Chronography of events from 1 January 1700 to 31 December 1769

Page last modified 19/6/2022

 

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(-9,999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero=Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

 

For dates from 1/1/1770 click here

 

19/1/1770. Friday (-64,026) The Battle of Golden Hill. A group on New Yorkers called the Sons of Liberty engage British troops in pitched battle over British demands for compliance with the Quartering Act.

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28/12/1769, Thursday (-64,048) Auguste Keratry, French writer, was born (died 7/11/1859).

26/12/1769, Tuesday (-64,050) Ernst Moritz Arndt, German poet, was born in Schoritz, Rugen (died 29/1/1860 in Bonn).

25/12/1769, Monday (-64,051) August Matthiae, German scholarly writer, was born (died 6/1/1835).

21/12/1769, Thursday (-84,055) John Crome, English landscape painter, was born (died 22/4/1821).

13/12/1769, Wednesday (-64,063) James Abinger, English judge, was born (died 1844).

11/12/1769, Monday (-64,065) In London, venetian blinds were patented by Edward Beran.

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27/11/1770, Monday (-64,079) Horatio Nelson joined the Royal Navy as a 12-year-old moidshipman on the HMS Raisonnable.

19/11/1770, Sunday (-64,087) Adam Krusenstern, Russian geographiucal writer, was born (died 24/8/1846).

6/11/1769, Monday` (-64,100) The Birmingham Canal (authorised 1768) was completed, from Wednesbury to Birmingham. This caused the price of coal in Wednesbury to drop from 13 shillings a ton to 7 shillings a ton.

4/11/1769, Saturday (-64,102) Charles Chenedolle, French poet, was born (died 2/12/1833).

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7/10/1769, Saturday (-64,130) Captain Cook reached New Zealand.

6/10/1769, Friday (-64,131) Jacob Schweppe, a German born Swiss chemist, perfected the process for making artificial mineral water.

2/10/1769, Monday (-64,135) (Britain) Frederick William Hervey, Fifth Earl of Bristol, was born (died 15/2/1859).

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25/9/1769, Monday (-64,142) The first recorded cremation in Britain. The body of Honoretta Pratt was burnt in her open grave atSt Georges Burial Ground, London.

22/9/1769, Friday (-64,145) Antonio Genovesi, Italian economics writer, died (born 1/11/1712).

14/9/1769, Thursday (-64,153) Birth of Baron von Humboldt, German scientist who explored Central and South America, and founded the science of ecology.

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29/8/1769, Tuesday (-64,169) Edmund Hoyle, author, died (born 1672)

23/8/1769, Wednesday (-64,175) Georges Cuvier, French naturalist, was born (died 13/5/1832).

15/8/1769. Tuesday (-64,183) Napoleon, Emperor of France 1804-15, was born in Ajaccio, Corsica; he died on 5/5/1821. He was the son of a lawyer.See 18/6/1815. Had he been born the previous year he would not have been French, but Genoese, see 15/5/1768.

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28/7/1769, Friday (-64,201) Sir Hudson Lowe, English General, was born.

9/7/1769, Sunday (-64,220) Louis Bourrienne, French politician, was born in Sens (died in Caen 7/2/1834).

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18/6/1769, Sunday (-64,241) Viscount Castlereagh, British Foreign Secretary who played a key role in the reconstruction of Europe after the fall of Napoleon, at the Congress of Vienna, was born.

5/6/1769, Monday (-64,254) (Geology) Edward Clarke, English mineralogist, was born (died 9/3/1822).

1/6/1769, Thursday (-64,258) Edward Holyoke, President of Harvard University, died.

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26/5/1769. Friday (-64,264) John Kay, Sir Richard Arkwright�s assistant, patented the Flying Shuttle to operate on Arkwright�s spinning frame. Arkwright was born at Preston, Lancashire, on 23/12/1732, the youngest of 13 children to a poor family. He became a barber in Bolton in around 1750. In 1767 he gave up this business to build a spinning frame. This was an improvement on Hargreave�s Spinning Jenny since it could spin threads of any degree of hardness or fineness, unlike the spinning jenny which could not spin any but fine thread. Now 20 or 30 threads could be spun with no more labour than was previously required to spin one thread.

21/5/1769, Sunday (-64,269) John Frere, English author, was born (died 7/1/1846).

19/5/1769, Friday (-64,271) Pope Clement XIV (249th Pope), formerly Cardinal Lorenzo Ganganelli, acceded, died 1774.

13/5/1769, Saturday (-64,277) John VI, King of Portugal, was born (died 26/3/1826).

6/5/1769, Saturday (-64,284) Ferdinand III, Archduke of Austria, was born (died 6/1824).

4/5/1769, Thursday (-64,286) Sir Thomas Lawrence, English painter, was born (died 7/1/1830).

2/5/1769, Tuesday (-64,288) (India) Sir John Malcolm, British diplomat to India, was born (died 30/5/1833).

1/5/1769, Monday (-64,289) The British Privy Council decided to retain the duty on tea imported into the American colonies.

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29/4/1769, Saturday (-64,291) The Duke of Wellington was born in Dublin, as Arthur Wellesley.

25/4/1769, Tuesday (-64,295) Sir Marc Isambard Brunel, British engineer, was born in Hacqueville near Rouen, France.

20/4/1769, Thursday (-64,300) Pontiac, indigenous American leader, died.

14/4/1769, Friday (-64,306) Barthelemy Joubert, French General, was born (died 15/8/1799).

13/4/1769, Thursday (-64,307) Charles Decaen, French soldier, was born (died 1832).

11/4/1769, Tuesday (-64,309) Jean Lannes, Marshal of France, was born (died 31/5/1809).

5/4/1769, Wednesday (-64,315) Sir Thomas Hardy, British Vice-Admiral, was born (died 20/9/1839).

3/4/1769, Monday (-64,317) Christian Bernstorff, Prussian statesman, was born in Copenhagen (died 18/3/1835).

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26/3/1769, Sunday (-64,325) Easter Sunday.

14/3/1769, Tuesday (-64,337) Joszef Karman, Hungarian aithor, was born.

7/3/1769, Tuesday (-64,344) Richmal Mangnall, English educationalist writer, was born (died 1/5/1820).

2/3/1769, Thursday (-64,349) De Witt Clinton, US politician, was born (died 11/2/1828).

1/3/1769, Wednesday (-64,350) Francois Marceau-Desgraviers, French General, was born (died 21/9/1796).

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2/2/1769, Thursday (-64,477) Pope Clement XIII (248th Pope) died.

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12/1/1769, Thursday (-64,398) Christian Eberhard, German writer, was born (died 13.5.1845).

10/1/1769, Tuesday (-64,400) Michel Ney, French Army marshal, the most famous of Napoleon�s marshals, was born in Saarlouis, son of a cooper.

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20/12/1768, Tuesday (-64,421) Carlo Frugoni, Italian poet, died (born 21/11/1692).

10/12/1768, Saturday (-64,431) The Royal Academy of Arts, London, was founded.Joshua Reynolds was the first President.

6/12/1768, Tuesday (-64,435) The first volume of the Encyclopedia Britannica was published in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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18/11/1768, Friday (-64,453) Jose Marchena, Spanish writer, was born.

5/11/1768, Saturday (-64,466) William Johnson, the Northern Indian Commissioner, signed a treaty with the Iriquois Indians to acquire much of the land between the Tennessee and Ohio rivers for future settlement.

4/11/1768, Friday (-64,467) Maria Francesco Appendini, Italian historian, was born (died 1837).

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28/10/1768, Friday (-64,474) Johann Falk, German author, was born (died 14/2/1826).

8/10/1768, Saturday (-64,494) Pierre Fournier, French engraver, died (born 15/9/1712).

2/10/1768, Sunday (-64,500) William Beresford, British General, was born (died in Kent 8/1/1854).

1/10/1768, Saturday (-64,501) Lord Hillsborough, British Secretary of State for the Colonies, sent two regiments to Boston to quell unrest caused by the Stamp Acts.

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12/9/1768, Monday (-64,536) Joseph Delisle, French astronomer, died (born 4/4/1688).

4/9/1768, Sunday (-64,528) Francois Chateaubriand, French author, was born (died 4/7/1848).

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29/8/1768, Monday (-64,534) John Fawcett, English playwright, was born (died 1837).

25/8/1768, Thursday (-64,538) Captain Cook set sail from England on board The Endeavour on his first voyage to explore the Antipodes. His 368-ton ship was 98 feet long by 29 feet wide. His mission was first to visit Tahiti to observe a transit of Venus on 3/6/1769, then to discover the theoretical �southern continent� which was supposed to exist by the Classical Greeks �to counterbalance the northern continents�. Such a continent would provide useful colonial opportunities for Britain at a time when its North American colonies were becoming restive. After Tahiti, Cook sailed south and south west down to latitude 40 degrees south; finding no land he turned west and discovered New Zealand, whose coast he charted in six months. This exercise proved New Zealand was not the peninsula of the �southern continent�. By now it was March 1769 and the southern summer was ending; to return eastwards meant encountering bad weather in the Pacific. Cook therefore sailed west and encountered the east coast of Australia. Although the Dutch had visited Australia in the 17th century this part of the continent was devoid of European settlement; Cook therefore claimed the entire east coast of Australia for Britain as New South Wales. Cook then sailed along the northern coast of Australia, confirming it was a separate land from New Guinea, and returned to England in 1771.

23/8/1768,Tuesday (-64,540) Sir Astley Cooper, English surgeon, was born (died 12/2/1841).

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24/7/1768, Sunday (-64,570) Nathaniel Lardner, English theological writer, died.

14/7/1768, Thursday (-64,580) James Haldane, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 8/2/1851).

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24/6/1768, Friday (-64,600) Lazare Hoche, French General, was born (died 19/9/1797)

9/6/1768, Thursday (-64,615) British customs officials seized John Hancock�s ship Liberty in Boston harbour for alleged import taxes violation. The ship was recovered by Bostonians in a riot, then seized again by the British.

8/6/1768, Wednesday (-64,616) Andrew Millar, British publisher, died.

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17/5/1768, Tuesday (-64,638) (Britain) Henry Anglesey, British Field-Marshal, was born (died 29/4/1854).

15/5/1768, Sunday (-64,640) By the Treaty of Versailles, France purchased the island of Corsica from Genoa.Some Corsicans wanted total independence, but see 15/9/1770.

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29/4/1768, Friday (-64,656) Georg Brandt, chemist, died.

21/4/1768, Thursday (-64,664) Alexius Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Grand Chancellor of Russia, died (born in Moscow 1/6/1693).

20/4/1768, Wednesday (-64,665) The painter Canaletto died in Venice. Born there in 1697, Canaletto painted many scenes of Venice before moving to England in 1746 to paint the country houses there.

3/4/1768, Sunday (-64,682) Easter Sunday.

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21/3/1768, Monday (-64,695) Jean Fourier, French mathematician, was born (died 16/5/1830).

1/3/1768, Tuesday (-64,715) John Erskine, Scottish legal writer, died (born 1695).

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14/2/1768, Sunday (-64,731) Ivan Kriloff, Riussian writer, was born (died 21/22/1844).

13/2/1768, Saturday (-64,732) Edoaurd Mortier, Marshal of France, was born (died 28/7/1835).

12/2/1768, Friday (-64,733) Francis II, last Holy Roman Emperor, was born.

11/2/1768, Thursday (-64,734) The Massachusetts Assembly denounced the Townshend Duties and urged other colonial legislatures to similarly resist.

7/2/1768, Sunday (-64,738)

2/2/1768, Tuesday (-67,743) Charles Camus, French mathematician, died (born 25/8/1699).

1/2/1768, Monday (-67,744) Jacques Lauriston, French soldier, was born (died 12/6/1828).

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31/1/1768, Sunday (-64,745)

29/1/1768, Friday (-64,747) John Martyn, English botanist, died (born 12/9/1699).

28/1/1768, Thursday (-64,748) (Christian) Jean Cheverus, Roman Catholic missionary to North America, was born (died 10/7/1836).

7/1/1768, Thursday (-64,769) Joseph Bonaparte, eldest brother of Napoleon and King of Naples and Spain, was born on Corsica.

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22/12/1767, Tuesday (-64,785) (France) Jacques Bridaine, French preacher, died (born 21/3/1701).

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22/11/1767, Sunday (-64,815) Andreas Hofer, Austrian patriot, was born (died 20/2/1810).

17/11/1767, Tuesday (-64,820) Leopoldo Cicognara, Italian writer, was born (died 5/3/1834).

2/11/1767, Monday (-64,835) Edward Augustus, 4th son of King George IV and Field Marshal in the British Army, was born (died 23/1/1820).

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28/10/1767, Wednesday (-64,840) Boston led a revival of the boycott of British goods. See 16/12/1773.

25/10/1767, Sunday (-64,843) Henri Constant, French writer, was born (died 8/12/1830).

24/10/1767, Saturday (-64,844) Jacques Lafitte French poliiician, was born (died 26/5/1844).

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20/9/1767, Sunday (-64,878) Melchiorre Gioja, Italian writer, was born (died 2/1/1829).

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11/8/1767, Tuesday (-64,918)

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13/7/1767, Monday (-64,947) Friedrich Krummacher, German religious writer, was born (died 14/4/1845).

11/7/1767, Saturday (-64,949) John Quincy Adams, 6th American President, was born at Braintree, Massachusetts, son of John Adams, 2nd President.

5/7/1767, Sunday (-64,955) Michael Bruce, Scottish poet, died (born 27/3/1746).

2/7/1767, Thursday (-64,958) Britain adopted the Townshend Acts, taxing all glass, lead, paper paints and tea imported into the American colonies. A Board of Customs Compliance was established in Boston Masachusetts, a city gaining a reputation for rebelliousness.

1/7/1767, Wednesday (-64,959) Maria Edgeworth, Irish novelist, was born (died 22/5/1849).

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22/6/1767, Monday (-64,968) Karl Humoldt, German scholarly writer, was born (died 8/4/1835).

19/6/1767, Friday (-64,971) Joseph Michaud, French historical writer, was born (died 30/9/1839)

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13/5/1767, Wednesday (-65,008) Mozart�s first opera, Apollo et Hyacinthius, written when he was just 11 years old, premiered in Salzburg.

12/5/1767, Tuesday (-65,009) Alvarez Godoy, Spanish statesman, was born (died 4/10/1851).

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19/4/1767, Sunday (-65,032) Easter Sunday.

11/4/1767, Saturday (-65,040) Jean Isabey, French painter, was born (died 1855).

7/4/1767, Tuesday (-65,044) August Carpzov, scholarly writer, died (born 1679).

6/4/1767, Monday (-65,045) Alexandre Duval, French dramatist, was born (died 1/9/1842).

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25/3/1767, Wednesday (-65,057) Joachim Murat, king of Naples, was born.

15/3/1767, Sunday (-65,067) Andrew Jackson, American Democrat and 7th President from 1828 to retirement in 1837, was born in the Waxhaws district of South Carolina, son of Irish immigrants.

7/3/1767, Saturday (-65,075) Jan Frederik Helmers, Dutch poet, was born (died 26/2/1813).

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27/2/1767, Friday (-65,083) Jacques Dupont, French statesman, was born (died 1855).

1/2/1767, Sunday (-65,109) Claude Goujet, French religious writer, died (born 19/10/1697).

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22/1/1767, Thursday (-65,119) Johann Lehmann, German geological writer, died.

12/1/1767, Monday (-65,129) Pierre Daru, French statesman, was born (died 5/9/1829).

5/1/1767, Monday (-65,136) Anne Girodet, French painter, was born (died 9/12/1824).

