Chronography of events from 1 January 1770 to 31 December 1799

Page last modified 17 January 2023


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(-9,999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero=Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from


For dates from 1 January 1800 click here


6 January 1800, Monday (-53,082) William Jones, English religious writer, died (born 30 July 1726).

3 January 1800, Friday (-53,085)

1 January 1800, Wednesday (-53,087) Louis Jean Marie Daubenton, French naturalist and palaeontologist, died in Paris aged 83.


31 December 1799, Tuesday (-53,088) Jean Marmontel, French writer, died (born 11 July 1723).

30 December 1799, Monday (-53,089) John Moultrie, English poet, was born (died 26 December 1874).

27 December 1799, Friday (-53,092) Calderon Estebanez, Spanish author, was born (died 5 February 1867).

24 December 1799, Tuesday (-53,095) In France, a public referendum led to the end of the French Revolution and the founding of the First Republic..

21 December 1799, Saturday (-53,098) George Finlay, British historical writer, was born (died 26 January 1875).

18 December 1799, Wednesday (-53,101) Jean Montucla, French mathematician, died (born 5 September 1725).

15 December 1799. Sunday (-53,104) France declared a new constitution.

14 December 1799. Saturday (-53,105) George Washington, 1st president of the USA from 1789 to 1797, died in Mount Vernon, on the south bank of the Potomac in Virginia, aged 67. See 30 April1789.

6 December 1799, Friday (-53,113) Joseph Black, Scottish chemist, died in Edinburgh (born 1728 in Bordeaux).


29 November 1799, Friday (-53,120) (Arts) Amos Bronson Alcott, US writer, was born in Wolcott, Connecticut (died 4 March 1888 in Boston).

13 November 1799, Wednesday (-53,136) Austria occupied the Italian March of Ancona, on the Adriatic coast of the Papal States, central Italy.

9 November 1799, Saturday (-53,140) After a coup in which he overthrew the ruling French Directory, Corsican General Napoleon Bonaparte was appointed Consul, with Sieyes and Ducis. He made his name at the defeat of the British fleet at the revolt of Toulon, 1793.


21 Ocotber 1799, Monday (-53,159) Britain declared a blockade along the entire Batavian coast.

20 Ocotber 1799, Sunday (-53,160) James Iredell, US Judge, died in Edenton, North Carlonia, aged 48.

18 Ocotber 1799, Friday (-53,162) The Anglo-Russian army commanded by the Duke of York surrendered to a French and Batavian force at Alkmaar. Britain agreed to release all its prisoners of war.

11 Ocotber 1799, Friday (-53,169) Joseph Gillott, English pan maker, was born (died 5 January 1873).

9 Ocotber 1799, Wednesday (-53,171) Napoleon returned to France.

7 Ocotber 1799, Monday (-53,173) The bell was salvaged from the Lutine, which sank off the island of Vlieland, off the coast of Holland. It was presented to Lloyds of London. Known as the Lutine Bell, it has been rung ever since to mark a marine disaster.

6 Ocotber 1799, Sunday (-53,174) (Medical) Physician William Withering died in Birmingham, England.

4 Ocotber 1799, Friday (-53,176)

2 Ocotber 1799, Wednesday (-53,178) The Duke of York captured Alkmaar, in the Netherlands.

1 Ocotber 1799, Tuesday (-53,179) Rufus Choate, US lawyer, was born (died 13 July 1859).


28 September 1799, Saturday (-53,182) (Medical) Pierre Brasdor, French surgeon, died (born 1721).

25 September 1799, Wednesday (-53,185) Napoleon gained victory at Zurich.

18 September 1799, Wednesday (-53,192) Napoleon gained victory at Alkmaar, Holland.

13 September 1799, Friday (-53,197) The Duke of York took command of an Anglo-Russian army in The Netherlands, intendoing to take the Batavian Republic and the Austrian Netherlands from France.

2 September 1799, Monday (-53,208) Henry Boase, English geologist, was born in London (died5 May 1883).


29 August 1799, Thursday (-53,212) Pope Pius VI died.

23 August 1799, Friday (-53,218) Leaving the French Army under Kleber, Napoleon left to return to France.

20 August 1799, Tuesday (-53,221) Heinrich Gagern, German politician, was born (died 22 May 1880).

15 August 1799, Thursday (-53,226) (Italy) The Russians-Austrians under Count Suvorov defeated the French under Barthelemy Catherine Joubert at Novi, Italy, then began an advance acrossa the Alps towards France. Joubert died in the battle.

11 August 1799, Sunday (-53,230) (Geology) Joachim Barrande, Austrian geologist, was born in Saugues, Haute Loire (died in Frohsdorf 5 Ocotber 1883).

9 August 1799, Friday (-52,232) George James, English novelist, was born (died 9 June 1860).

8 August 1799, Thursday (-52,233) Nathaniel B Palmer, US sea captain and explorer of Antarctica, was born in Stonington, Connecticut (died 1877).

7 August 1799, Wednesday (-52,234)

6 August 1799, Tuesday (-53,235) Mark Bloch, Germannaturalist, died in Carlsbad.

5 August 1799, Monday (-53,236) Jean Colson, French actor, died (born 16 January 1725).

4 August 1799, Sunday (-53,237) John Bacon, sculptor, died in London (born 24 November 1740 in Southwark),


25 July 1799, Thursday (-53,247) Napoleon gained victory over the Turks at Aboukir.

20 July 1799, Saturday (-53,252) French Foreign Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand resigned.

19 July 1799, Friday (-53,253) The Rosetta Stone was found near the town of Rosetta on the Nile, bearing Greek, Hieroglyphic, and Demotic (ancient Egyptian) scripts.

12 July 1799, Friday (-53,260) Britain passed the Combination Acts, outlawing any association of two or more people for the purpose of obtaining wage increases or better conditions at work. The Act was prompted by fears of revolution after France. However in 1802 Parliament banned child apprentices from working more than a 12 hour day. Many pauper children from London were being sent to textile factories in the north of England to work long hours. Sir Robert Peel, the Bill�s proposer, objected that this practice allowed exploitation of children, far from their parents.

9 July 1799, Tuesday (-53,263) William Mure, Scottish scholarly writer, was born (died 1 April1860).

1 July 1799, Monday (-53,271) Sir James Eyre, English Judge, died (born 1734).


30 June 1799, Sunday (-53,272) (Italy) Francesco Caracciolo, Neapolitan Admiral and revolutionary, died (born 18 January 1732).

19 June 1799, Wednesday (-53,283) Jan Dombrowski, Polish General, died (born 29 August 1755).

17 June 1799, Monday (-53,385) (Italy) A Russian-Austrian force under Russian Field Marshal Count Aleksander Vasilyevich Suvotov heavily defeated French forces under the Governpor of Rome., Jacques Alexandre MacDonald, at the Battle of Trebbia. The French had been marching to relieve the army of General Victor Moreau at Genoa.

7 June 1799, Friday (-53,295) Battle of Zurich. Napoleon defeated a Russian army.

6 June 1799, Thursday (-53,296) Alexander Pushkin, Russian writer, was born (26 May 1799 Russian calendar).

4 June 1799, Tuesday (-53,298) (Italy) Austrian forces under Archduke Charles defeated the French under Andre Massena at Zurich, Switzerland.

1 June 1799, Saturday (-53,301) (France) William Pitt the Younger of Britain concluded the Second Coalition against France, comprising Britain, Austria, Naples, the Ottoman Empire, Portiugan and Russia,


31 May 1799, Friday (-53,302) Pierre Lemonnier, French astronomer, died (born 23 November 1715).

29 May 1799, Wednesday (-53,304) August Kopisch, German poet, was born (died 3 February 1853).

27 May 1799, Monday (-53,306) George Doane, US religious writer, was born (died 27 April1859).

23 May 1799, Thursday (-53,310) Thomas Hood, English writer, was born (died 3 May 1845).

20 May 1799, Monday (-53,313) Honore de Balzac born.

18 May 1799, Saturday (-53,315) Pierre Beaumarchais, French dramatist, died in Paris (born in Paris 24 January 1732).

10 May 1799, Friday (-53,323) Napoleon withdrew from attacking Acre after an 8th unsuccessful assault.

4 May 1799, Saturday (-53,329) The British conquered Seringapatam, capital of Mysore in southern India.


27 April1799, Saturday (-53,336) (Italy) The French under General Jean Moreau were defeatedat Cassano, Italy, by a Russian-Austrian force under Russian Field Marshal Count Alexander Vasilyeyich Suvorov, who then occupied Turin.

18 April1799, Thursday (-53,345) John Mason, US politician, was born (died3 Ocotber 1859).

8 April1799, Monday (-53,355) The peace talks between France and the Holy Roman Empire., which had opened at Rastatt on 16 December 1797, now broke up without agreement.

6 April1799, Saturday (-53,357) Aleksander Bezborodko, Grand Chancellor of Russia, died in St Petersburg (born in Gluchova 14 March 1747).

5 April1799, Friday (-53,358) (Italy) The Austrians under General Paul von Kray defeated the French under General Barthelemy Scherer at Magnano, Italy.

2 April1799, Tuesday (-53,361) Francis Mason, US missionary to the Karens in Myanmar from 1830, was born (died 3 March 1874).


29 March 1799, Friday (-53,365) Edward Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was born (died 23 Ocotber 1869).

25 March 1799, Monday (-53,369) (France) The Austrians under Archduke Charles defeated the French under Jean Baptiste Jourdan at Stockach, Germany.

24 March 1799, Sunday (-53,370) Easter Sunday

22 March 1799, Friday (-53,372) (Astronomy) Friedrich Argelander, German astronomer, was born in Memel (died 17 February 1875 in Bonn).

20 March 1799, Wednesday (-53,374) Thomas Key, English scholarly writer, was born (died 29 November 1875).

19 March 1799, Tuesday (-53,375) (France) The French army in Egypt under napoleon laid siege to the coastal Ottoman city of Acre on Syria. British forces under Sidney Smith assisted the Ottoman defenders.

17 March 1799, Sunday (-53,377) Juan Forner, Spanish writer, died (born 23 February 1756).

8 March 1799, Friday (-53,386) (USA) Simon Cameron, US politician, was born (died 26 June 1889).

1 March 1799, Friday (-53,393) Ottoman and Russian forces evicted the French from the Ionian islands. These islands now came under Ottoman protection.


28 February 1799, Thursday (-53,394) Johann Dollinger, German religious writer, was born (died 14 January 1890).

24 December 1799, Sunday (-55,398) Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, German physicist who discovered the principlke of xerography photocopying, died in Ober Ramstadt, near Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany, aged 56.

20 February 1799, Wednesday (-55,402) Jean Borda, French mathematician, died in Paris (born in Dax 4 May 1733).

9 February 1799, Saturday (-53,413) (1) The US navy clashed with French forces.

(2) Britain, assisted by Portugal and the Maltese rebels, took control of MaltaCaptain Ball of the Royal Navy became the first British Goivernor.

8 February 1799, Friday (-53,414) Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo, newly appointed Papal Vicar-General of the Kingdom of Naples, began a counter-revolutionary campaign against the French occupation of the Kingdom of Naples. By June 1799 his forces hadcaptured the city of Naples.

5 February 1799, Tuesday (-53,417) John Lindley, botanical writer, was born (died 1 November 1865)


26 January 1799, Saturday (-53,427) (Christian) Samuel Gobat, Bishop of Jerusalem, was born (died 11 May 1879).

22 January 1799, Tuesday (-53,431) (Geology) Horace Benedict de Saussure, geologist, died in Geneva, Switzerland.

21 January 1799. Monday (-53,432) Edward Jenner introduced the smallpox vaccination. In the 18th century, smallpox took over from the bubonic plague as the major killer disease. Edward Jenner worked as a doctor in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. By observing local milkmaids, Jenner tested the generally held belief that cowpox sufferers were immune to smallpox. In 1796 he experimented by scraping pus from a cowpox sore on the arm of a milkmaid and inserting it into two cuts on the arm of a young boy. On 1 July 1796 he did the same with pus from a smallpox sore. The boy caught cowpox but not smallpox. After doing this to 23 other people, Jenner called this method �vaccination�, meaning �from a cow�. Jenner published his findings in 1798 and despite scepticism from doctors, vaccination became widely accepted. Even members of the Royal Family were vaccinated. Vaccination became free for all infants in 1840 and compulsory in Britain in 1853. In 1980 the World Health Organisation declared smallpox had been eradicated throughout the world.

9 January 1799. Wednesday (-53,444) Income tax introduced to Britain for the first time, by Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, at 2 shillings in the pound for incomes over �200 per annum, and a reduced rate for incomes between �60 and �200. The tax was to pay for the Napoleonic War. In Florence in 1451 an income tax, the Catastrato, had been implemented but degenerated into a means of political blackmail and was repealed upon the overthrow of the Medicis in 1492. The income tax in Britain was repealed in 1802 after the Peace of Amiens, but reimposed in 1803, repealed in 1816, and reintroduced in 1842 in peacetime at 7d in the �. Since then the rate in the UK has varied between 2d in the � in 1875 and 10s in the � in 1941.

6 January 1799, Sunday (-53,447) Nicolas Geruzez, French writer, was born (died 29 May 1865)

2 January 1799, Wednesday (-53,451) (France) French forces advanced from Egypt into the Ottoman province of Syria. The Ottomans allied with Russia against France.


30 December 1798, Sunday (-53,454) Anne Montesquiou, French writer, died.

29 December 1798, Saturday (-53,455) Formation of the Second Coalition against France; Britain, Austria, Russia, Naples and Portugal.

28 December 1798, Friday (-53,456) (Astronomy) Thomas Henderson was born in Dundee, Scotland. In 1839 he measured the parallax of Alpha-Centauri, making it the second star after the Sun whose distance is known.

24 December 1798, Monday (-53,460) Virginia State passed a Resolution that individual States, not US Congress, are the guardians of liberty of the individual and States can declare Acts of Congress illegal if they are unconstitutional (see 16 November 1798).

15 December 1798, Saturday (-53,469) (France, Italy) French forces recaptured Rome from the Austrians under Baron Karl Mack von Lieberich, and occupy the Kingdom of Naples.

13 December 1798, Thursday (-53,471) James Henry, Irish scholarly writer, was born (died 14 July 1876).

9 December 1798, Sunday (-53,475) French forces under General Joubert forced King Charles Emmanual of Sardinia to abdicate.

4 December 1798, Tuesday (-53,480) (1) Luigi Galvani, Italian scientist who researched animal electricity, died.

(2) Income tax was proposed to the UK Parliament by William Pitt the Younger. See 9 January 1799.

2 December 1798, Sunday (-53,482) Sir William Follett, English lawyer, was born (died 28 June 1845).

1 December 1798, Saturday (-53,483) (USA) Albert Barnes, US theologian, was born in Rome, New York State (died in Philadelphia 24 December 1870).


29 November 1798, Thursday (-53,485) Ferdinand IV, King of Naples (Ferdinand I, King of the Two Sicilies), decalred war on France and occupied Rome. France then (4 December 1798) declared war in Naples.

21 November 1798, Wednesday (-53,493) Jerome Blanqui, French economist, was born in Nice (died 1854).

19 November 1798, Monday (-53,495) Caesar Hawkins, British surgeon, was born (died 20 July 1884).

17 November 1798, Saturday (-53,497) Irish nationalist leader Wolfe Tone committed suicide whilst in jail awaiting execution.

16 November 1798, Friday (-53,498) Kentucky State passed a Resolution that individual States, not US Congress, are the guardians of liberty of the individual and States can declare Acts of Congress illegal if they are unconstitutional (see 24 December 1798). This State legislation was inspired by Vice President Thomas Jefferson�s opposition to the A;ien and Sedition Acts passed by a Federalist-controlled Congress (see 18 June 1798).

8 November 1798, Thursday (-35,506) Victor Chasles, French writer, was born (died 18 July 1873).

3 November 1798, Saturday (-35,511) James Mason, US policiticn, was born (died 28 April1871).


8 Ocotber 1798, Monday (-35,537) Felix Neff, Swiss Protestant divine, was born.

2 Ocotber 1798, Tuesday (-35,543) (Italy) Albert Charles, King of Sardinia, was born (died 28 July 1849).


28 September 1798, Friday (-53,547) Giovanni Genelli, German painter, was born (died 13 November 1868).

25 September 1798, Tuesday (-53,550) Jean Elie de Beaumont, geologist, was born (died 21 September 1874).

15 September 1798, Saturday (-53,560) (Ireland) A French army sent to assist the Irish rebels surrendered to the Briitsh under Charles, 1st marquis Cornwallis.

11 September 1798, Tuesday (-53,564) Franz Neumann, scientific writer, was born (died 23 May 1895).

9 September 1798, Sunday (-53,566) The Ottoman Empire declared war on France because of its occupation of Egypt.

5 September 1798, Wednesday (-53,570) The Revolutionary French Directorate passed a law enforcing mass conscription, at the instigation of General Jean Baptiste Jourdan.

2 September 1798, Sunday (-53,573) Rebellion by the Maltese against French occupation, sparked by a French attempt to seize Church assets. The Maltese mounted an adept guerrilla campaign, which was to assist the British conquest of Malta.

1 September 1798, Saturday (-53,574) Britain signed a formal alliance with the Nizam (ruler) of Hyderabad. Indoa. This was in fact a step towards reducing this State to a British dependency within India.


30 August 1798, Thursday (-53,576) Pauline Dejazet, French actress, was born (died 1 December 1875).

25 August 1798, Saturday (-53,581) Henrik Hertz, Danish poet, was born (died 25 February 1870).

22 August 1798, Wednesday (-53,584) A French force of 1,200 men under General Jean Humbert landed at Killala Bay, Ireland, hoping to support Irish rebels.

21 August 1798, Tuesday (-53,585) Jules Michelet, French historical writer, was born (died 9 February 1874).

19 August 1798, Sunday (-53,587) France signed a formal alliance with the Helvetian Republic.

6 August 1798, Monday (-53,600) Unaware that the Irish rebels had been defeated, a French force set sail to help them against the British. On 15 September 1798 the French in Ireland surrendered to General Cornwallis at Ballymuck.

1 August 1798, Wednesday (-53,605) At the Battle of the Nile, at Aboukir Bay, Admiral Nelson, on the ship Vanguard, destroyed 11 out of 13 French battleships which were the convoy that took Napoleon to Egypt.The French commander was Brueys, aboard the ship L�Orient.The crew were mostly ashore getting water, leaving no one to man the 120 French guns. This effectively trapped the French Army in Egypt.Five French ships with 5,000 men were sunk, 2 ships were captured, and 2 ships managed to escape from Nelson.On 10 February 1799 Napoleon left Egypt for Syria, occupying Gaza on 24 February 1799. On 7 March 1799 Napoleon captured Jaffa, where his soldiers massacred over 2,0000 Albanian prisoners. On 17 May 1799 Napoleon lifted the siege of Acre after failing to capture it.


24 July 1798, Tuesday (-53,613) John Dix, US politician, was born (died 21 April1879).

23 July 1798, Monday (-53,614) An uprising by the people of Cairo against the French occupiers was brutally repressed on 22 Ocotber 1798. The French captured Suez on 7 December 1798. However a British expeditionary force arrived in Egypt on 6 March 1801. The battle of Alexandria was fought on 11 March 1801, just outside the actual town. After this British victory the British advanced on the town which surrendered on 31/8. See 11 June 1882.

21 July 1798, Saturday (-53,616) (Egypt, France) At the Battle of the Pyramids, Napoleon, soon after his invasion of Egypt, defeated an army of some 60,000 Mamelukes. Napoleon now intended to establish a French base in Egypt from where he could harass British-India sea traffic. He could also attack the Ottoman Empire form here via Syria. He sought to assure the ulema, the Egyptian intelligentsia, that he was no modern Crusader but had come to empower them and facilitate Egyptian self-rule independent of the Ottomans. However the Egyptians were not yet ready for such self-determination, and failed to follow the French initiatives.

16 July 1798, Monday (-53,621) Alexander Gorchakov, Russian statesman, was born (died 11 March 1883).

14 July 1798, Saturday (-53,623) US Congress passed the Sedition Act, forbidding anyone from �aiding any insurrection, riot, unlawful assembly or combination�. However see 18 June 1798.

10 July 1798, Tuesday (-53,627) (Belize) A Spanish invasion force was met with determined resistance by the British, who had fortified an island called St George�s Cay. The Spanish were compelled to withdraw to Campeachy, and did not attempt any further incursions.

6 July 1798, Friday (-53,631) US Congress passed the Alien Enemies Act, allowing the US President to imprison during wartime enemy aliens living in the USA. However see 18 June 1798.

2 July 1798. Monday (-53,635) The French invaded Egypt, see 31 August 1801.


30 June 1798, Saturday (-53,637) Alexander Dyce, English historical writer, was born (died 15 May 1869).

29 June 1798, Friday (-53,638) Willibald Alexis, novelist (died 16 December 1871 in Arnstadt, Thuringia) was born in Breslau.

26 June 1798, Tuesday (-53,641)

25 June 1798, Monday (-53,642) US Congress passed the Alien Act, allowing the US President to expel alien �subversives�. However see 18 June 1798.

21 June 1798, Thursday (-53,646) Over 15,000 British troops attacked Irish rebels at the Battle of Vinegar Hill, near Enniscorthy, County Wexford.

20 June 1798, Wednesday (-53,647) Jeremy Belknap, US author, died in Boston (born in Boston 4 June 1744).

18 June 1798, Monday (-53,649) A Federalist-dominated US Congress passed the first of the Alein and Sedition Acts (see also 25 June 1798, 6 July 1798, 14 July 1798). The Act this day, the Naturalisation Act, extended the qualification time required to gain US citizenship. However this was seen by some States, and by Vice President Thomas Jefferson, as an unacceptable erosion of individual freedom and the power of the individual States, see 16 November 1798, The Naturalaisation Act, the Alien Act (25 June 1798), and the Sedition Act (14 July 1798), were repealed by 1802; however the Alien Enemies Act (6 July 1798) remained.

13 June 1798, Wednesday (-53,654) (Germany) Johann Baehr, German scholar, was born in Darmstadt (died in Heidelberg, 29 November 1872).

11 June 1798. Monday (-53,656) Malta surrendered to Napoleon Bonaparte. On 2 September 1798 the Maltese revolted against French occupation, forcing the French troops to take refuge in the citadel of Valetta.

10 June 1798, Sunday (-53,657) Francis Hawks, US religious writer, was born (died 26 September 1866)

7 June 1798, Thursday (-53,660) The Battle of Antrim. Irish rebels, during the Irish Rebellion of 1798, attacked the British in the town of Antrim, led by Henry Joy McCracken. The British succeeded in beating the attackers off, but the British County-Governor, Lord O�Neill, was fatally injured.

4 June 1798. Monday (-53,663) Casanova, Italian adventurer, lover, and romancer, died at his Castle of Waldstein, Bohemia.

2 June 1798, Saturday (-53,665) William Clarke, British geologist,was born (died17.6.1878).


23 May 1798. Wednesday (-53,675) Believing that a French invasion of Britain was imminent, Irish nationalists rebelled against British rule. The rebels enjoyed initial success in Wexford but were suppressed by British forces.

19 May 1798, Saturday (-53,679) Napoleon left Toulon, France for Egypt.

16 May 1798, Wednesday (-53,682) Joesph Eckhel, Austrian writer, died (born 1737).

10 May 1798, Thursday (-53,688) George Vancouver, British explorer who surveyed the Pacific coast of America, died.

1 May 1798, Tuesday (-53,697) William Ewart, English politician, was born (died 23 January 1869).


26 April1798, Thursday (-53,702) Ferdinand Delacroix, French painter, was born in Charenton St Maurice.

20 April1798, Friday (-53,708) Sir William Logan, British geologist, was born (died 22 June 1875).

16 April1798, Monday (-53,712) Francce annexed Geneva.

11 April1798, Wednesday (-53,717) Macedonio Melloni, Ita;lian physicist, was born (died 11 August 1854).

8 April1798, Sunday (-53,720) Easter Sunday.

7 April1798, Saturday (-53,721) Pierre Leroux, French philosophical writer, was born.

5 April1798, Thursday (-53,723)

3 April1798, Tuesday (-53,725) The University of Louisville was founded in Louisville, Kentucky

2 April1798, Monday (-53,726) August Hoffmann, German writer, was born (died 19 January 1874).


29 March 1798, Thursday (-53,730) Swiss revolutionaries proclaimed the �Helvetian Republic� and allied to France.

13 March 1798, Tuesday (-53,746) Walter Hook, English religious writer, was born (died 20 Ocotber 1875)

6 March 1798, Tuesday (-53,753) Jacques Jasmin, French poet,was born (died 4 Ocotber 1864).

5 March 1798, Monday (-53,754) Bern declared war on France, fighting two separate battles this day, winning one and losing the other. Bern then surrendered to France


17 February 1798, Saturday (-53,770) Friedrich Beneke, German writer, was born in Berlin (died 1854).

15 March 1798, Thursday (-53,774) The French-dominated Roman republic was set up in central Italy. Pope Pius VI refused to formally relinquish his temporal power and moved from Rome to Valence, France.

11 February 1798, Sunday (-53,776) French troops captured Rome.


24 January 1798, Wednesday (-53,794) Napoleon invadced Switzerland. The French-dominated Lemanic Republic was set up.

22 January 1798, Monday (-53,796) A French Revolutionary style Directorate (ruling executive) was established in the Batavian Republic.

19 January 1798, Friday (-53,799) Auguste Comte, French philosopher and founder of modern sociology, was born in Montpellier.

15 January 1798, Monday (-53,803) Thomas Croker, Irish writer, was born (died 8 August 1854).

14 January 1798, Sunday (-53,804) Isaak da Costa, Dutch poet, was born (died 28 April1860).

11 January 1798, Thursday (-53,807)

9 January 1798, Tuesday (-53,809) (Spain) Pedro Aranda, Spanish politician, died in Epila (born 1 August 1719 in Sietamo).

