Chronography of events from 1 January 1770 to 31 December 1799

Page last modified 10/11/2021


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(-9,999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero=Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from


For dates from 1/1/1800 click here


6/1/1800, Monday (-53,082) William Jones, English religious writer, died (born 30/7/1726).

3/1/1800, Friday (-53,085)


31/12/1799, Tuesday (-53,088) Jean Marmontel, French writer, died (born 11/7/1723).

30/12/1799, Monday (-53,089) John Moultrie, English poet, was born (died 26/12/1874).

27/12/1799, Friday (-53,092) Calderon Estebanez, Spanish author, was born (died 5/2/1867).

24/12/1799, Tuesday (-53,095) In France, a public referendum led to the end of the French Revolution and the founding of the First Republic..

21/12/1799, Saturday (-53,098) George Finlay, British historical writer, was born (died 26/1/1875).

18/12/1799, Wednesday (-53,101) Jean Montucla, French mathematician, died (born 5/9/1725).

15/12/1799. Sunday (-53,104) France declared a new constitution.

14/12/1799. Saturday (-53,105) George Washington, 1st president of the USA from 1789 to 1797, died in Mount Vernon, on the south bank of the Potomac in Virginia, aged 67. See 30/4/1789.

6/12/1799, Friday (-53,113) Joseph Black, Scottish chemist, died in Edinburgh (born 1728 in Bordeaux).


29/11/1799, Friday (-53,120) (Arts) Amos Bronson Alcott, US writer, was born in Wolcott, Connecticut (died 4/3/1888 in Boston).

9/11/1799, Saturday (-53,140) After a coup, Corsican General Napoleon Bonaparte was appointed Consul, with Sieyes and Ducis. He made his name at the defeat of the British fleet at the revolt of Toulon, 1793.


11/10/1799, Friday (-53,169) Joseph Gillott, English pan maker, was born (died 5/1/1873).

9/10/1799, Wednesday (-53,171) Napoleon returned to France.

7/10/1799, Monday (-53,173) The bell was salvaged from the Lutine, which sank off the island of Vlieland, off the coast of Holland. It was presented to Lloyds of London. Known as the Lutine Bell, it has been rung ever since to mark a marine disaster.

6/10/1799, Sunday (-53,174) (Medical) Physician William Withering died in Birmingham, England.

4/10/1799, Friday (-53,176)

2/10/1799, Wednesday (-53,178) The Duke of York captured Alkmaar, in the Netherlands.

1/10/1799, Tuesday (-53,179) Rufus Choate, US lawyer, was born (died 13/7/1859).


28/9/1799, Saturday (-53,182) (Medical) Pierre Brasdor, French surgeon, died (born 1721).

25/9/1799, Wednesday (-53,185) Napoleon gained victory at Zurich.

18/9/1799, Wednesday (-53,192) Napoleon gained victory at Alkmaar, Holland.

2/9/1799, Monday (-53,208) Henry Boase, English geologist, was born in London (died5/5/1883).


29/8/1799, Thursday (-53,212) Pope Pius VI died.

23/8/1799, Friday (-53,218) Leaving the French Army under Kleber, Napoleon left to return to France.

20/8/1799, Tuesday (-53,221) Heinrich Gagern, German politician, was born (died 22/5/1880).

15/8/1799, Thursday (-53,226) Napoleon was defeated at Novi.

11/8/1799, Sunday (-53,230) (Geology) Joachim Barrande, Austrian geologist, was born in Saugues, Haute Loire (died in Frohsdorf 5/10/1883).

9/8/1799, Friday (-52,232) George James, English novelist, was born (died 9/6/1860).

6/8/1799, Tuesday (-53,235) Mark Bloch, Germannaturalist, died in Carlsbad.

5/8/1799, Monday (-53,236) Jean Colson, French actor, died (born 16/1/1725).

4/8/1799, Sunday (-53,237) John Bacon, sculptor, died in London (born 24/11/1740 in Southwark),


25/7/1799, Thursday (-53,247) Napoleon gained victory over the Turks at Aboukir.

19/7/1799, Friday (-53,253) The Rosetta Stone was found near the town of Rosetta on the Nile, bearing Greek, Hieroglyphic, and Demotic (ancient Egyptian) scripts.

12/7/1799, Friday (-53,260) Britain passed the Combination Acts, outlawing any association of two or more people for the purpose of obtaining wage increases or better conditions at work. The Act was prompted by fears of revolution after France. However in 1802 Parliament banned child apprentices from working more than a 12 hour day. Many pauper children from London were being sent to textile factories in the north of England to work long hours. Sir Robert Peel, the Bill�s proposer, objected that this practice allowed exploitation of children, far from their parents.

9/7/1799, Tuesday (-53,263) William Mure, Scottish scholarly writer, was born (died 1/4/1860).

1/7/1799, Monday (-53,271) Sir James Eyre, English Judge, died (born 1734).


30/6/1799, Sunday (-53,272) (Italy) Francesco Caracciolo, Neapolitan Admiral and revolutionary, died (born 18/1/1732).

19/6/1799, Wednesday (-53,283) Jan Dombrowski, Polish General, died (born 29/8/1755).

7/6/1799, Friday (-53,295) Battle of Zurich. Napoleon defeated a Russian army.

6/6/1799, Thursday (-53,296) Alexander Pushkin, Russian writer, was born (26/5/1799 Russian calendar).


31/5/1799, Friday (-53,302) Pierre Lemonnier, French astronomer, died (born 23/11/1715).

29/5/1799, Wednesday (-53,304) August Kopisch, German poet, was born (died 3/2/1853).

27/5/1799, Monday (-53,306) George Doane, US religious writer, was born (died 27/4/1859).

23/5/1799, Thursday (-53,310) Thomas Hood, English writer, was born (died 3/5/1845).

20/5/1799, Monday (-53,313) Honore de Balzac born.

18/5/1799, Saturday (-53,315) Pierre Beaumarchais, French dramatist, died in Paris (born in Paris 24/1/1732).

10/5/1799, Friday (-53,323) Napoleon withdrew from attacking Acre after an 8th unsuccessful assault.

4/5/1799, Saturday (-53,329) The British conquered Seringapatam, capital of Mysore in southern India.


18/4/1799, Thursday (-53,345) John Mason, US politician, was born (died3/10/1859).

6/4/1799, Saturday (-53,357) Aleksander Bezborodko, Grand Chancellor of Russia, died in St Petersburg (born in Gluchova 14/3/1747).

2/4/1799, Tuesday (-53,361) Francis Mason, US missionary to the Karens in Myanmar from 1830, was born (died 3/3/1874).


29/3/1799, Friday (-53,365) Edward Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was born (died 23/10/1869).

24/3/1799, Sunday (-53,370) Easter Sunday

22/3/1799, Friday (-53,372) (Astronomy) Friedrich Argelander, German astronomer, was born in Memel (died 17/2/1875 in Bonn).

20/3/1799, Wednesday (-53,374) Thomas Key, English scholarly writer, was born (died 29/11/1875).

19/3/1799, Tuesday (-53,375) Heinrich Leo, German historical writer, was born (died 24/4/1878).

17/3/1799, Sunday (-53,377) Juan Forner, Spanish writer, died (born 23/2/1756).

8/3/1799, Friday (-53,386) (USA) Simon Cameron, US politician, was born (died 26/6/1889).


28/2/1799, Thursday (-53,394) Johann Dollinger, German religious writer, was born (died 14/1/1890).

20/2/1799, Wednesday (-55,402) Jean Borda, French mathematician, died in Paris (born in Dax 4/5/1733).

9/2/1799, Saturday (-53,413) (1) The US navy clashed with French forces.

(2) Britain, assisted by Portugal and the Maltese rebels, took control of MaltaCaptain Ball of the Royal Navy became the first British Goivernor.

5/2/1799, Tuesday (-53,417) John Lindley, botanical writer, was born (died 1/11/1865)


26/1/1799, Saturday (-53,427) (Christian) Samuel Gobat, Bishop of Jerusalem, was born (died 11/5/1879).

22/1/1799, Tuesday (-53,431) (Geology) Horace Benedict de Saussure, geologist, died in Geneva, Switzerland.

21/1/1799. Monday (-53,432) Edward Jenner introduced the smallpox vaccination. In the 18th century, smallpox took over from the bubonic plague as the major killer disease. Edward Jenner worked as a doctor in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. By observing local milkmaids, Jenner tested the generally held belief that cowpox sufferers were immune to smallpox. In 1796 he experimented by scraping pus from a cowpox sore on the arm of a milkmaid and inserting it into two cuts on the arm of a young boy. On 1/7/1796 he did the same with pus from a smallpox sore. The boy caught cowpox but not smallpox. After doing this to 23 other people, Jenner called this method �vaccination�, meaning �from a cow�. Jenner published his findings in 1798 and despite scepticism from doctors, vaccination became widely accepted. Even members of the Royal Family were vaccinated. Vaccination became free for all infants in 1840 and compulsory in Britain in 1853. In 1980 the World Health Organisation declared smallpox had been eradicated throughout the world.

9/1/1799. Wednesday (-53,444) Income tax introduced to Britain for the first time, by Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, at 2 shillings in the pound for incomes over �200 per annum, and a reduced rate for incomes between �60 and �200. The tax was to pay for the Napoleonic War. In Florence in 1451 an income tax, the Catastrato, had been implemented but degenerated into a means of political blackmail and was repealed upon the overthrow of the Medicis in 1492. The income tax in Britain was repealed in 1802 after the Peace of Amiens, but reimposed in 1803, repealed in 1816, and reintroduced in 1842 in peacetime at 7d in the �. Since then the rate in the UK has varied between 2d in the � in 1875 and 10s in the � in 1941.

6/1/1799, Sunday (-53,447) Nicolas Geruzez, French writer, was born (died 29/5/1865)


30/12/1798, Sunday (-53,454) Anne Montesquiou, French writer, died.

29/12/1798, Saturday (-53,455) Formation of the Second Coalition against France; Britain, Austria, Russia, Naples and Portugal.

28/12/1798, Friday (-53,456) (Astronomy) Thomas Henderson was born in Dundee, Scotland. In 1839 he measured the parallax of Alpha-Centauri, making it the second star after the Sun whose distance is known.

24/12/1798, Monday (-53,460) Virginia State passed a Resolution that individual States, not US Congress, are the guardians of liberty of the individual and States can declare Acts of Congress illegal if they are unconstitutional (see 16/11/1798).

13/12/1798, Thursday (-53,471) James Henry, Irish scholarly writer, was born (died 14/7/1876).

4/12/1798, Tuesday (-53,480) (1) Luigi Galvani, Italian scientist who researched animal electricity, died.

(2) Income tax was proposed to the UK Parliament by William Pitt the Younger. See 9/1/1799.

2/12/1798, Sunday (-53,482) Sir William Follett, English lawyer, was born (died 28/6/1845).

1/12/1798, Saturday (-53,483) (USA) Albert Barnes, US theologian, was born in Rome, New York State (died in Philadelphia 24/12/1870).


29/11/1798, Thursday (-53,485) Ferdinand IV, King of Naples (Ferdinand I, King of the Two Sicilies), decalred war on France and occupied Rome. France then 94/12/1798) declared war in Naples.

21/11/1798, Wednesday (-53,493) Jerome Blanqui, French economist, was born in Nice (died 1854).

19/11/1798, Monday (-53,495) Caesar Hawkins, British surgeon, was born (died 20/7/1884).

17/11/1798, Saturday (-53,497) Irish nationalist leader Wolfe Tone committed suicide whilst in jail awaiting execution.

16/11/1798, Friday (-53,498) Kentucky State passed a Resolution that individual States, not US Congress, are the guardians of liberty of the individual and States can declare Acts of Congress illegal if they are unconstitutional (see 24/12/1798). This State legislation was inspired by Vice President Thomas Jefferson�s opposition to the A;ien and Sedition Acts passed by a Federalist-controlled Congress (see 18/6/1798).

8/11/1798, Thursday (-35,506) Victor Chasles, French writer, was born (died 18/7/1873).

3/11/1798, Saturday (-35,511) James Mason, US policiticn, was born (died 28/4/1871).


8/10/1798, Monday (-35,537) Felix Neff, Swiss Protestant divine, was born.

2/10/1798, Tuesday (-35,543) (Italy) Albert Charles, King of Sardinia, was born (died 28/7/1849).


28/9/1798, Friday (-53,547) Giovanni Genelli, German painter, was born (died 13/11/1868).

25/9/1798, Tuesday (-53,550) Jean Elie de Beaumont, geologist, was born (died 21/9/1874).

15/9/1798, Saturday (-53,560) (Ireland) A French army sent to assist the Irish rebels surrendered to the Briitsh under Charles, 1st marquis Cornwallis.

11/9/1798, Tuesday (-53,564) Franz Neumann, scientific writer, was born (died 23/5/1895).

9/9/1798, Sunday (-53,566) The Ottoman Empire declared war on France because of its occupation of Egypt.

2/9/1798, Sunday (-53,573) Rebellion by the Maltese against French occupation, sparked by a French attempt to seize Church assets. The Maltese mounted an adept guerrilla campaign, which was to assist the British conquest of Malta.


30/8/1798, Thursday (-53,576) Pauline Dejazet, French actress, was born (died 1/12/1875).

25/8/1798, Saturday (-53,581) Henrik Hertz, Danish poet, was born (died 25/2/1870).

21/8/1798, Tuesday (-53,585) Jules Michelet, French historical writer, was born (died 9/2/1874).

6/8/1798, Monday (-53,600) Unaware that the Irish rebels had been defeated, a French force set sail to help them against the British. On 15/9/1798 the French in Ireland surrendered to General Cornwallis at Ballymuck.

1/8/1798, Wednesday (-53,605) At the Battle of the Nile, at Aboukir Bay, Admiral Nelson, on the ship Vanguard, destroyed 11 out of 13 French battleships which were the convoy that took Napoleon to Egypt.The French commander was Brueys, aboard the ship L�Orient.The crew were mostly ashore getting water, leaving no one to man the 120 French guns. This effectively trapped the French Army in Egypt.Five French ships with 5,000 men were sunk, 2 ships were captured, and 2 ships managed to escape from Nelson.On 10/2/1799 Napoleon left Egypt for Syria, occupying Gaza on 24/2/1799. On 7/3/1799 Napoleon captured Jaffa, where his soldiers massacred over 2,0000 Albanian prisoners. On 17/5/1799 Napoleon lifted the siege of Acre after failing to capture it.


24/7/1798, Tuesday (-53,613) John Dix, US politician, was born (died 21/4/1879).

23/7/1798, Monday (-53,614) An uprising by the people of Cairo against the French occupiers was brutally repressed on 22/10/1798. The French captured Suez on 7/12/1798. However a British expeditionary force arrived in Egypt on 6/3/1801. The battle of Alexandria was fought on 11/3/1801, just outside the actual town. After this British victory the British advanced on the town which surrendered on 31/8. See 11/6/1882.

21/7/1798, Saturday (-53,616) (Egypt, France) At the Battle of the Pyramids, Napoleon, soon after his invasion of Egypt, defeated an army of some 60,000 Mamelukes. Napoleon now intended to establish a French base in Egypt from where he could harass British-India sea traffic. He could also attack the Ottoman Empire form here via Syria. He sought to assure the ulema, the Egyptian intelligentsia, that he was no modern Crusader but had come to empower them and facilitate Egyptian self-rule independent of the Ottomans. However the Egyptians were not yet ready for such self-determination, and failed to follow the French initiatives.

16/7/1798, Monday (-53,621) Alexander Gorchakov, Russian statesman, was born (died 11/3/1883).

14/7/1798, Saturday (-53,623) US Congress passed the Sedition Act, forbidding anyone from �aiding any insurrection, riot, unlawful assembly or combination�. However see 18/6/1798.

10/7/1798, Tuesday (-53,627) (Belize) A Spanish invasion force was met with determined resistance by the British, who had fortified an island called St George�s Cay. The Spanish were compelled to withdraw to Campeachy, and did not attempt any further incursions.

6/7/1798, Friday (-53,631) US Congress passed the Alien Enemies Act, allowing the US President to imprison during wartime enemy aliens living in the USA. However see 18/6/1798.

2/7/1798. Monday (-53,635) The French invaded Egypt, see 31/8/1801.


30/6/1798, Saturday (-53,637) Alexander Dyce, English historical writer, was born (died 15/5/1869).

29/6/1798, Friday (-53,638) Willibald Alexis, novelist (died 16/12/1871 in Arnstadt, Thuringia) was born in Breslau.

26/6/1798, Tuesday (-53,641)

25/6/1798, Monday (-53,642) US Congress passed the Alien Act, allowing the US President to expel alien �subversives�. However see 18/6/1798.

21/6/1798, Thursday (-53,646) Over 15,000 British troops attacked Irish rebels at the Battle of Vinegar Hill, near Enniscorthy, County Wexford.

20/6/1798, Wednesday (-53,647) Jeremy Belknap, US author, died in Boston (born in Boston 4/6/1744).

18/6/1798, Monday (-53,649) A Federalist-dominated US Congress passed the first of the Alein and Sedition Acts (see also 25/6/1798, 6/7/1798, 14/7/1798). The Act this day, the Naturalisation Act, extended the qualification time required to gain US citizenship. However this was seen by some States, and by Vice President Thomas Jefferson, as an unacceptable erosion of individual freedom and the power of the individual States, see 16/11/1798, The Naturalaisation Act, the Alien Act (25/6/1798), and the Sedition Act (14/7/1798), were repealed by 1802; however the Alien Enemies Act (6/7/1798) remained.

13/6/1798, Wednesday (-53,654) (Germany) Johann Baehr, German scholar, was born in Darmstadt (died in Heidelberg, 29/11/1872).

11/6/1798. Monday (-53,656) Malta surrendered to Napoleon Bonaparte. On 2/9/1798 the Maltese revolted against French occupation, forcing the French troops to take refuge in the citadel of Valetta.

10/6/1798, Sunday (-53,657) Francis Hawks, US religious writer, was born (died 26/9/1866)

7/6/1798, Thursday (-53,660) The Battle of Antrim. Irish rebels, during the Irish Rebellion of 1798, attacked the British in the town of Antrim, led by Henry Joy McCracken. The British succeeded in beating the attackers off, but the British County-Governor, Lord O�Neill, was fatally injured.

4/6/1798. Monday (-53,663) Casanova, Italian adventurer, lover, and romancer, died at his Castle of Waldstein, Bohemia.

2/6/1798, Saturday (-53,665) William Clarke, British geologist,was born (died17.6.1878).


23/5/1798. Wednesday (-53,675) Believing that a French invasion of Britain was imminent, Irish nationalists rebelled against British rule. The rebels enjoyed initial success in Wexford but were suppressed by British forces.

19/5/1798, Saturday (-53,679) Napoleon left France for Egypt.

16/5/1798, Wednesday (-53,682) Joesph Eckhel, Austrian writer, died (born 1737).

10/5/1798, Thursday (-53,688) George Vancouver, British explorer who surveyed the Pacific coast of America, died.

1/5/1798, Tuesday (-53,697) William Ewart, English politician, was born (died 23/1/1869).


26/4/1798, Thursday (-53,702) Painter Eugene Delacroix was born near Paris.

20/4/1798, Friday (-53,708) Sir William Logan, British geologist, was born (died 22/6/1875).

16/4/1798, Monday (-53,712) Francce annexed Geneva.

11/4/1798, Wednesday (-53,717) Macedonio Melloni, Ita;lian physicist, was born (died 11/8/1854).

8/4/1798, Sunday (-53,720) Easter Sunday.

7/4/1798, Saturday (-53,721) Pierre Leroux, French philosophical writer, was born.

5/4/1798, Thursday (-53,723)

3/4/1798, Tuesday (-53,725) John Banim, Irish novelist, was born in Kilkenny (died in Booterstown 30/8/1874).

2/4/1798, Monday (-53,726) August Hoffmann, German writer, was born (died 19/1/1874).


29/3/1798, Thursday (-53,730) Swiss revolutionaries proclaimed the �Helvetian Republic� and allied to France.

13/3/1798, Tuesday (-53,746) Walter Hook, English religious writer, was born (died 20/10/1875)

6/3/1798, Tuesday (-53,753) Jacques Jasmin, French poet,was born (died 4/10/1864).

5/3/1798, Monday (-53,754) Bern declared war on France, fighting two separate battles this day, winning one and losing the other. Bern then surrendered to France


17/2/1798, Saturday (-53,770) Friedrich Beneke, German writer, was born in Berlin (died 1854).

11/2/1798, Sunday (-53,776) French troops captured Rome.


24/1/1798, Wednesday (-53,794) Karl Holtei, german poet, was born (died 12/2/1880).

19/1/1798, Friday (-53,799) Auguste Comte, French philosopher and founder of modern sociology, was born in Montpellier.

15/1/1798, Monday (-53,803) Thomas Croker, Irish writer, was born (died 8/8/1854).

14/1/1798, Sunday (-53,804) Isaak da Costa, Dutch poet, was born (died 28/4/1860).

9/1/1798, Tuesday (-53,809) (Spain) Pedro Aranda, Spanish politician, died in Epila (born 1/8/1719 in Sietamo).

5/1/1798, Friday (-53,813) David Moir, Scottish writer, was born (died 6/7/1851).


28/12/1797, Thursday (-53,821) Charles Hodge, US religious writer, was born (died 19/7/1878)

23/12/1797, Friday (-53,827) Adrien de Jussieu, natiuralist, was born (died 29/6/1853).

17/12/1797, Sunday (-53,832) Joseph Henry, electrical scientist, was born (died 13/5/1878).

13/12/1797, Wednesday (-53,836) Louis Legendre, French Revolutionist, died (born 22/5/1752).

11/12/1797, Monday (-53,838) (Medical) Richard Brockelsby, English physician, died (born 11/8/1722).


29/11/1797, Wednesday (-53,850) Gaetano Donizetti, composer, was born.

19/11/1797, Sunday (-53,860) (USA) Charles Anthon, US classicist, was born in New York City (died in New York, 29/7/1867).

16/11/1797, Thursday (-53,863) Death of the Prussian King Frederick William II, aged 53. He was succeeded by Frederick William III.

14/11/1797, Tuesday (-53,865) Sir Charles Lyell, British geologist, was born (died 22/2/1875).

4/11/1797, Saturday (-53,875) US Congress agreed to pay an annual �anti-piracy� tribute to Tripoli.


27/10/1797, Friday (-53,883) Andrew Combe, physiologist, was born (died 9/8/1847).

22/10/1797, Sunday (-53,888) Andre-Jacques Garnerin, 28, made a parachute descent, from 2,230 feet, from a hot air balloon. He jumped over the Parc Monceau, Paris. This was not the first parachute jump, but Garnerin had improved the device so as to enable descents from a greater height than ever before.

17/10/1797, Tuesday (-53,893) Napoleon made peace with Austria at Campo-Formio.Austria agreed to cede its Belgian provinces to France in return for Venice, Dalmatia and Istria.

16/10/1797, Monday (-53,894) James Cardigan, English lieutenant general (died 28/3/1868) was born.

13/10/1797, Friday (-53,897) Thomas Bayly, English writer, was born in Bath (died 22/4/1839).

11/10/1797, Wednesday (-53,899) At the naval Battle of Camperdown, off the Dutch coast, the British beat the Dutch, who had been a threat to British naval supremacy.

10/10/1797, Tuesday (-53,900) (Lighting) Thomas Drummond was born. Along with Goldsworth Gurney (born 1798) he invented ;limelight�, an intense beam of light produced by the combustion of lime (calcium oxide) in an alcohol flame with added oxygen, and focussed by a parabolic mirror.

7/10/1797, Saturday (-53,903)

4/10/1797, Wednesday (-53,906) Albrecht Bitzius, Swiss novelist, was born in Morat (died 22/10/1854).

3/10/1797, Tuesday (-55,907) (Italy) Leopold II, Grand-Duke of Tuscany, was born (died 29/1/1870).


19/9/1797, Tuesday (-53,921) Lazare Hoche, French General, died (born 24/6/1768)

10/9/1797, Sunday (-53,930) Mary Wollstonecraft, early feminist and author of Vindication and the Rights of Woman, died this day.

8/9/1797, Friday (-53,932) Richard Farmer, writer on Shakespeare, died (born 28/8/1735)

4/9/1797, Monday (-53,936) A French army coup halted the plans of British backed Royalists in Paris.


30/8/1797, Wednesday (-53,941) Mary Shelley, English novelist, best known as the author of Frankenstein, was born in London.

28/8/1797, Monday (-53,943) Karl Muller, German scholarly writer, was born (died 1/8/1840).

25/8/1797, Friday (-53,946) Jean Louvet de Couvrai, French writer, died (born 12/6/1760).

12/8/1797, Saturday (-53,959) (Light) Antoine Claudet, pioneer of photography, was born (died 27/12/1867).

11/8/1797, Friday (-53,960) A secret Home Office report suspected Coleridge and the Wordsworths of being enemy agents, because of their wandering around the countryside with campstools and making detailed sketches of the landscape.

3/8/1797, Thursday (-53,968) (Britain) Jeffrey Amherst Amherst, British soldier (born 1717), died in Kent.


20/7/1797, Thursday (-53,982) Pawel Strzelecki, explorer of Australia, was born.

18/7/1797, Tuesday (-53,984) Sir Robert Christison, Scottish physician, was born (died 23/1/1882).

14/7/1797, Friday (-53,988) James Bowerbank, scientific author, was born in Bishopsgate, London (died in St Leonards 8/3/1877).

11/7/1797, Tuesday )-53,991) Charles Macklin, Irish playwright, died.

9/7/1797, Sunday (-53,993) France proclaimed a �Cisalpine Republic�, including Milan, Modena, Ferrara, Bolohgna and Romagna. The Republic of Genoa became the Ligurian Republic, and was a French puppet State.