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29/12/1766, Monday (-65,143) Charles Macintosh, inventor of waterproof fabrics, was born in Glasgow.

25/12/1766, Thursday (-65,147) (Britain) Christmas Evans, Welsh non-conformist preacher, born (died 19/7/1838)

12/12/1766, Friday (-65,160) Johann Gottsched, German author, died (born 2/2/1700).

5/12/1766, Friday (-65,167) Christies auctioneers held their first sale.

3/12/1766, Wednesday (-65,169) Robert Bloomfield, English poet, was born in Honington, Suffolk (died in Shefford, Bedfordshire, 19/8/1823).

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29/11/1766, Saturday (-65,173) Francois Maine de Biran, French philosophical writer, was born.

20/11/1766, Thursday (-65,182) John Callcott, English musician (died 15/5/1821) was born.

2/11/1766, Sunday (-65,200) Joseph Radetsky, Austrian Field Marshal, was born in Trebnitz, near Tabor.

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28/10/1766, Tuesday (-65,205) Jose Conde, Spanish writer on the Orient, was born (died 12/6/1820).

23/10/1766, Thursday (-65,210) Emmanuel Grouchy, Marshal of France, was born (died 29/5/1847).

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29/9/1765, Monday (-65,234) Joseph le Bon, French politician, was born (executed 10/10/1795).

28/9/1766, Sunday (-65,235) George Cromarty, 3rd Earl, Jacobite, died.

23/9/1766, Tuesday (-65,240) John Brown, British author, died (born 5/11/1715).

21/9/1766, Sunday (-65,242) Christian Ideler, scientific writer, was born (died 10/8/1846).

13/9/1766, Saturday (-65,250) Benjamin Heath, English scholarly writer, died (born 20/4/1704).

6/9/1766, Saturday (-65,257) John Dalton, English chemist was born in Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth, Cumbria, the son of a Quaker weaver.

3/9/1766, Sunday (-65,263) Jean Lacretelle, historical writer, was born (died 26/3/1855).

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26/7/1766, Saturday (-65,299) Construction work on the Trent and Mersey canal began near Burslem.

20/7/1766, Sunday (-65,305) Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, was born (died 14/11/1841).

10/7/1766, Thursday (-65,315) Mathieu Montmorency, French politician, was born (died 24/3/1826).

9/7/1766, Wednesday (-65,316) Jonathan Mayhew, US religious writer, died (born 8/10/1720).

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23/6/1766, Monday (-65,332) Johann Ersch, German writer, was born (died 16/1/1828).

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30/5/1766, Friday (-65,356) The oldest theatre still in use in Britain, the �Royal;� in Bristol, was opened.

9/5/1766, Friday (-65,377) Thomas Lally, French General, was beheaded.

8/5/1766, Thursday (-65,378) Samuel Chandler, English religious writer, died (born 1693).

5/5/1766, Monday (-65,381) Jean Astruc, French writer, died in Paris (born 19/3/1684 in Sauve, Languedoc).

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30/4/1766, Wednesday (-65,386) (Germany) Johann Ancillon, Prussian statesman and historian, was born in Berlin (died 19/4/1837).

29/4/1766, Tuesday (-65,387) Nicholas Bexley, English politician, was born in London (died in Foots Cray, Kent, 8/2/1851).

23/4/1766, Wednesday (-65,393) Gyorgy Fejer, Hungarian author, was born (died 2/7/1851).

16/4/1766, Wednesday (-65,400) Sir John Leslie, Scottish scientific writer, was born (died 3/11/1832).

13/4/1766, Sunday (-65,403) Jean Goujon, French politician, was born (died 17/6/1795).

7/4/1766, Monday (-65,409) Tiberius Hemsterhuis, Dutch scholarly writer, died (born 9/1/1685).

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30/3/1766, Sunday (-65,417) Easter Sunday.

9/3/1766, Sunday (-65,438) William Cobbett, English writer, was born (died 16/6/1835).

8/3/1766, Saturday (-65,439) Earthquake in Hirosaki, Japan, 1,300 killed.

4/3/1766. Tuesday (-65,443) Parliament repealed the Stamp Act which caused bitter disputes in the colonies, especially North America.. See 24/3/1765.

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17/2/1766, Monday (-65,458) The economist Thomas Malthus was born.

5/2/1766, Wednesday (-65,470) (Austria) Leopold Daun, Austrian Field Marshal, died (born 24/9/1705).

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30/1/1766, Thursday (-65,476) Susannah Cibber, actress, died (born 1714).

25/1/1766, Saturday (-65,481) Hans Gagern, German political writer, was born (died 22/10/1852).

14/1/1766, Tuesday (-65,492) Christian VII (1749-1808) became King of Denmark.

9/1/1766, Thursday (-65,497) Thomas Birch, Writer, was born in Clerkenwell, London (died 9/1/1766).

1/1/1766, Wednesday (-65,505) James Stuart, the Old Pretender, and father of Bonnie Prince Charlie, died in Rome.

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12/12/1765, Thursday (-65,525) (Hungary) Prince Miklos Esterhazy was born (died 24/11/1833).

8/12/1765, Sunday (-65,529) Eli Whitney, American inventor of the cotton gin, which made cotton-growing much more profitable, was born in Westborough, Massachusetts.

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20/11/1765, Wednesday (-65,547) Frederick Himmel, German composer, was born (died 8/6/1814)

17/11/1765, Sunday (-65,550) Jacques MacDonald, Marshal of France, was born (died 7/9/1840).

14/11/1765, Thursday (-65,553) Robert Fulton, US engineer who invented the first commercially successful steamboat, was born to Irish parents in Pennsylvania.

9/11/1765, Saturday (-65,558) Martin Navarette, Spanish historical writer, was born (died 8/10/1844).

1/11/1765, Friday (-65,566) Rioters in New York protested against Stamp Duty, burning effigies of �Liberty� and attacking the homes of British officials.

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31/10/1765, Thursday (-65,567) William Cumberland, British soldier, died (born 15/4/1721).

24/10/1765, Thursday (-65,574) Sir James MacKintosh, Scottish writer, was born (died 30/5/1832).

10/10/1765, Thursday (-65,569) Lionel Cranfield Sackville, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, died (born 18/1/1688).

8/10/1765, Tuesday (-65,590) (Ireland) Harman Blennerhasset, Irish lawyer, was born in County Kerry (died in Guernsey 2/2/1831).

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27/9/1765, Friday (-65,601) Diego Clemencin, Spanish scholarly writer, was born (died 30/7/1834).

18/9/1765, Wednesday (-65,610) Pope Gregory XVI was born.

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26/8/1765. Monday (-65,633) A major riot broke out in Boston, USA against the Stamp Act. Rioters attacked the house of Thomas Hutchinson, the lieutenant �governor, and burned the house, including the library. Thus many irreplaceable sources of Massachusetts history were lost.

21/8/1765, Wednesday (-65,638) King William IV, known as the �Sailor King� because he joined the Royal Navy at 13, was born in Buckingham Palace.He was the third son of King George III and Queen Charlotte.

19/8/1765, Monday (-65,640) (Geology) Mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt died in Stockholm, Sweden.

18/8/1765, Sunday (-65,641) (Germany) Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, died. He was succeeded by Josef II (1741-90).

16/8/1766, Friday (-65,643) Carolina Nairne, Scottish songwriter, was born (died 26/10/1845).

12/8/1765. Monday (-65,647) Robert Clive received revenue authority over Bengal from the Mogul emperor. The disintegration of the Mogul Empire created opportunities for the British, French, and Indian princes. See 12/8/1756.

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29/7/1765, Monday (-65,661) Jean d�Erlon, Marchal of France, was born (died 15/1/1884).

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15/6/1765, Saturday (-65,705) Henry Colebrooke, English writer on the Orient, was born (died18/3/1837).

1/6/1765, Saturday (-65,719) Johann Hug, German religious writer, was born (died 11/3/1846).

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30/5/1765, Thursday (-65,721) The Virginia Assembly rejected British taxation and demanded that the only taxes due were set by people they elected themselves.

17/5/1765, Friday (-65,734) Alexis Clairault, French mathematician, died (born 5/1713).

15/5/1765, Wednesday (-65,736) James Watt invented the condenser, effectively trebling the energy output of the existing Newcomen steam pumps. The earlier Newcomen engine pumped steam into a cylinder, forcing back a piston; the cylinder was then sprayed with cool water, condensing the steam and creating a vacuum that pulled the piston back. Alternately heating and cooling the cylinder was inefficient. Watt�s idea was to attach a separate chamber off the main cylinder into which the steam could be allowed to enter, and cooled there by water, again creating the vacuum that pulled the piston back again. The main cylinder could be kept hot, saving considerable energy. The energy content of Britain�s coal reserves was effectively trebled.

11/5/1765, Saturday (-65,740) Janos Bacsanyo, Hungarian poet, was born in Tapolcza (died 12/5/1845 in Linz).

7/5/1765. Tuesday (-65,744) HMS Victory was launched. She is now in dry dock in Portsmouth. Nelson was on board when killed by a musket shot.

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26/4/1765, Friday (-65,755) Emma, Lady Hamilton, mistress of Lord Nelson, was born in Ness, Cheshire.

22/4/1765, Monday (-65,759) James Grahame, Scottish poet, was born (died 14/9/1811).

21/4/1765, Sunday (-65,760) David Mallet, Scotish poet, died.

7/4/1765, Sunday (-65,774) Easter Sunday.

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27/3/1765, Wednesday (-65,785) (Germany) Franz Baader, German philosopher, was born in Munich (died 23/5/1841).

24/3/1765, Sunday (-65,788) Britain passed the Quartering Act (see 2/6/1774) requiring the colonies to provide food and shelter for British soldiers and their horses. In 1765 the passage of the Stamp Act, to raise revenue for British troops in North America (fighting the French), caused widespread riots and protests in British colonies and the boycott of British luxury goods was stepped up. The British Treasury had a major deficit following the wars in North America with the Indians and the French. The Stamp Act raised revenue by requiring stamps to be fixed to items like newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents such as deeds and licences, and to other items such as playing cards. See 4/3/1766 and 5/3/1770. William Pitt was amongst those in Parliament opposing the Stamp Act, warning that trade with the colonies would suffer.

20/3/1765, Wednesday (-65,792) Karl Daub, German religious writer, was born (died 22/11/1836).

7/3/1765, Thursday (-65,805) Joseph Niepce, French doctor who produced the first photograph from nature using a camera obscura, pewter plates, and an 8 hour exposure, was born.

6/3/1765, Wednesday (-65,806) Samuel Drew, English religious writer, was born (died 29/3/1833).

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11/2/1765, Monday (-65,829) English wig-makers petitioned George III for financial relief as the male fashion of wearing wigs came to an end.

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11/1/1765, Friday (-65,860) Antoine Barbier, French writer, was born in Coulommiers (died in Paris 5/12/1825).

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14/12/1764, Friday (-65,888) Nicasio Cienfuegos, Spanish poet, was born (died 1809).

13/12/1764, Thursday (-65,889) Michel Lecointe-Puyraveau, French politician, was born (died 15/1/1827).

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26/11/1764, Monday (-65,906) The Jesuits were suppressed in France.

23/11/1764, Friday (-65,909) Gustav Hugo, German jurist, was born (died 15/9/1844).

11/11/1764, Sunday (-65,921) Barbara Krudener, Rusian author, was born (died 25/12/1824).

4/11/1764, Sunday (-65,928) Charles Churchill, English poet, died (born 2/1731).

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27/10/1764, Saturday (-65,936) The painter and engraver William Hogarth died in London, aged 67.He was buried in Chiswick churchyard. He also pushed for legislation to protect the intellectual property of artists, the so-called �Hogarth Act� of 1753.

23/10/1764, Tuesday (-65,940) The British won the Battle of Buxar, Bengal.

6/10/1764, Saturday (-65,957) Christian Jacobs, German scholarly writer, was born (died 30/3/1847).

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26/9/1764, Wednesday (-65,967) Benito Feijoo, Spanish monk and writer, died (born 8/10/1676).

24/9/1764, Monday (-65,969) Joseph Dessaix, French General, was born (died 26/10/1834).

23/9/1764, Sunday (-65,970) Robert Dodsley, English bookseller and writer, died (born 1703).

14/9/1764, Friday (-65,979) Ludwig Huber, German author, was born (died 24/12/1804).

12/9/1764, Wednesday (-65,981) Victor Jouy, Frenchy dramatist, was born (died 4/9/1846).

2/9/1764, Sunday (-65,991) Georg Hartig, German agricultural writer, was born (died 2/2/1837).

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23/8/1764, Thursday (-66,001) Henry Legge, English statesman, died (born 29/5/1708).

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9/7/1764, Monday (-66,046) Louis Baltard, French architect, was born in Paris (died in Paris 13/1/1874).

5/7/1764, Thursday (-66,050) Ivan II, Tsar of Russia, was murdered.

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19/6/1764, Tuesday (-60,066) (Britain) Sir John Barrow, British politician was born near Ulverstone, Lancashire (died 23/11/1848).

7/6/1764, Thursday (-60,078) Karl Lang, German historical writer, was born (died 26/3/1835).

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30/5/1764, Wednesday (-66,086) The Theatre Royal, Bristol, was founded.

26/5/1764, Saturday (-66,090) Edward :Livingston, US jurist, was born (died 23/5/1836)

25/5/1764, Friday (-66,091) John Good, English scholarly writer, was born (died 2/1/1827).

13/5/1764, Sunday (-66,103) Laurent Gouvion, Marshal of France, was born (died 17/3/1830).

5/5/1764, Saturday (-66,111) Robert Crauford, British Major-General, was born (died 19/1/1812).

3/5/1764, Thursday (-66,113) The British won the Battle of Patna, Bengal.

2/5/1764, Wednesday (-66,114) Robert Hall, English religious writer, was born (died 21/2/1831).

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28/4/1764, Saturday (-66,118)

25/4/1764, Wednesday (-66,121) The lawyer James Otis denouncedtaxation without representation� and called on the colonies to unite against Britain�s new tax measures. In August 1764 Boston merchants began to boycott luxury goods from Britain. See 5/4/1764 and 24/3/1765.

24/4/1764, Tuesday (-66,122) Thomas Emmet, Irish politician, was born (died 14/11/1827).

22/4/1764, Sunday (-66,124) Easter Sunday.

20/4/1764, Friday (-66,126) Rudolph Ackerman, German inventor, was born (died 30/3/1834).

15/4/1764, Sunday (-66,131) Madame de Pompadour, French courtier and mistress of Louis XV, died in Versailles.

5/4/1764, Thursday (-66,141) Parliament in London passed a Sugar Act, specifically aimed at extracting revenue from the colonies. On 19/4/1764 London also passed the Currency Act, forbidding the colonies from printing paper money. See 25/4/1764.

3/4/1764, Tuesday (-66,143) John Abernethy, British surgeon, was born in London (died 20/4/1831 in Enfield).

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13/3/1764, Tuesday (-66,164) Charles Grey, English statesman, was born (died 17/7/1845).

6/3/1764, Tuesday (-66,171) Philip Hardiwicke, English Lord Chancellor, died (born 1/21/1690).

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29/2/1764, Wednesday (-66,177) (Electricity) Paul Erman, electrical scientist, was born (died 11/10/1851).

28/2/1764, Tuesday (-66,178) Robert Haldane, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 12/12/1842).

23/2/1764, Thursday (-66,183) William Eaton, US soldier, was born (died 1/6/1811).

15/2/1764, Wednesday (-66,191) The city of St Louis, Missouri, was founded as a trading post between Europeans and Amerindians.

11/2/1764, Saturday (-66,195) Marie-Joseph Chenier, French poet, was born (died 10/1/1811).

