9/9/1828, Tuesday (-42,609) Leo Tolstoy, noveilist, was born.

8/9/1828, Monday (-42,610) Joshua Chamberlain, US soldier, was born.

6/9/1828, Saturday (-42,612) David Forbes, British scientific writer, was born (died 5/12/1876).

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28/8/1828, Thursday (-42,621) Count Leo Tolstoy, Russian writer, was born of aristocratic descent in Tula Province.

27/8/1828, Wednesday (-42,622) Brazil formally recognised the independence of Uruguay.

22/8/1828, Friday (-42,627) Franz Gall, medical writer, died (born 9/3/1758)

13/8/1827, Wednesday (-42,636) William Blake, poet, died

12/8/1828, Tuesday (-42,637) (Canal) The Kensington Canal opened, from the Thames up to Earls Court where it connected with a railway to the north-west. It closed in 1860 and was converted to a railway which used its former course, then crossed the Thames to link to Clapham Junction.

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23/7/1828, Wednesday (-42,657) Sir Jonathan Hutchinson, English surgeon, was born.

16/7/1828, Wednesday (-42,664) Jean Houdon, French sculptor, died (born 18/3/1740).

14/7/1828, Monday (-42,666) Jervis McEntee, US artist, was born (died 27/1/1891).

10/7/1828, Thursday (-42,670) (Biology) Louis Bosc, French naturalist, died in Paris (born in Paris 29/1/1759).

9/7/1828, Wednesday (-42,671) Painter Gilbert Stuart died in Boston, USA, aged 52.

4/7/1828, Friday (-42,676) (1) Dom Miguel, Regent of Portugal, had himself proclaimed King after a coup in May 1828. Civil war began and his niece, 9-year old Maria, was taken to England for her safety.

(2) Construction began on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad.

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21/6/1828, Saturday (-42,689) Ferdinand Fouque, French geologist, was born (died 7/3/1904)

14/6/1828, Saturday (-42,696) (Germany) Augustus Charles died (born 3/9/1757).

12/6/1828, Thursday (-42,698) Jacques Lauriston, French soldier, died (born 1/2/1768).

1/6/1828, Sunday (-42,709) Frank Hastings, British naval officer and supporter of Greek independence, was killed in battle.

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29/5/1828, Thursday (-42,712) Gerald Massey, English poet, was born (died 29/10/1907).

24/5/1828, Saturday (-42,717) US Congress passed a Reciprocity Act, charging lower duties on imports from countries which reciprocated with the US, but opposition to the Tariff of Abominations remained.

22/5/1828, Thursday (-42,719) Albrecht von Grafe, eye specialist, was born (died 20/7/1870)

16/5/1828, Friday (-42,725) (Innovation) Sir William Congreve, British inventor, died (born 20/5/1772).

12/5/1828, Monday (-42,729) Gabriel Dante Rosetti, poet, was born.

9/5/1828, Friday (-42,732) Charles Cramp, US shipbuilder, was born.

8/5/1828, Thursday (-42,733) Jean Henri Dumont, Swiss philanthropist and founder of the International Red Cross, was born in Geneva.

5/5/1828, Monday (-42,736)

2/5/1828, Friday (-42,739) Desire Charnay, French archaeological writer, was born.

1/5/1828, Thursday (-42,740) Adelardo Lopez de Ayala, Spanish writer, was born in Guadacanal (died 30/1/1879).

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29/4/1828, Tuesday (-42,742)

28/4/1828, Monday (-42,743) Matthew Heddle, Scottish mineralogist, was born (died 19/11/1897).

27/4/1828, Sunday (-42,744) London Zoological Gardens opened in Regents Park. Regents Park, 464 acres in North London, was opened.

26/4/1828, Saturday (-42,745) In support of the Greek struggle for independence, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire. On 8/6/1828 the Russians crossed the Danube, and took Varna on 12/10/1829.

25/4/1828, Friday (-42,746) Julius Grosse, German poet, was born (died 9/5/1902).

23/4/1828, Wednesday (-42,748) Frederick Augustus, King of Saxony from 1873 (died 10/6/1902) was born.

21/4/1828, Monday (-42,750) The American Dictionary of the English language was published. This both standardised American English and put cultural difference between it and British English.

19/4/1829, Saturday (-42,752) In the USA the protectionist Tariff of Abominations was signed by President John Quincy Adams. It raised duties to protect farmers in the West and Northern manufacturers, but did not help Southern cotton farmers.

16/4/1828, Wednesday (-42,755) Francisco de Goya, Spanish painter and etcher, died in Bordeaux, France aged 82.

14/4/1828, Monday (-42,761) The first edition of Noah Webster�s Dictionary of the English Language was copyrighted.

13/4/1828, Sunday (-42,762) Joseph :Lightfoot, Eng;lish religious writer, was born (died 21/12/1889).

6/4/1828, Sunday (-42,765) Easter Sunday

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24/3/1828, Monday (-42,778) Horace Gray, US jurist, was born (died 15/9/1902).

22/3/1828, Saturday (-42,780) James Gardiner, English historical writer, was born

20/3/1828, Thursday (-42,782) Ruggero Bonghi, Italian writer, was born in Naples (died 22/10/1895).

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24/2/1828, Sunday (-42,807) (USA) US soldier Jacob Brown died (born 9/5/1775)

22/2/1828, Friday (-42,809) Following the Russian capture of Tehran, Russia and Iran signed the Peace of Turkmanshai, ending their 2 year war. Russia acquired part of Armenia, including Yerevan.

18/2/1828, Monday (-42,813) Earthquake hit Echigo, Japan, 1,400 killed.

14/2/1828, Thursday (-42,817) (Arts) Edmond About, French writer (died 16/1/1885) was born in Dieuze, Lorraine.

12/2/1828, Tuesday (-43,819) George Meredith, British novelist, was born (died 18/5/1909).

11/2/1828, Monday (-43,820) De Witt Clinton, US politician, died (born 2/3/1760).

8/2/1828, Friday (-42,823) Jules Verne, French writer and early author of science fiction, was born in Nantes, Brittany.

1/2/1828, Friday (-42,830) George Edmunds, US politician, was born.

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31/1/1828, Thursday (-42,831) Henry Chandler, scholarly writer, was born (died 16/5/1889).

28/1/1828, Monday (-42,834)

26/1/1828, Saturday (-42,836) The Duke of Wellington became Tory Prime Minister.

25/1/1828, Friday (-42,837) The Duke of Wellington and Robert Peel formed a Conservative government.

24/1/1828, Thursday (-42,838) (Biology) German botanist Ferdinand Julius Cohn was born in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland). In 1850 he showed that plant and animal cytoplasm were essentially the same.

18/1/1828, Friday (-42.844) Ioannis Kapodistrias was elected the first President of Greece.

16/1/1828, Wednesday (-42,846) Johann Ersch, German writer, died (born 23/6/1766).

11/1/1828, Friday (-42,851) The Prussian zollervein, or customs union, was extended to Hesse Darmstadt.From 1825 a new Prussian finance minister, Friedrich von Motz, had begun to extend the Prussian customs union or zollervein.Independent enclaves or city states had previously served as smuggling centres, hindering tax collection.In May 1829 Bavaria, whose ruler Louis I was keen on the zollervein, joined.See 1/1/1834.

10/1/1828, Thursday (-42,852) The Bank of England issued a one-penny banknote.

2/1/1828, Wednesday (-42,860) Elizabeth Charles, English author, was born (died 28/3/1896).

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7/12/1827, Friday (-42,886) Marc Monnier, French writer, was born (died 18/4/1885).

5/12/1827, Wednesday (-42,888) Marie Henri d�Arbois de Jubainville, French historical writer, was born in Nancy (died February 1910).

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30/11/1827, Friday (-42,893) George Mivart, English scientific writer, was born (died 1/4/1900).

21/11/1827, Wednesday (-42,902) Christian Massenbach, Prussian soldier, died.

18/11/1827, Sunday (-42,905) Wilhelm Hauff, German poet, died (born 29/11/1802).

16/11/1827, Friday (-42,907) James Southerton, cricketer for England, was born in Petworth, Sussex (died in Mitcham, Surrey, 16/6/1880).

14/11/1827, Wednesday (-42,909) Thomas Emmet, Irish politician, died (born 24/4/1764).

8/11/1827, Thursday (-42,915) The first English language newspaper in the Far East, the Canton Register began publication in Guangzhou.

4/11/1827, Sunday (-42,919) Sir Edward Fry, English Judge, was born.

2/11/1827, Friday (-42,921) Paul Lagarde, German orientalist writer, was born (died 22/12/1891).

1/11/1827, Thursday (-42,922) Friedrich Haase, German actor, was born.

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29/10/1827, Monday (-42,925) Marcellin Berthelot, French chemist, was born in Paris (died in Paris 18/3/1907).

20/10/1827, Saturday (-42,934) (Greece-Turkey) In response to the rebuffed ultimatum of 6/7/1827, British, French, and Russian forces destroyed the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Navarino. Over 50 Turkish and Egyptian ships were sunk. This ensured the creation of an independent Greek State, whose exact boundaries had yet to be established.

16/10/1827, Tuesday (-42,938) Arnold Bocklin, Swiss painter, was born in Basel (died 16/1/1901).

15/10/1827, Monday (-42,939) Ralph Blakelock, US painter, was born in New York.

14/10/1827, Sunday (-42,940) Sir William Harcourt, English statesman, was born (died 1/10/1904).

10/10/1827, Wednesday (-42,044) Ugo Foscolo, Italian writer, died (born 26/1/1778).

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30/9/1827, Sunday (-42,954) Wilhelm Muller, German lyrical poet, died (born 7/10/1794).

22/9/1827, Saturday (-42,962) Joseph Smith, son of an impoverished New England farmer, announced that he had received golden plates from an angel. From this he translated the Book of Mormon, leading to the founding of the Mormon religion.

18/9/1827, Tuesday (-49,966) Robert Pollock, poet, died

16/9/1827, Sunday (-49,968) Jean Gaudry, French geological writer, was born (died 27/11/1908).

8/9/1827, Saturday (-42,976) Egyptian troops landed at Navarino (now in southern Greece).

7/9/1827, Friday (-42,977) First railway in Austria opened. This was from Budweis to Trojanov, later extended to Linz, using horse traction.

1/9/1827, Saturday (-42,983)

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22/8/1827, Wednesday (-42,993) Thomas Rowlandson, painter, died aged 70.

20/8/1827, Monday (-42,995) Charles de Coster, Belgian writer, was born (died 7/5/1879).

13/8/1827, Monday (-43,002) The first giraffe arrived in Britain.

12/8/1827, Sunday (-43,003) William Blake, British poet, died.

11/8/1827, Saturday (-43,004)

10/8/1827, Friday (-43,005) Paul Falk, German politician, was born (died 1900).

9/8/1827, Thursday (-43,006) Marc Desaugiers, French composer, died (born 17/8/1772).

8/8/1827, Wednesday (-43,007) George Canning, British Prime Minister, died

5/8/1827, Sunday (-43,010) Manoel Fonseca, first President of the United States of Brazil, was born.

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22/7/1827, Sunday (-43,024) Ludwig Jacob, German economics writer, died (born 26/2/1759).

21/7/1827, Saturday (-43,025) Archibald Constable, Scottish publisher, died (born 24/2/1774).

19/7/1827, Thursday (-43,027)

17/7/1827, Tuesday (-43,029) Sir Frederick Augustus, English chemist, was born.

16/7/1827, Monday (-43,030) The potter Josiah Spode died.

14/7/1827, Saturday (-43032) (Light) Augustin Fresnel, pioneer in lenses, died (born 10/5/1788)

7/7/1827, Saturday (-43,039) Quintino Sella, Italian statesman, was born (died 14/3/1884).

6/7/1827, Friday (-43,040) At the Treaty of London, France, Britain, and Russia threatened to use force against Turkey if the Ottoman Empire did not agree to an armistice with Greece. In August 1827 the Turks refused this. See 20/10/1827.

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29/6/1827, Friday (-43,047) Mortimer Collins, English writer, was born (died 28/7/1876).

27/6/1827, Wednesday (-43,049) Johann Eichhorn, German religious writer, died (born 16/10/1752).

26/6/1827, Tuesday (-43,050) Samuel Crompton, inventor of the spinning mule in 1779, died in Bolton.

25/6/1827, Monday (-43,051) Hugh Childers, British politician, was born (died 29/1/1896).

18/6/1827, Monday (-43,058) Alexander Grosart, Scottish writer, was born (died 16/3/1899).

12/6/1827, Tuesday (-43,064) Johanna Spyri, author, was born

5/6/1827, Tuesday (-43,071) Athens was captured by the Ottoman Turks.

1/6/1827, Friday (-43,075) Charles Freppel, French politician and Bishop, was born (died 12/12/1891).

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28/5/1827, Monday (-43,079) William James, English naval historical writer, died.

23/5/1827, Wednesday (-43,084) (Britain) Henry Loch, Britisjh colonial administrator, was born (died 20/6/1900).

19/5/1827, Saturday (-43,088) Paul Challemel-Lacour, French politician, was born (died 26/10/1896).

11/5/1827, Friday (-43,096) Jean Carpeaux, French sculptor, was born (died 12/10/1875).

4/5/1827, Friday (-43,103) John Manning Speke, English explorer who was the first European to see Lake Victoria, and later identified as the source of the Nile, was born.

3/5/1827, Thursday (-43,104) The foundation stone for St Katharine Dock, London, was laid, see 25/10.1828.

1/5/1827, Tuesday (-43,106) John Bascom, US author, was born in Genoa, New York State.

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29/4/1827, Sunday (-43,108) Rufus King, US politician, died (born 24/3/1755)

22/4/1827, Sunday (-43,115) Thomas Rowlandson, English watercolour painter (born 1756) died in London.

20/4/1827, Friday (-43,117) Copper ore was discovered in Tasmania.

19/4/1827, Thursday (-48,118) George Higinbotham, Chief Justice of Victoria, Australia, was born (died 1893).

15/4/1827, Sunday (-43,122) Easter Sunday

13/4/1827, Friday (-43,124) (Africa) Hugh Clapperton, Scottish explorer of west-central Africa, died (born 1788).

11/4/1827, Wednesday (-43,126) The Greek National Assembly elected Capo d�Istria as President.

8/4/1827, Sunday (-43,129) (Women�s Rights) Barbara Bodichon, who promoted education and other rights for women, was born in Watlington, Norfolk (died in Robertsbridge Sussex, 11/6/1891).

7/4/1827, Saturday (-43,130) Friction matches, the invention of Stockton on Tees chemist John Walker, went on sale. In 1826 Walker was mixing antimony and chlorate of potash with a stick; when he rubbed the stick to clean it, it caught fire. Such matchsticks would catch fire if rubbed on any rough surface, even each other, and in 1855 the first safety match was by the Swedish firm of Johan Edvard Lundstrom. In Britain, Bryant and May bought the rights to these matches where they went on sale in August 1855.

5/4/1827, Thursday (-43,132) Joseph Lister was born in London. He was a surgeon, and pioneered the use of antiseptics.

2/4/1827, Monday (-43,135) William Hunt, English artist, was born (died 7/9/1910).

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27/3/1827, Tuesday (-43,141) Francois la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, French statesman, died (born 11/1/1747).

26/3/1827, Monday (-43,142) Composer Ludwig van Beethoven died in Bonn, aged 57. His last words were reputedly �I shall hear in Heaven�. His funeral was on 29/3/1827, in Vienna; 20,000 attended it.

25/3/1827, Sunday (-43,143) George Lawrence, English novelist, was born (died 23/9/1876).

21/3/1827, Wednesday (-43,147) (Biology) Andrew Adams, Scottish naturalist and palaeontologist, was born (died 29/7/1882).

19/3/1827, Monday (-43,149) James Geddes, US soldier, was born (died 21/2/1887).

16/3/1827, Friday (-43,152) In the USA, the first Afro-American newspaper, the Freemen�s Journal, was first published in New York by the Reverend Samuel Cornish.

7/3/1827, Wednesday (-43,161) John Gladstone, English chemist, was born (died 6/10/1902).

5/3/1827, Monday (-43,163) Death of Count Alessandro Volta, aged 82, at Como, Italy.He was born on 18/2/1745.An Italian, he made the first battery, and gave his name (Volt) to the unit of electrical power.

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22/2/1827, Thursday (-43,174) Charles Wilson Peale, painter, died aged 85.

20/2/1827, Tuesday (-43,176) With Argentine help, Uruguay defeated the Brazilians at Ituzaingo.

18/2/1827, Sunday (-43,178) (Egypt) Heinrich Brugsch, German Egyptologist, was born (died 9/9/1894).

17/2/1827, Saturday (-43,179) The Earl of Liverpool left post as Prime Minister, paralysed by a stroke.

10/2/1827, Saturday (-43,186) (USA) Edward Atkinson, US economist, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts (died in Boston 11/12/1905).

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30/1/1827, Tuesday (-43,197) Martin Haug, German Orientalist writer, was born (died 3/6/1876).

26/1/1827, Friday (-43,201) Peru ended its union with Chile and declared independence.

17/1/1827, Wednesday (-43,210) The Duke of Wellington was appointed Commander in Chief of the British Army.

15/1/1827, Monday (-43,212) Michel Lecointe-Puyraveau, French politician, died (born 13/12/1764).

13/1/1827, Saturday (-43,214) Jean Lanjuinais, French writer, died (born 12/3/1753).

10/1/1827, Wednesday (-43,217) Sir George Cox, English religious writer, was born (died 9/2/1902).

7/1/1827, Sunday (-43,220) (Railways) Sir Sandford Fleming, Canadian engineer who oversaw the construction of much of the Canadian railway system, was born.

2/1/1827, Tuesday (-43,225) John Good, English scholarly writer, died (born 25/5/1764).

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31/12/1826, Sunday (-43,227) William Gifford, English writer, died (born 1756).

28/12/1826, Thursday (-43,230) Conrad Busken-Huet, Dutch literary critic, was born (died 1886)

21/12/1826, Thursday (-48,237) An American, Haydon Edwards, along with 200 White families and some Cherokee Amerindians, declared the �Independent Republic of Fredonia� near Nacogdoches, eastern Mexico. In 1821 both Texas and Mexico had begun encouraging American settlement, (see 8/1824)but the land was noe claimed by Mexican settlers, without clear title. The Mexican Government tried to evict Edwards, eventually (1/1827) overwhelming him with a larger force.

17/12/1826, Sunday (-43,241) (Biology) Francis Buckland, zoologist, was born (died19/12/1880).

16/12/1826, Saturday (-43,242) Battista Donati, Italian astronomer, was born (died 20/9/1873).

14/12/1826, Thursday (-43,244) Conrad Malte-Brun, French geographical writer, died (born 12/8/1755).

7/12/1826, Thursday (-43,251) Henry Crosskey, English geologist, was born (died 1/10/1893).

3/12/1826, Sunday (-43,255) George McClellan, US soldier, was born (died 29/10/1885).

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28/11/1826, Tuesday (-45,260) Francis Hastings, British colonial Governor of India, died (born 9/12/1754).

23/11/1826, Thursday (-45,265) Johann Bode, German astronomer, died in Berlin (born in Hamburg 19/1/1747).

10/11/1826, Friday (-43,278) (Britain) Joseph Arch, English politician and founder of the National Agricultural labourers Union, was born in Barlford, Warwickshire.

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31/10/1826, Tuesday (-43,288) Joseph Hawley, US politician, was born (died 17/3/1905).

28/10/1826, Saturday (-43,291) Sir Andrew Clark, British physician, was born (died 6/11/1893).

24/10/1826,Tuesday (-43,295) Leopold Delisle, French historical writer was born.

18/10/1826, Wednesday (-43,301) Last State Lottery was held in England.

9/10/1826, Monday (-43,310) Michael Kelly, British composer, died.

7/10/1826, Saturday (-43,312) First railway in the USA opened, at Quincy, Massachusetts.

3/10/1826, Tuesday (-43,316) Jens Baggesen, Danish poet, died in Hamburg (born 15/2/1764 in Korsor).

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29/9/1826, Friday (-43,320) Charles Chesney, British military writer, was born (died 19/3/1876).

26/9/1826, Tuesday (-43,323) Persia attermpted to retake Georgia from the Russians. However this day Persia lost the Battle of Ganja, when Persian cavalry were terrified by the Russian artillery. Russia subsequently advanced into Persia and occupied Tehran, capturing the entire Persian artillery and arsenal. Russia then imposed the Treaty of Turkomanchi, setting the Aras River as their boundary, with Russia receiving an imdemnity from Persia and Russia having sole right to station warships in the Caspian.

25/9/1826, Monday (-43,324) (Geology) Giovanni Brocchi, Italian geologist, died (born 18/2/1772).

22/9/1826, Friday (-43,327) Johann Hebel, German poet, died (born 10/5/1760).

13/9/1826, Wednesday (-43,336) (Companies) Anthony Drexel, US banker, was born (died 30/6/1893).

6/9/1826, Wednesday (-43,343) Heinrich von Maltzan, German geographical writer, was born (died 23/2/1874).

5/9/1826, Tuesday (-43,344) (1) The Stratford and Moreton Railway (horsdrawn) opened

(2) John Wisden, original compiler of Wisden�s cricketing Almanac, was born in Brighton, Sussex.

3/9/1826, Sunday (-43,346) (Britain) Sir Harry Calvert, British General, died

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29/8/1826, Tuesday (-43,351) George Hoar, US politician, was born (died 30/9/1904).

21/8/1826, Monday (-43,359) Carl Gegenbaur, German medical writer, was born (died 14/6/1903).

13/8/1826, Sunday (-43,367) Rene Lannec, French doctor who invented and named the stethoscope in 1819, died.

11/8/1826, Friday (-43,369) Andrew Davis, US religious writer, was born (died 1910).

8/8/1826, Tuesday (-43,372) Count Nicolas Robilant, Italian diplomat, was born (died 17/10/1888).

7/8/1826, Monday (-43,373) The British defeated the Ashanti near Accra (Ghana).

4/8/1826, Friday (-43,376) Last set of stocks in London was taken down. They had been at St Clement Danes, in The Strand.

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26/7/1826, Wednesday (-43,385) Cayetano Ripoli, a Deist teacher, became the last person to be executed by the Spanish Inquisition.

24/7/1826, Monday (-43,387) Francisco Solano Lopez, son of Paraguayan dictator Antonio Lopez and Commander in Chief of the Paraguayan Army from 1845, was born

13/7/1826, Thursday (-43,398) Stanislao Cannizzaro, Italian chemist, was born (died 1910).

11/7/1826, Tuesday (-43,400) (Farming) John Fowler, agricultural innovator, was born (died 4/12/1864)

10/7/1826, Monday (-43,401) Luther Martin, US lawyer, died (born 19/2/1748).

7/7/1826, Friday (-43,404)

5/7/1826, Wednesday (-43,406) Sir Stamford Raffles, British colonial administrator, founder of Singapore in 1819, died in London.

4/7/1826, Tuesday (-43,407) (USA) Thomas Jefferson, Third US President from 1801 to 1809, died and, aged 83.He was buried near Charlottesville, Virginia.

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29/6/1826, Thursday (-43,412) Charles Beule, French writer, was born in Saumur (died 4/4/1874),

26/6/1826, Monday (-43,415) (Germany) Adolf Bastian, German ethnologist, was born in Bremen.

21/6/1826, Wednesday (-43,420) Frederick Dufferin, British statesman, was born (died 12/2/1902).

19/6/1826, Monday (-43,422) (USA) Charles Brace, US philanthropist, was born I Litchfield, Connecticut (died in Campfer, Tirol, 11/8/1890).

18/6/1826, Sunday (-43,423) The Prison Society of Germany (Rheinisch Westfalischer Gefangnisveren) was formed, to improve conditions for German prisoners. At that time prisoners in Germany were barely fed, dirty, and in complete idleness; no statistics were collected on them for the basis of useful legislation. Inspired by Elizabeth Fry, Theodor Fleidner began this Society, and in 1833 he opened a refuge for discharged female convicts.

17/6/1826, Saturday (-43,424)

16/6/1826, Friday (-43,425) (Turkey) The insurrection of the Janissaries in Istanbul ended.

15/6/1826, Thursday (-43,426) Luigi Ferri, Italian philosophical writer, was born (died 1895).