8 January 1798, Monday (-53,810) The Eleventh Amendment to the US Constitution became law.

5 January 1798, Friday (-53,813) David Moir, Scottish writer, was born (died 6 July 1851).


29 December 1797, Friday (-53,820) France occupied Mainz, Germany, in accord with the Treaty of Campo Formio.

28 December 1797, Thursday (-53,821) Charles Hodge, US religious writer, was born (died 19 July 1878)

23 December 1797, Friday (-53,827) Adrien de Jussieu, natiuralist, was born (died 29 June 1853).

17 December 1797, Sunday (-53,832) Joseph Henry, electrical scientist, was born (died 13 May 1878).

16 December 1797, Saturday (-53,833) A conference opened at Rastatt, Germany, to work out a peqace treaty between France and the Holy Roman Empire.

13 December 1797, Wednesday (-53,836) Louis Legendre, French Revolutionist, died (born 22 May 1752).

11 December 1797, Monday (-53,838) (Medical) Richard Brockelsby, English physician, died (born 11 August 1722).


29 November 1797, Wednesday (-53,850) Gaetano Donizetti, composer, was born.

19 November 1797, Sunday (-53,860) (USA) Charles Anthon, US classicist, was born in New York City (died in New York, 29 July 1867).

16 November 1797, Thursday (-53,863) Death of the Prussian King Frederick William II, aged 53. He was succeeded by Frederick William III.

14 November 1797, Tuesday (-53,865) Sir Charles Lyell, British geologist, was born (died 22 February 1875).

7 November 1797, Tuesday (-53,872) Richard Colley, Marquis of Wellesley, was appointed Briitsh Governor General of India.

4 November 1797, Saturday (-53,875) US Congress agreed to pay an annual �anti-piracy� tribute to Tripoli.


27 Ocotber 1797, Friday (-53,883) Andrew Combe, physiologist, was born (died 9 August 1847).

22 Ocotber 1797, Sunday (-53,888) Andre-Jacques Garnerin, 28, made a parachute descent, from 2,230 feet, from a hot air balloon. He jumped over the Parc Monceau, Paris. This was not the first parachute jump, but Garnerin had improved the device so as to enable descents from a greater height than ever before.

18 Ocotber 1797, Wednesday (-53,892) Relations between France and the USA deteriorated after the �XYZ Affair�, when a US delegation to France was humiliated by emissaries of the French Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand.

17 Ocotber 1797, Tuesday (-53,893) Napoleon made peace with Austria at Campo-Formio.Austria agreed to cede its Belgian provinces to France in return for Venice, Dalmatia and Istria.

16 Ocotber 1797, Monday (-53,894) James Cardigan, English lieutenant general (died 28 March 1868) was born.

13 Ocotber 1797, Friday (-53,897) Thomas Bayly, English writer, was born in Bath (died 22 April1839).

11 Ocotber 1797, Wednesday (-53,899) At the naval Battle of Camperdown, off the Dutch coast, the British under Scottish Admiral Adam Duncan defeated the Batavian (French-dominated) Dutch, who had been a threat to British naval supremacy.

10 Ocotber 1797, Tuesday (-53,900) (Lighting) Thomas Drummond was born. Along with Goldsworth Gurney (born 1798) he invented ;limelight�, an intense beam of light produced by the combustion of lime (calcium oxide) in an alcohol flame with added oxygen, and focussed by a parabolic mirror.

7 Ocotber 1797, Saturday (-53,903)

4 Ocotber 1797, Wednesday (-53,906) Albrecht Bitzius, Swiss novelist, was born in Morat (died 22 Ocotber 1854).

3 Ocotber 1797, Tuesday (-55,907) (Italy) Leopold II, Grand-Duke of Tuscany, was born (died 29 January 1870).


19 September 1797, Tuesday (-53,921) Lazare Hoche, French General, died (born 24 June 1768)

10 September 1797, Sunday (-53,930) Mary Wollstonecraft, early feminist and author of Vindication and the Rights of Woman, died this day.

8 September 1797, Friday (-53,932) Richard Farmer, writer on Shakespeare, died (born 28 August 1735)

5 September 1797, Tuesday (-53,935) The French directorate now restricted Press freedom, with some newspaper artic;les being banned and newspapers suppressed entirely for up to two years.

4 September 1797, Monday (-53,936) A French army coup halted the plans of British backed Royalists in Paris.


30 August 1797, Wednesday (-53,941) Mary Shelley, English novelist, best known as the author of Frankenstein, was born in London.

28 August 1797, Monday (-53,943) Karl Muller, German scholarly writer, was born (died 1 August 1840).

25 August 1797, Friday (-53,946) Jean Louvet de Couvrai, French writer, died (born 12 June 1760).

12 August 1797, Saturday (-53,959) (Light) Antoine Claudet, pioneer of photography, was born (died 27 December 1867).

11 August 1797, Friday (-53,960) A secret Home Office report suspected Coleridge and the Wordsworths of being enemy agents, because of their wandering around the countryside with campstools and making detailed sketches of the landscape.

3 August 1797, Thursday (-53,968) (Britain) Jeffrey Amherst Amherst, British soldier (born 1717), died in Kent.


20 July 1797, Thursday (-53,982) Pawel Strzelecki, explorer of Australia, was born.

18 July 1797, Tuesday (-53,984) Sir Robert Christison, Scottish physician, was born (died 23 January 1882).

14 July 1797, Friday (-53,988) James Bowerbank, scientific author, was born in Bishopsgate, London (died in St Leonards 8 March 1877).

11 July 1797, Tuesday )-53,991) Charles Macklin, Irish playwright, died.

9 July 1797, Sunday (-53,993) France proclaimed a �Cisalpine Republic�, including Milan, Modena, Ferrara, Bolohgna and Romagna. The Republic of Genoa became the Ligurian Republic, and was a French puppet State.

8 July 1797, Saturday (-53,994) Edmund Burke, British politician and orator, died.


30 June 1797, Friday (-54,002) The naval mutiny at The Nore, led by Richard Parker, was put down.It had started as a protest against poor food and low pay.

28 June 1797, Wednesday (-54,004) France occupied the Ionian Islands, off the western coast of Greece.

26 June 1797, Monday (-54,006) Charles Newbold patented the cast iron plough.

25 June 1797, Sunday (-54,007) Admiral Nelson was wounded in the right arm by grapeshot, during the Battle of Santa Cruz, off Tenerife. He had the arm amputated that afternoon.

24 June 1797, Saturday (-54,008) John Hughes, US religious writer, was born (died 3 January 1864).

21 June 1797, Wednesday (-54,011) Andreas Bernstorff, Danish statesman, died (born in Hanover 28 August 1735).

17 June 1797, Saturday (-53,015) Agha Mohammad Khan, Shah of Persia, died.


30 May 1797, Tuesday (-54,033) Georg Naumann, German geological writer, was born (died 26 November 1873).

16 May 1797, Tuesday (-54,047) The Venetian Republic signed a treaty with France and made changes to its Constitution, in the hope of avoiding French domination.

15 May 1797, Monday (-54,048) Pierre Lafont, French actor, was born (died 19 April1873).

14 May 1797, Sunday (-54,049) Napoleon conquered Venice.

13 May 1797, Saturday (-54,050) Gerard Deshayes, French geologist, was born (died 9 June 1875).

12 May 1797, Friday (-54,051) Ludovico Manin, the last Doge of Venice, abdicated.

3 May 1797, Wednesday (-54,060) (Cartography) Heinrich Berghaus, German geographer, was born in Kleve (died in Stettin 17 February 1884).


27 April1797, Thursday (-54,066) (Biology) Jean Audouin, naturalist, was born in Paris (died in Paris 9 November 1841).

18 April1797Tuesday (-54,075) Napoleon signed preliminaries of peace with Austria.

17 April1797, Monday (-54,076) Britain�s first prisoner of war camp opened at Norman Cross Depot, near Stilton, Huntingdonshire. Prior to this, PoWs had been confined in civil prisons, floating hulks, or fortresses, but by 1796 the number of French PoWs was so large other accommodation had to be found.

16 April1797, Sunday (-54,077) Easter Sunday. The British navy mutinied at Spithead, near Portsmouth, over poor pay, bad food, and arduous blockade duty. On 2 May 1797 the mutiny spread to the North Sea fleet.

13 April1797, Thursday (-54,080) Napoleon captured Leoben on his advance from Italy into Austria.

7 April1797, Friday (-54,086) William Mason, English poet, died (died 12 February 1725).

5 April1797, Wednesday (-54,088) Karl Devrient, German actor, was born (died 4 Ocotber 1877).


27 March 1797, Monday (-54,097) Alfred de Vigny, French romantic poet and novelist, was born in Loches (died 1863).

26 March 1797, Sunday (-54,098) James Hutton, Scottish geologist, died (born 3 June 1726).

22 March 1797, Wednesday (-54,102) (1) Napoleon captured Gorizia, in an advance from Italy into Austria..

(2) Wilhelm I, Emperor of Germany, was born.

18 March 1797, Saturday (-54,106) Friedrich Gotter, German poet, died (born 3 September 1746).

7 March 1797, Tuesday (-54,117) Johann Formey, Franco-German author, died (born 31 May 1711).

4 March 1797, Saturday (-54,120) (USA) John Adams became the 2nd US President.

2 March 1797, Thursday (-54,122) Horatio Walpole, British politician, died in London.He never married.


28 February 1797, Tuesday (-54,124) (Schools) Mary Lyon, US educationalist, was born (died 5 March 1849).

26 February 1797, Sunday (-54,126) The Bank of England first issued �1 notes; copper pennies were also first minted this day.

24 February 1797, Friday (-54,128) Samuel Lover, Irish novelist, was born (died 6 July 1868).

20 February 1797, Monday (-54,132) Nelson was made a Knight of the Bath and promoted to Rear Admiral for his action in the Battle of Cape St Vincent.

19 February 1797, Sunday (-54,133) Napoleon captured Tolentino, Italy, where he signed a treaty with the Papacy (The Peace of Tolentino).

18 February 1797, Saturday (-54,134) The British captured the island of Trinidad from Spain. Spain had been forced to ally with France by Napoleon, making her at war with Britain. The British fleet blocked the Spanish fleet of Don Apodaca in the harbour of Port of Spain; the Spanish decided to scuttle (burn) their ships rather thanface annihilation and capture by the British.

16 February 1797, Thursday (-54,136)

15 February 1797, Wednesday (-54,137) (USA) John Bell, US politician, was born neat Nashville, Tennessee (died 10 September 1869).

14 February 1797, Tuesday (-54,138) Horatio Nelson and Admiral Jervis defeated the Spanish fleet off Cape St Vincent, south west Portugal.

12 February 1797, Sunday (-54,140) The last invasion of Britain. The Irish-American General William Tate landed at Fishguard, Pembrokeshire with 1,400 French troops, who soon surrendered.

9 February 1797, Thursday (-54,143) Napoleon captured Ancona, Italy.

4 February 1797, Saturday (-54,148) Major earthquake hit Riobamba, Ecuador.

3 February 1797, Friday (-54,149) French and Italian troops under Marshal Victor defeated Papal State troops under General Colli.

2 February 1797, Thursday (-54,150)Napoleon captured Mantua, Italy.

1 February 1797, Wednesday (-54,151) Napoleon captured Bologna, Italy.


31 January 1797, Tuesday (-54,152) Franz Schubert, Austrian composer, was born near Vienna. He was the son of a schoolteacher.

26 January 1797, Thursday (-54,157) A final Treaty formalising the Third partition of Poland was signed by Austria, Prussia and Russia.

20 January 1797, Friday (-54,163)

15 January 1797, Sunday (-54,168) The top hat first appeared in London, worn by James Hetherington. He was fined �50 for wearing this attire, and causing a breach of the peace.

14 January 1797, Saturday (-54,169) Battle of Rivoli. Napoleon�s first decisive victory over the Austrians.

10 January 1797, Tuesday (-54,173) Annette Droste-Hulshoff, German poet, was born (died 24 May 1848).

4 January 1797, Wednesday (-54,179) Napoleon defeated the Austrians under General Joseph Alvintzi at Rivoli, Italy.

2 January 1797, Monday (-54,181) Hugh Legare, US statesman, was born (died 20 June 1843).


24 December 1796, Saturday (-54,190) Spanish novelist Cecilia Larrea (Fernan Caballero) was born (died 7 April1877).

19 December 1796, Monday (-54,105) The French five-man Directory refused to negotiate further with Britain.

16 December 1796, Friday (-54,198) (Astronomy) Johann Titius, astronomer, died in Wittemberg.

15 December 1796, Thursday (-54,199) A French fleet under General Hoche sailed from Brest to invade Ireland. However a storm dispersed the fleet off Kerry and the invasion was called off.

13 December 1796, Tuesday (-54,201) (Britain) James Scarlett Abinger, British statesman (died 7 April1844) was born in Jamaica.

7 December 1796, Wednesday (-54,207) John Adams defeated Thomas Jefferson in the US Presidential elections by three votes to become tye 2nd President of the USA. Jefferson was elected Vice-President.


30 November 1796, Wednesday (-54,214) Johann Lowe, German composer, was born (died 20 April1869).

19 November 1796, Saturday (-54,225) (Britain) Thomas Bath, English politician, died (born 13 September 1734).

17 November 1796, Thursday (-54,227) Paul I became Emperor of Russia.

15 November 1796, Tuesday (-54,229) The French under Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Austrians under General Joseph Alvintzi at Arcole, Italy.

6 November 1796. Sunday (-54,238) Death of Czarina Katherine the Great of Russia. She died at Czarskoye Selo (The Czar�s Village) near St Petersburg, aged 67.She had been Empress of Russia since 1762. She was succeeded by her 42-year old son, Paul I.


18 Ocotber 1796, Tuesday (-54,257) (Italy) Napoleon created the Cisalpine Republic, a French vassal State, by merging the Papal territories of Bologna and Ferrara with the Duchy of Modena.

7 Ocotber 1796, Friday (-54,268) Thomas Reid, Scottish philosopher, died in Glasgow, aged 86.

5 Ocotber 1796. Wednesday (-54,270) Spain declared war on Britain by signing the Treaty of San Il Defonso, allying it with Revolutionary France. The Treaty was engineered by Spanish Prime Minister Manuel de Godoy, lover of King Charles IV�s wife Maria Luisa. De Godoy was opposed to monarchist Britain. Many ordinary Spanish opposed the Treaty, which diminished Spain as an imperial power and weakened her influence in The Americas.


21 September 1796, Wednesday (-54,284) Francois Marceau-Desgraviers, French General, died (born 1 March 1769).

19 September 1796, Monday (-54,286) Hartley Coleridge, English writer, was born (died 6 January 1849).

17 September 1796, Saturday (-54,288) George Washington gave his farewell address as president of the USA.

16 September 1796, Friday (-54,289) William Muhlenberg, US philanthropist, was born (died 8 April1877).

3 September 1796, Saturday (-54,302) The Austrians under Archduke Charles defeated French General Jourdain at Wuezburg, Germany. Jourdain resigned his command.

2 September 1796, Friday (-54,303) Francois Hamelin, French Admiral, was born (died 10 January 1864).


29 August 1796, Monday (-54,307) The French under General Jourdain were dfeated by the Austrians under Archduke Charles at Amberg.

27 August 1796, Saturday (-54,309) Sophia Smith, US philanthropist and founder of Smith College, was born in Hatfield, Massachusetts.

21 August 1796, Sunday (-54,315) Asher Durand, US painter, was born (died 17 September 1886).

19 August 1796, Friday (-54,317) (France, Spain) France and Spain signed an alliance against Britain at Ildefonso, Spain. This was effectively a renewal of the 1761 Family Compact between the Bourbon rulers of the two countries.

15 August 1796, Monday (-54,321) (France, Italy) French forces under Napoleon defeated the Austrians under Count Dagobert Wurmser atCastglione delle Stiviere, Italy. This prevented the Austrians relieving the Fremnch siege of Mantua.


26 July 1796, Tuesday (-54,341) Jean Baptiste Corot, French landscape painter, was born (died 22 February 1875).

24 July 1796, Sunday (-54,343) John Clayton, US politician, was born (died 9 November 1856).

21 July 1796. Thursday (-54,346) Robert Burns, Scottish poet, died aged 37 in Dumfries, and was buried there.He was born on 25 January 1759, the eldest son of a poor peasant farmer, about 2 miles from Ayr, at Alloway.

19 July 1797, Tuesday (-54,348)

17 July 1797, Sunday (-54,350) Hippolyte Delaroche, French painter, was born (died 4 November 1856).

16 July 1796, Saturday (-54,351) William Hamilton, English statesman, died (born 28 January 1729).

6 July 1796, Wednesday (-54,361) Nicholas, Tsar of Russia 1825-55, was born.


30 June 1796, Thursday (-54,367) Napoleon marched into central Italy, taking Florence this day.

27 June 1796, Monday (-54,370) French troops under General Victor Moreau completed a crossing of the Rhine at Strasbourg, to link up with French forces under General Jourdain in Franconia, southern Germany. They planned an attack on Austria from there.

23 June 1796, Thursday (-54,374) Pope Pius VI signed an armistice with Napoleon.

11 June 1796, Saturday (-54,386) Samuel Whitbread, beer brewer, died.

3 June 1796, Friday (-54,394) Napoleon advanced to Verona, thereby securing all of Austrian Lombardy.

1 June 1796. Wednesday (-54,396) Tennessee became the 16th state of the USA.


28 May 1796, Saturday (-54,400) William Miller, Scottish line engraver, was born (died 20 January 1882).

21 May 1796, Saturday (-54,407) Reverdy Johnson, US politician, was born (died 10 February 1876).

17 May 1796, Tuesday (-54,411) Napoleon advanced to Brescia.

16 May 1796, Monday (-54,412) (France, Italy) Lombardy, northern Italy, was declared a Republic, under French rule.

15 May 1796, Sunday (-54,413) (France, Italy) Sardinia signed the Peace of Cherasco with Napoleonic France. Sardinia ceded Savoy and Nice to France.

14 May 1796. Saturday (-54,414) Dr Edward Jenner, born 17 May 1749, from Berkeley, Gloucestershire, carried out his first human vaccination. He infected an eight year old, James Phipps, with cowpox, or �vaccinia� disease, having once heard a dairymaid claim that she would never catch smallpox because she had been infected by cowpox. Then on July 1st he deliberately exposed the boy to smallpox; he proved resistant to the disease.

10 May 1796, Tuesday (-54,418) (France, Italy) Napoleon won the Battle of Lodi. Napoleon was greeted in Milan as a liberator of the city from Austrian rule.

8 May 1796, Sunday (-54,420) Francois Mignet, French historical writer, was born in Aix en Provence (died 1884).

6 May 1796, Friday (-54,422) Adolf Knigge, German author, died.

4 May 1796, Wednesday (-54,424) Horace Mann, US educatiuonalist writer, was born (died 2 August 1859).


28 April1796, Thursday (-54,430) (France, Italy) Napoleon reached an armistice with Sardinia. Sradinia now abandoned its alliance with Austria

24 April1796, Sunday (-54,434) Karl Immerman, German dramatist, was born (died 25 August 1840).

23 April1796, Saturday (-54,435) Theodor Hippel, German writer, died (born 31 January 1741).

22 April1796, Friday (-54,436) (Italy) Napoleon defeated the Piedmontese at Modovi. Savoy and Nice were ceded to France.

21 April1796, Thursday (-54,437)

19 April1796, Tuesday (-54,439) Bernhard Beskow, Swedish dramatist, was born (died 17 Ocotber 1868).

18 April1796, Monday (-54,440) Johan Wilcke, physicist, died.

13 April1796, Wednesday (-54,445) Napoleon won the Battle of Millesimo, against the Austrians.


31 March 1796, Thursday (-54,458) Philippe Buchez, French political writer, was born (died 12 August 1865)

11 March 1796, Friday (-54,478) Francis Wayland, US scholarly writer, was born in New York City (died 1865)

9 March 1796, Wednesday (-54,480) Napoleon married Josephine de Beautharnais.

5 March 1796, Saturday (-54,484) Further pro-Royalist uprisings in the Vendee were suppressed by Republican forces.

2 March 1796, Wednesday (-54,487) Napoleon was appointed Commander in Chief of the Army of Italy and The Alps.


26 February 1796, Friday (-54,492) Thomas Galloway, Scottish mathematician, was born (died 1 November 1851).

22 February 1796, Monday (-54,496) Adolphe Quetelet, Belgian mathematician who pioneered the application of statisticsto social phenomena, was born in Ghent (died 1874).

17 February 1796, Wednesday (-54,501) (Cartography) Frederick Beechey, English explorer and cartographer, was born in London (died 29 November 1856).

9 February 1796, Tuesday (-54,509) Qianlong, 6th emperor of the Qing dynasty and the leader of China at its pre-modern peak of power, size, and prestige, abdicated in the 61st year of his reign in favour of his 35-year-old son. Though, until his death three years later, Qianlong continued to exercise power from behind the scenes, his abdication was crucial to his dynasty�s legitimacy. Qianlong abdicated one day before the length of his reign would have matched that of his illustrious grandfather, Emperor Kangxi. Kangxi�s unprecedentedly long reign was viewed as a kind of golden age, and Kangxi was still held in high regard. For Qianlong to outshine his grandfather would have been viewed as immodest, reflecting badly on the House of Aisin Gor. His abdication preserved respect for the imperial office.

8 February 1796, Monday (-54,510) Barthelemy Enfantin, French social reformer, was born (died 1 September 1864).

6 February 1796, Saturday (-54,512) John Henslow, English scientific writer, was born (died 16 May 1861).

3 February 1796, Wednesday (-54,515) Jean Madou, Belgian painter, was born (died 31 March 1877).

1 February 1796, Monday (-54,517) Abraham Frohlich, Swiss poet, was born (died 1 December 1865).


25 January 1796, Monday (-54,524) William MacGillivray, Scottish naturalist writer, was born (died 4 September 1852).

17 January 1796, Sunday (-54,532) (Technology) Thaddeus Fairbanks, inventor, was born (died 12 April1886).

13 January 1796, Wednesday (-54,536) (Science) John Anderson, Scottish scientist (born 1726 in Roseneath, Dumbartonshire) died in Glasgow.

4 January 1796, Monday (-54,545) Henry Bohn, British publisher, was born in London (died in Twickenham 22 August 1884).


31 December 1795, Thursday (-54,549) Arthur Guinness signed a 9,000 lease on a brewery at St James Gate, Dublin, for an annual rent of �45.

23 December 1795, Wednesday (-54,557) Sir Henry Clinton, British General, died.

21 December 1795, Monday (-54,559) Robert Moffat, Scottish Congregationalist missionary to southerm Africa, was born (died 9 August 1883).

20 December 1795, Sunday (-54,560) Leopold von Ranke, German historical writer, was born in Wiehe, Saxony (died 1886)

10 December 1795, Thursday (-54,570) (Marine) Sir George Burns, operator of the Cunard Line from 1838, was born (died 2 June 1890).

8 December 1795, Tuesday (-54,572) Peter Hansen, Danish astronomer, was born (died 28 March 1874).

5 December 1795, Saturday (-54,575) Friedrich Hermann, German economics writer, was born (died 23 November 1868).

4 December 1795, Friday (-54,576) Birth of Thomas Carlyle, Scottish historian.

3 December 1795, Thursday (-54,577) Sir Rowland Hill, who pioneered the postal service, was born in Kidderminster.


29 November 1795, Sunday (-54,581) Friedrich Gerhard, German archaeological writer, was born (died 12 May 1867).

24 November 1795, Tuesday (-54,586) French General Barthelemy Scherer defeated the Austrians at Loano, Piedmont, northern Italy.

19 November 1795, Thursday (-54,591) Thomas Linley English musician, died.

18 November 1795, Wednesday (-54,592) Significant earthquake in Derbyshre, England, chimneys fell and walls were cracked.

9 November 1795, Monday (-54,601) Walter Geike, Scottish painter, was born (died 1 August 1837).

4 November 1795, Wednesday (-54,606) The Directory, a ruling executive of five Directors, was formally eatablished in France.

2 November 1795, Monday (-54,608) James Polk, American Democrat and 11th President, was born in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina.


31 Ocotber 1795, Saturday (-54,610) The French Executive Directory was elected.

27 Ocotber 1795, Tuesday (-54,614) Thomas Pinckney (US Minister to Britain) negotiated the Treaty of San Lorenzo between the USA add Spain. It settled the southern US border with Florida and gave the USA navigation rights on thye Mississippi through Spanish territory.

26 Ocotber 1795, Monday (-54,615) Napoleon was appointed General of the Army of the Interior.

24 Ocotber 1795, Saturday (-54,617) King Stanislaus II of Poland, aged 63, abdicated.

10 Ocotber 1795, Saturday (-54,631) Joseph le Bon, French politician, was executed (born 29 September 1765).

8 Ocotber 1795, Thursday (-54,633) Easter Sunday; Andrew Kippis, English religious writer, died (born 28 March 1725).

6 Ocotber 1795, Tuesday (-54,635) (Race Equality) Joshua Giddings, prominent US anti-slavery campaigner, was born (died 27 May 1864).

5 Ocotber 1795, Monday (-54,636) Napoleon participated in defeating a Royalist uprising in Paris. He became Commander of the Army of the Interior.

1 Ocotber 1795, Thursday (-54,640) Belgium was incorporated in the French Republic.


28 September 1795, Monday (-54,643) Britain, Russia and Austria joined in the Alliance of St Petersburg against France.

24 September 1795, Thursday (-54,647) Antoine Barye, French sculptor, was born in Paris (died 25 June 1875).

23 September 1795, Tuesday (-54,648) France proclaimed a new Constitution.

20 September 1795, Sunday (-54,651) French troops under General Charles Pichegru occupied Mannheim, Germany.

16 September 1795, Wednesday (-54,655) In June 1795 a British fleet with 4,000 soldiers arrived off the Dutch Cape Colony (South Africa) to prevent the French from taking the territory. This day the British soldiers landed at Muizenberg, and the Dutch soldiers, under Governor Sluysken, largely fled without a fight. Sluyksen managed to negotiate a truce with the British, but was soon evicted from power by settlers in the interior who resisted his rule.