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15/1/1764, Sunday (-66,222)

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14/12/1763, Wednesday (-66,254) The Paxton Massacre. Amerindians in Pennsylvania were slaughtered by Europeans from the town of Paxton. They then marched on Pennsylvania to massacre more Amerindians, but were deterred by US troops.

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25/11/1763, Friday (-66,673) The intervention of the Russian Army ensured that Poniatowski, not the Saxony candiudate, was crowned King of Poland this day, see 5/10/1763. Russia was now able to reinforce the rights of Russian Orthodox Christians in Poland, threatening the Catholic hegemony there. The Ottoman Empire was alarmed by the expansion of Russian influence into Poland. Austria was also concerned, see 5/8/1772.

19/11/1763, Saturday (-66,679) Karl Fernow, German art writer, was born (died 4/12/1808).

10/11/1763, Thursday (-66,688) (India) Joseph Dupleix, French colonial governor of India, died (born 1/1/1697).

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28/10/1763, Friday (-66,301) (Germany) Heinrich Bruhl, German politician, died (born 13/8/1700).

15/10/1763, Saturday (-66,314) Lord Edward Fitzgerald, campaigner for Irish independence, was born (died 4/6/1798).

5/10/1763, Wednesday (-66,324) Death of King Augustus III of Poland, also Grand Duke of Lithuania. Born 17/10/1696, he acceded to the throne in 1734.This created a vacancy for the Polish throne, and there were two contenders. Catherine the Great of Russia wanted her ally Poniatowski; however the House of Saxony wanted their candidate as Polish King. See 25/11/1763.

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26/9/1763, Monday (-66,333) John Byrom, English poet, died (born 29/2/1692).

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12/8/1763, Friday (-66,378) Olof von Dalin, Swedish poet, died (born 29/8/1708).

8/8/1763, Monday (-66,382) Charles Bulfinch, US architect, was born (died 15/4/1844).

6/8/1763, Saturday (-66,384) Indigenous American attacks on British forts and outposts had destroyed many (see 31/7/1763) but Forts Niagara, Pitt and Detroit had not fallen. This day a British relief force under Colonel Henry Boquet (1719-65) reached Fort Pitt and defeated the indigenous Americans attacking it. From Spring 1764 the Briitsh gradually overcame all indigenous American unrest, although Pontiac himself did not sue for peace until 1766, whenh he signed a peace treaty and was pardoned by the British.

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31/7/1763, Sunday (-66,390) Battle of Bloody Run. Pontiac, Chief of the Ottowaindigenous Americans, was emragred at British appropriation of the fertile plains of the Ohio River (given to them under the 1763 Treaty of Paris) and in 5/1763 led a surprise attack on Fort Detroit, but failed to capture it. However a British attack on Pontiac�s army was heavily defeated this day, see 6/8/1763.

17/7/1763, Sunday (-66,404) (USA) John Jacob Astor, US fur merchant and philanthropist, was born in Walldorf, Germany (died 29/3/1848 in New York City).

11/7/1763, Monday (-66,410) Peter Forskal, Swedish writer, died.

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26/6/1763, Sunday (-66,425) George Morland, English painter, was born (died 29/10/1804).

24/6/1763, Friday (-66,427) Etienne Mehul, French composer, was born (died 18/10/1817).

23/6/1763, Thursday (-66,428) Empress Josephine, wife of Napoleon, was born on the French island of Martinique as Marie Rose Tascher de la Pagerie. Her marriage to Napoleon was dissolved when she failed to produce an heir.

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21/5/1763, Saturday (-66,461) Joseph Fouche, French statesman, was born (died 25/12/1820).

12/5/1763, Thursday (-66,470) (Medical) John Bell, Scottish surgeon, was born in Edinburgh (died in Rome 15/4/1820).

7/5/1763, Saturday (-66,475) Four Amerindian tribes united to lay siege to the British stronghold of Fort Detroit. However the British had forewarning of the plan by the Delaware, Chippawa, Shawnee, and Ottawa tribes and had strengthened their fortifications. The Indians were concerned at the loss of their fur trade to the British, and wanted a return to the old Indian customs. In November 1763 the Indians lifted the siege after failing to gain French support.

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7/4/1763, Thursday (-66,505) Domenico Dragonetti, musician, was born (died 16/4/1846).

3/4/1763, Sunday (-66,509) Easter Sunday.

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31/3/1763, Thursday (-66,512) Abraham Darby (Junior), ironmaster, died.

13/3/1763, Sunday (-66,530) Guillaume Brune, Marshal of France, was born (died 2/8/1815).

9/3/1763, Wednesday (-66,534) William Cobbett, English political journalist, was born in Farnham, Surrey, the son of a farmer.

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23/2/1763, Wednesday (-66,548) Start of the Berbice Slave uprising in Guyana. At this time there were 3,833 Black slaves in the Berbice River area and only 346 White people, many of them women and children. The rebellion spread and it took the arrival of European gunboats on 13/5/1763 to quell the revolt. The Europeans suffered from dysentery but the Africans were disunited.

15/2/1763, Tuesday (-66,556) Austria, seeing hope for a decisive victory over Prussia recede with peace between Russia and Prussia, made peace with Prussia at Hubertsberg this day.Frederick evacuated Saxony but retained Silesia.Austria had failed to destroy Prussia before Prussian power was consolidated.

14/2/1763, Monday (-66,557) Jean Moreau, French General, was born (died 2/9/1813).

12/2/1763, Saturday (-66,559) Pierre Marivaux, French novelist, died (born 4/2/1688).

10/2/1763. Thursday (-66,561) (Britain, France-Germany, East Europe) The end of the Seven Years War. France ceded Canada to Britain at the Treaty of Paris. See 26/7/1758 and 13/9/1759. The same treaty gave Florida to Britain in exchange for Britain returning Cuba, which it had invaded on 12/8/1762, to Spain; Spain also regained Louisiana and the Philippines. Britain gained all of America east of the Mississippi. Britain also gained Minorca, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Tobago, St Vincent, Grenada, Dominica, and Senegal, as well as becoming pre-eminent in India; Britain therefore became the world�s major colonising power. Frederick of Prussia retained Silesia, which set Prussia on the road to also becoming a major European power.

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26/1/1763, Wednesday (-66,576) Charles XIV, King of Sweden, was born.

24/1/1763, Monday (-66,578) Jean Bouilly, French writer, was born near Tours (died in Paris 14/4/1842).

22/1/1763, Saturday (-66,580) John Granville, Emglish statesman, died (born 22/4/1690).

17/1/1763, Monday (-66,585) John Jacob Astor, US entrepreneur, was born.

3/1/1763, Monday (-66,599) (Christian) Joseph Fesch, Cardinal, was born (died 13/5/1839).

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25/12/1762, Saturday (-66,608) Barings Bank was founded in London, UK.

22/12/1762, Wednesday (-66,611) Dudley Ryder, 1st Earl Harrowby, was born (died 26/12/1847).

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30/11/1762, Tuesday (-66,633) Sir Samuel Brydges, writer, was born (died 8/9/1837).

20/11/1762, Saturday (-66,643) Pierre Latreille, French naturalist writer, was born (died 6/2/1833).

16/11/1762, Tuesday (-66,647) John Boyle, Irish statesman, died (born 2/1/1707).

3/11/1762, Wednesday (-66,660) Britain concluded a peace with France at Fontainbleau. See 10/2/1763.

1/11/1762, Monday (-66,662) Spencer Perceval, British Prime Minister from 1809 who was assassinated in the House of Commons, was born.

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30/10/1762, Saturday (-66,664) Andre de Chenier, French poet, was born (guillotined 25/7/1794).

29/10/1762, Friday (-66,665) (France-Germany, East Europe) The Austrians were defeated at the Battle of Freiburg.The war was making Austria bankrupt and Austria was questioning whether the war was worth it for the recovery of one province.Austria and Prussia agreed on an armistice on 24/11/1762 for the winter of 1762/3.

21/10/1762, Thursday (-66,673) George Colman, English dramatist, was born (died 17/10/1836).

9/10/1762, Saturday (-66,685) (France-Germany, East Europe) The Austrians under Daun were defeated by Prussia at Schweidnitz.

5/10/1762, Tuesday (-66,689) The British captured Manila, Philippines, from Spain.

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24/9/1762, Friday (-66,700) William Bowles, English poet, was born in Northamptonshire (died in Salisbury 7/4/1850).

20/9/1762, Monday (-66,704) Pierre Fontaine, French architect, was born (died 10/10/1853).

17/9/1762, Friday (-66,707) Francesco Germianni, composer, died.

13/9/1762, Monday (-66,711) Antoine Merlin, French Revolutionary, was born (died 14/9/1833).

12/9/1762, Sunday (-66,712) Catherine II The Great was crowned Empress of Russia.

11/9/1762, Saturday (-66,713) Joanna Baillie, British poet, was born in Scotland (died 23/2/1851).

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25/8/1762, Wednesday (-66,730) The city of Almeida was captured by Spain, from Portugal. Portugal was allied with Britain in a war against Spain.

21/8/1762, Saturday (-66,734) Lady Mary Montagu, English letter writer, died.

16/8/1762, Monday (-66,739) (France-Germany, East Europe) The Austrians under Daun were defeated by Prussia at Reichenbach.

13/8/1762, Friday (-66,742) The British captured Havana, Cuba, from the Spanish.

12/8/1762, Thursday (-66,743) King George IV was born in St James Palace, London.He was the eldest son of George III. His lavish lifestyle and cruelty towards his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, undermined popular support for the monarchy.

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28/7/1762, Wednesday (-66,758) George Melcombe, English politician, died.

21/7/1762, Wednesday (-66,765) (France-Germany, East Europe) The Austrians under Daun were defeated by Prussia at Burkersdorf.

17/7/1762, Saturday (-66,769) Peter III, Tsar of Russia, was murdered. He was about to divorce his wife of 17 years, Catherine; she struck first, with the help of her lover Orlov, by rallying the support of the army and church, and had herself proclaimed Empress.

14/7/1762, Wednesday (-66,772) Joseph Lakanal, French politician, was born (died 14/2/1845).

13/7/1762, Tuesday (-66,773) James Bradley, English astronomer, died (born in Gloucestershire 15/3/1711).

10/7/1762, Saturday (-66,776) (Christian) Alexander Kilham, Methodist minister, was born in Epworth, Lincolnshire.

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9/6/1762, Wednesday (-66,807) Luigi Cagnola, Italian architect, was born (died 14/8/1833).

6/6/1762, Sunday (-66,810) (Britain) George Anson, British Admiral, died (born 23/4/1697 in Shugborough, Staffordshire).

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22/5/1762, Saturday (-66,825) ) (France-Germany, East Europe, Russia) Peace was formally agreed between Russia and Prussia (Treaty of Hamburg). Russian forces began to return home.

19/5/1762, Wednesday (-66,828) Johann Fichte, German philosophical writer, was born (died 27/1/1814).

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29/4/1762, Thursday (-66,848) Jean Jourdan, Marshall of France, was born (died 23/11/1833).

11/4/1762, Sunday (-66,866) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1762, Saturday (-66,867) (Science) Giovanni Aldini, Italian physicist, was born in Bologna (died 17/1/1834 in Milan).

6/4/1762, Tuesday (-66,871) George Benson, English ecclesiastical writer, died (born in Cumberland 1/9/1699).

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21/3/1762, Sunday (-66,887) Nicolas Lacaille, French astronomer, died (born 15/3/1713).

17/3/1762, Wednesday (-66,891) Francois Martin, US writer, was born (died 11/12/1846).

5/3/1762, Friday (-66,903)

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20/2/1762, Saturday (-66,916) Johann Mayer, German astronomer, died.

9/2/1762, Tuesday (-66,927) Andre Miot de Melito, French statesman, was born (died 5/1/1841).

3/2/1762, Wednesday (-66,933) English dandy and gambler Richard �Beau� Nash died.

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5/1/1762, Tuesday (-66,962) (Germany, Russia) Elizabeth I of Russia died; her successor Tsar Peter III made peace with Prussia.This was fortunate for Frederick of Prussia because after the end of the Pitt Ministry in England, the English were moving towards making peace with France and therefore no longer giving financial support to Prussia.See 15/2/1763 and 5/10/1761.

2/1/1762, Saturday (-66,965) (Britain, Spain) Britain declared war on Spain, three months after William Pitt resigned (see 5/10/1761).

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23/12/1761, Wednesday (-66,975) Alestair Macdonnell, spy on the Scottish Jacobites, died.

16/12/1761, Wednesday (-66,982) (France-Germany, East Europe) The Russians under Pyotr Aleksandrovitch Rumyantsev captured the Prussian port and fort of Kolberg. It had been a bad year for Frederick of Prussia, with French forces making progress eastwards in south western Germany, and the Austrians under Laudon capturing Schweidnitz on 1/10/1761, ensuring they could over-winter in Silesia. Frederick had failed to prevent the Russian Army, 50,000 strong, joining up with the 72,000-strong Austrian Army on 23/8/1761. Frederick�s biggest concern was that since the change of monarch and the resignation of Pitt in Britain, he could no longer rely on British support. Without a major change of fortune, Prussia faced certain defeat in 1762.

7/12/1761, Monday (-66,991) Marie Tussaud, wax sculptor, was born.

4/12/1761, Friday (-66,994) Jean Laya., French dramatist, was born

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30/11/1761, Monday (-66,998) (Light) John Dollond, English optician, died (born 10/6/1706).

21/11/1761, Saturday (-67,007) (Chemistry) English chemical manufacturer Joshua Ward died.

20/11/1761, Friday (-67,008) (Papal succession) Pope Pius VIII was born.

16/11/1761, Monday (-67,012) Jean Montgaillard, French political agent, was born (died 8/2/1841).

13/11/1761, Friday (-67,015) Sir John Moore, British General, was born (died 16/1/1809).

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22/10/1761, Thursday (-67,037) (France) Antoine Barnave, orator of the French Revolution, was born in Grenoble (executed at The Tuileries 29/11/1793).

5/10/1761, Monday (-67,054) (Britain) In Britain, Pitt resigned, because Britain would not declare war on Spain; France was trying to bring Spain into its war on Prussia and Britain, with France allied to Austria and Russia. Britain virtually abandoned support for Prussia.

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23/9/1761, Wednesday (-67,066) (Astronomy) German astronomer Jean Louis Pons was born in Hamburg.

22/9/1761, Tuesday (-67,067) (Britain) Coronation of King George III, see 26/10/1760.

16/9/1761, Wednesday (-67,073)

9/9/1761, Wednesday (-67,080) Pieter Musschenbroek, Dutch scientific writer, died (born 14/3/1692).

8/9/1761, Tuesday (-67,081) John Ireland, English cleric, was born (died 2/9/1842).

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17/8/1761, Monday (-67,103) William Carey, scholarly writer on the Orient, was born (died 9/6/1834).

3/8/1761, Monday (-67,117) Johann Gesner, German scholarly writer, died (born 9/4/1691).

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17/7/1761, Friday (-67,134) (Canals) The Bridgewater Canal, from Worsley to Manchester, built by James Brindley, was opened.

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18/6/1761, Thursday (-67,163) Nicolas Baptiste, French writer, was born in Bordeaux (died in Paris 1/12/1835).

2/6/1761, Tuesday (-67,179) (Sweden) Jonas Alstromer, Swedish industrialist, died (born 7/1/1685 in Alingsas, Vestergotland).

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27/5/1761, Wednesday (-87,185) Sir Thomas Munro, British colonial Governor of India, was born (died 6/7/1827).

3/5/1761, Sunday (-87,209) August Kotzebue, German dramatist, was born (died 23/3/1819).