10/6/1826, Saturday (-43,431) (Turkey) The final revolt of the Janissaries in Turkey began. They objected to the formation of a new military corps to replace them, by Mahmud.

8/6/1828, Thursday (-43,433) William Coxe, English historical writer, died (born 7/3/1747).

7/6/1826, Wednesday (-43,434) (Astronomy) Joseph von Fraunhofer, best known for his study of absorption lines in the Sun�s spectrum, now known as Fraunhofer Lines, died (born 6/3/1787).

5/6/1826, Monday (-43,436) Carl Maria von Weber, composer, died of tuberculosis in London

2/6/1826, Friday (-43,439) Richard Hutton, English writer, was born (died 9/9/1897).

1/6/1825, Thursday (-43,440) John Morgan, US Confederate soldier, was born (died 4/9.1864).

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22/5/1826, Monday (-43,450) Christopher Langdell, US legal writer, was born (died 6/7/1906).

16/5/1826, Tuesday (-43,456) (Astronomy) Richard Carrington, astronomer, was born (died 27/11/1875).

11/5/1826, Thursday (-43,461) David Davies, Welsh religious writer, was born (died 26/9/1891).

5/5/1826, Friday (-43,467) (France) Eugenie, wife of Napoleon III, was born in Grenada., Spain.

4/5/1826, Thursday (-43,468) Frederick Church, US landscape painter, was born (died 7/4/1900).

3/5/1826, Wednesday (-43,496) Charles XV, King of Sweden, was born (died 18/9/1872).

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23/4/1826, Sunday (-43,479) (Greece-Turkey) The Turks captured Missolonghi. This town was famous in Europe because the poet Lord Byron had died there in 1824, after a lifetime promoting the cause of an independent Greece. After a prolonged siege that began in 4/1825 the Greeks attempted a break-out, but most were massacred. This incident appalled liberal opinion in western Europe, which led to the intervention at Navarino 20/10/1827.

20/4/1826, Thursday (-43,482) Dinah Craik, English novelist, was born (died 12/10/1887).

19/4/1826, Wednesday (-43,483) Samuel Cox, English religious writer, was born (died 1893).

12/4/1826, Wednesday (-43,490)

6/4/1826, Thursday (-43,496) Gustave Moreau, French painter, was born (died 18/4/1898).

5/4/1826, Wednesday (-43,497) Russia demanded the cessation of Ottoman military operations on the Danube.

4/4/1826, Tuesday (-43,498) (Greece-Turkey) The Anglo-Russian protocol was issued. It proposed that Greece be an autonomous State within the Ottoman Empire, paying a tribute to the Porte, with its ruler appointed by the Sultan. In return Ottoman Turkey was to withdraw its troops from Greece. However Sultan Mahmud II believed he was winning against the secessionist Greeks and would render the negotiations moot by soon reconquering Greece. Meanwhile the British negotiator, Foreign Minister George Canning, was in failing health and due to retire; his successor, the Duke of Wellington, was much less concerned about the fate of Greece.

3/4/1826, Monday (-43,499) Reginald Heber, English hymn-writer, died (born 21/4/1783).

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31/3/1826, Friday (-43,502) Sir Robert Morier, British diplomat, was born (died 16/11/1893).

29/3/1826, Wednesday (-43,504) Wilhelm Liebknecht, German socialist writer, was born (died 6/8/1900).

26/3/1826, Sunday (-43,507) Easter Sunday

24/3/1826, Friday (-43,509) Mathieu Montmorency, French politician, died (born 10/7/1766).

21/3/1826, Tuesday (-43,512) Beethoven�s String Quartet no.13 in B flat major, Op.130, premiered in Vienna.

20/3/1826, Monday (-43,513) Sir Augustus Franks, English antiquary, was born (died 212/5/1897).

18/3/1826, Saturday (-43,515) Joseph Bellot, Arctic explorer, was born in Rochefort (died 8/1853).

10/3/1826, Friday (-43,523) King John VI of Portugal died aged 56. He was succeeded by his son, Dom Pedro of Brazil, as Pedro IV; however Pedro IV refused to leave Brazil, and abdicated in favour of his infant daughter, Maria.

4/3/1826, Saturday (-43,539) Elme Carlo, French scholarly writer, was born (died 13/7/1887).

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27/2/1826, Monday (-43,534) Howard Crosby, US writer, was born (died 1890).

24/2/1826, Friday (-43,537) The Treaty of Yandabu ended the First Burmese War. Britain gained control of Assam and Arakan.

23/2/1826, Thursday (-43,538) (Mathematics) Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevski (born near Nizhni Novgorod, Russia) gave a paper at Kazan University outlining the principles of non-Euclidean geometry.

21/2/1826, Tuesday (-43,540) Joihn Kay, Scottish caricaturist, died.

17/2/1826, Friday (-43,544) Johann Gabler, German religious writer, died (born 4/6/1753).

14/2/1826, Tuesday (-43,547) Johann Falk, German author, died (born 28/10/1768).

13/2/1826, Monday (-43,548) The American Temperance Society was formed.

12/2/1826,

11/2/1826, Saturday (-43,550) University College London was founded, as London University.

10/2/1826, Friday (-43,551) Sir William Fraser, English politician, was born (died 17/8/1898).

9/2/1826, Thursday (-43,552) Samuel Bowles, journalist, was born in Springfield, Massachusetts (died in Springfield 16/1/1878).

2/2/1826, Thursday (-43,559) (Food) Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, French gastronomist, died (born 1/4/1755).

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30/1/1926, Monday (-43,562) The Menai Straits road suspension bridge, Anglesey, opened to traffic.

16/1/1826, Monday (-43,576) Lindley Murray, writer, died (born 22/4/1745)

7/1/1826, Saturday (-43,585) John Kimberley, English statesman, was born (died 8/4/1902).

6/1/1826, Friday (-43,586) John Farey, English geologist, died (born 1766).

3/1/1826, Tuesday (-43,589)

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29/12/1825, Thursday (-43,594) Jacques David, French painter, died (born 30/4/1748).

28/12/1825, Wednesday (-43,595) Henri Blowitz, journalist, was born in Bohemia (died 18/1/1003).

27/12/1825, Tuesday (-43,596)

26/12/1825, Monday (-43,597) (Russia) The Decembrist Army Revolt in St Petersburg was crushed; it had begun on 1/12/1825. Young men inspired by the ideals of the French Revolution had attempted to overthrow the Tsarist rulers. Five reberls were hanged and 121 were exiled to Siberia.

25/12/1825, Sunday (-43,598) Henri Bornier, French poet, was born in Lunel (died 1/1901).

21/12/1825, Wednesday (-43,602)

18/12/1825, Sunday (-43,605) Tsar Nicholas I became ruler of Russia.

17/12/1825, Saturday (-43,606) Karl Keim, German religious writer, was born (died 17/11/1878).

13/12/1825, Tuesday (-43,610) Tsar Alexander I died in agony, aged 47, after eating poisonous mushrooms in the Crimea. He was succeeded by his 21-year-old brother, Nicholas I.

5/12/1825, Monday (-43,618) Antoine Barbier, French writer, died in Paris (born in Coulommiers 11/1/1765)

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30/11/1825, Wednesday (-43,623) Adolphe Bouguereau, French painter, was born in La Rochelle (died 20/8/1905).

29/11/1825, Tuesday (-43,624) (Medical) Jean Charcot, French physician, was born (died 16/8/1893).

28/11/1825, Monday (-43,625) Maximilien Foy, French statesman, died (born 3/2/1775).

15/11/1825, Tuesday (-43,638)

9/11/1825, Wednesday (-43,644) (Light) Thomas Drummond set up a reflector with burning lime in front, and the intense light could be seen 106 km (66 miles) away. Limelight came to be used for lighthouses and theatres.

8/11/1825, Tuesday (-43,645)

6/11/1825, Sunday (-43,647) Jean Garnier, French architect, was born (died 3/8/1898).

3/11/1825, Thursday (-43,650) The Hungarian Academy of Sciences was founded.

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31/10/1825, Monday (-43,653) (Christian) Charles Lavigerie, Catholic Primate of all Africa, was born (died 26/11/1892).

26/10/1825, Wednesday (-43,658) The Erie Canal, linking New York with the Great Lakes via Niagara and the Hudson River, begun 4/7/1817, was completed. Influenced by Governor DeWitt Clinton the New York state legislature agreed to fund the US$ 7 million project. The canal, 363 miles long, 40 foot wide, 4 foot deep, with 82 locks, would make New York the principal port of America.

25/10/1825, Tuesday (-43,659) Johann Strauss junior, composer, was born in Vienna, Austria.

20/10/1825, Thursday (-43,664) Girolamo Lucchesini, Prussian diplomat, died (born 7/5/1751).

13/10/1825, Thursday (-43,671) Maximilian I, King of Bavaria, died.

12/10/1825, Wednesday (-43,672) (Geology) Mineralogist Franz Joseph Muller died in Vienna, Austria.

11/10/1825, Tuesday (-43,673) Konrad Meyer, Swiss poet, was born (died 28/11/1898).

10/10/1825, Monday (-43,674) Paul Kruger, South African politician and Boer leader, was born in Colesberg, Cape Colony.

9/10/1825, Sunday (-43,675) Josef Jirecek, Czeck scholarly writer, was born (died 25/11/1888).

6/10/1825, Thursday (-13,678) Bernard Lacepede, French naturalist writer, died (born 26/12/1756).

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27/9/1825, Tuesday (-43,687) Stockton and Darlington railway opened. Built by George Stephenson, the 27-mile route received Parliamentary approval in 1821. Stephenson�s locomotive Active weighed 8 tons and could travel at 12 to 16 mph.The locomotive was later renamed Locomotion No.1.

24/9/1825, Saturday (-43,690) Peter Dobree, English scholarly writer, died (born 1782).

19/9/1825, Monday (-43,695) Henry Lea, US historical writer, was born (died 24/10/1909),

17/9/1825, Saturday (-43,697) (Maritime) Sir Donald Currie, English shipowner, was born (died 13/4/1909).

4/9/1825, Sunday (-43,710) Naoroji Dadabhai, Indian statesman, was born.

3/9/1825, Saturday (-43,711) Hardinge Halsbury, English Lord Chancellor, was born.

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29/8/1825, Monday (-43,716) Portugal formally recognised the independence of Brazil.

27/8/1825, Saturday (-45,718) William Moorcroft, English geographical writer, died.

25/8/1825, Thursday (-43,720) Uruguay gained independence from Spain, under Jose Artigas. Brazil, fearing that the socialist principles of Artigas would influence their country, attacked Uruguay.

18/8/1825, Thursday (-43,727) Paul Courier, French writer, died (born 4/1/1773).

10/8/1825, Wednesday (-43,735) John Conington, English classical writer, was born (died 23/10/1869).

8/8/1825, Monday (-43,737) Aloys Karolyi, Austro0Hungarian diplomat, was born (died 2/12/1889).

6/8/1825, Saturday (-43,739) Bolivia proclaimed itself a Republic, independent from Spain, after nearly 300 years of Spanish rule.Antonio Sucre was the first President.

===================================================================================

6/7/1825, Wednesday (-43,770)

===================================================================================

30/6/1825, Thursday (-43,776) Ferdinand Muller, explorer of Australia, was born (died 9/10/1896).

24/6/1825, Friday (-43,782) William Henry Smith, English newsagent and bookseller, was born. He joined his father�s news agency business and took full control in 1846, building the biggest chain of newsagents in Britain.

15/6/1825, Wednesday (-43,791) The Duke of York laid the foundation stone of London Bridge.

14/6/1825, Tuesday (-43,792) Jean Montegut, French writer, was born (died 11/12/1895).

11/6/1825, Saturday (-43,795) William Wilberforce made his last speech in the House of Commons.

7/6/1825, Tuesday (-43,799) Richard Blackmore, English novelist, was born in Berkshire (died in Teddington 20/1/1900).

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8/5/1825, Sunday (-43,829) George Malleson, English writer on India, was born (died 1.3.1898).

7/5/1825, Saturday (-43,830) Antonio Saleri, composer, died

6/5/1825, Friday (-43,831) Lady Anne Barnard, writer, died in London (born in Fife 12/12/1750).

4/5/1825, Wednesday (-43,833) Thomas Huxley, English biologist, was born (died 29/6/1895).

1/5/1825, Sunday (-43,836) George Innes, US landscape painter, was born (died 3/8/1894).

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27/4/1825, Wednesday (-43,840) Dominique Denon, French artist, died (born 4/1/1747).

25/4/1825, Monday (-43,842) Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, President of Mexico 1872-77, was born.

24/4/1825, Sunday (-43,843) Robert Ballantyne, writer, was born in Edinburgh (died 8/2/1894 in Rome).

23/4/1825, Saturday (-43,844) Friedrich Muller, German poet, died (born 13/1/1749).

16/4/1825, Saturday (-43,851) Henry Fuseli, Swiss-German painter, died (born 7/2/1741).

13/4/1825, Wednesday (-43,854) William Beard, US painter, was born in Painesville, Ohio (died 1900).

11/4/1825, Monday (-43,856) Ferdinand Lasalle, German Socialist writer, was born (died 31/8/1864).

3/4/1825, Sunday (-43,864) Easter Sunday

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31/3/1825, Thursday (-43,867) Karl Holsten, German religious writer, was born (died 26/1/1897).

30/3/1825, Wednesday (-43,868) Theodor Kjerulf, Norwegian geologist, was born (died 25/10/1888).

27/3/1825, Sunday (-43,071) Teaching began at the University of Virginia (see 1819).

21/3/1825, Monday (-43,877) Fitzedward Hall, US orientalist writer, was born (died 1/2/1901).

11/3/1825, Friday (-43,887) Felix Karrer, Austrian geologist, was born (died 19/4/1903).

9/3/1825, Wednesday (-43,889) Anna Barbauld, English poet, died (born in Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire 20/6/1743).

8/3/1825, Tuesday (-43,890) Peter Elmsley, English scholarly writer, died (born 1773).

3/3/1825, Thursday (-43,895) Annie Keary, English novelist, was born (died 3/3/1879).

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25/2/1825, Friday (-43,901) Quote from Samuel Taylor Coleridge, �He who begins by loving Christianity better than Truth will proceed by loving his own sect or church better than Christianity, and end by loving himself better than all�

24/2/1825, Thursday (-43,902) Thomas Bowdler died, aged 71. He was notorious for prudishly editing text he considered unsuitable, giving rise to the term �bowdlerising�.

22/2/1825, Tuesday (-43,904)

20/2/1825, Sunday (-43,906) Sir Geoffrey Hornby, British Admiral, was born (died 3/3/1895).

19/2/1825, Saturday (-43,907) Maurus Jokai, Hungarian novelist, was born (died 5/5/1904).

17/2/1825, Thursday (-43,909) Jean Lindet, French Revolutionist, died

12/2/1825, Saturday (-43,914) The Cree People repudiated the treaty by which their leaders had ceded their lands in Georgia to the USA after conflict in 1813.

9/2/1825, Wednesday (-43,917) John Quincy Adams was elected President of the USA, defeating Andrew Adams and ending a 2-month impasse.

8/2/1825, Tuesday (-43,918) (Biology) Henry Walter Bates was born in Leicester, England. His theory of insect mimicry, developed during an 11-year stay in South America, contributed to the acceptance of Darwin�s Theory of Evolution.

4/2/1825, Friday (-43,922) Frederick Furnivall, English writer, was born (died 2/7/1910),

1/2/1825, Tuesday (-43,925) Francis Child, scholarly writer, was born (died11/9/1896).

====================================================================================

30/1/1825, Sunday (-43,927) The Redruth and Chacewater Railway opened, horsedrawn, steam from 1854.

28/1/1825, Friday (-43,929) (Italy) Benedetto Cairoli, Italian statesman, was born (died 8/8/1889).

27/1/1825, Thursday (-43,930) William Green, US Hebrew scholarly writer, was born (died 10/2/1900).

24/1/1825, Monday (-43,933) John MacGregor, geographical writer, was born (died 16/7/1892).

18/1/1825, Tuesday (-43,939) Sir Edward Frankland, English chemist, was born (died 9/8/1899).

17/1/1825, Monday (-43,940) Antoine Ferrand, French political writer, died (4/7/1751).

14/1/1825, Friday (-43,943) George Dance, painter, died/

8/1/1825, Saturday (-43,949) Eli Whitney, American inventor of the cotton gin, which made separating of fibre and seed easier, died in New Haven, Connecticut.

4/1/1825, Tuesday (-43,953) Ferdinand I, King of the Two Sicilies, died aged 73. He was succeeded 47-year old son, Francesco I.

====================================================================================

30/12/1824, Thursday (-43,962) Alexis Lobanov-Rostovski, Russian statesman, was born (died 30/8/1896).

25/12/1824, Saturday (-43,967) Rodolphe Dareste, French writer, was born.

24/12/1824, Friday (-43,968) Carl Cornelius, German poet, was born (died 26/10/1874).

11/12/1824, Saturday (-43,981) Victor Balaguer, Spanish author, was born in Barcelona (died in Madrid 14/1/1901).

9/12/1824, Thursday (-43,979) Battle of Ayacucho. Further Spanish defeat in the war to retain Peru as a colony.

6/12/1824, Monday (-43,982) Sir Joseph Fayrer, English physician, was born (died 21/5/1907).

5/12/1824, Sunday (-43,983) William Blades, English writer, was born in Clapham, London (died in Sutton, Surrey 27/4/1890).

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30/11/1824, Tuesday (+43,988) (London) Henry Faultleroy, convicted of forgery, was executed in London (born 1785).

16/11/1824, Tuesday (-44,002) The Murray River, Australia, was discovered by the explorer Hamilton Hume. See 9/2/1830.

9/11/1824, Tuesday (-44,009) Anne Girodet, French painter, died (born 5/1/1767).

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30/10/1824, Saturday (-44,019) Charles Maturin, irish novelist, died.

27/10/1824, Wednesday (-44,022) Edward Maitland, English humanitarian writer, was born (died 2/10/1897).

23/10/1824, Saturday (-44,026) Charles Fechter, actor, was born (died 5/8/1879).

21/10/1824, Thursday (-44,028) Portland cement was patented by Joseph Aspdin of Wakefield, Yorkshire.

14/10/1824, Thursday (-44,035) The Higham and Strood Canal Tunnels opened, taking the Thames and Medway Canal.

4/10/1824, Monday (-44,045) Mexico became a republic.

3/10/1824, Sunday (-44,046) Harry Arnim, German diplomat, was born (died 1881).

====================================================================================

27/9/1824, Monday (-44,052) Benjamin Gould, astronomer, was born (died 26/11/1896).

16/9/1824, Thursday (-44,063) Louis XVIII, King of France, died aged 68, leaving a strong and prosperous country, in contrast to its defeat under Napoleon. However his attempts at constitutional reform were thwarted by the ultra-royalists. He was succeeded by his brother, Charles X.

15/9/1824, Wednesday (-44,064) Joseph Hergenrother, German religious writer, was born (died 3/10/1890).

11/9/1824, Saturday (-44,068) Jakob Bernays, German writer, was born in Hamburg (died in Bonn 26/5/1881).

4/9/1824, Saturday (-44,075) Anton Bruckner, Austrian composer, was born (died 11/10/1896).

====================================================================================

21/8/1824, Saturday (-44,089) (Africa) William Baikie, explorer of Africa, was born in Kirkwall, Orkney (died in Sierra Leone, 30/11/1864).

6/81824, Friday (-44,104) Spain finally lost Peru after the Battles of Junin and Ayacucho, led by Simon Bolivar and Antonio Jose de Sucre.

4/8/1824, Wednesday (-44,106) The USA gave formal diplomatic recognition to the newly independent Brazil.

====================================================================================

29/7/1824, Thursday (-44,112) Eastman Johnson, artist, was born (died 5/4/1906).

27/7/1824, Tuesday (-44,114) (Britain) Sir Andrew Clarke, British military administrator, was born (died 29/3/1902).

26/7/1824, Monday (-44,115)

25/7/1824, Sunday (-44,116)

24/7/1824, Saturday (-44,117) The result of the first public opinion poll was published in the Harrisburg Pennsylvanian.The poll was conducted at Wilmington to determine voters� intentions in the 1824 Presidential election.

23/7/1824, Friday (-44,118) Ernst Fischer, German philosophical writer, was born (died 4/7/1907).

21/7/1824, Wednesday (-44,120) Stanley Matthews, US jurist, was born (died 22/3/1889).

19/7/1824, Monday (-44,122) Former Emperor Iturbide was executed in Mexico for having returned in defiance of exile. He had landed in disguise on 14/7/1824 at Soto la Marina but was immediately recognised.

14/7/1824, Wednesday (-44,127) Kamehameha II, King of Hawaii and his wife died of measles during a visit to Britain.

10/7/1824, Saturday (-44,131) (Germany) Rudolf Bennigsen, German politician, was born in Luneburg (died 7/8/1902).

====================================================================================

28/6/1824, Monday (-44,143) (Medical) Paul Broca, French surgeon and anthropologist, was born (died 9/7/1880).

26/6/1824, Saturday (-44,145) Physicist and mathematician Lord Kelvin was born in Belfast as William Thomson.

16/6/1824, Wednesday (-44,155) Charles LeBrun, French statesman, died (born 19/3/1739).

15/6/1824, Tuesday (-44,156) The RSPCA was founded.

13/6/1824, Sunday (-44,158) Julius Eichberg, German composer, was born (died 28/1/1893).

10/6/1824, Thursday (-44,161) The British under Sir Archibald Campbell defeated Burmese troops at the Battle of Kemendine, First Burma War.

6/6/1824, Sunday (-44,165) A law was passed in Britain recognising the right to strike. The Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800 were repealed.

=====================================================================================

26/5/1824, Wednesday (-44,176) Capel Lofft, English writer, died (born 14/11/1751).

24/5/1824, Monday (-44,178) US President James Monroe signed a Bill establishing the US Army Corps of Engineers, to assist in building civilian transport infrastructure as well as in military campaigns.

23/5/1824, Sunday (-44,179) (USA) Ambrose Burnside, US soldier, was born (died 13/9/1881).

18/5/1824, Tuesday (-44,184) Wilhelm Hofmeister, German botanical writer, was born (died 12/1/1877).

16/5/1824, Sunday (-44,186) Levi Morton, US politician, was born.

11/5/1824, Tuesday (-44,191) (1) The British, with a force of 11,000 troops, invaded Burma and captured Rangoon in retaliation for the King of Burma�s invasion of Shahpuri, in British India, in February 1824. This was the first time steamboats had been used in warfare.

(2) Iturbide, who had been deposed for his totalitarian method of rule, attempted to return to Mexico, setting sail from Italy this day.Mexico immeidately declared him an outlaw, forbidden to enter Mexico on pain of death.

7/5/1824, Friday (-44,195) Beethoven�s 9th Choral symphony premiered in Vienna.

3/5/1824, Monday (-44,199) Joseph Joubert, French moralistic writer, died (born 6/5/1754).

1/5/1824, Saturday (-44,201) Sir Johann Haast, British-German geologist, was born (died 15/8/1887).

===================================================================================

27/4/1824, Tuesday (-44,205) Sir Edward Hamley, British military writer, was born (died 12/8/1893).

20/4/1824, Tuesday (-44,212) Peter Duncan, English palaeontologist, was born (died 28/5/1891).

19/4/1824, Monday (-44,213) Lord Byron died at sunset of marsh fever (malaria) at Missolonghi, helping the Greeks during their struggle for independence from Ottoman Turkey; he was 36. See 22/3/1829.

18/4/1824, Sunday (-44,214) Easter Sunday

13/4/1824, Tuesday (-44,219) (Ireland) William Alexander, Protestant Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland, was born in Londonderry.

11/4/1824, Sunday (-44,221) (France) Jean Drouet, French Revolutionary, died (born 1763).

5/4/1824, Monday (-44,227) Sydney Dobell, English poet, was born (died 22/8/1874).

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31/3/1824, Wednesday (-44,232) William Hunt, US painter, was born (died 31/7/1895).

29/3/1824, Monday (-44,234) Hans Hauge, Norwegian religious writer, died (born 3/4/1771).

27/3/1824, Saturday (-44,236) Louis la Revelliere-Lepaux, French politician, died (born 24/8/1753).