13 September 1795, Sunday (-54,658) Julius Hare, English religious writer, was born (died 23 January 1855).

6 September 1795, Sunday (-54,665) French Republican forces under General Jourdan crossed the Rhine, renewing a campaign against the Austrians under Archduke Charles.

5 September 1795, Saturday (-54,666) Karl Follen, German poet, was born (died 14 January 1840).


31 August 1795, Monday (-54,671)

23 August 1795, Sunday (-54,679) Prussia joined the secret agreement between Russia and Austria to partition all remaining Polish territory

22 August 1795, Saturday (-54,680) A third French Constitution was approved by the National Convention, vesting executive power in five Directors (the Directory).

13 August 1795, Thursday (-54,689) Karl Homeyer, German jurist, was born (died 20 Ocotber 1874).

1 August 1795, Saturday (-54,701)


22 July 1795, Wednesday (-54,711) The Second Treaty of Basle. Spain ceded the Dominican Republic to France.

20 July 1795, Monday (-54,713) (Chemistry) Jean Guimet, French industrial chemist, was born (died 8 April1871). In 1828 he won an award for inventing artificial ultramarine, as a substititue for the ultramarine prepared from lapis lazuli.

15 July 1795, Wednesday (-54,718) The Marsellaise was officially adopted as the French National Anthem. It had been written by the French Army Captain Rouget de Lisle in 1792, whilst he was stationed at Strasbourg.

9 July 1795, Thursday (-54,724) Henry Conway, English statesman, died (born 1721).

4 July 1795, Saturday (-54,729) Karl Eichwald, German scientific writer, was born (died 10 November 1876).

3 July 1795, Friday (-54,730) Louis Brequigny, scholarly writer, died (born 22 February 1714).

1 July 1795, Wednesday (-54,732) The first section of the Ellesmere Canal, from Chester to Netherpool (now called El;lesmere Port) opened, see 1796.


27 June 1795, Saturday (-54,736) A force of French Royalists, under D�Hervilly and Puisaye, landed at Quiberon to try and start a pro-monarchist rebellion. They were defeated by General Hoche, all prisoners being shot.

25 June 1795, Thursday (-54,738) The Imperial Duchy of Luxembourg capitulated to France.

24 June 1795, Wednesday (-54,739) (Medical) German physiologist Ernst Heinrich Weber was born in Wittemberg. He began, in 1826, experiments with two point skin stimulation; how close can two needle points be felt before they are perceived as just one sensation.

23 June 1795, Tuesday (-54,740) Off the port of Lorient, NW France, a British fleet under Lord Bridport defeated the French under Villaret-Joyeuse.

21 June 1795, Sunday (-54,742) Scottish esplorer Mungo Park began to trace the course of the River Niger in west Africa.

17 June 1795, Wednesday (-55,746) Jean Goujon, French politician, died (born 13 April1766).

15 June 1795, Monday (-55,748) Richard Morrison, English astronomer, was born (died 5 April1874).

13 June 1795, Saturday (-55,750) (Education, Schools) Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby School, was born in West Cowes, Isle of Wight (died 12 June 1842).

1 June 1795, Monday (-55,762) Pierre Desault, French surgeon, died (born 6 February 1744).


31 May 1795, Sunday (-55,763) France suspended the Revolutionary Tribunal.

27 May 1795, Wednesday (-54,767)

23 May 1795, Saturday (-54,771) (1) In Paris troops suppressed a riot caused by food shortages. See 1 April1795.

(2) Birth of the architect Sir Charles Barry, who designed the Houses of Parliament in London.

22 May 1795, Friday (-54,772) Scottish explorer Mungo Park set sail on his first voyage to Africa,

21 May 1795, Thursday (-54,773)

20 May 1795, Wednesday (-54,774) Further popular unrest against the National Convention in Paris. This led to the White Terror purge of the more extreme revolutionaries and the end of Montagnard influence.

19 May 1795, Tuesday (-54,775) James Boswell, Scottish diarist and biographer of Dr Johnson, died in London, aged 54.

16 May 1795, Saturday (-54,778) The Dutch Republic now became the Batavian Republic, effectively a vassal State of France.

10 May 1795, Sunday (-54,784) Augustin Thierry, French historical writer, was born in Blois (died 1856).

7 May 1795, Thursday (-54,787) Antoine Fouquier-Tinville, French revolutionary, was guillotined (born 1746).


30 April1795, Thursday (-54,794) Jean Jacques Barthelemy, French writer, died (born in Cassis, Provence 20 January 1716).

28 April1795, Tuesday (-54,796) Birth of Charles Sturt, English explorer of Australia.

23 April1795, Thursday (-54,801) Warren Hastings was acquitted of high treason.

22 April1795, Wednesday (-54,802) Johann Bohmer, German historical writer, was born in Frankfort am Main (died in Frankfort 22 Ocotber 1863).

21 April1795, Tuesday (-54,803)

20 April1795, Monday (-54,804) Johan Kellgren, Swedish poet, died (born 1 January 21751).

19 April1795, Sunday (-54,805) Christian Ehrenberg, German naturalist, was born (died 27 June 1876).

7 April1795, Tuesday (-54,817) (1) France officially adopted the metric system of measuerement.

(2) Theobald Boehm, who invented the modern Western flute and its fingering system, was born.

5 April1795, Sunday (-54,819) Easter Sunday. Frederick William of Prussia signed a peace treaty with France (First Treaty of Basle), to leave himself free to deal with his eastern frontier.The west bank of the Rhine was given to France.

1 April1795, Wednesday (-54,823) Martial law was declared in Paris as food shortages sparked riots. See 23 May 1795.


29 March 1795, Sunday (-54,826) Ludwig van Beethoven had his debut performance as a pianist in Vienna.

28 March 1795, Saturday (-54,827) The Duchy of Courland was incorporated into the State of Russia.


27 February 1795, Friday (-54,856) Francis Marion, US soldier, died.

23 February 1795, Monday (-54,860) Sir Josiah Mason, Enbglish entrepreneuer and philanthropist, was born (died16 June 1881).

21 February 1795, Saturday (-54,862) In France, the National Convention formally separated Church and State. This permitted public worship in private homes.

15 February 1795, Sunday (-54,868) The Vendeeans signed the Peace of La Jaunaie, accepting the authority of the French Revolutionary Government.

11 February 1795, Wednesday (-54,872) Karl Bellman, Swedish poet, died (born in Stockholm 4 February 1740).

9 February 1795, Monday (-54,874) The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Italy, made peace with France.

8 February 1795, Sunday (-54,875) (Christian) Pierre Beckx, Jesuit, was born in Sichem, Belgium (died in Rome 4 March 1887).

7 February 1795, Saturday (-54,876) Anders Fryxell, Swedish historical writer, was born (died 21 March 1881).

5 February 1795, Thursday (-54,878) Wilhelm Haidinger, German geological writer, was born (died 19 March 1871).


29 January 1795, Thursday (-54,885) The USA instituted, as a condition of citizenship, the disavowal of foreign allegiances and all hereditary titles.

21 January 1795, Wednesday (-54,893) France granted freedom of worship.

19 January 1795, Monday (-54,895) French forces occupied Amsterdam.

13 January 1795, Tuesday (-54,901) Armand-Pierre Caussin de Perceval, Orientalist writer, was born (died 15 January 1871).

3 January 1795, Saturday (-54,911) (1) Russia and Austria signed a sectret treaty providing for the 3rd partition of the remaining Polish territory.

(2) Josiah Wedgwood, English potter and creator of blue jasper ware, died in Staffordshire.

2 January 1795, Friday (-54,912) The French captured the Dutch fleet as it stood frozen into the River Texel. William V escaped to England as the French established a Batavian Republic.


27 December 1794, Saturday (-54,918) French forces under General Charles Pichegru began an invasion of the Dutch Republic.

24 December 1794, Wednesday (-54,921) France issued more paper Assignats, further depreciating the currency.

14 December 1794, Sunday (-54,931) Erastus Corning, US politician and industrialist, was born (died 9 April1872).

8 December 1794, Monday (-54,937) France readmitted the surviving Girondists to the National Convention.

6 December 1794, Saturday (-54,939) Luigi Lablache, French-Italian singer, was born (died 23 January 1858).


30 November 1794, Sunday (-54,945) John Scott, champion jockey, was born (died 4 Ocotber 1871).

28 November 1794, Friday (-54, 947) Cesare Beccaria-Bonesana, Italian writer, died in Milan (born in Milan 15 March 1735).

22 November 1794, Saturday (-54,953) Alicia Cockburn, Scottish poet, died (born 8 Ocotber 1713).

19 November 1794, Wednesday (-54,956) The USA and Britain signed John Jay�s Treaty; Britain relinquished all remaining claims to the northwest of the USA.

17 November 1794, Monday (-54,958) George Grote, English historian of Greece, was born (died 18 June 1871).

16 November 1794, Sunday (-54,959) (France) Jean Carrier, French Revolutionary, was guillotined (born 1756).

11 November 1794, Tuesday (-54,964) The Jacobins closed their club in Paris, following attacks by the anti-revolutionary Jeunesse Doree (Golden Youth) activists.

9 November 1794, Sunday (-54,966) Russian forces entered Warsaw, ending the Polish rebellion.

3 November 1794, Monday (-54,972) Francois Bernis, French statesman, died in Rome (born 22 May 1715).


28 Ocotber 1794, Tuesday (-54,978) Robert Liston, surgeon, was born (died 7 December 1847).

27 Ocotber 1794, Monday (-54,979) Birth of Robert Lister, Scottish doctor who performed the first operation using anaesthetic.

26 Ocotber 1794, Sunday (-54,980)

25 Ocotber 1794, Saturday (-54,981) Prussia withdrew from the war against France.

24 Ocotber 1794., Friday (-54,982) Friedrich Balduin, German soldier, was born (died 20 April1848).

19 Ocotber 1794, Sunday (-54,987) Charles Leslie, English painter, was born (died 5 May 1859).

10 Ocotber 1794, Friday (-54,996) (Poland, Russia) The Polish army, 7,000 men under Tadeusz Kosciusko was heavily defeated by the Russians, 16,000 men, at Maciejowice, and its leader taken prisoner. Kosciusko was released by Czar Paul in 1796, and died on 15 Ocotber 1817 when his horse fell over a precipice.

7 Ocotber 1794, Tuesday (-54,999) Wilhelm Muller, German lyrical poet, was born 0died 30 September 1827).


13 September 1794, Saturday (-55,023) Jean Florian, French poet, died (born 6 March 1755).

9 September 1794, Tuesday (-55,027) William Lonsdale, English geologist, was born (died 11 November 1871).

4 September 1794, Thursday (-55,032) John Hely-Hutchinson, Irish statesman, died (born 1724)


30 August 1794, Saturday (-55,037) Stephen Watts Kearney, US army officer who seized New Mexico for the USA, also helped capture California during the Mexican War (1846-8), was born in Newark, New Jersey (died 1848).

29 August 1794, Friday (-55,038) William Ellis, missionary to Polynesia, was born (died 25 June 1872).

26 August 1794, Tuesday (-55,041) Russian forces began an unsuccessful siege of Warsaw, to 6 September 1794, which was being held by nationalists resisting Russian occupation.

20 August 1794, Wednesday (-55,047) Napoleon was released, see 10 August 1794.

16 August 1794, Saturday (-55,051) (Switzerland) Jean Aubigne, Swiss historian, was born near Geneva (died 1872).

15 August 1794, Friday (-55,052) Elias Fries, botanical writer, was born (died 8 February 1878).

10 August 1794, Sunday (-55,057) In France, Napoleon Bonaparte was briefly arrested because of his connections with the Jacobins, a radical political group.


31 July 1794, Thursday (-55,067) In the two months of June and July, the French guillotine had claimed 1,285 victims.

30 July 1794, Wednesday (-55,068) Johann Lappenberg, German historical writer, was born (died 28 November 1865).

29 July 1794, Tuesday (-55,069) Thomas Corwin, US politician, was born.

28 July 1794, Monday (-55,070) Maximillien Robespierre, 36, French leader of the Jacobins during the French Revolution, was guillotined in Paris. Anti-Jacobin sentiment rose. Robespierre�s zeal for use of the guillotine made even his former friends uneasy. See 27 July 1793.

26 July 1794, Saturday (-55,072)

25 July 1794, Friday (-55,073) Andre de Chenier, French poet, was guillotined (born 30 Ocotber 1762).

24 July 1794, Thursday (-55,074) (Biology) Russian zoologist Christian Pander was born in Riga. He studied the development of the chick embryo.

23 July 1794, Wednesday (-55,075) The village of Ratcliff, just east of London, was badly damaged by a fire. 455 of the 1,150 houses were burnt, along with 36 warehouses, when a pitch kettle at a boat builders boiled over. Ships were also burnt; they could not be moved as the tide was out; saltpetre in abarge blew up, raining fire on other boats.

17 July 1794, Thursday (-55,081) (France) The Paris Commune, set up in 1791, was suppressed.

14 July 1794, Monday (-55,084) John Lockhart, Scottish writer, was born (died 25 November 1854).

13 July 1794, Sunday (-55,085) (Biology) Scottish physician James Lind died in Hampshire, England.

12 July 1794, Saturday (-55,086) Admiral Nelson lost his right eye at the siege of the French garrison at Calvi in Corsica.

11 July 1794, Friday (-55,087) In Britain the Whigs had split over the issue of Parliamentary Reform. Lord Portland and William Wyndham joined William Pitt the Younger�s Cabinet.

4 July 1794, Friday (-55,094)

3 July 1794, Thursday (-55,095) Sir John Jervis captured Guadeloupe from the French, however France retook it again from Britain in 10 December 1794.


27 June 1794, Friday (-55,101) Wenzel Kaunitz-Rietburg, Austrian Chancellor 1753-92, died (born 2 February 1711).

26 June 1794, Thursday (-55,102) The French defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Fleurus. Balloon reconnaissance of the enemy was used by the French, from a tethered balloon, for the first time.

25 June 1794, Wednesday (-55,103) French forces under General Charles Pichegru captured Charleroi, Austrianh Netherlands, from the Austrians under Friedrich Josias, Prince of Saxe Coburg,

23 June 1794, Monday (-55,105)

19 June 1794, Thursday (-55,109) Richard Lee, US statesman, died (born 20 January 1732).

18 June 1794, Wednesday (-55,110) (France) Francois Buzot, French Revolutionary, died (born 1 March 1760).

17 June 1794, Tuesday (-55,111) Marguerite Guadet, French revolutionary, died (born 20 July 1758).

10 June 1794, Tuesday (-55,118) France passed the �Law of 22 Prarial� (Revolutionary calendar), which increased the power of the Revolutionary Tribunals and led to more executions.

8 June 1794, Sunday (-55,120) Gottfried Burger, German poet, died (born 1 January 1748).

1 June 1794, Sunday (-55,127) (France, Britain) The Battle of the Glorious 1st June. The British fleet under Lord Howe defeated the French under Admiral Villaret-Joyeuse, 700km west of Ushant.


30 May 1794, Friday (-55,129) Ignaz Moschelles, Bohemian pianist, was born (died 10 March 1870).

27 May 1794, Tuesday (-55,132) Cornelius Vanderbilt, US industrialist (shipping and railways) was born in Port Richmond, Staten island, New York (died 1877).

24 May 1794, Saturday (-55,135) William Whewell, English scholarly writer, was born in Lancaster (died 1866).

18 May 1794, Sunday (-55,141) French General Charles Pichegru defeated Austrian and British forces at Tourcoing, NE France, under Friedrich Josias, Prince of Saxe-Coburg.

17 May 1794, Saturday (-55,142) Anna Jameson, British writer, was born (died 17 March 1860).

12 May 1794, Monday (-55,147) (Britain) Sir George Cathcart, English soldier, was born (died at the Battle of Inkerman 5 November 1854).

10 May 1794, Saturday (-55,149) (France) Elizabeth, daughter of Louis the Dauphin, born 3 May 1764, was executed.

8 May 1794, Thursday (-55,151) Chemist Antoine Lavoisier, who discovered the composition of water, was executed in Paris.


28 April1794, Monday (-55,161) Charles Estaing, French Admiral, born 1729, was executed for his close relations to the French Queen.

27 April1794, Sunday (-55,162) (Africa) James Bruce, Scottish explorer of Africa, died (born 14 December 1730).

25 April1794, Friday (-55,164)

23 April1794, Wednesday (-55,166) Chretien Malesherbes, French statesman, was guillotined (born 6 December 1721).

22 April1794, Tuesday (-55,167) Jean Epremesnil, French magistrate, was guillotined (born 5 December 1745).

20 April1794, Sunday (-55,169) Easter Sunday.

19 April1794, Saturday (-55,170) Britain and Prussia signed the Treaty of The Hague. Britain agreed to pay subsidies for 60,000 Prussian and Dutch troops against France.

18 April1794, Friday (-55,171) Charles Camden, Lord Chancellor of England (born 1714) died.

17 April1794, Thursday (-55,172) Carl Martius, German botanist, was born (died 13 December 1868).

15 April1794, Tuesday (-55,174) Frederic Chelmsford, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 5 Ocotber 1878).

13 April1794, Sunday (-55,176) (Biology) Jean Pierre Marie was born in France. He studied the nervous system, located the centre of respiration, and showed that the cerebellum controlled muscular movements.

12 April1794, Saturday (-55,177) Jean Gobel, French politician, was guillotined (born 1 September 1727)

11 April1794, Friday (-55,178) Edward Everett, US writer, was born (died 15 January 1865).

10 April1794, Thursday (-55,179) Matthew Perry, US naval officer, was born in South Kingston, Rhode Island (died 1858).

8 April1794, Tuesday (-55,181) Jean Marie Antoine Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet, Enlightenment philosopher, died in Bourg la Reine, France, aged 50.

5 April1794, Saturday (-55,184) (France) George Jacques Danton, French revolutionary leader, was guillotined for treason, nine months after his dismissal from the Committee of Public Safety which was ruling France.

3 April1794, Thursday (-55,186) Polish Nationalist leader Tadeusz Kosciuzko, leading an insurrection against Russian and Prussian forcers, defeated the Russians at Raclawice.

2 April1794, Wednesday (-55,187) The French military formed a company of Aerostiers for military observation from tethered hot air balloons.


27 March 1794, Thursday (-55,193) The US Navy was officially created. Before this day the American Congress had only fitted out civilian ships for hostilities as required, but now it was decided a permanent navy was necessary.

24 March 1794, Monday (-55,196) Jean Cloots, French Revolutionary, was guillotined.

22 March 1794, Saturday (-55,198) The USA forbade its citizens from trading slaves with foreign nations.

21 March 1794, Friday (-55,199) James Gilbart, English banking writer, was born (died 8 August 1863).

18 March 1794, Tuesday (-55,202)

16 March 1794, Sunday (-55,204) Ami Bourg, Austrian geologist, was born in Hamburg (died 21 November 1881).

15 March 1794, Saturday (-55,205) Friedrich Diaz, German scholarly writer, was born (born 29 May 1876).

10 March 1794, Monday (-55,210)

5 March 1794, Wednesday (-55,215) Ramon de la Cruz, Spanish dramatist, died (born 28 March 1731).

4 March 1794, Tuesday (-55,216) The US Congress submitted the Eleventh Amendment to the States. This denied Federal Court jurisdiction in cases where a suit had been filed against a State by a citizen of another State or different country.


26 February 1794, Wednesday (-55,222) Hans Hassenpflug, German statesman, was born (died 15 Ocotber 1862).

22 February 1794, Saturday (-55,226) (Biology) German physiologist Kaspar Wolff died in St Petersburg, Russia.

21 February 1794, Friday (-55,227) Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, the Mexican revolutionary who freed his country from Spanish rule, was born.

16 February 1794, Sunday (-55,232) Etienne Lomenie de Brienne., French religious writer, died (born 9 Ocotber 1727).

9 February 1794, Sunday (-55,239) Jacques Ancelot, French dramatist, was born in Havre (died 1854).

4 February 1794, Tuesday (-55,244) France issued a decree abolishing slavery in its colonies. However Mauritius ignored this decree.

1 February 1794, Saturday (-55,247) Etienne Arnal, actor, was born in Meulan (died 1872).


21 January 1794, Tuesday (-55,258) August Follen, German poet, was born (died 26 December 1855).

17 January 1794, Friday (-55,262) Jacques Deslongchamps, French geologist, was born (died 17 January 1867).

16 January 1794, Thursday (-55,263) Edward Gibbon, English historian and author of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, died.

10 January 1794, Friday (-55,269) Johann Forster, German writer, died (born 27 November 1754).

8 January 1794, Wednesday (-55,271) Justus Moser, German writer, died (born 14 December 1720).

7 January 1794, Tuesday (-55,272) Eilhardt Mitscherlich, German chemist, was born (died 28 August 1863).

6 January 1794, Monday (-55,273) Rebecca Pennock Lukens, US industrial executive, was born in Coatesville, Pennsylvania (died 1854).

3 January 1794, Friday (-55,276) Joseph Lebeau, Belgian statesman, was born (died 19 March 1865).

1 January 1794, Wednesday (-55,278) The Laggan Navigation opened; it was authorised under an Act of 1753; construction began in 1756. The lower section up to Lisburn opened in 1765 but work halted, due to flooding risks and lack of funds. Work recommenced in 1782 and the link up to Lough Neagh was completed on 1 January 1794.


28 December 1793, Saturday (-55,282) Karl Neumann, German Orientalist writer, was born (died 17 March 1870).

27 December 1793, Friday (-55,283) Alexander Laing, Scottish explorer of Africa, the first recorded European to reach Timbuktu, was born (died 26 September 1826).

26 December 1793, Thursday (-55,284) French troops under General Louis Hoche defeated the Austrians under General Dagobert Wurmser at Weissenburg, Alsace. The Austrians retreated across the Rhine.

18 December 1793, Wednesday (-55,292) The British withdrew from Toulon and Napoleon was appointed General de Brigade.

15 December 1793, Sunday (-55,295) Henry Charles Carey, US economist, was born (died 1879).

12 December 1793, Thursday (-55,298) The Vendeeans were defeated by Republicans at Le Mans.

7 December 1793, Saturday (-55,303) Madame du Barry, last mistress of King Louis XV of France, was guillotined by the Revolutionary Council.

4 December 1793, Wednesday (-55,306) Armand kersaint, French politician, was executed (born 29 July 1742).


29 November 1793, Friday (-55,311) (France) Antoine Barnave, orator of the French Revolution, was executed at The Tuileries (born in Grenoble 22 Ocotber 1761).

24 November 1793, Sunday (-55,316) Clement Laverdy, French statesman, was guillotined.

17 November 1793, Sunday (-55,323) Sir Charles Eastlake, English painter, was born (died 24 December 1865).

15 November 1793, Friday (-55,325) Jean Marie Roland, French scientist and a leader of a Girondist faction during the French revolution, committed suicide in Paris, aged 59.

10 November 1793, Sunday (-55,330) French Revolutionaries Jacques Rene Hebert and Pierre Chaumette organised the �Atheistic Feast of Reason�, celebrated in St Eustache Church, Paris.

8 November 1793, Friday (-55,332) In Paris, the Revolutionary Government allowed the public to view the Royal art collection for the first time.

7 November 1793, Thursday (-55,333) Antoine Clot, French physician, was born (died 28 August 1868).

6 November 1793, Wednesday (-55,334) French Revolutionary leader �Philippe Egalite� (the Duke of Orleans) was guillotined, accused of being an accomplice of the Girondist Charles Francois Dumouriez,

5 November 1793, Tuesday (-55,335)

3 November 1793, Sunday (-55,337) (France) Execution by guillotine of French playwright Olympe de Gouges, Horrified by the bloodshed that was characterising the French Revolution, she had called for a referendum that would let the people decide between a Republic or restoration of the monarchy. She was executed along with other moderate Girondists.

2 November 1793, Saturday (-55,338) Nicolas Lobachevsky, Russian mathematician, was born (died 24 February 1856)

1 November 1793, Friday (-55,339) Lord George Gordon, British anti-Catholic agitator and leader of the Gordon Riots in 1780, died in Newgate Prison, London. He had been convicted of libelling Marie Antoinette.


31 Ocotber 1793, Thursday (-55,340) (France) Jacques Brissot. French Girondist, was executed.

30 Ocotber 1793, Wednesday (-55,341) (France) Claude Fauchet, French Revolutionary Bishop, was executed (born 22 September 1744).

28 Ocotber 1793, Monday (-55,343) Eliphalet Remington, US arms manufacturer, was born.

23 Ocotber 1783, Wednesday (-55,348)

17 Ocotber 1793, Thursday (-55,354) The Vendeeans (French Royalists) were defeated by the Republicans at Cholet, western France.

16 Ocotber 1793, Wednesday (-55,355) Marie Antoinette, born 2 November 1755, the Queen of France as wife of Louis XVI, was convicted of treason and guillotined in Paris. See 21 July 1793. Aged 38, she had been held in prison for over a year; since August in solitary confinement.

15 Ocotber 1793, Tuesday (-55,356) Louis Lescure, French soldier and anti-Revolutionary, was killed.

12 Ocotber 1793, Saturday (-55,359)

10 Ocotber 1793, Thursday (-55,361) (France, Womens Rights) A feminist revolutionary society, set up in 5/1792 in France, was banned. Its leaders, Claire Lacombe and Pauline Leon, were imprisoned. The society had called for the right of French women to participate in the military and politics. Revolutionary France had earlier decreed that women, minors, the insane and criminals could not be full citizens.

8 Ocotber 1793, Tuesday (-55,363) John Hancock, US politician, the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence, died.