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17/4/1761, Friday (-67,225) Benjamin Hoadly, English religious writer, died (born 14/11/1676).

9/4/1761, Thursday (-47,233) William Law, English religious writer, died.

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22/3/1761, Sunday (-67,251) Easter Sunday

6/3/1761, Friday (-67,267) (France) Antoine Francois Andreossy, French soldier and diplomat, was born in Castelnaudary (died 1828).

28/2/1761, Saturday (-67,273) (Biology) Pierre Broussonet, French naturalist, was born (died 17/1/1807).

19/2/1761, Thursday (-67,282) Antoine Boulay, French politician, was born in Vosges (died in Paris 4/2/1840)

1/2/1761, Sunday (-67,300) Pierre Charlevoix, French historical writer, died (born 29/10/1682).

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29/1/1761, Thursday (-67,303) Albert Gallatin, US statesman, was born (died 12/8/1849).

23/1/1761, Friday (-67,309) Friedrich von Matthisson, German poet, was born (died 12/1/1831).

22/1/1761, Thursday (-67,310) (France, Russia) France communicated to Russia that it desired peace in the war against Prussia. Austria communicated similarly to Russia the following day. However Russia rejected this proposal, as its original purpose in eliminating the threat it saw in Prussia, would then remain unsatisfied.

17/1/1761, Saturday (-67,315) Sir James Hall, Scottish geologist, was born (died 23/6/1832).

14/1/1761, Wednesday (-67,318) (India) At the Battle of Panipat, north of Delhi, the Afghans under Ahmad Shah Durrani defeated the Marathas Indians. Although Durrani weakened Mughal power he was unable to fill the resultant power vacuum, thereby opening the way for British dominance of India.

10/1/1761, Saturday (-67,322) (Britain) Edward Boscawen, English Admiral, was born.

4/1/1761, Sunday (-67,329) Stephen Hales, English writer on science and nature, died (born 4/1/1761).

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31/12/1760, Wednesday (-67,332)

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23/11/1760, Sunday (-67,370) (France) Francois Babeuf, French political agitator, was born in Saint Quentin (died 1790).

3/11/1760, Monday (-67,390) (France-Germany, East Europe) Frederick of Prussia won the Battle of Torgau against the Austrians but failed to follow up this success and achieve his objective of capturing Dresden.

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26/10/1760, Sunday (-67,398) (Britain) Accession of George III. His coronation was on 22/9/1761. He was the son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta. George III became one of the longest reigning monarchs in Britain. He saw the emergence of Britain as a leading European power after the Seven Year�s War as well as the early stages of the Industrial Revolution. He had a devoted wife, Charlotte of Mecklenburg, who bore him 15 children. But George III faced problems at home, fighting with Parliament to recover Royal Prerogative, and having Revolutionary France for a neighbour. He also had the debilitating disease porphyria. He died deaf, mad, and blind at Windsor Castle on 29/1/1820, leaving a legacy of social unrest and an outmoded constitution.

25/10/1760, Saturday (-67,399) (Britain, France-Germany, East Europe) George II died suddenly at 8am, in Kensington, London, aged 76. His successor George III was inclined to concentrate on British, not Hanoverian, interests, and disliked William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, who had promoted the Anglo-Prussian Alliance. Without British help, Prussia could not continue fighting.

22/10/1760, Wednesday (-67,402)

20/10/1760, Monday (-67,404) Alexandre Lameth, French politician, was born (died 18/3/1829).

19/10/1760, Sunday (-67,405) Gottleib Hufeland, German scholarly writer, was born (died 25/2/1817).

11/10/1760, Saturday (-67,413) Lord George Murray, Scottish Jacobite, died (born 4/10/1694).

1/10/1760, Wednesday (-67,423) William Beckford, English author, was born (died 1844).

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14/9/1760, Sunday (-67,440) Maria Cherubini, Italian composer, was born (died 15/3/1842).

8/9/1760, Monday (-67,446) (Canada) The French surrendered Montreal to the British under General Jeffrey Amherst. This completed the British conquest of Canada. Britain had declared war in France in 1756 as part of the Seven Years War; Amherst won in Canada in 1758 when he took the French fortress at Louisbourg, opening up the way to Montreal.

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22/8/1760, Friday (-67,463) Pope Leo XII born.

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26/7/1760, Saturday (-67,490) (France-Germany, East Europe) The Austrians under Laudon captured Glatz from Prussia.

11/7/1760, Friday (067,505) Francois Hoffmann, French dramatist, was born (died 25/4/1828).

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23/6/1760, Monday (-67,523) (France-Germany, East Europe) The Austrians under Laudon defeated the Prussians at Landshut.

12/6/1760, Thursday (-67,534) Jean Louvet de Couvrai, French writer, was born (died 25/8/1797).

8/6/1760, Sunday (-67,538) (Germany) Karl Bottiger, German archaeologist, was born in Reichenbach (died in Dresden 17/11/1835).

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29/5/1760, Thursday (-67,548) Louis Michel le Peletier, French politician, was born (assassinated 20/1/1793).

21/5/1760, Wednesday (-67,556) (Russia, Germany) Russia and Austria signed a secret convention, never shared with France, that would give East Prussia to Russia as compensation for its war losses in supporting the Austrians against Prussia.

15/5/1760, Thursday (-67,562) (Myanmar) Aloung P�Houra Alompra ruler of Burma, died.

10/5/1760, Saturday (-67,567) Johann Hebel, German poet, was born (died 22/9/1826).

6/5/1760, Tuesday (-67,571) (Britain) Robert Hobart, 4th Earl of Buckinghamshire, was born (died 4/2/1816).

5/5/1760, Monday (-67,572) The first hanging by hangman�s drop at Tyburn, London. Earl Ferrers was executed for murdering his valet.

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30/4/1760, Wednesday (-67,577)

22/4/1760, Tuesday (-67,585) The first pair of roller skates were seen.

21/4/1760, Monday (-67,586) Britain�s first art exhibition opened. The Annual Exhibition of United Artists was held at the premises of the Society of Arts on The Strand, London.

13/4/1760, Sunday (-67,594) Thomas Beddoes, English scientific writer, was born in Shifnal, Shropshire (died 24/12/1808).

10/4/1760, Thursday (-67,597) Jean Lebeuf, French historical writer, was born (died 10/4/1760).

6/4/1760, Sunday (-67,601) Easter Sunday.

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28/3/1760, Friday (-67,610) (Race Equality) Thomas Clarkson, British anti-slavery campaigner, was born (died 26/9/1846).

10/3/1760, Monday (-67,628) Leandro Moratin, Spanish poet, was born (died 21/6/1828).

2/3/1760, Sunday (-67,636) Lucie Desmoulins, French politician, was born (died 1794).

1/3/1760, Saturday (-67,637) (France) Francois Buzot, French Revolutionary, was born (died 18/6/1794).

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26/2/1760, Tuesday (-67,641) Mikhail Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Russian diplomat, died in Paris (born 1688),

14/2/1760, Thursday (-67,653) Isaac Browne, English poet, died (born 21/1/1705).

12/2/1760, Tuesday (-67,655) Johann Dussek, Bohemian composer, was born (died 20/3/1812).

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24/1/1760, Thursday (-67,674) Lavinia Fenton, English actress, died (born 1708).

15/1/1760, Tuesday (-67,683) Jean Lesueur, French composer, was born (died 6/10/1837).

1/1/1760, Tuesday (-67,697) Marie Guillon, French religious writer, was born (died 1847).

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12/1759,

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29/11/1759, Thursday (-67,730) Nicolas Bernoulli, scientist, died (born 10/10/1687).

20/11/1759, Tuesday (-67,739) Naval battle at Quiberon Bay, France. Admiral Hawke�s British first fleet destroyed the French invasion fleet under Admiral Conflans, during the Seven Years War. The French had planned to invade Britain with a fleet of flat-bottomed boats carrying some 20,000 soldiers. However the British navy kept this invasion fleet bottled up in its home base of Brest, France. In November 1759 a gale forced the British Navy to return to Torbay, Devon; when the gale died down the French quickly escaped from Brest with 19 battleships. The British navy went looking for the French, as they spotted them another storm approached from the west. The French sought refuge in Quiberon Bay, assuming that the numerous reefs and rocks would deter the British from following. However the British did follow into the Bay. Many French battleships were run aground, wrecked or captured. The French lost 14 battleships and 2,500 men killed; the British lost 2 ships and 400 men. The French navy was broken, leaving Britain in commend of the seas.

10/11/1759, Saturday (-67,749) Friedrich Schiller, German poet and dramatist, was born.

9/11/1759, Friday (-67,750) Edward Hawke withdrew from blockading Brest (19/8/1759); the French fleet set sail, to be defeated by the British at Quiberon Bay (20/11/1759).

2/11/1759, Friday (-67,757) Sir Charles Hanbury, English writer, died (born 1708).

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27/10/1759, Saturday (-67,263) Ferencz Kazinczy, Hungarian author, was born (died 22/8/1831).

26/10/1759, Friday (-67,264) George Danton, French revolutionary, was born (guillotined 5/4/1794).

25/10/1759, Thursday (67,265) William Grenville, British statesman, was born (died 12/1/1834).

22/10/1759, Monday (-67,268) Thomas Cooper, US writer, was born (died 11/5/1840).

17/10/1759, Wednesday (-67,773) Jacques Bernoulli, mathematician, was born (died 7/1789).

16/10/1759, Tuesday (-67,774) The Eddystone Lighthouse, designed by Smeaton, was officially opened.

13/10/1759, Saturday (-67,777) John Henley, English writer and cleric, died (born 3/8/1692).

8/10/1759, Monday (-67,782) The Eddystone Lighthouse was completed.

7/10/1759, Sunday (-67,783) Joseph Ames, English author, died in Wapping (born 23/1/1689 in Yarmouth).

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28/9/1759, Friday (-67,792)

20/9/1759, Thursday (-67,800) Marie Herault, Frenchy politician, was born (executed 5/4/1794).

19/9/1759, Wednesday (-67,801) William Kirby, entomological writer, was born (died 4/7/1850).

17/9/1759, Monday (-67,803)

14/9/1759, Friday (-67,806) (1) (France-Germany, East Europe) The Austrians under Daun took Dresden from the Prussians.

(2) The earliest dated English board game, A Journey Through Europe, or The Play of Geography, invented by John Jeffries, was sold by him at his London home.

13/9/1759. Thursday (-67,807) General James Wolfe killed in the siege of Quebec; in a fight on the Plains of Abraham near the city, although the British won the siege. See 26/7/1758 and 10/2/1763. The French commander, Louis Montcalm, was also killed, dying of his wounds on 14/9/1759. The British won the surrender of Quebec on 18/9/1759.

12/9/1759, Wednesday (-67,808) Veran Montcalm, French soldier, died (born 28/2/1712).

10/9/1759, Monday (-67,810) Maximlian Montgelas, Bavarian statesman, was born.

3/9/1759, Monday (-67,817) Jesuits expelled from Portugal and Brazil by royal decree. Some refused to leave and were violently deported by the military, onto ships bound for the Papal States.

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24/8/1759. Friday (-67,827) William Wilberforce, anti-slavery campaigner, was born in Hull, the son of a merchant. He was the third of four children.

19/8/1759, Sunday (-67,832) (France-Germany, East Europe) The Battle of Lagos. Choiseul had managed to extricate France from much of its commitment to support Austria, so the French could commit more resources to fighting Britain. Choiseul planned an invasion, with landings from London to Scotland. To transport this invasion the French Mediterranean fleet was ordered to sail from Toulon to join the Atlantic fleet at Brest. On its way northwards past Portugal, the French fleet was attacked by Admiral Edward Boscawen off Lagos, Portugal, and scattered. Meanwhile Edward Hawke was blockading the French port of Brest (see 9/11/1759).

12/8/1759, Sunday (-67,839) (France-Germany, East Europe) Frederick, who had been unable to prevent the Austrians under Daun and the Russians under Saltykov joining forces, was heavily defeated by them at Kunersdorf. Frederick lost 18,000 men in six hours. The Russians did not capitalise on this victory, but Daun then marched on Dresden.

10/8/1759, Friday (-67,841) Ferdinand VI, King of Spain, died.

9/8/1759, Thursday (-67,842) Johann Guts-Muths, German pedagogical writer, was born (died 21/5/1839).

8/8/1759, Wednesday (-67,843) Carl Graun, German composer, died (born 7/5/1701).

1/8/1759, Wednesday (-67,850) (France-Germany, East Europe) At the Battle of Minden (Seven Years War), six British-Allied army regiments defeated a larger French force, in north-west Germany.

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27/7/1759, Friday (-67,861) Pierre Maupertuis, French scientific writer, died (born 17/7/1768).

24/7/1759, Tuesday (-67,858) In Canada, the British captured Fort Niagara from the French.

23/7/1759. Monday (-67,859) (1) (France-Germany, East Europe) 70,000 Russians under Saltykov defeated 26,000 Prussians under von Wedel at Zullichau.

(2) Work began on the Royal Navy�s 104 gun battleship HMS Victory at Chatham, Kent, built with the wood of 2,200 oak trees.

18/7/1759, Wednesday (-67,864) Pierre Dumont, French political writer, was born (died 29/9/1829).

9/7/1759, Monday (-67,873) (France-Germany, East Europe) The French, under the Duc de Broglie, took Minden on the River Weser.

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21/6/1759, Thursday (-47,891) Alexander Dallas, US statesman, was born (died 16/6/1817).

12/6/1759, Tuesday (-47,900) William Collins, English poet, died (born 25/12/1721).

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28/5/1759, Monday (-67,915) William Pitt the Younger, British Tory Prime Minister, was born at Hayes, near Bromley, Kent. He became Britain�s youngest Prime Minister at age 24.

20/5/1759, Sunday (-67,923) William Thornton, US architect who designed the Capitol at Washington, was born.

6/5/1759, Sunday (-67,937) Francois Andrieux, French writer, was born in Strasbourg (died 9/5/1833 in Paris).

1/5/1759, Tuesday (-67,942) (USA) Jacob Albright, US clergyman, was born near Pottstown, Pennsylvania (died 18/5/1808 in Muhlbach, Pennsylvania).

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27/4/1759, Friday (-67,946) Birth of Mary Wollstonecraft, English writer, political radical and feminist.

19/4/1759, Thursday (-67,954) August Iffland, German dramatist, was born (died 22/9/1814).

15/4/1759, Sunday (-67,958) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1759. Saturday (-67,959) George Frederick Handel, German composer, died, aged 74, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. He was born in Halle, Saxony, on 23/2/1685. He settled in England and became court composer to George II.

13/4/1759, Friday (-67,960) (France-Germany, East Europe) Ferdinand of Brunswick, who had enjoyed success against the French in southwest Germany, was defeated at Bergen, near Frankfurt am Main, by the Duc de Broglie.

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29/3/1759, Thursday (-67,975) Alexander Chalmers, Scottish writer, was born (died 19/12/1834).

3/3/1759, Saturday (-68,001) John Jamieson, Scottish lexicographical writer, was born (died 12/7/1838).

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26/2/1759, Monday (-60,006) Ludwig Jacob, German economics writer, was born (died 22/7/1827).

11/2/1759, Sunday (-68,021) (Britain) John Camden, British politician, was born (died 8/10/1840).

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29/1/1759, Monday (-68,034) (Biology) Louis Bosc, French naturalist, was born in Paris (died in Paris 10/7/1828).

25/1/1759, Thursday (-68,038) Robert Burns, Scottish poet, was born at Alloway, near Ayr, Ayrshire, son of a poor farmer.