Edmund Burke, British politician and orator, died.


30/6/1797, Friday (-54,002) The naval mutiny at The Nore, led by Richard Parker, was put down.It had started as a protest against poor food and low pay.

26/6/1797, Monday (-54,006) Charles Newbold patented the cast iron plough.

25/6/1797, Sunday (-54,007) Admiral Nelson was wounded in the right arm by grapeshot, during the Battle of Santa Cruz, off Tenerife. He had the arm amputated that afternoon.

24/6/1797, Saturday (-54,008) John Hughes, US religious writer, was born (died 3/1/1864).

21/6/1797, Wednesday (-54,011) Andreas Bernstorff, Danish statesman, died (born in Hanover 28/8/1735).

17/6/1797, Saturday (-53,015) Agha Mohammad Khan, Shah of Persia, died.


30/5/1797, Tuesday (-54,033) Georg naumann, German geological writer, was born (died 26/11/1873).

15/5/1797, Monday (-54,048) Pierre Lafont, French actor, was born (died 19/4/1873).

14/5/1797, Sunday (-54,049) Napoleon conquered Venice.

13/5/1797, Saturday (-54,050) Gerard Deshayes, French geologist, was born (died 9/6/1875).

12/5/1797, Friday (-54,051) Ludovico Manin, the last Doge of Venice, abdicated.

3/5/1797, Wednesday (-54,060) (Cartography) Heinrich Berghaus, German geographer, was born in Kleve (died in Stettin 17/2/1884).


27/4/1797, Thursday (-54,066) (Biology) Jean Audouin, naturalist, was born in Paris (died in Paris 9/11/1841).

18/4/1797Tuesday (-54,075) Napoleon signed preliminaries of peace with Austria.

17/4/1797, Monday (-54,076) Britain�s first prisoner of war camp opened at Norman Cross Depot, near Stilton, Huntingdonshire. Prior to this, PoWs had been confined in civil prisons, floating hulks, or fortresses, but by 1796 the number of French PoWs was so large other accommodation had to be found.

16/4/1797, Sunday (-54,077) Easter Sunday. The British navy mutinied at Spithead, near Portsmouth, over poor pay, bad food, and arduous blockade duty. On 2/5/1797 the mutiny spread to the North Sea fleet.

13/4/1797, Thursday (-54,080) Napoleon captured Leoben on his advance from Italy into Austria.

7/4/1797, Friday (-54,086) William Mason, English poet, died (died 12/2/1725).

5/4/1797, Wednesday (-54,088) Karl Devrient, German actor, was born (died 4/10/1877).


26/3/1797, Sunday (-54,098) James Hutton, Scottish geologist, died (born 3/6/1726).

22/3/1797, Wednesday (-54,102) (1) Napoleon captured Gorizia, in an advance from Italy into Austria..

(2) Wilhelm I, Emperor of Germany, was born.

18/3/1797, Saturday (-54,106) Friedrich Gotter, German poet, died (born 3/9/1746).

7/3/1797, Tuesday (-54,117) Johann Formey, Franco-German author, died (born 31/5/1711).

4/3/1797, Saturday (-54,120) (USA) John Adams became the 2nd US President.

2/3/1797, Thursday (-54,122) Horatio Walpole, British politician, died in London.He never married.


28/2/1797, Tuesday (-54,124) (Schools) Mary Lyon, US educationalist, was born (died 5/3/1849).

26/2/1797, Sunday (-54,126) The Bank of England first issued �1 notes; copper pennies were also first minted this day.

24/2/1797, Friday (-54,128) Samuel Lover, Irish novelist, was born (died 6/7/1868).

20/2/1797, Monday (-54,132) Nelson was made a Knight of the Bath and promoted to Rear Admiral for his action in the Battle of Cape St Vincent.

19/2/1797, Sunday (-54,133) Napoleon captured Tolentino, Italy, where he signed a treaty with the Papacy (The Peace of Tolentino).

18/2/1797, Saturday (-54,134) The British captured the island of Trinidad from Spain. Spain had been forced to ally with France by Napoleon, making her at war with Britain. The British fleet blocked the Spanish fleet of Don Apodaca in the harbour of Port of Spain; the Spanish decided to scuttle (burn) their ships rather thanface annihilation and capture by the British.

16/2/1797, Thursday (-54,136)

15/2/1797, Wednesday (-54,137) (USA) John Bell, US politician, was born neat Nashville, Tennessee (died 10/9/1869).

14/2/1797, Tuesday (-54,138) Horatio Nelson and Admiral Jervis defeated the Spanish fleet off Cape St Vincent, south west Portugal.

12/2/1797, Sunday (-54,140) The last invasion of Britain. The Irish-American General William Tate landed at Fishguard, Pembrokeshire with 1,400 French troops, who soon surrendered.

9/2/1797, Thursday (-54,143) Napoleon captured Ancona, Italy.

4/2/1797, Saturday (-54,148) Major earthquake hit Riobamba, Ecuador.

3/2/1797, Friday (-54,149) French and Italian troops under Marshal Victor defeated Papal State troops under General Colli.

2/2/1797, Thursday (-54,150)Napoleon captured Mantua, Italy.

1/2/1797, Wednesday (-54,151) Napoleon captured Bologna, Italy.


31/1/1797, Tuesday (-54,152) Franz Schubert, Austrian composer, was born near Vienna. He was the son of a schoolteacher.

20/1/1797, Friday (-54,163)

15/1/1797, Sunday (-54,168) The top hat first appeared in London, worn by James Hetherington. He was fined �50 for wearing this attire, and causing a breach of the peace.

14/1/1797, Saturday (-54,169) Battle of Rivoli. Napoleon�s first decisive victory over the Austrians.

10/1/1797, Tuesday (-54,173) Annette Droste-Hulshoff, German poet, was born (died 24/5/1848).

4/1/1797, Wednesday (-54,179) Napoleon defeated the Austrians on the banks of the Adige River, Italy.

2/1/1797, Monday (-54,181) Hugh Legare, US statesman, was born (died 20/6/1843).


24/12/1796, Saturday (-54,190) Spanish novelist Cecilia Larrea (Fernan Caballero) was born (died 7/4/1877).

19/12/1796, Monday (-54,105) Manuel Breton de los Herreros, Spanish dramatist, was born (died 8/11/1873).

16/12/1796, Friday (-54,198) (Astronomy) Johann Titius, astronomer, died in Wittemberg.

15/12/1796, Thursday (-54,199) A French fleet under General Hoche sailed from Brest to invade Ireland. However a storm dispersed the fleet off Kerry and the invasion was called off.

13/12/1796, Tuesday (-54,201) (Britain) James Scarlett Abinger, British statesman (died 7/4/1844) was born in Jamaica.


30/11/1796, Wednesday (-54,214) Johann Lowe, German composer, was born (died 20/4/1869).

19/11/1796, Saturday (-54,225) (Britain) Thomas Bath, English politician, died (born 13/9/1734).

6/11/1796. Sunday (-54,238) Death of Czarina Katherine the Great of Russia. She died at Czarskoye Selo (The Czar�s Village) near St Petersburg, aged 67.She had been Empress of Russia since 1762. She was succeeded by her 42-year old son, Paul I.


5/10/1796. Wednesday (-54,270) Spain declared war on Britain by signing the Treaty of San Il Defonso, allying it with Revolutionary France. The Treaty was engineered by Spanish Prime Minister Manuel de Godoy, lover of King Charles IV�s wife Maria Luisa. De Godoy was opposed to monarchist Britain. Many ordinary Spanish opposed the Treaty, which diminished Spain as an imperial power and weakened her influence in The Americas.


21/9/1796, Wednesday (-54,284) Francois Marceau-Desgraviers, French General, died (born 1/3/1769).

19/9/1796, Monday (-54,286) Hartley Coleridge, English writer, was born (died 6/1/1849).

17/9/1796, Saturday (-54,288) George Washington gave his farewell address as president of the USA.

16/9/1796, Friday (-54,289) William Muhlenberg, US philanthropist, was born (died 8/4/1877).

2/9/1796, Friday (-54,303) Francois Hamelin, French Admiral, was born (died 10/1/1864).


21/8/1796, Sunday (-54,315) Asher Durand, US painter, was born (died 17/9/1886).


26/7/1796, Tuesday (-54,341) Jean Baptiste Corot, French landscape painter, was born (died 22/2/1875).

24/7/1796, Sunday (-54,343) John Clayton, US politician, was born (died 9/11/1856).

21/7/1796. Thursday (-54,346) Robert Burns, Scottish poet, died aged 37 in Dumfries, and was buried there.He was born on 25/1/1759, the eldest son of a poor peasant farmer, about 2 miles from Ayr, at Alloway.

17/7/1797, Sunday (-54,350) Hippolyte Delaroche, French painter, was born (died 4/11/1856).

16/7/1796, Saturday (-54,351) William Hamilton, English statesman, died (born 28/1/1729).

6/7/1796, Wednesday (-54,361) Nicholas, Tsar of Russia, was born.


30/6/1796, Thursday (-54,367) Napoleon marched into central Italy, taking Florence this day.

23/6/1796, Thursday (-54,374) Pope Pius VI signed an armistice with Napoleon.

21/6/1796. Tuesday (-54,376) Scottish explorer Mungo Park reached the River Niger.

11/6/1796, Saturday (-54,386) Samuel Whitbread, beer brewer, died.

3/6/1796, Friday (-54,394) Napoleon advanced to Verona, thereby securing all of Austrian Lombardy.

1/6/1796. Wednesday (-54,396) Tennessee became the 16th state of the USA.


28/5/1796, Saturday (-54,400) William Miller, Scottish line engraver, was born (died 20/1/1882).

21/5/1796, Saturday (-54,407) Reverdy Johnson, US politician, was born (died 10/2/1876).

17/5/1796, Tuesday (-54,411) Napoleon advanced to Brescia.

15/5/1796, Sunday (-54,413) Napoleon occupied Milan.

14/5/1796. Saturday (-54,414) Dr Edward Jenner, born 17/5/1749, from Berkeley, Gloucestershire, carried out his first human vaccination. He infected an eight year old, James Phipps, with cowpox, or �vaccinia� disease, having once heard a dairymaid claim that she would never catch smallpox because she had been infected by cowpox. Then on July 1st he deliberately exposed the boy to smallpox; he proved resistant to the disease.

10/5/1796, Tuesday (-54,418) Napoleon won the Battle of Lodi. Napoleon was greeted in Milan as a liberator of the city from Austrian rule.

6/5/1796, Friday (-54,422) Adolf Knigge, German author, died.

4/5/1796, Wednesday (-54,424) Horace Mann, US educatiuonalist writer, was born (died 2/8/1859).


28/4/1796, Thursday (-54,430) Napoleon reached an armistice with Sardinia.

24/4/1796, Sunday (-54,434) Karl Immerman, German dramatist, was born (died 25/8/1840).

23/4/1796, Saturday (-54,435) Theodor Hippel, German writer, died (born 31/1/1741).

22/4/1796, Friday (-54,436) (Italy) Napoleon defeated the Piedmontese at Modovi. Savoy and Nice were ceded to France.

21/4/1796, Thursday (-54,437)

19/4/1796, Tuesday (-54,439) Bernhard Beskow, Swedish dramatist, was born (died 17/10/1868).

18/4/1796, Monday (-54,440) Johan Wilcke, physicist, died.

13/4/1796, Wednesday (-54,445) Napoleon won the Battle of Millesimo.


31/3/1796, Thursday (-54,458) Philippe Buchez, French political writer, was born (died 12/8/1865)

10/3/1796, Thursday (-54,479) Napoleon gained victory at the Battle of Lodi.

9/3/1796, Wednesday (-54,480) Napoleon married Josephine de Beautharnais.

2/3/1796, Wednesday (-54,487) Napoleon was appointed Commander in Chief of the Army of Italy and The Alps.


26/2/1796, Friday (-54,492) Thomas Galloway, Scottish mathematician, was born (died 1/11/1851).

17/2/1796, Wednesday (-54,501) (Cartography) Frederick Beechey, English explorer and cartographer, was born in London (died 29/11/1856).

9/2/1796, Tuesday (-54,509) Qianlong, 6th emperor of the Qing dynasty and the leader of China at its pre-modern peak of power, size, and prestige, abdicated in the 61st year of his reign in favour of his 35-year-old son. Though, until his death three years later, Qianlong continued to exercise power from behind the scenes, his abdication was crucial to his dynasty�s legitimacy. Qianlong abdicated one day before the length of his reign would have matched that of his illustrious grandfather, Emperor Kangxi. Kangxi�s unprecedentedly long reign was viewed as a kind of golden age, and Kangxi was still held in high regard. For Qianlong to outshine his grandfather would have been viewed as immodest, reflecting badly on the House of Aisin Gor. His abdication preserved respect for the imperial office.

8/2/1796, Monday (-54,510) Barthelemy Enfantin, French social reformer, was born (died 1/9/1864).

6/2/1796, Saturday (-54,512) John Henslow, English scientific writer, was born (died 16/5/1861).

3/2/1796, Wednesday (-54,515) Jean Madou, Belgian painter, was born (died 31/3/1877).

1/2/1796, Monday (-54,517) Abraham Frohlich, Swiss poet, was born (died 1/12/1865).


25/1/1796, Monday (-54,524) William MacGillivray, Scottish naturalist writer, was born (died 4/9/1852).

17/1/1796, Sunday (-54,532) (Technology) Thaddeus Fairbanks, inventor, was born (died 12/4/1886).

13/1/1796, Wednesday (-54,536) (Science) John Anderson, Scottish scientist (born 1726 in Roseneath, Dumbartonshire) died in Glasgow.

4/1/1796, Monday (-54,545) Henry Bohn, British publisher, was born in London (died in Twickenham 22/8/1884).


31/12/1795, Thursday (-54,549) Arthur Guinness signed a 9,000 lease on a brewery at St James Gate, Dublin, for an annual rent of �45.

23/12/1795, Wednesday (-54,557) Sir Henry Clinton, British General, died.

21/12/1795, Monday (-54,559) Robert Moffat, Scottish Congregationalist missionary to southerm Africa, was born (died 9/8/1883).

10/12/1795, Thursday (-54,570) (Marine) Sir George Burns, operator of the Cunard Line from 1838, was born (died 2/6/1890).

8/12/1795, Tuesday (-54,572) Peter Hansen, Danish astronomer, was born (died 28/3/1874).

5/12/1795, Saturday (-54,575) Friedrich Hermann, German economics writer, was born (died 23/11/1868).

4/12/1795, Friday (-54,576) Birth of Thomas Carlyle, Scottish historian.

3/12/1795, Thursday (-54,577) Sir Rowland Hill, who pioneered the postal service, was born in Kidderminster.


29/11/1795, Sunday (-54,581) Friedrich Gerhard, German archaeological writer, was born (died 12/5/1867).

19/11/1795, Thursday (-54,591) Thomas Linley English musician, died.

18/11/1795, Wednesday (-54,592) Significant earthquake in Derbyshre, England, chimneys fell and walls were cracked.

9/11/1795, Monday (-54,601) Walter Geike, Scottish painter, was born (died 1/8/1837).

2/11/1795, Monday (-54,608) James Polk, American Democrat and 11th President, was born in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina.


31/10/1795, Saturday (-54,610) The French Executive Directory was elected.

26/10/1795, Monday (-54,615) Napoleon was appointed General of the Army of the Interior.

24/10/1795, Saturday (-54,617) King Stanislaus II of Poland, aged 63, abdicated.

10/10/1795, Saturday (-54,631) Joseph le Bon, French politician, was executed (born 29/9/1765).

8/10/1795, Thursday (-54,633) Easter Sunday; Andrew Kippis, English religious writer, died (born 28/3/1725).

6/10/1795, Tuesday (-54,635) (Race Equality) Joshua Giddings, prominent US anti-slavery campaigner, was born (died 27/5/1864).

5/10/1795, Monday (-54,636) Napoleon participated in defeating a Royalist uprising in Paris. He became Commander of the Army of the Interior.

1/10/1795, Thursday (-54,640) Belgium was incorporated in the French Republic.


28/9/1795, Monday (-54,643) Britain, Russia and Austria joined in the Alliance of St Petersburg against France.

24/9/1795, Thursday (-54,647) Antoine Barye, French sculptor, was born in Paris (died 25/6/1875).

23/9/1795, Tuesday (-54,648) France proclaimed a new Constitution.

16/9/1795, Wednesday (-54,655) In June 1795 a British fleet with 4,000 soldiers arrived off the Dutch Cape Colony (South Africa) to prevent the French from taking the territory. This day the British soldiers landed at Muizenberg, and the Dutch soldiers, under Governor Sluysken, largely fled without a fight. Sluyksen managed to negotiate a truce with the British, but was soon evicted from power by settlers in the interior who resisted his rule.

13/9/1795, Sunday (-54,658) Julius Hare, English religious writer, was born (died 23/1/1855).

5/9/1795, Saturday (-54,666) Karl Follen, German poet, was born (died 14/1/1840).


13/8/1795, Karl Homeyer, German jurist, was born (died 20/10/1874).


22/7/1795, Wednesday (-54,711) The Second Treaty of Basle. Spain ceded the Dominican Republic to France.

20/7/1795, Monday (-54,713) (Chemistry) Jean Guimet, French industrial chemist, was born (died 8/4/1871). In 1828 he won an award for inventing artificial ultramarine, as a substititue for the ultramarine prepared from lapis lazuli.

15/7/1795, Wednesday (-54,718) The Marsellaise was officially adopted as the French National Anthem. It had been written by the French Army Captain Rouget de Lisle in 1792, whilst he was stationed at Strasbourg.

9/7/1795, Thursday (-54,724) Henry Conway, English statesman, died (born 1721).

4/7/1795, Saturday (-54,729) Karl Eichwald, German scientific writer, was born (died 10/11/1876).

3/7/1795, Friday (-54,730) Louis Brequigny, scholarly writer, died (born 22/2/1714).

1/7/1795, Wednesday (-54,732) The first section of the Ellesmere Canal, from Chester to Netherpool (now called El;lesmere Port) opened, see 1796.


27/6/1795, Saturday (-54,736) A force of French Royalists, under D�Hervilly and Puisaye, landed at Quiberon to try and start a pro-monarchist rebellion. They were defeated by General Hoche, all prisoners being shot.

24/6/1795, Wednesday (-54,739) (Medical) German physiologist Ernst Heinrich Weber was born in Wittemberg. He began, in 1826, experiments with two point skin stimulation; how close can two needle points be felt before they are perceived as just one sensation.

23/6/1795, Tuesday (-54,740) Off the port of Lorient, NW France, a British fleet under Lord Bridport defeated the French under Villaret-Joyeuse.

17/6/1795, Wednesday (-55,746) Jean Goujon, French politician, died (born 13/4/1766).

15/6/1795, Monday (-55,748) Richard Morrison, English astronomer, was born (died 5/4/1874).

13/6/1795, Saturday (-55,750) (Education, Schools) Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby School, was born in West Cowes, Isle of Wight (died 12/6/1842).

1/6/1795, Monday (-55,762) Pierre Desault, French surgeon, died (born 6/2/1744).


31/5/1795, Sunday (-55,763) France suspended the Revolutionary Tribunal.

27/5/1795, Wednesday (-54,767)

23/5/1795, Saturday (-54,771) (1) In Paris troops suppressed a riot caused by food shortages. See 1/4/1795.

(2) Birth of the architect Sir Charles Barry, who designed the Houses of Parliament in London.

22/5/1795, Friday (-54,772) Scottish explorer Mungo Park set sail on his first voyage to Africa,

19/5/1795, Tuesday (-54,775) James Boswell, Scottish diarist and biographer of Dr Johnson, died in London, aged 54.

7/5/1795, Thursday (-54,787) Antoine Fouquier-Tinville, French revolutionary, was guillotined (born 1746).


30/4/1795, Thursday (-54,794) Jean Jacques Barthelemy, French writer, died (born in Cassis, Provence 20/1/1716).

28/4/1795, Tuesday (-54,796) Birth of Charles Sturt, English explorer of Australia.

23/4/1795, Thursday (-54,801) Warren Hastings was acquitted of high treason.

22/4/1795, Wednesday (-54,802) Johann Bohmer, German historical writer, was born in Frankfort am Main (died in Frankfort 22/10/1863).

21/4/1795, Tuesday (-54,803)

20/4/1795, Monday (-54,804) Johan Kellgren, Swedish poet, died (born 1/1/21751).

19/4/1795, Sunday (-54,805) Christian Ehrenberg, German naturalist, was born (died 27/6/1876).

7/4/1795, Tuesday (-54,817) France officially adopted the metric system of measuerement.

5/4/1795, Sunday (-54,819) Easter Sunday. Frederick William of Prussia signed a peace treaty with France (First Treaty of Basle), to leave himself free to deal with his eastern frontier.The west bank of the Rhine was given to France.

1/4/1795, Wednesday (-54,823) Martial law was declared in Paris as food shortages sparked riots. See 23/5/1795.


29/3/1795, Sunday (-54,826) Ludwig van Beethoven had his debut performance as a pianist in Vienna.

28/3/1795, Saturday (-54,827) The Duchy of Courland was incorporated into the State of Russia.


27/2/1795, Friday (-54,856) Francis Marion, US soldier, died.

23/2/1795, Monday (-54,860) Sir Josiah Mason, Enbglish entrepreneuer and philanthropist, was born (died16/6/1881).

21/2/1795, Saturday (-54,862) In France, the National Convention formall separated Church and State.

11/2/1795, Wednesday (-54,872) Karl Bellman, Swedish poet, died (born in Stockholm 4/2/1740).

8/2/1795, Sunday (-54,875) (Christian) Pierre Beckx, Jesuit, was born in Sichem, Belgium (died in Rome 4/3/1887).

7/2/1795, Saturday (-54,876) Anders Fryxell, Swedish historical writer, was born (died 21/3/1881).

5/2/1795, Thursday (-54,878) Wilhelm Haidinger, German geological writer, was born (died 19/3/1871).


21/1/1795, Wednesday (-54,893) France granted freedom of worship.

19/1/1795, Monday (-54,895) French forces occupied Amsterdam.

13/1/1795, Tuesday (-54,901) Armand-Pierre Caussin de Perceval, Orientalist writer, was born (died 15/1/1871).

3/1/1795, Saturday (-54,911) Josiah Wedgwood, English potter and creator of blue jasper ware, died in Staffordshire.

2/1/1795, Friday (-54,912) The French captured the Dutch fleet as it stood frozen into the River Texel. William V escaped to England as the French established a Batavian Republic.


14/12/1794, Sunday (-54,931) Erastus Corning, US politician and industrialist, was born (died 9/4/1872).

6/12/1794, Saturday (-54,939) Luigi Lablache, French-Italian singer, was born (died 23/1/1858).


30/11/1794, Sunday (-54,945) John Scott, champion jockey, was born (died 4/10/1871).

28/11/1794, Friday (-54, 947) Cesare Beccaria-Bonesana, Italian writer, died in Milan (born in Milan 15/3/1735).

22/11/1794, Saturday (-54,953) Alicia Cockburn, Scottish poet, died (born 8/10/1713).

17/11/1794, Monday (-55,958) George Grote, English historian of Greece, was born (died 18/6/1871).

16/11/1794, Sunday (-55,959) (France) Jean Carrier, French Revolutionary, was guillotined (born 1756).

9/11/1794, Sunday (-54,966) Russian forces entered Warsaw, ending the Polish rebellion.

3/11/1794, Monday (-54,972) Francois Bernis, French statesman, died in Rome (born 22/5/1715).


28/10/1794, Tuesday (-54,978) Robert Liston, surgeon, was born (died 7/12/1847).

27/10/1794, Monday (-54,979) Birth of Robert Lister, Scottish doctor who performed the first operation using anaesthetic.

26/10/1794, Sunday (-54,980)

25/10/1794, Saturday (-54,981) Prussia withdrew from the war against France.

24/10/1794., Friday (-54,982) Friedrich Balduin, German soldier, was born (died 20/4/1848).

19/10/1794, Sunday (-54,987) Charles Leslie, English painter, was born (died 5/5/1859).

10/10/1794, Friday (-54,996) (Poland, Russia) The Polish army, 7,000 men under Tadeusz Kosciusko was heavily defeated by the Russians, 16,000 men, at Maciejowice, and its leader taken prisoner. Kosciusko was released by Czar Paul in 1796, and died on 15/10/1817 when his horse fell over a precipice.

7/10/1794, Tuesday (-54,999) Wilhelm Muller, German lyrical poet, was born 0died 30/9/1827).


13/9/1794, Saturday (-55,023) Jean Florian, French poet, died (born 6/3/1755).

9/9/1794, Tuesday (-55,027) William Lonsdale, English geologist, was born (died 11/11/1871).

4/9/1794, Thursday (-55,032) John Hely-Hutchinson, Irish statesman, died (born 1724)


29/8/1794, Friday (-55,038) William Ellis, missionary to Polynesia, was born (died 25/6/1872).

20/8/1794, Wednesday (-55,047) Napoleon was released, see 10/8/1794.

16/8/1794, Saturday (-55,051) (Switzerland) Jean Aubigne, Swiss historian, was born near Geneva (died 1872).

15/8/1794, Friday (-55,052) Elias Fries, botanical writer, was born (died 8/2/1878).

10/8/1794, Sunday (-55,057) In France, Napoleon Bonaparte was briefly arrested because of his connections with the Jacobins, a radical political group.


31/7/1794, Thursday (-55,067) In the two months of June and July, the French guillotine had claimed 1,285 victims.

30/7/1794, Wednesday (-55,068) Johann Lappenberg, German historical writer, was born (died 28/11/1865).

29/7/1794, Tuesday (-55,069) Thomas Corwin, US politician, was born.