7 Ocotber 1793, Monday (-55,364) Wills Downshire, English politician, died (born 30 May 1718).

5 Ocotber 1793, Saturday (-55,366) Revolutionary France abolished Christianity.

1 Ocotber 1793, Tuesday (-55,370) Sir William Erle, English lawyer, was born (died 28 January 1880).


27 September 1793, Friday (-55,374) (France) Denis Affre, Archbishop of Paris, was born in St Rome, Tarn (died 27 June 1848).

25 September 1793, Wednesday (-55,376) Felicia Hemans, English poet, was born (died 16 May 1835).

18 September 1793, Wednesday (-55,383) The cornerstone of the north section of the Capitol Building, Washington DC, was laid by President Washington.

17 September 1793, Tuesday (-55,384) Revolutionary France passed the Law of Suspects. This was a wide-ranging measure that authorised the arrest of anyone who had supported tyranny or federalism, former nobles and their relatives, also emigres. It was the basis for the Reign of Terror, and was repealed in 1795. Some 70% of the victims of The Terror were peasants and labourers, accused of rebellion against the State.

6 September 1793, Friday (-55,395) French General Jean Houchard began a new offensive in the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium), where a British army under the Duke of York was defeated at Hondschoote.

3 September 1793, Tuesday (-55,398)


28 August 1793, Wednesday (-55,404) A British force under Admiral Sir Samuel Hood occupied the major French naval base of Toulon, at the invitation of French Royalists. Adam Custine, French General, was guillotined.

27 August 1793, Tuesday (-55,405) The British occupied Toulon, France.

25 August 1793, Sunday (-55,407) Samuel Cox, US religious and academic, was born (died 2 Ocotber 1880).

23 August 1793. Friday (-55,409) (1) France introduced the first national conscription, claiming all unmarried men aged 18 to 25.

(2) Construction work began on the Ulverston Canal, Lancashire, a short 1.25 mile canal to link the town to the sea, which had receded from the town.

19 August 1793, Monday (-55,413) Samuel Goodrich, US author, was born (died 9 May 1860).

17 August 1795, Saturday (-55,415) Athanase Coquerel, French religious writer, was born (died 10 January 1868).

12 August 1793, Monday (-55,420) (Chemistry) James Muspratt, British chemical manufacturer, was born (died 4 May 1886).

1 August 1793, Thursday (-55,431) The kilogram was introduced in France as the first metric weight.


27 July 1793, Saturday (-55,436) Maximilian Robespierre, Jacobin leader, became a member of the Committee of Public Safety, established to guard against an attack on France by neighbouring countries after the execution of King Louis XVI. See 28 July 1794. Robespierre was now effective;ly Dictator of France.

23 July 1793, Tuesday (-66,440) Prussian forces under the Duke of Brunswick recaptured Mainz and drove the French out of Germany.

22 July 1793, Monday (-55,441) A party led by Sir Alexander MacKenzie arrived on the Pacific coast of Canbada, becoming the first Europeans to cross Canada, by foot and canoe.

21 July 1793, Sunday (-55,442)

20 July 1793, Saturday (-55,443) Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin, a machine for separating cotton fibre from seeds.

19 July 1793, Friday (-55,444) Thomas Doughty, US painter (died 22 July 1856 in New York city) was born Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

17 July 1793, Wednesday (-55,446) Charlotte Corday was guillotined for the murder of Jean Paul Marat, see 13 July 1793.

15 July 1793, Monday (-55,448) Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps, US science educator, was born in Berlin, Connecticut.

13 July 1793, Saturday (-55,450) Jean Paul Marat, French Revolutionary, was stabbed to death by a Girondist (right-wing) supporter, Charlotte Corday. Marat�s zeal for execution of royalty and government ministers had made him many enemies.

10 July 1793, Wednesday (-55,453) William Maginn, irish poet, was born (died 21 August 1842).

4 July 1793, Thursday (-55,459) Friedrich Bleek, German scholar, was born in Holstein (died 27 February 1859).

3 July 1793, Wednesday (-55,460) John Clare, English romantic poet, was born in Helpston, near Peterborough,


26 June 1793, Wednesday (-55,467) Karl Moritz, German author, died (born 15 September 1757).

24 June 1793, Monday (-55,469) A revised French Constittution was drafted by the Committee for Public Safety, chaired by Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles. It provided for a single chamber legislature and universal, male, suffrage.

11 June 1793, Tuesday (-55,482) Napoleon had to leave Corsica with his family and went to Toulon.

2 June 1793, Sunday (-55,491) In an early act of the reign of Terror (French Revolution), Jean-Paul Marat led the expulsion of 31 Girondists from the French National Convention.

1 June 1793, Saturday (-55,492) Henry Lyte, religious writer, was born (died 20 November 1847).


31 May 1793, Friday (-55,493) The Reign of Terror, in which thousands went to the guillotine, in the French Revolution, began.

30 May 1793, Thursday (-55,494) French Revolutionary Louis St Just joined the newly-formed Committee of Public Safety.

28 May 1793, Tuesday (-55,496) Anton Busching, scholarly writer, died (born 27 September 1724).

24 May 1793, Friday (-55,500) The British recaptured the archipelago of St Pierre et Miquelon, off Canada, which was a severe blow to the French cod fishing fleet.

21 May 1793, Tuesday (-55,503) Charles Kock, Frency novelist, was born (died 27 April1871).

20 May 1793, Monday (-55,504) (Biology) Charles Bonnet, Swiss naturalist, died near Geneva (born in Geneva 13 March 1720).

3 May 1793, Friday (-55,521) Martin Gerbert, German writer, died (born 1720).


29 April1793, Monday (-55,525) John Michell, English scientific writer, died.

26 April1793, Friday (-55,528) Nicolas Changarnier, French General, was born (died 14 February 1877).

22 April1793, Monday (-55,532) US President Washington issued a Declaration of Neutrality in the Napoleonic War. Hamilton wanted him to support the British but Jefferson wanted him to support the French.

21 April1793, Sunday (-55,533) (Geology) Geologist John Michell died at Thornhill, England.

20 April1793, Saturday (-55,534) David Laing, Scottish writer, was born (died 18 Ocotber 1878).

19 April1793, Friday (-55,535) Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria, was born (died 29 June 1875).

15 April1793, Monday (-55,539) The Bank of England first issued �5 notes.

6 April1793, Saturday (-55,548) (1) French General Dumouriez was defeated at the Battle of Jemappes, and the French driven out of Holland. Dumouriez subsequently defected to the Austrians.

(2) In France, the Committee of Public Safety was formed.

5 April1793, Friday (-55,549) William Thornton�s plans for the building of the Capitol, Washington DC, were accepted.

4 April1793, Thursday (-55,550) Jean Delavigne, French poet, was born (died 11 December 1843).

3 April1793, Wednesday (-55,551) Dionysius Lardner, Irish scientific writer, was born (died 29 April1859).

2 April1793, Tuesday (-55,552)

1 April1793, Monday (-55,553) Earthquake in Unsen, Japan, killed nearly 53,000.


31 March 1793, Sunday (-55,554) Easter Sunday.

28 March 1793, Thursday (-55,557) Henry Rowe schoolcraft,US ethnologist and explorer who discovered the head of the Mississippi, was born in Alan County, New York (died 1864).

26 March 1793, Tuesday (-55,559) (France) The Holy Roman Empire declared war on France.

25 March 1793, Monday (-55,560) By the Treaty of London, Russia joined the coalition against France.

20 March 1793, Wednesday (-55,565) An army of peasant Royalists defeated the Republicans in the Vendee region of France. See14 March 1793.

18 March 1793, Monday (-55,567) Austrian forces defeated a French Revolutionary Army at the Battle of Neerwinden.

15 March 1793, Friday (-55,570) (Britain) Britain passed the Traitorous Correspondence Act, and suspended the Habeas Corpus Act, as measures to avert any popular support for Revolutionary France.

14 March 1793, Thursday (-55,571) A force of counter-revolutionaries in Vendee, western France ,was trying to restore the monarchy. See 20 March 1793.

13 March 1793, Wednesday (-55,572)

12 March 1795, Tuesday (-55,573) William MacKenzie, Canadian politician, was born (died 29 August 1861).

11 March 1793, Monday (-55,574) In France, start of a counter Revolution in the Vendee.

10 March 1793, Sunday (-55,575) France created the Revolutionary Tribunal.

7 March 1793, Thursday (-55,578) France declared war on Austria, and also on Spain on 7 March 1793.

4 March 1793, Monday (-55,581) Karl Lachmann, German scholarly writer, was born (died 13 March 1851).

3 March 1793, Sunday (-55,582) William MacReady, English actor, was born (died 27 April1873).

2 March 1793, Saturday (-55,583) Sam Houston, American soldier and first President of Texas, was born.


25 February 1793, Monday (-55,588) US President George Washington convened the first US Cabinet meeting, consisting of the Secretaries for War and Treasury, the Attorney General, and the Postmaster General.

22 February 1793, Friday (-55,591) Isaak Jost, Jewish hirtorical writer, was born (died 22 November 1860).

13 February 1793, Wednesday (-55,600) The First Coalition against France wad formed by Austria, Britain, the Dutch Republic, Prussia, Sardinia and Spain.

12 February 1793, Tuesday (-55,601) The US enacted the first of the Fugitive Slave Laws, authorising judges, without a jury trial, to decide the status of a fugitive slave and return him to his �owner�. These laws were in fact so harsh they helped the Abolitionist�s cause.

11 February 1793, Monday (-55,602) Thomas Kingsdown, English lawyer, was born (died 7 Ocotber 1867).

6 February 1793, Wednesday (-55,607) Carlo Goldoni, Italian dramatist, died (born 25 February 1707).

2 February 1793, Saturday (-55,611) William Aiton, Scottish botanist, born 17312, died.

1 February 1793, Friday (-55,612) Britain declared war on France. The British economy entered a depression.


23 January 1793, Wednesday (-55,621) Prussia signed a treaty with Russia.Poland was partitioned, with Prussia obtaining Danzig, Thorn, Posen, and most of Great Poland.Russia received Minsk, Pinsk, and the frontier on the Zbrucz.Austria received promises of help in re-conquering Belgium, as well as some Polish territories.

21 January 1793. Monday (-55,623) (1) The county of Nice was annexed to France. Monaco was annexed to France on 14 February 1792.

(2) Louis XVI, King of France since 1774, was executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution, Paris, convicted of treason. The executioner was called Sanson. His trial had ended with the death sentence on 19 January 1793. See 16 Ocotber 1793.

20 January 1793, Sunday (-55,624) Louis Michel le Peletier, French politician, was assassinated (born 29 May 1760).

19 January 1793, Saturday (-55,625) Carl Gottling, German scholarly writer, was born (died 20 January 1869).

13 January 1793, Sunday (-55,631) (France) Nicolas Bassville, French politician, died (born in Abbeville 7 February 1753).

9 January 1793, Wednesday (-55,635) Jean Pierre Blanchard made the first ascent in a balloon in America, near Woodbury, New Jersey.

3 January 1793, Thursday (-55,941) Lucretia Mott, US campaigner against slavery, was born (died 11 November 1880).

1 January 1793, Tuesday (-55,643) Sir Francis Head, English writer, was born (died 20 July 1875).


26 December 1792, Wednesday (-55,649) (Mathematics) Charles Babbage was born in Teignmouth, Devon (died 18 Ocotber 1871 in London).

20 December 1792, Thursday (-55,655) Nicolas Charlet, French painter, was born (died 30 Ocotber 1845).

18 December 1792, Tuesday (-55,657) Thomas Paine was tried in absentia for publishing The Rights of Man.

16 December 1792, Sunday (-55,659) Abbott Lawrence, US statesman, was born (died 18 August 1855).

15 December 1792, Saturday (-55,660) France decreed that all lands it controlled must accept the new Revoliutionary laws.

12 December 1792, Wednesday (-55,663) In Vienna, Ludwig van Beethoven aged 22 receive dhis frist lesson on music composition, from Franz Joeph Haydn.

8 December 1792, Saturday (-55,667) Henry Laurens, US statesman, died (born 24 February 1724).

5 December 1792, Wednesday (-55,670) George Washington was re-elected President of the USA.

1 December 1792, Saturday (-55,674) Nikolay Ivanovich Lobachevsky, Russian mathematician who, with Janos Bolyai, founded non-Euclidean geometry, was born in Nizhny Novgorod (died1856).


29 November 1792, Thursday (-55,676) David Hailes, Scottish historical writer, died (born 28 Ocotber 1726).

28 November 1792, Wednesday (-55,677) Victor Cousin, French philosophical writer, was born (died 13 January 1867).

19 November 1792, Monday (-55,686) The new French Republican Government offered to help any other nation that wished to overthrow its monarchy; Britain saw this as provocative.

15 November 1799, Thursday (-55,690) The future King John VI of Portugal took pwer due to the mental illness of his mother, Queen Maria

12 November 1792, Monday (-55,693) (Astronomy) Jean Bailly,astronomer, was guillotined 12 November 1793 (born 15 September 1736).

6 November 1792, Tuesday (-55,699) (Benelux, France) The French under General Dumouriez decisively defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Jenappes, Belgium. As a result of this battle, the Austrian Netherlands (now Belgium) were annexed by revolutionary France.


28 Ocotber 1792, Sunday (-55,708) John Smeaton, English civil engineer who designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse, died.

27 Ocotber 1792, Saturday (-55,709) France invaded the Spanish Netherlands.

23 Ocotber 1792, Tuesday (-55,713)

20 Ocotber 1792, Saturday (-55,716) Colin Clyde, British soldier, was born (died 14 August 1863).

19 Ocotber 1792, Friday (-55,717) French troops under the Comte de Custine pursued the retreating Prussians as far as Mainz and Frankfurt am Main.Other French forces took Brussels and occupied the Austrian Netherlands.

17 Ocotber 1792, Wednesday (-55,719) Sir John Bowring, writer, was born in Exeter (died near Exeter 23 November 1872).

13 Ocotber 1792, Saturday (-55,723) The cornerstone of the US President�s official residence, The White House in Washington DC, designed by James Hoban, was laid.

12 Ocotber 1792, Friday (-55,724) Columbus Day was celebrated in New York city for the first time.

7 Ocotber 1792, Sunday (-55,729) George Mason, US statesman, died.

1 Ocotber 1792, Monday (-55,735) Money Orders came into use in Britain.


30 September 1792, Sunday (-55,736) French troops took Speyer, in the Rhineland.

29 September 1792, Saturday (-55,737) The Theatre Royal, Dumfries, was founded.

25 September 1792, Tuesday (-55,741) Jacques Cazotte, French author died (born 17 Ocotber 1719).

22 September 1792, Saturday (-55,744) This day was declared the beginning of Year One of the New French Republic. A new �Revolutionary Calendar� was introduced, consisting of 12 30-day months divided into 3 10-day weeks. The months were given names corresponding to the prevailing weather or harvest conditions. An extra 5 days (6 in leap years) were added as holidays at the end of each year. This calendar ran in France until it was abolished in 1805 by Napoleon I.

21 September 1792, Friday (-55,745) France formally abolished the monarchy and declared itself a Republic.

20 September 1792, Thursday (-55,746) The Battle of Valmy.The Prussians failed to successfully attack the French, in wet marshy conditions, and retreated; the French considered it a victory.

17 September 1792, Monday (-55,749) The French Crown jewels were stolen in Paris.

13 September 1792, Thursday (-55,753) Gino Capponi, Italian historical writer, was born (died 3 February 1876).

5 September 1792, Wednesday (-55,761) (Geology) Ours Dufrenoy, French geologist, was born (died 20 March 1857).

2 September 1792, Sunday (-55,764) Rumours spread in Paris that imprisoned Royalists were planning a counter-revolution. This day mobs attacked prisoners being transferred between jails in Paris, and the killing then spread to numerous provicvial prisons. Some 1,200 prisoners were killed in 5 days.

1 September 1792, Saturday (-55,765) Chester Harding, US portrait painter, was born (died 1 April1866).


31 August 1792, Friday (-55,766) (Universities) Wilbur Fisk, 1st president of the Wesleyan University, Connecticut, USA, from its founding in 1831, was born (died 22 February 1839).

29 August 1792, Wednesday (-55,768) (USA) Charles Grandison Finney, US lawyer and evangelical revivalist, was born in Warren, Connecticut (died 1875).

22 August 1792, Wednesday (-55,775) French forces landed in Ireland.

20 August 1792, Monday (-55,777) The Prussian army took Verdun. The French Legislative Assembly instituted civil marriage and divorce, and dissolved all religious orders.

19 August 1792, Sunday (-55,778) The French Revolutionary Tribunals were set up. They were created to try �political offenders�, but soon became a convenient means to bypass the regular Court system for anyone troublesome. The Revolutionary tribunal of Paris sentenced to death 2,639 people, and other Revolutionary Courts condemned a further 17,000. There were a further 40,000 victims, who died in summary mass executions across France. The Revolutionary Tribunals were finally abolished in May 1795.

18 August 1792, Saturday (-55,779) Earl Lord John Russell, British statesman, was born.

14 August 1792, Tuesday (-55,783) John Bigsby, English geologist, was born in Nottingham (died in London 10 February 1881).

12 August 1792, Sunday (-55,785) The French Legislative Assembly ordered the imprisonment of the Royal Family.

11 August 1792, Saturday (-55,786) Robespierre was elected to the Commune (French Revolutionary Government).

10 August 1792, Friday (-55,787) The French mob invaded the Tuileries, massacring the Swiss Guards. The authority of the French Royal Family was suspended. Napoleon participated in the assault on the Tuileries Palace.

9 August 1792, Thursday (-55,788) Alvan Fisher, US portrait painter, was born (died 16 February 1863).

7 August 1792, Tuesday (-55,790)

6 August 1792, Monday (-55,791) Matthew Hill, English prison reformer, was born (died 7 June 1872).

5 August 1792, Sunday (-55,792) Lord North, British Conservative and Prime Minister from 1770-82, died. His indecision led to Britain�s loss of its North American colonies.

4 August 1792, Saturday (-55,793) (1) John Burgoyne, British General who had to surrender at Saratoga in 1777 in the War of American Independence to American General Gates, died.

(2) Percy Bysshe Shelley was born at Warnham.

3 August 1792, Friday (-55,794) Sir Richard Arkwright, English inventor who developed a mechanical cotton spinning process, died.


29 July 1792, Sunday (-55,799) Rene Maupeou, Chancellor of France, died (born 25 February 1714).

25 July 1792, Wednesday (-55,803) (France) Karl Wilhelm, Duke of Brunswick, issued a manifesto threatening a Prussian invasion of France if the French Royal Family was harmed during the Revolution.

23 July 1792, Monday (-55,805) The Polish King, faced by a political division and disintegration of his country, abdicated. Katherine the Great of Russia, also alarmed by the French revolution, now enforced a second partition on Poland.

See map at

18 July 1792, Wednesday (-55,810) John Jones, US navalofficer, died (born 6 July 1747).

16 July 1792, Monday (-55,812) Sir Thomas Mitchell, Scottish explorer of Australia, was born (died 5 Ocotber 1855).

14 July 1792, Saturday (-55,814) The Prussians threatened to invade France to restore the French monarchy. However an attempted Prussian invasion of France failed.

10 July 1792, Tuesday (-55,818) George Dallas, US statesman, was born (died 1 December 1864).

8 July 1792, Sunday (-55,820) France declared war on Prussia.

3 July 1792, Tuesday (-55,825) Ferdinand, Prussian General, died (born 12 January 1721).


21 June 1792, Thursday (-55,837) (Christian) Ferdinand Baur, theologian, was born in Schmiden (died 1860).

20 June 1792, Wednesday (-55,838) In France, crowds angry at Louis XVI�s refusal to authorise restrictive laws against the clergy, invaded the Tuileries.

16 June 1792, Saturday (-55,642) John Linnell, English painter, was born (died 20 January 1882).

4 June 1792, Monday (-55,854) (Britain) John Burgoyne, English General, died (born 1722).

3 June 1792, Sunday (-55,855) State Street Bank, Boston, USA, was founded when Governor John Hancock signed the Bank�s Charter.

1 June 1792, Friday (-55,857) Kentucky became the 15th State of the Union.


24 May 1792, Thursday (-55,865) Thomas Hogg, English writer, was born (died 27 August 1862).

21 May 1792, Monday (-55,868) (Science) Gustave Gaspard Coriolis, French engineer who was the first to describe the effect of the Earth�s rotation on the atmosphere, was born in Paris (died 1843).

18 May 1792, Friday (-55,871) Russian troops invaded Poland.

17 May 1792, Thursday (-55,872) 24 merchants met in Wall Street, New York, to set up the New York Stock Exchange.

15 May 1792, Tuesday (-55,874)

13 May 1792, Sunday (-55,876) Pope Pius IX was born.

12 May 1792, Saturday (-55,877) A toilet that regularly flushed itself was patented.

5 May 1792, Saturday (-55,884)


25 April1792, Wednesday (-55,894) The guillotine was first erected in Paris, at the Place de la Greve. It was first used to behead a highwayman called Pelletier. The guillotine had been designed to make executions more humane but swiftly became a symbol of the tyranny of the French Revolution. Beheading took less than half a second. In fact a version of the guillotine was in use in Ireland as early as 1307. During the French Revolution an estimated 40,000 people were guillotined. The last public execution in France was on 17 June 1939 and the guillotine was last officially used in France on 10 September 1977. See 20 March 1792.

24 April1792, Tuesday (-55,895) Claude Rouget de l�Isle composed the French National Anthem, the Marseillaise.

20 April1792, Friday (-55,899) France declared war on Austria. Austria was allied with Prussia but there was disunity between the two commanders. In 1793 England and Holland joined in against France, which was attempting to annex Belgium, an Austrian possession. Ultimately Austria received Bavaria as a compensation for Belgium going to France.

14 April1792, Saturday (-55,905) Maximlian Hell, astronomer, died.

12 April1792, Thursday (-55,907) John Durham, English statesman, was born (died 28 July 1840).

8 April1792, Sunday (-55,911) Easter Sunday.

5 April1792, Thursday (-55,914) Hew Ainslie, Scottish poet (died 1878) was born.

2 April1792. Monday (-55,917) The Mint of the United States was established at Philadelphia, then the national capital.The US mint struck its first silver dollars.


29 March 1792, Thursday (-55,921) King Gustavus III of Sweden died, aged 46. He was succeeded by his son, 13-year old Gustavus IV.

27 March 1792, Tuesday (-55,923) August Hahn, German religious writer, was born (died 13 May 1863).

23 March 1792, Friday (-55,927) In France, the Girondist Party formed a government.

20 March 1792, Tuesday (-55,930) The French legislature approved the use of the guillotine, see 25 April1792.

16 March 1792, Friday (-55,934) (1) Tippoo Sahib, Indian Sultan who was resisting the advance of the British East India Company into Mysore, surrendered. Tippoo had studied British military tactics and so was able to resist General Charles Cornwallis for longer than other Indian rulers.

(2) Gustavus III, King of Sweden, was shot at a masked ball; he died on 29 March 1792.

11 March 1792, Sunday (-55,939) Hundreds of freed African slaves gathered beneath a 300-year-old cotton tree to celebrate the founding of Freetown, Sierra Leone. The tree had begun growing about the time slave shipments first began out of Africa.

10 March 1792, Saturday (-55,940) (Britain) John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, died (born 25 May 1713).

7 March 1792, Wednesday (-55,943) Sir John Herschel, the astronomer who mapped the stars of the southern hemisphere, was born in Slough.

3 March 1792, Saturday (-55,947) Johann Gieseler, German church history writer, was born (died 8 July 1854).

1 March 1792, Thursday (-55,949) Leopold III, Holy Roman Emperor, died unexpectedly, aged 44. He was succeeded by his 24-year old son, Francis, last of the Holy Roman Emperors.


29 February 1792, Wednesday (-55,950) Gioacchino Rossini, Italian composer, was born in Pesano, on the Adriatic coast. He was the son of an itinerant horn player.

28 February 1792, Tuesday (-55,951) (Biology) Russian biologist Karl Ernst von Baer was born in Peip, Estonia, In 1827 he reported his discovery that humans and other mammals developed from internal eggs.

27 February 1792, Monday (-55,952) George Cruikshank, English artist, was born (died 1 February 1878).

23 February 1792, Thursday (-55,956) Joshua Reynolds, English portrait painter, died in London.

19 February 1792, Sunday (-55,960) (Geology) Geologist Roderick Impey Murchison was born in Tarradale, Scotland. He was the first to identify the Silurian Period, in 1835.

10 February 1792, Friday (-55,969) Earthquake in Hizen and Higo, Japan, 15,000 killed.

7 February 1792, Tuesday (-55,972) Austria and Prussia signed a military alliance against France.

4 February 1792, Saturday (-55,975) (Race Equality) Anti-slavery campaigner James Birney was born in Danville, Kentucky (died in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, 25 November 1857).

3 February 1792, Friday (-55,976) Guiseppe Cerutti, Italian politician, died (born 13 June 1738).


24 January 1792, Tuesday (-55,986) In Paris, five days of looting ended in a riot as the cost of living soared.

17 January 1792, Tuesday (-55,993) George Horne, English writer, died (born 1 November 1730).

9 January 1792, Monday (-56,001) Russia and Turkey signed the Peace of Jassy.

8 January 1792, Sunday (-56,002) The Ottoman Turks bowed to the inevitable and accepted Catherine the Great�s Russian sovereignty over Georgia. Britain feared further Russian expansion in the Black Sea as this could threaten British Mediterranean interests.

7 January 1792, Saturday (-56,003) Severino Fabriani, Italian writer, was born (died 27 April1849).

4 January 1792, Wednesday (-56,006) (Ireland) In Belfast, Ireland, the first issue of the Northern Star newspaper was published. It was set up by the United Irishmen society, an organisation origin nally set up to promte a Catholic-Protestant union but which later became a separatist force.