16/1/1759. Tuesday (-68,047) British Museum, London, opened to the public, in premises formerly known as Montague House. Funded by a lottery that raised UK� 300,000, the museum contained a collection of books, manuscripts and natural objects amassed by Sir Hans Sloane, also collections by Edward and Robert Harley and Sir Robert Bruce Cotton.

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25/12/1758, Monday (-68,069) James Hervey, English religious writer, died (born 26/2/1714).

17/12/1758, Sunday (-68,077) Nathaniel Macon, US politician, was born (died 29/6/1837).

15/12/1758, Friday (-68,079) John Dyer, British poet, died.

9/12/1758, Saturday (-68,085) Matthew Flinders confirmed that a channel existed between Tasmania and Australia, making the former an island.

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25/11/1758, Saturday (-68,099) The British captured Fort Duquesne (later, Pittsburgh) from the French.

21/11/1758, Tuesday (-68,103) (Austria) Austrian forces under Daun surrounded a Prussian force under General Finck at Maxen, forcing its surrender.

12/11/1758, Sunday (-68,112) Jean Mounier, French politician, was born (died 28/1/1806).

5/11/1758, Sunday (-68,119) Hans Egede, the Apostle of Greenland, died. Born in Norway in 1686, he was appointed pastor of Vagen, Norway, in 1707. He desired to convert the descendants of the Norse in Greenland and departed for there in 1721. Finding the Norse to be extinct, he set about converting the Inuit. The death of his wife Getrude Rask in 1736 caused him to leave Greenland. In 1740 he became superintendent of the Greenland Mission in Copenhagen.

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16/10/1758, Monday (-68,139) Birth of Noah Webster, lexicographer who produced the first American dictionary.

15/10/1758, Sunday (-68,140) Johann Heinrich von Dannecker, German sculptor, was born (died 1841)

14/10/1758, Saturday (-68,141) (France-Germany, East Europe) The Austrians under Daun launched an unexpected counter-attack against the Prussians at Hochkirk; Prussian losses were 9,500 against 7,500 for the Austrians. Daun began an advance on Dresden, but fell back to Pirna when he heard of Frederick�s march on Lusatia. However the Austrian victory at Hochkirk raised French morale; they had been inclined to abandon the war against Prussia.

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29/9/1758, Friday (-68,156) Horatio Nelson was born in Burnham Thorpe rectory, Norfolk.He was the son of a clergyman, one of 11 children.He died in battle in 1805.

9/9/1758, Saturday (-68,176) Alexander Naysmyth, Scottish painter, was born (died 10/4/1840).

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25/8/1758, Friday (-68,191) (France-Germany, East Europe) Frederick of Prussia moved around Fermor�s east flank and his 36,000 men attacked the Russians at Zorndorf (Sarbinowo). Prussian losses were 13,500, against Russian casualties of 42,000 (21,000 killed). Frederick now left Christoph von Dohna to pursue the defeated Russians; Frederick moved south to assist his brother, Prince Henry, against the Austrians under Daun at Dresden.

20/8/1758, Sunday (-68,196) (France-Germany, East Europe) Frederick�s forces arrived at Frankfurt on Oder, ready to attack the Russians besieging Kustrin.

15/8/1758, Tuesday (-68,201) (France-Germany, East Europe) Russian forces under Fermor began a siege of the Prussians at Kustrin.

10/8/1758, Thursday (-68,206) Armand Gensonne, French politician, was born (executed 31/10/1793).

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26/7/1758. Wednesday (-68,221) A British force authorised by William Pitt to attack the French in North America had its first success with the capture of Louisburg. See 13/9/1759 and 10/2/1763.

21/7/1758, Friday (-68,226) Elizabeth Hamilton, British author, was born (died 23/7/1816).

20/7/1758, Thursday (-68,227) Marguerite Guadet, French revolutionary, was born (guillotined 17/6/1794).

6/7/1758, Thursday (-68,241)

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23/6/1758, Friday (-68,254) (France-Germany, East Europe) Emmerlich�s Anglo-Hanoverian army, 40,000-strong, defeated 70,000 men under the Comte de Clermont at Krefeld. This victory enabled Emmerlich to hold all of northern Germany against France, despite French victories further south in Hesse and Thuringia.

22/6/1758, Thursday (-68,255) George Vancouver, the explorer who gave his name to the city of Vancouver, Canada, was born in Kings Lynn, England.

19/6/1758, Monday (-68,258) Raffaello Morghen, Italian engraver, was born (died 8/4/1833).

9/6/1758, Friday (-68,268) The first line sanctioned by Parliament opened in Britain. This was the Leeds to Middleton line.

2/6/1758, Friday (-68,275) A British war fleet anchored in Gabarus Bay, off Canada, to fight the French.

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28/5/1758, Sunday (-68,280) Amherst, Wolfe, and Lawrence arrived at Halifax, Nova Scotia, see 19/2/1758.

6/5/1758, Saturday (-68,302) Birth of Maximillien Robespierre, French revolutionary who instituted the Reign of Terror, and was eventually guillotined himself.

3/5/1758, Wednesday (-68,305) Pope Benedict XIV (247th Pope) died. Pope Clement XIII (248th Pope) acceded, formerly Cardinal Carlo della Torre Rezzonico, died 1769.

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28/4/1758, Friday (-68,310) James Monroe, American Republican and 5th President, was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia.

22/4/1758, Saturday (-60,316) Antoine de Jussieu, writer, died.

16/4/1758, Sunday (-68,322) (France-Germany, East Europe) Frederick of Prussia defeated the Austrians at Schweidnitz, Silesia.

9/4/1758, Sunday (-68,329) (USA) Ames Fisher, US statesman, was born in Dedham, Massachusetts (died 4/7/1808).

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28/3/1758, Tuesday (-68,341) Jonathan Edwards, religious writer, died (born 5/10/1703).

27/3/1758, Monday (-68,342) (France-Germany, East Europe) An Anglo-Hanoverian force under Ferdinand of Brunswick crossed the Rhine at Emmerlich, near the Dutch frontier (see 23/6/1758).

26/3/1758, Sunday (-68,343) Easter Sunday.

9/3/1758, Thursday (-68,360) Franz Gall, medical writer, was born (died 22/8/1828)

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28/2/1758, Tuesday (-68,369) Nicolas Molliken, French financier, was born.

19/2/1758, Sunday (-68,378) The British General Amherst, recalled from Germany by Pitt, sailed this day from Portsmouth with Brigadier-General Lawrence and Brigadier James Wolfe, for Canada, to pursue the war against the French.See 28/5/1758.

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22/1/1758, Saturday (-68,406) (France-Germany, East Europe) William Fermor, Scottish emigrant to Russia who had taken the place of Apraksin (see 30/8/1757) in September 1757, took the East Prussian capital, Konigsberg (Kaliningrad) from Prussia. However a spring thaw melted the snow and made the roads impassable, temporarily immobilising Fermor.

6/1/1758, Thursday (-68,422) Charles Ganilh, political writer, was born (died 1836).

1/1/1758, Saturday (-68,427) The formal starting date for standardised species names across the animal kingdom, based on Carl Linnaeus� work, Systema Naturae.

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11/12/1757, Sunday (-68,448) Colley Cibber, English actor, died (born 6/11/1671).

10/12/1757, Saturday (-68,449) Herbert Marsh, English religious writer, was born (died 1/5/1839).

5/12/1757, Monday (-68,454) (France-Germany, East Europe) Frederick of Prussia, now confronted by an Austrian army which had invaded Silesia and seized Breslau, defeated them this day at Leuthen and recovered Breslau, capital of Silesia. Frederick�s 43,000 men attacked the 72,000 Austrians under Charles of Lorraine with a sudden cavalry charge followed by a heavy artillery bombardment. Frederick�s losses amounted to 6,000, against 22,000 lost by Charles, including 12,000 taken prisoner. Meanwhile the Swedes, who had invaded Prussian Pomerania in September 1757 (without Russian approval), were also forced back into Swedish Pomerania, where they held against the Prussians at Stralsund. With the Russians under Apraksin also having retreated (see 30/8/1757), the war began to turn in Prussia�s favour.

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28/11/1757, Monday (-68,461) Poet, artist, and visionary William Blake was born in London.

22/11/1757, Tuesday (-68,467) In Silesia, Austria took Breslau (Wroclaw) from Prussia.

15/11/1757, Tuesday (-68,474) Jacques Hebert, French revolutionary, was born (guillotined 24/3/1794).

14/11/1757, Monday (-68,475) Arnail Jaucourt, French politician, was born (died 5/2/1852).

13/11/1757, Sunday (-68,476) Archibald Alison, Scottish author, was born in Edinburgh (died 17/5/1839 in Colinton).

11/11/1757, Friday (-68,478) In Silesia, Austria took Schweidnitz (Swidnica) from Prussia.

6/11/1757, Sunday (-68,483) Louis Beffroy, French dramatist, was born in Laon (died in Paris 17/12/1811).

5/11/1757, Saturday (-68,484) (France-Germany, East Europe) Frederick, faced by a French Army advancing from Thuringia towards Berlin, won a major victory against them at Rossbach. 21,000 Prussian troops faced 41,000French and allied men but the cautious tactics of the French commander Soubise were at odds with his more aggressive ally Saxe-Hildburghausen, and the Prussian cavalry forces were more mobile, under the leadership of Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz. In two hours fighting, the Prussian lost 550 men against allied losses of 7,000. Encouraged by this victory the British repudiated Klosterzeven (see 26/7/1757) and sent troops to reinforce the Hanoverians.

1/11/1757, Tuesday (-68,488) Antonio Canova, Italian sculptor, was born (died 13/10/1822).

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25/10/1757, Tuesday (-68,495) Antoine Calmet, French Benedictine monk and teacher (born 26/2.1672) died.

15/9/1757, Saturday (-68,505) Karl Moritz, German author, was born (died 26/6/1793).

10/10/1757, Monday (-68,510) (Biology) Erik Acharius, Swedish botanist (died 13/8/1819 in Wadstena) was born.

9/10/1757, Sunday (-68,511) Charles X, King of Sweden, was born

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19/9/1757, Monday (-68,531) (Russia) Elizabeth I of Russia had a fainting fit at Tsarskoe Selo; the start of a serious illness.

7/9/1757, Wednesday (-68,543) (France-Germany, East Europe) Prussian forces under Fredrick Francis of Brunswick-Bevern were defeated at Moys (Zgorzelec) in Silesia by the Austrians.

6/9/1757, Tuesday (-68,544) Marquis de Lafayette, Frenchman who fought with the American colonists for independence from Britain and was a key figure in the French Revolution, was born.

3/9/1757, Saturday (-68,547) (Germany) Augustus Charles was born (died 14/6/1828).

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30/8/1757, Tuesday (-68,551) (France-Germany, East Europe) A Russian army of 90,000, having crossed Poland and entered Prussia, heavily defeated the Prussians under Hans von Lehwaldt at Gross-Jagersdorf, west of Gumbinnen. Unexpectedly the Russian commander, Apraksin, then withdrew. The health of the Russian Empress Elizabeth, who hated Prussia, was becoming uncertain and her successor, the future Peter III, liked Frederick and opposed the fight against Prussia. Therefore Apraksin risked the displeasure of his future master if he continued his aggression in Prussia.

28/8/1757, Sunday (-68,553) David Hartley, English philosophical writer, died (born 30/8/1705).

9/8/1757, Tuesday (-68,572), French General Louis de Montcalm (1712-59) attacked the British held Fort William Henry, gateway to northern Canada. Outnumbered, the fort�s commender, Colonel Munro laid down his arms and honourably surrendered, having been promised safe passage by Montcalm. However the Amerindians allied to the French then turned on the British, to the horror of Montcalm.Risking his own life he managed to restore order, however many Biritsh were killed. The survivors reached safety at Fort Edward.

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26/7/1757, Tuesday (-68,586) (France-Germany, East Europe) A French Army of 100,000 defeated the Hanoverian, Prussian and British allied forces under William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, a younger son of King George II of England. This was at Hastenbeck, south west of Hanover. On 8/9/1757 the French forced Cumberland to sign the Convention of Klosterzeven, which stipulated the disbandment of Cumberland�s forces in Germany.

23/7/1757. Saturday (-68,589) The composer Scarlatti died, aged 71.

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26/6/1757, Sunday (-68,616) (Austria) Maximillian Browne, Austrian Field-Marshal, died (born 23/10/1705).

23/6/1757. Thursday (-68,619) The Battle of Plassey took place in Bengal. The British victory of Robert Clive over the Nawab of Bengal laid the foundations for the British Empire in India.

22/6/1757, Wednesday (-68,620) George Vancouver, English naval captain who surveyed the Pacific coast of North America, was born in Kings Lynn, Norfolk.

18/6/1757, Saturday (-68,624) (France-Germany, East Europe) Frederick, ruler of Prussia, sought to turn back an advancing Austrian army, 50,000 strong under von Daun, but was heavily defeated at Kolin this day.Frederick had to give up Bohemia and raise the siege of Prague.

8/6/1757, Wednesday (-68,634) Ercole Consalvi, Italian statesman, was born (died 24/1/1824).

5/6/1757, Sunday (-68,637) (Medical) Pierre Cabanis, French physiologist, was born (died 5/5/1808).

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17/5/1757, Tuesday (-68,656) (Russia, Germany) Russian troops advanced on Konigsberg, Prussia.

6/5/1757, Friday (-68,667) (France-Germany, East Europe) The Battle of Prague. Frederick�s Prussian Army of 64,000 routed an Austrian Army of 66,000 under Browne and Prince Charles of Lorraine. This defeat came before the Austrians could be reinforced by more troops under Leopold Joseph, Graf von Daun. 14,000 Austrians were killed, 16,000 escaped to join von Daun, and the rest fled into Prague itself where they were besieged by Frederick.

1/5/1757, Sunday (-68,672) (France-Germany, East Europe) Austria and France signed the Second Treaty of Versailles, allying themselves for an offensive against Prussia. Under this Treaty, Austria would regain Silesia (from Prussia) but would cede the Austrian Netherlands (to be divided between King Louis XV of France and his Spanish Bourbon cousin Philip Duke of Parma). Philip�s Italian possessions would revert to Austrian rule. France would garrison 105,000 of its troops in Prussia, in addition to supplying 30,000 men to the Austrian Army (increased from an earlier figure of 24,000). France would provide an annual subsidy to Austria of 12,000,000 livres. Meanwhile on 11/1/1757 France had concluded a secret treaty with Russia whereby France agreed to help Russia in the event of any attack on Russia by Turkey (contravening a long-standing detente between France and Turkey). In return for this Russia would supply 80,000 men against Prussia. All parties swore not to make separate peaces with Prussia, which was to be partitioned between the Allies.

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19/4/1757, Tuesday (-68,684) Edward Exmouth, English Admiral, was born (died 23/1/1833).

18/4/1757, Monday (-68,685) Frederick of Prussia left his winter quarters and marched on Prague.See 16/10/1757.

10/4/1757, Sunday (-68,693) Easter Sunday.

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31/3/1757, Thursday (-68,703) (Finland) Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, Governor General of the grand Duchy of Finland, was born in Finland (died 19/8/1814 in Tsarskoe Selo).

23/3/1757, Wednesday (-68,711) The British won the Battle of Chandernagore, Bengal.

14/3/1757, Monday (-68,720) Admiral John Byng was executed by firing squad on the Monarque at Portsmouth, for his failure to relieve the island of Minorca, under attack by the French, at the start of the Seven Years War. In fact his fleet was probably inadequate for the task; having failed to prevent a French landing on Minorca, he took advice to leave the British garrison to its fate.

8/3/1757, Tuesday (-68,726) (Britain) Thomas Blackwell, Scottish classical scholar, died (born in Aberdeen 4/4/1701).