28/7/1794, Monday (-55,070) Maximillien Robespierre, 36, French leader of the Jacobins during the French Revolution, was guillotined in Paris. Anti-Jacobin sentiment rose. Robespierre�s zeal for use of the guillotine made even his former friends uneasy. See 27/7/1793.

26/7/1794, Saturday (-55,072)

25/7/1794, Friday (-55,073) Andre de Chenier, French poet, was guillotined (born 30/10/1762).

24/7/1794, Thursday (-55,074) (Biology) Russian zoologist Christian Pander was born in Riga. He studied the development of the chick embryo.

23/7/1794, Wednesday (-55,075) The village of Ratcliff, just east of London, was badly damaged by a fire. 455 of the 1,150 houses were burnt, along with 36 warehouses, when a pitch kettle at a boat builders boiled over. Ships were also burnt; they could not be moved as the tide was out; saltpetre in abarge blew up, raining fire on other boats.

17/7/1794, Thursday (-55,081) (France) The Paris Commune, set up in 1791, was suppressed.

14/7/1794, Monday (-55,084) John Lockhart, Scottish writer, was born (died 25/11/1854).

13/7/1794, Sunday (-55,085) (Biology) Scottish physician James Lind died in Hampshire, England.

12/7/1794, Saturday (-55,086) Admiral Nelson lost his right eye at the siege of the French garrison at Calvi in Corsica.

4/7/1794, Friday (-55,094)

3/7/1794, Thursday (-55,095) Sir John Jervis captured Guadeloupe from the French, however France retook it again from Britain in 10/12/1794.


27/6/1794, Friday (-55,101) Wenzel Kaunitz-Rietburg, Austrian statesman, died (born 2/2/1711).

26/6/1794, Thursday (-55,102) The French defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Fleurus. Balloon reconnaissance of the enemy was used by the French, from a tethered balloon, for the first time.

23/6/1794, Monday (-55,105)

19/6/1794, Thursday (-55,109) Richard Lee, US statesman, died (born 20/1/1732).

18/6/1794, Wednesday (-55,110) (France) Francois Buzot, French Revolutionary, died (born 1/3/1760).

17/6/1794, Tuesday (-55,111) Marguerite Guadet, French revolutionary, died (born 20/7/1758).

8/6/1794, Sunday (-55,120) Gottfried Burger, German poet, died (born 1/1/1748).

1/6/1794, Sunday (-55,127) (France, Britain) The Battle of the Glorious 1st June. The British fleet under Lord Howe defeated the French under Admiral Villaret-Joyeuse, 700km west of Ushant.


30/5/1794, Friday (-55,129) Ignaz Moschelles, Bohemian pianist, was born (died 10/3/1870).

17/5/1794, Saturday (-55,142) Anna Jameson, British writer, was born (died 17/3/1860).

12/5/1794, Monday (-55,147) (Britain) Sir George Cathcart, English soldier, was born (died at the Battle of Inkerman 5/11/1584).

10/5/1794, Saturday (-55,149) (France) Elizabeth, daughter of Louis the Dauphin, born 3/5/1764, was executed.

8/5/1794, Thursday (-55,151) Chemist Antoine Lavoisier, who discovered the composition of water, was executed in Paris.


28/4/1794, Monday (-55,161) Charles Estaing, French Admiral, born 1729, was executed for his close relations to the French Queen.

27/4/1794, Sunday (-55,162) (Africa) James Bruce, Scottish explorer of Africa, died (born 14/12/1730).

25/4/1794, Friday (-55,164)

23/4/1794, Wednesday (-55,166) Chretien Malesherbes, French statesman, was guillotined (born 6/12/1721).

22/4/1794, Tuesday (-55,167) Jean Epremesnil, French magistrate, was guillotined (born 5/12/1745).

20/4/1794, Sunday (-55,169) Easter Sunday.

18/4/1794, Friday (-55,171) Charles Camden, Lord Chancellor of England (born 1714) died.

17/4/1794, Thursday (-55,172) Carl Martius, German botanist, was born (died 13/12/1868).

15/4/1794, Tuesday (-55,174) Frederic Chelmsford, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 5/10/1878).

13/4/1794, Sunday (-55,176) (Biology) Jean Pierre Marie was born in France. He studied the nervous system, located the centre of respiration, and showed that the cerebellum controlled muscular movements.

12/4/1794, Saturday (-55,177) Jean Gobel, French politician, was guillotined (born 1/9/1727)

11/4/1794, Friday (-55,178) Edward Everett, US writer, was born (died 15/1/1865).

7/4/1795, Monday (-55,182) Theobald Boehm, who invented the modern Western flute and its fingering system, was born.

5/4/1794, Saturday (-55,184) (France) George Jacques Danton, French revolutionary leader, was guillotined for treason, nine months after his dismissal from the Committee of Public Safety which was ruling France.

2/4/1794, Wednesday (-55,187) The French military formed a company of Aerostiers for military observation from tethered hot air balloons.


27/3/1794, Thursday (-55,193) The US Navy was officially created. Before this day the American Congress had only fitted out civilian ships for hostilities as required, but now it was decided a permanent navy was necessary.

24/3/1794, Monday (-55,196) Jean Cloots, French Revolutionary, was guillotined.

21/3/1794, Friday (-55,199) James Gilbart, English banking writer, was born (died 8/8/1863).

16/3/1794, Sunday (-55,204) Ami Bourg, Austrian geologist, was born in Hamburg (died 21/11/1881).

15/3/1794, Saturday (-55,205) Friedrich Diaz, German scholarly writer, was born (born 29/5/1876).

10/3/1794, Monday (-55,210)

5/3/1794, Wednesday (-55,215) Ramon de la Cruz, Spanish dramatist, died (born 28/3/1731).

4/3/1794, Tuesday (-55,216) William Carleton, Irish novelist, was born (died 30/1/1869).


26/2/1794, Wednesday (-55,222) Hans Hassenpflug, German statesman, was born (died 15/10/1862).

22/2/1794, Saturday (-55,226) (Biology) German physiologist Kaspar Wolff died in St Petersburg, Russia.

21/2/1794, Friday (-55,227) Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, the Mexican revolutionary who freed his country from Spanish rule, was born.

16/2/1794, Sunday (-55,232) Etienne Lomenie de Brienne., French religious writer, died (born 9/10/1727).

9/2/1794, Sunday (-55,239) Jacques Ancelot, French dramatist, was born in Havre (died 1854).

4/2/1794, Tuesday (-55,244) France issued a decree abolishing slavery in its colonies. However Mauritius ignored this decree.

1/2/1794, Saturday (-55,247) Etienne Arnal, actor, was born in Meulan (died 1872).


21/1/1794, Tuesday (-55,258) August Follen, German poet, was born (died 26/12/1855).

17/1/1794, Friday (-55,262) Jacques Deslongchamps, French geologist, was born (died 17/1/1867).

16/1/1794, Thursday (-55,263) Edward Gibbon, English historian and author of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, died.

10/1/1794, Friday (-55,269) Johann Forster, German writer, died (born 27/11/1754).

8/1/1794, Wednesday (-55,271) Justus Moser, German writer, died (born 14/12/1720).

7/1/1794, Tuesday (-55,272) Eilhardt Mitscherlich, German chemist, was born (died 28/8/1863).

3/1/1794, Friday (-55,276) Joseph Lebeau, Belgian statesman, was born (died 19/3/1865).

1/1/1794, Wednesday (-55,278) The Laggan Navigation opened; it was authorised under an Act of 1753; construction began in 1756. The lower section up to Lisburn opened in 1765 but work halted, due to flooding risks and lack of funds. Work recommenced in 1782 and the link up to Lough Neagh was completed on 1/1/1794.


28/12/1793, Saturday (-55,282) Karl Neumann, German Orientalist writer, was born (died 17/3/1870).

27/12/1793, Friday (-55,283) Alexander Laing, Scottish explorer of Africa, the first recorded European to reach Timbuktu, was born (died 26/9/1826).

18/12/1793, Wednesday (-55,292) The British withdrew from Toulon and Napoleon was appointed General de Brigade.

15/12/1793, Sunday (-55,295) Henry Charles Carey, US economist, was born (died 1879).

7/12/1793, Saturday (-55,303) Madame du Barry, last mistress of King Louis XV of France, was guillotined by the Revolutionary Council.

4/12/1793, Wednesday (-55,306) Armand kersaint, French politician, was executed (born 29/7/1742).


29/11/1793, Friday (-55,311) (France) Antoine Barnave, orator of the French Revolution, was executed at The Tuileries (born in Grenoble 22/10/1761).

24/11/1793, Sunday (-55,316) Clement Laverdy, Fremnch statesman, was guillotined.

17/11/1793, Sunday (-55,323) Sir Charles Eastlake, English painter, was born (died 24/12/1865).

10/11/1793, Sunday (-55,330) The French Republic abolished Christian worship. Jacques Rene Herbert proposed a cult of reason as substitute.

8/11/1793, Friday (-55,332) In Paris, the Revolutionary Government allowed the public to view the Royal art collection for the first time.

7/11/1793, Thursday (-55,333) Antoine Clot, French physician, was born (died 28/8/1868).

5/11/1793, Tuesday (-55,335)

3/11/1793, Sunday (-55,337) (France) Execution by guillotine of French playwright Olympe de Gouges, Horrified by the bloodshed that was characterising the French Revolution, she had called for a referendum that would let the people decide between a Republic or restoration of the monarchy. She was executed along with other moderate Girondists.

2/11/1793, Saturday (-55,338) Nicolas Lobachevsky, Russian mathematician, was born (died 24/2/1856)

1/11/1793, Friday (-55,339) Lord George Gordon, British anti-Catholic agitator and leader of the Gordon Riots in 1780, died in Newgate Prison, London. He had been convicted of libelling Marie Antoinette.


31/10/1793, Thursday (-55,340) (France) Jacques Brissot. French Girondist, was executed.

30/10/1793, Wednesday (-55,341) (France) Claude Fauchet, French Revolutionary Bishop, was executed (born 22/9/1744).

28/10/1793, Monday (-55,343) Eliphalet Remington, US arms manufacturer, was born.

23/10/1783, Wednesday (-55,348)

16/10/1793, Wednesday (-55,355) Marie Antoinette, born 2/11/1755, the Queen of France as wife of Louis XVI, was convicted of treason and guillotined in Paris. See 21/7/1793. Aged 38, she had been held in prison for over a year; since August in solitary confinement.

15/10/1793, Tuesday (-55,356) Louis Lescure, French soldier and anti-Revolutionary, was killed.

12/10/1793, Saturday (-55,359)

8/10/1793, Tuesday (-55,363) John Hancock, US politician, the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence, died.

7/10/1793, Monday (-55,364) Wills Downshire, English politician, died (born 30/5/1718).

5/10/1793, Saturday (-55,366) France adopted the Revolutionary Calendar.

1/10/1793, Tuesday (-55,370) Sir William Erle, English lawyer, was born (died 28/1/1880).


27/9/1793, Friday (-55,374) (France) Denis Affre, Archbishop of Paris, was born in St Rome, Tarn (died 27/6/1848).

25/9/1793, Wednesday (-55,376) Felicia Hemans, English poet, was born (died 16/5/1835).

18/9/1793, Wednesday (-55,383) The cornerstone of the north section of the Capitol Building, Washington DC, was laid by President Washington.

17/9/1793, Tuesday (-55,384) Revolutionary France passed the Law of Suspects. This was a wide-ranging measure that authorised the arrest of anyone who had supported tyranny or federalism, former nobles and their relatives, also emigres. It was the basis for the Reign of Terror, and was repealed in 1795. Some 70% of the victims of The Terror were peasants and labourers, accused of rebellion against the State.

3/9/1793, Tuesday (-55,398)


28/8/1793, Wednesday (-55,404) Adam Custine, French General, was guillotined.

27/8/1793, Tuesday (-55,405) The British occupied Toulon, France.

25/8/1793, Sunday (-55,407) Samuel Cox, US religious and academic, was born (died 2/10/1880).

23/8/1793. Friday (-55,409) (1) France introduced the first national conscription, claiming all unmarried men aged 18 to 25.

(2) Construction work began on the Ulverston Canal, Lancashire, a short 1.25 mile canal to link the town to the sea, which had receded from the town.

19/8/1793, Monday (-55,413) Samuel Goodrich, US author, was born (died 9/5/1860).

17/8/1795, Saturday (-55,415) Athanase Coquerel, French religious writer, was born (died 10/1/1868).

12/8/1793, Monday (-55,420) (Chemistry) James Muspratt, British chemical manufacturer, was born (died 4/5/1886).

1/8/1793, Thursday (-55,431) The kilogram was introduced in France as the first metric weight.


27/7/1793, Saturday (-55,436) Maximilian Robespierre, Jacobin leader, became a member of the Committee of Public Safety, established to guard against an attack on France by neighbouring countries after the execution of King Louis XVI. See 28/7/1794. Robespierre was now effective;ly Dictator of France.

22/7/1793, Monday (-55,441) A party led by Sir Alexander MacKenzie arrived on the Pacific coast of Canbada, becoming the first Europeans to cross Canada, by foot and canoe.

20/7/1793, Saturday (-55,443) Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin, a machine for separating cotton fibre from seeds.

19/7/1793, Friday (-55,444) Thomas Doughty, US painter (died 22/7/1856 in New York city) was born Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

17/7/1793, Wednesday (-55,446) Charlotte Corday was guillotined for the murder of Jean Paul Marat, see 13/7/1793.

13/7/1793, Saturday (-55,450) Jean Paul Marat, French Revolutionary, was stabbed to death by a Girondist (right-wing) supporter, Charlotte Corday. Marat�s zeal for execution of royalty and government ministers had made him many enemies.

10/7/1793, Wednesday (-55,453) William Maginn, irish poet, was born (died 21/8/1842).

4/7/1793, Thursday (-55,459) Friedrich Bleek, German scholar, was born in Holstein (died 27/2/1859).


26/6/1793, Wednesday (-55,467) Karl Moritz, German author, died (born 15/9/1757).

11/6/1793, Tuesday (-55,482) Napoleon had to leave Corsica with his family and went to Toulon.

2/6/1793, Sunday (-55,491) In an early act of the reign of Terror (French Revolution), Jean-Paul Marat led the expulsion of 31 Girondists from the French National Convention.

1/6/1793, Saturday (-55,492) Henry Lyte, religious writer, was born (died 20/11/1847).


31/5/1793, Friday (-55,493) The Reign of Terror, in which thousands went to the guillotine, in the French Revolution, began.

28/5/1793, Tuesday (-55,496) Anton Busching, scholarly writer, died (born 27/9/1724).

24/5/1793, Friday (-55,500) The British recaptured the archipelago of St Pierre et Miquelon, off Canada, which was a severe blow to the French cod fishing fleet.

21/5/1793, Tuesday (-55,503) Charles Kock, Frency novelist, was born (died 27/4/1871).

20/5/1793, Monday (-55,504) (Biology) Charles Bonnet, Swiss naturalist, died near Geneva (born in Geneva 13/3/1720).

3/5/1793, Friday (-55,521) Martin Gerbert, German writer, died (born 1720).


29/4/1793, Monday (-55,525) John Michell, English scientific writer, died.

26/4/1793, Friday (-55,528) Nicolas Changarnier, French General, was born (died 14/2/1877).

22/4/1793, Monday (-55,532) US President Washington issued a Declaration of Neutrality in the Napoleonic War. Hamilton wanted him to support the British but Jefferson wanted him to support the French.

21/4/1793, Sunday (-55,533) (Geology) Geologist John Michell died at Thornhill, England.

20/4/1793, Saturday (-55,534) David Laing, Scottish writer, was born (died 18/10/1878).

19/4/1793, Friday (-55,535) Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria, was born (died 29/6/1875).

15/4/1793, Monday (-55,539) The Bank of England first issued �5 notes.

6/4/1793, Saturday (-55,548) (1) French General Dumouriez was defeated at the Battle of Jemappes, and the French driven out of Holland. Dumouriez subsequently defected to the Austrians.

(2) In France, the Committee of Public Safety was formed.

5/4/1793, Friday (-55,549) William Thornton�s plans for the building of the Capitol, Washington DC, were accepted.

4/4/1793, Thursday (-55,550) Jean Delavigne, French poet, was born (died 11/12/1843).

3/4/1793, Wednesday (-55,551) Dionysius Lardner, Irish scientific writer, was born (died 29/4/1859).


31/3/1793, Sunday (-55,554) Easter Sunday.

25/3/1793, Monday (-55,560) By the Treaty of London, Russia joined the coalition against France.

20/3/1793, Wednesday (-55,565) An army of peasant Royalists defeated the Republicans in the Vendee region of France. See14/3/1793.

18/3/1793, Monday (-55,567) Austrian forces defeated a French Revolutionary Army at the Battle of Neerwinden.

14/3/1793, Thursday (-55,571) A force of counter-revolutionaries in western France was trying to restore the monarchy. See 20/3/1793.

12/3/1795, Tuesday (-55,573) William MacKenzie, Canadian politician, was born (died 29/8/1861).

11/3/1793, Monday (-55,574) In France, start of a counter Revolution in the Vendee.

10/3/1793, Sunday (-55,575) France created the Revolutionary Tribunal.

7/3/1793, Thursday (-55,578) France declared war on Austria, and also on Spain on 7/3/1793.

4/3/1793, Monday (-55,581) Karl Lachmann, German scholarly writer, was born (died 13/3/1851).

3/3/1793, Sunday (-55,582) William MacReady, English actor, was born (died 27/4/1873).

2/3/1793, Saturday (-55,583) Sam Houston, American soldier and first President of Texas, was born.


25/2/1793, Monday (-55,588) US President George Washington convened the first US Cabinet meeting, consisting of the Secretaries for War and Treasury, the Attorney General, and the Postmaster General.

22/2/1793, Friday (-55,591) Isaak Jost, Jewish hirtorical writer, was born (died 22/11/1860).

12/2/1793, Tuesday (-55,601) The US enacted the first of the Fugitive Slave Laws, authorising judges, without a jury trial, to decide the status of a fugitive slave and return him to his �owner�. These laws were in fact so harsh they helped the Abolitionist�s cause.

11/2/1793, Monday (-55,602) Thomas Kingsdown, English lawyer, was born (died 7/10/1867).

6/2/1793, Wednesday (-55,607) Carlo Goldoni, Italian dramatist, died (born 25/2/1707).

2/2/1793, Saturday (-55,611) William Aiton, Scottish botanist, born 17312, died.

1/2/1793, Friday (-55,612) Britain declared war on France. The British economy entered a depression.


23/1/1793, Wednesday (-55,621) Prussia signed a treaty with Russia.Poland was partitioned, with Prussia obtaining Danzig, Thorn, Posen, and most of Great Poland.Russia received Minsk, Pinsk, and the frontier on the Zbrucz.Austria received promises of help in re-conquering Belgium, as well as some Polish territories.

21/1/1793. Monday (-55,623) (1) The county of Nice was annexed to France. Monaco was annexed to France on 14/2/1792.

(2) Louis XVI, King of France since 1774, was executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution, Paris, convicted of treason. The executioner was called Sanson. His trial had ended with the death sentence on 19/1/1793. See 16/10/1793.

20/1/1793, Sunday (-55,624) Louis Michel le Peletier, French politician, was assassinated (born 29/5/1760).

19/1/1793, Saturday (-55,625) Carl Gottling, German scholarly writer, was born (died 20/1/1869).

13/1/1793, Sunday (-55,631) (France) Nicolas Bassville, French politician, died (born in Abbeville 7/2/1753).

9/1/1793, Wednesday (-55,635) Jean Pierre Blanchard made the first ascent in a balloon in America, near Woodbury, New Jersey.

3/1/1793, Thursday (-55,941) Lucretia Mott, US campaigner against slavery, was born (died 11/11/1880).

1/1/1793, Tuesday (-55,643) Sir Francis Head, English writer, was born (died 20/7/1875).


26/12/1792, Wednesday (-55,649) (Mathematics) Charles Babbage was born in Teignmouth, Devon (died 18/10/1871 in London).

20/12/1792, Thursday (-55,655) Nicolas Charlet, French painter, was born (died 30/10/1845).

18/12/1792, Tuesday (-55,657) Thomas Paine was tried in absentia for publishing The Rights of Man.

16/12/1792, Sunday (-55,659) Abbott Lawrence, US statesman, was born (died 18/8/1855).

12/12/1792, Wednesday (-55,663) In Vienna, Ludwig van Beethoven aged 22 receive dhis frist lesson on music composition, from Franz Joeph Haydn.

8/12/1792, Saturday (-55,667) Henry Laurens, US statesman, died (born 24/2/1724).

5/12/1792, Wednesday (-55,670) George Washington was re-elected President of the USA.


29/11/1792, Thursday (-55,676) David Hailes, Scottish historical writer, died (born 28/10/1726).

28/11/1792, Wednesday (-55,677) Victor Cousin, French philosophical writer, was born (died 13/1/1867).

19/11/1792, Monday (-55,686) The new French Republican Government offered to help any other nation that wished to overthrow its monarchy; Britain saw this as provocative.

12/11/1792, Monday (-55,693) (Astronomy) Jean Bailly,astronomer, was guillotined 12/11/1793 (born 15/9/1736).

6/11/1792, Tuesday (-55,699) (Benelux, France) The French under General Dumouriez decisively defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Jenappes, Belgium. As a result of this battle, the Austrian Netherlands (now Belgium) were annexed by revolutionary France.


28/10/1792, Sunday (-55,708) John Smeaton, English civil engineer who designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse, died.

27/10/1792, Saturday (-55,709) France invaded the Spanish Netherlands.

23/10/1792, Tuesday (-55,713)

20/10/1792, Saturday (-55,716) Colin Clyde, British soldier, was born (died 14/8/1863).

19/10/1792, Friday (-55,717) French troops under the Comte de Custine pursued the retreating Prussians as far asmainz and Frankfurt am Main.Other French forces took Brussels and occupied the Austrian Netherlands.

17/10/1792, Wednesday (-55,719) Sir John Bowring, writer, was born in Exeter (died near Exeter 23/11/1872).

13/10/1792, Saturday (-55,723) The cornerstone of the US President�s official residence, The White House in Washington DC, designed by James Hoban, was laid.

7/10/1792, Sunday (-55,729) George Mason, US statesman, died.

1/10/1792, Monday (-55,735) Money Orders came into use in Britain.


30/9/1792, Sunday (-55,736) French troops took Speyer, in the Rhineland.

29/9/1792, Saturday (-55,737) The Theatre Royal, Dumfries, was founded.

25/9/1792, Tuesday (-55,741) Jacques Cazotte, French author died (born 17/10/1719).

22/9/1792, Saturday (-55,744) This day was declared the beginning of Year One of the New French Republic. A new �Revolutionary Calendar� was introduced, consisting of 12 30-day months divided into 3 10-day weeks. The months were given names corresponding to the prevailing weather or harvest conditions. An extra 5 days (6 in leap years) were added as holidays at the end of each year. This calendar ran in France until it was abolished in 1805 by Napoleon I.

21/9/1792, Friday (-55,745) France formally abolished the monarchy and declared itself a Republic.

20/9/1792, Thursday (-55,746) The Battle of Valmy.The Prussians failed to successfully attack the French, in wet marshy conditions, and retreated; the French considered it a victory.

17/9/1792, Monday (-55,749) The French Crown jewels were stolen in Paris.

13/9/1792, Thursday (-55,753) Gino Capponi, Italian historical writer, was born (died 3/2/1876).

5/9/1792, Wednesday (-55,761) (Geology) Ours Dufrenoy, French geologist, was born (died 20/3/1857).

2/9/1792, Sunday (-55,764) Rumours spread in Paris that imprisoned Royalists were planning a counter-revolution. This day mobs attacked prisoners being transferred between jails in Paris, and the killing then spread to numerous provicvial prisons. Some 1,200 prisoners were killed in 5 days.

1/9/1792, Saturday (-55,765) Chester Harding, US portrait painter, was born (died 1/4/1866).


31/8/1792, Friday (-55,766) (Universities) Wilbur Fisk, 1st president of the Wesleyan University, Connecticut, USA, from its founding in 1831, was born (died 22/2/1839).

22/8/1792, Wednesday (-55,775) French forces landed in Ireland.

20/8/1792, Monday (-55,777) The Prussian army took Verdun.

19/8/1792, Sunday (-55,778) The French Revolutionary Tribunals were set up. They were created to try �political offenders�, but soon became a convenient means to bypass the regular Court system for anyone troublesome. The Revolutionary tribunal of Paris sentenced to death 2,639 people, and other Revolutionary Courts condemned a further 17,000. There were a further 40,000 victims, who died in summary mass executions across France. The Revolutionary Tribunals were finally abolished in May 1795.

18/8/1792, Saturday (-55,779) Earl Lord John Russell, British statesman, was born.

14/8/1792, Tuesday (-55,783) John Bigsby, English geologist, was born in Nottingham (died in London 10/2/1881).

11/8/1792, Saturday (-55,786) Robespierre was elected to the Commune (French Revolutionary Government).

10/8/1792, Friday (-55,787) The French mob invaded the Palace of Versailles. The French Royal Family was imprisoned. Napoleon participated in the assault on the Tuileries Palace.

9/8/1792, Thursday (-55,788) Alvan Fisher, US portrait painter, was born (died 16/2/1863).

7/8/1792, Tuesday (-55,790)

6/8/1792, Monday (-55,791) Matthew Hill, English prison reformer, was born (died 7/6/1872).

5/8/1792, Sunday (-55,792) Lord North, British Conservative and Prime Minister from 1770-82, died. His indecision led to Britain�s loss of its North American colonies.

4/8/1792, Saturday (-55,793) (1) John Burgoyne, British General who had to surrender at Saratoga in 1777 in the War of American Independence to American General Gates, died.