24/3/1824, Wednesday (-44,239) 1st performance of Beethoven�s �Missa Solemnis; in St Petersburg

22/3/1824, Monday (-44,241) The British Government agreed to spend �57,000 to purchase 38 paintings to establish a national collection.

20/3/1824, Saturday (-44,243) Theodor von Heuglin, German travel writer, was born (died 5/11/1876).

19/3/1824, Friday (-44,244) William Allingham, Irish poet, was born in Ballyshannon, Donegal (died in Hampstead, London, on 18/11/1889).

15/3/1824, Monday (-44,248) Construction work began on John Rennie�s London Bridge.

13/3/1824, Saturday (-44,250) Sophia Lee, English novelist, died.

12/3/1824, Friday (-44,251) (Electricity) Gustav Robert Kirchhoff was born in Konigsberg, Kaliningrad. He discovered in 1857 that static electric forces and magnetic forces were related by a constant that was discovered to be the speed of light in a vacuum; the first clue that electromagnetism and light were linked.

11/3/1824, Thursday (+44,252) The Bureau of Indian Affairs was created by US Secretary of War, John C Calhoun.

4/3/1824. Thursday (-44,259) In Britain, Sir William Hillary founded the National Institute for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck. This became the Royal National Lifeboat Institution in 1854.

2/3/1824, Tuesday (-44,261) Bedrich Smetana, Czech composer, was born in Litomysl, Bohemia.

1/3/1824, Monday (-44,262) Sir Donald Martin Stewart, British Field-Marshal, was born (died 26/3/1900).

=====================================================================================

28/2/1824, Saturday (-44,264) Charles Blondin, French tightrope walker famous for his crossings of Niagara Falls, was born in Hesdin near Calais, as Jean Francois Gravelet.

26/2/1824, Thursday (-44,266) Carlos Calvi, Argentine historian (died 1906) was born in Buenos Aires.

24/2/1824, Tuesday (-44,268) The Burmese War began, between Britain and Burma, when Burma invaded the Indian island of Shahpuri. Lord Amherst, British Governor-General of India, declared war on Burma.

22/2/1824, Sunday (-44,270) Pierre Janssen, French astronomer, was born (died 23/12/1907).

16/2/1824, Monday (-44,276) The Athenaeum Club, London, was founded.

15/2/1824, Sunday (-44,277) Rajendra Mitra, Indian Orientalist wroitewr, was born (died 26/7/1891).

14/2/1824, Saturday (-44,278) Winfield Hancock, US General, was born (died 9/2/1886).

13/2/1824, Friday (-44,279) Sir George Jessel, English Judge, was born (died 21/3/1883).

10/2/1824, Tuesday (-44,282) Samuel Plimsoll, naval inventor, was born at Bristol.

8/2/1824, Sunday (-44,284) Rhijnvis Feith, Dutch poet, died (born 7/2/1753).

7/2/1824, Saturday (-44,285) Sir William Huggins, English astronomer, was born (died 12/5/1910).

5/2/1824, Thursday (-44,287) Charles Dickens, then aged 12, was sent out to work labelling shoe polish bottles.

=====================================================================================

29/1/1824, Thursday (-44,294) (France) Louise Caroline, Countess of Albany, died

27/1/1824, Tuesday (-44,296) Josef Israels, Dutch painter, was born.

26/1/1824, Monday (-44,297) Jean Gericault, French painter, died (born 1791).

25/1/1824, Sunday (-44,298) Michael Dutt, Indian poet, was born (died 29/6/1873).

24/1/1824, Saturday (-44,299) Ercole Consalvi, Italian statesman, died (born 8/6/1757).

23/1/1824, Friday (-44,300)

22/1/1824, Thursday (-44,301) The Asante army heavily defeated the British in the Gold Coast.

21/1/1824, Wednesday (-44,302) The Ashanti defeated the British at the battle of Nsamankow.

10/1/1824, Saturday (-44,313) Thomas Bowditch, English explorer of west Africa, died in Bathurst (born 1790).

8/1/1824, Thursday (-44,315) William Collins, English novelist, was born (died 23/9/1889).

==================================================================================

29/12/1823, Monday (-44,325) Augusta Drane, English writer, was born (died 29/4/1894).

27/12/1823, Saturday (-44,327) Sir Mackenzie Bowell, Canadian politician, was born.

24/12/1823, Wednesday (-44,330) Giovanni Bottesini, Italian composer, was born in Lombardy (died in Parma 7/7/1889).

22/12/1823, Monday (-44,332) Thomas Higginson, US writer, was born.

13/12/1823, Saturday (-44,339) William How, English religious writer, was born (died 10/8/1897).

8/12/1823, Monday (-44,346) Robert Collyer, English religious writer, was born.

6/12/1823, Saturday (-44,348) (South Africa) Sir John Brand, President of the Orange Free State, was born in Cape Town (died 14/7/1888).

3/12/1823, Wednesday (-44,351) (Egypt) Giovanni Belzoni, Egyptologist, died in Egypt (born in Padua 1778)

2/12/1823, Tuesday (-44,352) (1) President Monroe of the USA declared that no part of the Americas is now �res nullius�, or open to further European colonisation, although existing European influences would be tolerated. This was the basis of the Monroe Doctrine.

(2) Birkbeck College, University of London, was founded.

1/12/1823, Monday (-44,353) Ernest Reyer, French composer, was born.

===================================================================================

25/11/1823, Tuesday (-44,359) Brighton�s Chain Pier was opened.

17/11/1823, Monday (-44,367) Thomas Erskine, Lord Chancellor of England, died (born 10/1/1750).

1/11/1823, Saturday (-44,383) Heinrich Gerstenberg, German poet, died (born 3/1/1737).

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31/10/1823, Friday (-44,384) Charles Grant, British politician, died (born 16/4/1746).

30/10/1823, Thursday (-44,385) Edmund Cartwright, invented the power loom, 1785, died at Hastings, Sussex, aged 80.

29/10/1823, Wednesday (-44,386) Clement Ingleby, English writer on Shakespeare, was born (died 26/9/1886).

28/10/1823, Tuesday (-44,387) Lodovico Corti, Italian diplomat, was born (died 9/4/1888).

14/10/1823, Tuesday (-44,401) Chicksaw Indian tribal chiefs ceded land east of the Mississippi River to the United States Government.

5/10/1823, Sunday (-44,410) (Medical) The British medical journal, The Lancet, was first published. It was set up by English surgeon Thomas Wakley.

==================================================================================

30/9/1823, Tuesday (-44,415) Rudolf von Gottschall, German writer, was born (died 21/3/1909).

28/9/1823, Sunday (-44,417) Pope Leo XII was elected Pope.

26/9/1823, Friday (-44,419) The Plymouth and Dartmoor Railway opened (horsedrawn) as far up as Kings Tor.

23/9/1823, Tuesday (-44,422) French troops, suppressing a rebellion in Spain, took Cadiz. The rebels surrendered Ferdinand VII, who was restored to the Spanish throne.

11/9/1823, Thursday (-44,434) Economist David Ricardo died.

10/9/1823, Wednesday (-44,435) Simon Bolivar became dictator of Peru.

9/9/1823, Tuesday (-44,436) Joseph Leidy, naturalist writer, was born (died 30/4/1891).

====================================================================================

31/8/1823, Sunday (-44,445) At the Battle of the Trocadero, French troops defeated Spanish rebels.

20/8/1823, Wednesday (-44,456) Pope Pius VII died.

19/8/1823, Tuesday (-44,457) Robert Bloomfield, English poet, died in Shefford, Bedfordshire (born in Honington, Suffolk 3/12/1766)

18/8/1823, Monday (-44,458) Slave rebellion in Guyana; European militia put down the rebellion by 20/8/1763.

15/8/1823, Friday (-44,461) Marie Boissier, French scholarly writer, was born in Nimes (died 6/1908).

10/8/1823, Sunday (-44,466) Charles Keene, English artist, was born (died 4/1/1891).

4/8/1823, Monday (-44,472) Oliver Morton, US politician, was born (died 1/11/1877).

3/8/1823, Sunday (-44.473) Thomas Meagher, US soldier, was born (died 1/7/1867)

2/8/1823, Saturday (-44,474) (France) Lazare Carnot, French General, died (born 1753).

====================================================================================

30/7/1823, Wednesday (-44,477) Charles Lory, French geologist, was born (died 3/5/1889).

28/7/1823, Monday (-44,479) Manasseh Cutler, US statesman, died (born 13/5/1742).

22/7/1823, Tuesday (-44,485) (Germany) Ludwig Bamberger, German politician, was born in Mainz (died 1899).

18/7/1823, Friday (-44,489) (Iran, Turkey) The Treaty of Erzerum was signed, between the Sultan of Ottoman Turkey and the Qajar Shah of Persia; this Treaty defined their common frontier in lower Iraq. However the two powers continued to dispute possession of the town of Muhammara, at the mouth of the Karun River, a disagreement dating from 1812. In 1847 a second Treaty of Erzerum was signed, giving Muhammara to Persia.

13/7/1823, Sunday (-44,094) Eugene Manuel, French poet, was born.

10/7/1823, Thursday (-44,497) Sandford Gifford, US painter, was born (died 29/8/1880).

7/7/1823, Monday (-44,500) John Ingram, Irish scholarly writer, was born (died 18/5/1907).

2/7/1823, Wednesday (-44,505) (Brazil) Portuguese forces, sent tio Bahia to recover the rebel colony of Brazil, were forced by Brazilian troops to retreat to their ships.

1/7/1823, Tuesday (-44,506) An assembly at Guatemala City declared the independence of the United Provinces of Central America.

======================================================================================

27/6/1823, Friday (-44,510) Dorman Eaton, US lawyer, was born (died 23/12/1899).

22/6/1823, Sunday (-44,515) Jose de Elduayen, Spanish politician, was born (died 24/6/1898).

17/6/1823, Tuesday (-44,520) Charles Macintosh patented a waterproof material for clothes.

5/6/1823, Thursday (-44,532) (USA) George Angell, US philanthropist, was born in Southbridge, Massachusetts (died 16/3/1909 in Boston).

2/6/1823, Monday (-44,535) Adolf Hilgenfeld, German religious writer, was born (died 12/1/1907).

1/6/1823, Sunday (-44,536) Louis Davout, Marshal of France, died (born 10/5/1770).

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19/5/1823, Monday (-44,549) William Combe, English writer, died (born 1741).

15/5/1823, Thursday (-44,553) Thomas Harris, US poet and preacher, was born

7/5/1823, Wednesday (-44,561) Despite his deafness, Beethoven conducted the first performance of his Ninth Symphony.

======================================================================================

30/4/1823, Wednesday (-44,568) Paul Janet, French philosophical writer, was born (died 10/1899).

25/4/1823, Friday (-44,573) Christian Dillmann, religious writer, was born (died 4/7/1894).

24/4/1823, Thursday (-44,574) The United Provinces of Central America abolished slavery.

23/4/1823, Wednesday (-44,575) Sultan Adbul Mejid was born, see 25/6/1861.

22/4/1823, Tuesday (-44,576) The Baltic Exchange, London, was established, as the Baltic Club.

20/4/1823, Sunday (-44,578) Johann Falke, German historical writer, was born (died 2/3/1876).

18/4/1823, Friday (-44,580) (USA) George Cabot, US politician, died (born 16/12/1751)

17/4/1823, Thursday (-44,581) The rest of Europe was alarmed at the rise of counter-monarchist forces in Spain, and authorised France to invade to restore King Ferdinand VII. This day French forces under Louis Antpoine de Bourbon, Duke of Angoulmeme (1775-1844) crossed the Pyrenees into Spain, welcomed by the Basques and Catalans. He then sent some forces to besiege San Sebastian whilst directing his main attack on Madrid.

16/4/1823, Wednesday (-44,582) Ferdinand Eisenstein, mathematician, was born.

7/4/1823, Monday (-44,591) Jacques Charles, mathematician, died (born 12/11/1746)

1/4/1823, Tuesday (-44,597) (USA) Simon Buckner, US soldier and politician, was born.

====================================================================================

31/3/1823, Monday (-44,598) William Hart, US painter, was born.

30/3/1823, Sunday (-44,599) Easter Sunday

28/3/1823, Friday (-44,601) Auguste Himly, French historical writer, was born (died 6/10/1906).

25/3/1823, Tuesday (-44,604) Britain recognised the Greek insurgents as a belligerent party.This was despite fears that the Greek rebellion would spark another Turkish-Russian war.

24/3/1823, Monday (-44,605) Thomas Baynes, English writer, was born in Wellington, Somerset (died 31/5/1887).

23/3/1823, Sunday (-44,606) Schuyler Colfax, US politician, was born (died 13/1/1885).

22/3/1823, Saturday (-44,607) Christoph Luthardt, German religious writer, was born (died 21/9/1902).

18/3/1823, Tuesday (-44,611) Antoine Chanzy, French General, was born (died 4/1/1883).

14/3/1823, Friday (-44,615) Theodore Banville, French poet, was born in Moulins (died in Paris 15 3/1891).

10/3/1823, Monday (-44,619) George Keith, Briitsh Admiral, died (born 7/1/1746).

8/3/1823, Saturday (-44,621) (Hungary) Birth of Hungarian statesman Julius Andrassy, in Kassa, Hungary

6/3/1823, Thursday (-44,623) Gustaf Ljunggren, Swedish writer, was born.

1/3/1823, Saturday (-44,628) Pierre Garat, French singer, died (born 25/4/1764).

======================================================================================

27/2/1823, Thursday (-44,630) William Franklin, US Federal General in the Civil War, was born (died 8/3/1903).

26/2/1823, Wednesday (-44,631) John Philip Kemble, actor, died (born 1/2/1757)

21/2/1823, Friday (-44,636) Pierre Lafitte, French philosophical writer, was born (died 4/1/1903).

18/2/1823, Tuesday (-44,639) Permission for the colony in what is now Texas (see 17/1/1821) was withdrawn by Mexico, following the accession of Iturbide.

16/2/1823, Sunday (-44,641) Li Hung Chang, Chinese statesman, was born (died 7/11/1901).

11/2/1823, Tuesday (-44,646) (Cartography) Karl Gumbel, publisher of the first geological map of Bavaria in 1858, was born (died 18/6/1898).

7/2/1823, Friday (-44,650) Franz Genee, Polish composer, was born in Danzig (died 15/6/1895 in Baden)

5/2/1823, Wednesday (-44,652) Juan Llorente, Spanish historical writer, died (born 30/3/1756).

3/2/1823, Monday (-44,654) (Biology) Spencer Baird, US naturalist, was born in Reading, Pennsylvania (died in Massachusetts 19/8/1887).

=====================================================================================

27/1/1823, Monday (-44,661) Charles Hutton, Eglish mathematical writer, died (born 14/8/1737).

26/1/1823, Sunday (-44,662) Edward Jenner, pioneer of vaccination, died in Berkeley, Gloucestershire.

23/1/1823, Thursday (-44,665) The USA recognised the independent states of Argentina and Chile.

9/1/1823, Thursday (-44,679) William Corey, English scholarly writer, was born (died 11/6/1892).

3/1/1823, Friday (-44,685) Robert Whitehead, English engineer and inventor of the naval torpedo, was born in Bolton Le Moors, Lancashire.

====================================================================================

29/12/1822, Sunday (-44,690) John Campbell, Gaelic scholar (died 17/2/1885) was born.

27/12/1822, Friday (-44,692) Louis Pasteur was born in Dole, France.

26/12/1822, Thursday (-44,693) Dion Boucicault, Irish playwright, was born in Dublin (died in New York 18/9/1890).

24/12/1822, Tuesday (-44,695) Matthew Arnold, British poet, was born in Laleham, Staines (died 15/4/1888 in Liverpool).

22/12/1822, Sunday (-44,697) John Newberry, US geologist, was born (died 7/12/1892).

10/12/1822, Tuesday (-44,709) Cesar Franck, French composer, was born (died 8/11/1890).

2/12/1822, Monday (-44,717) David Masson, Scottish writer, was born (died 6/10/1907).

1/12/1822, Sunday (-44,718) Dom Pedro was crowned Emperor of newly independent Brazil.

=====================================================================================

26/11/1822, Tuesday (-44,723) Karl Hardenberg, Prussian statesman, died (born 31/5/1750).

6/11/1822, Wednesday (-44,743) Claude Berthollet, French chemist, died in Arcueil (born in Talloire, Savoy 9/12/1748).

======================================================================================

29/10/1822, Tuesday (-44,751) The Caledonian Canal, Scotland, opened (construction began 1803).

20/10/1822, Sunday (-44,760) The Sunday Times was first published.

19/10/1822, Saturday (-44,761) Louis Menard, French writer, was born (died 12/2/1901).

13/10/1822, Sunday (-44,767) Antonio Canova, Italian sculptor, died (born 1/11/1757).

9/10/1822, Wednesday (-44,771) Onno Klopp, German historical writer, was born (died 9/8/1903).

6/10/1822, Sunday (-44,774) Albert Harkness, US scholarly writer, was born (died 27/5/1907).

4/10/1822, Friday (-44,776) Rutherford Hayes, USA Republican and 19th President, was born in Delaware, Ohio, son of a farmer.

1/10/1822, Tuesday (-44,779) Francois Got, French actor, was born (died 1901).

=====================================================================================

27/9/1822, Friday (-44,783) French linguist Jean Francois Champollion decipehered the Rosetts Stone, paving the way for translating Egyptian hieroglyphics.

18/9/1822, Wednesday (-44,792) Johann Nauck, German scholarly writer, was born (died 3/8/1892).

15/9/1822, Sunday (-44,795) Henry Morley, British writer, was born (died 14/5/1894).

7/9/1822, Saturday (-44,803) Brazil proclaimed its independence from Portugal, with Pedro I as Emperor.

=====================================================================================

25/8/1822, Sunday (-44,816) Astronomer Sir William Herschel died.He discovered Uranus in 1781.

15/8/1822, Thursday (-44,826) Sir Henry Maine, English historical writer, was born (died 3/2/1888).

12/8/1822, Monday (-44,829) (Ireland) Robert Stewart, 2nd Marquis of Londonderry, died

11/8/1822, Sunday (-44,830) (Britain) Sir Samuel Auchmuty, British General, died (born 1756).

4/8/1822, Sunday (-44,837)

1/8/1822, Thursday (-44,840) James Grant, British novelist, was born (died 5/5/1887).

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31/7/1822, Wednesday (-44,841) Abram Hewitt, US politician, was born (died 18/1/1903).

30/7/1822, Tuesday (-44,842)

26/7/1822, Friday (-44,846) San Martin and Simon Bolivar met at Guayaquil. San Martin turned over control of the anti-Spanish independence struggle to Bolivar and retired from further revolutionary action.

25/7/1822, Thursday (-44,847) Agostin de Turbide was crowned Emperor of Mexico. He wanted to use military force to bring other newly-independent Latin American states into his empire.

24/7/1822, Wednesday (-44,848) Ernst Hoffmann, German writer, died (born 24/1/1776)

23/7/1822, Tuesday (-44,849) Darius Couch, US soldier, was born (died 12/2/1897).

22/7/1822, Monday (-44,850) Gregor Mendel, Austrian monk and botanist who discovered the principles of modern genetics, was born at Heinzendorf near Odrau, in Austrian Silesia.

18/7/1822, Thursday (-44,854) Theodore Dwight, US jurist, was born (died 28/6/1892).

8/7/1822, Monday (-44,864) Percy Bysshe Shelley died. He drowned in a storm whilst sailing off the coast of Italy.

4/7/1822, Thursday (-44,868) Jean Baptiste Guillaume, French sculptor, was born (died 1905).

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30/6/1822, Sunday (-44,872) In Spain, rebels took King Ferdinand VII prisoner.

19/6/1822, Wednesday (-44,883) The Greeks under Constantine Kanaris destroyed an Ottoman Turkish fleet. A large Ottoman army invaded Greece in July 1822. In January 1823 the Ottomans failed to capture the key fort of Missolonghi at the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth and were forced to withdraw.

14/6/1822, Friday (-44,888) Mathematician Charles Babbage first proposed a �Difference Engine� to perform calculations.

3/6/1822, Monday (-44,899) Rene Hauy, French mineralogist, died (born 28/2/1743).

2/6/1822, Sunday (-44,900) Anton Csengery, Hungarian historical writer, was born (died 13/7/1880).

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27/5/1822, Monday (-44,906) Louis Bouilhet, French poet, was born in Cany (died in Rouen 18/7/1869).

24/5/1822, Friday (-44,909) (Ecuador) At the Battle of Pinchincha, near Quito, Jose de Sucre decisively defeated a Spanish army.

22/5/1822, Wednesday (-44,911) Charles Lefebvre-Desnoettes, French cavalry General, died,

16/5/1822, Thursday (-44,917) Henry Dixon, English sports writer, was born (died 16/3/1870).

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30/4/1822, Tuesday (-44,933) At Rotherhithe, London, the world�s first iron steamship, the Aaron Manby, was launched. It became a cross-Channel cargo ship.

27/4/1822, Saturday (-44,936) Ulysses Grant, General in the Union Army, Democrat, and 18th President, was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio, the son of a tanner.

12/4/1822, Friday (-44,951) Donald Mitchell, US author, was born.

7/4/1822, Sunday (-44,956) Easter Sunday

5/4/1822, Friday (-44,958) Emile Labvaleye, Belgian economics writer, was born (died 3/1/1892).

3/4/1822, Wednesday (-44,960) Henry Field, US author, was born (died 26/1/1907).

1/4/1822, Monday (-44,962) (France) Louis Bertillon, French anthropologist, was born in Paris (died in Neuilly 28/2/1883).

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24/3/1822, Sunday (-44,970) Henry Murger, French writer, was born (died 28/1/1861).

10/3/1822, Sunday (-44,984) (Electrical) Josiah Clark, British electrical engineer, was born (died 30/10/1898).

9/3/1822, Saturday (-44,985) (Geology) Edward Clarke, English mineralogist, died (born 5/6/1769)

7/3/1822, Thursday (-44,987) Victor Masse, French composer, was born in Lorient, Morbihan (died 5/7/1884 in Paris)

3/3/1822, Sunday (-44,991) Abraham Benard, French actor, died (born 26/10/1750).

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24/2/1822, Sunday (-44,998) (Price) Thomas Coutts, founder of Coutts bank, died (born 7/9/1735).

22/2/1822, Friday (-45,000) Rosa Bonheur, French painter, was born in Bordeaux (died 1899).

21/2/1822, Thursday (-45,001) Oliver Gibbs, US chemist, was born (died 9/12/1908).

16/2/1822, Saturday (-45,006) Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, founder of a new science called eugenics, was born in Birmingham, England. Among his ideas was the systematic creation of a superior race of human beings, an idea later adopted by Hitler.

14/2/1822, Thursday (-45,008) The increasing popularity of Valentines Cards forced the Post Office to employ extra sorters. See 14/2/1477.

10/2/1822, Sunday (-45,012) Eliza Linton, English novelist, was born (died 14/7/1898).

8/2/1822, Friday (-45,014) Maxime du Camp, French writer, was born (died 9/2/1894).

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30/1/1822, Wednesday (-45,023) (Cartography) Franz Hauer, geologist, who made the first geological map of Austro-Hungary in 1871, was born (died 20/3/1889).

28/1/1822, Monday (-45,025) Alexander MacKenzie, Canadian statesman, was born (died 17/4/1892).

16/1/1822, Wednesday (-45,037) (France) Henri Aumale, French statesman, was born in Paris (died in Zucco, Sicily 7/5/1897).

13/1/1822, Sunday (-45,040) (Greece) Greek rebels proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Turks at Epirus.

12/1/1822, Saturday (-45,041) (Roads) Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir was born in Mussay la Ville, Belgium. In 1859 he developed the first working internal combustion engine, using coal gas as fuel; however his design was very inefficient.

2/1/1822, Wednesday (-45,051) (Innovation) Rudolf Clausius, German physicist, was born (died 24/8/1888).

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21/12/1821, Friday (-45,063) Samuel Haughton, Irish scientific writer, was born (died 31/10/1897).

19/12/1821, Wednesday (-45,065) Mary Livermore, US social campaigner and writer, was born (died 23/5/1905).

12/12/1821, Wednesday (-45,072) Gustave Flaubert, French novelist, was born (died 8/5/1880).