6/3/1757, Sunday (-68,728) Louis Fontanes, French poet, was born (died 17/3/1821),

1/3/1757, Tuesday (-68,733) John Boydell, publisher, was born in Dorrington (died in Paris 23/11/1833).

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7/2/1757, Monday (-68,755) The Treaty of Alinagar was concluded by Clive of Plassey, following his recapture of Calcutta from the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj al Daula. Under this Treaty, Calcutta was returned to the East India Company, who gained the right to fortify the city and to print money. Calcutta became a bridgehead from which the East India Company extended its control across Bengal.

1/2/1757, Tuesday (-68,761) John Philip Kemble, actor, was born (died 26/2/1823).

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22/1/1757, Saturday (-68,771) Christian Beck, German historical writer, was born in Leipzig (died in Leipzig 13/12/1832).

11/1/1757, Tuesday (-68,782) Alexander Hamilton, US statesman, was born (died 12/7/1804).

9/1/1757, Sunday (-68,784) Bernard Fontenelle, French author, died (born 11/2/1657).

2/1/1757, Sunday (-68,791) Clive of India captured Calcutta after it had been seized by the Nawab of Bengal. The Nawab had imprisoned 146 British in the infamous Black Hole of Calcutta, see 20/6/1756. This brought Bengal, with all its wealth, under British control.

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26/12/1756, Sunday (-68,798) Bernard Lacepede, French naturalist writer, was born (died 6/10/1825).

11/12/1756, Saturday (-68,813) Theodore Neuhof, German adventurer and claimant to the throne of Corsica, died.

8/12/1756, Wednesday (-68,816) William Stanhope, British politician, died.

16/11/1756, Tuesday (-68,838)

3/11/1756, Wednesday (-68,851) Pierre Laromiguiere, French philosophical writer, was born.

16/10/1756, Saturday (-68,869) (1) (France-Germany, East Europe) The army of Saxony capitulated to Frederick of Prussia at the fortress of Pirma.See 18/4/1857. Most of the Saxon Army joined with Prussia.

(2) Noah Webster, American lexicographer who wrote Webster�s Dictionary, was born in West Hartford, Connecticut.

13/10/1756, Wednesday (-68,872) James Gambier, British Admiral, was born (died 19/4/1833),

1/10/1756, Friday (-68,884) (France-Germany, East Europe) The Battle of Lobositz (midway between Dresden and Prague).The Prussians defeated the Austrians. Russia would have marched to help Austria against Prussia, but this would entail Russian troops crossing Poland. Although France would nominally have welcomed this, as it would relieve the French from helping Austria, and Poland was allied to France, in secret the French would not welcome any Russian influence upon Poland.

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24/9/1755, Friday (-68,891) John Marshall, US jurist, was born (died 6/7/1835).

22/9/1756, Wednesday (-68,893) (Britain) Hobart, Earl of Buckingham, died.

21/9/1756, Tuesday (-68,894). John Mac Adam, Scottish surveyor who pioneered the uses of tar-macadam for road surfacing, was born in Ayr.

10/9/1756, Friday (-68,905) (France-Germany, East Europe) Frederick entered the Saxon capital, Dresden, with his army of 70,000. The Saxon Army, 20,000, fell back to Pirna to the south east. Prussia assured Poland of it�s good intentions but was not believed; Poland was also friendly with France. Meanwhile an Austrian army under Ulysses von Browne, of 32,000 men, was moving from Bohemia to unite with the Saxons. To counter this threat, Frederick moved into Bohemia, towards Lobositz (see 1/10/1756).

7/9/1756, Tuesday (-68,908) Willem Bilderdijk, Dutch poet, was born in Amsterdam (died in Haarlem 18/12/1831).

29/8/1756. Sunday(-68,917) (France-Germany, East Europe) Frederick II of Prussia invaded Saxony, setting off a European war. Britain was allied with Prussia and Hanover, against Austria, Saxony and France, see 16/1/1756, and 1/7/1756. Austria wanted to regain its province of Silesia,taken by Frederick II of Prussia during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48). Frederick , believing in attacking first, invaded Saxony to detach it from the Franco-Austrian alliance.

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20/6/1756. Sunday (-68,987) Night of the Black Hole of Calcutta. See 2/1/1757, and 12/8/1765. A total of 147 people were confined in what came to be known as the Black Hole of Calcutta. The remaining European defenders of Calcutta in the Seven Years War in India were shut away in a local lock up for petty offenders, following the capture of Calcutta by the Nawab Siraj Ul Dawlah of Bengal. The Black Hole was a room 18 feet long by 14 foot 10 inches wide, with only two small windows. According to the British leader John Z Holwell, only 23 of the 147 imprisoned survived, but this figure may be inaccurate. Instead of the suspected slaughter, the Nawab may have been guilty of negligence.

13/6/1756, Sunday (-68,994) Edmund Lodge, English heraldry writer, was born (died 16/1/1839).

11/6/1756, Friday (-68,996) Cesar du Marsais, French scholarly writer, died (born 17/9/1676)

4/6/1756, Friday (-69,003) Jean Chaptal, French statesman, was born (died 30/7/1832).

31/5/1756, Monday (-69,007) James Currie, Scottish physician, was born (died 31/8/1805).

27/5/1756, Thursday (-69,011) Maximillian I, King of Bavaria, was born.

18/5/1756, Tuesday (-69,020) (Britain, France) Britain declared war on France. This was the start of the Seven Years War.

6/5/1756, Thursday (-69,032) Andre Massena, one of Napoleon�s Marshals, was born (died 4/4/1817).

1/5/1756, Saturday (-69,037) Alarmed by the Convention of Westminster, (see 16/1/1756), the French concluded a defensive treaty with Austria, who was under threat from the Prussians. The Russians were also concerned at the Anglo-Prussian alliance and sought closer ties with Austria and France.

18/4/1756, Sunday (-69,050) Easter Sunday. (Astronomy) Jacques Cassini, astronomer, died (born 8/2/1677).

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30/3/1756, Tuesday (-69,069) Juan Llorente, Spanish historical writer, was born (died 5/2/1823).

3/3/1756, Wednesday (-69,096) William Godwin, English political writer, wife of the noted feminist campaigner Mary Wollstonecraft, was born (died 7/4/1836).

23/2/1756, Monday (-69,105) Juan Forner, Spanish writer, was born (died 17/3/1799).

22/2/1756, Sunday (-69,106) Georg Martens, German legal writer, was born (died 21/2/1821).

17/2/1756, Tuesday (-69,111) (Medicine) Johann Ackermann, German physician, (died 9/3/1801 in Altdorf) was born

6/2/1756, Friday (-69,122) (USA) Aaron Burr, US politician, was born (died 14/9/1836).

29/1/1756, Thursday (-69,130) Henry Lee, US General, was born (died 25/3/1818).

27/1/1756, Tuesday (-69,132) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer, was born in Salzburg, the son of a musician.

16/1/1756. Friday (-69,143) (Britain, France-Germany, Russia) George II secured an agreement, the Convention of Westminster, by which Frederick of Prussia guaranteed to help England if Hanover was attacked, and England promised to help Prussia if Silesia was attacked.This guaranteed the neutrality of the Prussian states under Frederick II in the escalating Anglo-French dispute.However it was also alarming to Russia, who saw the Treaty as a potential Anglo-Prussian alliance against them. See 1/5/1756.

6/1/1756, Tuesday (-69,153) Melchior Goldast, Swiss historical writer, was born (died 1635).

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1/12/1755, Monday (-69,189) Maurice Greene, English composer, died (born 1695).

17/11/1755, Monday (-69,203) Louis XVIII, King of France after the fall of Napoleon, was born in Versailles.

13/11/1755, Thursday (-69,207) Joseph :Louis, French statesman, was born (died 26/8/1837).

2/11/1755, Sunday (-69,218) Marie Antoinette, Austrian princess and Queen Consort of Louis XVI of France, was born in Vienna.

1/11/1755, Saturday (-69,219) An earthquake reduced two thirds of Lisbon to rubble, killing 60,000 people. Lisbon had been a great city with a population of about a quarter of a million. The quake has been estimated at Richter 9, and caused cracks as wide as 5 metres in the ground to open. Further destruction was caused when a 6 metre high tsunami struck, drowning many who had sought refuge on ships in the harbour. Fire then destroyed many more buildings. Striking on All Saints Day, the quake caused many to be sceptical of God�s existence, and the event spurred research into natural causes for disasters rather than Acts of God, laying the foundations for the Enlightenment.

20/10/1755, Monday (-69,231) Pierre Lefebvre, Marshal of France, was born (died 14/9/1820).

14/10/1755, Tuesday (-69,237) Thomas Charles, Welsh educationalist, was born (died 5/10/1814).

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17/9/1755, Wednesday (-69,264) (Britain) William Cathcart, English soldier, was born (died 16/6/1843).

10/9/1755, Wednesday (-69,271) (France) Bertrand Barere, French politician, was born in Tarbes (died 13/1/1841).

8/9/1755, Monday (-69,273) Colonial British troops in America defeated a comboined force of French and Amerindians at the Battle of Lake George.

29/8/1755, Friday (-69,283) Jan Dombrowski, Polish General, was born (died 19/6/1799).

24/8/1755, Sunday (-69,288) Louis Narbonne-Lara, French statesman, was born (died 17/11/1813).

20/8/1755, Wednesday (-69,292) Toussaint Bernard Emeric David, art writer, was born (died 2/4/1839).

13/8/1755, Wednesday (-69,299) Francesco Durante, Italian composer, died (born 15/3/1684).

12/8/1755, Tuesday (-69,300) Conrad Malte-Brun, French geographical writer, was born (died 14/12/1826).

4/8/1755, Monday (-69,308) Nicolas Conte, French chemist, was born (died 6/12/1805).

28/7/1755, Monday (-69,315) The �Great Upheaval� in Nova Scotia, Canada. The British colony decided to expel all French colonists who would ot sear allegiance to the British Crown. In tye subsequent conflict, thousands died over the next 8 years.

9/7/1755, Wednesday (-69,334) General Braddock�s troops were attacked by a joint force of French and Indians near Fort Duquesne.

8/7/1755, Tuesday (-69,335) Britain and France broke off diplomatic relations as their dispute over North America deepened.

6/7/1755, Sunday (-69,337) John Flaxman, English sculptor, was born (died 7/12/1826).

4/7/1755, Friday (-69,339) Jean Gail, French writer on Greece, was born (died 5/2/1829).

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15/6/1755, Sunday (-69,358) (Chemistry) Antoine Francoise was born in Paris. In 1799 he isolated urea.

14/6/1755, Saturday (-69,359) Dr Johnson�s dictionary went on sale at �4 10s for the two volumes.

10/6/1755, Tuesday (-69,363)

7/6/1755, Saturday (-69,366) Earthquake hit northern Persia, killing 40,000.

6/6/1755, Friday (-69,367) Nathan Hale, American revolutionary who was hanged for spying on the British, was born.

30/5/1755, Friday (-69,374) Jean Collin D�Harleville, French dramatist, was born (died 24/2/1806).

14/5/1755, Wednesday (-69,390) (Ireland) George Barrington, Irish adventurer, was born in Maynooth.

16/4/1755, Wednesday (-69,418) Francois Monlosier, French writer, was born (died 9/12/1838).

15/4/1755, Tuesday (-69,419) Dr Samuel�s dictionary was published, after nine years of work. It contained 40,000 words.

10/4/1755, Thursday (-69,424) Samuel Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy, was born (died 2/7/1843).

1/4/1755, Tuesday (-69,433) (Food) Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, French gastronomist, was born (died 2/2/1826).

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30/3/1755, Sunday (-69,435) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1755, Monday (-69,441) Rufus King, US politician, was born (died 29/4/1827)

6/3/1755, Thursday (-69,459) Jean Florian, French poet, was born (died 13/9/1794).

25/2/1755, Tuesday (-69,468) Francois Mallarme, French Revolutionist, was born (died 25/7/1835).

21/2/1755, Friday (-69,472) Anne Grant, Scottish writer, was born (died 7/11/1838).

16/2/1755, Sunday (-69,477) (Germany) Friedrich Bulow, Prussian General, was born (died 25/2/1816).

11/2/1755, Tuesday (-69,482) Francesco Maffei, Italian writer, died (born 1/6/1575).

10/2/1755, Monday (-69,483) Charles Montesquieu, French writer, died.

20/1/1755, Monday (-69,504)

12/1/1755, Sunday (-69,512) The first Russian university, at Moscow, opened.

11/1/1755, Saturday (-69,513) Alexander Hamilton, US statesman and founder of the newly independent post-Revolution Government,was born on Nevis, British West Indies.

7/1/1755, Tuesday (-69,517) William Brown, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 11/5/1830).

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25/12/1754, Wednesday (-69,530) Jean Bouchotte, French politician, was born in Metz (died 8/6/1840).

9/12/1754, Monday (-69,546) Francis Hastings, British colonial Governor of India, was born (died 28/11/1826).

27/11/1754, Wednesday (-69,558) Abraham Demoivre, English mathematician, died (born 26/5/1667).

16/11/1754, Saturday (-69,569) William Marsden, English orientalist writer, was born (died 6/10/1836).

8/11/1754, Friday (-69,577) Germain Garnier, French politician, was born (died 4/10/1821).

30/10/1754, Wednesday (-69,586) Philippe Merlin, French politician, was born (died 26/12/1838).

28/10/1754, Monday (-69,588) Friedrich von Hagedorn, German poet, died (born 23/4/1708).

8/10/1754. Tuesday (-69,608) Henry Fielding died, aged 47. He is famous as the author of the novel Tom Jones but he also, as a Justice of the Peace, organised the detective force that became Scotland Yard.

2/10/1754, Wednesday (-69,614) Louis Bonald, French politician, was born near Millau (died 23/11/1840).

1/10/1754, Tuesday (-69,615) Paul I, Tsar of Russia, was born.

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9/9/1754, Monday (-69,637) William Bligh, captain of The Bounty, at the time of the mutiny, was born in Plymouth.

23/8/1754, Friday (-69,654) Louis XVI, King of France, was born at Versailles, the only son of Louis XV.

21/8/1754, Wednesday (-69,656) William Murdock, inventor of coal-gas lighting in 1792, was born at Auchinlek, Ayrshire.

18/8/1754, Sunday (-69,659) Francois Chasseloup-Laubat, French General, was born (died 1833).

17/8/1754, Saturday (-69,660) Louis Freron, French Revolutionary, was born (died 1802).

10/8/1754, Saturday (-69,667)

31/7/1754, Wednesday (-69,677) Bon Moncey, Marshal of France, was born (died 20/4/1842).

11/7/1754, Thursday (-69,697) Thomas Bowdler, whose expurgation of vulgarities in literary works gave the word �bowdlerise�, was born.

10/7/1754, Wednesday (-69,698) Benjamin Franklin called for a Union of the British colonies in America, so as to co-ordinate defence against the French; the so-called Albany Plan.

7/7/1754, Sunday (-69,701)

4/7/1754, Thursday (-69,704) Philippe Destouches, French dramatist, died (born 4/1680).

3/7/1754, Wednesday (-69,705) British forces under George Washington were defeated by the French near Fort Necessity in the Ohio Valley.

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26/6/1754, Wednesday (-69,712) Gabriel Montgomery, French soldier, died.

17/6/1754, Monday (-69,721) Prosper Crebillon, French poet, died (born 13/1/1764).

12/6/1754, Wednesday (-69,726) Isaac le Chapelier, French politician, was born (executed 22/4/1794).

2/6/1754, Sunday (-69,736) Ebenezer Erskine, Scottish religious writer, died (born 22/6/1680).