27 December 1791, Tuesday (-56,014)

20 December 1791, Tuesday (-56,021) The Bank of the United States was established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

19 December 1791, Monday (-56,022) Johann Doderlein, German scholarly writer, was born (died 9 November 1863).

15 December 1791, Thursday (-56,026) (USA) The US Bill of Rights was ratified by all the states, Virginia being the last State to sign. The US passed the First Amendment which protected free speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, and freedom to petition the Government.

12 December 1791, Monday (-56,029) Marie Louise, 2nd wife of Napoleon I, was born (died 18 December 1847).

5 December 1791, Monday (-56,036) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer, died of typhus in Vienna and was buried in the common ground of St Mark�s churchyard.

4 December 1791, Sunday (-56,037) The Observer, the oldest Sunday newspaper in the UK, was first published.

2 December 1791, Friday (-56,039) Henry Flood, who fought for Irish independence from Britain, died in Farmley, County Kilkenny.


21 November 1791, Monday (-56,050) The French navigator, Eteinne Marchand, set a new record for crossing the Pacific Ocean, completing the voyage in 60 days.

12 November 1791, Saturday (-56,059) Johann Engelhardt, German religious writer, was born (died 13 September 1855).

10 November 1791, Thursday (-56,061) Robert Hayne, US politician, was born (died 24 September 1839).

9 November 1791, Wednesday (-56,062) (France) King Louis XVI of France vetoed a decree by the Legislative Assembly demanding a return of the emigres, French aristocrats who had fled abroad, under penalty of death for non-compliance.

4 November 1791, Saturday (-56,066) Indigenous Americans under Chief Little Turtle (1752-1812) ,made a surprise attack on Arthur St Clair�s forces (see 3 Ocotber 1791), killing over half of them and forcing the survivors to make a humiliating retreat. An investigation by Congress blamed the inexperience of the soldiers.


29 Ocotber 1791, Saturday (-56,073) John Elliotson, English physician, was born (died 29/ July 1868).

16 Ocotber 1791, Sunday (-56,086) Prince Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin, Russian Army officer, statesman and lover of Empress Catherine II, died in Bessarabia, Russia, aged 51.

14 Ocotber 1791, Friday (-56,088) (Ireland) In Belfast, the Irish Protestant Nationalist, Wolfe Tone set up the Society of United Irishmen to unite Protestants and Catholics in demanding further Parliamnetary reform for Ireland,

3 Ocotber 1791, Monday (-56,099) Arthur St Clair, (1736-1818) set out to subdue the indigenous Americans of the Northwest territory, an earlier mission by Josaih Harmar (1753-1813) having failed to accomplish this. See 4 November 1791.

1 Ocotber 1791, Saturday (-56,101) In France, first session of the Legislative Assembly.


30 September 1791, Friday (-56,102) Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart premiereed his opera, The Magic Flute. Unfortunately he died 2 months later so did not live to see its great success.

28 September 1791, Wednesday (-56,104)

27 September 1791, Tuesday (-56,105) France granted citizenship to its Jews.

26 September 1791, Monday (-56,106) Theodore Gericault, French painter, was born in Rouen (died 1824).

25 September 1791, Sunday (-56,107) (France) King Louis XVI wrote to his brothers, the Counts of Provence and of Artois, asking them to cease their efforts to overturn the French Revolution. Louis feared civil war more than he did the prospect of becoming a constitutional monarch.

24 September 1791, Saturday (-36,108) Friedrich Forster, German historical writer, was born (died 8 November 1868).

23 September 1791, Friday (-56,109) Johann Encke, German astronomer, was born (died 26 August 1865).

22 September 1791, Thursday (-56,110) Chemist and physicist Michael Faraday was born at Newington Butts, London.He was the son of a blacksmith.

21 September 1791, Wednesday (-56,111) The National Assembly announced that France was now officially a Republic.

20 September 1791, Tuesday (-56,112) Sergei Aksakov, Russian writer (died 30 April1859) was born.

19 September 1791, Monday (-56,113) (France) Camille Barrot, French politician, was born in Villefort, Lozere (died in Bougival 6 August 1873).

17 September 1791, Saturday (-56,115) Tomas de Iriarte, Spanish poet, died (born 18 September 1750).

14 September 1791, Wednesday (-56,118) Franz Bopp, German scholarly writer, was born in Mainz (died 23 Ocotber 1867).

13/ September 1791, Tuesday (-56,119) (France) France annexed Avignon, which had been a territory of the Papacy since the 14th century.

9 September 1791, Friday (-56,123) (France) French Royalists took control of Arles and barricaded themselves inside the town.

6 September 1791, Tuesday (-56,126) (Music) Mozart�s opera La Clemenza di Tito prermiered in Prague.

5 September 1791, Monday (-56,127) (Music) Giacomo Meyebeer, German composer, was born (died 2 May 1863).

4 September 1791, Sunday (-56,128) (France) King Louis XVI was forced to approve the new French constitution, making him a mere civil servant.


27 August 1791, Saturday (-56,136) (France) The Declaration of Pillnitz. The Habsburg monarchy and Prussia decalred they were ready to intervene in France to support King Louis XVI. Other European powers also expressed readiness to intervene, but Britain under William Pitt the Younger said it would remain neutral.

25 August 1791, Thursday (-56,138) Christian Bunsen, German scholarly writer, was born (died 28 November 1860).

24 August 1791, Wednesday (-56,139) Gottfried Lucke, German religious writer, was born (died 4 February 1855).

15 August 1791, Monday (-56,148) Duff Green, US politician, was born (died 10 June 1875).

12 August 1791, Friday (-56,151) African slaves in Santo Domingo, in the west of the island of Hispaniola, rebelled against plantation owners.


28 July 1791, Thursday (-56,166) Jean Gannal, French chemist, was born (died 1/1852).

20 July 1791, Wednesday (-56,174) Tommaso Grossi, Lombard poet and novelist, was born (died 10 December 1853).

17 July 1791, Sunday (-56,177) (France) Guardsmen under the Marquis de Lafayette opened fire on a crowd in the Champ de Mars, Paris, demanding the abdication of King Louis XVI. 50 people were killed or injured.

16 July 1791, Saturday (-56,178) (France) Louis XVI was suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the new French Constitution.

15 July 1791, Friday (-56,179)

14 July 1791, Thursday (-56,180) (France) In Birmingham, England, rioters destroyed the home and labarotory of Joseph Priestley, who discovered oxygen, because he supported the French Revolution. In 1794 Priestley left Britain for America.

13 July 1791, Wednesday (-56,181) William Betty, English actor, was born in Shrewsbury (died 24 August 1874).

9 July 1791, Saturday (-56,185) Friedrich Ebert, German writer, was born (died 13 November 1834).

7 July 1791, Thursday (-56,187) Thomas Blacklock, Scottish poet, died (born in Dumfriesshire 1721).

6 July 1791, Wednesday (-50,188) (France) Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II issued the Padua Circular, calling on other countries to support Louis XVI against the Revolutionary National Assembly.

5 July 1791, Tuesday (-56,189) The first British Ambassador to the US, George Hammonds, was appointed.


27 June 1791, Monday (-52,197) Johann Merck, German author, died (born 11 April1741).

22 June 1791, Wednesday (-52,202) Catharine Macaulay, English historical writer, died in Binfield, aged 60.

21 June 1791, Tuesday (-52,203) (1) The French royal family attempted to flee Paris in disguise but were forced to return after being arrested at Varennes. The King, disguised as a valet, intended to meet supporters at Pont de Sommeville but they were delayed and the villagers got suspicious of the soldiers, who had to hide in the woods andgot lost. The King pressed on to Varennes, 142 miles from Paris, where he was recognised by a horseman sent by Lafayette, head of the National Guard, to look for him. Louis� powers were suspended by the Assembly on 25 June 1791. However Louis� brother, the Count of Provence, did succeed in fleeing Paris for Brussels.

(2) The Ordnance Survey, Britain�s mapping service, was created. On this day a payment of �373, 14 shillings was made to Jesse Ramsden for the construction of a �great theodolite�, 3 feet in diameter and weighing 200 pounds (90 kilogrammes) for the purpose of making precise military maps of Britain. The need for this had been foreseen in 1763 by William Roy, amidst fears of invasion from France and a lack of reliable maps for the military. By 1784 UK-France relations had improved and cross-Channel efforts were being made to establish the longitude and latitude of Greenwich and Paris. In 1800 the first cartographical unit of the British Army, the Corps of Royal Military Draughtsmen, was formed, based at the Tower of London.

20 June 1791, Monday (-52,204) Karl Dahlgreen, Swedish poet, was born (died 1 May 1844).

17 June 1791, Friday (-52,207) (Britain) Selina Huntingdon, English religious leader, died (born 24 August 1707).

12 June 1791, Sunday (-52,212) Francis Grose, English antoiquarian writer, died.

10 June 1791, Friday (-52,214) Bitain passed the Canada Act, dividing the country into a mainly English Upper canada and a mainly French Lower Canada, with two elected assemblies.

5 June 1791, Sunday (-56,219) Sir Frederick Haldimand, British General, died (born 11 August 1718).


26 May 1791, Thursday (-56,229) The French Assembly forced Louis XVI to hand over the State and Crown assets.

21 May 1791, Saturday (-56,234) Jean Buchon, French scholarly writer, was born (died 29 August 1849).

9 May 1791, Monday (-56,246) (USA) Francis Hopkinson, US lawyer and musician, signatory of the Declaration of Indoeendence, died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, aged53.

3 May 1791, Tuesday (-56,252) Poles, seeking the rebirth of their country, declared a parliamentary constitution in Warsaw. Before this date the Polish aristocracy could block the adoption of any measure into the Diet (Parliament) by a single vote. Therefore there was no taxation on the nobility, the Treasury was empty, the monarch was powerless, and Poland had limited representation abroad. Russia, alarmed, sent an army against Poland. The Sjem backed down.


27 April1791, Wednesday (-56,258) Samuel Morse, inventor of the Morse Code, was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts.

24 April1791, Sunday (-56,261) Easter Sunday.

23 April1791, Saturday (-56,262) James Buchanan, Democrat and 15th US President, was born in Stony Batter near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, the son of a farmer.

21 April1791, Thursday (-56,264)

19 April1791, Tuesday (-56,266) (Philosophy) Richard Price, English moral philosopher who supported the American Revolution, died in Hackney, London, aged 68.

18 April1791. Monday (-56,267) National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris for the Chateaux of St Cloud. On 26 April1791 Louis XVI was forced to hand over all the assets of the Crown to the State.

15 April1791, Friday (-56,270)

13 April1791, Wednesday (-56,272) Pope Pius VI threatened to suspend all priests in France who have sworn allegiance to the State (see 13 January 1791) unless they recanted within 40 days.

12 April1791, Tuesday (-56,273) Francis Blair, US journalist, was born in Abingdon, Virginia (died in Silver Spring, Maryland, 27 July 1883).

7 April1791, Thursday (-56,278) (Turkey) Selim III (1761-1808) became Sultan of Ottoman Turkey.

2 April1791, Saturday (-56,283) (France) Death of Count de Mirabeau, a moderate leader of the French Revolution, aged 42.

1 April1791, Friday (-56,284) (Electricity) Sir William Harris, electrical scientist, born (died 22 January 1867).


30 March 1791, Wednesday (-56,286) (Metrology) The metric system of measurements was proposed in France.

28 March 1791, Monday (-56,288) (Russia) Britain increased its naval strength. This was an attempt to intimidate Russia into making peace with the Ottoman Empire, but the strategy failed.

19 March 1791, Saturday (-56,297) (Canada) French and English speaking settlers in Canada were granted equal rights.

18 March 1791, Friday (-56,298) Edward Hatherton, English politician, was born (died 4 May 1863).

15 March 1791, Tuesday (-56,301) Charles Knight, English author, was born (died 9 March 1873).

6 March 1791, Sunday (-56,310) Anna Claypoole Peale, US miniature painter, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (died 1878),

4 March 1791, Friday (-56,312) Vermont became the 14th state of the USA.

3 March 1791, Thursday (-56,313) US Congress passed the nation�s first tax law. The country was divided into 14 tax zones, and a duty of 20 � 30 cents per gallon on distilled spirits was levied.

2 March 1791, Wednesday (-56,314) (1) The world�s first optical telegraph, or semaphore machine, was unveiled in Paris.

(2) John Wesley, founder of Methodism, died in London aged 87.He was born on 17 June 1703 at Epworth Rectory.His brother Charles Wesley, a hymn writer and preacher, was born on 18 December 1707 and died in 1788.

1 March 1791, Tuesday (-56,315)


21 February 1791, Monday (-56,323) Karl Czerny, Austrian composer, was born (died 15 July 1857).

20 February 1791, Sunday (-56,324) Emile Deschamps, French poet, was born (died 29 Ocotber 1869).

12 February 1791, Saturday (-56,332) (Innovation) Peter Cooper, US inventor, was born (died 4 April1883).


29 January 1791, Saturday (-50,346) Count de Mirabeau was elected President of the French National Assembly.

28 January 1791, Friday (-50,347) Louis Herold, French musician, was born (died 18 January 1833).

22 January 1791, Saturday (-50,353) (SciTech) Horace Benedict de Saussure, Swiss physicist who built the first hygrometer, died in Geneva aged 58.

15 January 1791, Saturday (-56,360) Franz Grillparzer, Austrian poet, was born (died 21 January 1872).

13 January 1791, Thursday (-56,362) (France) The French Assembly introduced a universal taxon rent and property values. The requirement for French priests to swear allegiance to the State stirred up rebellion amongst the clergy.

11 February 1791, Tuesday (-56,364) Alexander Mavrocordato, Greek statesman, was born (died 18 August 1865).

3 January 1791, Monday (-56,372) George Rennie, English civil engineer, was born in Surrey.

1 January 1791, Saturday (-56,374) Austrian composer Joseph Haydn arrived in London, and was much acclaimed.


23 December 1790, Thursday (-56,383) (Egypt) Jean Champollion, French Egyptologist, was born (died 1832).

22 December 1790, Wednesday (-56.384) (Turkey) Russian Field-Marshal Count Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov captured the Ottoman fortress of Ismail, at the mouth of the Danube.

21 December 1790, Tuesday (-56,385) American industrialist Samuel Slater opened the first cotton mill in the USA. The mill had 250 spindles and was powered by water, using a child labour force. Slater had been apprenticed to William Arkwright, from whom he learnt the textiles trade.

18 December 1790, Saturday (-56,388) Robert Cranworth, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 26 July 1868).

16 December 1790, Thursday (-56,390) Leopold I, King of the Belgians, was born.

10 December 1790, Friday (-56,396) Jakob Fallmerayer, German historical writer, was born (died 26 April1861).

8 December 1790, Wednesday (-56,398) (Britain) Richard Carlile, English radical, was born (died 10 February 1843).

2 December 1790, Thursday (-56,404) Austrian forces reconquered Belgium, restoring it as the Austrian Netherlands.


27 November 1790, Saturday (-56,409) Clergy in France were now required to take an oath drawn up by the National Assembly, to support the civil Constitution.

24 November 1790, Wednesday (-56,412) Robert Henry, British historical writer, died (born 18 February 1718).

22 November 1790, Monday (-56,414) Georg Maurer, German historical writer, was born (died 9 May 1872).

21 November 1790, Sunday (-56,415) Edmund Lyons, British Admiral, was born (died 23 November 1858).

17 November 1790, Wednesday (-56,419) August Mobius, German mathematician, was born (died 26 September 1868).

4 November 1790, Thursday (-56,432) Carlos Antonio Lopez, dictator of Paraguay 1840-62, was born.


31 Ocotber 1790, Sunday (-56,436) John Edwin, English actor, died (born 10 August 1749).

29 Ocotber 1790, Friday (-56,438) (Education-Schools) Friedrich Diesterweg, German educationalist, was born (died 7 July 1866).

28 Ocotber 1790, Thursday (-56,439) The Nootka Sound Convention, between Britain and Spain. Spain, claiming the entire Pacific coastline of North America, had seized four British ships at Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, Canada. Britain disputed the Spanish claim because Spain had not actually settled the coastline it claimed; at the Convention, Spain backed down, opening up the area to British settlement.

27 Ocotber 1790, Wednesday (-56,440) France adopted the decimal system of weights and measures.

21 Ocotber 1790, Thursday (-56,446) Alphonse Lamartine, French poet and writer, was born (died 28 February 1869).

10 Ocotber 1790, Sunday (-56,457) (Alcohol) Theobald Mathew, Irish Temperance preacher, was born (died 8 December 1856).

6 Ocotber 1790, Wednesday (-56,461) (Germany) Leopold was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Frankfort.

3 Ocotber 1790, Sunday (-56,464) John Ross, Cherokee Chief, was born.


28 September 1790, Tuesday (-56,469) (Hungary) Prince Miklos Josef Esterhazy (born 1714) died.

18 September 1790, Saturday (-56,479) US President George Washington laid the foundation stone of the Capitol Building; the official founding of Washington DC.

10 September 1790, Friday (-56,487) In France, Jacques Necker resigned as Director-general of finance, and effectoively, Prime Minister.

8 September 1790, Wednesday (-56,489) (Britain) Edward Ellenborough, English politician, was born (died 22 December 1871).

2 September 1790, Thurdsay (-56,495) Johann Hontheim, German historical writer, died (born 27 January 1701).


31 August 1790, Tuesday (-56,497) A nutiny within the French Chateauvieux Regiment was suppressed with the approval of the National Constitutional Assembly in Nancy.

30 August 1790, Monday (-56,498) Christian Fahlcrantz, Swedish author, was born (died 6 August 1866).

25 August 1790, Wednesday (-56,503) Francois Gaussen, Swiss religious writer, was born (died 18 June 1863).

22 August 1790, Sunday (-56,506) Francois Forster, French engraver, was born (died 27 June 1872).

14 August 1790, Saturday (-56,514)) (Russia, Sweden) The Treaty of Verela ended the Swedish-Russian War, with no significant territorial changes.

8 August 1790, Sunday (-56,520) Ferencz Kolcsey, Hungarian poet, was born (died 24 August 1838).

7 August 1790, Saturday (-56,521) Alexander McGillivray, chief of the Muskogian Indians, signed a treaty of peace and friendship with President Washington.

1 August 1790, Sunday (-56,527) The first census in the USA revealed a population of nearly 4 million.


28 July 1790, Wednesday (-56,531) The Forth and Clyde Canal opened.

27 July 1790, Tuesday (-56,532) In the Treaty of Reichenbach, Russia, Prussia, Britain and the Dutch republic agreed that Austria could reconquer Belgium, formerly the Austrian Netherlands, which had been in a state of revolt since 1789.

25 July 1790, Sunday (-56,534) (Education-Schools) Johann Basedow, German educational reformer, died in Magdeburg (born in Hamburg 11 September 1723).

22 July 1790, Thursday (-56,537) In France, the clergy were removed from the control of Rome, and Church property was nationalised.

17 July 1790, Saturday (-56,542) (1) The economist Adam Smith, who wrote The Wealth of Nations, died in Edinburgh aged 67.

(2) The sewing machine was patented by Thomas Saint, a cabinet maker of Greenhill Rents, St Sepulchre parish, London.

16 July 1790, Friday (-56,543) Washington DC was established as the seat of US Federal government.

14 July 1790, Wednesday (-56,545) A large rally, the Fete de la Federation, was held in te Champ de Mars, Paris, on the 1st anniversary of the storming of the Bastille. King Louis XIV accepted a new Constitution drawn up by the National Assembly.

12 July 1790, Monday (-50,547) (1) (France) Reform of the French clergy, who must now be elected.

(2) French Jews were granted civil liberties.

11 July 1790, Sunday (-56,548) William Wordsworth and his friend Robert Jones set off on a walking tour of France and Switzerland.

10 July 1790, Saturday (-56,549)

8 July 1790, Thursday (-56,551) Fitz-Greene Halleck, US poet, was born (died 19 November 1867).

7 July 1790, Wednesday (-56,552) Francois Hemsterhuis, Dutch philosophical writer, died (birn 27 December 1721).

4 July 1790, Sunday (-56,555) (Cartography) Sir George Everest, British surveyor of India, was born (died 1 December 1866).

4 July 1790, Britain formed an alliance with the Nizam (ruler) of Hyderabad against Mysore.


19 June 1790, Saturday (-56,570) The French Assembly passed a law abolishing the hereditary nobility.

15 June 1790, Tuesday (-56,574) French Protestant militia massacred 300 Roman Catholics.

9 June 1790, Wednesday (-56,580) The Philadelphia Spelling Book, by John Barry, became the first book to be copyrighted in the USA.

5 June 1790, Saturday (-56,584) Burning at the stake was officially abolished as a form of capital punishment in Britain; see 18 March 1789.


29 May 1790, Saturday (-56,591) Rhode Island became the 13th State of the Union; it is the smallest State in the USA.

23 May 1790, Sunday (-56,597) (France) Jules Dumont, French navigator, was born (died 8 May 1842).

21 May 1790, Friday (-56,599) Thomas Warton, Poet Laureate of England 1785-90, died in Oxford aged 62.

12 May 1790, Wednesday (-56,608) Johannes Hauch, Danish poet, was born (died 1872).

8 May 1790, Saturday (-56,612) France began the process of metrication when its National Assembly approved Talleyrand�s proposal for a unified system of weights and measures.

3 May 1790, Monday (-56,617) Port Louis in Tobago was destroyed by fire.

2 May 1790, Sunday (-56,618) Martin Madan, English writer, died.


30 April1790, Friday (-56,620) Samuel Heinicke, German educator of the deaf and dumb, died (born 10 April1727).

17 April1790. Saturday (-56,633) Benjamin Franklin died in Philadelphia, aged 84. He invented the life-saving lightning conductor. He was determined to pursue Puritan aims to the benefit of the common good. He also helped draft the Declaration of Independence.

10 April1790, Saturday (-56,640) The US Congress inaugurated the American patent system.

4 April1790, Sunday(56,646) Easter Sunday.


29 March 1790, Monday (-56,652) John Tyler, American Whig and 10th President, was born in Greenway, Virginia.

28 March 1790, Sunday (-56,653) William Hunt, English painter, was born (died 10 February 1864).

19 March 1790, Friday (-56,662) Alexander Everett, US writer, was born (died 29 May 1847).

12 March 1790, Friday (-56,669) John Daniell, English chemist, was born (died 13 March 1845).

8 March 1790, Monday (-56,673) The Revolutionary French Government, despite its motto of Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite, voted to keep slavery in its colonies.

6 March 1790, Saturday (-56,675) Joseph Bellamy, religious writer, died (was born in Cheshire, Connecticut 20 February 1719).

5 March 1790, Friday (-56,676) Flora Mac Donald, the Scottish Jacobite heroine who helped Prince Charles Edward (The Younger Pretender) to escape from the island of Benbecula, died.

4 March 1790, Thursday (-56,677) (France) The modern day French departments were created by the National Constituent Assembly, They were drawn so as to break up older traditional historic regions, thereby emphasising national unity, and designed so that the entire territory of each department was within one day�s horse ride of the capital, for security.

3 March 1790, Wednesday (-56,678) (Britain) John Austin, English jurist, was born.


28 February 1790, Sunday (-56,681) John Irving became the first convict to be freed in Australia

22 February 1790, Monday (-56,687) French soldiers landed at Fishguard, Wales, but were soon captured.

20 February 1790, Saturday (-56,689) (Austria) Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, died. His reforms had provoked rebellion in Belgium and Hungary. He was succeeded by his brother, Archduke Leopold, the Grand Duke of Tuscany; in July 1790 he was elected Holy Roman Emperor as Leopold II.

19 February 1790, Friday (-56,690) Thomas Favras, French Royalist, was executed (born 26 March 1744).

11 February 1790, Thursday (-56,698) The Quakers (Society of Friends) sent a petition to US Congress calling for the emancipation of slaves.

5 February 1790, Friday (-56,704) William Cullen, physician, died (born 15 April1710).

1 February 1790, Monday (-56,708) The US Supreme Court held its first meeting


30 January 1790, Saturday (-56,710) The world�s first purpose-built lifeboat was successfully tested at South Shields, Tyneside, England. The boat, �The Original�, went on to give 40 years� service.

26 January 1790, Tuesday (-56,714) Mozart�s opera Cosi van Tutte premiered in Vienna.

23 January 1790, Saturday (-56,717) Fletcher Christian and other mutineers burned The Bounty and settled on Pitcairn Island.

21 January 1790, Thursday (-56,719) (Crime, France) In Paris, Dr Joseph Ignace Guillotin demonstrated to the National Assembly of Paris a new machine for �humane� executions using a heavy blade falling on the victim�s neck.

20 January 1790, Wednesday (-56,720) John Howard, prison reformer, died.

19 January 1790, Tuesday (-56,721) Daniel Atterbom, Swedish poet, was born (died 21 July 1855).

17 January 1789, Sunday (-56,723)

15 January 1790, Friday (-56,725) John Landen, English mathematician, died.

14 January 1790, Thursday (-56,726) US Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton issued his Report on Public Credit, calling on the Federal Government to fund the entire National Debt at face value.

13 January 1790, Wednesday (-56,727) Luc Urbain Guichen, French Admiral, died (born 1712).

11 January 1790, Monday (-56,729)

9 January 1790, Saturday (-56,731) Britain Prussia and the Dutch republic agreed a common policy over Belgium, although William Pitt the Younger, British Prime Minister, was reluctant to recognise Belgian independence.

8 January 1790, Friday (-56,732) George Washington gave the first State of the Union Address.

1 January 1790, Friday (-56,739)


29 December 1789, Tuesday (-56,742) Tippu Sultan of Mysore attacked the territories of the Rajah of Travancore.

28 December 1789, Monday (-56,743) Thomas Ewing, US politician, was born (died 26 Ocotber 1871).

23 December 1789, Wednesday (-56,748) (Medical) Charles Epee, who did much for the deaf-mute, died (born 25 November 1712).