(2) Percy Bysshe Shelley was born at Warnham.

3/8/1792, Friday (-55,794) Sir Richard Arkwright, English inventor who developed a mechanical cotton spinning process, died.


29/7/1792, Sunday (-55,799) Rene Maupeou, Chancellor of France, died (born 25/2/1714).

23/7/1792, Sunday(-55,805) The Polish King, faced by a political division and disintegration of his country, abdicated. Katherine the Great of Russia, also alarmed by the French revolution, now enforced a second partition on Poland.

See map at

18/7/1792, Wednesday (-55,810) John Jones, US navalofficer, died (born 6/7/1747).

16/7/1792, Monday (-55,812) Sir Thomas Mitchell, Scottish explorer of Australia, was born (died 5/10/1855).

14/7/1792, Saturday (-55,814) The Prussians threatened to invade France to restore the French monarchy. However an attempted Prussian invasion of France failed.

10/7/1792, Tuesday (-55,818) George Dallas, US statesman, was born (died 1/12/1864).

8/7/1792, Sunday (-55,820) France declared war on Prussia.

3/7/1792, Tuesday (-55,825) Ferdinand, Prussian General, died (born 12/1/1721).


21/6/1792, Thursday (-55,837) (Christian) Ferdinand Baur, theologian, was born in Schmiden (died 1860).

16/6/1792, Saturday (-55,642) John Linnell, English painter, was born (died 20/1/1882).

4/6/1792, Monday (-55,854) (Britain) John Burgoyne, English General, died (born 1722).

3/6/1792, Sunday (-55,855) State Street Bank, Boston, USA, was founded when Governor John Hancock signed the Bank�s Charter.

1/6/1792, Friday (-55,857) Kentucky became the 15th State of the Union.


24/5/1792, Thursday (-55,865) Thomas Hogg, English writer, was born (died 27/8/1862).

18/5/1792, Friday (-55,871) Russian troops invaded Poland.

17/5/1792, Thursday (-55,872) 24 merchants met in Wall Street, New York, to set up the New York Stock Exchange.

15/5/1792, Tuesday (-55,874)

13/5/1792, Sunday (-55,876) Pope Pius IX was born.

12/5/1792, Saturday (-55,877) A toilet that regularly flushed itself was patented.

5/5/1792, Saturday (-55,884)


25/4/1792, Wednesday (-55,894) The guillotine was first erected in Paris, at the Place de la Greve. It was first used to behead a highwayman called Pelletier. The guillotine had been designed to make executions more humane but swiftly became a symbol of the tyranny of the French Revolution. Beheading took less than half a second. In fact a version of the guillotine was in use in Ireland as early as 1307. During the French Revolution an estimated 40,000 people were guillotined. The last public execution in France was on 17/6/1939 and the guillotine was last officially used in France on 10/9/1977. See 20/3/1792.

24/4/1792, Tuesday (-55,895) Claude Rouget de l�Isle composed the French National Anthem, the Marseillaise.

20/4/1792, Friday (-55,899) France declared war on Austria. Austria was allied with Prussia but there was disunity between the two commanders. In 1793 England and Holland joined in against France, which was attempting to annex Belgium, an Austrian possession. Ultimately Austria received Bavaria as a compensation for Belgium going to France.

14/4/1792, Saturday (-55,905) Maximlian Hell, astronomer, died.

12/4/1792, Thursday (-55,907) John Durham, English statesman, was born (died 28/7/1840).

8/4/1792, Sunday (-55,911) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1792, Thursday (-55,914) Hew Ainslie, Scottish poet (died 1878) was born.

2/4/1792. Monday (-55,917) The Mint of the United States was established at Philadelphia, then the national capital.The US mint struck its first silver dollars.


29/3/1792, Thursday (-55,921) King Gustavus III of Sweden died, aged 46. He was succeeded by his son, 13-year old Gustavus IV.

27/3/1792, Tuesday (-55,923) August Hahn, German religious writer, was born (died 13/5/1863).

23/3/1792, Friday (-55,927) In France, the Girondist oarty formed a government.

20/3/1792, Tuesday (-55,930) The French legislature approved the use of the guillotine, see 25/4/1792.

16/3/1792, Friday (-55,934) (1) Tippoo Sahib, Indian Sultan who was resisting the advance of the British East India Company into Mysore, surrendered. Tippoo had studied British military tactics and so was able to resist General Charles Cornwallis for longer than other Indian rulers.

(2) Gustavus III, King of Sweden, was shot at a masked ball; he died on 29/3/1792.

11/3/1792, Sunday (-55,939) Hundreds of freed African slaves gathered beneath a 300-year-old cotton tree to celebrate the founding of Freetown, Sierra Leone. The tree had begun growing about the time slave shipments first began out of Africa.

10/3/1792, Saturday (-55,940) (Britain) John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, died (born 25/5/1713).

7/3/1792, Wednesday (-55,943) Sir John Herschel, the astronomer who mapped the stars of the southern hemisphere, was born in Slough.

3/3/1792, Saturday (-55,947) Johann Gieseler, German church history writer, was born (died 8/7/1854).

1/3/1792, Thursday (-55,949) Leopold III, Holy Roman Emperor, died unexpectedly, aged 44. He was succeeded by his 24-year old son, Francis, last of the Holy Roman Emperors.


29/2/1792, Wednesday (-55,950) Gioacchino Rossini, Italian composer, was born in Pesano, on the Adriatic coast. He was the son of an itinerant horn player.

28/2/1792, Tuesday (-55,951) (Biology) Russian biologist Karl Ernst von Baer was born in Peip, Estonia, In 1827 he reported his discovery that humans and other mammals developed from internal eggs.

27/2/1792, Monday (-55,952) George Cruikshank, English artist, was born (died 1/2/1878).

23/2/1792, Thursday (-55,956) Joshua Reynolds, English portrait painter, died in London.

19/2/1792, Sunday (-55,960) (Geology) Geologist Roderick Impey Murchison was born in Tarradale, Scotland. He was the first to identify the Silurian Period, in 1835.

10/2/1792, Friday (-55,969) Earthquake in Hizen and Higo, Japan, 15,000 killed.

7/2/1792, Tuesday (-55,972) Austria and Prussia signed a military alliance against France.

4/2/1792, Saturday (-55,975) (Race Equality) Anti-slavery campaigner James Birney was born in Danville, Kentucky (died in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, 25/11/1857).

3/2/1792, Friday (-55,976) Guiseppe Cerutti, Italian politician, died (born 13/6/1738).


24/1/1792, Tuesday (-55,986) In Paris, five days of looting ended in a riot as the cost of living soared.

17/1/1792, Tuesday (-55,993) George Horne, English writer, died (born 1/11/1730).

9/1/1792, Monday (-56,001) Russia and Turkey signed the Peace of Jassy.

8/1/1792, Sunday (-56,002) The Ottoman Turks bowed to the inevitable and accepted Catherine the Great�s Russian sovereignty over Georgia. Britain feared further Russian expansion in the Black Sea as this could threaten British Mediterranean interests.

7/1/1792, Saturday (-56,003) Severino Fabriani, Italian writer, was born (died 27/4/1849).


19/12/1791, Monday (-56,022) Johann Doderlein, German scholarly writer, was born (died 9/11/1863).

15/12/1791, Thursday (-56,026) (USA) The US Bill of Rights was ratified by all the states, Virginia being the last State to sign. The US passed the First Amendment which protected free speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, and freedom to petition the Government.

12/12/1791, Monday (-56,029) Marie Louise, 2nd wife of Napoleon I, was born (died 18/12/1847).

5/12/1791, Monday (-56,036) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer, died of typhus in Vienna and was buried in the common ground of St Mark�s churchyard.

4/12/1791, Sunday (-56,037) The Observer, the oldest Sunday newspaper in the UK, was first published.


21/11/1791, Monday (-56,050) The French navigator, Eteinne Marchand, set a new record for crossing the Pacific Ocean, completing the voyage in 60 days.

12/11/1791, Saturday (-56,059) Johann Engelhardt, German religious writer, was born (died 13/9/1855).

10/11/1791, Thursday (-56,061) Robert Hayne, US politician, was born (died 24/9/1839).

4/11/1791, Saturday (-56,066) Indigenous Americans under Chief Little Turtle (1752-1812) ,made a surprise attack on Arthur St C;lair�s forces (see 3/10/1791), killing over half of them and forcing the survivors to make a humiliating retreat. An investigation by Congress blamed the inexperience of the soldiers.


29/10/1791, Saturday (-56,073) John Elliotson, English physician, was born (died 29//7/1868).

14/10/1791, Friday (-56,088) In Belfast, the Society of United Irishmen was set up to demand rights for Catholics.

3/10/1791, Monday (-56,099) Arthur St Clair, (1736-1818) set out to subdue the indigenous Americans of the Northwest territory, an earlier mission by Josaih Harmar (1753-1813) having failed to accomplish this. See 4/11/1791.

1/10/1791, Saturday (-56,101) In France, first session of the Legislative Assembly.


30/9/1791, Friday (-56,102) Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart premiereed his opera, The Magic Flute. Unfortunately he died 2 months later so did not live to see its great success.

27/9/1791, Tuesday (-56,105) France granted citizenship to its Jews.

24/9/1791, Saturday (-36,108) Friedrich Forster, German historical writer, was born (died 8/11/1868).

23/9/1791, Friday (-56,109) Johann Encke, German astronomer, was born (died 26/8/1865).

22/9/1791, Thursday (-56,110) Chemist and physicist Michael Faraday was born at Newington Butts, London.He was the son of a blacksmith.

21/9/1791, Wednesday (-56,111) The National Assembly announced that France was now officially a Republic.

20/9/1791, Tuesday (-56,112) Sergei Aksakov, Russian writer (died 30/4/1859) was born.

19/9/1791, Monday (-56,113) (France) Camille Barrot, French politician, was born in Villefort, Lozere (died in Bougival 6/8/1873).

17/9/1791, Saturday (-56,115) Tomas de Iriarte, Spanish poet, died (born 18/9/1750).

14/9/1791, Wednesday (-56,118) Franz Bopp, German scholarly writer, was born in Mainz (died 23/10/1867).

9/9/1791, Friday (-56,123) French Royalists took control of Arles and barricaded themselves inside the town.

6/9/1791, Tuesday (-56,126) Mozart�s opera La Clemenza di Tito prermiered in Prague.

5/9/1791, Monday (-56,127) Giacomo Meyebeer, German composer, was born (died 2/5/1863).

4/9/1791, Sunday (-56,128) King Louis XVI was forced to approve the new French constitution, making him a mere civil servant.


27/8/1791, Saturday (-56,136) European monarchs backed King Louis XVI against the Revolution.

25/8/1791, Thursday (-56,138) Christian Bunsen, German scholarly writer, was born (died 28/11/1860).

24/8/1791, Wednesday (-56,139) Gottfried Lucke, German religious writer, was born (died 4/2/1855).

15/8/1791, Monday (-56,148) Duff Green, US politician, was born (died 10/6/1875).

12/8/1791, Friday (-56,151) African slaves in Santo Domingo, in the east of the island of Hispaniola, rebelled against plantation owners.


28/7/1791, Thursday (-56,166) Jean Gannal, French chemist, was born (died 1/1852).

20/7/1791, Wednesday (-56,174) Tommaso Grossi, Lombard poet and novelist, was born (died 10/12/1853).

16/7/1791, Saturday (-56,178) Louis XVI was suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the new French Constitution.

14/7/1791, Thursday (-56,180) In Birmingham, England, rioters destroyed the home and labarotory of Joseph Priestley, who discovered oxygen, because he supported the French Revolution. In 1794 Priestley left Britain for America.

13/7/1791, Wednesday (-56,181) William Betty, English actor, was born in Shrewsbury (died 24/8/1874).

9/7/1791, Saturday (-56,185) Friedrich Ebert, German writer, was born (died 13/11/1834).

7/7/1791, Thursday (-56,187) Thomas Blacklock, Scottish poet, died (born in Dumfriesshire 1721).

6/7/1791, Wednesday (-50,188) (France) Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II issued the Padua Circular, calling on other countries to support Louis XVI against the Revolutionary National Assembly.

5/7/1791, Tuesday (-56,189) The first British Ambassador to the US, George Hammonds, was appointed.


27/6/1791, Monday (-52,197) Johann Merck, German author, died (born 11/4/1741).

21/6/1791, Tuesday (-52,203) (1) The French royal family attempted to flee Paris in disguise but were forced to return after being arrested at Varennes. The King, disguised as a valet, intended to meet supporters at Pont de Sommeville but they were delayed and the villagers got suspicious of the soldiers, who had to hide in the woods andgot lost. The King pressed on to Varennes, 142 miles from Paris, where he was recognised by a horseman sent by Lafayette, head of the National Guard, to look for him. Louis� powers were suspended by the Assembly on 25/6/1791. However Louis� brother, the Count of Provence, did succeed in fleeing Paris for Brussels.

(2) The Ordnance Survey, Britain�s mapping service, was created. On this day a payment of �373, 14 shillings was made to Jesse Ramsden for the construction of a �great theodolite�, 3 feet in diameter and weighing 200 pounds (90 kilogrammes) for the purpose of making precise military maps of Britain. The need for this had been foreseen in 1763 by William Roy, amidst fears of invasion from France and a lack of reliable maps for the military. By 1784 UK-France relations had improved and cross-Channel efforts were being made to establish the longitude and latitude of Greenwich and Paris. In 1800 the first cartographical unit of the British Army, the Corps of Royal Military Draughtsmen, was formed, based at the Tower of London.

20/6/1791, Monday (-52,204) Karl Dahlgreen, Swedish poet, was born (died 1/5/1844).

17/6/1791, Friday (-52,207) (Britain) Selina Huntingdon, English religious leader, died (born 24/8/1707).

12/6/1791, Sunday (-52,212) Francis Grose, English antoiquarian writer, died.

10/6/1791, Friday (-52,214) Bitain passed the Canada Act, dividing the country into a mainly English Upper canada and a mainly French Lower Canada, with two elected assemblies.

5/6/1791, Sunday (-56,219) Sir Frederick Haldimand, British General, died (born 11/8/1718).


26/5/1791, Thursday (-56,229) The French Assembly forced Louis XVI to hand over the State and Crown assets.

21/5/1791, Saturday (-56,234) Jean Buchon, French scholarly writer, was born (died 29/8/1849).

3/5/1791, Tuesday (-56,252) Poles, seeking the rebirth of their country, declared a parliamentary constitution in Warsaw. Before this date the Polish aristocracy could block the adoption of any measure into the Diet (Parliament) by a single vote. Therefore there was no taxation on the nobility, the Treasury was empty, the monarch was powerless, and Poland had limited representation abroad. Russia, alarmed, sent an army against Poland. The Sjem backed down.


27/4/1791, Wednesday (-56,258) Samuel Morse, inventor of the Morse Code, was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts.

24/4/1791, Sunday (-56,261) Easter Sunday.

23/4/1791, Saturday (-56,262) James Buchanan, Democrat and 15th US President, was born in Stony Batter near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, the son of a farmer.

18/4/1791. Monday (-56,267) National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris. On 26/4/1791 Louis XVI was forced to hand over all the assets of the Crown to the State.

13/4/1791, Wednesday (-56,272) Pope Pius VI threatened to suspend all priests in France who have sworn allegiance to the State (see 13/1/1791) unless they recanted within 40 days.

12/4/1791, Tuesday (-56,273) Francis Blair, US journalist, was born in Abingdon, Virginia (died in Silver Spring, Maryland, 27/7/1883).

7/4/1791, Thursday (-56,278) Selim III (1761-1808) became Sultan of Ottoman Turkey.

2/4/1791, Saturday (-56,283) Death of Count de Mirabeau, a moderate leader of the French Revolution.

1/4/1791, Friday (-56,284) (Electricity) Sir William Harris, electrical scientist, born (died 22/1/1867).


30/3/1791, Wednesday (-56,286) (Metrology) The metric system of measurements was proposed in France.

19/3/1791, Saturday (-56,297) French and English speaking settlers in Canada were granted equal rights.

18/3/1791, Friday (-56,298) Edward Hatherton, English politician, was born (died 4/5/1863).

15/3/1791, Tuesday (-56,301) Charles Knight, English author, was born (died 9/3/1873).

4/3/1791, Friday (-56,312) Vermont became the 14th state of the USA.

2/3/1791, Wednesday (-56,314) (1) The world�s first optical telegraph, or semaphore machine, was unveiled in Paris.

(2) John Wesley, founder of Methodism, died in London aged 87.He was born on 17/6/1703 at Epworth Rectory.His brother Charles Wesley, a hymn writer and preacher, was born on 18/12/1707 and died in 1788.


21/2/1791, Monday (-56,323) Karl Czerny, Austrian composer, was born (died 15/7/1857).

20/2/1791, Sunday (-56,324) Emile Deschamps, French poet, was born (died 29/10/1869).

12/2/1791, Saturday (-56,332) (Innovation) Peter Cooper, US inventor, was born (died 4/4/1883).


28/1/1791, Friday (-50,347) Louis Herold, French musician, was born (died 18/1/1833).

15/1/1791, Saturday (-56,360) Franz Grillparzer, Austrian poet, was born (died 21/1/1872).

13/1/1791, Thursday (-56,362) The French Assembly introduced a universal taxon rent and property values. The requirement for French priests to swear allegiance to the State stirred up rebellion amongst the clergy.

11/2/1791, Tuesday (-56,364) Alexander Mavrocordato, Greek statesman, was born (died 18/8/1865).

3/1/1791, Monday (-56,372) George Rennie, English civil engineer, was born in Surrey.

1/1/1791, Saturday (-56,374) Austrian composer Joseph Haydn arrived in London, and was much acclaimed.


23/12/1790, Thursday (-56,383) (Egypt) Jean Champollion, French Egyptologist, was born (died 1832).

22/12/1790, Wednesday (-56.384) (Turkey) Russian Field-Marshal Count Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov captured the Ottoman fortress of Ismail, at the mouth of the Danube.

21/12/1790, Tuesday (-56,385) American industrialist Samuel Slater opened the first cotton mill in the USA. The mill had 250 spindles and was powered by water, using a child labour force. Slater had been apprenticed to William Arkwright, from whom he learnt the textiles trade.

18/12/1790, Saturday (-56,388) Robert Cranworth, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 26/7/1868).

16/12/1790, Thursday (-56,390) Leopold I, King of the Belgians, was born.

10/12/1790, Friday (-56,396) Jakob Fallmerayer, German historical writer, was born (died 26/4/1861).

8/12/1790, Wednesday (-56,398) (Britain) Richard Carlile, English radical, was born (died 10/2/1843).

2/12/1790, Thursday (-56,404) Austrian forces reconquered Belgium, restoring it as the Austrian Netherlands.


27/11/1790, Saturday (-56,409) Clergy in France were now required to take an oath drawn up by the National Assembly, to support the civil Constitution.

24/11/1790, Wednesday (-56,412) Robert Henry, British historical writer, died (born 18/2/1718).

22/11/1790, Monday (-56,414) Georg Maurer, German historical writer, was born (died 9/5/1872).

21/11/1790, Sunday (-56,415) Edmund Lyons, British Admiral, was born (died 23/11/1858).

17/11/1790, Wednesday (-56,419) August Mobius, German mathematician, was born (died 26/9/1868).

4/11/1790, Thursday (-56,432) Carlos Antonio Lopez, dictator of Paraguay 1840-62, was born.


31/10/1790, Sunday (-56,436) John Edwin, English actor, died (born 10/8/1749).

29/10/1790, Friday (-56,438) (Education-Schools) Friedrich Diesterweg, German educationalist, was born (died 7/7/1866).

28/10/1790, Thursday (-56,439) The Nootka Sound Convention, between Britain and Spain. Spain, claiming the entire Pacific coastline of North America, had seized four British ships at Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, Canada. Britain disputed the Spanish claim because Spain had not actually settled the coastline it claimed; at the Convention, Spain backed down, opening up the area to British settlement.

27/10/1790, Wednesday (-56,440) France adopted the decimal system of weights and measures.

21/10/1790, Thursday (-56,446) Alphonse Lamartine, French poet and writer, was born (died 28/2/1869).

10/10/1790, Sunday (-56,457) (Alcohol) Theobald Mathew, Irish Temperance preacher, was born (died 8/12/1856).

6/10/1790, Wednesday (-56,461) (Germany) Leopold was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Frankfort.

3/10/1790, Sunday (-56,464) John Ross, Cherokee Chief, was born.


28/9/1790, Tuesday (-56,469) (Hungary) Prince Miklos Josef Esterhazy (born 1714) died.

18/9/1790, Saturday (-56,479) US President George Washington laid the foundation stone of the Capitol Building; the official founding of Washington DC.

10/9/1790, Friday (-56,487) In France, Jacques Necker resigned as Director-general of finance, and effectoively, Prime Minister.

8/9/1790, Wednesday (-56,489) (Britain) Edward Ellenborough, English politician, was born (died 22/12/1871).

2/9/1790, Thurdsay (-56,495) Johann Hontheim, German historical writer, died (born 27/1/1701).


31/8/1790, Tuesday (-56,497) A nutiny within the French Chateauvieux Regiment was suppressed with the approval of the National Constitutional Assembly in Nancy.

30/8/1790, Monday (-56,498) Christian Fahlcrantz, Swedish author, was born (died 6/8/1866).

25/8/1790, Wednesday (-56,503) Francois Gaussen, Swiss religious writer, was born (died 18/6/1863).

22/8/1790, Sunday (-56,506) Francois Forster, French engraver, was born (died 27/6/1872).

14/8/1790, Saturday (-56,514)) (Russia, Sweden) The Treaty of Verela ended the Swedish-Russian War, with no significant territorial changes.

8/8/1790, Sunday (-56,520) Ferencz Kolcsey, Hungarian poet, was born (died 24/8/1838).

7/8/1790, Saturday (-56,521) Alexander McGillivray, chief of the Muskogian Indians, signed a treaty of peace and friendship with President Washington.

1/8/1790, Sunday (-56,527) The first census in the USA revealed a population of nearly 4 million.


28/7/1790, Wednesday (-56,531) The Forth and Clyde Canal opened.

27/7/1790, Tuesday (-56,532) In the Treaty of Reichenbach, Russia, Prussia, Britain and the Dutch republic agreed that Austria could reconquer Belgium, formerly the Austrian Netherlands, which had been in a state of revolt since 1789.

25/7/1790, Sunday (-56,534) (Education-Schools) Johann Basedow, German educational reformer, died in Magdeburg (born in Hamburg 11/9/1723).

22/7/1790, Thursday (-56,537) In France, the clergy were removed from the control of Rome, and Church property was nationalised.

17/7/1790, Saturday (-56,542) (1) The economist Adam Smith, who wrote The Wealth of Nations, died in Edinburgh aged 67.

(2) The sewing machine was patented by Thomas Saint, a cabinet maker of Greenhill Rents, St Sepulchre parish, London.

16/7/1790, Friday (-56,543) Washington DC was established as the seat of US Federal government.

14/7/1790, Wednesday (-56,545) A large rally, the Fete de la Federation, was held in te Champ de Mars, Paris, on the 1st anniversary of the storming of the Bastille. King Louis XIV accepted a new Constitution drawn up by the National Assembly.

12/7/1790, Monday (-50,547) (1) (France) Reform of the French clergy, who must now be elected.

(2) French Jews were granted civil liberties.

11/7/1790, Sunday (-56,548) William Wordsworth and his friend Robert Jones set off on a walking tour of France and Switzerland.

10/7/1790, Saturday (-56,549)

8/7/1790, Thursday (-56,551) Fitz-Greene Halleck, US poet, was born (died 19/11/1867).

7/7/1790, Wednesday (-56,552) Francois Hemsterhuis, Dutch philosophical writer, died (birn 27/12/1721).

4/7/1790, Sunday (-56,555) (Cartography) Sir George Everest, British surveyor of India, was born (died 1/12/1866).

4/7/1790, Britain formed an alliance with the Nizam (ruler) of Hyderabad against Mysore.


19/6/1790, Saturday (-56,570) The French Assembly passed a law abolishing the hereditary nobility.

15/6/1790, Tuesday (-56,574) French Protestant militia massacred 300 Roman Catholics.

9/6/1790, Wednesday (-56,580) The Philadelphia Spelling Book, by John Barry, became the first book to be copyrighted in the USA.

5/6/1790, Saturday (-56,584) Burning at the stake was officially abolished as a form of capital punishment in Britain; see 18/3/1789.


29/5/1790, Saturday (-56,591) Rhode Island became the 13th State of the Union; it is the smallest State in the USA.

23/5/1790, Sunday (-56,597) (France) Jules Dumont, French navigator, was born (died 8/5/1842).

21/5/1790, Friday (-56,599) Thomas Warton, Poet Laureate of England 1785-90, died in Oxford aged 62.

12/5/1790, Wednesday (-56,608) Johannes Hauch, Danish poet, was born (died 1872).

8/5/1790, Saturday (-56,612) France began the process of metrication when its National Assembly approved Talleyrand�s proposal for a unified system of weights and measures.

3/5/1790, Monday (-56,617) Port Louis in Tobago was destroyed by fire.

2/5/1790, Sunday (-56,618) Martin Madan, English writer, died.


30/4/1790, Friday (-56,620) Samuel Heinicke, German educator of the deaf and dumb, died (born 10/4/1727).

17/4/1790. Saturday (-56,633) Benjamin Franklin died in Philadelphia, aged 84. He invented the life-saving lightning conductor. He was determined to pursue Puritan aims to the benefit of the common good. He also helped draft the Declaration of Independence.

10/4/1790, Saturday (-56,640) The US Congress inaugurated the American patent system.

4/4/1790, Sunday(56,646) Easter Sunday.