11/12/1821, Tuesday (-45,073) George Bradley, English scholarly writer, was born in Brecon (died 13/31903).

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30/11/1821, Friday (-45,084) The Dominican Republic (eastern half of Hispaniola, west = Haiti) became independent from Spain.

28/11/1821, Wednesday (-45,086) (France) Henri Baudrillart, French economist, was born in Paris (died in Paris 24/1/1892).

26/11/1822, Monday (-45,088) Octavius Frothingham, US author, was born (died 27/11/1895).

24/11/1821, Saturday (-45,090) (Britain) Henry Buckle, English historian, was born (died 29/5/1862).

18/11/1821, Sunday (-45,096) (Astronomy) Franz Brunnow, German astronomer, was born (died 20/8/1891).

12/11/1821, Monday (-45,102) Sir Harry Lumsden, British soldier, was born (died 12/8/1896).

2/11/1821, Friday (-45,112) (Britain) Sir George Bowen, British colonial governor, was born (died in Brighton 21/2/1899).

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30/10/1821, Tuesday (-45,115) Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Russian novelist, was born.

24/10/1821, Wednesday (-45,121) Elias Boudinot, US revolutionary leader, died in Burlington, New Jersey (born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2/5/1740).

21/10/1821, Sunday (-45,124) Ann Gilbert, US actress, was born (died 2/12/1904).

15/10/1821, Monday (-45,130) Moritz Hartmann, German poet, was born (died 13/5/1872).

13/10/1821, Saturday (-45,132) Henry Coppee, US author, was born (died 22/3/1895).

11/10/1821, Thursday (-45,134) Sir George Williams, founder of the YMCA in 1844, was born in Dulverton, Somerset.

7/10/1821, Sunday (-45,138) (USA) Henry Richard Anderson, US soldier, was born in South Carolina (died 26/6/1879 in Beaufort, South Carolina).

5/10/1821, Friday (-45,140) Rudolf Haym, German writer, was born (died 27/8/1901).

4/10/1821, Thursday (-45,141) The Scottish civil engineer John Rennie, bridge designer, died in London.

2/10/1821, Tuesday (-45,143) Nino Bixio, Italian soldier, was born (died 16/12/1873).

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27/9/1821, Thursday (-45,148) Mexico achieved independence under General Iturbe, who proclaimed himself Emperor as Augustin I.

15/9/1821, Saturday (-45,160) (1) El Salvador proclaimed its independence and became a member of the United Provinces of Central America.

(2) (Costa Rica) Costa Rica became independent from Spain, and initially joined the Mexican Empire under Iturbide. However upon the establishment of the Mexican Republic in 1823, there was conflict in Costa Rica between the Conservatives who wishes to maintain the union with Mexico and the Liberals who desired independence for Costa Rica. After a battle near the Ochomogo Pass, the Liberal republicans were victorious. The Costa Rican capital was transferred from Cartago to San Jose, the Liberal headquarters.

10/9/1821, Monday (-45,165) Johann Fiorillo, German painter, died (born 13/10/1748)

4/9/1821, Tuesday (-45,171) (1) Czar Alexander declared that Russian influence in Alaska extended as far south as Oregon and closed Alaskan waters to foreigners.

(2) Jose Miguel Carrera, leader in the Chilean fight for independence from Spain, died (born 15/10/1785).

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31/8/1821, Friday (-45,175) (Biology) Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz was born in Potsdam, Prussia. He researched the relationship between nerve cells and nerve fibres.

30/8/1821, Thursday (-45,176) (Venezuela) Simon Bolivar was named President of Venezuela.

29/8/1821, Wednesday (-45,177) (Biology) Anthropologist Louis Laurent Mortillet was born in Meylan, Isere, France. He subdivided the Palaeolithic (older Stone Age) into separate periods, based on the tools in use at the time.

24/8/1821, Friday (-45,182) Amedee Mouchez, French astronomer, was born (died 25/6/1892).

16/8/1821, Thursday (-45,190) Arthur Cayley, English mathematician, was born (died 26/1/1895).

13/8/1821, Monday (-45,193) Henry Dexter US religious writer, was born (died 13/11/1890).

11/8/1821, Saturday (-45,195) Octave Feuillet, French novelist, was born (died 29/12/1890).

10/8/1821, Friday (-45,196) (USA) Missouri became the 24th State of the Union.

7/8/1821, Tuesday (-45,199) Caroline, Queen of King George IV of Britain, died (born 17/5/1768).

1/8/1821, Wednesday (-45,205) Elizabeth Inchbald, English novelist, died (born 15/10.1753).

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28/7/1821, Saturday (-45,209) (Peru) San Martin and his forces liberated Peru, and proclaimed its independence from Spain.

21/7/1821, Saturday (-45,216) (Arts) Vasile Alecsandri, Rumanian poet, was born in Bacau, Moldova (died 26/8/1890 in Mircesti).

19/7/1821, Thursday (-45,218) Coronation of King George IV in Westminster Abbey

16/7/1821, Monday (-45,221) Mary Baker Eddy, American religious leader who founded the Christian Scientists, was born in Bow, New Hampshire.

13/7/1821, Friday (-45,224) Nathan Forrest, US Confederate General, was born (died 29/10/1877).

12/7/1821, Thursday (-45,225) Daniel Hill, US Confederate soldier, was born (died 24/9/1889).

4/7/1821, Wednesday (-45,233) Richard Cosway, English miniature painter, died

1/7/1821, Sunday (-45,236) Anatole Barthelemy, French writer, was born in Reims (died 1904).

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30/6/1821, Saturday (-45,237) William Dixon, English author, was born (died 26/12/1879).

24/6/1821, Sunday (-45,243) Simon Bolivar defeated a Spanish army at Carabobo, Venezuela.

19/6/1821, Tuesday (-45,248) At the Battle of Dragashani, a Greek uprising against Turkish rule was defeated.

17/6/1821, Sunday (-45,250) Tom Morris, golfer, was born (died 24/5/1908).

13/6/1821, Wednesday (-45,254) Jacques Duc de Broglie, poet, was born (died 19/1/1901).

8/6/1821, Friday (-45,259) (Africa) Sir Samuel Baker, explorer of Africa, was born in London (died in Sandford Orleigh 30/12/1893).

6/6/1821, Wednesday (-45,261) Leone Levi, economics writer, was born (died 7/5/1888).

2/6/1821, Saturday (-45,265) (Romania) Ion Bratianu, Romanian statesman, was born (died16/5/1891).

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29/5/1821, Tuesday (-45,269) Frederick Locker-Lampson, Enbglish writer, was born (died 30/5/1895).

26/5/1821, Saturday (-45,272) Pafnutiy Chebichev, Russian mathematician, was born (died 8/12/1894).

25/5/1821, Friday (-45,273) (Belgium) Henri Alexis Brialmont, Belgian military engineer, was born.

22/5/1821, Tuesday (-45,276) Karl Elze, German literary writer, was born (died 21/1/1889).

19/5/1821, Saturday (-45,279) Camille Jordan, French political writer, died.

15/5/1821, Tuesday (-45,283) John Callcott, English musician (born 20/11/1766) died.

5/5/1821, Saturday (-45,293) Napoleon Bonaparte died, in exile on St Helena, in the Atlantic (born 15/8/1769).The cause may have been arsenic poisoning, or it may have been stomach cancer, which also killed Napoleon�s father.

===================================================================================

23/4/1821, Monday (-45,305) Pierre Dupont, French song writer, was born (died 24/7/1870).

22/4/1821, Sunday (-45,306) Easter Sunday; John Crome, English landscape painter, died (born 21/12/1780).

20/4/1821, Friday (-45,308) (Chemistry) Franz Achard, Prussian chemist (born 28/4/1753 in Berlin) died in Silesia.

16/4/1821, Monday (-45,312) Ford Brown, English painter, was born (died 6/10/1893).

12/4/1821, Thursday (-45,316) (Britain) Frederick Alcester, British Admiral, was born (died 30/3/1895).

9/4/1821, Monday (-45,319) Charles Baudelaire, French poet, was born in Paris (died in Paris 31/8/1867).

8/4/1821, Sunday (-45,320) The revolt in Piedmont was suppressed, its leaders defeated at the Battle of Novara.

2/4/1821, Monday (-45,326) (Greece) The Greeks under Turkish rule began a revolt under Archbishop Germanos of Patras.The Greek population rose en masse, captured the capital of the Morea Peninsula, Tripolitza, and the revolt then spread north, and to the Greek Islands. These islands were the main recruiting ground of the Ottoman Navy, so Turkish sea power was weakened.

====================================================================================

31/3/1821, Saturday (-45,328) McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, founded

30/3/1821, Friday (-45,329) James Hadley, US scholarly writer, was born (died 14/11/1872).

21/3/1821, Wednesday (-45,338) Ernst Engel, German political economist, was born (died 8/12/1896).

19/3/1821, Monday (-45,340) Sir Richard Burton, writer on the Orient, was born (died 20/10/1890).

18/3/1821,

17/3/1821, Saturday (-45,342) Louis Fontanes, French poet, died (born 6/3/1757),

16/3/1821, Friday (-45,343) Ernest-Aime Feydeau, French writer, was born (died 27/10/1873).

15/3/1821, Thursday (-45,344) (Chemistry) Austrian chemist Johann Joseph Loschmidt was born in Putschirn, Bohemia. He was the first to use the convention of single lines for single chemical bonds, double lines for double bonds.

14/3/1821, Wednesday (-45,345)

12/3/1821, Monday (-45,347) Hermann Hettner, German historical writer, was born (died 29/5/1882).

11/3/1821, Sunday (-45,348) (Britain) Churchill Babington, English archaeologist, was born in Roecliffe, Leicestershire (died 12/1/1889 in Suffolk).

10/3/1821, Saturday (-45,349) Revolt in Piedmont against the rule of King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia (Piedmont was then a part of the Kingdom of Sardinia).See 8/4/1821.

7/3/1821, Wednesday (-45,352) Battle of Rieti. The Austrians defeated the Neapolitans under Pepe. They then entered Naples and reinstated Ferdinand IV to the throne.

4/3/1821, Sunday (-45,355) James Monroe began his second term as US President.

2/3/1821, Friday (-45,357) George Banks, British writer, was born in Birmingham (died in London 3/5/1881).

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27/2/1821, Tuesday (-45,360) Joseph Kay, economics writer, was born (died 9/10/1878).

26/2/1821, Monday (-45,361) Joseph de Maistre, French polemical writer, died (born 1/4/1754).

25/2/1821, Sunday (-45,362)

24/2/1821, Saturday (-45,363) Augustin de Iturbide, an officer in the Mexican Army, published his plan for an independent Mexico.

23/2/1821, Friday (-45,364) John Keats, English poet, died of tuberculosis in Rome, aged only 25.

21/2/1821, Wednesday (-45,366) Georg Martens, German legal writer, died (born 22/2/1756).

16/2/1821, Friday (-45,371) (Africa) Heinrich Barth, German explorer of Africa, was born in Hamburg (died in Berlin 25/11/1865).

13/2/1821, Tuesday (-45,374) Julius Busch, German publicist, was born (died 16/11/1899).

11/2/1821, Sunday (-45,376) Auguste Marriette, French Egyptologist writer, was born (died 19/1/1881).

8/2/1821, Thursday (-45,379) James Longstreet, US Confederate soldier, was born (died 2/1/1904).

3/2/1821, Saturday (-45,384) Elizabeth Blackwell, first English woman doctor, was born.

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21/1/1821, Sunday (-45,397) (USA) John Breckinbridge, US soldier and political leader, was born (died 17/5/1875).

19/1/1821, Friday (-45,399) Ferdinand Gregorovius, German historical writer, was born (died 1/5/1891).

18/1/1821, Thursday (-45,400) Theodor Goldstucker, German writer on Sanskrit, was born (died 6/3/1872).

17/1/1821, Wednesday (-45,401) Mexico granted permission for emigrants from the US east coast to found a colony in what is now Texas. See 18/2/1823.

6/1/1821, Saturday (-45,412) Jakob Frohschammer, German scholarly writer, was born (died 14/6/1893).

2/1/1821, Tuesday (-45,416) James Croll, Scottish scientific writer, was born (died 15/12/1890).

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29/12/1820, Friday (-45,420) Antoine Montyon, French philanthropist, died (born 23/12/1733).

25/12/1820, Monday (-45,424) Joseph Fouche, French statesman, died (born 21/5/1763).

20/12/1820, Wednesday (-45,429) The Academie de Medicine was established in Paris

17/12/1820, Sunday (-45,432) John Bull, the magazine �for God, The King, and The People� went on sale with 750 copies printed. After 6 weeks, circulation rose to 10,000.

16/12/1820, Saturday (-45,433) Sir George Scharf, director of the British National Portrait Gallery, was born (died 19/4/1895).

15/12/1820, Friday (-45,434) John Caird, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 30/7/1898).

6/12/1820, Wednesday (-45,443) Monroe was re-elected President of the USA with an overwhelming majority.

4/12/1820, Monday (-45,445) Charles Deems, US religious writer, was born (died 18/11/1893).

3/12/1820, Sunday (-45,446) John Coleridge, Lord Chief Justice of England, was born (died 14/6/1894).

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27/11/1820, Monday (-45,452) Friedrich Engels, German socialist and associate of Karl Marx, was born in Barmen.

21/11/1820, Tuesday (-45,458) James Malmesbury, English statesman, died (born 21/4/1746).

18/11/1820, Saturday (-45,461) Russian explorer, Thaddeus von Bellingshausen, became the first European to sight Antarctica. Captain of a US sealing ship, the Hero, he had sailed south in search of more hunting grounds.

14/11/1820, Tuesday (-45,465) (USA) Anson Burlingame, US statesman, was born (died 23/2/1870).

12/11/1820, Sunday (-45,467) William Hayley, English writer, died (born 9/11/1745).

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30/10/1820, Monday (-45,480) Sir John Dawson, Canadian geologist, was born (died 2/3/1901).

28/10/1820, Saturday (-45,482) Antoine Dareste, French historical writer, was born (died 6/8/1882).

23/10/1820, Monday (-45,487) John Birkinshaw of the Bedlington iron works was granted a patent for his rolled rails.

6/10/1820, Friday (-45,504) Jenny Lind, Swedish singer, was born (died 2/11/1887).

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29/9/1820, Friday (-45,511) Henri Chambord, contender for the French throne, was born (died 24/8/1883).

26/9/1820, Tuesday (-45,514) Death of US frontiersman Daniel Boone. He explored the Kentucky area.

23/9/1820, Saturday (-45,517) Carl Fleickeisen, German writer, was born (died 7/8/1899).

17/9/1820, Sunday (-45,523) Guillaume Augier, French dramatist, was born in Valence, Drome (died 25/10/1889 in Croissy).

15/9/1820, Friday (-45,525) The Portuguese revolution reached the capital, Lisbon. The British were evicted.

14/9/1820, Thursday (-45,526) Pierre Lefebvre, Marshal of France, died (born 20/10/1755).

13/9/1820, Wednesday (-45,527) Christoph Giebel, German zoological writer, was born (died 14/11/1881).

===================================================================================

30/8/1820, Wednesday (-45,541) George Frederick Root, US composer, was born in Sheffield, Massachusetts (died 6/8/1895 in Bailey�s Island, Maine).

26/8/1820, Saturday (-45,545) James Harlan, US politician, was born (died 5/10/1899).

24/8/1820, Thursday (-45,547) A revolt broke out in Portugal as discontent grew over excessive British influence in the country, and the absence of the King, who was still in Brazil.

13/8/1820, Sunday (-45,558) Sir George Grove, English writer on music, was born (died 28/5/1900).

7/8/1820, Monday (-45,564) The Kington to New Radnor railway opened (tramway).

6/8/1820, Sunday (-46,565) Lord Strathcona, Canadian businessman, was born.

===================================================================================

25/7/1820, Tuesday (-46,577) (Technology) Sir Henry Doulton, English inventor, was born (died 18/11/1897).

22/7/1820, Saturday (-46,580) Sir Oliver Mowat, Canadian statesman, was born (died 19/4/1803).

7/7/1820, Friday (-46,595) King Ferdinand I of Naples promised a national Constitution after a rebellion organised by secret societies, including the Carbonari. The Inquisition was also abolished in Naples.

====================================================================================

21/6/1820, Wednesday (-45,611) James Halliwell-Phillips, English writer on Shakespeare, was born (died 3/1/1889).

19/6/1820, Monday (-45,613) Sir Joseph Banks, English botanist who accompanied Cook on his voyage round the world in The Endeavour, died aged 77.

16/6/1820, Friday (-45,616) Athanase Coquerel, French religious writer, was born (died 24/7/1875).

14/6/1820, Wednesday (-45,618) John Bartlett, US writer, was born in Plymouth, Massachusetts (died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 3/12/1905.

12/6/1820, Monday (-45,620) Jose Conde, Spanish writer on the Orient, died (born 28/10/1766).

6/6/1820, Tuesday (-45,626) Henry Grattan, Irish statesman, died (born 3/7/1746).

===================================================================================

31/5/1820, Wednesday (-45,632) (Christian) The Inquisition was finally suppressed in Mexico.

23/5/1820, Tuesday (-45,640) (USA) James Eads, US engineer, was born (died 8/3/1887).

21/5/1820, Sunday (-45,642) Nicholas Giers, Russian statesman, was born (died 26/1/1895).

15/5/1820, Monday (-45,648) Congress in the USA designated the slave trade as a form of piracy.

12/5/1820, Friday (-45,651) Florence Nightingale was born in Florence, Italy; she was named after the city. She had a privileged education but shocked her family by turning down several marriage proposals to pursue a career in nursing. In 1854 she nursed soldiers in the Crimean War and resolved to improve the appalling medical conditions there.

10/5/1820, Wednesday (-45,653) Hermann Ebel, German scholarly writer, was born (died 19/8/1875).

8/5/1820, Monday (-45,655) The United States Botanic Garden was established in Washington, DC.

4/5/1820, Thursday (-45,659) The English publisher, Joseph Whitaker, was born in London, the son of a silversmith.

1/5/1820, Monday (-45,662) The militant radicals involved in the Cato Street conspiracy (just off the Edgware Road) to kill the Prime Minister were executed. Their leader, Arthur Thistlewood, was suspected of being a police informer.

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26/4/1820, Wednesday (-45,667) Alice Cary, US poet, was born (died 12/2/1871).

16/4/1820, Sunday (-45,677) Georg Curtius, German writer, was born (died 12/8/1885).

15/4/1820, Saturday (-45,678) (Medical) John Bell, Scottish surgeon, died in Rome (born in Edinburgh 12/5/1763).

14/4/1820, Friday (-45,679) Pierre Chesnelong, French politician, was born (died1894).

11/4/1820, Tuesday (-45,682)

8/4/1820, Saturday (-45,685) The famous Venus de Milo sculpture was discovered by a peasant on the Aegean island of Melos. Thought to have been crafted by Alexandros of Antioch, the object was given to King Louis XVIII, who donated it to the Louvre.

7/4/1820, Friday (-45,686) Georg Klapka, Hungarian soldier, was born (died 17/5/1892).

6/4/1820, Thursday (-45,687) Felix Nadar, photographer, was born.

5/4/1820, Wednesday (-45,688) Sam Cowell, British music hall performer, was born in London (died in Blandford, 11/3/1864)

4/4/1820, Tuesday (-45,689) Charles Devens, US lawyer, was born (died 7/1/1891).

2/4/1820, Sunday (-45,691) Easter Sunday; Thomas Brown, Scottish writer, died (born 1778).

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31/3/1820, Friday (-45,693) First Christian missionaries arrived in Hawaii, from New England, USA.

30/3/1820, Thursday (-45,694) Anna Sewell, author of Black Beauty, was born in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk.

29/3/1820, Wednesday (-45,695)

28/3/1820, Tuesday (-45,696) Louis XVIII of France and King William of the Netherlands agreed that the frontier of their countries should be as it was in 1790.

27/3/1820, Monday (-45,697) Sir Edward Inglefield, British Admiral, was born (died 5/9/1894).

22/3/1820, Wednesday (-45,702) Stephen Decatur, US naval commander, died (born 5/1/1779).

20/3/1820, Monday (-45,704) Alexander Cuza, First Prince of Romania, was born.

17/3/1820, Friday (-45,707) Jean Ingelow, English poet, was born (died 20/7/1897).

15/3/1820, Wednesday (-45,709) Congress reached a compromise on the slavery issue by admitting Maine (23rd state of the Union) to the Union as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. This measure was to keep the number of slave and non-slave states equal.

14/3/1820, Tuesday (-45,710) Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia and first King of a united Italy, was born.

11/3/1820, Saturday (-45,713) Benjamin West, painter, died aged 81 in London.

9/3/1820, Thursday (-45,715) The USA passed the Land Act, paving the way for westward expansion by rich land speculators.

7/3/1820, Tuesday (-45,717) King Ferdinand VII of Spain was forced to restore the Loiberal constitution of1812 after a rebellion led by Colonel Farael Riego.

2/3/1820, Thursday (-45,722) Edward Dekker, Dutch writer, was born (died 19/2/1887).

1/3/1820, Wednesday (-45,723) Johann Joachim Eschenburg, literary critic, died.

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28/2/1820, Monday (-45,725) Sir John Tenniel, illustrator and cartoonist, was born.

23/2/1820, Wednesday (-45,730) The Cato Street conspiracy was discovered. This was a plot to blow up the entire Cabinet with explosives and set up a provisional government. The conspiracy was led by Arthur Thistlewood. This led to renewed fears of radicalism and set back the cause of moderate reformists.

20/2/1820, Sunday (-45,733) Johann Eschenburg, German historical writer, died (born 7/12/1743).

15/2/1820, Tuesday (-45,738) Susan Anthony, American social reformer and champion of women�s suffrage, was born in Adams, Massachusetts.

13/2/1820, Sunday (-45,740) Leonard MacNally, Irish informer for the British Crown on Robert Emmet, died.

8/2/1820, Tuesday (-45,745) General William Sherman, American Union Army commander during the Civil War, was born in Lancaster, Ohio.

6/2/1820, Sunday (-45,747) The ship Mayflower of Liberia left New York for Liberia with 86 free Black people aboard.

5/2/1820, Saturday (-45,748) William Blaikie, theological writer, was born in Aberdeen (died 11/6/1899).

2/2/1820, Wednesday (-45,751)

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29/1/1820, Saturday (-45,755) King George III, longest lived and longest reigning (over 59 years) King of England, died at Windsor aged 81 (26/10/1760, coronation of George III). Accession of King George IV; his long-separated wife Caroline returned form the Continent to claim her position as Queen. Caroline was warmly welcomed by the British public, who perceived her as having been badly treated by her husband. George IV nevertheless persuaded his Cabinet ministers to immediately begin divorce proceedings.

28/1/1820, Friday (-45,756) Montague Bernard, English lawyer, was born on Gloucestershire (died 1882).

23/1/1820, Sunday (-45,761) Edward Augustus, 4th son of King George IV and Field Marshal in the British Army, died (born 2/11/1767).

20/1/1820, Thursday (-45,764) (Education-University) Anne Clough, promoter of women�s adult education, was born (died 27/2/1892).

17/1/1820, Monday (-45,767) Novelist Anne Bronte (known as Acton Bell) was born, the youngest of three sisters, at Thornton, Yorkshire.

10/1/1820, Monday (-45,774) Sir Neville Chamberlain, British Field-Marshal, was born (died 18/2/1902).

9/1/1820, Sunday (-45,775) Matthew Dawson, jockey, was born (died 18/8/1898).

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30/12/1819, Thursday (-45,785) Theodor Fontane, German novelist, was born (died 20/9/1898).

28/12/1819, Tuesday (-45,787) Joaquin Jovellar y Soler, Captain-General of Spain, was born (died 17/4/1892).

27/12/1819, Monday (-45,788) (Ireland) Hugh Cairns, Irish statesman, was born (died 2/4/1885).

25/12/1819, Saturday (-45,790)

23/12/1819, Thursday (-45,792) William Kingsford, English historical writer, was born (died 28/9/1898).

22/12/1819, Wednesday (-45,793) (Arts) Franz Abt, German composer, (died 31/3/1885 in Weisbaden) was born in Eilenburg, Saxony.