21 December 1789, Monday (-56,750) Assignats (paper money) was issued in France on the authority of the National Assembly.

13 December 1789, Sunday (-56,758) The Austrian Netherlands declared their independence as �The United States of Belgium�.


26 November 1789, Thursday (-56,775) Thanksgiving was celebrated across America for the first time.In 1621 the native Americans had taught early Plymouth settlers how to tap the maple trees for sap and how to plant the Indian corn. The harvest was very successful and the Pilgrims found they had enough food to see them through the winter. The Pilgrim Governor William Bradford proclaimed a Day of Thanksgiving to be shared by all colonists and invited the Indians to join them for three days. During the American Revolution of the late 1770s, a Day of National Thanksgiving was suggested by the Continental Congress and was celebrated nationwide in 1789. Since then each President has issued a Thanksgiving Day proclamation, usually designating the fourth Thursday in November as the holiday.

21 November 1789, Saturday (-56,780) North Carolina became the 12th State of the Union.

12 November 1789, Thursday (-56,789) Jacob Geel, Dutch writer, was born (died 11 November 1862).

11 November 1789, Wednesday (-56,790) (USA) William Meade, US Bishop, was born (died 14 March 1862).

7 November 1789, Saturday (-56,794) The French National Assembly forbade any member to accept office under King Louis XIV.

2 November 1789, Monday (-56,799) French revolutionaries seized Church property with a view to selling it off.


21 Ocotber 1789, Wednesday (-56,811) Martial law was imposed in Paris after a baker was killed by the mob, accused of hoarding bread.

6 Ocotber 1789, Tuesday (-56,826) Austrian forces under General Gideon von Lauden took Belgrade form the Ottoman Turks.

5 Ocotber 1789, Monday (-56,827) Parisian women, frustrated by bread shortages, marched on Versailles to demand the King move to Paris, where he could be monitored more closely.


28 September 1789, Sunday (-56,834) Thomas Day, British author, died (born 22 June 1748).

23 September 1789, Tuesday (-56,839) Silas Deane, US diplomat, died (born 24 December 1737).

22 September 1789, Monday (-56,840) Austrian and Russian troops under Francis Duke of Coburg and Count Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov defeated the Ottoman Turks at Martinesci, on the River rymnik in Moldova.

17 September 1789, Wednesday (-56,845) Herschel, using a large 40-ft focal length reflector telescope,first observed Saturn�s satellite, Mimas. Saturn was now known to have seven satellites.

15 September 1789, Monday (-56,847) James Cooper, US novelist, was born (died 14 September 1851).

4 September 1789, Thursday (-56,858) Charles Gaudichaud, French botanist, was born (died 16 January 1854).

2 September 1789, Tuesday (-56,860) The US Department of the Treasury was established.

1 September 1789, Monday (-56,861) Marguerite Blessington, Irish novelist, was born in County Tipperary (died in Paris 4 June 1849).


29 August 1789, Saturday (-56,864)

28 August 1789, Friday (-56,865) Astronomer William Herschel first observed Saturn�s satellite, Enceladus.

27 August 1789, Thursday (-56,866) The new French regime (French National Assembly) drew up the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen.

26 August 1789. Wednesday (-56,867) Miners in the Pyrenees protested against their working conditions.

24 August 1789, Monday (-56,869) The Russian Navy destroyed the Swedish fleet in the Gulf of Finland.

21 August 1789, Friday (-56,872) Augustin Cauchy, mathematician, was born (died 23 May 1857).

7 August 1789, Friday (-56,886) US Congress created the War Department. Henry Knox became the first Secretary for War.

6 August 1789, Thursday (-56,887) Friedrich List, German economics writer, was born (died 30 November 1846).

4 August 1789, Tuesday (-56,889) The feudal system was abolished in France. Peasants attacked their landlords. This �surrender of feudal privileges� by the nobility was in fact something of a sham, in that by sacrificing some less significant peasant obligations they hoped to retain the most significant ones.


31 July 1789, Friday (-56,893) (Turkey) Austrian and Russian troops under Francis Duke of Coburg and Count Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov defeated the Ottoman Turks at Fokshany (now, Focsani, Romania).

27 July 1789, Monday (-56,897) Thomas Jefferson was made head of the new US Department of Foreign Affairs.

22 July 1789, Wednesday (-56,902) A revolutionary mob murdered the Bailiff of Paris.

19 July 1789, Sunday (-56,905) John Martin, English painter, was born (died 17 February 1854).

15 July 1789, Wednesday (-56,909) The Commune de Paris was formed and appointed Jean Bailly as its head. It set up the National Guard under the Marquis de Lafayette, and was responsible for municipal administration.

14 July 1789. Tuesday (-56,910) (France) Fall of the Bastille, Paris. It was stormed by the citizens of Paris and burned to the ground, at the start of the French Revolution. From 16 July 1789 the French nobility began to flee France. The Bastille had been built in 1369, and designed by Hugues Aubriot (died 1383). At dawn on the 14 July 1789 the mob had stormed Les Invalides, hoping to find arms to repulse an expected attack by soldiers loyal to King LouisXVI. They found 32,000 rifles but no ammunition; a rumour spread that the ammunition was at the Bastille. The Bastille was guarded by 80 soldiers deemed unfit for front-line duties, reinforced by 30 Swiss Guards, and with cannon. Neither the prison governor nor the army showed much will to fight the mob. Seven prisoners within were released. In the countryside, peasants began burning the chateaux, destroying feudal archives and asserting their freedom from manorial dues.

12 July 1789, Sunday (-56,912) (France) Fires burnt in Paris after two days of rioting. The population were angered by a threat to disband the Assembly.

11 July 1789, Saturday (-56,913) The Marquis de Lafayette presented the Declaration of Human Rights to the French National Assembly.

4 July 1789, Saturday (-56,920) US Congress passed its first Tariff Bill, levying duties on over 30 commodities.


30 June 1789, Tuesday (-56,924) The revolutionary mob in Paris attacked the Abbaye prison.

24 June 1789, Wednesday (-56,930) Most of the clergy and nobility in the French Parliament joined forces with the commoners.

20 June 1789, Saturday (-56,934) The French Revolution began.See 5 May 1798. The Third Estate, excluded from Versailles, formed a new assembly at a tennis court nearby, to oppose the dominance of the aristocracy.

18 June 1789, Thursday (-56,936) Austrian troops occupied Brussels.

17 June 1789, Wednesday (-56,937) In France, the Third Estate constituted itself as the French National Assembly. The Third Estate was the commoners, after the Clergy and the Nobility. These last two Estates, under 3% of the population, owned 40% of the land. They were also exempt from taxes, placing an undue tax burden on the middle classes.

14 June 1789, Sunday (-56,940) (1) Captain Bligh, cast adrift from The Bounty with 18 men, arrived at Timor, near Java, having sailed his small boat for 3,618 miles.

(2) A clergyman first produced whisky distilled from maize. The Reverend Elijah Craig called the liquor Bourbon because he lived in Bourbon County, Kentucky.

4 June 1789, Thursday (-56,950) The Dauphin Louis, heir to King Louis XVI, died aged 7.

3 June 1789, Wednesday (-56,951) (Canada) Alexander Mackenzie set out to explore the Mackenzie River by canoe from central Canada to the Arctic Ocean.


28 May 1789, Thursday (-56,057) Bernhard Ingemann, Danish poet, was born (died 24 February 1862).

21 May 1789, Thursday (-56,064) Sir John Hawkins, English writer on music, died (born 30 March 1719).

12 May 1789, Tuesday (-56,973) William Wilberforce made his first speech with the House of Commons.

9 May 1789, Saturday (-56,976) Ludovico Manin, 1l7th and last Doge of Venice, was elected.

7 May 1789, Thursday (-56,978) Edward Hawtrey, Headmaster of Eton from1834, was born (died 27 January 1862).

6 May 1789, Wednesday (-56,979) French deputies of the Third Estate (the common people) refiused to meet in a separate chamber at the Estates-General, demandning to be represented alongside the clergy and nobility.

5 May 1789, Tuesday (-56,980) The French King opened the States General Assembly at Versailles.The French middle class wanted to break down the monopoly of power and wealth held by the aristocracy.The French King felt insecure because of the unpopularity of his Austrian wife, Marie Antoinette, the bankruptcy of the French Treasury, and the increasingly democratic mood of the French Army following on from the American Declaration of Independence. See 20 June 1789. France had also suffered humiliation in the Seven Years War (1756-630, losing to Britain; France had lost her North American colonies, and bad harvests in 1788 and 1789 had almost doubled the price of bread.


30 April1789. Thursday (-56,985) General George Washington inaugurated as first president of the United States, on the balcony of New York City�s federal Hall. John Adams was installed as Vice-President (see 7 January 1789 and 17 March 1776). The United States was federated on 4 March 1789.

28 April1789. Tuesday (-56,987) (1) 300 workers at the Reveillon wallpaper factory were killed when troops opened fire on rioters there. The protest was over proposed pay cuts. France had been in financial crisis for months now, the state overburdened by an expensive aristocracy and clergy. On 22 May 1789 the nobility joined with the clergy in giving up their financial privileges.

(2) The Mutiny on The Bounty. The ship�s captain, Captain Bligh, and 17 others were set adrift in an open boat near The Friendly Isles; they eventually reached Timor, Java, on 14 June 1789. Captain Bligh, born 1754, died on 7 December 1817 in London . His severe discipline on board had provoked the mutiny. The mutineers settled on Pitcairn Island.

26 April1789, Sunday (-56,989) Robert Fox, English geologist, was born (died 25 July 1877).

12 April1789, Sunday (-57,003) Easter Sunday.

7 April1789, Tuesday (-57,008) (Turkey) Turkish Sultan Abdul Hamid (born 1725) died aged 64. He had succeeded his brother Mustafa III in 1773.

3 April1789, Friday (-57,012) King Gustav III of Sweden passed an Act of Unbity and Security, giving him absolute powers.

2 April1789, Thursday (-57,013) John Mackenzie, Scottish Jacobite, died (born 1727).

1 April1789, Wednesday (-57,014) The US House of Representatives held its first meeting.


18 March 1789, Wednesday (-57,028) Catherine (Christian) Murphy (Bowman) became the last person in Britain to be executed by burning at the stake (see 5 May 1790). She had been convicted of �coining� (forgery), which was punished severely as a form of treason.

16 March 1789, Monday (-57,030) (Electrical) German physicist Georg Simon Ohm was born in Erlangen. In 1827 he formulated what became known as Ohm�s Law � that the current is proportional to the ratio of the voltage and the resistance, or I = V/R.

12 March 1789, Thursday (-57,034) The United States Post Office was established.

10 March 1789, Tuesday (-57,036) Francisco Martinez, Spanish dramatist, was born (died 7 February 1862).

4 March 1789, Wednesday (-57,042) The Constitution of the United States came into force. The first US Congress was held in New York with 59 members, each representing a district of some 30,000 people.

1 March 1789, Sunday (-57,045) John McCulloch, British economics writer, was born (died 11 November 1864).


26 February 1789, Thursday (-57,048) Eaton Hodgkinson, British engineer, was born (died 18 June 1861).

19 February 1789, Thursday (-57,055) (Technology) Sir William Fairbairn, Scottish engineer, was born (died 18 August 1874).

15 February 1789, Sunday (-57,059) Frederic Fesca, German composer, was born (died 1826).

11 February 1789, Wednesday (-57,063) (USA) Ethan Allen, US soldier, died in Burlington, Vermont (born 10 January 1739 in Litchfield, Connecticut).


24 January 1789, Saturday (-57,081) Louis XVI of France recalled the States General, which had not met since 1614. The Three States � nobles, clergy, and commons � all had tax greivances. Elections for this body now took place.

21 January 1789, Wednesday (-57,084) Paul Holbach, French writer, died (born 1723). The first US novel, The Power of Sympathy, was printed in Boston, Massachusetts.

17 January 1789, Saturday (-57,088) Johann Neander, German religious writer, was born (died 14 July 1850).

11 January 1789, Sunday (-57,094) John Collier, English writer, was born (died 17 September 1883).

7 January 1789, Wednesday (-57,098) The first national elections were held in the USA, and George Washington was elected President.

4 January 1789, Sunday (-57,101) Benjamin Lundy, US anti-slavery campaigner, was born (died 22 August 1839).

1 January 1789, Thursday (-57,104) Fletcher Grantley, English politician, died (born 23 June 1716).


31 December 1788, Wednesday (-57,105) Basil Hall, British travel writer, was born (died 11 September 1844).

28 December 1788, Sunday (-57,108) John Logan, Scottish poet, died.

23 December 1788, Tuesday (-57,113) Maryland ceded ten square miles of land to the US Congress for the site of the Federal capital city, Washington DC.

17 December 1788, Wednesday (-57,119) Russian forces under Prince Grigory Potemkin captured the Black Sea port and fortress of Ochakov from the Ottoman Turks.

14 December 1788, Sunday (-57,122) Charles IV (1748-1819) became King of Spain.

6 December 1788, Saturday (-57,130) Richard Barham, English writer, was born in Canterbury (died 17 June 1845).


25 November 1788, Tuesday (-57,141) Thomas Amory, English author, died.

22 November 1788, Saturday (-57,144) Johann Flugel, German writer, was born (died 24 June 1855).

6 November 1788, Thursday (-57,160) (Denmark) The Triple Alliance (Britain, the Dutch Republic and Prussia; an alliance aimed at preserving peace within Europe) persuaded Denmark to pull its troops out of Sweden. Denmark had invaded Sweden September 1788 whilst Sweden was engaged in an ussuccesful war against Russia, to recover former Danbish territories in southern Sweden.


27 Ocotber 1788, Monday (-57,170) Sir Henry Holland, English writer,was born (died 27 Ocotber 1873)

24 Ocotber 1788, Friday (-57,173) Sarah Josepha Buell Hale, US author, was born in Newport, New Hampshire (died 1879)

21 Ocotber 1788, Tuesday (-57,176) George Combe, Scottish phrenologist, was born (died14 August 1858).

13 Ocotber 1788, Monday (-57,184) Thomas Erskine, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 20 March 1870).

10 Ocotber 1788, Friday (-57,187) (USA) Joshua Bates, US financier, was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts (died in London 24 September 1864).

7 Ocotber 1788, Tuesday (-57,190) The Polish Sejm, elected this day, began aligning the country with Prussia, away from Russia. Poland began remodelling its constitution on western European lines.

1 Ocotber 1788, Wednesday (-57,196) William Brodie was hanged in Edinburgh. His career inspired Robert Louis Stevenson to write The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.


30 September 1788, Tuesday (-57,197) Lord Raglan, the Field Marshall responsible for the Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava, was born at Badminton, Gloucestershire.

22 September 1788, Monday (-52,205) Theofore Hook, English author, was born (died 24 August 1841).

19 September 1788, Friday (-52,208) Georg Freytag, German scholarly writer, was born (died 16 November 1861).

13 September 1788, Saturday (-57,214) New York became the federal capital of the new United States of America. The US capital moved to Philadelphia in 1788 and to Washington DC in 1800.

12 September 1788, Friday (-57,215) Alexander Campbell, US Christian religious leader (died 1866) was born.

10 September 1788, Wednesday (-57,217) Jacques Boucher, French writer, was born in Rethel (died in Abbeville 5 August 1868).

9 September 1788, Tuesday (-57,218)

4 September 1788, Thursday (-57,223) The Dutch republic signed a Treaty of Friendship and Trade with the American former Colonies.


27 August 1788, Wednesday (-57,231) Jacques Necker was recalled as French Minister of Finance.

26 August 1788, Tuesday (-57,232) (Britain) Elizabeth, Duchess of Kingston, died.

25 August 1788, Monday (-57,233) Etienne Lomenie de Brienne, the French Finance Minister, resigned in the face of a major but iundeclared crisis in French national finances.

22 August 1788, Friday (-57,236) The British settlement of Sierra Leone was founded, for the purpose of providing a home for freed slaves and homeless Africans from England.

9 August 1788, Saturday (-57,249) Adoniram Judson, US missionary to Burma, was born (died 12 April1850).

8 August 1788, Friday (-57,250) King Louis XVI now decided to summon the Estates General (Parlement) for May 1789.

2 August 1788, Saturday (-57,256) Painter Thomas Gainsborough, born 14 May 1727, died.


26 July 1788, Saturday (-57,263) (USA) New York became the 11th state of the Union.

21 July 1788, Monday (-57,268) Gaetano Filangiero, Italian writer, died (born 18 August 1752).

15 July 1788, Tuesday (-57,274) Jean Drouais, French historical painter, died (born 25 November 1763).

10 July 1788, Thursday (-57,279) Mozart completed his Jupiter Symphony. Born on 27 January 1756, Mozart died on 5 December 1791 from typhus and was buried in a pauper�s grave with several other paupers.

8 July 1788, Tuesday (-52,281)

5 July 1788, Saturday (-52,284) (USA) Mather Byles, US clergyman unpopular for his pro-Royalist views, died (born 26 March 1706).

1 July 1788, Tuesday (-57,288)


25 June 1788, Wednesday (-57,294) (USA) Virginia became the 10th State of the Union.

21 June 1788, Saturday (-57,298) (1) The American Constitution legally came into force, after ratification by the 9th State, New Hampshire.

(2) King Gustavus III of Sweden invaded Russian Finland, without declaring war first.

(3) (USA) New Hampshire became the 9th State of the Union.

18 June 1788, Wednesday (-57,301) Adam Gib, Scottish religious writer, died (born 14 April1714).

9 June 1788, Monday (-57,310) In London the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa was founded. Members researched scientific and medical topivcs, and also sought to end slavery.


30 May 1788, Friday (-57,320) Marylebone Cricket Club formally codified the laws of cricket.

23 May 1788, Friday (-57,327) (USA) South Carolina became the 8th State of the Union.

15 May 1788, Thursday (-57,335) (Medical) Neil Arnott, Scottish physician, was born in Arbroath (died 2 March 1874 in London).

10 May 1788, Saturday (-57,340) (Light) Augustin Fresnel, pioneer in lenses, was born (died 14 July 1827)

9 May 1788, Friday (-57,341) British Parliament passed a motion for the abolition of the slave trade.

3 May 1788, Saturday (-57,347) The first evening newspaper, the Star and Evening Advertiser, was published in London.


28 April1788, Monday (-57,352) Maryland became the 7th State of the Union.

15 April1788, Tuesday (-57,365) (Biology) George Buffon, French naturalist, died (born 7 September 1707).


29 March 1788, Saturday (-57,382) Evangelist Charles Wesley, younger brother of John Wesley, died. He wrote over 5,000 hymns.

23 March 1788, Sunday (-57,388) Easter Sunday

22 March 1788, Saturday (-57,389) (Biology) Pierre Pelletier was born in Paris. In 1817 he jointly discovered chlorophyll with Joseph Bienaime Caventou (born 30 June 1795 in Saint Omer, France).

21 March 1788, Friday (-57,390) (USA) A major fire destroyed nearly all of New Orleans, USA.

10 March 1788, Monday (-57,401) Edward Baily, British sculptor, was born in Bristol (died in Holloway 22 May 1867).

8 March 1788, Saturday (-57,403) Sir William Hamilton, Scottish scientific writer, was born (died 6 May 1856).

2 March 1788, Sunday (-57,409) Solomon Gessner, Swiss poet, died (born 1 April1730).


28 February 1788, Thursday (-57,412) (Britain) Samuel Bamford, British politician, was born in Miston, Lancashire (died in Harpurhey 13 April1872.

25 February 1788, Monday (-57,415) Thomas Cubitt, English builder, was born (died 20 December 1855).

22 February 1788, Friday (-57,418) Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, was born in Gdansk, Germany (now Danzig, Poland); died 1860.

18 February 1788, Monday (-57,422) Maurice la Tour, French pastel painter, died (born 5 September 1704).

16 February 1788, Saturday (-57,424) George Anne Bellamy, English actress, died.

14 February 1788, Thursday (-57,426) Edward Blomfield, English scholarly writer, was born in Bury St Edmunds (diedin Cambridge 9 Ocotber 1816).

13 February 1788, Wednesday (-57,427) (India) The corruption trial of Warren Hastings, former British Governor-General of India, began in London.

9 February 1788, Saturday (-57,431)

6 February 1788, Wednesday (-57,434) (USA) Massachusetts became the 6th State of the Union.

5 February 1788, Tuesday (-57,435) Sir Robert Peel, British Tory Prime Minister and founder of the Metropolitan Police Force, was born at Bury in Lancashire, the son of a cotton millionaire.

3 February 1788, Sunday (-57,437)

1 February 1788, Friday (-57,439) Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet patrented the steamboat.


31 January 1788, Thursday (-57,440) Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie), the Young Pretender and leader of the Jacobite Rebellion, aimed at deposing King George II, died in exile in Rome.

26 January 1788, Saturday (-57,445) The first batch of British convicts arrived at Sydney Cove, Australia. They came aboard the HMS Endeavour, captained by Arthur Phillip; 570 men and 160 women were the survivors of a 36-week voyage from England on which the pox had killed 48 of the prisoners. Captain Phillip was to administer the penal colony. See 18 January 1788.

22 January 1788, Tuesday (-57,449) George Gordon, or Lord Byron, was born in London.

20 January 1788, Sunday (-57.451) The French Parlement presented a list of grievances against the Government to King Louis XIV.

18 January 1788. Friday (-57,453) A penal settlement was established at Botany Bay, Australia. The first convicts arrived on 26 January 1788. The option of sending its prisoners to America was no longer open to Britain.

11 January 1788, Friday (-57,460) William Brande, English chemist, was born in London (died in Tunbridge Wells 11 February 1866).

9 January 1788, Wednesday (-57,462) (USA) Connecticut became the 5th state of the Union.

6 January 1788, Sunday (-57,465) Louis Cormenin, French political lobbyist, was born (died 6 May 1868).

2 January 1788, Wednesday (-57,469) (USA) Georgia became the 4th State of the Union.

1 January 1788, Tuesday (-57,470) The Universal Daily Register was renamed The Times.


30 December 1787, Sunday (-57,472) Otto von Kotzebue, Russian geographical writer, was born (died 15 February 1846).

18 December 1787, Tuesday (-57,484) (USA) New Jersey became the 3rd State of the Union.

17 December 1787, Monday (-57,485) HMS Bounty, commended by William Bligh, set sail from for the South Seas.

16 December 1787, Sunday (-57,486) Francois Heim, French painter, was born (died 29 September 1865)

15 December 1787, Saturday (-57,487) Charles Clarke, British writer, was born (died 13 March 1877)

14 December 1787, Friday (-57,488)

13 December 1787, Thursday (-57,489) (Astronomy) Mathematician, physicist and astronomer Ruggiero Guiseppe Boscovich died in Milan.

12 December 1787, Wednesday (-57,490) (USA) Pennsylvania became the 2nd State of the Union.

10 December 1787, Monday (-57,492) (USA) Thomas Gallaudet, US educator of the deaf and dumb, was born (died 5 September 1851).

7 December 1787, Friday (-57,495) (USA) Delaware, the Diamond or First State, achieved Statehood.


29 November 1787. Thursday (-57,503) Louis XVI of France promulgated an Edict of Tolerance, allowing civil status to Protestants.

21 November 1787. Wednesday (-57,511) Sir Samuel Cunard, Canadian ship owner, was born in Nova Scotia. He came to Britain in 1838 and, with two partners, established what came to be known as the Cunard Line.

20 November 1787, Tuesday (-57,512) Louis XIV of France declared that the Estates-General (Parliament) would be recalled for July 1792.

18 November 1787, Sunday (-57,514) Louis Daguerre, French artist and pioneer of photography, was born near Paris.

15 November 1787, Thursday(-57,517) Richard Dana, US writer, was born (died 1879).

6 November 1787, Tuesday (-57,526) Vuk Karajich, famous Serbian writer, was born (died 6 February 1864).

3 November 1787, Saturday (-57,529) Robert Lowth, English Orientalist writer, died (born 27 November 1710).


30 Ocotber 1787, Tuesday (-57,533) William Wilberforce first met with the London Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.

29 Ocotber 1787, Monday (-57,534) The opera Don Giovanni, with music by Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, premiered in Prague.

28 Ocotber 1787, Sunday (-57,535) Johann Musaus, German writer, died (born 20 March 1735).

16 Ocotber 1787, Tuesday (-57,547) Edward Foss, English legal writer, was born (died 27 July 1870).

10 Ocotber 1787, Wednesday (-57,553) Amsterdam, the Dutch capital, surrendered to Prussian forces, bringing ther anti-aristocratic revolution to an end.

7 Ocotber 1787, Sunday (-45,556) (USA) Henry Muhlenberg, US Lutheran, died (born 6 September 1711).

4 Ocotber 1787, Thursday (-45,559) Francois Guizot,French statesman, was born (died 12 September 1874).


24 September 1787, Monday (-57,569) The French Parlement was recalled from Troyes in an acto of reconciliation by Kin Louis XV1.

20 September 1787, Thursday (-57,573) William V of Orange was restored as Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, following the expulsion of the Patriot Party by the Prussians.

17 September 1787, Monday (-57,576) The constitution of the United States of America was signed.

15 September 1787, Saturday (-57,578) George Mason, a plantation owner from Virginia, called for an amendment to the draft US Constitution. To avoid the Federal government becoming oppressive, he called for a clause whereby if two thirds of the States wished, Congress would have to agree to a convention to discuss the proposed government change or policy. This change to Article V was incorporated as Mason desired.

13 September 1787, Thursday (-57,580) Prussian forces under the Duke of Brunswick invaded the Netherlands, overcoming desultory resistance from the Patriot |Free Corps militias.

10 September 1787, Monday (-57,583) John Crittenden, US statesman, was born (died 26 July 1863)

5 September 1787, Wednesday (-57,588) Francois Beudant, French geologist, was born in Paris (died 10 December 1850).

1 September 1787, Saturday (-57,592) Jan Baake, Dutch writer, was born in Leiden (died 26 March 1864)


24 August 1787, Friday (-57,600) Mozart completed his violin and piano sonata in A, K526.

14 August 1787, Tuesday (-57,610) King Louis XVI of France banished the Parlement to Troyes, in an attempt to curb its growing opposition to the King�s Government.