29/3/1790, Monday (-56,652) John Tyler, American Whig and 10th President, was born in Greenway, Virginia.

28/3/1790, Sunday (-56,653) William Hunt, English painter, was born (died 10/2/1864).

19/3/1790, Friday (-56,662) Alexander Everett, US writer, was born (died 29/5/1847).

12/3/1790, Friday (-56,669) John Daniell, English chemist, was born (died 13/3/1845).

8/3/1790, Monday (-56,673) The Revolutionary French Government, despite its motto of Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite, voted to keep slavery in its colonies.

6/3/1790, Saturday (-56,675) Joseph Bellamy, religious writer, died (was born in Cheshire, Connecticut 20/2/1719).

5/3/1790, Friday (-56,676) Flora Mac Donald, the Scottish Jacobite heroine who helped Prince Charles Edward (The Younger Pretender) to escape from the island of Benbecula, died.

4/3/1790, Thursday (-56,677) (France) The modern day French departments were created by the National Constituent Assembly, They were drawn so as to break up older traditional historic regions, thereby emphasising national unity, and designed so that the entire territory of each department was within one day�s horse ride of the capital, for security.

3/3/1790, Wednesday (-56,678) (Britain) John Austin, English jurist, was born.


28/2/1790, Sunday (-56,681) John Irving became the first convict to be freed in Australia

22/2/1790, Monday (-56,687) French soldiers landed at Fishguard, Wales, but were soon captured.

20/2/1790, Saturday (-56,689) (Austria) Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, died. His reforms had provoked rebellion in Belgium and Hungary. He was succeeded by his brother, Archduke Leopold, the Grand Duke of Tuscany; in July 1790 he was elected Holy Roman Emperor as Leopold II.

19/2/1790, Friday (-56,690) Thomas Favras, French Royalist, was executed (born 26/3/1744).

11/2/1790, Thursday (-56,698) The Quakers (Society of Friends) sent a petition to US Congress calling for the emancipation of slaves.

5/2/1790, Friday (-56,704) William Cullen, physician, died (born 15/4/1710).

1/2/1790, Monday (-56,708) The US Supreme Court held its first meeting


30/1/1790, Saturday (-56,710) The world�s first purpose-built lifeboat was successfully tested at South Shields, Tyneside, England. The boat, �The Original�, went on to give 40 years� service.

26/1/1790, Tuesday (-56,714) Mozart�s opera Cosi van Tutte premiered in Vienna.

23/1/1790, Saturday (-56,717) Fletcher Christian and other mutineers burned The Bounty and settled on Pitcairn Island.

21/1/1790, Thursday (-56,719) (Crime, France) In Paris, Dr Joseph Ignace Guillotin demonstrated to the National Assembly of Paris a new machine for �humane� executions using a heavy blade falling on the victim�s neck.

20/1/1790, Wednesday (-56,720) John Howard, prison reformer, died.

19/1/1790, Tuesday (-56,721) Daniel Atterbom, Swedish poet, was born (died 21/7/1855).

17/1/1789, Sunday (-56,723)

15/1/1790, Friday (-56,725) John Landen, English mathematician, died.

14/1/1790, Thursday (-56,726) US Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton issued his Report on Public Credit, calling on the Federal Government to fund the entire National Debt at face value.

13/1/1790, Wednesday (-56,727) Luc Urbain Guichen, French Admiral, died (born 1712).

11/1/1790, Monday (-56,729)

9/1/1790, Saturday (-56,731) Britain Prussia and the Dutch republic agreed a common policy over Belgium, although William Pitt the Younger, British Prime Minister, was reluctant to recognise Belgian independence.

8/1/1790, Friday (-56,732) George Washington gave the first State of the Union Address.

1/1/1790, Friday (-56,739)


29/12/1789, Tuesday (-56,742) Tippu Sultan of Mysore attacked the territories of the Rajah of Travancore.

28/12/1789, Monday (-56,743) Thomas Ewing, US politician, was born (died 26/10/1871).

23/12/1789, Wednesday (-56,748) (Medical) Charles Epee, who did much for the deaf-mute, died (born 25/11/1712).

21/12/1789, Monday (-56,750) Assignats (paper money) was issued in France on the authority of the National Assembly.

13/12/1789, Sunday (-56,758) The Austrian Netherlands declared their independence as �The United States of Belgium�.


26/11/1789, Thursday (-56,775) Thanksgiving was celebrated across America for the first time.In 1621 the native Americans had taught early Plymouth settlers how to tap the maple trees for sap and how to plant the Indian corn. The harvest was very successful and the Pilgrims found they had enough food to see them through the winter. The Pilgrim Governor William Bradford proclaimed a Day of Thanksgiving to be shared by all colonists and invited the Indians to join them for three days. During the American Revolution of the late 1770s, a Day of National Thanksgiving was suggested by the Continental Congress and was celebrated nationwide in 1789. Since then each President has issued a Thanksgiving Day proclamation, usually designating the fourth Thursday in November as the holiday.

21/11/1789, Saturday (-56,780) North Carolina became the 12th State of the Union.

12/11/1789, Thursday (-56,789) Jacob Geel, Dutch writer, was born (died 11/11/1862).

11/11/1789, Wednesday (-56,790) (USA) William Meade, US Bishop, was born (died 14/3/1862).

7/11/1789, Saturday (-56,794) The French National Assembly forbade any member to accept office under King Louis XIV.

2/11/1789, Monday (-56,799) French revolutionaries seized Church property with a view to selling it off.


21/10/1789, Wednesday (-56,811) Martial law was imposed in Paris after a baker was killed by the mob, accused of hoarding bread.

6/10/1789, Tuesday (-56,826) Austrian forces under General Gideon von Lauden took Belgrade form the Ottoman Turks.

5/10/1789, Monday (-56,827) Parisian women, frustrated by bread shortages, marched on Versailles to demand the King move to Paris, where he could be monitored more closely.


28/9/1789, Sunday (-56,834) Thomas Day, British author, died (born 22/6/1748).

23/9/1789, Tuesday (-56,839) Silas Deane, US diplomat, died (born 24/12/1737).

22/9/1789, Monday (-56,840) Austrian and Russian troops under Francis Duke of Coburg and Count Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov defeated the Ottoman Turks at Martinesci, on the River rymnik in Moldova.

17/9/1789, Wednesday (-56,845) Herschel, using a large 40-ft focal length reflector telescope,first observed Saturn�s satellite, Mimas. Saturn was now known to have seven satellites.

15/9/1789, Monday (-56,847) James Cooper, US novelist, was born (died 14/9/1851).

4/9/1789, Thursday (-56,858) Charles Gaudichaud, French botanist, was born (died 16/1/1854).

2/9/1789, Tuesday (-56,860) The US Department of the Treasury was established.

1/9/1789, Monday (-56,861) Marguerite Blessington, Irish novelist, was born in County Tipperary (died in Paris 4/6/1849).


29/8/1789, Saturday (-56,864)

28/8/1789, Friday (-56,865) Astronomer William Herschel first observed Saturn�s satellite, Enceladus.

27/8/1789, Thursday (-56,866) The new French regime (French National Assembly) drew up the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen.

26/8/1789. Wednesday (-56,867) Miners in the Pyrenees protested against their working conditions.

24/8/1789, Monday (-56,869) The Russian Navy destroyed the Swedish fleet in the Gulf of Finland.

21/8/1789, Friday (-56,872) Augustin Cauchy, mathematician, was born (died 23/5/1857).

7/8/1789, Friday (-56,886) US Congress created the War Department. Henry Knox became the first Secretary for War.

6/8/1789, Thursday (-56,887) Friedrich List, German economics writer, was born (died 30/11/1846).

4/8/1789, Tuesday (-56,889) The feudal system was abolished in France. Peasants attacked their landlords. This �surrender of feudal privileges� by the nobility was in fact something of a sham, in that by sacrificing some less significant peasant obligations they hoped to retain the most significant ones.


31/7/1789, Friday (-56,893) (Turkey) Austrian and Russian troops under Francis Duke of Coburg and Count Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov defeated the Ottoman Turks at Fokshany (now, Focsani, Romania).

27/7/1789, Monday (-56,897) Thomas Jefferson was made head of the new US Department of Foreign Affairs.

22/7/1789, Wednesday (-56,902) A revolutionary mob murdered the Bailiff of Paris.

19/7/1789, Sunday (-56,905) John Martin, English painter, was born (died 17/2/1854).

15/7/1789, Wednesday (-56,909) The Commune de Paris was formed and appointed Jean Bailly as its head. It set up the National Guard under the Marquis de Lafayette, and was responsible for municipal administration.

14/7/1789. Tuesday (-56,910) (France) Fall of the Bastille, Paris. It was stormed by the citizens of Paris and burned to the ground, at the start of the French Revolution. From 16/7/1789 the French nobility began to flee France. The Bastille had been built in 1369, and designed by Hugues Aubriot (died 1383). At dawn on the 14/7/1789 the mob had stormed Les Invalides, hoping to find arms to repulse an expected attack by soldiers loyal to King LouisXVI. They found 32,000 rifles but no ammunition; a rumour spread that the ammunition was at the Bastille. The Bastille was guarded by 80 soldiers deemed unfit for front-line duties, reinforced by 30 Swiss Guards, and with cannon. Neither the prison governor nor the army showed much will to fight the mob. Seven prisoners within were released. In the countryside, peasants began burning the chateaux, destroying feudal archives and asserting their freedom from manorial dues.

12/7/1789, Sunday (-56,912) (France) Fires burnt in Paris after two days of rioting. The population were angered by a threat to disband the Assembly.

11/7/1789, Saturday (-56,913) The Marquis de Lafayette presented the Declaration of Human Rights to the French National Assembly.

4/7/1789, Saturday (-56,920) US Congress passed its first Tariff Bill, levying duties on over 30 commodities.


30/6/1789, Tuesday (-56,924) The revolutionary mob in Paris attacked the Abbaye prison.

24/6/1789, Wednesday (-56,930) Most of the clergy and nobility in the French Parliament joined forces with the commoners.

20/6/1789, Saturday (-56,934) The French Revolution began.See 5/5/1798. The Third Estate, excluded from Versailles, formed a new assembly at a tennis court nearby, to oppose the dominance of the aristocracy.

18/6/1789, Thursday (-56,936) Austrian troops occupied Brussels.

17/6/1789, Wednesday (-56,937) In France, the Third Estate constituted itself as the French National Assembly. The Third Estate was the commoners, after the Clergy and the Nobility. These last two Estates, under 3% of the population, owned 40% of the land. They were also exempt from taxes, placing an undue tax burden on the middle classes.

14/6/1789, Sunday (-56,940) (1) Captain Bligh, cast adrift from The Bounty with 18 men, arrived at Timor, near Java, having sailed his small boat for 3,618 miles.

(2) A clergyman first produced whisky distilled from maize. The Reverend Elijah Craig called the liquor Bourbon because he lived in Bourbon County, Kentucky.

4/6/1789, Thursday (-56,950) The Dauphin Louis, heir to King Louis XVI, died aged 7.

3/6/1789, Wednesday (-56,951) (Canada) Alexander Mackenzie set out to explore the Mackenzie River by canoe from central Canada to the Arctic Ocean.


28/5/1789, Thursday (-56,057) Bernhard Ingemann, Danish poet, was born (died 24/2/1862).

21/5/1789, Thursday (-56,064) Sir John Hawkins, English writer on music, died (born 30/3/1719).

12/5/1789, Tuesday (-56,973) William Wilberforce made his first speech with the House of Commons.

9/5/1789, Saturday (-56,976) Ludovico Manin, 1l7th and last Doge of Venice, was elected.

7/5/1789, Thursday (-56,978) Edward Hawtrey, Headmaster of Eton from1834, was born (died 27/1/1862).

6/5/1789, Wednesday (-56,979) French deputies of the Third Estate (the common people) refiused to meet in a separate chamber at the Estates-General, demandning to be represented alongside the clergy and nobility.

5/5/1789, Tuesday (-56,980) The French King opened the States General Assembly at Versailles.The French middle class wanted to break down the monopoly of power and wealth held by the aristocracy.The French King felt insecure because of the unpopularity of his Austrian wife, Marie Antoinette, the bankruptcy of the French Treasury, and the increasingly democratic mood of the French Army following on from the American Declaration of Independence. See 20/6/1789. France had also suffered humiliation in the Seven Years War (1756-630, losing to Britain; France had lost her North American colonies, and bad harvests in 1788 and 1789 had almost doubled the price of bread.


30/4/1789. Thursday (-56,985) General George Washington inaugurated as first president of the United States, on the balcony of New York City�s federal Hall. John Adams was installed as Vice-President (see 7/1/1789 and 17/3/1776). The United States was federated on 4/3/1789.

28/4/1789. Tuesday (-56,987) (1) 300 workers at the Reveillon wallpaper factory were killed when troops opened fire on rioters there. The protest was over proposed pay cuts. France had been in financial crisis for months now, the state overburdened by an expensive aristocracy and clergy. On 22/5/1789 the nobility joined with the clergy in giving up their financial privileges.

(2) The Mutiny on The Bounty. The ship�s captain, Captain Bligh, and 17 others were set adrift in an open boat near The Friendly Isles; they eventually reached Timor, Java, on 14/6/1789. Captain Bligh, born 1754, died on 7/12/1817 in London . His severe discipline on board had provoked the mutiny. The mutineers settled on Pitcairn Island.

26/4/1789, Sunday (-56,989) Robert Fox, English geologist, was born (died 25/7/1877).

12/4/1789, Sunday (-57,003) Easter Sunday.

7/4/1789, Tuesday (-57,008) (Turkey) Turkish Sultan Abdul Hamid (born 1725) died aged 64. He had succeeded his brother Mustafa III in 1773.

3/4/1789, Friday (-57,012) King Gustav III of Sweden passed an Act of Unbity and Security, giving him absolute powers.

2/4/1789, Thursday (-57,013) John Mackenzie, Scottish Jacobite, died (born 1727).

1/4/1789, Wednesday (-57,014) The US House of Representatives held its first meeting.


18/3/1789, Wednesday (-57,028) Catherine (Christian) Murphy (Bowman) became the last person in Britain to be executed by burning at the stake (see 5/5/1790). She had been convicted of �coining� (forgery), which was punished severely as a form of treason.

16/3/1789, Monday (-57,030) (Electrical) German physicist Georg Simon Ohm was born in Erlangen. In 1827 he formulated what became known as Ohm�s Law � that the current is proportional to the ratio of the voltage and the resistance, or I = V/R.

12/3/1789, Thursday (-57,034) The United States Post Office was established.

10/3/1789, Tuesday (-57,036) Francisco Martinez, Spanish dramatist, was born (died 7/2/1862).

4/3/1789, Wednesday (-57,042) The Constitution of the United States came into force. The first US Congress was held in New York with 59 members, each representing a district of some 30,000 people.

1/3/1789, Sunday (-57,045) John McCulloch, British economics writer, was born (died 11/11/1864).


26/2/1789, Thursday (-57,048) Eaton Hodgkinson, British engineer, was born (died 18/6/1861).

19/2/1789, Thursday (-57,055) (Technology) Sir William Fairbairn, Scottish engineer, was born (died 18/8/1874).

15/2/1789, Sunday (-57,059) Frederic Fesca, German composer, was born (died 1826).

11/2/1789, Wednesday (-57,063) (USA) Ethan Allen, US soldier, died in Burlington, Vermont (born 10/1/1739 in Litchfield, Connecticut).


24/1/1789, Saturday (-57,081) Louis XVI of France recalled the States General, which had not met since 1614. The Three States � nobles, clergy, and commons � all had tax greivances. Elections for this body now took place.

21/1/1789, Wednesday (-57,084) Paul Holbach, French writer, died (born 1723). The first US novel, The Power of Sympathy, was printed in Boston, Massachusetts.

17/1/1789, Saturday (-57,088) Johann Neander, German religious writer, was born (died 14/7/1850).

11/1/1789, Sunday (-57,094) John Collier, English writer, was born (died 17/9/1883).

7/1/1789, Wednesday (-57,098) The first national elections were held in the USA, and George Washington was elected President.

4/1/1789, Sunday (-57,101) Benjamin Lundy, US anti-slavery campaigner, was born (died 22/8/1839).

1/1/1789, Thursday (-57,104) Fletcher Grantley, English politician, died (born 23/6/1716).


31/12/1788, Wednesday (-57,105) Basil Hall, British travel writer, was born (died 11/9/1844).

28/12/1788, Sunday (-57,108) John Logan, Scottish poet, died.

23/12/1788, Tuesday (-57,113) Maryland ceded ten square miles of land to the US Congress for the site of the Federal capital city, Washington DC.

17/12/1788, Wednesday (-57,119) Russian forces under Prince Grigory Potemkin captured the Black Sea port and fortress of Ochakov from the Ottoman Turks.

14/12/1788, Sunday (-57,122) Charles IV (1748-1819) became King of Spain.

6/12/1788, Saturday (-57,130) Richard Barham, English writer, was born in Canterbury (died 17/6/1845).


25/11/1788, Tuesday (-57,141) Thomas Amory, English author, died.

22/11/1788, Saturday (-57,144) Johann Flugel, German writer, was born (died 24/6/1855).

6/11/1788, Thursday (-57,160) (Denmark) The Triple Alliance (Britain, the Dutch Republic and Prussia; an alliance aimed at preserving peace within Europe) persuaded Denmark to pull its troops out of Sweden. Denmark had invaded Sweden September 1788 whilst Sweden was engaged in an ussuccesful war against Russia, to recover former Danbish territories in southern Sweden.


27/10/1788, Monday (-57,170) Sir Henry Holland, English writer,was born (died 27/10/1873)

24/10/1788, Friday (-57,173) Sarah Josepha Buell Hale, US author, was born in Newport, New Hampshire (died 1879)

21/10/1788, Tuesday (-57,176) George Combe, Scottish phrenologist, was born (died14/8/1858).

13/10/1788, Monday (-57,184) Thomas Erskine, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 20/3/1870).

10/10/1788, Friday (-57,187) (USA) Joshua Bates, US financier, was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts (died in London 24/9/1864).

7/10/1788, Tuesday (-57,190) The Polish Sejm, elected this day, began aligning the country with Prussia, away from Russia. Poland began remodelling its constitution on western European lines.

1/10/1788, Wednesday (-57,196) William Brodie was hanged in Edinburgh. His career inspired Robert Louis Stevenson to write The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.


30/9/1788, Tuesday (-57,197) Lord Raglan, the Field Marshall responsible for the Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava, was born at Badminton, Gloucestershire.

22/9/1788, Monday (-52,205) Theofore Hook, English author, was born (died 24/8/1841).

19/9/1788, Friday (-52,208) Georg Freytag, German scholarly writer, was born (died 16/11/1861).

13/9/1788, Saturday (-57,214) New York became the federal capital of the new United States of America. The US capital moved to Philadelphia in 1788 and to Washington DC in 1800.

12/9/1788, Friday (-57,215) Alexander Campbell, US Christian religious leader (died 1866) was born.

10/9/1788, Wednesday (-57,217) Jacques Boucher, French writer, was born in Rethel (died in Abbeville 5/8/1868).

9/9/1788, Tuesday (-57,218)

4/9/1788, Thursday (-57,223) The Dutch republic signed a Treaty of Friendship and Trade with the American former Colonies.


27/8/1788, Wednesday (-57,231) Jacques Necker was recalled as French Minister of Finance.

26/8/1788, Tuesday (-57,232) (Britain) Elizabeth, Duchess of Kingston, died.

25/8/1788, Monday (-57,233) Etienne Lomenie de Brienne, the French Finance Minister, resigned in the face of a major but iundeclared crisis in French national finances.

22/8/1788, Friday (-57,236) The British settlement of Sierra Leone was founded, for the purpose of providing a home for freed slaves and homeless Africans from England.

9/8/1788, Saturday (-57,249) Adoniram Judson, US missionary to Burma, was born (died 12/4/1850).

8/8/1788, Friday (-57,250) King Louis XVI now decided to summon the Estates General (Parlement) for May 1789.

2/8/1788, Saturday (-57,256) Painter Thomas Gainsborough, born 14/5/1727, died.


26/7/1788, Saturday (-57,263) (USA) New York became the 11th state of the Union.

21/7/1788, Monday (-57,268) Gaetano Filangiero, Italian writer, died (born 18/8/1752).

15/7/1788, Tuesday (-57,274) Jean Drouais, French historical painter, died (born 25/11/1763).

10/7/1788, Thursday (-57,279) Mozart completed his Jupiter Symphony. Born on 27/1/1756, Mozart died on 5/12/1791 from typhus and was buried in a pauper�s grave with several other paupers.

8/7/1788, Tuesday (-52,281)

5/7/1788, Saturday (-52,284) (USA) Mather Byles, US clergyman unpopular for his pro-Royalist views, died (born 26/3/1706).

1/7/1788, Tuesday (-57,288)


25/6/1788, Wednesday (-57,294) (USA) Virginia became the 10th State of the Union.

21/6/1788, Saturday (-57,298) (1) The American Constitution legally came into force, after ratification by the 9th State, New Hampshire.

(2) King Gustavus III of Sweden invaded Russian Finland, without declaring war first.

(3) (USA) New Hampshire became the 9th State of the Union.

18/6/1788, Wednesday (-57,301) Adam Gib, Scottish religious writer, died (born 14/4/1714).

9/6/1788, Monday (-57,310) In London the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa was founded. Members researched scientific and medical topivcs, and also sought to end slavery.


30/5/1788, Friday (-57,320) Marylebone Cricket Club formally codified the laws of cricket.

23/5/1788, Friday (-57,327) (USA) South Carolina became the 8th State of the Union.

15/5/1788, Thursday (-57,335) (Medical) Neil Arnott, Scottish physician, was born in Arbroath (died 2/3/1874 in London).

10/5/1788, Saturday (-57,340) (Light) Augustin Fresnel, pioneer in lenses, was born (died 14/7/1827)

9/5/1788, Friday (-57,341) British Parliament passed a motion for the abolition of the slave trade.

3/5/1788, Saturday (-57,347) The first evening newspaper, the Star and Evening Advertiser, was published in London.


28/4/1788, Monday (-57,352) Maryland became the 7th State of the Union.

15/4/1788, Tuesday (-57,365) (Biology) George Buffon, French naturalist, died (born 7/9/1707).


29/3/1788, Saturday (-57,382) Evangelist Charles Wesley, younger brother of John Wesley, died. He wrote over 5,000 hymns.

23/3/1788, Sunday (-57,388) Easter Sunday

22/3/1788, Saturday (-57,389) (Biology) Pierre Pelletier was born in Paris. In 1817 he jointly discovered chlorophyll with Joseph Bienaime Caventou (born 30/6/1795 in Saint Omer, France).

21/3/1788, Friday (-57,390) (USA) A major fire destroyed nearly all of New Orleans, USA.

10/3/1788, Monday (-57,401) Edward Baily, British sculptor, was born in Bristol (died in Holloway 22/5/1867).

8/3/1788, Saturday (-57,403) Sir William Hamilton, Scottish scientific writer, was born (died 6/5/1856).

2/3/1788, Sunday (-57,409) Solomon Gessner, Swiss poet, died (born 1/4/1730).


28/2/1788, Thursday (-57,412) (Britain) Samuel Bamford, British politician, was born in Miston, Lancashire (died in Harpurhey 13/4/1872.

25/2/1788, Monday (-57,415) Thomas Cubitt, English builder, was born (died 20/12/1855).

22/2/1788, Friday (-57,418) Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, was born in Gdansk, Germany (now Danzig, Poland); died 1860.

18/2/1788, Monday (-57,422) Maurice la Tour, French pastel painter, died (born 5/9/1704).

16/2/1788, Saturday (-57,424) George Anne Bellamy, English actress, died.

14/2/1788, Thursday (-57,426) Edward Blomfield, English scholarly writer, was born in Bury St Edmunds (diedin Cambridge 9/10/1816).

13/2/1788, Wednesday (-57,427) (India) The corruption trial of Warren Hastings, former British Governor-General of India, began in London.

9/2/1788, Saturday (-57,431)

6/2/1788, Wednesday (-57,434) (USA) Massachusetts became the 6th State of the Union.

5/2/1788, Tuesday (-57,435) Sir Robert Peel, British Tory Prime Minister and founder of the Metropolitan Police Force, was born at Bury in Lancashire, the son of a cotton millionaire.

3/2/1788, Sunday (-57,437)

1/2/1788, Friday (-57,439) Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet patrented the steamboat.


31/1/1788, Thursday (-57,440) Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie), the Young Pretender and leader of the Jacobite Rebellion, aimed at deposing King George II, died in exile in Rome.

26/1/1788, Saturday (-57,445) The first batch of British convicts arrived at Sydney Cove, Australia. They came aboard the HMS Endeavour, captained by Arthur Phillip; 570 men and 160 women were the survivors of a 36-week voyage from England on which the pox had killed 48 of the prisoners. Captain Phillip was to administer the penal colony. See 18/1/1788.

22/1/1788, Tuesday (-57,449) George Gordon, or Lord Byron, was born in London.

20/1/1788, Sunday (-57.451) The French Parlement presented a list of grievances against the Government to King Louis XIV.

18/1/1788. Friday (-57,453) A penal settlement was established at Botany Bay, Australia. The first convicts arrived on 26/1/1788. The option of sending its prisoners to America was no longer open to Britain.

11/1/1788, Friday (-57,460) William Brande, English chemist, was born in London (died in Tunbridge Wells 11/2/1866).

9/1/1788, Wednesday (-57,462) (USA) Connecticut became the 5th state of the Union.

6/1/1788, Sunday (-57,465) Louis Cormenin, French political lobbyist, was born (died 6/5/1868).