20/12/1819, Monday (-45,795)

18/12/1819, Saturday (-45,797) Isaac Hecker, US religious writer, was born (died 22/12/1888)

17/12/1819, Friday (-45,798) Simon Bolivar, who had already secured the independence of Venezuela, became the President of the newly independent Bolivia.

15/12/1819, Wednesday (-45,800)

14/12/1819, Tuesday (-45,801) Alabama became the 22nd state of the USA.

13/12/1819, Monday (-45,802) (Farming) Vincenzo Dandolo, Italian agriculturalist, died (born 1758).

3/12/1819, Friday (-45,812) Robert Etheridge, English geologist, was born (died 18/12/1903).

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30/11/1819, Tuesday (-45,815) (Communications) Cyrus Field, US capitalist who projected the first transatlantic cable, was born (died 12/7/1892).

23/11/1819, Tuesday (-45,822) Quintin Crauford, British author, died (born 22/9/1743).

22/11/1819, Monday (-45,823) Novelist George Elliot was born as Marian Evans, near Nuneaton.

21/11/1819, Sunday (-45,824) James Hook, English painter, was born (died 14/4/1907).

14/11/1819, Sunday (-45,831) (Chemistry) Frederick Calvert, English chemist, was born (died 24/10/1873).

12/11/1819, Friday (-45,833) (India) Sir Herbert Edwardes, British soldier in India, was born (died 23/12/1868).

10/11/1819, Wednesday (-45,835) Arthur Hobhouse, English Judge, was born (died 6/12/1904).

7/11/1818, Sunday (-45,838) (Biology) Emil Dobois-Reymond, physiologist, was born (died 26/11/1896).

1/11/1819, Monday (-45,844) (Britain) Sir John Miller Adye, British General, was born in Sevenoaks, Kent (died 26/8/1900).

======================================================================================

19/10/1819, Tuesday (-45,857) Hugh Munro, British scholarly writer, was born (died 30/3/1885).

4/10/1819, Monday (-45,872) Francesco Crispi, Italian statesman, was born (died 12/8/1901).

1/10/1819, Friday (-45,875) Thomas Jones, english geologist, was born,

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23/9/1819, Thursday (-45,883) Birth of Armand Hippolyte, French physicist who was the first to measure the speed of light in 1849. Methods to find this speed include, 1) timing the eclipses of Jupiter�s satellites when at closest and furthest point from Earth, 2) Adjusting the speed of a rotating cog wheel so it turns just one tooth-breadth whilst light travels to a distant mirror and back, and 3) Send a light beam from a source to a rotating mirror and thence to a distant mirror and back, by which time the first mirror has rotated a little, and see how the beam direction has changed.

18/9/1819, Saturday (-45,888) Jean Foucault, French scientist, was born in Paris.

17/9/1819, Friday (-45,889) Peter Lesley, US geologist, was born (died 1/6/1903).

16/9/1819, Thursday (-45,890) Anna Bosboom-Toussaint, Dutch novelist, was born in Alkmaar (died in The Hague, 13/4/1886).

15/9/1819, Wednesday (-45,891) Francis Napier, British diplomat, was born (died 19/12/1898).

14/9/1819, Tuesday (-45,892) Henry Hunt, US soldier, was born (died 11/2/1889).

13/9/1819, Monday (-45,893) Clara Schumann, German pianist, was born (died 20/5/1986).

12/9/1819, Sunday (-45,894) Gebhard von Blucher, Prussian Field Marshall who helped the Allies to victory against Napoleon, died in Silesia.

7/9/1819, Tuesday (-45,899) Jeanne Arnould-Plessey, French actress, was born in Metz (died 1897).

3/9/1819, Friday (-45,903) Alexander Fraser, Scottish philosophical writer, was born.

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26/8/1819, Thursday (-45,911) Prince Albert was born at Rosenau, near Coburg, in Bavaria.

25/8/1819, Wednesday (-45,912) Allan Pinkerton, founder of the Pinkerton detective agency, which specialised in railway theft, was born.

19/8/1819, Thursday (-45,918) James Watt, Scottish engineer, inventor of the steam engine (patented 1769), died in Heathfield Hall near Birmingham aged 83.

16/8/1819, Monday (-45,921) (Britain, food) At St Peters Fields, or Peterloo, Manchester, a meeting demanding parliamentary reforms was dispersed by the military. There was a crowd of 60,000 present to hear the speech of the pugnacious reformer Henry Hunt, who also demanded an end to the Corn Laws. 11 demonstrators were killed and 600 injured by the Manchester Yeomanry. After this the UK government issued the Six Laws, in 1819, banning any gathering of over 50 people, and any flag-bearing procession, authorising the arrest of anyone carrying a firearm, and imposing a tax on newspapers.

14/8/1819, Saturday (-45,923) Antoine Gramont, French statesman was born (died 18/1/1880).

13/8/1819, Friday (-45,924) (Medical) Erik Acharius, Swedish botanist (born 28/4/1753) died 13/8/1819 in Wadstena.

10/8/1819, Tuesday (-45,927)

8/8/1819, Sunday (-45,929) Charles Dana, US journalist, was born (died 17/10/1897).

7/8/1819, Saturday (-45,930) At the Battle of Boyaca, Simon Bolivar�s forces won decisively over the Spanish. As a result of this battle, New Granada (Colombia) gained independence from Spain, and eventually Bolivar was able to create the state of Gran Colombia (Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador).

1/8/1819, Sunday (-45,936) Herman Melville, author of Moby Dick, was born.

==================================================================================

24/7/1819, Saturday (-45,944) Josiah Holland, US writer, was born (died 12/10/1881).

19/7.1819, Monday (-45,949) Gottfried Keller, German novelist, was born (died 15/7/1890).

18/7/1819, Sunday (-45,950) Barthelemy Faujas, French geological writer, died (born 17/5/1741).

14/7/1819, Wednesday (-45,954)

10/7/1819, Saturday (-45,958) Alfred Arneth, Austrian historian, was born in Vienna (died 1897).

9/7/1819, Friday (-45,959) Elias Howe, inventor of the first practical sewing machine, was born in Spencer, Massachusetts.

8/7/1819, Thursday (-45,960) Sir Francis McClintock, British Arctic explorer, wa born (died 17/11/1907).

7/7/1819, Wednesday (-45,961) The widow of Blanchard, who had continued his aviation career after he died of a heart attack, herself died in a ballooning accident. Her craft was ignited by a stray firework during a display at the Tivoli Gardens, Paris.

5/7/1819, Monday (-45,963) Sir William Cornwallis, British Admiral, died (born 20/2/1744).

2/7/1819, Friday (-45,966) In Britain the Cotton Mills and Factories Act prohibited the employment of children under 9 in cotton mills. Those aged 9 and over were restricted to a 12-hour day. Peel and Owen had wanted a 10-year age limit.

===================================================================================

30/6/1819, Wednesday (-45,968) Ernst Gerber, German musical writer, died (born 29/9/1746).

26/6/1819, Saturday (-45,972) Abner Doubleday, US soldier, was born (died 26/1/1893).

24/6/1819, Thursday (-45,974) Thomas Farrer, English civil servant, was born (died 11/10/1899).

23/6/1819, Wednesday (-45,975) Henry Gray, US painter, was born (died 12/11/1877).

20/6/1819, Sunday (-45,978) The steamship Savannah arrived in Liverpool, under the command of Captain Moses Rogers, after crossing the Atlantic in just 27 days after leaving Savannah, Georgia on 24/5/1819. She was the first ship to cross the Atlantic by steam power.

12/6/1819, Saturday (-45,986) Charles Kingsley, English novelist, was born (died 23/1/1875).

10/6/1819, Thursday (-45,988) Gustave Courbet, French painter, was born (died 31/12/1877).

5/6/1819, Saturday (-45,993) John Couch Adams, who co-discovered Neptune, was born near Launceston, Cornwall.

==================================================================================

31/5/1819, Monday (-45,998) Walt Whitman, poet, was born.

28/5/1819, Friday (-46,001) Frederic Huntington, US religious writer, was born (died 11/7/1904).

27/5/1819, Thursday (-46,002) George V, King of Hanover, was born.

24/5/1819, Monday (-46,005) Queen (Alexandrine) Victoria was born at Kensington Palace, daughter of Edward Duke of Kent and Mary, daughter of Francis, Duke of Saxe � Coburg - Saalfeld. She was the granddaughter of King George III, and niece of King William IV.

17/5/1819, Monday (-46,012) The first bicycles, or �swift walkers� appeared on the streets of New York.

8/5/1819, Saturday (-46,021) Death of King Kamehameha, who united Hawaii, aged 82. He was succeeded by his 22-year old son, Kamehameha II, who welcomed Christian missionaries and allowed the indigenous culture to be undermined.

==================================================================================

28/4/1819, Wednesday (-46,031) (USA) Ezra Abbot, US scholar of the Bible, was born in Jackson, Maine.

27/4/1819, Tuesday (-46,832) Sir William Muir, Scottish Orientalist writer, was born.

26/4/1819, Monday (-46,033)

25/4/1819, Sunday (-46,034) Mark Firth, British steel maker and philanthropist, was born (died 28/11/1880).

24/4/1819, Saturday (-46,035) Klaus Groth, German poet, was born (died 1/6/1899).

23/4/1819, Friday (-46,036)

22/4/1819, Thursday (-46,037) Friedrich Bodenstedt, German author, was born in Hanover (died in Wiesbaden 19/4/1892).

21/4/1819, Wednesday (-46,038) Oliver Evans, US industrialist, died (born 1755).

18/4/1819, Sunday (-46,041) Franz von Suppe, composer, was bormn in Split (died 21/5/1895 in Vienna)

13/4/1819, Tuesday (-46,046) The Mansfield and Pinxton railway opened. It was taken over by the Midland Railway in 1848, adapted for steam traction, and reopened on 9/10/1849.

11/4/1819, Sunday (-46,048) Easter Sunday. Sir Charles Halle, German musician who founded the Halle Orchestra in Manchester, was born.

==================================================================================

29/3/1819, Monday (-46,061) (Geology) Edward Laurentine Drake was born in Greenville, New York, USA. On 28/8/1859 he drilled the world�s first oil well.

28/3/1819, Sunday (-46,062) Engineer Sir Joseph William Bazalgette was born.

27/3/1819, Saturday (-46,063)

26/3/1819, Friday (-46,064) (Britain) George William Frederick Charles, Duke of Cambridge, was born (died 17/3/1904).

25/3/1819, Thursday (-46,065) Auguste Lambermont, Belgian statesman, was born (died 7/3/1905).

23/3/1819, Tuesday (-46,067) August Kotzebue, German dramatist, died (born 3/5/1761).

20/3/1819, Saturday (-46,070) Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London, opened

11/3/1819, Thursday (-46,079) Sir Henry Tate, the British sugar magnate and philanthropist whose money and pictures formed the foundation of the Tate Gallery in 1897, was born in Chorley.

10/3/1819, Wednesday (-46,080) Friedrich Jacobi, German philosophical writer, died (born 25/1/1743).

6/3/1819, Saturday (-46,084)

2/3/1819, Tuesday (-46,088) (Aviation) Henry Coxwell, English balloonist, was born (died 5/1/1900).

1/3/1819, Monday (-46,089) (USA) Alexander Bell, US educationalist, was born (died 1905).

===================================================================================

22/2/1819, Monday (-46,096) The USA annexed all of Florida from Spain.

14/2/1819, Sunday (-46,104) American inventor Christopher Latham Stokes, who invented an early typewriter, was born near Mooresburg, Pennsylvania.

8/2/1819, Monday (-46,110) (1) Rioting and looting followed a protest march by the unemployed in Trafalgar Square.

(2) John Ruskin, English writer and art critic, was born in Dulwich, London, the son of a wine dealer

=================================================================================

29/1/1819, Friday (-46,120) Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles landed at Singapore and set up a trading post there.

25/1/1819, Monday (-46,124) Ernest Jones, English Chartist, was born (died 26/1/1869).

21/1/1819, Thursday (-46,128) Edward Capern, English poet, was born (died 5/6/1894).

20/1/1819, Wednesday (-46,129) Charles IV of Spain died (born 11/11/1748).

14/1/1819, Thursday (-46,135) Sir James Cockle, English mathematician, was born (died 27/1/1895).

12/1/1819, Tuesday (-46,137) Andre Morellet, French writer, died (born 7/3/1727).

9/1/1819, Saturday (-46,140) William Frith, English painter, was born (died 2/11/1909).

1/1/1819, Friday (-46,148) Arthur Clough, English poet, was born (died13/11/1861).

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28/12/1818, Monday (-46,152) Karl Fresenius, German chemist, was born (died 11/6/1897).

27/12/1818, Sunday (-46,153) Henry Drisler, US scholarly writer, was born (died 30/11/1897).

25/12/1818, Friday (-46,155)

24/12/1818, Thursday (-46,156) Physicist James Joule was born at Salford, Manchester.

23/12/1818, Wednesday (-46,157) Sir Philip Francis, English politician, died (born 22/10/1740).

19/12/1818, Saturday (-46,161) Mary Brunton, Scottish novelist, died (born 1/11/1778).

13/12/1818, Sunday (-46,167) (Britain) Edward Ellenborough, English Judge, died (born 16/11/1750).

9/12/1818, Wednesday (-46,171) Abraham Lincoln�s mother, Nancy Hanks Lincoln, died aged 34. In 1819 his father, Thomas Lincoln married Sarah Bush Johnston.

8/12/1818, Tuesday (-46,172) (Geology) Mineralogist Johann Gottleib Gahn died in Falun, Kopparburg, Sweden.

5/12/1818, Saturday (-46,175) Nikolai Koksharov, Russian geologist, was born (died 3/1/1893).

3/12/1818. Thursday (-46,177) Illinois became the 21st state of the USA.

====================================================================================

29/11/1818, Sunday (-46,181) (Canada) George Brown, Canadian statesman, was born (died 9/5/1880).

24/11/1818, Tuesday (-46,186) David Agnew, US surgeon (died 22/3/1892) was born.

21/11/1818. Saturday (-46,189) France was admitted to the Quadruple alliance, now the Quintuple alliance (see 20/11/1815).France�s war indemnity was cut.

18/11/1818, Wednesday (-46,192) Marco Minghetti, Italian statesman, was born (died 10/12/1886).

12/11/1818, Thursday (-46,198)

6/11/1818, Friday (-46,204) Malcolm Laing, Scottish historical writer, died.

5/11/1818, Thursday (-46,205) (USA) Benjamin Butler, US politician, was born (died 11/1/1893).

====================================================================================

31/10/1818, Saturday (-46,210)

28/10/1818, Wednesday (-46,213) Abigail Adams, US First Lady, was born.

27/10/1818, Tuesday (-46,214) Stafford Iddesleigh, British statesman, was born (died 12/1/1887).

24/10/1818, Saturday (-46,217)

22/10/1818, Thursday (-46,219) Charles leconte, French poet, was born (died 18/7/1894).

21/10/1818, Wednesday (-46,220) John Dalgairns, English religious writer, was born (died 6/4/1879).

20/10/1818. Tuesday (-46,221) The USA and Britain agreed the border between the USA and Canada to be the 49th parallel.

18/10/1818, Sunday (-46,223) Charles Mudie, Engliah publisher, was born (died 28/10/1890).

15/10/1818, Thursday (-46,226) Irvin McDowell, US soldier, was born (died 4/5/1885).

13/10/1818, Tuesday (-46,228) (Britain) Henry Allon, English non-conformist preacher, was born in Welton near Hull (died March 1892).

10/10/1818. Saturday (-46,231) The first reference to school exam marks was made, by Dr Samuel Butler, the Headmaster of Shrewsbury School.

====================================================================================

29/9/1818, Tuesday (-46,242) (France / Germany) The Congress of Aix La Chapelle began.

27/9/1818, Sunday (+46,244) (Chemistry) Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe was born in Elliehausen, Germany. In 1845 he synthesised acetic acid from non-organic compounds.

26/9/1818, Saturday (-46,245) John Sims Reeves, English vocalist, was born (died 25/10/1900).

25/9/1818, Friday (-46,246) The first blood transfusion using human blood, as opposed to animal blood, took place in London, at Guys Hospital.

16/9/1818, Wednesday (-46,255) Sir Francis Haden, English arts writer, was born (died 1/6/1910).

13/9/1818, Sunday (-46,258) (Arts) Gustave Aimarde, French novelist, was born in Paris (died 20/6/1883 in Paris).

12/9/1818, Saturday (-46,259) Richard Gatling, US inventor of the revolving battery gun, was born in Winton, North Carolina.

11/9/1818, Friday (-46,260) John Marshall, English surgeon, was born (died 1/1/1891).

8/9/1818, Tuesday (-46,263)

5/9/1818, Saturday (-46,266) Charles King, English historical writer, was born (died 25/3/1888).

4/9/1818, Friday (-46,267) Richard Congreve, English Positivist, was born (died 5/7/1899).

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31/8/1818, Monday (-46,271) (Britain) Sir Robert Calder, British Admiral, died (born 2/7/1745).

25/8/1818, Tuesday (-46,277) Elizabeth Billington, opera singer, died near Venice.

23/8/1818, Sunday (-46,279) First steamship service began on the Great Lakes, North America.

22/8/1818, Saturday (-46,280) Warren Hastings, British administrator and first Governor-General of British India, died in Worcestershire aged 85.

20/8/1818, Thursday (-46,282) (Biology) John Ball, Irish politician and naturalist, was born in Dublin (died in London 21/10/1889).

18/8/1818, Tuesday (-46,284) (Britain) James Fraser, English Bishop, was born (died 22/10/1885). He did much to secure the provision of churches for the rapidly-growing population of Manchester, exceeding even the efforts of his predecessor, James Lee, who had consecrated 130 Manchester churches.

14/8/1818, Friday (-46,288) Francois Joinville, French statesman, was born (died 16/6/1900).

13/8/1818, Thursday (-46,289) Lucy Stone, US feminist and reformer, was born in West Brookfield, Massachusetts.

7/8/1818, Friday (-46,295)

1/8/1818, Saturday (-46,301) Maria Mitchell, US astronomer, was born (died 28/6/1889).

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31/7/1818, Friday (-46,302) Heinrich Kiepert, German geographical writer, was born (died 21/4/1899).

30/7/1818, Thursday (-46,303) Novelist Emily Bronte was born at Thornton, Yorkshire. One of the three famous sisters, she wrote Wuthering Heights under the name of Ellis Bell in 1846.

28/7/1818, Tuesday (-46,305) Edward Cope, English scholarly writer, was born (died 5/8/1873).

19/7/1818, Sunday (-46,314) Sir John Erichsen, British surgeon, was born (died 23/9/1896).

18/7/1818, Saturday (-46,315) Louis de Geer, Swedish writer, was born (died 1896).

16/7/1818, Thursday (-46,317)

15/7/1818, Wednesday (-46,318) Work began on the construction of Berkeley Docks, Gloucestershire.

14/7/1818, Tuesday (-46,319) Nathaniel Lyon, US soldier, was born (died 10/8/1861).

11/7/1818, Saturday (-46,322) William Forster, British statesman, was born (died 6/4/1886).

1/7/1818, Wednesday (-46,332) Sir Thomas Bernard, English social reformer, died (born in Lincoln 27/4/1750).

===================================================================================

21/6/1818, Sunday (-46,342) Sir Richard Wallace, art collector and philanthropist, was born.

17/6/1818, Wednesday (-46,346) Charles Gounod, French composer, was born (died 18/10/1893).

11/6/1818, Thursday (-46,352) (Britain) Alexander Bain, Scottish educationalist, was born in Aberdeen (died in Aberdeen 18/9/1903).

3/6/1818, Wednesday (-46,360) Louis Faidherbe, French general, was born (died 29/9/1889).

===================================================================================

31/5/1818, Sunday (-46,363) (USA) John Albion Andrew, US politician, was born in Windham, Maine (died 30/10/1867 in Boston).

28/5/1818, Thursday (-46,366) (USA) Pierre Beauregard, US soldier, was born near New Orleans (died in New Orleans 20/2/1893).

27/5/1818, Wednesday (-46,367) Amelia Bloomer, American Women�s Rights campaigner who popularised �bloomers�, was born in Homer, New York.

26/5/1818, Tuesday (-46,368) A Bill presented by the economist and councillor Karl Maaseen was adopted. It abolished customs procedures within Prussia and lifted trade restrictions.

25/5/1818, Monday (-46,369) Jakob Burckhardt, Swiss writer on art, was born (died 1897).

24/5/1818, Sunday (-46,370) John Foley, Irish sculptor, was born (died 27/8/1874).

20/5/1818, Wednesday (-46,374) William Fargo, co-founder of the freight carrier Wells Fargo, was born.

14/5/1818, Thursday (-46,380) Matthew Lewis, romance writer, died (born 9/7/1775).

10/5/1818, Sunday (-46,384) Paul Revere, who made the famous ride from Charlestown to Lexington to warn US militia of British troops, died aged 83 in Boston, Massachusetts.

5/5/1818, Tuesday (-46,389) Karl Heinrich Marx, father of Communism, was born in Trier, Germany, son of a Jewish lawyer.

4/5/1818, Monday (-46,390) Manuel Mila, Spanish scholarly writer, was born (died 16/7/1884).

===================================================================================

29/4/1818, Wednesday (-46,395) Alexander II, Tsar of Russia, was born.

23/4/1818, Thursday (-46,401) James Froude, English historical writer, was born (died 20/10/1894).

20/4/1818, Monday (-46,404) Heinrich Gobel, inventor, was born.

13/4/1818, Monday (-46,411) Fedor Buslaev, Russian scholarly writer, was born (died 1898).

8/4/1818, Wednesday (-46,416) August Hofmann, German chemist, was born (died 5/5/1892).

5/4/1818, Sunday (-46,419) Chile achieved independence from Spanish rule, after a revolutionary war led by Bernard O�Higgins.

===================================================================================

25/3/1818, Wednesday (-46,430) Henry Lee, US General, died (born 29/1/1756).

23/3/1818, Monday (-46,432) (USA) Don Carlos Buell, US soldier, was born (died 19/11/1898).

22/3/1818, Sunday (-46,433) Easter Sunday; John Kensett, US painter, was born.

20/3/1818, Friday (-46,435) Johann Forkel, German musician, died (born 22/2/1749).

18/3/1818, Wednesday (-46,437) Jean Challamel, French historical writer, was born (died 20/10/1894).

15/3/1818, Sunday (-46,440) Hector MacNeill, Scottish poet, died.

3/3/1818, Tuesday (-46,452) Constantine Kauffman, Russian General, was born (died 15/5/1882).

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17/2/1818, Tuesday (-46,466) Baron Karl von Drais de Sauerbrun patented the Draisine , forerunner of the bicycle.

13/2/1818, Friday (-46,470) (USA) George Clarke, US frontiersman, died (born 19/11/1752).

12/2/1818, Thursday (-46,471) Chile proclaimed independence from Spain after a revolution led by San Martin and Bernard O�Higgins.

11/2/1818, Wednesday (-46,472) Edward Goulburn, English religious writer, was born (died 3/5/1897).

9/2/1818, Monday (-46,474)

7/2/1818, Saturday (-46,476) Francois Meurice, French dramatist, was born (died 12/12/1905).

6/2/1818, Friday (-46,477) William Maxwell Evarts, US statesman, was born in Boston, Massachusetts (died 28/2/1901 in New York City).

5/2/1818, Thursday (-46,478) Charles XIII of Sweden died aged 69. He was succeeded by Crown Prince Jean Bernadotte (55), who now became Charles XIV.

==================================================================================

30/1/1818, Friday (-46,484) Arthur Gorgei, Hungarian soldier, was born.

28/1/1818, Wednesday (-46,486) George Boutwell, US statesman, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts (died in Groton, Massachusetts, 28/2/1905).

24/1/1818, Saturday (-46,490) John Neale, English religious writer, was born (died 6/8/1866).

18/1/1818, Sunday (-46.496) Johannes Ebrard, German religious writer, was born (died 23/7/1888).

6/1/1818, Tuesday (-46,508) Gustav Kenncott, mineralogist, was born (died 7/3/1897).

5/1/1818, Monday (-46,509) The first regular scheduled service across the Atlantic began, between New York and Liverpool.

3/1/1818, Saturday (-46,511)

1/1/1818, Thursday (-46,513) Mary Shelley�s novel Frankenstein was published. It was subtiiled �The Modern Prometheus�.