10 August 1787. Friday (-57,614) Mozart completed his famous Eine Kleine Nachtmusik


30 July 1787, Monday (-57,625) Marylebone Cricket Club, London, played its first match, against Islington Cricket Club.

27 July 1787, Friday (-57,628) The Theatre Royal, Margate, was founded.

11 July 1787, Wednesday (-57,644) Alexander Menshikov, Russian statesman, was born (died 2 May 1869).


20 June 1787, Wednesday (-57,665) (Arts) Karl Abel, German musician (born 1725) died in London.

7 June 1787, Thursday (-57,678) Sir John Coode, geologist, was born (died 12 August 1857).


31 May 1787, Thursday (-57,685) The first cricket match was played at Lords, north London. The match was Essex vs. Middlesex.

25 May 1787, Friday (-57,691) The Philadelphia Convention, headed by George Washington, began drawing up the USA Constitution. On 17 September 1787 the Constitution was agreed by 39 out of 42 delegates.

22 May 1787, Tuesday (-57,694) The London Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade was founded by Thomas Clarkson.

14 May 1787, Monday (-57,702) Delegates gathered in Philadelphia, USA, to draw up the US Constitution.

13 May 1787, Sunday (-57,703) A fleet of 11 ships consisting of 2 two men 3 stores ships, and 6 convict transporters with some 730 convicts set sail from England for Australia under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip. The journey lasted until January 1788. The convicts disembarked at Sydney Cove, minus 40 who had died on the voyage.

12 May 1787, Saturday (-58,069) (Japan) Food riots in Osaka, Japan, that began 11 May with rice warehouses being broken into now spread across the city. By 18/5 the riots had spread to Edo and 30 other major cities, with rice merchants� houses being ransacked. Other shops were also looted.


8 April1787, Sunday (-57,738) Easter Sunday.

2 April1787, Monday (-57,744) (USA) Thomas Gage, British colonial Governor of Massachusetts, died (born 1721).


17 March 1787, Saturday (-57,760) Edmund Kean, actor, was born (died 15 May 1833).

12 March 1787, Monday (-57,765) Vicente Garcia, Spanish dramatist, died (born 9 March 1734).

10 March 1787, Saturday (-57,767) William Etty, British painter, was born (died 13 November 1849).

8 March 1787, Thursday (-57,769) Karl Grafe, German surgeon, was born (died 4 July 1840).

6 March 1787, Tuesday (-55,771) (Astronomy) Joseph von Fraunhofer, best known for his study of absorption lines in the Sun�s spectrum, now known as Fraunhofer Lines, was born (died 7 June 1826).


23 February 1787, Friday (-57.782) Emma Hard Willard, US educator, was born in Berlin, Connecticut (died 1870).

22 February 1787, Thursday (-57,783) France was nearly bankrupt, with a national debt of UK� 800 million.

15 February 1787, Thursday (-57,790) Roger Boscovich, scientific writer, died in Milan.

10 February 1787, Saturday (-57,795) Charles Chauncy, US religious writer, died (born 1 January 1705).


29 January 1787, Monday (-57,807) Thomas Paine, English writer, was born.

25 January 1787, Thursday (-57,811) An abortive attempt to seize the US arsenal at Springfield, Massachusetts.

21 January 1787, Sunday (-57,815) (Geology) Gustavus Brander, English expert in fossils, died (born 1720 in London)

11 January 1787, Thursday (-57,825) William Herschel observed Uranus through his new large (20 ft focal length) reflector telescope, and first saw its satellites, Titania and Oberon.

1 January 1787, Monday (-57,835) Arthir Middleton, US politician, died (born 26 January 1742).


26 December 1786, Tuesday (-57,841) Gaspari Gozzi, Italian writer, died (born 4 December 1713).

12 December 1786, Tuesday (-57,855) William Marcy, US statesman, was born (died 4 July 1857).

5 December 1786, Tuesday (-57,862) Henry Drummond, English politician, was born (died 20 February 1860).


18 November 1786, Saturday (-57,879) Sir Henry Bishop, composer, was born in London (died 30 April1855).


15 Ocotber 1786, Sunday (-57,913) James Holman, blind travel writer, was born (died 29 July 1857).

5 Ocotber 1786, Thursday (-57,923) Janos Maljath, Hungarian historical writer, was born (died 3 January 1855).

2 Ocotber 1786, Monday (-57,926) Augustus Keppel, British Admiral, died (born 25 April1725).


18 September 1786, Monday (-57,940) Christian VIII, King of Norway and Denmark, was born (died 20 January 1848).

9 September 1786, Saturday (-57,949) George Washington called for the abolition of slavery.

5 September 1786, Tuesday (-57,953) Jonas Hanway, English writer and traveller, died (born 1712).


31 August 1786, Thursday (-57,958) Michel Chevreul, chemist, was born (died 9 April1889).

26 August 1786, Saturday (-57,963) Britain and France agreed the Eden Treaty, reducing trade barriers between the two countries.

25 August 1786, Friday (-57,964) Ludwig I, King of Bavaria, was born.

19 August 1786, Saturday (-57,970) Nathanael Greene, US General, died (born 7 August 1742).

17 August 1786, Thursday (-57,972) (Germany) Frederick the Great, military leader and King of Prussia since 1740, died in Potsdam, aged 74. Under his rule Prussia grew from under 46,000 square miles to over 71,000 square miles, and its population rose from 2.2 million to 5.8 million. Prussia had a standing army of 200,000, well armed and disciplined. Britain often gave financial aid to Prussia, in its wars against France and Austria. He was succeeded by his inept 41-year-old nephew, who ruledas Freidrich Wilhelm II for 11 years.

8 August 1786, Tuesday (-57,981) Mont Blanc, 4,807 metres high, was conquered by a local man, Dr Michel Gabriel Paccard of Chamonix, along with his porter Jacques Balmat.


30 July 1786, Sunday (-57,990) Georg Gabler, German philosophical writer, was born (died 13 September 1853).

20 July 1786, Thursday (-58,000) Thomas Robinson, 2nd baron Grantham, died (born 30 November 1738).

17 July 1786, Monday (-58,003) Penang, Malaysia, was founded by the East India Company. The area had been ceded by the Sultan of Kedah in 1785.


27 June 1786, Tuesday (-58,023) John Broughton, English writer, was born (died 3 June 1869).

19 June 1786, Sunday (-50,032) Nathanael Greene, US General during the American revolution, died in Mulberry grove, Georgia, aged 43.

13 June 1786, Tuesday (-58,037) Winfield Scott, Commander of the US Army, was born near Petersburg, Virginia (died 1866)

3 June 1786, Saturday (-58,047) William Hilton, English painter, was born (died 30 December 1839).


30 May 1786, Tuesday (-58,051) Andras Fay, Hungarian poet, was born (died 26 July 1864)

29 May 1786, Monday (-58,052) Charles Blomfield, English cleric, was born in Bury St Edmunds (died 5 August 1857).

28 May 1786, Sunday (-58,053) Louis McLane, US politician, was born (died 7 Ocotber 1857).

21 May 1786, Sunday (-58,060) Karl William Scheele, Swedish chemist, died in Koping, Sweden, aged 44.

19 May 1786, Friday (-58,062) John Stanley, composer, died.

13 May 1786, Saturday (-58,068) William Farren, English actor, was born (died 24 September 1861).

6 May 1786, Saturday (-58,075) Karl Borne, German satirical writer, was born in Frankfort am Main (died in Paris 12 February 1837).

1 May 1786, Monday (-58,080) Mozart�s opera, The Marriage of Figaro, had its first performance, in Vienna, Austria.


30 April1786, Sunday (-58,081) William, Mulready, English painter, was born (died 7 July 1863).

22 April1786, Saturday (-58,089) Amos Lawrence, US philanthropist, was born (died 31 December 1852).

16 April1786, Sunday (-58,095) Easter Sunday. Birth of Sir John Franklin, English Rear Admiral.

10 April1786, Monday (-38,101) (Britain) John Byron, British Vice-Admiral, died (born 8 November 1723).

7 April1786, Friday (-38,104) Izidor Guzmics, Hungarian religious writer, was born (died 1 September 1839).

1 April1786, Saturday (-58,110) (Britain) Sir Thomas Buxton, English philanthropist, was born (died 19 February 1845).


25 March 1786, Saturday (-58,117) (Astronomy) Giovanni Battista Amici, Italian astronomer, was born in Modena (died 10 April1863 in Florence).

22 March 1786, Wednesday (-58,120) Joachim Lelewel, Polish historical writer, was born (died 29 May 1861).

6 March 1786, Monday (-58,136) Sir Charles Napier, British Admiral, was born (died 6 November 1860).


26 February 1786, Sunday (-58,144) (Light and Optics) Dominique Francois Arago was born in Estagel, France. In 1809 he discovered that blue light from the sky is polarised, and found the neutral point where polarisation is absent.

25 February 1786, Saturday (-58,145) (Astronomy) Thomas Wright, astronomer, died at Byers Green, England

24 February 1786, Friday (-58,146) Wilhelm Grimm, German collector of fairy tales along with his brother Jacob, was born in Hanau.

15 February 1786, Wednesday (-58,155) Ferdinand Hand, German scholarly writer, was born (died 14 March 1851_.

3 February 1786, Friday (-58,167) Heinrich Gesenius, German historical writer, was born (died 23 Ocotber 1842).


26 January 1786, Thursday (-58,175) Benjamin Haydon, English painter, was born (died 22 June 1846).

16 January 1786, Monday (-58,185) The Virginia Stattute of Religious Freedom was passed, drafted by Thomas Jefferrson, which later formed the basis of the Us First Amendment, guaranteeing freedom of worship.

8 January 1786, Sunday (-58,193) (USA) Nicholas Biddle, US financier, was born in Philadelphia (died in Philadelphia 27 February 1844).

7 January 1786, Saturday (-58,194) Jean Guettard, French naturalist writer, died (born 22 September 1715).

4 January 1786, Wednesday (-58,197) Moses Mendelssohn, German philosopher, died in Berlin aged 56.

1 January 1786, Sunday (-58,200) (Africa) Dixon Denham, English explorer of Africa, was born (died 8 May 1828).


30 December 1785, Friday (-58,202) John Dunlop, Scottish writer, was born (died 1842).

24 December 1785, Saturday (-58,208) Etienne Gerlach, Belgian historical writer, was born.

17 December 1785, Saturday (-58,215) Sir William Napier, historical writer, waws born (died 12 February 1860).

14 December 1785, Wednesday (-58,218) Giovanni Battista Cipriani, Italian born English neoclassical painter, died in London aged 58.

6 December 1785, Tuesday (-58,226) Catherine Clive, British actress, died (born 1711).


29 November 1785, Tuesday (-58,233) Pierre Lebrun, French poet, was born (died 27 May 1873).

28 November 1785, Monday (-58,234) (France) Achille Duc de Broglie, French statesman, was born (died 25 January 1870).

26 November 1785, Saturday (-58,236)

25 November 1785, Friday (-58,237) Richard Glover, English poet, died (born 1712)

24 November 1785, Thursday (-58,238) Philipp Bockh, German scholarly writer, was born in Karlsruhe (died in Berlin 3 August 1867).

21 November 1785, Monday (-58,241) William Beaumont, US Army surgeon, the foirst person to observe and describe digestion as it occurred in the stomach, was born in Lebanon Connecticut (died 1853)

12 November 1785, Saturday (-58,250) Richard Burn, English legal writer, died (born 1709).

2 November 1785, Wednesday (-58,260) The first unsinkable lifeboat was patented by Lionel Lukin, a London coachbuilder.


15 Ocotber 1785, Saturday (-58,278) Jose Miguel Carrera, leader in the Chilean fight for independence from Spain, was born (died 4 September 1821).


30 September 1785, Friday (-58,293) Johann Moser, German legal writer, died.

1 September 1785, Thursday (-58,322) (USA) Mozart published his 6th string quartet opus 10 in Vienna. =================================================================================

30 August 1785, Tuesday (-58,324) Lin Tse Hu, Chinese official whose attempt to halt the opium trade led to the Opium War, was born in Hou-Kuan, Fukien Province, China (died 1850).

25 August 1785, Thursday (-58,329) Adam Moltke, Danish statesman, was born (died 15/.2/1864).

20 August 1785, Saturday (-58,334) Valentine Mott, US surgeon, was born (died 26 April1865).

15 August 1785, Monday (-58,339) Thomas de Quincy, English author, was born (died 8 December 1859).

14 August 1785, Sunday (-58,340) John Fletcher, English religious writer, died (born 12 September 1729).


12 July 1785, Tuesday (-58,373) Louis la Chalotais, French jurist, died (born 6 March 1701).

6 July 1785, Wednesday (-58,379) The American Congress adopted a coinage system suggested by the Virginia delegate. It featured a gold 10 dollar coin, a 1 dollar silver cooin, and a copper coin worth 1 cent.


30 June 1785, Thursday (-58,385) James Edward Ogelthorpe, English army officer who founded the first British colony in Georgia, died at Cranman Hall, Essex, aged 88.

29 June 1785, Wednesday (-58,386) Mrs Sage made a balloon ascent with George Biggin, becoming the first Englishwoman to fly.

16 June 1785, Thursday (-58,399) The first ballooning fatality. De Rozier and Jules Romain attempted a balloon flight from France to Britain. Unfortunately they had added a Montgolfier hot air apparatus to their hydrogen balloon and their craft exploded even before it reached the Channel, as the hydrogen vented.

6 June 1785, Monday (-58,409) John James, English religious writer, was born (died 1 Ocotber 1859).


23 May 1785, Monday (58,423) Benjamin Franklin announced his invention of bifocals.

21 May 1785, Saturday (-58,425) (Germany) August Bekker, German philosopher, was born (died in Berlin 7 June 1871).

13 May 1785, Friday (-58,433) Friedrich Dahlmann, German politician, was born (died 5 December 1860).

9 May 1785, Monday (-58,437) Joseph Bramah patented the beer pump handle.

8 May 1785, Sunday (-58,438) Etienne Choiseul, French statesman, died (born 18 June 1719).

3 May 1785, Tuesday (-58,443) Mademoiselle Simonet accompanied Blanchard, becoming the first woman to fly over England.


26 April1785, Tuesday (-58,450) John James Audubon, US artist, was born in Les Cayes, St Dominique, west Indies (died 1859).

4 April1785, Monday (-58,472) Elisabeth Arnim, German authoress, was born in Frankfort am Main (died 20 January 1859 in Berlin).


30 March 1785, Wednesday (-58,477) Henry Hardinge, British colonial Governor-General of India, was born (died 24 September 1856).

27 March 1785, Sunday (-58,480) Easter Sunday. King Louis XVII of France was born.

22 March 1785, Tuesday (-58,485) (Geology) Geologist Adam Sedgwick was born in Yorkshire, England. In 1835 he identified the Cambrian Period.

11 March 1785, Friday (-58,496) John McLean, US Supreme Court Judge, was born in Morris County, New Jersey (died 1861)

7 March 1785, Monday (-58,500) Alessandro Manzoni, Italian poet, was born (died 22 May 1873).


2 February 1785, Wednesday (-58,533) Hyacinthe Latouche, French poet and novelist, was born (died 9 March 1851)


30 January 1785, Sunday (-58,536) Charles Metcalfe, British colonial administrator of India, was born (died 5 September 1846).

19 January 1785, Wednesday (-58,547) The first balloon ascent in Ireland was made, from Ranelagh Gardens, Dublin.

17 January 1785, Monday (-58,549) Leonard Horner, Scottish geologist, was born (died 5 March 1864)

14 January 1785, Friday (-58,552) Mozart completed his Dissonanzenquartett (Dissonance Quartet), opus no.10.

7 January 1785, Friday (-58,559) Jean-Pierre Blanchard, and his sponsor, the American Dr John Jefferies, made the first hot air balloon crossing of the English Channel from Dover to Calais.

4 January 1785, Tuesday (-58,562) Jacob Grimm, older of the two German brothers famous for fairy tales, was born in Hanau.

3 January 1785, Monday (-58,563) Baldassare Galuppi, Italian composer, died (born 18 Ocotber 1706).

1 January 1785, Saturday (-58,565) The Daily Universal Register was first published by John Walter. It was renamed The Times on 1 January 1788.


15 December 1784, Wednesday (-58,582) Ludwig Devrient, German actor, was born (died 30 December 1832).

13 December 1784, Monday (-58,584) Samuel Johnson, born 18 September 1709, died. Aged 75, he had lived in near-poverty for many years but from 1762 was granted a Crown Pension of �3,000 a year. He is best remembered for his comprehensive dictionary, which took him eight years to complete.

7 December 1784, Tuesday (-58,590) Allan Cunningham, Scottish poet, was born (died 30 Ocotber 1842).

5 December 1784, Sunday (-58,592) (Race Equality) Phillis Wheatley, the first published Black American poet, died in Boston, Massachusetts aged ca.31.


24 November 1784, Wednesday (-58,603) Zachary Taylor, American Whig and 12th President, was born in Orange County, Virginia.

22 November 1784, Monday (-58,605) Paolo Frisi, Italian mathematician, died (born 13 April1728).

17 November 1784, Wednesday (-58,610) Ebenezer Henderson, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 17 May 1858).


27 Ocotber 1784, Wednesday (-58,631) Nicolo Paganini, Italian composer, was born in Genoa (died 1840).

24 Ocotber 1784, Sunday (-58,634) Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, Jewish philanthropist, was born (died 28 July 1885).

20 Ocotber 1784, Wednesday (-58,638) Lord Palmerston was born at 20, Queen Anne�s Gate, Westminster as Henry John Temple.

19 Ocotber 1784, Tuesday (-58,639) Leigh Hunt, British poet and essayist, was born.

17 Ocotber 1784, Sunday (-58,641) Napoleon, aged 15, entered the Ecole Militaire in Paris. He graduated a year later, coming 42nd out of 58.

15 Ocotber 1784, Friday (-58,643) (France) Thomas Bugeaud, Marshal of France, was born (died 10 June 1849).

14 Ocotber 1784, Thursday (-58,644) Ferdinand VII, King of Spain, was born.

4 Ocotber 1784, Monday (-58,654) James Sadler flew for about 30 minutes in a hot air balloon oved Oxford.


28 September 1784, Tuesday (-58,660)

26 September 1784, Sunday (-58,662) Christopher Hansteen, Norwegian scientific writer, was born (died 11 April1873).

21 September 1784, Tuesday (-58,667) The first successful daily American newspaper, the Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser, appeared.

20 September 1784, Monday (-58,668) (Cartography) Sir Richard Griffith, who prepared several geological maps of Ireland (1st, 1815), was born (died 22 September 1878).

15 September 1784, Wednesday (-58,673) The first hydrogen balloon ascent from London was made.

8 September 1784, Wednesday (-58,680) Ann Lee, religious leader and founder of the US sect of the Shakers, died.

4 September 1784, Saturday (-58,684) (Cartography) Cesar Cassini died (born 17 June 1714). In 1744 he began surveying for a map of France.

1 September 1784, Wednesday (-58,687) (Cartography) Thomas Colby, director of the Ordnance Survey, who surveyed Ireland, was born (died 9 Ocotber 1852)


25 August 1784, Wednesday (-58,694) The first balloon ascent in Britain was made. James Tytler made a brief ascent in Edinburgh.

13 August 1784, Friday (-58,706) The East India Act put the Company under a board of control to manage its revenue and administration.

10 August 1784, Tuesday (-58,709) Allan Ramsay, portrait painter, died in Dover, England, aged 70.

4 August 1784, Wednesday (-58,715) Giovanni Martini, Italian musician, died (born 24 April1706).

2 August 1784, Monday (-58,717) The first specially constructed mail coach ran in Britain, from Bristol. to London.


30 July 1784, Friday (-58,720) Denis Diderot, French writer, died (born 5 Ocotber 1713).

22 July 1784, Thursday (-58,728) Friedrich Bessel, German astronomer, was born in Minden (died in Konigsberg 17 March 1846).

12 July 1784, Monday (-58,738) John Brown, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 13 Ocotber 1858).

8 July 1784, Thursday (-58,742) (Biology) Torbern Bergman, Swedish naturalist, died in Medevi (born in Katrineberg 20 March 1735).

4 July 1784, Sunday (-58,746) Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria repealed the Hungarian Constitution, and annulled the Hungarian feudal Courts, in an attempt to create a unified Hapsburg empire and break the power of the Hungarian nobility.


29 June 1784, Tuesday (-58,751) (Spain) Alexandre Aguado, Spanish soldier and politician, was born in Seville (died 14 April1842 in Gijon).

26 June 1784, Saturday (-58,754) William H Crawford, American politician who cast te deciding vote for independence, died in Dover, Delaware, aged 55.


30 May 1784, Sunday (-58,781) (Britain) Sir William Brown, financier, was born (died 1864).

20 May 1784, Thursday (-58,791) Peace of Versailles, between England and Holland.

12 May 1784, Wednesday (-58,799) James Knowles, Irish dramatist, was born (died 30 November 1862).

10 May 1784, Monday (-58,801) Antoine Court de Gebelin, French scholarly writer, died (born 1728).


29 April1784, Thursday (-58,812) Mozart�s violin sonata in B flat, K454, premiered in Vienna.

11 April1784, Sunday (-58,830) Easter Sunday.

5 April1784, Monday (-58,836) Louis Spohr, composer and violinist, was born.

3 April1784, Saturday (-58,838) The British Parliament passed the India Act, to make the British East India Company more accountable.


25 March 1784, Thursday (-58,847) Francois Fetis, Belgian composer, was born (died 26 March 1871)

19 March 1784, Friday (-58,853) Henry Goulburn, English statesman, was born (died 12 January 1856).

12 March 1784, Friday (-58,860) William Buckland, geologist, was born (died 24 August 1856).

11 March 1784, Thursday (-58,861) Britain signed a peace treaty with Tippu Sultan of Mysore, ending the Second Mysore War.


28 February 1784, Saturday (-58,873) John Wesley signed the Deed of Declaration of the Wesleyan faith.

20 February 1784, Friday (-58,881) Adam Black, Scottish book publisher, was born in Edinburgh (died 24 January 1874).


31 January 1784, Saturday (-58,901) Bernard Barton, English poet, was born in Carlisle (died in Woodbridge 19 February 1849).

28 January 1784, Wednesday (-58,904) (Britain) George Aberdeen, British statesman, was born in Edinburgh.

21 January 1784, Wednesday (-58,911) Peter de Wint, English landscape painter, was born (died 30 January 1849).

14 January 1784, Wednesday (-58,918) The American Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris, formally ending the American Revolution.

11 January 1784, Sunday (-58,921) Joseph Gwilt, British architectural writer, was born (died 14 September 1863)

6 January 1784, Tuesday (-58,926) (Russia, Turkey) Under the Treaty of Constantinople, Ottoman Turkey ceded the Crimea to Russia.

2 January 1784, Friday (-58,930) Ernst I, Duke of Saxe Coburg Gotha, was born (died 29 January 1844).


31 December 1783, Wednesday (-58,932) Thomas McDonough, US naval officer, was born in The Trap, Delaware (died 1825).

24 December 1783, Wednesday (-58,939) George Washington resigned as Commander of the Continental Army.

23 December 1783, Tuesday (-58,940) Johann Hasse, German composer, died.

21 December 1783, Sunday (-58,942)

19 December 1783, Friday (-58,944) William Pitt the Younger became Prime Minister.

18 December 1783, Thursday (-58,945) Johan Bystrom, Swedish sculptor, was born (died 1848).

9 December 1783, Tuesday (-58,954) The first executions at London�s Newgate Prison.

5 December 1783, Friday (-58,958) Simon Greanleaf, US legal writer, was born (died 6 Ocotber 1853).

1 December 1783, Monday (-58,962) Jacques Charles flew a 28-foot diameter hydrogen balloon made of silk, coated with rubber to make it airtight. It flew 27 miles from its start in Paris.


25 November 1783, Tuesday (-58,968) British troops evacuated from New York.

24 November 1783, Monday (-58,969) Victor DuCange, novelist, was born (died 15 Ocotber 1833).

21 November 1783, Friday (-58,972) Man�s first free flight was made by Jean De Rosier and the Marquis D�Arlandes in the hot air balloon, the Montgolfier They travelled five miles in 25 minutes, reaching a height of 500 feet before landing safely near the Luxembourg Wood. On 4 June 1783 they had constructed an unmanned prototype, based on the ideas of the 14th century Augustinian monk, Albert of Saxony, and the 17th century priest, Francesco de Luna. On 17 Ocotber 1783 Pilatre de Rozier rose 84 feet in a hot air balloon before it reached the end of its tether. On 1 December 1783 the Montgolfier�s rivals Charles, and Robert ascended in a hydrogen balloon. On 27 August 1783 Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles, a member of the French Academy of Science, had launched a prototype hydrogen balloon.

10 November 1783, Monday (-58,983) Charles-Alexandre de Calonne was appointed French Comptroller-general, and began raising loans to solve the French financial crisis following the American Revolution.

7 November 1783, Friday (-58,986) The last hanging was held at Tyburn, west London. John Austin, convicted of forgery, was executed.An estimated 50,000 had been executed at Tyburn.

4 November 1783, Tuesday (-58,989) Mozart�s Symphony no.36 premiered in Linz, Austria.

3 November 1783, Monday (-58,990) Charles Colle, French dramatist, died (born 1709).


29 Ocotber 1783, Wednesday (-58,995) (Mathematics) Jean Alembert, French mathematician, died in Paris.

15 Ocotber 1783, Wednesday (-59,009) (Aviation) Francois Pilatre de Rozier made the world�s manned first flight, in a tethered balloon.