2/1/1788, Wednesday (-57,469) (USA) Georgia became the 4th State of the Union.

1/1/1788, Tuesday (-57,470) The Universal Daily Register was renamed The Times.


30/12/1787, Sunday (-57,472) Otto von Kotzebue, Russian geographical writer, was born (died 15/2/1846).

18/12/1787, Tuesday (-57,484) (USA) New Jersey became the 3rd State of the Union.

17/12/1787, Monday (-57,485) HMS Bounty, commended by William Bligh, set sail from for the South Seas.

16/12/1787, Sunday (-57,486) Francois Heim, French painter, was born (died 29/9/1865)

15/12/1787, Saturday (-57,487) Charles Clarke, British writer, was born (died 13/3/1877)

14/12/1787, Friday (-57,488)

13/12/1787, Thursday (-57,489) (Astronomy) Mathematician, physicist and astronomer Ruggiero Guiseppe Boscovich died in Milan.

12/12/1787, Wednesday (-57,490) (USA) Pennsylvania became the 2nd State of the Union.

10/12/1787, Monday (-57,492) (USA) Thomas Gallaudet, US educator of the deaf and dumb, was born (died 5/9/1851).

7/12/1787, Friday (-57,495) (USA) Delaware, the Diamond or First State, achieved Statehood.


29/11/1787. Thursday (-57,503) Louis XVI of France promulgated an Edict of Tolerance, allowing civil status to Protestants.

21/11/1787. Wednesday (-57,511) Sir Samuel Cunard, Canadian ship owner, was born in Nova Scotia. He came to Britain in 1838 and, with two partners, established what came to be known as the Cunard Line.

20/11/1787, Tuesday (-57,512) Louis XIV of France declared that the Estates-General (Parliament) would be recalled for July 1792.

18/11/1787, Sunday (-57,514) Louis Daguerre, French artist and pioneer of photography, was born near Paris.

15/11/1787, Thursday(-57,517) Richard Dana, US writer, was born (died 1879).

6/11/1787, Tuesday (-57,526) Vuk Karajich, famous Serbian writer, was born (died 6/2/1864).

3/11/1787, Saturday (-57,529) Robert Lowth, English Orientalist writer, died (born 27/11/1710).


30/10/1787, Tuesday (-57,533) William Wilberforce first met with the London Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.

29/10/1787, Monday (-57,534) The opera Don Giovanni, with music by Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, premiered in Prague.

28/10/1787, Sunday (-57,535) Johann Musaus, German writer, died (born 20/3/1735).

16/10/1787, Tuesday (-57,547) Edward Foss, English legal writer, was born (died 27/7/1870).

10/10/1787, Wednesday (-57,553) Amsterdam, the Dutch capital, surrendered to Prussian forces, bringing ther anti-aristocratic revolution to an end.

7/10/1787, Sunday (-45,556) (USA) Henry Muhlenberg, US Lutheran, died (born 6/9/1711).

4/10/1787, Thursday (-45,559) Francois Guizot,French statesman, was born (died 12/9/1874).


24/9/1787, Monday (-57,569) The French Parlement was recalled from Troyes in an acto of reconciliation by Kin Louis XV1.

20/9/1787, Thursday (-57,573) William V of Orange was restored as Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, following the expulsion of the Patriot Party by the Prussians.

17/9/1787, Monday (-57,576) The constitution of the United States of America was signed.

15/9/1787, Saturday (-57,578) George Mason, a plantation owner from Virginia, called for an amendment to the draft US Constitution. To avoid the Federal government becoming oppressive, he called for a clause whereby if two thirds of the States wished, Congress would have to agree to a convention to discuss the proposed government change or policy. This change to Article V was incorporated as Mason desired.

13/9/1787, Thursday (-57,580) Prussian forces under the Duke of Brunswick invaded the Netherlands, overcoming desultory resistance from the Patriot |Free Corps militias.

10/9/1787, Monday (-57,583) John Crittenden, US statesman, was born (died 26/7/1863)

5/9/1787, Wednesday (-57,588) Francois Beudant, French geologist, was born in Paris (died 10/12/1850).

1/9/1787, Saturday (-57,592) Jan Baake, Dutch writer, was born in Leiden (died 26/3/1864)


24/8/1787, Friday (-57,600) Mozart completed his violin and piano sonata in A, K526.

14/8/1787, Tuesday (-57,610) King Louis XVI of France banished the Parlement to Troyes, in an attempt to curb its growing opposition to the King�s Government.

10/8/1787. Friday (-57,614) Mozart completed his famous Eine Kleine Nachtmusik


30/7/1787, Monday (-57,625) Marylebone Cricket Club, London, played its first match, against Islington Cricket Club.

27/7/1787, Friday (-57,628) The Theatre Royal, Margate, was founded.

11/7/1787, Wednesday (-57,644) Alexander Menshikov, Russian statesman, was born (died 2/5/1869).


20/6/1787, Wednesday (-57,665) (Arts) Karl Abel, German musician (born 1725) died in London.

7/6/1787, Thursday (-57,678) Sir John Coode, geologist, was born (died 12/8/1857).


31/5/1787, Thursday (-57,685) The first cricket match was played at Lords, north London. The match was Essex vs. Middlesex.

25/5/1787, Friday (-57,691) The Philadelphia Convention, headed by George Washington, began drawing up the USA Constitution. On 17/9/1787 the Constitution was agreed by 39 out of 42 delegates.

22/5/1787, Tuesday (-57,694) The London Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade was founded by Thomas Clarkson.

14/5/1787, Monday (-57,702) Delegates gathered in Philadelphia, USA, to draw up the US Constitution.

13/5/1787, Sunday (-57,703) A fleet of 11 ships consisting of 2 two men 3 stores ships, and 6 convict transporters with some 730 convicts set sail from England for Australia under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip. The journey lasted until January 1788. The convicts disembarked at Sydney Cove, minus 40 who had died on the voyage.

12/5/1787, Saturday (-58,069) (Japan) Food riots in Osaka, Japan, that began 11/5/with rice warehouses being broken into now spread across the city. By 18/5 the riots had spread to Edo and 30 other major cities, with rice merchants� houses being ransacked. Other shops were also looted.


8/4/1787, Sunday (-57,738) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1787, Monday (-57,744) (USA) Thomas Gage, British colonial Governor of Massachusetts, died (born 1721).


17/3/1787, Saturday (-57,760) Edmund Kean, actor, was born (died 15/5/1833).

12/3/1787, Monday (-57,765) Vicente Garcia, Spanish dramatist, died (born 9/3/1734).

10/3/1787, Saturday (-57,767) William Etty, British painter, was born (died 13/11/1849).

8/3/1787, Thursday (-57,769) Karl Grafe, German surgeon, was born (died 4/7/1840).

6/3/1787, Tuesday (-55,771) (Astronomy) Joseph von Fraunhofer, best known for his study of absorption lines in the Sun�s spectrum, now known as Fraunhofer Lines, was born (died 7/6/1826).


23/2/1787, Friday (-57.782) Emma Hard Willard, US educator, was born in Berlin, Connecticut (died 1870).

22/2/1787, Thursday (-57,783) France was nearly bankrupt, with a national debt of UK� 800 million.

15/2/1787, Thursday (-57,790) Roger Boscovich, scientific writer, died in Milan.

10/2/1787, Saturday (-57,795) Charles Chauncy, US religious writer, died (born 1/1/1705).


29/1/1787, Monday (-57,807) Thomas Paine, English writer, was born.

25/1/1787, Thursday (-57,811) An abortive attempt to seize the US arsenal at Springfield, Massachusetts.

21/1/1787, Sunday (-57,815) (Geology) Gustavus Brander, English expert in fossils, died (born 1720 in London)

11/1/1787, Thursday (-57,825) William Herschel observed Uranus through his new large (20 ft focal length) reflector telescope, and first saw its satellites, Titania and Oberon.

1/1/1787, Monday (-57,835) Arthir Middleton, US politician, died (born 26/1/1742).


26/12/1786, Tuesday (-57,841) Gaspari Gozzi, Italian writer, died (born 4/12/1713).

12/12/1786, Tuesday (-57,855) William Marcy, US statesman, was born (died 4/7/1857).

5/12/1786, Tuesday (-57,862) Henry Drummond, English politician, was born (died 20/2/1860).


18/11/1786, Saturday (-57,879) Sir Henry Bishop, composer, was born in London (died 30/4/1855).


15/10/1786, Sunday (-57,913) James Holman, blind travel writer, was born (died 29/7/1857).

5/10/1786, Thursday (-57,923) Janos Maljath, Hungarian historical writer, was born (died 3/1/1855).

2/10/1786, Monday (-57,926) Augustus Keppel, British Admiral, died (born 25/4/1725).


18/9/1786, Monday (-57,940) Christian VIII, King of Norway and Denmark, was born (died 20/1/1848).

9/9/1786, Saturday (-57,949) George Washington called for the abolition of slavery.

5/9/1786, Tuesday (-57,953) Jonas Hanway, English writer and traveller, died (born 1712).


31/8/1786, Thursday (-57,958) Michel Chevreul, chemist, was born (died 9/4/1889).

26/8/1786, Saturday (-57,963) Britain and France agreed the Eden Treaty, reducing trade barriers between the two countries.

25/8/1786, Friday (-57,964) Ludwig I, King of Bavaria, was born.

19/8/1786, Saturday (-57,970) Nathanael Greene, US General, died (born 7/8/1742).

17/8/1786, Thursday (-57,972) (Germany) Frederick the Great, military leader and King of Prussia since 1740, died in Potsdam, aged 74. Under his rule Prussia grew from under 46,000 square miles to over 71,000 square miles, and its population rose from 2.2 million to 5.8 million. Prussia had a standing army of 200,000, well armed and disciplined. Britain often gave financial aid to Prussia, in its wars against France and Austria. He was succeeded by his inept 41-year-old nephew, who ruledas Freidrich Wilhelm II for 11 years.

8/8/1786, Tuesday (-57,981) Mont Blanc, 4,807 metres high, was conquered by a local man, Dr Michel Gabriel Paccard of Chamonix, along with his porter Jacques Balmat.


30/7/1786, Sunday (-57,990) Georg Gabler, German philosophical writer, was born (died 13/9/1853).

20/7/1786, Thursday (-58,000) Thomas Robinson, 2nd baron Grantham, died (born 30/11/1738).

17/7/1786, Monday (-58,003) Penang, Malaysia, was founded by the East India Company. The area had been ceded by the Sultan of Kedah in 1785.


27/6/1786, Tuesday (-58,023) John Broughton, English writer, was born (died 3/6/1869).

19/6/1786, Sunday (-50,032) Nathanael Greene, US General during the American revolution, died in Mulberry grove, Georgia, aged 43.

13/6/1786, Tuesday (-58,037) Winfield Scott, Commander of the US Army, was born near Petersburg, Virginia (died 1866)

3/6/1786, Saturday (-58,047) William Hilton, English painter, was born (died 30/12/1839).


30/5/1786, Tuesday (-58,051) Andras Fay, Hungarian poet, was born (died 26/7/1864)

29/5/1786, Monday (-58,052) Charles Blomfield, English cleric, was born in Bury St Edmunds (died 5/8/1857).

28/5/1786, Sunday (-58,053) Louis McLane, US politician, was born (died 7/10/1857).

21/5/1786, Sunday (-58,060) Karl William Scheele, Swedish chemist, died in Koping, Sweden, aged 44.

19/5/1786, Friday (-58,062) John Stanley, composer, died.

13/5/1786, Saturday (-58,068) William Farren, English actor, was born (died 24/9/1861).

6/5/1786, Saturday (-58,075) Karl Borne, German satirical writer, was born in Frankfort am Main (died in Paris 12/2/1837).

1/5/1786, Monday (-58,080) Mozart�s opera, The Marriage of Figaro, had its first performance, in Vienna, Austria.


30/4/1786, Sunday (-58,081) William, Mulready, English painter, was born (died 7/7/1863).

22/4/1786, Saturday (-58,089) Amos Lawrence, US philanthropist, was born (died 31/12/1852).

16/4/1786, Sunday (-58,095) Easter Sunday. Birth of Sir John Franklin, English Rear Admiral.

10/4/1786, Monday (-38,101) (Britain) John Byron, British Vice-Admiral, died (born 8/11/1723).

7/4/1786, Friday (-38,104) Izidor Guzmics, Hungarian religious writer, was born (died 1/9/1839).

1/4/1786, Saturday (-58,110) (Britain) Sir Thomas Buxton, English philanthropist, was born (died 19/2/1845).


25/3/1786, Saturday (-58,117) (Astronomy) Giovanni Battista Amici, Italian astronomer, was born in Modena (died 10/4/1863 in Florence).

22/3/1786, Wednesday (-58,120) Joachim Lelewel, Polish historical writer, was born (died 29/5/1861).

6/3/1786, Monday (-58,136) Sir Charles Napier, British Admiral, was born (died 6/11/1860).


26/2/1786, Sunday (-58,144) (Light and Optics) Dominique Francois Arago was born in Estagel, France. In 1809 he discovered that blue light from the sky is polarised, and found the neutral point where polarisation is absent.

25/2/1786, Saturday (-58,145) (Astronomy) Thomas Wright, astronomer, died at Byers Green, England

24/2/1786, Friday (-58,146) Wilhelm Grimm, German collector of fairy tales along with his brother Jacob, was born in Hanau.

15/2/1786, Wednesday (-58,155) Ferdinand Hand, German scholarly writer, was born (died 14/3/1851_.

3/2/1786, Friday (-58,167) Heinrich Gesenius, German historical writer, was born (died 23/10/1842).


26/1/1786, Thursday (-58,175) Benjamin Haydon, English painter, was born (died 22/6/1846).

16/1/1786, Monday (-58,185) The Virginia Stattute of Religious Freedom was passed, drafted by Thomas Jefferrson, which later formed the basis of the Us First Amendment, guaranteeing freedom of worship.

8/1/1786, Sunday (-58,193) (USA) Nicholas Biddle, US financier, was born in Philadelphia (died in Philadelphia 27/2/1844).

7/1/1786, Saturday (-58,194) Jean Guettard, French naturalist writer, died (born 22/9/1715).

4/1/1786, Wednesday (-58,197) Moses Mendelssohn, German philosopher, died in Berlin aged 56.

1/1/1786, Sunday (-58,200) (Africa) Dixon Denham, English explorer of Africa, was born (died 8/5/1828).


30/12/1785, Friday (-58,202) John Dunlop, Scottish writer, was born (died 1842).

24/12/1785, Saturday (-58,208) Etienne Gerlach, Belgian historical writer, was born.

17/12/1785, Saturday (-58,215) Sir William Napier, historical writer, waws born (died 12/2/1860).

14/12/1785, Wednesday (-58,218) Giovanni Battista Cipriani, Italian born English neoclassical painter, died in London aged 58.

6/12/1785, Tuesday (-58,226) Catherine Clive, British actress, died (born 1711).


29/11/1785, Tuesday (-58,233) Pierre Lebrun, French poet, was born (died 27/5/1873).

28/11/1785, Monday (-58,234) (France) Achille Duc de Broglie, French statesman, was born (died 25/1/1870).

26/11/1785, Saturday (-58,236)

25/11/1785, Friday (-58,237) Richard Glover, English poet, died (born 1712)

24/11/1785, Thursday (-58,238) Philipp Bockh, German scholarly writer, was born in Karlsruhe (died in Berlin 3/8/1867).

21/11/1785, Monday (-58,241) William Beaumont, US Army surgeon, the foirst person to observe and describe digestion as it occurred in the stomach, was born in Lebanon Connecticut (died 1853)

12/11/1785, Saturday (-58,250) Richard Burn, English legal writer, died (born 1709).

2/11/1785, Wednesday (-58,260) The first unsinkable lifeboat was patented by Lionel Lukin, a London coachbuilder.


15/10/1785, Saturday (-58,278) Jose Miguel Carrera, leader in the Chilean fight for independence from Spain, was born (died 4/9/1821).


30/9/1785, Friday (-58,293) Johann Moser, German legal writer, died.

1/9/1785, Thursday (-58,322) (USA) Mozart published his 6th string quartet opus 10 in Vienna. =================================================================================

30/8/1785, Tuesday (-58,324) Lin Tse Hu, Chinese official whose attempt to halt the opium trade led to the Opium War, was born in Hou-Kuan, Fukien Province, China (died 1850).

25/8/1785, Thursday (-58,329) Adam Moltke, Danish statesman, was born (died 15/.2/1864).

20/8/1785, Saturday (-58,334) Valentine Mott, US surgeon, was born (died 26/4/1865).

15/8/1785, Monday (-58,339) Thomas de Quincy, English author, was born (died 8/12/1859).

14/8/1785, Sunday (-58,340) John Fletcher, English religious writer, died (born 12/9/1729).


12/7/1785, Tuesday (-58,373) Louis la Chalotais, French jurist, died (born 6/3/1701).

6/7/1785, Wednesday (-58,379) The American Congress adopted a coinage system suggested by the Virginia delegate. It featured a gold 10 dollar coin, a 1 dollar silver cooin, and a copper coin worth 1 cent.


30/6/1785, Thursday (-58,385) James Edward Ogelthorpe, English army officer who founded the first British colony in Georgia, died at Cranman Hall, Essex, aged 88.

29/6/1785, Wednesday (-58,386) Mrs Sage made a balloon ascent with George Biggin, becoming the first Englishwoman to fly.

16/6/1785, Thursday (-58,399) The first ballooning fatality. De Rozier and Jules Romain attempted a balloon flight from France to Britain. Unfortunately they had added a Montgolfier hot air apparatus to their hydrogen balloon and their craft exploded even before it reached the Channel, as the hydrogen vented.

6/6/1785, Monday (-58,409) John James, English religious writer, was born (died 1/10/1859).


23/5/1785, Monday (58,423) Benjamin Franklin announced his invention of bifocals.

21/5/1785, Saturday (-58,425) (Germany) August Bekker, German philosopher, was born (died in Berlin 7/6/1871).

13/5/1785, Friday (-58,433) Friedrich Dahlmann, German politician, was born (died 5/12/1860).

9/5/1785, Monday (-58,437) Joseph Bramah patented the beer pump handle.

8/5/1785, Sunday (-58,438) Etienne Choiseul, French statesman, died (born 18/6/1719).

3/5/1785, Tuesday (-58,443) Mademoiselle Simonet accompanied Blanchard, becoming the first woman to fly over England.


26/4/1785, Tuesday (-58,450) John James Audubon, US artist, was born in Les Cayes, St Dominique, west Indies (died 1859).

4/4/1785, Monday (-58,472) Elisabeth Arnim, German authoress, was born in Frankfort am Main (died 20/1/1859 in Berlin).


30/3/1785, Wednesday (-58,477) Henry Hardinge, British colonial Governor-General of India, was born (died 24/9/1856).

27/3/1785, Sunday (-58,480) Easter Sunday. King Louis XVII of France was born.

22/3/1785, Tuesday (-58,485) (Geology) Geologist Adam Sedgwick was born in Yorkshire, England. In 1835 he identified the Cambrian Period.

11/3/1785, Friday (-58,496) John McLean, US Supreme Court Judge, was born in Morris County, New Jersey (died 1861)

7/3/1785, Monday (-58,500) Alessandro Manzoni, Italian poet, was born (died 22/5/1873).


2/2/1785, Wednesday (-58,533) Hyacinthe Latouche, French poet and novelist, was born (died 9/3/1851)


30/1/1785, Sunday (-58,536) Charles Metcalfe, British colonial administrator of India, was born (died 5/9/1846).

19/1/1785, Wednesday (-58,547) The first balloon ascent in Ireland was made, from Ranelagh Gardens, Dublin.

17/1/1785, Monday (-58,549) Leonard Horner, Scottish geologist, was born (died 5/3/1864)

14/1/1785, Friday (-58,552) Mozart completed his Dissonanzenquartett (Dissonance Quartet), opus no.10.

7/1/1785, Friday (-58,559) Jean-Pierre Blanchard, and his sponsor, the American Dr John Jefferies, made the first hot air balloon crossing of the English Channel from Dover to Calais.

4/1/1785, Tuesday (-58,562) Jacob Grimm, older of the two German brothers famous for fairy tales, was born in Hanau.

3/1/1785, Monday (-58,563) Baldassare Galuppi, Italian composer, died (born 18/10/1706).

1/1/1785, Saturday (-58,565) The Daily Universal Register was first published by John Walter. It was renamed The Times on 1/1/1788.


15/12/1784, Wednesday (-58,582) Ludwig Devrient, German actor, was born (died 30/12/1832).

13/12/1784, Monday (-58,584) Samuel Johnson, born 18/9/1709, died. Aged 75, he had lived in near-poverty for many years but from 1762 was granted a Crown Pension of �3,000 a year. He is best remembered for his comprehensive dictionary, which took him eight years to complete.

7/12/1784, Tuesday (-58,590) Allan Cunningham, Scottish poet, was born (died 30/10/1842).

5/12/1784, Sunday (-58,592) (Race Equality) Phillis Wheatley, the first published Black American poet, died in Boston, Massachusetts aged ca.31.


24/11/1784, Wednesday (-58,603) Zachary Taylor, American Whig and 12th President, was born in Orange County, Virginia.

22/11/1784, Monday (-58,605) Paolo Frisi, Italian mathematician, died (born 13/4/1728).

17/11/1784, Wednesday (-58,610) Ebenezer Henderson, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 17/5/1858).


27/10/1784, Wednesday (-58,631) Nicolo Paganini, Italian composer, was born in Genoa (died 1840).

24/10/1784, Sunday (-58,634) Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, Jewish philanthropist, was born (died 28/7/1885).

20/10/1784, Wednesday (-58,638) Lord Palmerston was born at 20, Queen Anne�s Gate, Westminster as Henry John Temple.

19/10/1784, Tuesday (-58,639) Leigh Hunt, British poet and essayist, was born.

17/10/1784, Sunday (-58,641) Napoleon, aged 15, entered the Ecole Militaire in Paris. He graduated a year later, coming 42nd out of 58.

15/10/1784, Friday (-58,643) (France) Thomas Bugeaud, Marshal of France, was born (died 10/6/1849).

14/10/1784, Thursday (-58,644) Ferdinand VII, King of Spain, was born.

4/10/1784, Monday (-58,654) James Sadler flew for about 30 minutes in a hot air balloon oved Oxford.


28/9/1784, Tuesday (-58,660)

26/9/1784, Sunday (-58,662) Christopher Hansteen, Norwegian scientific writer, was born (died 11/4/1873).

21/9/1784, Tuesday (-58,667) The first successful daily American newspaper, the Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser, appeared.

20/9/1784, Monday (-58,668) (Cartography) Sir Richard Griffith, who prepared several geological maps of Ireland (1st, 1815), was born (died 22/9/1878).

15/9/1784, Wednesday (-58,673) The first hydrogen balloon ascent from London was made.

8/9/1784, Wednesday (-58,680) Ann Lee, religious leader and founder of the US sect of the Shakers, died.

4/9/1784, Saturday (-58,684) (Cartography) Cesar Cassini died (born 17/6/1714). In 1744 he began surveying for a map of France.

1/9/1784, Wednesday (-58,687) (Cartography) Thomas Colby, director of the Ordnance Survey, who surveyed Ireland, was born (died 9/10/1852)


25/8/1784, Wednesday (-58,694) The first balloon ascent in Britain was made. James Tytler made a brief ascent in Edinburgh.

13/8/1784, Friday (-58,706) The East India Act put the Company under a board of control to manage its revenue and administration.

10/8/1784, Tuesday (-58,709) Allan Ramsay, portrait painter, died in Dover, England, aged 70.

4/8/1784, Wednesday (-58,715) Giovanni Martini, Italian musician, died (born 24/4/1706).

2/8/1784, Monday (-58,717) The first specially constructed mail coach ran in Britain, from Bristol. to London.


30/7/1784, Friday (-58,720) Denis Diderot, French writer, died (born 5/10/1713).

22/7/1784, Thursday (-58,728) Friedrich Bessel, German astronomer, was born in Minden (died in Konigsberg 17/3/1846).

12/7/1784, Monday (-58,738) John Brown, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 13/10/1858).

8/7/1784, Thursday (-58,742) (Biology) Torbern Bergman, Swedish naturalist, died in Medevi (born in Katrineberg 20/3/1735).

4/7/1784, Sunday (-58,746) Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria repealed the Hungarian Constitution, and annulled the Hungarian feudal Courts, in an attempt to create a unified Hapsburg empire and break the power of the Hungarian nobility.


29/6/1784, Tuesday (-58,751) (Spain) Alexandre Aguado, Spanish soldier and politician, was born in Seville (died 14/4/1842 in Gijon).

26/6/1784, Saturday (-58,754) William H Crawford, American politician who cast te deciding vote for independence, died in Dover, Delaware, aged 55.


30/5/1784, Sunday (-58,781) (Britain) Sir William Brown, financier, was born (died 1864).

20/5/1784, Thursday (-58,791) Peace of Versailles, between England and Holland.

12/5/1784, Wednesday (-58,799) James Knowles, Irish dramatist, was born (died 30/11/1862).

10/5/1784, Monday (-58,801) Antoine Court de Gebelin, French scholarly writer, died (born 1728).


29/4/1784, Thursday (-58,812) Mozart�s violin sonata in B flat, K454, premiered in Vienna.

11/4/1784, Sunday (-58,830) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1784, Monday (-58,836) Louis Spohr, composer and violinist, was born.

3/4/1784, Saturday (-58,838) The British Parliament passed the India Act, to make the British East India Company more accountable.


25/3/1784, Thursday (-58,847) Francois Fetis, Belgian composer, was born (died 26/3/1871)

19/3/1784, Friday (-58,853) Henry Goulburn, English statesman, was born (died 12/1/1856).