19/5/1754, Sunday (-69,750) Claramunt Lazan, Spanish poet, died (born 28/3/1702).

14/5/1754, Tuesday (-69,755) The Royal and Ancient (St Andrews) Golf Club was founded. The first game was played on the links this day.

9/5/1754, Thursday (-69,760) The first US newspaper cartoon appeared, in Benjamin Franklin�s Pennsylvania Gazette.

6/5/1754, Monday (-69,763) Joseph Joubert, French moralistic writer, was born (died 3/5/1824).

15/4/1754, Monday (-69,784) (Mathematics) Jacopo Riccati, mathematician, died in Treviso, Italy.

14/4/1754, Sunday (-69,785) Easter Sunday. Alexandre Hauterive, French statesman, was born (died 28/7/1830).

7/4/1754, Sunday (-69,792)

1/4/1754, Monday (-69,798) Joseph de Maistre, French polemical writer, was born (died 26/2/1821).

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25/3/1754, Monday (-69,805) William Hamilton, Scottish poet, died (born 1704).

24/3/1754, Sunday (-69,806) Joel Barlow, US poet, was born in Redding, Connecticut (died in Poland 14/12/1812).

18/3/1754, Monday (-69,812) Robert Walpole, Britain�s first Prime Minister, died.

11/3/1754, Monday (-69,819) Valdes Melendez, Spanish poet, was born.

6/3/1754, Wednesday (-69,824) Henry Pelham left office as Prime Minister.

16/2/1754, Saturday (-69,842) Richard Mead, English medical writer, died (born 11/8/1673).

13/2/1754, Wednesday (-69,845) Guillaume de Bonne-Carriere, French politician, was born in Languedoc (died 1825).

6/2/1754, Wednesday (-69,852) Andrew Fuller, English religious writer, was born (died 7/5/1815).

2/2/1754, Saturday (-69,856) Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, French foreign minister to Louis XVIII and Napoleon Bonaparte, and ambassador to Britain, was born.

28/1/1754, Monday (-69,861) Ludvig Holberg, writer, died in Copenhagen (born in Bergen, Norway 3/12/1684).

20/1/1754, Sunday (-69,869) John Erskine 11th Earl of Mar, English MP, died.

10/1/1754, Thursday (-69,879) Edward Cave, English printer, died (born 27//2/1691).

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4/12/1753, Tuesday (-69,916) Sir Charles Douglas, British Admiral, was born (died 2/1789).

3/12/1753, Monday (-69,917) Samuel Crompton, inventor of the Spinning Mule which revolutionised the textiles industry, was born at Firwood, near Bolton.He was the son of a farmer.

30/11/1753, Friday (-69,920) Benjamin Franklin received the Godfrey Copley medal for his �curious experiments and observations on electricity�.

23/11/1753, Friday (-69,927) Guillaume Dumas, French General, was born (died 16/10/1837).

10/11/1753, Saturday (-89,940) Bertrand la Bourdonnais, French naval Commender, died (born 11/2/1699).

18/10/1753, Thursday (-69,963) Jean Cambaceres, French statesman, was born (died 1824).

15/10/1753, Monday (-69,966) Elizabeth Inchbald, English novelist, was born (died 1/8/1821).

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10/9/1753, Monday (-70,001) Birth of the architect Sir John Soane. He was born at Goring, near Reading, the son of a mason, and in 1788 he became architect and surveyor to the Bank of England. The new exterior he created for the Bank was regarded as his most famous work. In 1806 he became Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy; he was knighted in 1831. His home at 13 Lincoln�s Inn Fields, which he designed, was the setting for his art and antiques collection. He lived there alone after his wife died in 1815; it is now the John Soane Museum. He also designed the Dulwich College Picture Gallery in south London.

24/8/1753, Friday (-70,018) Louis la Revelliere-Lepaux, French politician, was born (died 27/3/1824).

24/7/1753, Tuesday (-70,049)

5/7/1752, Thursday (-70,068) Luke Hansard, British printer, was born (died 29/10/1828).

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17/6/1753, Sunday (-70,086) (Britain) George Grenville, First Marquess of Bath, was born (died 11/2/1813).

4/6/1753, Monday (-70,099) Johann Gabler, German religious writer, was born (died 17/2/1826).

12/5/1753, Saturday (-70,122) George Gleig, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 9/3/1840).

8/5/1753, Tuesday (-70,126) Miguel Hidalgo, Mexican patriot, was born (died 1811).

1/5/1753, Tuesday (-70,133) Carl Linnaeus� Species Plantarum was published. This is regarded as the formal starting date of plant taxonomy.

28/4/1753, Saturday (-70,136) (Chemistry) Franz Achard, Prussian chemist (died 20/4/1821 in Silesia) was born in Berlin.

23/4/1753, Monday (-70,141) Francois Bouvet, French Captain, was born (died 21/7/1832).

22/4/1753, Sunday (-70,142) Easter Sunday.

12/4/1753, Thursday (-70,152)

5/4/1753, Thursday (-70,159) (London) The Founding Charter of the British Museum was enacted.

4/4/1753, Wednesday (-70,160) The date of the end of the tax year, which had been Lady Day, 25 March, was altered to this date. This was due to the 11 days cropped from the year 1752 as the calendar was altered to the Gregorian Calendar. See 3/9/1752 and 5/4/1800.

3/4/1753, Tuesday (-70,161) Samuel Johnson began the second volume of his dictionary.

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27/3/1753, Tuesday (-70,168) (Britain) Andrew Bell, British divine and educationalist, was born in St Andrews (died in Cheltenham 27/1/1832).

24/3/1752, Saturday (-70,171) Antoine Gorsas, French writer, was born (guillotined 7/10/1793).

21/3/1753, Wednesday (-70,174) (Geology) Franz Bruckmann, German geologist, died (born 27/9/1767). He was the first to use the terms oolite and oolitic for rocks that resembled the roe of a fish in graininess.

12/3/1753, Monday (-70,183) Jean Lanjuinais, French writer, was born (died 13/1/1827).

9/3/1753, Friday (-70,186) Jean Kleber, French General, was born (died 14/6/1800).

20/2/1753, Tuesday (-70,203) Louis Berthier, French politician, was born in Versailles (died in Bamberg 1/6/1815).

7/2/1753, Wednesday (-70,216) (France) Nicolas Bassville, French politician, was born in Abbeville (died 13/1/1793).

23/1/1753, Tuesday (-70,231) Anne Louise Maine, French noblewoman, died.

14/1/1753, Sunday (-70,240) George Berkeley, scholarly writer, died (born 12/3/1685).

11/1/1753, Thursday (-70,243) Death at age 93 of the collector Sir Hans Sloane. Born in County Down, Ireland in 1660, Sloane studied in London and France before finally settling in London as a physician. He was famous for his collection of plants, antiquities, cons, and some 50,000 books and 3,650 manuscripts that were to form the nucleus of the British Museum collection after his death. In Jamaica in 1685-6 he had collected a herbarium of 800 species. The Birmingham chocolate manufacturers, the Cadbury family, owe Sloane a debt forwhile in Jamaica he came across a cocoa drink favoured by the locals which Sloane found nauseous. However if mixed with milk it became more palatable. He brought this back to England where it was used by the Cadbury family.

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31/12/1752, Sunday (-70,254)

20/11/1752, Friday (-70,295) Thomas Chatterton, English poet, was born (died 24/8/1770).

19/11/1752, Thursday (-70,296) (USA) George Clarke, US frontiersman, was born (died 13/2/1818).

5/11/1752, Thursday (-70,310) Carl Duker, German scholarly writer, died (born 1670).

16/10/1752, Friday (-70,330) Johann Eichhorn, German religious writer, was born (died 27/6/1827).

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20/9/1752, Wednesday (-70,356) (France) Louise Caroline, Countess of Albany, was born in Mons.

3/9/1752=14/9/1752. Thursday (-70,362) The date (in Britain) changed this day to 14/9/1752 with the introduction of the Gregorian Calendar. See 5/4/1753. See also 5/10/1582, start of Gregorian calendar. Crowds of people protested, believing their lives had been �shortened� by 11 days (days 3-13 September 1752 inclusive did not exist).The old Julian Calendar had a leap year every 4th year, and therefore was 365.25 days long.However the calendar had now got out of step with the real year.The new calendar omitted leap years every century, unless the year was divisible by 400.

See also 44 BCE, start of Julian Calendar.

25/8/1752, Tuesday (-70,371) Karl Mack von Leiberich, Austrian soldier, was born (died 22/10/1828).

18/8/1752, Tuesday (-70,378) Gaetano Filangiero, Italian writer, was born (died 21/7/1788).

31/7/1752, Friday (-70,396) The oldest zoo in the world (as in 2002) opened, in Vienna.

7/7/1752, Tuesday (-70,420) Joseph Jacquard, French inventor of an improved loom, was born (died 7/8/1834).

5/7/1752, Sunday (-70,422) Luke Hansard, British printer, was born (died 29/10/1828).

3/7/1752, Friday (-70,424) Heinrich Henke, German religious writer, was born (died 2/5/1809).

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16/6/1752, Tuesday (-70,441) (Italy) Giulio Alberoni, Italian statesman, died (born 31/5/1664 near Piacenza).

13/6/1752, Saturday (-70,444) Frances D�Arblay, English novelist, was born (died 6/1/1840).

11/6/1752, Thursday (-70,446) Christian Haugwitz, German syatesman, was born (died 1831).

10/6/1752, Wednesday (-70,447) Benjamin Franklin tested the lightning conductor with his kite-flying experiment.

5/6/1752, Friday (-70,452) George Burder, English Christian writer, was born (died 29/5/1832).

23/5/1752, Saturday (-70,465) William Bradford, printer, died in New York, USA (born in Leicestershire, UK 20/5/1663).

22/5/1752, Friday (-70,466) Louis Legendre, French Revolutionist, was born (died 13/12/1797).

14/5/1752, Thursday (-70,474) Timothy Dwight, US religious writer, was born (died 11/1/1817).

11/5/1752, Monday (-70,477) (Biology) Johann Blumenbach, German physiologist, was born in Gotha (died in Gottingen 22/1/1840).

10/4/1752, Friday (-70,508) (Medical) William Cheselden, English surgeon, died (born 19/10/1688).

5/4/1752, Sunday (-70,513) Sebastien Erard, musical instrument maker, was born (died 5/8/1831).

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29/3/1752, Sunday (-70,520) Easter Sunday.

23/3/1752, Monday (-70,526) Canada�s first newspaper, the Halifax Gazette, went on sale.

17/2/1752, Monday (-70,561) Friedrich Klinger, German novelist, was born (died 25/2/1831).

9/2/1752, Sunday (-70,569) Frederik Hasselquist, Swedish writer, died (3/1/1722).

2/2/1753, Sunday (-70,576) Carlo Fea, Italian archaeological writer, was born (died 18/3/1836).

31/1/1752, Friday (-70,578) Gouverneur Morris, US statesman, was born (died 6/11/1816).

16/1/1752, Thursday (-70,593) Francis Blomefield, English historian, died in London (born in Fersfield, Norfolk 23/7/1705).

3/1/1752, Friday (-70,606) Johannes Muller, Swiss historical writer, was born (died 29/5/1809).

1/1/1752, Wednesday (-70,608) Officially the first �new year� to fall on 1st January; previously the new year had begun on 25th March.

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26/12/1751, Thursday (-70,614) George Gordon, English naval lieutenant, was born (died 1/11/1793).

16/12/1751, Monday (-70,624) (USA) George Cabot, US politician, was born (died18/4/1823).

1/12/1751, Sunday (-70,639) Johan Kellgren, Swedish poet, was born (died 20/4/1795).

14/11/1751, Thursday (-70,656) Capel Lofft, English writer, was born (died 26/5/1824).

11/11/1751, Monday (-70,659) Julien Lamettrie, French scholarly writer, died (born 25/12/1709)

6/11/1752, Wednesday (-70,664) (Britain) Ralph Erskine, Scottish divine, died (born 18/3/1685).

5/11/1751, Tuesday (-70,665) British forces defeated the French in the battle for control of southern India at Arcot.

1/11/1751, Friday (-70,669) Sir Herbert Croft, English author, was born (died 26/4/1816).

30/10/1751, Wednesday (-70,671) The dramatist Richard Brinsley Sheridan was born in Dublin.He was the son of a teacher of elocution.

26/10/1751, Saturday (-70,675) Philip Doddridge, English religious writer, died (born 26/6/1702).

22/10/1751, Tuesday (-70,679) The Dutch Stadtholder, William IV, died aged 40. He was succeeded by his 3-year old son William V.

19/10/1751, Saturday (-70,682) Charles Kilmaine, French general, was born (died 15/12/1799).

9/10/1751, Wednesday (-70,692) Pierre lacretelle, French writer, was born.

2/10/1751, Wednesday (-70,699) Thomas Mathews, English Admiral, died.

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4/7/1751, Thursday (-70,789) Antoine Ferrand, French political writer, was born (died 17/1/1825).

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4/6/1751, Tuesday (-70,819) (Britain) John Eldon, Lord High Chancellor of England, was born (died 13/1/1838).

2/6/1751, Sunday (-70,821) (Britain) John Bampton, English scholar, died aged 61.

25/5/1751, Saturday (-70,829) Nathaniel Halhed, English orientalist writer, was born (died 18/2/1830).

11/5/1751, Saturday (-70,843) Pennsylvania Hospital was founded in Philadelphia, by Benjamin Franklin and Dr Thomas Bond.

7/5/1751, Tuesday (-70,847) Girolamo Lucchesini, Prussian diplomat, was born (died 20/10/1825).

7/4/1751, Sunday (-70,877) Easter Sunday

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29/3/1751, Friday (-70,886) (Medical) Thomas Coram, English philanthropist who established the Foundling Hospital in Hatton Garden , London (17/10/1740) died (born 1668).

16/3/1751, Saturday (-70,899) James Madison, American Republican and 4th President, was born in Port Conway, Virginia, the first of 12 children.

8/3/1751, Friday (-70,907) Earthquake in Echigo, Japan, 1,700 killed.

5/3/1751, Tuesday (-70,910) (Prisons) Trophime Lally-Tollendal, French prison reformer, was born (died 11/3/1830).

9/2/1751, Saturday (-70,934) Henri Aguesseau, Chancellor of France (born 27/11/1668) died.

12/1/1751, Saturday (-70,962) Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, was born (died 4/1/1825).

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12/12/1750, Wednesday (-70,993) Lady Anne Barnard, writer, was born in Fife (died in London 6/5/1825).

4/12/1750, Tuesday (-71,001) Henri Gregoire, French Revolutionary was born (died 20/5/1831).

16/11/1750, Friday (-71,019) Westminster Bridge, London, opened. It replaced the old ferry which operated here until this time.

26/10/1750, Friday (-71,040) Abraham Benard, French actor, was born (died 3/3/1822).

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26/9/1750, Wednesday (-71,070) (Britain) Lord Collingwood, British naval officer, Nelson�s second in command at Trafalgar, was born in Newcastle on Tyne.

25/9/1750, Tuesday (-71,071) (Geology) German geologist Abraham Gottlob Werner was born in Wehrau. He pioneered a method of classifying minerals by their physical characteristics such as colour, hardness, transparency, lustre, and shape.

18/9/1750, Tuesday (-71,078) Tomas de Iriarte, Spanish poet, was born (died 17/9/1791).

15/9/1750, Saturday (-71,081) Charles Pachelbel, composer, died.

5/9/1750, Wednesday (-71,091) Robert Fergusson, Scottish poet, was born (died 16/10/1774).

4/9/1750, Tuesday (-71,092) Jose de Canizares, Spanish dramatist, died (born 4.7.1676).