==================================================================================

31/12/1817, Wednesday (-46,514) James Fields, US author, was born (died 24/4/1881).

27/12/1817, Saturday (-46,518) Henry Thoreau, writer, was born in Concord, Massachusetts.

25/12/1817, Thursday (-46,520) The Hincaster Tunnel, at the northern end of the Lancaster Canal in Cumbria, opened.

10/12/1817, Wednesday (-46,535) Mississippi became the 20th state of the USA.

7/12/1817, Sunday (-46,538) Captain Bligh, captain of The Bounty, died in London.

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30/11/1817, Sunday (-46,545) Theodore Mommsen, German historical writer, was born (died 1/11/1903).

25/11/1817, Tuesday (-46,550) John Bigelow, US journalist, was born in New York State.

12/11/1817, Wednesday (-46,563) (Iran) Baha�u�llah, founder of the Bahai faith, was born.

7/11/1817, Friday (-46,568) Jean Deluc, Swiss geologist, died (born 8/2/1727).

5/11/1817, Wednesday (-46,570) Serbia was granted partial autonomy by the Ottoman Turks.

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30/10/1817, Thursday (-46,576) Hermann Kopp, German chemistry writer, was born (died 20/2/1892).

25/10/1817, Saturday (-46,581) Lothar Bucher, German writer, was born (died 12/10/1892).

23/10/1817, Thursday (-46,583) Pierre Larousse, French lexicographer, was born.

18/10/1817, Saturday (-46,588) Etienne Mehul, French composer, died (born 24/6/1763).

17/10/1817, Friday (-46,589) Alfred des Cloizeaux, French mineralogist, was born (died 5/1897).

16/10/1817, Thursday (-46,590)

15/10/1817, Wednesday (-46,591) John Burckhardt, Swiss writer and orientalist, died (born 24/11/1784).

14/10/1817, Tuesday (-46,592) John Curran, Irish politician, died (born 24/7/1750).

11/10/1817, Saturday (-46,595) John Delane, editor of The Times, London, was born (died 22/11/1879).

8/10/1817, Wednesday (-46,598) Henry Erskine, Lord Advocate of Scotland, died (born 1/11/1746).

==================================================================================

29/9/1817, Monday (-46,607) Under the Fort Meigs Treaty, 6,000 square miles of land previously belonging to the Ohio Indians was ceded to the US Government. In return the Indians received 144 square miles, the �Grand Reserve, on the Upper Sandusky.

27/9/1817, Saturday (-46,609) Paul Feval, French novelist, was born (died 8/3/1887).

24/9/1817, Wednesday (-46,612) Ramon de Campoamor, Spanish poet, was born (died 12/2/1901).

14/9/1817, Sunday (-46,622) Henry Brampton, English judge, was born in Hitchin (died in London 6/10/1907).

6/9/1817, Saturday (-46,630) Sir Alexander Galt, Canadian statesman, was born (died 19/9/1893).

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29/8/1817, Friday (-46,638) John Leech, English caricaturist, was born (died 29/10/1864).

16/8/1817, Saturday (-46,651) Henry Davis, US politician, was born (died 30/12/1865).

15/8/1817, Friday (-46,652) Roswell Hitchcock, US writer, was born (died 16/6/1887).

13/8/1817, Wednesday (-46,654) William Esher, English Judge, was born (died 24/5/1899).

10/8/1817, Sunday (-46,657) Francis Lowell, US cotton industrialist, died (born 7/4/1775).

6/8/1817, Wednesday (-46,661) Pierre Dupont, French statesman, died (born 14/9/1739).

4/8/1817, Monday (-46,663) Frederick Frelinghuysen, US statesman, was born (died 20/5/1885).

3/8/1817, Sunday (-46,664) (Austria) Friedrich Albert, Austrian Field Marshal, was born in Vienna (died 18/2/1895).

1/8/1817, Friday (-46,666) Sir Joseph Gilbert, English chemist, was born (died 23/12/1901).

===================================================================================

21/7/1817, Monday (-46,677) Sir John Gilbert, English painter, was born (died 6/10/1897).

18/7/1817, Friday (-46,680) (Arts) Jane Austen died, at her house in Winchester.

15/7/1817, Tuesday (-46,683) (Railways GB) Sir John Fowler, British railway engineer, was born (died 20/11/1898).

12/7/1817, Saturday (-46,686) David Henry Thoreau, writer, was born.

9/7/1817, Wednesday (-46,689)

6/7/1817, Sunday (-46,692) (Biology) Rudolf Albert von Kolliker was born in Zurich, Switzerland. In 1844 he showed that the egg is a cell and all cells in the organism originate by divisions from the egg cell.

5/7/1817, Saturday (-46,693) The first gold sovereigns were issued in Britain.

4/7/1817, Friday (-46,694) Construction work began on the Erie Canal; actually called the New York State Barge Canal.The canal opened on 26/10/1825.

====================================================================================

30/6/1817,Monday (-46,698) Sir Joseph Hooker, English botanist, was born.

24/6/1817, Tuesday (-46,704) The Tavistock Canal, linking Tavistock to the port at Morwelham, opened.

22/6/1817, Sunday (-46,706) (1) London�s Waterloo Bridge, built by John Rennie, was opened. It was originally called Strand Bridge but was renamed on the anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo.

(2) Windham Sadler crossed the St George�s Channel by balloon.

21/6/1817, Saturday (-46,707) Robert Monkswell, English Judge, was born (died 3/11/1886).

19/6/1817, Thursday (-46,709)

17/6/1817, Tuesday (-46,711) Thomas German Reed, British composer, was born in Bristol (died 21/3/1888 in London)

16/6/1817, Monday (-46,712) Alexander Dallas, US statesman, died (born 21/6/1759).

13/6/1817, Friday (-46,715) Richard Edgeworth, British writer, died (born 31/5/1744).

6/6/1817, Friday (-46,722) Alexander Forbes, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 8/10/1875).

===================================================================================

31/5/1817, Saturday (-46,728) Joseph Durocher, French geologist, was born (died 3/12/1858).

26/5/1817, Monday (-46,733) Denis MacCarthy, Irish poet, was born (died 7/4/1882).

22/5/1817, Thursday (-46,737) Sir George Dasent, English writer, was born (died 11/6/1896).

21/5/1817, Wednesday (-46,738) Rudolf Lotze, German philosophical writer, was born (died 1/7/1881).

17/5/1817, Saturday (-46,742) (Geology) Henry William Bristow, English geologist, was born (died 14/6/.1889).

3/5/1817, Saturday (-46,756) Horatio Hale, US ethnological writer, was born (died 28/12/1896).

=====================================================================================

29/4/1817, Tuesday (-46,760) (France) Vincent Benedetti, French diplomat, was born in Bastia, Corsica (died in Paris 28/3/1900).

26/4/1817, Saturday (-46,763) Richard Lyons, British diplomat, was born (died 5/12/1887).

24/4/1817, Thursday (-46,765) Jean Marignac, Swiss chemist, was born (died 15/4/1894).

22/4/1817, Tuesday (-46,767) Andrew Curtin, US politician, was born (died 7/10/1894).

16/4/1817, Wednesday (-46,773) Martin Delbruck, Prussian statesman, was born (died 1/2/1903).

15/4/1817, Tuesday (-46,774) Benjamin Jowett, scholarly writer, was born (died 1/10/1893).

14/4/1817, Monday (-46,775) Sir John Duckworth, British Admiral, died (born 28/2/1748).

13/4/1817, Sunday (-46,776) George Holyoake, English writer, was born (died 22/1/1906).

12/4/1817, Saturday (-46,777) Charles Messier, French astronomer who made a list of nebulae known as the Messier catalogue, died.

11/4/1817, Friday (-46,778) Juan Masdeu, Spanish historical writer, died (born 4/10/1744).

10/4/1817, Thursday (-46,779)

8/4/1817, Tuesday (-46,781) (Biology) Charles Brown-Sequard, neurologist, was born (died 2/4/1894).

7/4/1817, Monday (-46,782) Some 200 slaves in Maryland rioted, attacking Whites.

6/4/1817, Sunday (-46,783) Easter Sunday

4/4/1817, Friday (-46,785) Andre Massena, one of Napoleon�s Marshals, died (born 6/5/1756).

2/4/1817, Wednesday (-46,787) Johann Jung, German author, died (born 12/9/1740).

=====================================================================================

27/3/1817, Thursday (-46,793) Karl Naegeli, Swiss botaniucal writer, was born (died 11/5/1891).

23/3/1817, Sunday (-46,797) Louis Maury, French scholarly writer, was born (died 11/2/1892).

22/3/1817, Saturday (-46,798) Braxton Bragg, US soldier, was born in North Carolina (died in Galveston, Texas, 27/9/1876).

17/3/1817, Monday (-46,803) Pasquale Mancini, Italian statesman, was born (died 26/12/1888).

10/3/1817, Monday (-46,810) Several hundred Manchester weavers set out from St Peters Fields, Manchester, to march

to Westminster, demanding Parliamentary Reform. They were called the Blanketeers, as they carried blankets to keep

warm at night. Troops stopped most of them at Stockport but some reached Derbyshire, and one made it as far as London.

This march later inspired the Jarrow March.

5/3/1817, Wednesday (-46,815) Moritz Carriere, German historical writer, was born (died 19/1/1895)

4/3/1817, Tuesday (-46,816) James Monroe took office as the 5th President of the USA.

==================================================================================

25/2/1817, Tuesday (-46,823) Gottleib Hufeland, German scholarly writer, died (born 19/10/1760).

23/2/1817, Sunday (-46,825) John Brown, Scottish writer, was born (died 20/9/1856).

22/2/1817, Saturday (-46,826) Niels Gade, Danish composer, was born (died 21/12/1890).

17/2/1817, Monday (-46,831) William III, King of the Netherlands, was born.

15/2/1817, Saturday (-46,833) Charles Daubigny, French landscape painter, was born (died 19/2/1878).

12/2/1817, Wednesday (-46,836) Battle of Chacabuco; Chile asserted independence from Spain.

8/2/1817, Saturday (-46,840) Francis Horner, British economist, died (born 12/8/1778).

3/2/1817, Monday (-46,845) Louis Delescluze, French geologist, was born (died 24/3/1881).

2/2/1817, Sunday (-46,846) Richard Ewell, US soldier, was born (died 25/1/1872).

===================================================================================

29/1/1817, Wednesday (-46,850) John Horsley, English painter, was born (died 18/10/1903).

26/1/1817, Sunday (-46,853) Jean Godin, French socialist, was born (died 1888).

25/1/1817, Saturday (-46,854) First performance, in Rome, of Rossini�s opera La Cerentola

23/1/1817, Thursday (-46,856) John Cassell, British publisher, was born (died 2/4/1865).

12/1/1817, Sunday (-46,867) Juan Andres, Spanish writer, died in Rome (born 1740 in Planes, Valencia).

11/1/1817, Saturday (-46,868) Timothy Dwight, US religious writer, died (born 14/5/1752).

9/1/1817, Thursday (-46,870) Sir Rupert Kettle, English County Court Judge and industrial dispute arbiter, was born (died 6/10/1894).

1/1/1817, Wednesday (-46,878) Martin Klaproth, German chemistry writer, died (born 1/12/1743).

====================================================================================

31/12/1816, Tuesday (-46,879) Sir William Gull, English physician, was born (died 29/1/1890).

30/12/1816, Monday (-46,860)

29/12/1816, Sunday (-46,881) (Medical) Karl Freidrich Wilhelm Ludwig was born in Witzenhausen, Germany. In 1847 he demonstrated that the blood circulation is purely mechanical, due to heart pumping action.

28/12/1816, Saturday (-46,882) Presbyterian clergyman Robert Finley established the American Colonisation Society, whose aim was to recolonise American Black slaves in Africa.

20/12/1816, Friday (-46,890)

13/12/1816, Friday (-46,897) Ernst Werner von Siemens, founder of the electrical engineering giant Siemens in 1847, was born.

12/12/1816, Thursday (-46,898) (Italy) King Ferdinand of Naples abolished the Sicilian Constitution and proclaimed himself King of the Two Sicilies (Naples and Sicily). As a monarch he had made himself virtually an Austrian vassal (see 23/1/1806), even having an Austrian, Count Nugent, as Commander in Chief of the Army. Ferdinand�s ruthless suppression of opposition in Sicily led to the emergence of the Carbonari, who eventually penetrated large sections of the Army. A Sicilian military revolt under General Pepe did intimidate Ferdinand into making some constitutional reforms; however a pro-independence revolt in Sicily was harshly suppressed with Neapolitan troops.

11/12/1816, Wednesday (-46,899) (USA) Indiana became the 19th state of the USA.

10/12/1816, Tuesday (-46,900) August Goeben, Prussian General, was born (died 1880)

9/12/1816, Monday (-48,901)

8/12/1816, Sunday (-46,902) (USA) August Belmont, US financier, was born in Prussia (died in New York 24/11/1890).

6/12/1816, Friday (-46,904) (Britain) Sir John Brown, Sheffield armour plate manufacturer, was born (died 27/12/1896).

4/12/1816, Wednesday (-46,906) President Monroe, having served as US Secretary of State under President Madison, was elected to succeed him. See 2/12/1823.

2/12/1816, Monday (-46,908) Rioting broke out at Spa Fields in London during a meeting to promote demands for parliamentary reform. Demands were for the vote for all men aged 18 and over, and for no property qualifications for MPs. The response was a series of Coercion Acts, including a temporary suspension of Habeas Corpus and an extension of the 1978 Act against seditious meetings.

===================================================================================

11/11/1816, Monday (-46,929) (Britain) Sir John Coode, British engineer, was born (died 2/3/1892).

6/11/1816, Wednesday (-46,934) Gouverneur Morris, US statesman, died (born 31/1/1752).

4/11/1816, Monday (-46,936) Stephen Field, US jurist, was born (died 9/4/1899).

3/11/1816, Sunday (-46,937) Jubal Early, US soldier, was born (died 2/3/1894).

1/11/1816, Friday (-46,939) Friedrich Hacklander, German novelist, was born (died 6/7/1877).

==================================================================================

30/10/1816, Wednesday (-46,941) Henry Dawes, US lawyer, was born (died 5/2/1903).

15/10/1816, Tuesday (-46,956) (France) Stanislas Dupuy, French naval architect, was born (died 1/2/1885).

14/10/1816, Monday (-46,957) Daniel Huntingdon, US artist, was born (died 19/4/1906).

9/10/1816, Wednesday (-46,962) Edward Blomfield, English scholarly writer, died in Cambridge (born in Bury St Edmunds 14/2/1788).

==================================================================================

26/9/1816, Thursday (-46,975) Paul Gervais, French palaeontological writer, was born (died 10/2/1879).

16/9/1816, Monday (-46,985) Sir Theodore Martin, British author, was born (died 18/8/1909).

==================================================================================

24/8/1816, Saturday (-47,008) Tristan da Cunha, four islands in the south Atlantic, were annexed and garrisoned by the UK.

21/8/1816, Wednesday (-47,011) Charles Gerhardt, French chemist, was born (died 19/8/1856).

16/8/1816, Friday (-47,016) (Railways GB) Sir Daniel Gooch, engineer and railway administrator, was born (died 15/10/1889). He turned the Great Western railway around from near bankruptcy in 1866, when he became Chairman of the Board, to healthy profitability in 1889; his last year on the Board.

13/8/1816, Tuesday (-47,019) Heinrich Gneist, German politician, was born (died 22/7/1895)

======================================================================================

28/7/1816, Sunday (-47,035) Robert Harkness, English geologist, was born (died 4/10/1878).

23/7/1816, Tuesday (-47,040) Charlotte Cushman, US actress, was born (died 18/2/1876).

21/7/1816, Sunday (-47,042) Paul von Reuter, German founder of Reuters news agency, was born in Kassel as Israel Beer Josaphat.

13/7/1816, Saturday (-47,050) Gustav Freytag, German novelist, was born (died 30/4/1895).

9/7/1816, Tuesday (-47,054) Argentina, as the �United Provinces of the River Plate�, formally declared independence from Spain. In practice independent government had been run since 25/5/1816.

3/7/1816, Wednesday (-47,060) Dorothea Jordan, Irish actress, died.

=====================================================================================

27/6/1816, Thursday (-47,066) Samuel 1st Viscount Hood, British Admiral whose military successes included defeating the French off Dominica in 1782 and the capture of Toulon in the French Revolutionary Wars, died.

18/6/1816, Tuesday (-47,075) John Morrell, British educarionalist writer, was born (died 1/4/1891).

12/6/1816, Wednesday (-47,081) (France) Pierre Augereau, French soldier, died.

===================================================================================

25/5/1816, Saturday (-47,099) Anne Lange, French actress, died (born 17/9/1772).

24/5/1816, Friday (-47,100) Emanuel Leutze, US artist, was born (died 18/7/1868).

22/5/1816, Wednesday (-47,102) Christopher Hall, English religious writer, was born (died 18/2/1902).

20/5/1816, Monday (-47,104) Pieter Melvill van Carnbee, Dutch cartographer of the East Indies, was born (died 24/10/1856).

12/5/1816, Sunday (-47,112) Edmund Beckett, 1st Baron Grimthorpe, was born (died 29/4/1905).

10/5/1816, Friday (-47,114) Friedrich Gerstacker, German novelist, was born (died 31/5/1872).

7/5/1816, Tuesday (-47,117) (Rail Tunnels) Talyllyn tunnel on the Hay Railway, Brecon, Wales, 616 metres long, opened.

5/5/1816, Sunday (-47,119) John Howson, English religious writer, was born (died 15/12/1885)

2/5/1816, Thursday (-47,122) Augustus Egg, British painter, was born (died 26/3/1863).

=================================================================================

29/4/1816, Monday (-47,125) Charles Brooks, English novelist, was born (died 23/2/1874).

26/4/1816, Friday (-47,128) Sir Herbert Croft, English author, died (born 1/11/1751).

25/4/1816, Thursday (-47,129) Byron sailed from Dover to self-imposed exile in Italy.

23/4/1816, Tuesday (-47,131)

22/4/1816, Monday (-47,132) Philip Bailey, English poet, was born in Nottingham (died 6/9/1902).

21/4/1816, Sunday (-47,133) Charlotte Bronte, eldest of the three literary sisters, was born in Thornton, daughter of a Yorkshire clergyman.

17/4/1816, Wednesday (-47,137) Samuel Austin Allibone, US author, was born in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. He died in Lucerne, Switzerland, on 2/9/1889.

14/4/1816, Sunday (-47,140) Easter Sunday

13/4/1816, Saturday (-47,141) Sir William Bennett, English composer, was born in Sheffield (died in St Johns Wood, London, 15/2/1875).

12/4/1816, Friday (-47,142) Sir Charles Duffy, Irish writer, was born (died 9/2/1903).

11/4/1816, Thursday (-47,143) Patrick Duigenan, Irish politician, died (born 1735).

5/4/1816, Friday (-47,149) Samuel Miller, US jurist, was born (died 13/10/1890).

==================================================================================

31/3/1816, Sunday (-47,154) (USA) Francis Asbury, US clergyman, died in Spottsylvania, Virginia.

27/3/1816, Wednesday (-47,158) Sir George Elvey, composer, was born (died 9/10/1893).

20/3/1816, Wednesday (-47,165) Queen Maria I of Portugal died aged 81. She was succeeded by her son, Joao I, but he remained in Brazil.

17/3/1816, Sunday (-47,168) The 38-ton Elise left Newhaven for a stormy 17-hour crossing to Le Havre, becoming the first steamboat to cross The Channel.

2/3/1816, Saturday (-47,183) Ghurkas signed a peace treaty with the British, following their heavy defeat in the Kathmandu Valley; this ended their year-long war.

==================================================================================

25/2/1816, Sunday (-47,189) (Germany) Friedrich Bulow, Prussian General, died (born 16/2/1755).

22/2/1816, Thursday (-47,192) Adam Ferguson, Scottish philosophical writer, died (born 20/6/1723).

21/2/1816, Wednesday (-47,193) Ebenezer Hoar, US politician, was born (died 31/1/1895).

20/2/1816, Tuesday (-47,194) Gioachino Rossini�s opera, The Barber of Seville, was first performed, at the Teatro Argentina in Rome.

18/2/1816, Sunday (-47,196) Maurice Block, French statistician, was born in Berlin (died in Paris 9/1/1901).

16/2/1816, Friday (-47,198) Giovanni Morelli, Italian art critic, was born (died 28/2/1891).

7/2/1816, Wednesday (-47,207) Italian missionary, Giovanni Lantrua of Trioria, was executed by the Chinese.

4/2/1816, Sunday (-47,210) (Britain) Robert Hobart, 4th Earl of Buckinghamshire, was born.

===================================================================================

30/1/1816, Tuesday (-47,215) (USA) Nathaniel Banks, US politician, was born in Waltham, Massachusetts (died in Waltham, 1/9/1894).

27/1/1816, Saturday (-47,218) Samuel Hood, British Admiral, died (born 12/2/1724)

23/1/1816, Tuesday (-47,222) (Geology) Samuel Allport, English petrologist, was born in Birmingham. He died 7/7/1897 in Cheltenham.

17/1/1816, Wednesday (-47,228) Sir Antoine Dorion, Canadian politician, was born (died 31/5/1891).

16/1/1816, Tuesday (-47,229) Brazil proclaimed its independence from Portugal, with the Portuguese Prince regent Joao as Emperor.

9/1/1816, Tuesday (-47,236) Sir Humphrey Davy�s safety lamp was used in a coal mine for the first time.

2/1/1816, Tuesday (-47,243) Louis Guyton de Morveau, French chemistry writer, died (born 4/1/1737).

====================================================================================

31/12/1815, Sunday (-47,245) Sir Edward Bond, English librarian, was born in Hanwell (died 2/1/1898).

19/12/1815, Tuesday (-47,257) (Biology) Benjamin Barton, US naturalist, died in Philadelphia (born 1766).

8/12/1815, Friday (-47,268) Adolph Menzel, german artist, was born (died 9/2/1905).

7/12/1815, Thursday (-47,269) Marshall Ney, a famous general of Napoleon, convicted of high treason, was executed by firing squad for supporting Napoleon at Waterloo when ordered by the Allies to arrest him.

3/12/1815, Sunday (-47,273) (Christian) John Carroll, US Roman Catholic prelate, died (born 8/1/1735)

======================================================================================

24/11/1815, Friday (-47,282) (Maritime) Grace Darling, heroine of the shipwreck rescue of the crew of the Forfarshire on 7/9/1838, was born (died 20/10/1842).

23/11/1815, Thursday (-47,283) Canada�s frist street lights were lit, in Montreal. They were fuelled by whale oil, which burnt cleanly.

20/11/1815, Monday (-47,286) A second Treaty of Paris reduced France to its 1789 frontiers (see 30/5/1814), stripped her of the port of Savoy, and created an organisation charged with the collective security of Europe. Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia renewed their Quadruple Alliance and agreed to exclude the Bonaparte dynasty from French rule for another 20 years. An Allied army of occupation was installed in Paris. Under this Alliance, each power agreed to supply 60,000 soldiers in the event of French aggression.

12/11/1815, Sunday (-47,294) Elizabeth Cady Stanton, US women�s rights campaigner, was born in Johnstown, New York, as Elizabeth Cady.

11/11/1815, Saturday (-47,295) Pierre Ginguene, French writer, died (born 27/4/1748).

10/11/1815, Friday (-47,296) William Hardee, US soldier, was born (died 6/11/1873).

5/11/1815, Sunday (-47,301) (Greece) By The Treaty of Paris Britain gained the Ionian Islands, including Corfu.

2/11/1815, Thursday (-47,304) (Mathematics) Mathematician George Boole was born in Lincoln, England. In 1847 he published his paper on symbolic logic.

1/11/1815, Wednesday (-47,305) (Medical) Crawford Williamson Long, surgeon, was born in Danielsville, Georgia, USA. He is credited with the first use of ether as an anaesthetic, on 30/3/1842.

=====================================================================================

31/10/1815, Tuesday (-47,306) Sir Humphrey Davy patented the miner�s safety lamp.

30/10/1815, Monday (-47,307) Andrew Jackson Downing, US landscape gardener (died in Yonkers, New York, 28/7/1852) was born in Newburgh, New York.