12/3/1784, Friday (-58,860) William Buckland, geologist, was born (died 24/8/1856).

11/3/1784, Thursday (-58,861) Britain signed a peace treaty with Tippu Sultan of Mysore, ending the Second Mysore War.


28/2/1784, Saturday (-58,873) John Wesley signed the Deed of Declaration of the Wesleyan faith.

20/2/1784, Friday (-58,881) Adam Black, Scottish book publisher, was born in Edinburgh (died 24/1/1874).


31/1/1784, Saturday (-58,901) Bernard Barton, English poet, was born in Carlisle (died in Woodbridge 19/2/1849).

28/1/1784, Wednesday (-58,904) (Britain) George Aberdeen, British statesman, was born in Edinburgh.

21/1/1784, Wednesday (-58,911) Peter de Wint, English landscape painter, was born (died 30/1/1849).

14/1/1784, Wednesday (-58,918) The American Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris, formally ending the American Revolution.

11/1/1784, Sunday (-58,921) Joseph Gwilt, British architectural writer, was born (died 14/9/1863)

6/1/1784, Tuesday (-58,926) (Russia, Turkey) Under the Treaty of Constantinople, Ottoman Turkey ceded the Crimea to Russia.

2/1/1784, Friday (-58,930) Ernst I, Duke of Saxe Coburg Gotha, was born (died 29/1/1844).


31/12/1783, Wednesday (-58,932) Thomas McDonough, US naval officer, was born in The Trap, Delaware (died 1825).

24/12/1783, Wednesday (-58,939) George Washington resigned as Commander of the Continental Army.

23/12/1783, Tuesday (-58,940) Johann Hasse, German composer, died.

21/12/1783, Sunday (-58,942)

19/12/1783, Friday (-58,944) William Pitt the Younger became Prime Minister.

18/12/1783, Thursday (-58,945) Johan Bystrom, Swedish sculptor, was born (died 1848).

9/12/1783, Tuesday (-58,954) The first executions at London�s Newgate Prison.

5/12/1783, Friday (-58,958) Simon Greanleaf, US legal writer, was born (died 6/10/1853).

1/12/1783, Monday (-58,962) Jacques Charles flew a 28-foot diameter hydrogen balloon made of silk, coated with rubber to make it airtight. It flew 27 miles from its start in Paris.


25/11/1783, Tuesday (-58,968) British troops evacuated from New York.

24/11/1783, Monday (-58,969) Victor DuCange, novelist, was born (died 15/10/1833).

21/11/1783, Friday (-58,972) Man�s first free flight was made by Jean De Rosier and the Marquis D�Arlandes in the hot air balloon, the Montgolfier They travelled five miles in 25 minutes, reaching a height of 500 feet before landing safely near the Luxembourg Wood. On 4/6/1783 they had constructed an unmanned prototype, based on the ideas of the 14th century Augustinian monk, Albert of Saxony, and the 17th century priest, Francesco de Luna. On 17/10/1783 Pilatre de Rozier rose 84 feet in a hot air balloon before it reached the end of its tether. On 1/12/1783 the Montgolfier�s rivals Charles, and Robert ascended in a hydrogen balloon. On 27/8/1783 Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles, a member of the French Academy of Science, had launched a prototype hydrogen balloon.

10/11/1783, Monday (-58,983) Charles-Alexandre de Calonne was appointed French Comptroller-general, and began raising loans to solve the French financial crisis following the American Revolution.

7/11/1783, Friday (-58,986) The last hanging was held at Tyburn, west London. John Austin, convicted of forgery, was executed.An estimated 50,000 had been executed at Tyburn.

4/11/1783, Tuesday (-58,989) Mozart�s Symphony no.36 premiered in Linz, Austria.

3/11/1783, Monday (-58,990) Charles Colle, French dramatist, died (born 1709).


29/10/1783, Wednesday (-58,995) (Mathematics) Jean Alembert, French mathematician, died in Paris.

15/10/1783, Wednesday (-59,009) (Aviation) Francois Pilatre de Rozier made the world�s manned first flight, in a tethered balloon.

11/10/1783, Saturday (-59,014) Heinrich Klaproth, german orientalist writer, was born (died 28/8/1835).

10/10/1783, Friday (-59,014) Henry Brooke, Irish author, died.

6/10/1783, Monday (-59,018) (Britain) Thomas Attwood, English political reformer, was born in Halesowen, Worcestershire (died in Great Malvern, 6/3/1856).


27/9/1783, Saturday (-59,027) Augustin de Iturbide, Emperor of Mexico 5/1822 � 3/1823, was born in Valladolid (now Morelia), Mexico.

18/9/1783, Thursday (-59,036) (Mathematics) Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician, died in St Petersburg, Russia.

17/9/1783, Wednesday (-59,037) (Mathematics) In France, King Louis XVI watched as two French papermakers, Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier, sent a large hot air balloon into the sky with a sheep, a rooster and a duck on board. The balloon reached 1500 feet and landed a mile away; the rooster was killed but the sheep and duck survived unharmed.

14/9/1783, Sunday (-59,040) Gaspar Gourgaud, French soldier, was born (died 1852).

8/9/1783, Monday (-59,046) Nikolai Grundtvig, Danish writer, was born (died 2/9/1872).

3/9/1783, Wednesday (-59,051) (Belize) British log-cutters returned to Belize during 1783 and this day a Treaty was signed giving British log-cutters the right to cut trees between the Rivers Wallis (Belize) and Rio Hondo. However this was �not to be considered as derogating from the rights of sovereignty of the King of Spain�.

2/9/1783, Tuesday (-59,052) Britain recognised the United States by signing the Treaty of Paris, thus ending the American War of Independence. By this treaty northern Florida was ceded by Britain to the USA but on the same day Britain had signed the Treaty of Versailles, ceding west Florida to Spain. This caused controversy for some year until the Treaty of Madrid in 1795 in which Spain ceded lands east of the Mississippi to the USA. The Spanish also regained Minorca from the British, and France got Senegal and Tobago from Britain. However in Senegal the British retained the Gambia river valley. Britain also paid a war indemnity of �10 million. Britain had sent a force of 60,000 men to fight a much larger population on their own ground, when Holland, France and Spain had sided with the opposition.



27/8/1783, Wednesday (-59,058) Jacques Cesar Charles, a rival hot air balloon maker to Montgolfier who preferred hydrogen to hot air, launched his balloon. It drifted 15 miles from Paris to Gonesse where it was hacked to pieces by frightened peasants; it expired with much hissing.

21/8/1783, Thursday (-59,064) John Gully, English boxer, was born (died 9/3/1863).

18/8/1783, Monday (-59,067) (Britain) John Dunning Ashburton, English lawyer, died in Exmouth (born 18/10/1731 in Ashburton, Devon).

14(-16)/8/1783, Thursday (-59,071) Severe earthquake hit Iceland, destroying 92 farms and badly damaging another 372 farms and 11 churches.

13/8/1783, Wednesday (-59,072) John Crawfurd, Scottish writer on the Orient, was born (died 11/5/1868).

7/8/1783, Thursday (-59,078) John Heathcoat, English inventor, was born (died 18/1/1861).

3/8/1783, Sunday (-59,082) Mount Asama erupted in Japan, killing 35,000 people.


24/7/1783, Thursday (-59,092) Simon Bolivar, South American revolutionary and liberator of South America from Spanish colonial rule, was born in Caracas, capital of Venezuela.


25/6/1783, Wednesday (-59,121) Lavoisier announced that water was the combustion product of oxygen and hydrogen.

20/6/1783, Friday (-59,126) The English under Admiral Sir Edward Hughes and the French under Pierre Andre de Suffren fought a fiurece but inconclusive naval battle off Cuddalore, India. This was the last of five similar engagements, as Britain and France fought for land control of India.

11/6/1783, Wednesday (-59,135) James Fraser, Scottish travel writer, was born (died 1/1856).

8/6/1783, Sunday (-59,138) (Earthquake, Iceland) The Laki Volcano in Iceland erupted; the world�s largest volcanic eruption. One fifth of Iceland�s inhabitants, over 10,000 people, died as a 28km long fissure opened up, from which lava covered an area of 570 square kilometres. Some 12-15 cubic kilometres of lava were ejected. Deaths were from poisonous gases then from famine and disease as 11,500 cattle (53%of total), 28,000 horses (77% of total) and 190,500 sheep (82% of total) also perished.

5/6/1783, Thursday (-59,141) The Montgolfier Brothers flew the first hot air balloon. Unmanned, it ascended to 2,000 metres and remained there for ten minutes.


30/5/1783, Friday (-59,147) The first daily newspaper in the newly independent USA, the Pennsylvania Evening Post, began publication.

23/5/1783, Friday (-59,154) James Otis, US patriot (born 5/2/1725), died from a lightning strike.

22/5/1783, Thursday (-59,155) William Sturgeon, English scientist who made the first practical electromagnet, was born in Whittington, Lancashire.

11/5/1783, Sunday (-59,166) The first British-loyalist refugees from the newly-independent United States of America arrived at the estuary of the St John�s River, Canada, having set sail from New York on 16/4/1783. They founded the city of St Johns.

4/5/1783, Sunday (-59,173) Astronomer William Herschel reported seeing a red glow near the lunar crater Aristarchus.

3/5/1783, Saturday (-59,174) Katherine II of Russia, who was thought of as an enlightened monarch by Europeans, officially introduced serfdom in the Ukraine.

1/5/1783, Thursday (-59,176)


29/4/1783, Tuesday (-59,178) David Cox, English painter, was born (died 7/6/1859).

28/4/1783, Monday (-59,179) Sir Eyre Coote, British soldier, died (born 1726).

24/4/1783, Thursday (-59,183)

21/4/1783, Monday (-59,186) Reginald Heber, English hymn-writer, was born (died 3/4/1826).

20/4/1783, Sunday (-59,187) Easter Sunday.

19/4/1783, Saturday (-59,188) US Congress officially proclaimed victory in the War of Independence.

18/4/1783, Friday (-59,189)

17/4/1783, Thursday (-59,190) Louise Epinay, French writer, died (born 11/3/1726).

16/4/1783, Wednesday (-59,191) Christian Mayer, astronomer, died.

9/4/1783, Wednesday (-59,198) Tippu, Sultan of Mysore, forced Britain to surrender the town of Bednore.

3/4/1783, Thursday (-59,204) Washington Irving, author of Rip Van Winkle, was born.


30/3/1783, Sunday (-59,208) William Hunter, British physician, died (born 23/5/1718).

25/3/1783, Tuesday (-59,213) Jean Guerin, French painter, was born (died 19/1/1855).


24/2/1783, Monday (-59,242) The British Parliament voted to discontinue the American War.

6/2/1783, Thursday (-59,260) (1) English landscape gardener Lancelot �Capability� Brown died. Kew Gardens and Blenheim Palace are examples of his work.

(2) The siege of Gibraltar ended.

5/2/1783, Wednesday (-59,261) Large earthquake in Calabria, Italy, 30,000 killed.

1/2/1783, Saturday (-59,265) Andre Dupin, French statesman, was born (died 8/11/1865).


23/1/1783, Thursday (-59,274) Marie Beyle, French writer, was born in Grenoble (died in Paris 23/3/1842).

12/1/1783, Sunday (-59,285) Erik Geijer, Swedish historical writer, was born (died 23/4/1847).

2/1/1783, Thursday (-59,295) Johann Bodmer, author, died in Zurich (born near Zurich 19/7/1698).

1/1/1783, Wednesday (-59,296) Britain�s oldest Chamber of Commerce was established, in Glasgow.


27/12/1782, Friday (-59,301) Henry Kames, Scottish writer, died.

7/12/1782, Saturday (-59,321) Tippu Sahib succeeded his father Hyder Ali as Sultan of Mysore, India.

5/12/1782, Thursday (-59,323) Martin van Buren, US Democrat and 8th President, was born in Kinderhook, New York State, the son of a farmer.

4/12/1782, Wednesday (-59,324) Pietro Metastasio, Italian poet, died aged 81.


26/11/1782, Tuesday (-59,332) Karl Karsten, German mineralogist, was born (died 22/8/1853).

11/11/1782, Monday (-59,347) Francis Blackburne, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, born in County Meath (died 17/9/1867).

10/11/1782, Sunday (-59,348) The Americans massacred the British-backed Shawnee Indians. 1,000 Kentucky riflemen fired unremittingly on them, and destroyed their food stockpiles.

1/11/1782, Friday (-59,357) Frederick John Ripon, Viscount Goderich, British Tory Prime Minister 1827-8, was born in London (died 1859).


27/10/1782, Sunday (-59,362) Birth of the Italian composer and violinist Niccolo Paganini, in Genoa.

9/10/1782, Wednesday (-59,380) Lewis Cass, US politician, was born (died 17/6/1866).

7/10/1782, Monday (-59,382) Charles MacLaren, editor, was born (died 10/9/1866).


7/9/1782, Saturday (-59,412) Susan Ferrier, Scottish novelist, was born (died 5/11/1854).


29/8/1782, Thursday (-59,421) At Spithead, a prime ship of the British Navy, the Royal George, sank with the loss of 900 lives. Launched in 1756, she was one of only 3 100-gun ships in the navy. An enquiry began as to whether she sank due to rotten timbers or due to her being heeled over so far that water entered her lower gunports.

24/8/1782, Saturday (-59,426) David Tyrie, having been found guilty of spying for the French, became the last person in Britain to be executed by hanging, drawing and quartering, at Portsmouth.

15/8/1782, Thursday (-59,435) In a rearguard action in the American War of Indepemndence, a combined British and Amerindian force about 250-strong, led by a US turncoat called Simon Girty,attacked across the Ohio River to raid Bryan�s Station in kentiucky. Some 200armed American backwoodsmenh counterattacked, drove the raiders back, nbut were ambushed and 70 of them killed. In reprisal, US General George Rogers Clark led a force of over 1,000 men northwards, destroying many Indian villages.

13/8/1782, Tuesday (-59,437) (Biology) Henri Duhamel, French botanist, died (born 1700).

7/8/1782, Wednesday (-59,443) Andreas Marggraf, who discovered sugar in beetroot, died (born 3/3/1709).

4/8/1782, Sunday (-59,446) Musician Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, now aged 26, married Constanze Weber in St Stephen�s Cathedral, Vienna, Austria.


16/7/1782, Tuesday (-59,465) Mozart�s opera Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail premiered in Vienna, with Mozart himself conducting.

15/7/1782, Monday (-59,466) Carlo Broschi (Farinelli), Italian singer, died (born 24/1/1705).

1/7/1782, Monday (-59,480) Charles Watson-Wentworth, British Whig Prime Minister 1765-66, died in London aged 52.


19/6/1782, Wednesday (-59,492) Hugues Lannenais, French political writer, was born (died 27/2/1854)

10/6/1782, Monday (-59,501) The Grand Theatre, Lancaster, was founded.


20/5/1782, Monday (-59,522) William Emerson, English mathematician, died (born 4/5/1701).

17/5/1782, Friday (-59,525) (India) The Treaty of Salbai ended the First Maratha War, with small gains for Britain.

16/5/1782,Thursday (-59,526) John Cotman, English landscape painter, was born (died24/7/1842).

8/5/1782, Wednesday (-59,534) Sebastiao de Carvalho, Marquis of Pombal, reformer and virtual ruler of Portugal 1750-77, died in Pombal aged 82.

1/5/1782, Wednesday (-59,541)


26/4/1782, Friday (-59,546) Marie Amelie Therese, Queen of King Philippe of France, was born (died 24/3/1866).

25/4/1782, Thursday (-59,547) (Cartography) Adrian Balbi, Italian geographer, was born in Venice (died 14/3/1848 in Padua).

21/4/1782, Sunday (-59,551) Friedrich Froebel, German educational pioneer who established the first Kindergartens, was born in Oberweissbach.

18/4/1782, Thursday (-59,554) Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II repealed the Third Barrier Treaty of 1715, obliging the Dutch to evacuate the garrisons in the Barrier Towns in the Austrian Netherlands, which they did evacuate this day.

16/4/1782, Tuesday (-59,556) William Jerdan,Scottish journalist, was born (died 11/7/1869).

12/4/1782, Friday (-59,560) Admiral Rodney defeated a French fleet off the West Indies in the Battle of the Saints; named after the nearby Saints islands. This was during the War of American Independence.

7/4/1782, Sunday (-59,565) Sir Francis Chantrey, English sculptor, was born (died 25/11/1841).

6/4/1782, Saturday (-59,566) Chao P�ya Chakri founded the Chakri Dynasty in Siam, ruling as King Rama I. He made Bangkok the capital.


31/3/1782, Sunday (-59,572) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1782, Wednesday (-59,583) Lord North left office as Prime Minister.

19/3/1782, Tuesday (-59,584) (USA) Lord North resigned as Prome Minister of Britain, because of the failure of his Government to retain sovereignty over North America.

18/3/1782, Monday (-59,585) John Calhoun, US statesman (died 31/3/1850) was born.

17/3/1782, Sunday (-59,586) The Swiss physicist Edward Bernoulli died.

16/3/1782, Saturday (-59,587)

15/3/1782, Friday (-59,588) (USA) A Motion of No Confidence in Lord North�s administration was defeated in the House of Commons by nine votes.

14/3/1782, Thursday (-59,589) Thomas Benton, US politician, was born in North Carolina (died in Washington 10/4/1858).

11/3/1782, Monday (-59,592)

8/3/1782, Friday (-59,595) The Gnadenhutten Massacre in Delaware. 160 volunteers under Colonel David Williamson attacked the Moravian mission town of Gnadenhutten. 90 Christian indigenous American Indian men women and children were slaughtered, and the mission church burnt down. A few survivors managed to flee to Canada.

7/3/1782, Thursday (-59,596) (Christian) Angelo Mai, Vatican librarian, was born (died 8/9/1854).


27/2/1782, Wednesday (-59,604) The UK Parliament rejected Lord North�s appeal to continue the American War. Lord North resigned on 19/3/1782 and was replaced by Lord Rockingham.

22/2/1782, Friday (-59,609) In Britain, a Parliamentary Motion opposing the Governments continuation of the war in North America was defeated by a single vote.

13/2/1782, Wednesday (-59,618) France captured St Kitts from Britain.

5/2/1782, Tuesday (-59,626) Spain captured Minorca from Britain.


29/1/1782, Tuesday (-59,633) Daniel Auber, French composer, was born in Caen (died 1871)

20/1/1782, Sunday (-59,642) Joseph Hormayr, German historical writer, was born (died 5/10/1848)

18/1/1782, Friday (-59,644) Daniel Webster, US politician, was born in Salisbury, New Hampshire (died 1852).

11/1/1782, Friday (-59,651) The United Netherlands surrendered Trimcomalee, Sri Lanka, to Britain

5/1/1782, Saturday (-59,657) Robert Morrison, first Protestant missionary to China, was born (died 1/8/1834).

1/1/1782, Tuesday (-59,661) Johann Christian Bach, composer, died.


31/12/1781, Monday (-59,662) The American Congress established the Bank of North America at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

2/12/1781, Sunday (-59,691) Cenon Ensenada, Spanish statesman, died (born 2/6/1702).

11/12/1781, Tuesday (-59,682) Sir David Brewster, scientist, was born (died 10/2/1868).


29/11/1781, Thursday (-59,694) The slave ship Zong sighted land in the West Indies (see 6/9/1781). Collingwood, the ship�s Master, told his officers there was insufficient water for them and all the slaves on board. Dysentery had also plagued the ship on its voyage from Liverpool, killing 60 slaves and 7 crew. Collingwood said if the slaves died of thirst the ship�s owners would bear the loss but if they were thrown overboard the loss would be coveredunder insurance as a legal jettison. The weakest 132 slaves were picked out; 54 were thrown overboard that day, 42 the next day, and a further 26 were handcuffed and thrown overboard a few days later. A further ten jumped overboard before they were thrown. On 22/12/1781 the Zong docked at Kingston, Jamaica; the remaining slaves were sold and Collingwood returned to England, and claimed �30 each for the 132 �jettisoned� slaves. The insurers refused to pay, and the first trial ruled in favour of Collingwood, saying �it was the same as if horses had been thrown overboard�. The insurers appealed to the Court of Exchequer and Lord Mansfield, judge, ruled otherwise. He said that although the law supported Collingwood, a higher principle applied; distinguishing between �law� and justice� he ruled in this �shocking case� against Collingwood. Mansfield�s ruling was the first in an English Court that a slave was not simply merchandise.

21/11/1781, Wednesday (-59,702) Jean Maurepas, French statesman, died.

20/11/1781, Tuesday (-59,703) Karl Eichhorn, German legal writer, was born (died 4/7/1854).

13/11/1781, Tuesday (-59,710) British forces captured the Dutch settlement at Negapattam, near Madras, India.

6/11/1781, Tuesday (-59,717) (Arts) Lucy Aikin, historical writer, was born in Warrington (died 29/1/1864 in Hampstead, London) .

4/11/1781, Sunday (-59,719) Johann Gotz, German poet, died (born 9.7/1721).

2/11/1781, Friday (-59,721) Jose Isla, Spanish satirical writer, died (born 24/3/1703).

1/11/1781, Thursday (-59,722) Austria abolished serfdom, and gave all citizens the right of marriage, free movement, and instruction in any handicraft.This initially applied to Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia; to Galicia soon after, and to Hungary in 1785.Landowners had certain rights remaining, such as corvee, but these were reduced by later laws.


19/10/1781, Friday (-59,735) British forces under Lord Cornwallis, 7,000 soldiers, surrendered to George Washington at Yorktown, Virginia.This was a combined force of Americans and their French allies.This ended the American War of Independence.

17/10/1781, Wednesday (-59,737) Edward Hawke, British Admiral, died (born 1705).

13/10/1781, Saturday (-59,741) Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II gramted a patent of religious tolerance within the empire, along with freedom of the press.

5/10/1781, Friday (-59,749) After the victory at Chesapeake Bay (5/9/1781), George Washington commenced a heavy attack on the British besieged in Yorktown.


19/9/1781, Wednesday (-50,675) (Britain) Tobias Furneaux, English navigator, died (born 21/8/1735).

16/9/1781, Sunday (-50,678) (USA) The British holding Yorktown scuttled ships in the estuary of Yorktown to try and thwart a French attack by sea. The British had superior sea-power (but faced a French naval threat) whilst the American rebels controlled the inland regions. The British hoped that some 2,000 escaped slaves, who believed a British victory would mean freedom for them, would enable their victory, but the Carolinas area could not be held against American forces. In August 1781 the British commander, Cornwallis, retreated to Virginia and established a defensive perimeter at Yorktown, Besides French warships, the British knew that the French commander Rochambeau was marching south from the Hudson Valley. The British sailed south from New York to support Yorktown, but a cannon battle off Yorktown between British and French proved inconclusive. After five days the British fleet under Graves, outgunned, withdrew back to New York. Yorktown was to surrender on 19/10/1781, ending the War of Independence.

11/9/1781, Tuesday (-59,773) Johann Ernesti, German religious writer, died (born 4/8/1707)..

8/9/1781, Saturday (-59,776) British forces under Alexander Stewart defeated American troops under Nathaniel Greene at the Battle of Eutaw Springs, North Carolina. Also this day British forces looted and burnt New London, Connecticut.

6/9/1781, Thursday (-59,778) The slave ship Zong left Liverpool, with Luke Collingwood as its Master, with 400 slaves and 17 crew, see 29/11/1781.

5/9/1781, Wednesday (-59,779) (USA) Battle of Chesapeake Bay, USA, between British and French fleets. The British with 19 ships were defeated by De Grasse Tilly with 24 ships. The British were prevented from resupplying the troops under Lord Cornwallis, who was under siege in Yorktown.

4/9/1781, Tuesday (-59,780) (USA) In California, the Spanish founded a tiny village near San Gabriel. They called it Los Angeles.

3/9/1781, Monday (-59,781) (France) Eugene de Beauharnais, French soldier and stepson of Napoleon I, was born in Paris (died 1824).


30/8/1781, Thursday (-59,785) A French fleet commanded by De Grasse Tilly arrived in Chesapeake Bay.

12/8/1781, Sunday (-59,803) Robert Mills, US neoclassical architect, was born in Charleston., South Carolina (died 1855)

1/8/1781, Wednesday (-59,814) British forces under Charles, Lord Cornwallis, occupied Yorktown, Virginia.


11/7/1781, Wednesday (-59,835) Bartolommeo Borghesi, Italian antiquarian, was born near Rimini (died in San Marino 16/4/1860).

6/7/1781, Friday (-59,840) General Cornwallis defeated General Lafayette at Jamestown Road, Virginia.

5/7/1781, Thursday (-59,841) Sir Stamford Raffles, who founded Singapore, was born.

1/7/1781, Sunday (-59,845) In India, British troops defeated Hyder Ali at Porto Novo. This established British hegemony over southern India.


21/6/1781, Thursday (-59,855) Simeon Denis Poisson, French mathematician, was born in Pithiviers (died 1840)

17/6/1781, Sunday (-59,859) Francisco Mina, Spanish soldier who resisted the French invasion in 1808, was born (died 24/12/1836).

9/6/1781, Saturday (-59,867) George Stephenson, inventor of The Rocket, was born in Wylam on Tyne, near Newcastle.He was the son of a colliery engine-keeper.

6/6/1781, Wednesday (-59,870) Dutch Boer settlers in South Africa massacred black Xhosa tribesmen for the third time in three years. Dutch settlers were expanding eastwards, and successfully enslaving or driving away the Khoisan tribes, but the Xhosa put up more resistance.

5/6/1781, Tuesday (-59,871) Christian Lobeck, German classical scholarly writer, was born (died 25/8/1860).


27/5/1781, Sunday (-59,880) (Electrical) Giovanni Beccaria, Italian electrical physicist, died in Turin (born in Mondovi 3/10/1716).