11 Ocotber 1783, Saturday (-59,014) Heinrich Klaproth, german orientalist writer, was born (died 28 August 1835).

10 Ocotber 1783, Friday (-59,014) Henry Brooke, Irish author, died.

6 Ocotber 1783, Monday (-59,018) (Britain) Thomas Attwood, English political reformer, was born in Halesowen, Worcestershire (died in Great Malvern, 6 March 1856).


27 September 1783, Saturday (-59,027) Augustin de Iturbide, Emperor of Mexico 5/1822 � 3/1823, was born in Valladolid (now Morelia), Mexico.

18 September 1783, Thursday (-59,036) (Mathematics) Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician, died in St Petersburg, Russia.

17 September 1783, Wednesday (-59,037) (Mathematics) In France, King Louis XVI watched as two French papermakers, Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier, sent a large hot air balloon into the sky with a sheep, a rooster and a duck on board. The balloon reached 1500 feet and landed a mile away; the rooster was killed but the sheep and duck survived unharmed.

14 September 1783, Sunday (-59,040) Gaspar Gourgaud, French soldier, was born (died 1852).

8 September 1783, Monday (-59,046) Nikolai Grundtvig, Danish writer, was born (died 2 September 1872).

3 September 1783, Wednesday (-59,051) (Belize) British log-cutters returned to Belize during 1783 and this day a Treaty was signed giving British log-cutters the right to cut trees between the Rivers Wallis (Belize) and Rio Hondo. However this was �not to be considered as derogating from the rights of sovereignty of the King of Spain�.

2 September 1783, Tuesday (-59,052) Britain recognised the United States by signing the Treaty of Paris, thus ending the American War of Independence. By this treaty northern Florida was ceded by Britain to the USA but on the same day Britain had signed the Treaty of Versailles, ceding west Florida to Spain. This caused controversy for some year until the Treaty of Madrid in 1795 in which Spain ceded lands east of the Mississippi to the USA. The Spanish also regained Minorca from the British, and France got Senegal and Tobago from Britain. However in Senegal the British retained the Gambia river valley. Britain also paid a war indemnity of �10 million. Britain had sent a force of 60,000 men to fight a much larger population on their own ground, when Holland, France and Spain had sided with the opposition.

1 September 1783,


27 August 1783, Wednesday (-59,058) Jacques Cesar Charles, a rival hot air balloon maker to Montgolfier who preferred hydrogen to hot air, launched his balloon. It drifted 15 miles from Paris to Gonesse where it was hacked to pieces by frightened peasants; it expired with much hissing.

21 August 1783, Thursday (-59,064) John Gully, English boxer, was born (died 9 March 1863).

18 August 1783, Monday (-59,067) (Britain) John Dunning Ashburton, English lawyer, died in Exmouth (born 18 Ocotber 1731 in Ashburton, Devon).

14(-16) August 1783, Thursday (-59,071) Severe earthquake hit Iceland, destroying 92 farms and badly damaging another 372 farms and 11 churches.

13 August 1783, Wednesday (-59,072) John Crawfurd, Scottish writer on the Orient, was born (died 11 May 1868).

7 August 1783, Thursday (-59,078) John Heathcoat, English inventor, was born (died 18 January 1861).

3 August 1783, Sunday (-59,082) Mount Asama erupted in Japan, killing 35,000 people.


24 July 1783, Thursday (-59,092) Simon Bolivar, South American revolutionary and liberator of South America from Spanish colonial rule, was born in Caracas, capital of Venezuela.


25 June 1783, Wednesday (-59,121) Lavoisier announced that water was the combustion product of oxygen and hydrogen.

20 June 1783, Friday (-59,126) The English under Admiral Sir Edward Hughes and the French under Pierre Andre de Suffren fought a fiurece but inconclusive naval battle off Cuddalore, India. This was the last of five similar engagements, as Britain and France fought for land control of India.

11 June 1783, Wednesday (-59,135) James Fraser, Scottish travel writer, was born (died 1/1856).

8 June 1783, Sunday (-59,138) (Earthquake, Iceland) The Laki Volcano in Iceland erupted; the world�s largest volcanic eruption. One fifth of Iceland�s inhabitants, over 10,000 people, died as a 28km long fissure opened up, from which lava covered an area of 570 square kilometres. Some 12-15 cubic kilometres of lava were ejected. Deaths were from poisonous gases then from famine and disease as 11,500 cattle (53%of total), 28,000 horses (77% of total) and 190,500 sheep (82% of total) also perished.

5 June 1783, Thursday (-59,141) The Montgolfier Brothers flew the first hot air balloon. Unmanned, it ascended to 2,000 metres and remained there for ten minutes.


30 May 1783, Friday (-59,147) The first daily newspaper in the newly independent USA, the Pennsylvania Evening Post, began publication.

23 May 1783, Friday (-59,154) James Otis, US patriot (born 5 February 1725), died from a lightning strike.

22 May 1783, Thursday (-59,155) William Sturgeon, English scientist who made the first practical electromagnet, was born in Whittington, Lancashire.

11 May 1783, Sunday (-59,166) The first British-loyalist refugees from the newly-independent United States of America arrived at the estuary of the St John�s River, Canada, having set sail from New York on 16 April1783. They founded the city of St Johns.

4 May 1783, Sunday (-59,173) Astronomer William Herschel reported seeing a red glow near the lunar crater Aristarchus.

3 May 1783, Saturday (-59,174) Katherine II of Russia, who was thought of as an enlightened monarch by Europeans, officially introduced serfdom in the Ukraine.

1 May 1783, Thursday (-59,176)


29 April1783, Tuesday (-59,178) David Cox, English painter, was born (died 7 June 1859).

28 April1783, Monday (-59,179) Sir Eyre Coote, British soldier, died (born 1726).

24 April1783, Thursday (-59,183)

21 April1783, Monday (-59,186) Reginald Heber, English hymn-writer, was born (died 3 April1826).

20 April1783, Sunday (-59,187) Easter Sunday.

19 April1783, Saturday (-59,188) US Congress officially proclaimed victory in the War of Independence.

18 April1783, Friday (-59,189)

17 April1783, Thursday (-59,190) Louise Epinay, French writer, died (born 11 March 1726).

16 April1783, Wednesday (-59,191) Christian Mayer, astronomer, died.

9 April1783, Wednesday (-59,198) Tippu, Sultan of Mysore, forced Britain to surrender the town of Bednore.

3 April1783, Thursday (-59,204) Washington Irving, author of Rip Van Winkle, was born.


30 March 1783, Sunday (-59,208) William Hunter, British physician, died (born 23 May 1718).

25 March 1783, Tuesday (-59,213) Jean Guerin, French painter, was born (died 19 January 1855).


24 February 1783, Monday (-59,242) The British Parliament voted to discontinue the American War.

6 February 1783, Thursday (-59,260) (1) English landscape gardener Lancelot �Capability� Brown died. Kew Gardens and Blenheim Palace are examples of his work.

(2) The siege of Gibraltar ended.

5 February 1783, Wednesday (-59,261) Large earthquake in Calabria, Italy, 30,000 killed.

1 February 1783, Saturday (-59,265) Andre Dupin, French statesman, was born (died 8 November 1865).


23 January 1783, Thursday (-59,274) Marie Beyle, French writer, was born in Grenoble (died in Paris 23 March 1842).

12 January 1783, Sunday (-59,285) Erik Geijer, Swedish historical writer, was born (died 23 April1847).

2 January 1783, Thursday (-59,295) Johann Bodmer, author, died in Zurich (born near Zurich 19 July 1698).

1 January 1783, Wednesday (-59,296) Britain�s oldest Chamber of Commerce was established, in Glasgow.


27 December 1782, Friday (-59,301) Henry Kames, Scottish writer, died.

7 December 1782, Saturday (-59,321) Tippu Sahib succeeded his father Hyder Ali as Sultan of Mysore, India.

5 December 1782, Thursday (-59,323) Martin van Buren, US Democrat and 8th President, was born in Kinderhook, New York State, the son of a farmer.

4 December 1782, Wednesday (-59,324) Pietro Metastasio, Italian poet, died aged 81.


26 November 1782, Tuesday (-59,332) Karl Karsten, German mineralogist, was born (died 22 August 1853).

11 November 1782, Monday (-59,347) Francis Blackburne, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, born in County Meath (died 17 September 1867).

10 November 1782, Sunday (-59,348) The Americans massacred the British-backed Shawnee Indians. 1,000 Kentucky riflemen fired unremittingly on them, and destroyed their food stockpiles.

1 November 1782, Friday (-59,357) Frederick John Ripon, Viscount Goderich, British Tory Prime Minister 1827-8, was born in London (died 1859).


27 Ocotber 1782, Sunday (-59,362) Birth of the Italian composer and violinist Niccolo Paganini, in Genoa.

9 Ocotber 1782, Wednesday (-59,380) Lewis Cass, US politician, was born (died 17 June 1866).

7 Ocotber 1782, Monday (-59,382) Charles MacLaren, editor, was born (died 10 September 1866).


7 September 1782, Saturday (-59,412) Susan Ferrier, Scottish novelist, was born (died 5 November 1854).


29 August 1782, Thursday (-59,421) At Spithead, a prime ship of the British Navy, the Royal George, sank with the loss of 900 lives. Launched in 1756, she was one of only 3 100-gun ships in the navy. An enquiry began as to whether she sank due to rotten timbers or due to her being heeled over so far that water entered her lower gunports.

24 August 1782, Saturday (-59,426) David Tyrie, having been found guilty of spying for the French, became the last person in Britain to be executed by hanging, drawing and quartering, at Portsmouth.

15 August 1782, Thursday (-59,435) In a rearguard action in the American War of Indepemndence, a combined British and Amerindian force about 250-strong, led by a US turncoat called Simon Girty,attacked across the Ohio River to raid Bryan�s Station in kentiucky. Some 200armed American backwoodsmenh counterattacked, drove the raiders back, nbut were ambushed and 70 of them killed. In reprisal, US General George Rogers Clark led a force of over 1,000 men northwards, destroying many Indian villages.

13 August 1782, Tuesday (-59,437) (Biology) Henri Duhamel, French botanist, died (born 1700).

7 August 1782, Wednesday (-59,443) Andreas Marggraf, who discovered sugar in beetroot, died (born 3 March 1709).

4 August 1782, Sunday (-59,446) Musician Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, now aged 26, married Constanze Weber in St Stephen�s Cathedral, Vienna, Austria.


16 July 1782, Tuesday (-59,465) Mozart�s opera Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail premiered in Vienna, with Mozart himself conducting.

15 July 1782, Monday (-59,466) Carlo Broschi (Farinelli), Italian singer, died (born 24 January 1705).

1 July 1782, Monday (-59,480) Charles Watson-Wentworth, British Whig Prime Minister 1765-66, died in London aged 52.


19 June 1782, Wednesday (-59,492) Hugues Lannenais, French political writer, was born (died 27 February 1854)

10 June 1782, Monday (-59,501) The Grand Theatre, Lancaster, was founded.


20 May 1782, Monday (-59,522) William Emerson, English mathematician, died (born 4 May 1701).

17 May 1782, Friday (-59,525) (India) The Treaty of Salbai ended the First Maratha War, with small gains for Britain.

16 May 1782,Thursday (-59,526) John Cotman, English landscape painter, was born (died24 July 1842).

8 May 1782, Wednesday (-59,534) Sebastiao de Carvalho, Marquis of Pombal, reformer and virtual ruler of Portugal 1750-77, died in Pombal aged 82.

1 May 1782, Wednesday (-59,541)


26 April1782, Friday (-59,546) Marie Amelie Therese, Queen of King Philippe of France, was born (died 24 March 1866).

25 April1782, Thursday (-59,547) (Cartography) Adrian Balbi, Italian geographer, was born in Venice (died 14 March 1848 in Padua).

21 April1782, Sunday (-59,551) Friedrich Froebel, German educational pioneer who established the first Kindergartens, was born in Oberweissbach.

18 April1782, Thursday (-59,554) Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II repealed the Third Barrier Treaty of 1715, obliging the Dutch to evacuate the garrisons in the Barrier Towns in the Austrian Netherlands, which they did evacuate this day.

16 April1782, Tuesday (-59,556) William Jerdan,Scottish journalist, was born (died 11 July 1869).

12 April1782, Friday (-59,560) Admiral Rodney defeated a French fleet off the West Indies in the Battle of the Saints; named after the nearby Saints islands. This was during the War of American Independence.

7 April1782, Sunday (-59,565) Sir Francis Chantrey, English sculptor, was born (died 25 November 1841).

6 April1782, Saturday (-59,566) Chao P�ya Chakri founded the Chakri Dynasty in Siam, ruling as King Rama I. He made Bangkok the capital.


31 March 1782, Sunday (-59,572) Easter Sunday.

20 March 1782, Wednesday (-59,583) Lord North left office as Prime Minister.

19 March 1782, Tuesday (-59,584) (USA) Lord North resigned as Prome Minister of Britain, because of the failure of his Government to retain sovereignty over North America.

18 March 1782, Monday (-59,585) John Calhoun, US statesman (died 31 March 1850) was born.

17 March 1782, Sunday (-59,586) The Swiss physicist Edward Bernoulli died.

16 March 1782, Saturday (-59,587)

15 March 1782, Friday (-59,588) (USA) A Motion of No Confidence in Lord North�s administration was defeated in the House of Commons by nine votes.

14 March 1782, Thursday (-59,589) Thomas Benton, US politician, was born in North Carolina (died in Washington 10 April1858).

11 March 1782, Monday (-59,592)

8 March 1782, Friday (-59,595) The Gnadenhutten Massacre in Delaware. 160 volunteers under Colonel David Williamson attacked the Moravian mission town of Gnadenhutten. 90 Christian indigenous American Indian men women and children were slaughtered, and the mission church burnt down. A few survivors managed to flee to Canada.

7 March 1782, Thursday (-59,596) (Christian) Angelo Mai, Vatican librarian, was born (died 8 September 1854).


27 February 1782, Wednesday (-59,604) The UK Parliament rejected Lord North�s appeal to continue the American War. Lord North resigned on 19 March 1782 and was replaced by Lord Rockingham.

22 February 1782, Friday (-59,609) In Britain, a Parliamentary Motion opposing the Governments continuation of the war in North America was defeated by a single vote.

13 February 1782, Wednesday (-59,618) France captured St Kitts from Britain.

5 February 1782, Tuesday (-59,626) Spain captured Minorca from Britain.


29 January 1782, Tuesday (-59,633) Daniel Auber, French composer, was born in Caen (died 1871)

20 January 1782, Sunday (-59,642) Joseph Hormayr, German historical writer, was born (died 5 Ocotber 1848)

18 January 1782, Friday (-59,644) Daniel Webster, US politician, was born in Salisbury, New Hampshire (died 1852).

11 January 1782, Friday (-59,651) The United Netherlands surrendered Trimcomalee, Sri Lanka, to Britain

5 January 1782, Saturday (-59,657) Robert Morrison, first Protestant missionary to China, was born (died 1 August 1834).

1 January 1782, Tuesday (-59,661) Johann Christian Bach, composer, died.


31 December 1781, Monday (-59,662) The American Congress established the Bank of North America at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

2 December 1781, Sunday (-59,691) Cenon Ensenada, Spanish statesman, died (born 2 June 1702).

11 December 1781, Tuesday (-59,682) Sir David Brewster, scientist, was born (died 10 February 1868).


29 November 1781, Thursday (-59,694) The slave ship Zong sighted land in the West Indies (see 6 September 1781). Collingwood, the ship�s Master, told his officers there was insufficient water for them and all the slaves on board. Dysentery had also plagued the ship on its voyage from Liverpool, killing 60 slaves and 7 crew. Collingwood said if the slaves died of thirst the ship�s owners would bear the loss but if they were thrown overboard the loss would be coveredunder insurance as a legal jettison. The weakest 132 slaves were picked out; 54 were thrown overboard that day, 42 the next day, and a further 26 were handcuffed and thrown overboard a few days later. A further ten jumped overboard before they were thrown. On 22 December 1781 the Zong docked at Kingston, Jamaica; the remaining slaves were sold and Collingwood returned to England, and claimed �30 each for the 132 �jettisoned� slaves. The insurers refused to pay, and the first trial ruled in favour of Collingwood, saying �it was the same as if horses had been thrown overboard�. The insurers appealed to the Court of Exchequer and Lord Mansfield, judge, ruled otherwise. He said that although the law supported Collingwood, a higher principle applied; distinguishing between �law� and justice� he ruled in this �shocking case� against Collingwood. Mansfield�s ruling was the first in an English Court that a slave was not simply merchandise.

21 November 1781, Wednesday (-59,702) Jean Maurepas, French statesman, died.

20 November 1781, Tuesday (-59,703) Karl Eichhorn, German legal writer, was born (died 4 July 1854).

13 November 1781, Tuesday (-59,710) British forces captured the Dutch settlement at Negapattam, near Madras, India.

6 November 1781, Tuesday (-59,717) (Arts) Lucy Aikin, historical writer, was born in Warrington (died 29 January 1864 in Hampstead, London) .

4 November 1781, Sunday (-59,719) Johann Gotz, German poet, died (born 9.7/1721).

2 November 1781, Friday (-59,721) Jose Isla, Spanish satirical writer, died (born 24 March 1703).

1 November 1781, Thursday (-59,722) Austria abolished serfdom, and gave all citizens the right of marriage, free movement, and instruction in any handicraft.This initially applied to Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia; to Galicia soon after, and to Hungary in 1785.Landowners had certain rights remaining, such as corvee, but these were reduced by later laws.


19 Ocotber 1781, Friday (-59,735) British forces under Lord Cornwallis, 7,000 soldiers, surrendered to George Washington at Yorktown, Virginia.This was a combined force of Americans and their French allies.This ended the American War of Independence.

17 Ocotber 1781, Wednesday (-59,737) Edward Hawke, British Admiral, died (born 1705).

13 Ocotber 1781, Saturday (-59,741) Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II gramted a patent of religious tolerance within the empire, along with freedom of the press.

5 Ocotber 1781, Friday (-59,749) After the victory at Chesapeake Bay (5 September 1781), George Washington commenced a heavy attack on the British besieged in Yorktown.


19 September 1781, Wednesday (-50,675) (Britain) Tobias Furneaux, English navigator, died (born 21 August 1735).

16 September 1781, Sunday (-50,678) (USA) The British holding Yorktown scuttled ships in the estuary of Yorktown to try and thwart a French attack by sea. The British had superior sea-power (but faced a French naval threat) whilst the American rebels controlled the inland regions. The British hoped that some 2,000 escaped slaves, who believed a British victory would mean freedom for them, would enable their victory, but the Carolinas area could not be held against American forces. In August 1781 the British commander, Cornwallis, retreated to Virginia and established a defensive perimeter at Yorktown, Besides French warships, the British knew that the French commander Rochambeau was marching south from the Hudson Valley. The British sailed south from New York to support Yorktown, but a cannon battle off Yorktown between British and French proved inconclusive. After five days the British fleet under Graves, outgunned, withdrew back to New York. Yorktown was to surrender on 19 Ocotber 1781, ending the War of Independence.

11 September 1781, Tuesday (-59,773) Johann Ernesti, German religious writer, died (born 4 August 1707)..

8 September 1781, Saturday (-59,776) British forces under Alexander Stewart defeated American troops under Nathaniel Greene at the Battle of Eutaw Springs, North Carolina. Also this day British forces looted and burnt New London, Connecticut.

6 September 1781, Thursday (-59,778) The slave ship Zong left Liverpool, with Luke Collingwood as its Master, with 400 slaves and 17 crew, see 29 November 1781.

5 September 1781, Wednesday (-59,779) (USA) Battle of Chesapeake Bay, USA, between British and French fleets. The British with 19 ships were defeated by De Grasse Tilly with 24 ships. The British were prevented from resupplying the troops under Lord Cornwallis, who was under siege in Yorktown.

4 September 1781, Tuesday (-59,780) (USA) In California, the Spanish founded a tiny village near San Gabriel. They called it Los Angeles.

3 September 1781, Monday (-59,781) (France) Eugene de Beauharnais, French soldier and stepson of Napoleon I, was born in Paris (died 1824).


30 August 1781, Thursday (-59,785) A French fleet commanded by De Grasse Tilly arrived in Chesapeake Bay.

12 August 1781, Sunday (-59,803) Robert Mills, US neoclassical architect, was born in Charleston., South Carolina (died 1855)

1 August 1781, Wednesday (-59,814) British forces under Charles, Lord Cornwallis, occupied Yorktown, Virginia.


11 July 1781, Wednesday (-59,835) Bartolommeo Borghesi, Italian antiquarian, was born near Rimini (died in San Marino 16 April1860).

6 July 1781, Friday (-59,840) General Cornwallis defeated General Lafayette at Jamestown Road, Virginia.

5 July 1781, Thursday (-59,841) Sir Stamford Raffles, who founded Singapore, was born.

1 July 1781, Sunday (-59,845) In India, British troops defeated Hyder Ali at Porto Novo. This established British hegemony over southern India.


21 June 1781, Thursday (-59,855) Simeon Denis Poisson, French mathematician, was born in Pithiviers (died 1840)

17 June 1781, Sunday (-59,859) Francisco Mina, Spanish soldier who resisted the French invasion in 1808, was born (died 24 December 1836).

9 June 1781, Saturday (-59,867) George Stephenson, inventor of The Rocket, was born in Wylam on Tyne, near Newcastle.He was the son of a colliery engine-keeper.

6 June 1781, Wednesday (-59,870) Dutch Boer settlers in South Africa massacred black Xhosa tribesmen for the third time in three years. Dutch settlers were expanding eastwards, and successfully enslaving or driving away the Khoisan tribes, but the Xhosa put up more resistance.

5 June 1781, Tuesday (-59,871) Christian Lobeck, German classical scholarly writer, was born (died 25 August 1860).


27 May 1781, Sunday (-59,880) (Electrical) Giovanni Beccaria, Italian electrical physicist, died in Turin (born in Mondovi 3 Ocotber 1716).

19 May 1781, Saturday (-59,888) The French Finance Minister Jacques Necker was forced to resign when Queen Marie Antionette opposed his policy of raising loans to finance French participation in the American Revolution.

9 May 1781, Wednesday (-59.898) A Spanish force from New Orleans captured Pensacola, Florida, from the British, taking advantage of the distraction of the British war with the colonies.

8 May 1781, Tuesday (-59,899) Richard Jago, English poet,died (born 1715).

4 May 1781, Friday (-59,903) Karl Krause, German philosophical writer, was born (died 27 September 1832).


29 April1781, Sunday (-59,908) Charles Cottenham, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 29 April1851).

15 April1781, Sunday (-59,922) Easter Sunday.

8 April1781, Sunday (-59,930) Premier performance of Mozart�s violin sonata K379.


18 March 1781, Sunday (-59,950) Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, French economist and administrator, died in Paris aged 53.

17 March 1781, Saturday (-59,951) Ebenezer Elliott, English poet, was born (died 1 December 1849).

15 March 1781, Thursday (-59,953) US General Nathaniel Greene fought a stand-off battle with the British under General Charles Cornwallis, at the Battle of Guildford Courthouse, North Carolina. Cornwallis claimed victory, but retreated north towards Washington.

13 March 1781, Tuesday (-59,955) (Space exploration) Astronomer William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus, although initially he mistook it for a comet. He called it Georgium Sidus (George�s Star) in honour of King George III.

6 March 1781, Tuesday (-59,962) Ignaz Castelli, Austrian dramatist, was born (died 5 February 1862).

1 March 1781, Thursday (-59,967) The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union were ratified by all US States.


27 February 1781, Tuesday (-59,969)

24 February 1781, Saturday (-59,972) Edward Capell, English literary critic, died (born 11 June 1713).

20 February 1781, Tuesday (-59,976)

18 February 1781, Sunday (-59,978) Henry Martyn, English missionary to India, was born (died 6 Ocotber 1812).

16 February 1781, Friday (-59,980) Rene Laennec, French doctor who invented and named the stethoscope, was born in Quimper, Brittany.

15 February 1781, Thursday (-59,981) Gotthold Lessing, German dramatist, died (born 22 January 1729).

13 February 1781, Tuesday (-59,983)

3 February 1781, Saturday (-59,993) Having declared war on the Dutch (see 20 November 1780), the British captured from the Dutch the island of St Eustatius.


30 January 1781, Tuesday (-59,997) Adelbert Chamisso, German poet, was born (died 21 August 1838).

29 January 1781, Monday (-59,998) Mozart�s dramatic opera Idomeneo premiered in Munich.

26 January 1781, Friday (-60,001) Ludwig Arnim, German writer, was born in Berlin (died in Brandenburg 21 January 1831).

24 January 1781, Wednesday (-60,003) Louis Mole, French statesman, was born (died 23 November 1855).

17 January 1781, Wednesday (-60,010) In North America, Daniel Morgan, leader of the Virginian forces, won a majpor victory against the British at the Battle of Cowpens, South Carolina.

14 January 1781, Sunday (-60,013) Henry Clinton, English scholarly writer, was born (died 24 Ocotber 1852).

12 January 1781, Friday (-60,015) Richard Challoner, English religious writer, died (born 29 September 1691).

5 January 1781, Friday (-60,022) France attempted another invasion of the Channel Islands (see 1 May 1779). This too failed and they never attempted to invade again.

1 January 1781, Monday (-60,026) The first wholly iron bridge in the world was opened at Ironbridge, Shropshire, consisting of a 100 foot span across the Severn. In 1755 an iron bridge had been planned across the Rhone at Lyons but owing to the high cost only one span was made of iron; the others of wood.


26 December 1780, Tuesday (-60,032) John Fothergill, English physician, died (born 8 March 1712).

23 December 1780, Saturday (-60,035) France was suffering a deepening financial crisis, in part caused by the costs of supporting the Americans against Britain.

22 December 1780, Friday (-60,036) James Harris, English scholarly writer, died (born 20 September 1709).