29/10/1815, Sunday (-47,308) Daniel Decatur Emmett, US composer, was born in Mount Vernon, Ohio (died 28/6/1904 in Mount Vernon)

23/10/1815, Monday (-47,314) Jean Bressant, French actor, was born (died 23/1/1886).

17/10/1815, Tuesday (-47,320) Emanuel Geibel, German poet, was born (died 6/4/1884).

16/10/1815, Monday (-47,321) Napoleon arrived at St Helena, see 8/8/1815.

13/10/1815, Friday (-47,324) Joachim Murat, King of the Two Sicilies, was executed.

11/10/1815, Wednesday (-47,326) Pierre Napoleon Bonaparte, politician, was born.

7/10/1815, Saturday (-47,330) Charles Beecher, US composer, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut (died in Georgetown, Massachusetts, 21/4/1900).

===================================================================================

29/9/1815, Friday (-47,338) Andreas Achenbach, German landscape painter, was born (died 31/3/1910).

28/9/1815, Thursday (-47,339) Joachim Murat, former King of Naples, landed with only 30 men at Pizzon to try and regain the throne. He was soon captured.

27/9/1815, Wednesday (-47,340) Coronation of King William I of Holland, at Brussels

26/9/1815, Tuesday (-47,341) Holy Alliance formed between Russia, Austria, and Prussia.

20/9/1815, Wednesday (-47,347) Nicolas Desmarest, French geologist, died (born 16/9/1725).

15/9/1815, Friday (-47,352) Halfdan Kjerulf, Norwegian composer, was born (died 11/8/1868).

7/9/1815, Thursday (-47,360) Howell Cobb, US politician, was born (died 9/10/1868).

=================================================================================

31/8/1815, Thursday (-47,367) Heinrich Beyrich, German geologist, was born in Berlin (died 9/7/1896).

26/8/1815, Saturday (-47,372) Jean Jaureguiberry, French Admiral, was born (died 21/10/1887).

23/8/1815, Wednesday (-47,375) Sir Henry Acland, English physician, was born (died16/10/1900).

22/8/1815, Tuesday (-47,376) Pro Royalists won the first free elections in France.

16/8/1815, Wednesday (-47,382) Madame Celeste, French actress, was born (died 12/2/1882).

11/8/1815, Friday (-47,387) Johann Kinkel, German poet, was born (died 13/11/1882).

8/8/1815, Tuesday (-47,390) Napoleon set sail for exile on St Helena. He arrived there on 16/10/1815.

5/8/1815, Saturday (-47,393) Edward John Eyre, English explorer, colonial administrator and Governor of Jamaica, who discovered Lake Eyre, was born.

4/8/1815, Friday (-47,394) (Medical) Physician Carl Reinhold Wunderlich was born in Sulz, Germany. He was the first to realise the usefulness of taking accurate readings of a patient�s temperature.

3/8/1815, Thursday (-47,395)

2/8/1815, Wednesday (-47,396) Guillaume Brune, Marshal of France, died (born 13/3/1763).

1/8/1815, Tuesday (-47,397) William Conybeare, English religious writer, was born.

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31/7/1815, Monday (-47,398) (Britain) Lady Harriet (Christian Acland) died (born 3/1/1750).

17/7/1815, Monday (-47,412) Napoleon attempted to escape to America from Rochefort but was captured by the British.

15/7/1815, Saturday (-47,414) Napoleon surrendered to Captain Maitland of the ship Bellerophon at Rochefort.

14/7/1815, Friday (-47,415) Moritz Hornes, Austrian palaeontologist, was born (died 4/11/1868).

11/7/1815, Tuesday (-47.418)

9/7/1815, Sunday (-47,420) At the Congress of Tucuman, Argentina declared independence from Spain, after a long campaign by Jose de San Martin.

7/7/1815. Friday (-47,422) The Allies entered Paris victoriously a second time, and King Louis XVIII returned to Paris on 8/7/1815.

6/7/1815, Thursday (-47,423) Theodore la Villemarque, French writer, was born (died 8/12/1895).

2/7/1815, Sunday (-47,427)

1/7/1815, Saturday (-47,428) A battle between the French and the Allies at Ligny, near Fleurus, Belgium

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30/6/1815, Friday (-47,429) Faced with US threats to bombard Algeirs, the Dey agreed to cease piracy and release US prisoners.

28/6/1815, Wednesday (-47,431) Robert Franz, German composer, was born (died 24/10/1892).

25/6/1815, Sunday (-47,434) Napoleon abdicated in Paris for a second time.

22/6/1815, Thursday (-47,437) William Reeve, British composer, died in London (born 1757 in London)

21/6/1815, Wednesday (-47,438) Napoleon reached Paris.

18/6/1815, Sunday (-47,441) The Battle of Waterloo was fought, in driving rain, in the flat Belgian countryside. Combined British and Prussian forces, 15,000 and 8,000 respectively) led by the Duke of Wellington and Field Marshall Blucher decisively defeated the French (25,000) under Napoleon. Napoleon miscalculated, underestimating his enemies.The French soldiers were aware of an advancing force on their right flank; Napoleon knew this was the Prussian Army, but reckoned he could defeat the British before they arrived, then re-deploy.He told the French Army these were more French soldiers.When the Prussians opened fire on the French it seemed as these �French� soldiers had changed sides; a cry of �treason� went up, and the French Army disintegrated.Napoleon himself retreated westwards, but was held up at Genappe, only four miles from the battlefield, as a mass of men attempted to cross the only bridge over the River Dyle. Finally, only minutes before the Prussian cavalry arrived at Genappe, Napoleon succeeded in crossing the bridge and galloped away towards Paris. See 26/2/1815.

16/6/1815, Friday (-47,443) Napoleon defeated by Lord Wellington; however the French managed to prevent Wellington from aiding Blucher at Ligny this day, where the Prussians were defeated.

15/6/1815, Thursday (-47,444) Napoleon defeated the Prussians under Blucher at the Battle of Ligny, Netherlands. The Prussians lost 12,000 men, against French losses of 8,500. Napoleon was hoping, by invading The Netherlands, to eliminate Britain and Prussia from the coalition against him.

11/6/1815, Sunday (-47,448) Hablot Browne, artist, was born (died 8/7/1882).

8/6/1815, Thursday (-47,451) Abandoning the idea of re-establishing the old German Empire, the 39 disparate German States formed a Union whose constitution was laid down in the Federal Act which came into force this day.However the rulers of States such as Bavaria, Hanover, Wurttemberg, Baden, and Saxony were unwilling to cede any authority to a central government.

2/6/1815, Friday (-47,457) Philip Kearny, US soldier, was born (died 1/9/1862).

1/6/1815, Thursday (-47,458) The Yacht Club was founded in London; membership was restricted to those with a yacht of over 10 tons. In 1817 this was raised to 20 tons.

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30/5/1815, Tuesday (-47,460) Otto Bohtlingk, German Sanskrit scholar and writer, was born in St Petersburg (died in Leipzig 1/4/1904).

24/5/1815, Wednesday (-47,466) The Lachlan River in Australia was discovered by the explorer George William Evans.

23/5/1815, Tuesday (-47,467) Ferdinand IV formally retook the Neapolitan throne.

22/5/1815, Monday (-47,468)

21/5/1815, Sunday (-47,469) (Chemistry) William Nicholson, chemist, died in London, England

20/5/1815, Saturday (-47,470) Murat fled to Corsica and the pro-Napoleon Neapolitans, now under the command of General Michele Caracosa, signed a treaty agreeing to the restoration of King Ferdinand IV.

15/5/1815, Monday (-47,475) Stephen Heller, Austrian composer, was born (died 14/1/1888).

11/5/1815, Thursday (-47,479) Granville George, 2nd earl, British politician, was born (died 31/3/1891).

8/5/1815, Monday (-47,482) (Arts) Jean Alard, French violinist, was born in Bayonne (died 22/2/1888 in Paris).

7/5/1815, Sunday (-47,483) Andrew Fuller, English religious writer, died (born 6/2/1754).

5/5/1815, Friday (-47,485) Eugene Labiche, French dramatist, was born (died 23/1/1888).

3/5/1815, Wednesday (-47,487) Murat was heavily defeated at the Battle of Tolentino by General Bianchi�s Austrian I Corps.

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25/4/1815, Tuesday (-47,495) Richard Church, English religious writer, was born (died 9/12/1890).

24/4/1815, Monday (-47,496) Anthony Trollope, British writer, was born.

16/4/1815, Sunday (-47,504) (Britain) Henry Aberdare, British statesman and educationalist (died 25/2/1895) was born in Aberdare, Glamorganshire.

10/4/1815, Monday (-47,510) After five days of volcanic eruptions, Mount Tambora exploded. The top 500 metres of the mountain vanished, and a 6 kilometre wide crater appeared. By July 1815 60,000 had died from the effects of the eruption, and summer 1816 was very cool, bringing starvation, riots and disease.

9/4/1815, Sunday (-47,511) Murat was defeated at the Battle of Occhiobello.

8/4/1815, Saturday (-47,512) Edmond Scherer, French politician, was born (died 16/3/1889).

4/4/1815, Tuesday (-47,516)

1/4/1815, Saturday (-47,519) Otto von Bismarck, German statesman, was born at Schonhausen in Brandenburg.

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31/3/1815, Friday (-47,520) Jean Favre, Swiss geological writer, was born (died 6/1890).

29/3/1815, Wednesday (-47,522) Sir Henry Frere, British colonial administrator, was born (died 29/5/1884).

26/3/1815, Sunday (-47,525) Easter Sunday

25/3/1815, Saturday (-47,526) Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, concluded a new alliance against France. On 10/4/1815 Austria also declared war on Joachim Murat, the King of Naples, who had allied himself with Napoleon. On 3/5/1815 Murat was defeated by the Austrians at Tolentino. Murat fled Naples on 20/5/1815 and entered France. On 3/6/1815 Murat was replaced by Ferdinand IV, the former King of Naples.

23/3/1815, Thursday (-47,528) In Britain, the Corn Laws halted the imports of grain.

20/3/1815, Monday (-47,531) Napoleon re-entered Paris; Louis XVIII had hurriedly left the previous night, and fled for Ghent. British fears that Elba was too close a place to France to exile Napoleon were realised.

17/3/1815, Friday (-47,534) Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia mobilised 150,000 men each to fight Napoleon.

16/3/1815, Thursday (-47,535) William of Orange was proclaimed William I, King of the Netherlands.

15/3/1815, Wednesday (-47,536) On hearing of Napoleon�s escape, Joachim Murat, King of Naples and Napoleon�s brother in law, declared war on Austria.

14/3/1815, Tuesday (-47,537) Marshal Ney, who had been sent to arrest Napoleon at Auxerre, instead joined him with 6,000 men.

7/3/1815, Tuesday (-47,544) The first French troops rallied to Napoleon.

5/3/1815, Sunday (-47,546) Friedrich Mesmer, Germen doctor who developed the theory of animal magnetism, or mesmerism, for curing diseases, died aged 80.

4/3/1815, Saturday (-47,547) Frances Abington, English actress (born 1737) died

3/3/1815, Friday (-47,548) The USA, angered by piracy in the Mediterranean, authorised hostility against the Bey of Algiers

2/3/1815, Thursday (-47,549)

1/3/1815, Wednesday (-47,550) Napoleon landed at Cannes, southern France, with a force of 1,500 men, and marched on Paris.

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28/2/1815, Tuesday (-47,551) Karl Graf, German religious writer, was born (died 16/7/1869).

26/2/1815, Sunday (-47,553) Napoleon escaped from exile on Elba. He arrived in Paris on 20/3/1815.

24/2/1815, Friday (-47,555) (1) Land in New Zealand was sold to a White person for the first time, for a mission church.

(2) Robert Fulton, American engineer and ship and submarine designer, died.

21/2/1815, Tuesday (-47,558) Jean Messonier, French painter, was born (died 21/1/1891).

18/2/1815, Saturday (-47,561) Hendrik Leys, Belgian painter, was born.

17/2/1815, Friday (-47,562) Corn Laws introduced in Britain

15/2/1815, Wednesday (-47,564) Rufus Griswold, US writer, was born (died 27/8/1857).

12/2/1815, Sunday (-47,567) Edward Forbes, British scientific writer, was born (died 18/11/1854).

8/2/1815, Wednesday (+47,571) Thomas Farnborough, English historical writer, was born (died 17/5/1886).

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30/1/1815, Monday (-47,580) Sir William Jenner, English physician,was born (died 11/12/1898).

24/1/1815, Tuesday (-47,586) Thomas Gee, Welsh writer, was born (died 28/9.1898).

21/1/1815, Saturday (-47,589) Matthias Claudius, German poet, died (born 15/8/1740).

18/1/1815, Wednesday (-47,592) Stanislas Boufflers, French statesman, died in Paris (born near Nancy 31/5/1738).

15/1/1815, Sunday (-47,595) Emma, Lady Hamilton, mistress of Lord Nelson, died in poverty in Calais

11/1/1815, Wednesday (-47,599) Sir John Alexander, Canada�s first Prime Minister, was born.

8/1/1815, Sunday (-47,602) The British, led by General Sir Edward Pakenham, were defeated at New Orleans by the Americans led by Andrew Jackson. This was the last battle Britain fought against the USA. See 24/12/1814.

3/1/1815, Tuesday (-47,607) Cesare Correnti, Italian Revolutionary, was born (died 4/10/1888).

1/1/1815, Sunday (-47,609) Henry Lazarus, British clarinettist, was born (died 6/3/1895).

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28/12/1814, Wednesday (-47,613) (Farming) Sir John Lawes, English agricultiuralist and founder of Rothamsted Agricultiural College, was born (died 31/8/1900).

26/12/1814, Monday (-47,615) Owen Jones, Welsh historian, died (born 3/9/1741).

24/12/1814. Saturday (-47,617) The Americans and British signed a truce, The Treaty of Ghent ending their war. The British returned all territory seized from the USA. However it took a month for this news to reach America, the USA heard the news on 11/1/1815, just after the battle at New Orleans (see 8/1/1815).

23/12/1814. Friday (-47,618) A British advance towards New Orleans was repulsed by the Americans.

22/12/1814, Thursday (-47,619) Karl kahnis, german religious writer, was born (died 20/6/1888).

9/12/1814, Friday (-47,632) Death of Joseph Bramah, English inventor of the beer pump

2/12/1814, Friday (-47,639) Marquis de Sade died in a lunatic asylum at Charenton.

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25/11/1814, Friday (-47,646) Julius Mayer, German physicist, was born.

23/11/1814, Wednesday (-47,648) Elbridge Gerry, US statesman, died (born 17/7/1744).

15/11/1814, Tuesday (-47,656) Sir William Inglis, British soldier, was born (died 27/9/1862).

13/11/1814, Sunday (-47,658) Joseph Hooker, US General, was born (died 31/10/1879).

6/11/1814, Sunday (-47,665) Adolphe Sax, Belgian musician and instrument-maker who invented the Saxophone and Saxhorn, was born.f11/11825

4/11/1814, Friday (-47,667) Norway united with Sweden, see 7/6/1905.

1/11/1814, Tuesday (-47,670) The Congress of Vienna opened, following Napoleon�s defeat.

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29/10/1814, Saturday (-47,673) The US navy launched the Demilogos at New York; the first steam powered warship, designed by Robert Fulton.

27/10/1814, Thursday (-47,675) John McClintock, US Methodist religious writer, was born (died 4/3/1870).

25/10/1814, Tuesday (-47,677) Louis Charles Duc de Nemours was born (died 26/6/1896).

23/10/1814, Sunday (-47,679) At the Duke of York Hospital, Chelsea, surgeon Joseph Constantine performed the first �nose job�.Using a flap of skin from the patient�s forehead (a technique used in India in 800 BC) he reconstructed the nose of a soldier disfigured by toxic mercury treatment.

17/10/1814, Monday (-47,685) Nine people died in the Great London beer flood. A huge rooftop vat of beer on top of the Meaux Brewery, Tottenham Court Road, containing 135,000 gallons of beer, ruptured, taking out neighbouring vats also.In all, 300,000 gallons of beer flooded out, drowning people in nearby cellars.

16/10/1814, Sunday (-47,686) Hans Geinitz, German geological writer, was born (died 28/1/1900).

14/10/1814, Friday (-47,688) Thomas Davis, Irish poet, was born (died 15/9/1845).

5/10/1814, Wednesday (-47,697) Thomas Charles, Welsh educationalist, died (born 14/10/1755).

4/10/1814, Tuesday (-47,698) Jean Millet, French painter, was born (died 20/1/1875).

1/10/1814, Saturday (-47,701) Gathorne Cranbrook, British statesman, was born (died 30/10/1906).

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23/9/1814, Friday (-47,709) Sir Richard Moon, English railway administrator, was born (died 17/11/1899).

22/9/1814, Thursday (-47,710) August Iffland, German dramatist, died (born 19/4/1759).

13/9/1814, Tuesday (-47,719) British troops made an unsuccessful attack on Baltimore. During the battle, the American composer Francis Scott Key wrote a patriotic song called �The Star Spangled Banner�.

11/9/1814, Sunday (-47,721) US forces led by President Madison routed the British fleet on Lake Champlain.

7/9/1814, Wednesday (-47,725) Pierre Malouet, French writer, died (born 11/2/1740).

6/9/1814, Tuesday (-47,726) Sir George Cartier, Canadian statesman, was born (died 10/5/1873).

2/9/1814, Friday (-47,730) Ernst Curtius, German historical writer, was born (died 11/7/1896).

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28/8/1814, Sunday (-47,735) Joseph Sheridan le Fanu, Irish author, was born (died 7/2/1873).

25/8/1814, Thursday (-47,738) Benjamin Thompson, scientist who researched heat (born in North Woburn, Massachusetts, on 26/3/1753), died near Paris, France.

24/8/1814, Wednesday (-47,739) 4,000 British troops under General Ross invaded Washington and set fire to the White House and the Capitol. Both were rebuilt and enlarged.

19/8/1814, Friday (-47,744) (Finland) Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, Governor General of the grand Duchy of Finland, died in Tsarskoe Selo (born 31/3/1757 in Finland).

14/8/1814, Sunday (-47,749) First performance, in La Scala, Milan, of Rossini�s opera Il Turco in Italia

13/8/1814, Saturday (-47,750) The British took over the colony of Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch.

9/8/1814, Tuesday (-47,754) By the Treaty of Fort Jackson the Creek Indians ceded their claims to about half of present day Alabama, and by a further series of treaties in 1830 and 1835 the Indians were transferred further west.

7/8/1814, Sunday (-47,756) Pope Pius VII re-established the Jesuits� ancient college, the Collegio Romano, in Rome.

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31/7/1814, Sunday (-47,763) Amos Lawrence, US philanthropist, was born (died 22/8/1886).

29/7/1814, Friday (-47,765) Herman Bonitz, German scholarly writer, was born in Saxony (died in Berlin 25/7/1888)

27/7/1814, Wednesday (-47,767) George Stephenson�s first locomotive, Blucher, began work at the Killingworth Colliery wagonway.

25/7/1814, Monday (-47,769) The engineer George Stephenson tested his first steam locomotive at Killingworth Colliery. This �steam boiler on wheels�, hauling coal out of the colliery on rails, was a forerunner of the steam railway locomotives of the later 19th century.

22/7/1814, Friday (-47,772) Five Indian tribes in Ohio made peace with the USA and declared war on the British.

19/7/1814, Tuesday (-47,775) (1) Matthew Flinders, the explorer who surveyed and mapped the coast of Australia, died aged 40.

(2) Samuel Colt, the inventor of the Colt revolver (patented 1835), was born.

18/7/1814, Monday (-47,776) Matthew Flinders proposed, in his work �A Voyage to terra Australis� using the name �Australia�, which was published this day. He died the following day.

12/7/1814, Tuesday (-47,782) William Howe, British General, died (born 1729).

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30/6/1814, Thursday (-47,794) Franz Dinglestedt, German poet, was born (died 15/5/1881).

29/6/1814, Wednesday (-47,795) Edmond Dubois-Crance, French Revolutionist, died (born 1747).

28/6/1814, Tuesday (-47,796) Frederick Faber, British hymn writer, was born (died 26/9/1863).

25/6/1814, Saturday (-47,799) Gabriel Daubree, French geologist, was born (died 29/5/1896).

22/6/1814, Wednesday (-47,802) (London, Cricket) The first cricket match was played at the present Lords Cricket Ground, between the Marylebone Cricket Club and Hertfordshire. The original Marylebone Cricket Club first played at White Conduit Fields before moving to a better ground at Dorset Square, located by an employee of the Club, Thomas Lord. Dorset Square, or Lord�s Old Ground, was utilised 1787-1810, before a move to their next venue, known as Lord�s Middle Ground. In 1813 this ground was taken for the Regents canal, and the Club moved to their present venue in St Johns Wood, then a pleasant rural area.

21/6/1814, Tuesday (-47,803) The Kingdom of The Netherlands was created by a union of the Austrian Netherlands with Holland. The Austrian Netherlands plus the Bishopric of Liege (which bisected it) were approximately equivalent to today�s Belgium, whilst Holland (United Provinces) was slightly smaller than today�s Netherlands. The �Austrian Netherlands� had come into being after the Treaty of Rastatt (1714); the British and Dutch had been keen to see Austria have possession of the region following the War of Spanish Succession, as these powers feared French domination of the area.

17/6/1814, Friday (-47,807) Robert Grant, British astronomer, was born (died 24/10/1892).

14/6/1814, Tuesday (-47,810) Alexander Ellis, writer, was born (died 28/10/1890).

11/6/1814, Saturday (-47,813) Henry Bellows, US ecclesiastical writer, was born in Boston, Massachusetts (died in New York City 30/1/1882)

8/6/1814, Wednesday (-47,816) Frederick Himmel, German composer, died (born 20/11/1765)

1/6/1814, Wednesday (-47,823) Francois Ponsard, French dramatist, was born (died 7/7/1867).

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30/5/1814, Monday (-47,825) The Treaty of Paris returned France to its 1792 borders (see 20/11/1815). France renounced all claims to Germany, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, and Malta.

29/5/1814, Sunday (-47,826|) Death of Empress Josephine, first wife of Napoleon Bonaparte.

28/5/1814, Saturday (-47,827) (Britain) William Eden Auckland, English statesman, died.

26/5/1814, Thursday (-47,829) Sir William Bovill, English judge, was born in Barking, London (died in Kingston, Surry, 1/11/1873).

24/5/1814, Tuesday (-47,831) Pope Pius VII, exiled by Napoleon Bonaparte, returned to Rome.

17/5/1814, Tuesday (-47,838) The independence of Norway was proclaimed.

12/5/1814, Thursday (-47,843) Adolf von Henselt, German composer, was born (died 10/10/1889).

9/5/1814, Monday (-47,846) John Brougham, British actor, was born (died 7/6/1880).

3/5/1814, Tuesday (-47,852) Louis XVIII entered Paris, to rule as a constitutional (Bourbon) monarch, ending his exile in England.

2/5/1814, Monday (-47,853) (Britain) Alexander Bridport, British Admiral, died

===================================================================================

28/4/1814, Thursday (-47,857) Napoleon departed from the port of Frejus for Elba.

25/4/1814, Monday (-47,860) Louis Mercier, French writer, died (born 6/6/1740).

21/4/1814, Thursday (-47,864) Angela Burdett-Coutts, English philanthropist, was born (died 30/12/1906).

15/4/1814, Friday (-47,870) John Motley, US historical writer, was born (died 29/5/1877).

12/4/1814, Tuesday (-47,873) Charles Burney, writer on the history of music, died (born 12/4/1726).

11/4/1814, Monday (-47,874) Napoleon officially abdicated, see 6/4/1814.

10/4/1814, Sunday (-47,875) Easter Sunday

6/4/1814. Wednesday (-47,879) Napoleon, granted a pension and sovereignty of the island of Elba, agreed to abdicate at Fontainebleau (he abdicated on 11/4/1814). He retained the title of Emperor. On 3/5/1814 Napoleon landed on Elba.

====================================================================================

31/3/1814. Thursday (-47,885) Paris, encircled, poorly defended, and flooded with refugees, surrendered. Marmont was the French commander who surrendered.

29/3/1814, Tuesday (-47,887) Claude Michel, French sculptor, died (born 20/12/1738).