19/5/1781, Saturday (-59,888) The French Finance Minister Jacques Necker was forced to resign when Queen Marie Antionette opposed his policy of raising loans to finance French participation in the American Revolution.

9/5/1781, Wednesday (-59.898) A Spanish force from New Orleans captured Pensacola, Florida, from the British, taking advantage of the distraction of the British war with the colonies.

8/5/1781, Tuesday (-59,899) Richard Jago, English poet,died (born 1715).

4/5/1781, Friday (-59,903) Karl Krause, German philosophical writer, was born (died 27/9/1832).


29/4/1781, Sunday (-59,908) Charles Cottenham, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 29/4/1851).

15/4/1781, Sunday (-59,922) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1781, Sunday (-59,930) Premier performance of Mozart�s violin sonata K379.


18/3/1781, Sunday (-59,950) Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, French economist and administrator, died in Paris aged 53.

17/3/1781, Saturday (-59,951) Ebenezer Elliott, English poet, was born (died 1/12/1849).

15/3/1781, Thursday (-59,953) US General Nathaniel Greene fought a stand-off battle with the British under General Charles Cornwallis, at the Battle of Guildford Courthouse, North Carolina. Cornwallis claimed victory, but retreated north towards Washington.

13/3/1781, Tuesday (-59,955) (Space exploration) Astronomer William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus, although initially he mistook it for a comet. He called it Georgium Sidus (George�s Star) in honour of King George III.

6/3/1781, Tuesday (-59,962) Ignaz Castelli, Austrian dramatist, was born (died 5/2/1862).

1/3/1781, Thursday (-59,967) The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union were ratified by all US States.


27/2/1781, Tuesday (-59,969)

24/2/1781, Saturday (-59,972) Edward Capell, English literary critic, died (born 11/6/1713).

20/2/1781, Tuesday (-59,976)

18/2/1781, Sunday (-59,978) Henry Martyn, English missionary to India, was born (died 6/10/1812).

16/2/1781, Friday (-59,980) Rene Laennec, French doctor who invented and named the stethoscope, was born in Quimper, Brittany.

15/2/1781, Thursday (-59,981) Gotthold Lessing, German dramatist, died (born 22/1/1729).

13/2/1781, Tuesday (-59,983)

3/2/1781, Saturday (-59,993) Having declared war on the Dutch (see 20/11/1780), the British captured from the Dutch the island of St Eustatius.


30/1/1781, Tuesday (-59,997) Adelbert Chamisso, German poet, was born (died 21/8/1838).

29/1/1781, Monday (-59,998) Mozart�s dramatic opera Idomeneo premiered in Munich.

26/1/1781, Friday (-60,001) Ludwig Arnim, German writer, was born in Berlin (died in Brandenburg 21/1/1831).

24/1/1781, Wednesday (-60,003) Louis Mole, French statesman, was born (died 23/11/1855).

17/1/1781, Wednesday (-60,010) In North America, Daniel Morgan, leader of the Virginian forces, won a majpor victory against the British at the Battle of Cowpens, South Carolina.

14/1/1781, Sunday (-60,013) Henry Clinton, English scholarly writer, was born (died 24/10/1852).

12/1/1781, Friday (-60,015) Richard Challoner, English religious writer, died (born 29/9/1691).

5/1/1781, Friday (-60,022) France attempted another invasion of the Channel Islands (see 1/5/1779). This too failed and they never attempted to invade again.

1/1/1781, Monday (-60,026) The first wholly iron bridge in the world was opened at Ironbridge, Shropshire, consisting of a 100 foot span across the Severn. In 1755 an iron bridge had been planned across the Rhone at Lyons but owing to the high cost only one span was made of iron; the others of wood.


26/12/1780, Tuesday (-60,032) John Fothergill, English physician, died (born 8/3/1712).

23/12/1780, Saturday (-60,035) France was suffering a deepening financial crisis, in part caused by the costs of supporting the Americans against Britain.

22/12/1780, Friday (-60,036) James Harris, English scholarly writer, died (born 20/9/1709).

20/12/1780, Wednesday (-60,038) John Croker, British author, was born (died 10/8/1857).

15/12/1780, Friday (-60,043) Johann Dobereiner, German chemist, was born (died 24/3/1849).

14/12/1780, Thursday (-60,044) Karl Nesselrode, Russian statesman, was born (died 23/3/1862)

13/12/1780, Wednesday (-60,045) Johann Wolfgang was born in Hof, Bavaria. He discovered the catalytic properties of platinum, speeding up the reactions of organic gases. He also noticed similarities between elements, suggesting a Periodic Table.


29/11/1780, Wednesday (-60,059) Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, wife of Emperor Francis I n(1745-65) died in Vienna. Her son, Holy Roma Emperor Joseph II, became sole ruler of the Hapsburg lands.

22/11/1780, Wednesday (-60,066) Konradin Kreutzer, German composer, was born (died 14/12/1849).

20/11/1780, Monday (-60,068) Britain declared war on Holland, one of the members of the League of Armed Neutrality. This League had been set up on 28/2/1780 by Czarina Catherine II of Russia, after complaints that the British navy was attacking other country�s ships indiscriminately whether they were involved in the American War on Independence or not.

19/11/1780, Sunday (-60,069) William Laidlaw, writer, was born (died 18/5/1845).

17/11/1780, Friday (-60,071) (Denmark) Peter Brondsted, Danish archaeologist, was born (died 26/6/1842).

14/11/1780, Tuesday (-60,074) Jacobus Houbraken, Dutch engraver, died (25/12/1698).

2/11/1780, Thursday (-60,086) Jacques Brunet, French writer, was born (died 14/11/1867).


20/10/1780, Friday (-60,099) Thomas Horne, English religious writer, was born (died 27/1/1862).

10/10/1780, Tuesday (-60,109) (Medical) John Abercrombie, Scottish physician (died 145/11/1844) born in Aberdeen.

7/10/1780, Saturday (-60,112) Battle of Kings Mountain. A force of 900 from North Carolina defeated 900 pro-British militia.

2/10/1780, Monday (-60,117) John Andre (see 23/9/1780) was executed as a spy.


23/9/1780, Saturday (-60,126) During the War of American Independence, British agent John Andre, carrying information that Benedict Arnold was about to surrender West Point, was captured by American forces.

10/9/1780, Sunday (-60,139) Hyder Ali, Sultan of Mysore, conquered most of the Carnatic (modern Karnatka) in southern India, with French support.

2/9/1780, Saturday (-60,147) (Christian) Lant Carpenter, English Unitarian Minister, was born (died 5/4/1840).


29/8/1780, Tuesday (-60,151) Jean Ingres, French painter, was born (died 17/1/1867).

26/8/1780, Saturday (-60,154) Sir William Hoste, British Naval Captain, was born (died 6/12/1828).

19/8/1780, Saturday (-60,161) Pierre Beranger, French songwriter, was born in Paris (died 16/7/1857).

17/8/1780, Thursday (-60,163) George Croly, British author, was born in Dublin.

16/8/1780, Wednesday (-60,164) Battle of Camden, South Carolina. British forces under Charles, Lord Cornwallis, defeated an American Army under Horatio Gates. British forces then advanced through Noirth Carolina into Virginia.

3/8/1780, Thursday (-60,177) Etienne Condillac, French philosophical writer, died (born 30/9/1715).


11/7/1780, Tuesday (-60,200) Timothy Flint, US writer, was born (died 16/8/1840).

10/7/1780, Monday (-60,201) 6,000 French troops under the Comte de Rochambeau landed at Newport, Rhode Island, but were then pinned down by a Britrish blockade of their fleet.

7/7/1780, Friday (-60,204)

5/7/1780, Wednesday (-60,206) Samuel Musgrave, English scholarly writer, died (born 29/9/1732).

4/7/1780, Tuesday (-60,207) Charles, Prince of Lorraine, died (born 12/12/1712).

2/7/1780, Sunday (-60,209) Henry Petty Fitzmaurice, British statesman, was born (died 31/1/1863).


3/6/1780, Saturday (-60,238) William Hone, English writer, was born (died 6/11/1842).

2/6/1780, Friday (-60,239) The Gordon Riots, anti-Catholic �No Popery� demonstrations named after Lord George Gordon, broke out in London. Lord Gordon had called his supporters to St Georges Fields and led them to protest against removal of some restrictions on Roman Catholics under the Catholic Relief Act of 1778.

1/6/1780, Thursday (-60,240) Karl von Clausewitz, military strategist, was born, in Burg, near Magdeburg, Prussia.


21/5/1780. Sunday (-60,251) Elizabeth Fry, prison reformer, was born in Norwich. She was the daughter of a Quaker banker, John Gurney.

12/5/1780. Friday (-60,260) Charleston, in South Carolina, surrendered with 5,000 American troops to the British under Major Benjamin Lincoln.

11/5/1780, Thursday (-60,261) Carl Hase, French Byzantine historical writer, was born (died 21/3/1864).

8/5/1780, Monday (-60,264) Jean Leber, French historical writer, was born (died 22/12/1859).

5/5/1780, Friday (-60,267) John James Audubon, US naturalist, was born (died 27/1/1851).

4/5/1780, Thursday (-60,268) The first Derby horse race was run, at Epsom.

3/5/1780, Wednesday (-60,269)

2/5/1780, Tuesday (-60,270) Louis XVI sent 6,000 men to New England to reinforce the American forces against the British. On 11/5/1780 the Americans began negotiating with Spain to get support; France had been pressurising Spain to support the Americans.

1/5/1780, Monday (-60,271) Philip Marheineke, German religious writer, was born (died 31/5/1846).


30/4/1780, Sunday (-60,272)

29/4/1780, Saturday (-60,273) Claude Dorat, French writer, died (born 31/12/1734).

28/4/1780, Friday (-60,274) The first advertisement for an abortion clinic appeared on the back page of London�s Morning Post. The address was 23, Fleet Street, London

19/4/1780, Wednesday (-60,283) Irish politician Henry Grattan demanded Home Rule for Ireland in the British Parliament.

7/4/1780, Friday (-60,295) William Channing, US religious writer, was born (died 2/10/1842).

6/4/1780, Thursday (-60,296) (Britain) Lord Ashburton brought a resolution in the British Parliament to condemn the King, George III, for supporting the Government of Lord North.


26/3/1780, Sunday (-60,307) Easter Sunday. The first Sunday newspaper in Britain was published; the British Gazette and Sunday Monitor.

17/3/1780, Friday (-60,316) Thomas Chalmers, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 30/5/1847).

10/3/1780, Friday (-60,323) (USA) Russia created the League of Armed Neutrality to stop British ships searching neutral vessels for �contraband of war� intended to support the American rebels. This League was subsequently joined by France, Spain, Austria, Prussia, Denmark and Sweden.


19/2/1780, Saturday (-60,343) Friedrich Hagen, German scholarly writer, was born (died 11/6/1856).

14/2/1780, Monday (-60,348) (Britain) Sir William Blackstone, English jurist, died (born in London 10/7/1723).


29/1/1780, Saturday (-60,364) (Britain) Charles Canterbury, British politician, was born (died 21/7/1845).

16/1/1780, Sunday (-60,377) British troops under Admiral Rodney defeated the Spanish, destroying all but four ships of their fleet, at Cape St Vincent. This temporarily lifted the siege of Gibraltar.

14/1/1780, Friday (-40,379) Edward Jesse, English writer, was born (died 28/3/1868).

12/1/1780, Wednesday (-40,381) Wilhelm de Wette, German religious writer, was born (died 16/6/1849).

4/1/1780, Tuesday (-60,389) Horace Binney, US lawyer, was born in Pennsylvania (died 1875).


31/12/1779, Friday (-60,393) Johann Cotta, German religious writer died (born 12/3/1701).

23/12/1779, Thursday (-60,401) (Britain) Augustus John Hervey, Third Earl of Bristol, died (born 19/5/1724).

22/12/1779, Wednesday (-60,402) Thomas Gaisford, English scholarly writer, was born (died 2/6/1855).

18/12/1779, Saturday (-60,406) Joseph Grimaldi, English clown who invented the white face make up for clowns, was born.

6/12/1779, Monday (-60,418) Jean Baptiste Chardin, painter, died in Paria aged 80.


5/11/1779, Friday (-60,449) Washington Allston, US artist, was born in Waccamaw, South Carolina. He died 9/7/1843 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

3/11/1779, Wednesday (-60,451) Hugh Gough, British Field Marshal, was born (died 2/3/1869).


26/10/1779, Tuesday (-60,459) Henry Cockburn, Scottish Judge, was born (died 26/4/1854).

9/10/1779, Saturday (-60,476) The first Luddite riots began in Manchester against the introduction of machinery for spinning cotton.

6/10/1779, Wednesday (-60,479) (USA) Nathan Appleton, US politician, was born in New Ipswich, New Hampshire (died in Boston 14/7/1861).


23/9/1779, Thursday (-60,492) American privateers on the Bonhomme Richard, captained by John Paul Jones, captured the British warship, the Serapis, after a great battle off the English coast at Flamborough Head, Yorkshire.This was during the war of the American Revolution.

17/9/1779, Friday (-60,498) (Britain) John Campbell, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 23/6/1861).

15/9/1779, Wednesday (-60,500) (Belize) Belize was invaded by a Spanish force. Prisoners were taken to Yucatan, then Havana,l where most died; the survivors were freed and allowed to go to Jamaica in 1782. However see 3/9/1783.

7/9/1779, Tuesday (-60,508) John Armstrong, writer, died.


10/8/1779, Tuesday (-60,536) Louis XVI freed the last remaining serfs on royal land.

7/8/1779, Saturday (-60,539) (France) Louis Freycinet, French navigator, was born (died 18/8/1842).

1/8/1779, Sunday (-60,545) Francis Scott Kay, US poet who wrote The Star Spangled Banner, which became the official US national anthem in 1931, was born in Carroll County, Maryland.


23/7/1779, Friday (-60,554) Thomas Denman, English Judge, was born (died26/9/1854).

15/7/1779, Thursday (-60,562) Clement Clarke Moore, US scholarly writer, was born in New York (died 1863).

6/7/1779, Tuesday (-60,571) French forces captured the British-held island of Grenada in the Caribbean.

2/7/1779, Friday (-60,575)


29/6/1779, Tuesday (-60,578) Anton Raphael Mengs, early Italian neoclassical painter, died in Rome aged 51.

18/6/1779, Friday (-60,589) French forces captured the British-held island of St Vincent in the Caribbean.

16/6/1779, Wednesday (-60,591) The siege of Gibraltar by Spanish forces began. Spain declared war on Britain after promises of assistance form France in recovering Gibraltar and Florida.

3/6/1779, Thursday (-60,604) Pierre Jaubert, French orientalist writer, was born (died 28/1/1847).


28/5/1779, Friday (-60,610) Thomas Moore, Irish poet, was born (died 25/2/1852).

15/5/1779, Saturday (-60,623) Napoleon, aged 9, entered the Military School at Brienne.

13/5/1779, Thursday (-60,625) At the Peace of Teschen, Austria made peace with Frederick of Prussia.Austria received a small part of Bavaria, the Innvertiel, and renounced all claims to the Bavarian inheritance.

2/5/1779, Sunday (-60,236) John Galt, Scottish novelist, was born (died 11/4/1839).

1/5/1779, Saturday (-60,237) (France) France attempted an invasion of the Channel Islands. French troops landed on a beach on Jersey but were beaten back by the Island�s militia. See 5/1/1781.


27/4/1779, Tuesday (-60,641) Pavlovich Constantine, Grand Duke of Russia, was born (died 27/6/1831).

12/4/1779, Monday (-60,656) A secret treaty was signed at Aranjuez, whereby Spain agreed to help France in supporting the American rebels against the British. See 16/1/1780.

11/4/1779, Sunday (-60,651) Joseph de Jussieu, naturalist, died (born 3/9/1704)).

4/4/1779, Sunday (-60,664) Easter Sunday.


20/3/1779, Saturday (-60,679) (USA) Simon Brute, US prelate, was born (died 26/6/1839).

15/3/1779, Monday (-60,684) William Melbourne, English statesman, was born (died 24/11/1848).

6/3/1779, Saturday (-60,693) Antoine Jomini, French General, was born (died 24/3/1869).


21/2/1779, Sunday (-60,706) Friedrich Karl von Savigny, German legal writer, was born in Frankfurt am Main (died 1861)

14/2/1779, Sunday (-60,713) Explorer Captain James Cook, born 27/10/1728, stabbed to death at Keelakekeua Bay by natives of Owyhee, the modern Hawaii. See 28/4/1770, 18/1/1778.

9/2/1779, Tuesday (-60,718) Anne Boutet, French actress, was born (died 20/3/1847).

7/2/1779, Sunday (-60,720) William Boyce, English composer, died (born in London 7/2/1710).

5/2/1779, Friday (-60,722) American troops recaptured the fort at Vincennes from the British.


20/1/1779, Wednesday (-60,738) David Garrick, English actor and theatre manager, died. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

18/1/1779, Monday (-60,740) Peter Mark Roget, author of Roget�s Thesaurus, was born.

5/1/1779, Tuesday (-60,753) Stephen Decatur, US naval commander, was born (died 22/3/1820).


29/12/1778, Tuesday (-60,760) The British captured Savannah, the capital of Georgia.

22/12/1778, Tuesday (-40,767) Simon Lantara, French landscape painter, died (born 24/3/1729).

17/12/1778, Thursday (-60,772) Sir Humphrey Davy, inventor of the miner�s safety lamp, was born in Penzance (died 1829).He was the son of a woodcarver. He also discovered the elements sodium, calcium, barium, magnesium, potassium and strontium by passing electricity through molten metal compounds.

6/12/1778, Sunday (-60,783) Joseph Gay-Lussac, French scientist, was born in St Leonard.


28/11/1778, Saturday (-80,791) Christoph Houwald, German author, was born (died 28/1/1845)

14/11/1778, Saturday (-80,805) Johann Hummel, German composer, was born (died 1837).

11/11/1778, Wednesday (-60,808) Two Iriquois villages had earlier been destroyed by American troops, as the Iriquois had been allied with the Briitsh. This day, in retaliation, some 500 Iriquois led by Chief Joseph Brant (1742-1807) attacked the town of Cherry Valley, New York State, destroying every building, and killing some 50 defenders, and wounding or taking prisoner another 70.

1/11/1778, Sunday (-60,818) Gustavus IV, King of Sweden, was born.


26/10/1778, Monday (-60,824) Charles Glenelg, British politician, was born (died 23/4/1886).

18/10/1778, Sunday (-60,832) (India) The city of Pondicherry surrendered to the British.

5/10/1778, Monday (-60,845) Jacques Champollion-Figeac, French historical writer, was born (died 1867).


19/9/1778, Saturday (-60,861) (Britain) Henry Brougham, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 7/5/1868).

8/9/1778, Tuesday (-60,872) Klemens Brentano, German poet and novelist, was born (died 28/7/1842).


29/8/1778, Saturday (-60,882) American forces under John Sullivan abandoned their siege of Broitish-held Newport, Rhode Island, after the departiure of the Comte d�Estaing�s fleet to Boston for repairs.

12/8/1778, Wednesday (-60,899) Francis Horner, British economist, was born (died 8/2/1817).

11/8/1778, Tuesday (-60,900) Friedrich Jahn, German pedagogical writer,was born (died 15/10/1852).

3/8/1778. Monday (-60,908) La Scala opera housein Milan opened, the work of Guiseppe Piermarini.

1/8/1778. Saturday (-60,910) The first savings bank opened, in Hamburg.


27/7/1778, Monday (-60,915) The Battle of Ushant, between Britain and France. The French under Louis Guillouet defeated Augustus Keppel. This defeat of tye British enabled the French to send naval support to America.

14/7/1777, Tuesday (-60,928) William Leake, geographical writer, was born (died 6/1/1860).

10/7/1778. Friday (-60,932) In support of the American rebels, France declared war on Britain. In December 1778 Louis XIV issued a loan of 80 million livres; France ran up a large deficit supporting the American rebels.

8/7/1778, Wednesday (-60,934) A French fleet under Jean Baptiste arrived off the Delaware Capes in support of the Americans.

4/7/1778, Saturday (-60,938) A combined force of indigenous Americans and British attacked and killed settlers in Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania, and Cherry Valley, New York.

3/7/1778, Friday (-60,939) Prussia, allied with Saxony, declared war on the Hapsburg monarchy after its occupation of Lower Bavaria. Fighting continued until May 1779.

2/7/1778. Thursday (-60,940) Jean Jacques Rousseau, the French political philosopher born in Geneva on 28/6/1712, died insane in Ermenonville.


28/6/1778. Sunday (-60,944) The British were defeated by George Washington at the Battle of Monmouth, New Jersey.

24/6/1778, Wednesday (-60,948) Pieter Burmann, Dutch scholarly writer, died (born 13/10/1714).

20/6/1778, Saturday (-60,952) Jean Martignac, French statesman, was born (died 3/4/1832).

18/6/1778, Thursday (-60,954) British General Sir Henry Clinton evacuated Philadelphia, in the face of a threatened American and French blockade of the city.

17/6/1778, Wednesday (-60,955) The American Continemtal Congress rejected a British offer of peace, and the Revolution continued.

16/6/1778, Tuesday (-60,956) Konrad Ekhof, German actor, died (born 12/8/1720).

7/6/1778. Sunday (-60,965) Beau Brummel was born in London, as George Bryan Brummell. Although he became a leader of fashion and a friend of the Prince Regent, he died destitute in France, aged 64, through gambling and extravagance.


30/5/1778. Saturday (-60,973) Writer and philosopher Voltaire died aged 84. His real name was Francois Marie Arouet.

25/5/1778, Monday (-60,978) Claus Harms, German religious writer, was born (died 1/2/1855).

18/5/1778, Monday (-60,985) Samuel Hoar, US lawyer, was born (died 2/11/1856)

11/5/1778. Monday (-60,992) Statesman William Pitt the Elder, Earl of Chatham, died at Hayes, Middlesex.

4/5/1778, Monday (-60,999) The American Continental Congress ratified the Treaty of Amity amd Commerce, and the Treaty of Alliance, with France.


22/4/1778, Wednesday (-61,011) James Hargreaves, inventor of the �spinning jenny� in 1764, died in Nottingham.

19/4/1778, Sunday (-61,014) Easter Sunday.

7/4/1778, Tuesday (-61,026) British politician William Pitt the Elder, Earl of Chatham, made his final speech against the continuing hostilities in America.

5/4/1778, Sunday (-61,028) Britain appointed Commissioners to negotiate woth the American Congress and renounce British taxation roghts over thecolonies.


13/3/1778, Friday (-61,051) Charles le Beau, French historical writer, died (born 15/10/1701).

5/3/1778, Thursday (-61,059) Thomas Arne, English composer, died in London.


25/2/1778, Wednesday (-61,067) Jose San Marti, Argentine revolutionary who fought against Spanish rule, was born in Yapeyu (died 1850).

17/2/1778, Tuesday (-61,075) British Prime Minister Lord North, in response to the treaty between America and France, presented a plan to the British Parliament for reconciliation with the American colonies.

8/2/1778, Sunday (-61,084) Henri Louis Cain, French actor, died (born 14/4/1728).

6/2/1778, Friday (-61,086) France recognised the independence of the United States.

4/2/1778, Wednesday (-61,088) Augustin Candolle, Swiss botanist (died 9/9/1841) was born.


26/1/1778, Monday (-61,097) Ugo Foscolo, Italian writer, was born (died 10/10.1827).

22/1/1778, Thursday (-61,101) Lord Byron, English romantic poet, was born in London

18/1/1778, Sunday (-61,105) Captain James Cook discovered Hawaii, then known as the Sandwich Islands. Having sailed from the Cape of Good Hope in 1776, Cook�s plan was to sail through the Bering Straits and attempt to find a north-east route between Europe and the Pacific from the eastern side. See 14/2/1779.

11/1/1778, Sunday (-61,112) Agathon Fain, French historical writer, was born (died 16/9/1837).

10/1/1778, Saturday (-61,113) Carl Linnaeus, the Swedish botanist who devised the modern system of naming and classifying plants, died in Uppsala.

5/1/1778, Monday (-61,118) Charles Etienne, French writer, was born (died 13/3/1845).

3/1/1778, Saturday (-61,120) Elector Karl Theodor of the Palatinate recognised the claim of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II on Lower Bavaria. Austrian troops occupied Lower bavaria, despite the efforts of Frederick II The Great of Prussia to persuade Theodor to resist.


30/12/1777, Tuesday (-61,124) Maximilian III died and the Bavarian succession passed to Elector Karl Theodor of the Palatinate. However Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II made a claim on Lower Bavaria.

23/12/1777. Tuesday (-61,131) (1) Tsar Alexander I, who defeated Napoleon�s invasion of Russia in 1812, was born.

(2) A plot to overthrow General Washington was discovered and its leader executed.

17/12/1777, Wednesday (-61,137) Louis XIV recognised the independence of the American colonies. On 6/2/1778 France signed a trade agreement with the United States and entered the war against Britain. This was the result of negotiations by Benjamin Franklin, who was effectively the permanent American ambassador at Versailles.


29/11/1777, Saturday (-61,155) Sir Henry Ellis, writer, was born (died 15/1/1869).

20/11/1777, Thursday (-61,164) The British under Sir William Howe captured Forts Mifflin and Mercer, gaining control of the Delaware.

15/11/1777, Saturday (-61,169) The American Congress adopted the Articles of Confederatioin and sent them to the individual States for ratification.

6/11/1777, Thursday (-61,178) Bernard de Jussieu, writer, died (born 17/8/1699).


26/10/1777, Sunday (-61,189) Francis Fawkes, English poet, died (born 1720).

21/10/1777, Tuesday (-61,194) Samuel Foote, English dramatist, died (born 27/1/1720).