27/3/1814, Sunday (-47,889) US General Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) attacked and defeated the Creek Amerindians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, on the Tallapoosa River, eastern Alabama. Over 800 Creek warriors were killed sand their power eliminated. See 9/8/1914.

23/3/1814, Wednesday (-47,893) Gertrudis Gomez, Spanish novelist, was born (died 2/2/1873).

22/3/1814, Tuesday (-47,894) Thomas Crawford, US sculptor, was born (died 10/10/1857).

20/3/1814. Sunday (-47,896) Napoleon was defeated at Arcis sur Aube, 17 miles NE of Troyes, leaving the way open for the Allies to occupy Paris.

12/3/1814. Saturday (-47,904) British forces under Wellington occupied Bordeaux, following, on 10/3/1814, Napoleon�s defeat at Laon.

5/3/1814, Saturday (-47,911) Wilhelm von Giesebrecht, German historical writer, was born (died 17/12/1889)

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28/2/1814, Monday (-47,916) William Kingston, English novelist, was born (died 5/8/1880).

27/2/1814, Sunday (-47,917) Julien Geoffroy, French writer, died (born 1743).

24/2/1814, Thursday (-47,920) Henry Brown, US sculptor, was born (died 10/7/1886).

20/2/1814, Sunday (-47,924) Edmond Fremy, French chemist, was born (died 3/2/1894),

8/2/1814, Tuesday (-47,936) Karl Caspari, German writer on the Orient, was born (died 11/4/1892).

5/2/1814, Saturday (-47,939) (Geology) David Ansted, geologist, was born in London (died 13/5/1880 in Melton, near Woodbridge).

1/2/1814, Tuesday (-47,943) Mount Mayon volcano, Philippines, erupted, killing 1200 and destroying the town of Cagsaua, now replaced by Albay.

====================================================================================

27/1/1814, Thursday (-47,948) Johann Fichte, German philosophical writer, died (born 19/5/1762).

25/1/1814, Tuesday (-47,950) Alexander Ewing, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 22/5/1873).

24/1/1814, Monday (-47,951) (South Africa) John Colenso, Bishop of Natal, was born (died 20/6/1883).

17/1/1814. Monday (-47,958) Murat defected from Napoleon�s rule, and the French domination of Italy was at risk.

14/1/1814, Friday (-47,961) (1) Britain made peace with Denmark, restoring all territories except Heligoland.The King of Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden.

(2) The last frost fair was held on the Thames at London.

10/1/1814, Monday (-49,966) Aubrey de Vere, Irish poet, was born (died 20/1/1902).

5/1/1814, Wednesday (-49,970) Sir John Burke, British genealogical writer, author of Burke�s Peerage, was born (died 12/12/1892).

2/1/1814, Sunday (-49,973) (USA) John Brodhead, US historical scholar, was born (died 6/5/1873)

1/1/1814, Saturday (-49,974) (1) (Venezuela) Simon Bolivar became President of Venezuela.

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(2) The first Welsh-language newspaper, the Seren Gomer, was published.

31/12/1813. Friday (-47,975) Prussian forces under Blucher crossed the Rhine frontier into France, pursuing retreating French forces.

30/12/1813, Thursday (-47,976) Danzig surrendered to the Allies, who then threatened to invade France if Napoleon did not come to terms.

29/12/1813, Wednesday (-47,977) Alexander Parkes, the chemist who invented celluloid, was born in Birmingham.

26/12/1813, Sunday (-47,980) Modlin and Torgau captured by the Allies

22/12/1813, Wednesday (-47,984) Jean Courcelle-Seneuil, French economics writer, was born (died 29/6/1892).

21/12/1813, Tuesday (-47,985) Ernst Lange, German novelist, was born (died 20/2/1899).

19/12/1813, Sunday (-47,987) (Chemistry) Thomas Andrews, Irish chemist, was born in Belfast (died 26/11/1885).

10/12/1813, Friday (-47,996) Zachariah Chandler, US politician, was born (died 1/11/1879).

9/12/1813, Thursday (-47,997) The Macquirie River in Australia was discovered by the explorer George Evans.

8/12/1813, Wednesday (-47,998) Beethoven�s 7th symphony in A premiered in Vienna

5/12/1813, Sunday (-48,001) Lubeck surrendered to the Allies.

2/12/1813, Thursday (-48,003) Matthias Castren, Finnish scholarly writer, was born (died 7/5/1853).

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30/11/1813, Tuesday (-48,006) (Arts) Louise Ackermann, French poet (died in Nice, 2/8/1890) was born in Paris.

29/11/1813, Monday (-48,007) Franz von Milklosich, Austrian scholarly writer, was born (died 7/3/1891).

28/11/1813, Sunday (-48,008) Carel Cobet, Dutch scholarly writer, was born (died 26/10/1889).

21/11/1813, Sunday (-48,015) Stettin surrendered to the Allies

17/11/1813, Wednesday (-48,019) Louis Narbonne-Lara, French statesman, died (born 24/8/1755).

16/11/1813, Tuesday (-48,020) A British naval blockade, under Admiral Warren, began blockading US ports.

15/11/1813. Monday (-48,021) The Dutch rebelled and expelled their French rulers.

14/11/1813, Sunday (-48,022) Antonio de Capmany y Montpalau, Spanish author (born 24/11/1742) died.

13/11/1813, Saturday (-48,023)

11/11/1813, Thursday (-48,025) Dresden surrendered to the Allies.

10/11/1813, Wednesday (-48,026) Wellington crossed the frontier into France in pursuit of Marshal Soult.

9/11/1813, Tuesday (-48,027) In the USA, General Andrew Jackson defeated Cree Indians at Taledega in a retaliatory attack following a Cree attack in August 1813 in which 500 White settlers were massacred.

6/11/1813. Saturday (-48,030) Jose Maria Morelos proclaimed Mexican independence from Spain at the Congress of Chilpancingo.

3/11/1813, Wednesday (-48,033) Samuel Birch, Egyptologist, was born in Woolwich, London (died 27/12/1885).

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31/10/1813, Sunday (-48,036) Spanish forces took Pamplona in Navarre.

29/10/1813, Friday (-48,038) William Benjamin Carpenter, English naturalist, was born (died 19/11/1885).

28/10/1813. Thursday (-48,039) British troops occupied Ragusa (Dubrovnik).

24/10/1813, Sunday (or 12/10) (-48,043) The Treaty of Gulistan was signed between Persia and Russia. Persia ceded territory to Russia, and recognised Russia as having sole right of navigation on the Caspian Sea. Russia was also granted a say in the succession of the Qajars.

20/10/1813, Wednesday (-48,047) George Cotton, English educationalist, was born (died 6/10/1866).

19/10/1813, Tuesday (-48,048) Jozef Antoni Poniatowski, Polish prince, died.

18/10/1813. Monday (-48,049) (France-Germany) Napoleon was defeated at Leipzig, Saxony, by the Prussians, Swedes, and Austrians.The French lost Germany. Casualties totalled 110,000. See 31/12/1813.

10/10/1813. Sunday (-48,057) Italian composer Guiseppe Verdi was born in Le Roncole, near Busseto, the son of an innkeeper.

8/10/1813. Friday (-48,059) Having liberated Spain from the French, British troops under Wellington invaded southern France.

7/10/1813, Thursday (-48,060) (Geology) Mineralogist Peter Jacob Hjelm died in Stockholm, Sweden.

3/10/1813, Sunday (-48,064) Clement Garnier, French economist, was born (died 25/9/1881).

1/10/1813, Friday (-48,066) Following the explosion at Brandling Main colliery (15/5/1812) the Sunderland Society was formed, to promote mine safety.

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24/9/1813, Friday (-48,073) Andre Gretry, French composer, died (born 8/2/1741).

19/9/1813, Sunday (-48,078) Nikolaus Delius, German literary critic, was born (died 1888).

16/9/1813, Thursday (-48,081) (Tea) Robert Fortune, who helped develop the Indian tea industry, was born (died 13/4/1880)

15/9/1813, Wednesday (-48,082) James mozley, English religious writer, was born (born 4/21/1878).

13/9/1813, Monday (-48,084) Jozsef Eotvos, Hungarian writer, was born (died 2/2/1871).

10/9/1813. Friday (-48,087) The British fleet on Lake Erie was destroyed by American warships.

9/9/1813, Thursday (-48,088) Henry Reeve, English publicist, was born (died 21/10.1895).

8/9/1813, Wednesday (-48,089)

7/9/1813, Tuesday (-48,090) The term �Uncle Sam� was coined by a newspaper in Troy, New York, to describe the United States.

6/9/1813. Monday (-48,091) While trying to take Berlin, Napoleon�s forces under Marshall Ney were defeated by the Prussians under Bulow, at Dennewitz.

2/9/1813, Thursday (-48,095) Jean Moreau, French General, died (born 14/2/1763).

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30/8/1813, Monday (-48,098) A band of Creek Indians, the Red Sticks, wanted to avenge a recent ambush of them by White settlers, also to recover Creek lands taken by the settlers. This day the Red Sticks under Chief Red Eagle (William Weatherford, died 1824) made s surprise raid on Fort Mims, at the confluence of the Alabama and Tombighee Rivers, and massacred some 500 Whites. This provoked a campaign by US militia,men to crush the Creek nation.

27/8/1813, Friday (-48,101) Battle of Dresden, the last major victory of Napoleon.

26/8/1813, Thursday (-48,102) Napoleon defeated by General Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher at the Battle of Katzbach (Kaczawa) in Prussia

23/8/1813, Monday (-48,105) Von Bulow defeated the French at Grossbeeren, saving Berlin from French occupation.

21/8/1813, Saturday (-48,107) The Archway cutting under Hornsey Lane opened, see 13/4/1812. Tolls for the cutting were �not exceeding� 6d per horse and carriage, 3d for a horse or mule not drawing a carriage, and 1d for a pedestrian. Tolls ceased in 1871.

12/8/1813, Thursday (-48,116) Austria declared war on France.England was giving financial support to Spain, and the Spaniards together with English troops were advancing from the south against France.Napoleon was therefore now fighting almost the whole of Europe.

6/8/1813, Friday (-48,122) Simon Bolivar marched into Caracas, Venezuela.

5/8/1813, Thursday (-48,123) Ivar Aaasen, Norwegian philosopher, was born in Sondmore (died in Christiania, 23/9/1896).

1/8/1813, Sunday (-48,127) (Christian-Missionary) Evariste Huc, French missionary to China, was born (died 31/3/1860).

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29/7/1813, Thursday (-48,130) Andoche Junot, French General, died (born 23/10/1771).

24/7/1813, Saturday (-48,135) (Britain) Edward Cardwell, English politician, was born (died 15/2/1886).

23/7/1813, Friday (-48,136) Sylvester Judd, US religious writer, was born (died 26/1/1853).

18/7/1813, Sunday (-48,141) (Britain) Charles Badham, English scholar, was born in Ludlow, Shropshire (died 26/2/1884 in Sydney, Australia).

12/7/1813, Monday (-48,147) (Biology) Claude Bernard, French physiologist, was born near Villefranche (died in Paris 10/2/1878).

10/7/1813, Saturday (-48,.149) Sir Arthur Helps, British writer, was born (died 7/3/1875).

1/7/1813, Thursday (-48,158) (1) The East India Company lost its monopoly of trade with India.

(2) The Ellesmere and Chester Canals were merged under one company, the Ellesmere and Chester Canal Company.

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24/6/1813, Thursday (-48,165) (USA) Henry Beecher, US preacher, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut (died in Brooklyn 8/3/1887).

21/6/1813, Monday (-48,168) (France-Germany, Spain) Victory of Wellington at Vitoria in the Peninsular War. Spain was lost by the French. Napoleon had deposed the Spanish monarch and replaced him with his own brother, Joseph. However this act provoked major Spanish popular resistance against France and led to Napoleon�s defeat there.

20/6/1813, Sunday (-48,169) Joseph Autran, French poet, was born in Marseilles (died in Marseilles 6/3/1877).

18/6/1813, Friday (-48,171)

16/6/1813, Wednesday (-48,173) Otto Jahn, German historical writer, was born (died 9/9/1869).

15/6/1813, Tuesday (-48,174) Britain formed a new alliance with Prussia and Russia against Napoleon.

12/6/1813, Saturday (-48,177) Napoleon pulled out of Madrid.

10/6/1813, Thursday (-48,179) The Duke of Wellington made a second attack on the French in Burgos, this time taking the city in two days.

1/6/1813, Tuesday (-48,188) (USA) The British frigate Shannon, under Captain Broke, captured the US frigate Chesapeake under Captain Lawrence, who died in the engagement.

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30/5/1813, Sunday (-48,190) The French took Hamburg.

23/5/1813, Sunday (-48,197) Geraud Duroc, French General, died (born 25/10/1772).

22/5/1813, Saturday (-48,198) (1) Napoleon I defeated an allied army of Russians and Prussians at Bautzen, Saxony.

(2) Richard Wagner, German operatic composer, was born in Leipzig.

21/5/1813, Friday (-48,199) Robert McCheyne, Scotish religious writer, was born (died 25/3/1843).

5/5/1813, Wednesday (-48,215) Soren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher, was born (died 11/11/1855).

2/5/1813, Sunday (-48,218) Napoleon defeated a combined Russian and Prussian army at Grossgorchen, near Lutzen.

1/5/1813, Saturday (-48,219) Jacques Delille, French poet, died (born 22/6/1738).

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23/4/1813, Friday (-48,227) Stephen Douglas, US statesman, was born (died 3/6/1861).

19/4/1813, Monday (-48,231) (Medical) Physician Benjamin Rush died in Philadelphia, USA.

18/4/1813, Sunday (-48,232) Easter Sunday

13/4/1813, Tuesday (-48,237) Duncan Gregory, mathematics writer, was born (died 23/2/1844).

11/4/1813, Sunday (-48,239) Eugene Havet, French scholarly writer, was born (died 21/12/1889).

10/4/1813, Saturday (-48,240) Joseph Lagrange, mathematician, died (born 25/1/1736)

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25/3/1813, Thursday (-48,256) Mikhail Kutusov, Russian Field Marshal, died (born 16/9/1745).

19/3/1813, Friday (-48,262) Explorer and missionary David Livingstone, first White man to see the Victoria Falls, was born at 9 Shuttle Row, Blantyre, East Kilbride, Scotland.

18/3/1813, Thursday (-48,263) Russian troops reached Hamburg, and on 27/3/1813 they occupied Dresden, capital of Saxony.

15/3/1813, Monday (-48,266) Dr John Snow, pioneer bacteriologist, was born.

13/3/1813, Saturday (-48,268) Prussia declared war on France, but was defeated at Lutzen and Bautzen.

11/3/1813, Thursday (-48,270) William Lloyd, English writer, was born (died 22/12/1893).

8/3/1813, Monday (-48,273) The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, London, gave its first concert.

4/3/1813, Thursday (-48,277) The Russians reached Berlin, which surrendered without a fight.

3/3/1813, Wednesday (-48,278) Britain agreed with Sweden that it would not oppose a union of Sweden and Norway.

2/3/1813, Tuesday (-48,279) Sir Georhge MacFarren, English composer, was born (died 31/10/1887).

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28/2/1813, Sunday (-48,281) The Alliance of Kalisch, basis of the Fourth Coalition, was formed, between Prussia and Russia against France.

26/2/1813, Friday (-48,283) Robert Livingston, US statesman, died (born 27/11/1746).

24/2/1813, Wednesday (-48,285) The British warship Peacock was sunk off Guyana by the USA.

23/2/1813, Tuesday (-48,286) Franz Delitzsch, German religious writer, was born (died 4/3/1890).

20/2/1813, Saturday (-48,289) (Maritime) Edward Berthon, English naval inventor, was born in London (died 27/10/1899).

12/2/1813, Friday (-48,297) Thomas William Allies, English historical writer, was born in Midsomer Norton, near Bristol (died 17/6/1903 in London).

11/2/1813, Thursday (-48,298) (Britain) George Grenville, First Marquess of Bath, died (born 17/6/1753).

3/2/1813, Wednesday (-48,306) At Breslau, Frederick William III of Prussia called for all Prussians to mobilise against the French.

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31/1/1813, Sunday (-48,309) Agostino Depretis, Italian politician, was born (died 29/7/1887).

30/1/1813, Saturday (-48,310) George Gilfillan, Scottish author, was born (died 13/8/1878).

28/1/1813, Thursday (-48,312) Jane Austin�s book, Pride and Prejudice, first appeared in Birtish bookshops, priced at 18 shillings (90p) for 3 volumes. Sales were initially slow but then grew. She began writing the work in 1796, originally calling it First Impressions.

26/1/1813, Tuesday (-48,314)

22/1/1813, Friday (-48,318) British forces defeated the Americans who were planning an attack on Fort Detroit.

21/1/1813, Thursday (-45,320) John Fremont, explorer of the US Midwest, was born (died 13/7/1890).

19/1/1813, Tuesday (-48,321) Sir Henry Bessemer, inventor of the blast furnace for converting cast iron to steel, was born at Charlton, Hertfordshire.

17/1/1813, Sunday (-48,325) Charles, 2nd Earl of Middleton, died.

16/1/1813, Saturday (-48,324) (France) Georges Darboy, Bishop of Paris, was born (died 17/5/1871).

15/1/1813, Friday (-48,325) (France) Francois Grevy, French President 1879-87, was born (died 9/9/1891)

11/1/1813, Monday (-48,329) France called up 250,000 men who had become liable, by age, for military service.

4/1/1813, Monday (-48,336) Isaac Pitman, who invented phonetic shorthand, was born in Trowbridge, Wiltshire.

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26/12/1812, Saturday (-48,345) A severe earthquake hit Barquismeto, a city in western Venezuela.

24/12/1812, Thursday (-48,347) Joel Barlow, US poet, died in Poland (born in Redding, Connecticut 24/3/1754)

22/12/1812, Tuesday (-48,349) Pierre Larcher, French archeological writer, died (born 12/10/1726).

20/12/1812, Sunday (-48,351) The retreating remains of Napoleon�s Russian invasion force reached eastern Prussia.

14/12/1812, Monday (-48,357) (India) Charles Canning, British Governor-General of India during the mutiny of 1857, was born (died 17/6/1862).

12/12/1812, Saturday (-48,359) John MacDonald, Canadian statesman, was born (died 1/6/1872).

6/12/1812, Sunday (-48,365) Hezekiah Bateman, US actor, was born in Baltimore, Maryland (died 2/3/1875).

3/12/1812, Thursday (-48,368) Hendrik Conscience, Flemish writer, was born (died 10/9/1883).

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28/11/1812, Saturday (-48,373) George Curtis, US lawyer, was born (died 28/3/1894).

27/11/1812, Friday (-48,374) Roundell Palmer, Earl of Selborne, Britain, was born.

26/11/1812, Thursday (-48,375) The Battle of Berezina. The Russians won; French plans to over-winter at Smolensk had been thwarted.

23/11/1812, Monday (-48,378) Demoralised by a tactical error, which saw two columns of USA forces attacking each other, the USA withdrew its forces south from Canada for the winter.

19/11/1812, Thursday (-48,382) Agostino Bertani, Italian revolutionary, was born in Milan (died 30/4/1886).

18/11/1812, Wednesday (-48,383) Russian forces closing in on the retreating French in western Russia won the Battle of Polotsk.

16/11/1812, Monday (-48,385) French troops retreating from Moscow successfully broke through a Russian roadblock at Krasnoi.

9/11/1812, Monday (-48,392) One of the worst winters on record in northern Europe began, severely affecting Napoleon�s troops as they retreated from Moscow (see 14/9/1812). Napoleon�s army endured temperatures as low as �37 C for 27 consecutive days.On 9/12/1812 Napoleon�s troops reached the undefended city of Vilnius; some 35,000 French troops died during the last four days of the march westwards to Vilnius.Napoleon had already fled Vilnius on 5/12/1812, and returned to Paris, abandoning his army to the Russians. On 10/12/1812 the Russians reached Vilnius and vented their fury on Napoleon�s army.Most of the French had already died of cold, hunger, and disease by the time the Tsar entered Vilnius on 22/12/1812.

4/11/1812, Wednesday (-48,397) Aleardo Aleardi, Italian poet, was born at Verona (died 17/7/1878).

3/11/1812, Tuesday (-48,398) French troops retreating from Moscow successfully broke through a Russian roadblock at Vyazama.

2/11/1812. Monday (-48,399) Napoleon�s forces re-occupied Madrid after a British force failed to capture Burgos, which they laid siege to in September 1812.

===================================================================================

29/10/1812, Thursday (-48,403)

25/10/1812, Sunday (-48,407) (USA) The USS President captured the British ship HMS Macedonian in a battle west of the Canary Islands.

24/10/1812, Saturday (-48,408) (France-Germany, Russia) Battle of Maloyaroslavets. The French had planned a retreat from Moscow through undamaged terrain, white they might gather sustenance. However the Russians positioned artillery to cover the bridges over the River Luzha, which the French had to cross to achieve this planned retreat. After a series of fierce battles, the French did capture the town, but the Russian artillery still commanded the bridges. The French now had no choice but to attempt a retreat through the devastated terrain they had previously advanced through.

23/10/1812, Friday (-48,409) An anti-Napoleonic faction in Paris attempted a coup, believing Napoleon to have died in Russia.

22/10/1812, Thursday (-48,410) First attempt by the Duke of Wellington to capture Burgos, Spain (Pensinsular War) went badly. He began the siege on 19/9/1812, but 2,000 of his troops were killed, against 600 French. The siege was lifted this day.

21/10/1812, Wednesday (-48,411) Otto von Camphausen, Prussian statesman (died 18/5/1896) was born.

20/10/1812, Tuesday (-48,412) Austin Flint, heart research pioneer, was born.

19/10/1812, Monday (-48,413) Napoleon�s forces began their retreat from Moscow.

18/10/1812, Sunday (-48,414) Russian forces defeated the French at the Battle of Tarutino, south of Moscow.

17/10/1812, Saturday (-48,415) (USA) Naval battle between the Wasp and the Frolic

16/10/1812. Friday (-48,416) British forces defeated the US army at Queenstown, near the Niagara Falls. The Americans were attempting to cross into Canada to eliminate it from the war with Britain.

13/10/1812, Tuesday (-48,419) (Britain) Sir Isaac Brock, British soldier and administrator, died at the Battle of Queenston Heights, North America (born 6/120/1769).

10/10/1812, Saturday (-48,422) Janos Garay, Hungarian poet, was born (died 5/11/1853).

6/10/1812, Tuesday (-48,426) Henry Martyn, English missionary to India, died (born 18/2/1781).

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25/9/1812, Friday (-48,437) Friedrich Biedermann, German writer, was born in Leipzig (died in Leipzig 5/3/1901).

23/9/1812, Wednesday (-48,439) Lady Georgiana Fullerton, English novelist, was born (died 19/1/1885).

16/9/1812, Wednesday (-48,446) French troops in Moscow destroyed what the Russian had left.

14/9/1812. Monday (-48,448) Napoleon entered Moscow, which had been abandoned and burned by the Russians in their scorched earth policy.This denied Napoleon�s army much-needed winter quarters. Winter was approaching (see 9/11/1812) and Napoleon was forced to retreat. Napoleon failed to persuade Czar Alexander to come to terms, and his army began to leave Moscow to return to France on 19/10/1812.

12/9/1812, Saturday (-48,450) Richard Hoe, inventor of an improved printing press, was born (died 7/6/1886).

10/9/1812, Thursday (-48,452) At the Battle of Lake Erie, US ships defeated a British naval force.

7/9/1812. Monday (-48,455) (France-Germany, Russia) Napoleon�s forces marching to Moscow defeated the Russians under Kutzov at the Battle of Borodino, 70 miles west of the city. Each side lost some 40,000 men.

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31/8/1812, Monday (-48,462) (Medical) John Bennett, English physician, was born in London (died 1875).

22/8/1812, Saturday (-48,471) Swiss explorer and archaeologist John Lewis Burckhardt rediscovered Petra (in modern Jordan) ancient capital of the Nabatean Arabs.

19/8/1812, Wednesday (-48,474) The British frigate Guerriere was destroyed by the USS Constitution.

18/8/1812, Tuesday (-48,475) Napoleon�s forces entered Smolensk.