23/8/1750, Thursday (-71,104) (Earthquakes, Britain) An earth tremor was felt in Spalding. On 2/3/1750 an earth tremor had been felt in London, and on 2/4/1750 another tremor was felt in Warrington.

14/8/1750, Tuesday (-71,113) Charles Butler, English legal writer, was born (died 2/6/1832).

31/7/1750, Tuesday (-71,127) (Portugal) Joao V of Portugal died aged 61, after reigning for 44 years. He was succeeded by his son, 35, Jose Manuel.

28/7/1750, Saturday (-71,130) Composer Johann Sebastian Bach died, almost blind, of apoplexy. He was born on 21/3/1685 in Eisenach, Germany. He fathered 20 children, and also composed 300 cantatas, two oratorios, the St John and St Matthew Passions, and Mass in B Minor.

25/7/1750, Wednesday (-71,133) Henry Knox, US General, was born (died 25/10/1806).

24/7/1750, Tuesday (-71,134) John Curran, Irish politician, was born (died 14/10/1817).

2/7/1750, Monday (-71,156) Francois Huber, naturalist, was born (died 1831).

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24/6/1750, Sunday (-71,164) Deodat Dolomieu, French geologist, was born (died 26/11/1801).

18/6/1750, Monday (-71,170) Johann Jahn, German orientalist writer, was born (died 16/8/1816).

31/5/1750, Thursday (-71,188) Karl Hardenberg, Prussian statesman, was born (died 26/11/1822).

20/5/1750, Sunday (-71,199) Stephen Girard, US financier and philanthropist, was born (died 26/12/1831).

27/4/1750, Friday (-71,222) Sir Thomas Bernard, English social reformer, was born in Lincoln (died 1/7/1818).

26/4/1750, Thursday (-71,223) Thomas Belsham, English ecclesiastical writer, was born in Bedford (died 1829).

17/4/1750, Tuesday (-71,232) Nicolas Francois, French poet, was born (died 10/1/1828).

15/4/1750, Sunday (-71,234) Easter Sunday.

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20/3/1750, Monday (-71,267) Martin van Marum, Dutch physicist, was born (died 26/12/1837).

16/3/1750, Thursday (-71,269) Caroline Herschel, English astronomer, was born (died 9/1/1848).

18/2/1750, Sunday (-71,290) Georg Bilfinger, German statesman, died in Stuttgart (was born in Wurttemberg 23/1/1693).

14/2/1750, Wednesday (-71,294) Rene Desfontaines, French botanist, was born (died 16/11/1833).

8/2/1750, Thursday (-71,300) Aaron Hill,English author, died (born 10/2/1685).

28/1/1750, Sunday (-71,311) Mederic Moreau, French politician, was born.

23/1/1750, Tuesday (-71,316) Ludovico Muratori, Italian scholatrly writer, died (born 21/10/1672).

10/1/1750, Wednesday (-71,329) Thomas Erskine, Lord Chancellor of England, was born (died 17/11/1823).

7/1/1750, Sunday (-71,332) Robert Anderson, Scottish writer, was born in Carnwath, Lanarkshire (died 20/2/1830 in Edinburgh).

3/1/1750, Wednesday (-71,336) (Britain) Lady Harriet (Christian Acland) was born (died 31/7/1815).

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17/12/1749, Sunday (-71,353) Domenico Cimarosa, Italian composer, was born (died 11/1/1801).

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19/9/1749, Tuesday (-71,442) Jean Delambre, French astronomer, was born (died 19/8/1822).

10/9/1749, Sunday (-71,451) Emilie du Chatelet, physicist, died.

8/9/1749, Friday (-71,453) Dominique Garat, French writer, was born (died 25/4/1833).

29/8/1749, Tuesday (-71,463) (Medical) Physician Sir Gilbert Blane was born in Blanefield, Scotland. In 1795 he got the Royal Navy to make consumption of lime juice by sailors compulsory to prevent scurvy. This earned British sailors the nickname �limeys�.

28/8/1749, Monday (-71.464) Johann Goethe, German poet and novelist, author of Faust, was born in Frankfurt Am main, son of a lawyer.

10/8/1749, Thursday (-71,482) John Edwin, English actor, was born (died 31/10/1790).

9/7/1749, Sunday (-71,514) The British founded the naval settlement of Halifax, Nova Scotia, as an answer to the French base of Louisburg.

==================================================================================

19/5/1749, Friday (-71,565) King George II of Britain granted the Ohio Company a charter of land on the Ohio River.

17/5/1749, Wednesday (-71,567) Edward Jenner, pioneer of vaccination, was born at Berkeley vicarage, Gloucestershire

9/4/1749, Sunday (-71,605) Camillo Frederici, Italian dramatist, was born (died 23/12/1802).

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30/3/1749, Thursday (-71,615) (Electrical) Tiberius Cavallo, electrical scientist, was born (died 21/12/1809).

28/3/1749, Tuesday (-71,617) Pierre Laplace, French astronomer, was born (died 5/3/1827)

26/3/1749, Sunday (-71,619) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1749, Saturday (-71,627) Sir Matthew Decker, economics writer, died (born 1679).

12/3/1749, Sunday (-71,633) Allesandro Magnasco, painter, died aged 81 in Genoa.

9?3/1749, Thursday (-71,636) Honore Mirabeau, French statesman, was born (died 2/4/1791).

8/3/1749, Wednesday (-71,637) Nicolas Freret, French scholarly writer, died (born 15/2/1688).

22/2/1749, Wednesday (-71,651) Johann Forkel, German musician, was born (died 20/3/1818).

16/2/1749, Thursday (-71,657) Johann Heinse, German author, was born (died 22/6/1803).

8/2/1749, Wednesday (-71,665) Joris Huysmans, French novelist, died (born 5/2/1848).

24/1/1749, Tuesday (-71,680) Charles Fox, British statesman was born (died 13/6/1806).

17/1/1749, Tuesday (-71,687) Vittorio Alfieri, Italian dramatist (died 8/10/1803) was born in Asti, Piedmont.

13/1/1749, Friday (-71,691) Friedrich Muller, German poet, was born (died 23/4/1825).

4/1/1749,Wednesday (-71,700) Charles James Fox, British statesman, was born.

3/1/1749, Tuesday (-71,701) Benning Wentworth issued the first of the New Hampshire Grants, leading to the founding of the State of Vermont.

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21/12/1748, Wednesday (-71,714) Ludwig Holty, german poet, was born (died 1/9/1776).

9/12/1748, Friday (-71,726) Claude Berthollet, French chemist, was born in Talloire, Savoy (died in Arcueil 6/11/1822).

11/11/1748, Friday (-71,754) Charles IV of Spain was born (died 20/1/1819).

19/10/1748, Wednesday (-71,777) Thomas Lynedoch, British General, was born (died 18/12/1843).

18/10/1748, Tuesday (-71,778) Peace treaty (Treaty of Aix La Chapelle) signed to end the war of the Austrian Succession.

13/10/1748, Thursday (-71,783) Johann Fiorillo, German painter, was born (died 10/9/1821)

7/10/1748, Friday (-71,789) Charles XIII, King of Sweden, was born (died 5/2/1818).

1/10/1746, Saturday (-71,795) John Muhlenberg, US soldier, was born.

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21/9/1748, Wednesday (-71,805) John Balguy, English writer, died in Harrogate (born in Sheffield 12/8/1686).

8/9/1749, Thursday (-71,818) Marie Lamballe, French Royal Family, was born

6/9/1748, Tuesday (-71,820) Edmund Gibson, English legal writer, died (born 1669).

21/8/1748, Sunday (-71,836)

20/7/1748, Wednesday (-71,868)

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30/6/1748, Thursday (-71,888) (Cartography) Jacques Cassini was born (died 18/101845). He completed his father�s map of France (published 1793), despite difficulties caused by the French Revolution.

22/6/1748, Wednesday (-71,896) Thomas Day, British author, was born (died 28/9/1789).

7/6/1748, Tuesday (-71,911)

12/5/1748, Thursday (-71,937) Thomas Lowndes, English politician, died.

7/5/1748, Saturday (-71,942) French forces captured Maastricht, in the War of the Austrian Succession.

30/4/1748, Saturday (-71,949) Jacques David, French painter, was born (died 29/12/1825).

27/4/1748, Wednesday (-71,952) Pierre Ginguene, French writer, was born (died 11/11/1815).

24/4/1748, Sunday (-71,955) A congress assembled at Aachen (Aix la Chapelle) with a view to ending the war of the Austrian Succession, see 18/10/1748).

13/4/1748, Wednesday (-71,966) Joseph Bramah, inventor, was born.

12/4/1748, Tuesday (-71,967) Antoine de Jussieu, naturalist, was born (died 17/9/1836).

10/4/1748, Sunday (-71,969) Easter Sunday.

3/4/1748, Sunday (-71,976) Jean Burlamaqui, Swiss writer died (born 24/6/1694).

1/4/1748, Friday (-71,978) Ruins of Pompeii discovered by Spaniard, Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre. Excavations on the site of Pompeii began.

===================================================================================

28/3/1748, Monday (-71,982) A fire in the City of London caused over �1 million damage.

19/3/1748, Saturday (-71,991) Elias Hicks, US religious writer, was born (died 27/2/1830).

7/3/1748, Monday (-72,003) Pietro Giannone, Italian historical writer, died (born 7/5/1676).

28/2/1748, Sunday (-72,011) Sir John Duckworth, British Admiral, was born (died 14/4/1817).

19/2/1748, Friday (-72,020) Luther Martin, US lawyer, was born (died 10/7/1826).

15/2/1748, Monday (-72,024) Jeremy Bentham was born. He developed the philosophical doctrine of Utilitarianism.

16/1/1748, Saturday (-72,054) Arnold Drakenborgh, Dutch scholarly writer, died (born 1/1/1684).

1/1/1748, Friday (-72,069) (Science) Jean Bernoulli, physicist, died (born in Basel 27/7/1667).

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11/12/1747, Friday (-72,090) Edmund Curll, English bookseller, died (born 1675).

10/12/1747, Thursday (-72,091) Duncan Forbes, Scottish statesman, died (born 10/11/1685).

22/11/1747, Sunday (-72,109) Prince William IV of Orange became Stadtholder of all the United Provinces (Holland).

17/11/1747, Tuesday (-72,114) Alain le Sage, French novelist and dramatist, died (born 13/12/1668).

25/10/1747, Sunday (-72,137) The Second Battle of Cape Finisterre, in the War of the Austrian Succession.

19/10/1747, Monday (-72,143) (Christian) David Brainerd, US missionary to the Indians, died in Northampton, Massachusetts (born in Haddam, Connecticut 20/4/1718).

1/10/1747, Thursday (-72,161)

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28/9/1746, Monday (-72,164) Sir William Jones, English orientalist writer, was born (died 27/4/1794).

9/9/1747, Wednesday (-72,183) Johann Mosheim, German religious writer, died.

19/7/1747, Sunday (-72,235) The battle of Assietta. The troops of Charles Emmanuel III of Piedmont halted the advance on Turin by a Franco-Spanish force, during the War of the Austrian Succession.

9/7/1747, Thursday (-72,245) Giovanni Bononcini, composer, died.

6/7/1747, Monday (-72,248) John Jones, US navalofficer, was born (died 18/7/1792).

2/7/1747, Thursday (-72,252) Battle of Lauffeld.

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26/6/1746, Friday (-72,258) Jean Maury, writer and Archbishop of Paris, was born.

16/6/1747, Tuesday (-72,268) The Battle of Piacenza.

10/6/1747, Wednesday (-72,274) (India) Nadir Shah was assassinated by a bodyguard.

28/5/1747, Thursday (-72,287) Francois Laumont, mineralogist, was born (died 1/6/1834).

20/5/1747, Wednesday (-72,295) (Medical) British naval surgeon James Lind began an investigation to determine the cause of scurvy. He discovered that oranges and lemons were a good cure.

14/5/1747, Thursday (-72,301) The First Battle of Cape Finisterre, in the War of the Austrian Succession.

5/5/1747, Tuesday (-72,310) Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II was born.

9/4/1747, Thursday (-72,336) Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was executed by beheading at the Tower of London for High Treason.He was the last person to be executed this way in Britain.Only persons of high rank were beheaded; lesser persons were hanged. After this date, all were hanged. Hanging, drawing, and quartering for treason was not abolished until 1870.

2/4/1747, Thursday(-72,343) Johann Dillen, English botanist, died (born 1684).

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23/3/1747, Monday (-72,353) (France) Claude Bonneval, French adventurer, died in Constantinople (born 14/7/1675).

14/3/1747, Saturday (-72,362) Aleksander Bezborodko, Grand Chancellor of Russia, was born in Gluchova (died in St Petersburg 6/4/1799).

7/3/1747, Saturday (-72,369) William Coxe, English historical writer, was born (died 8/6/1828).

22/2/1747, Sunday (-72,382) Timothy Dexter, US merchant, was born (died 26/10/1806).

11/2/1747, Wednesday (-72,393) A combined force of French and American Indians under Captain Coulon de Villiers attacked the British at Grand Pre, Nova Scotia.

31/1/1747, Saturday (-72,404) The first venereal disease clinic opened at London Lock Hospital.

19/1/1747, Monday (-72,416) Johann Bode, German astronomer, was born in Hamburg (died in Berlin 23/11/1826).

18/1/1747, Sunday (-72,417) John Gillies, Scottish historical writer, was born (died 15/2/1836)

16/1/1747, Friday (-72,419) Barthold Brockes, German poet, died (born 22/9/1680).

11/1/1747, Sunday (-72,424) Francois la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, French statesman, was born (died 27/3/1827).

4/1/1747, Sunday (-72,431) Dominique Denon, French artist, was born (died 27/4/1825).

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31/12/1746, Wednesday (-72,435)

27/11/1746, Thursday (-72,469) Robert Livingston, US statesman, was born (died 26/2/1813).

15/11/1746, Saturday (-72,481) Jean Dugazon, French actor, was born (died 1809).

12/11/1746, Wednesday (-72,484) Jacques Charles, mathematician, was born (died 7/4/1823).

1/11/1746, Saturday (-72,495) Henry Erskine, Lord Advocate of Scotland, was born (died 8/10/1817).

28/10/1746, Tuesday (-72,499) An earthquake destroyed the towns of Lima and Callao in Peru.

22/10/1746, Wednesday (-72,505) College of New Jersey was founded.It later became Princeton University, in 1896.

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29/9/1746, Monday (-72,528) Ernst Gerber, German musical writer, was born (died 30/6/1819).

20/9/1746, Saturday (-72,537) Prince Charles Edward escaped capture by dressing as a girl and sailing to France on the ship L�Heureux.

15/9/1746, Monday (-72,542) Pierre Desforges, French dramatist, was born (died 13/8/1806).

3/9/1746, Wednesday (-72,554) Friedrich Gotter, German poet, was born (died 18/3/1797).

19/8/1746, Tuesday (-72,569) (France) Marie du Barry, mistress of King Louis XV, was born (executed 7/12/1793).

18/8/1746, Monday (-72,570) Two rebellious Scottish Jacobite Lords, the earl of Kilmarnock and Lord Balmeniro, were beheaded at the Tower of London.

1/8/1746, Friday (-72,587) England passed the Dress Act, banning the wearing of Scottish Highland Dress, including the kilt, from 1/8/1747.This was an attempt to suppress Scottish Highland culture.

25/7/1746, Friday (-72,594) The French won a major naval victory at Negapatam, allowing them to capture Madras.

9/7/1746, Wednesday (-72,610) Philip V, King of Spain, died, insane, aged 62. He reigned for 46 years. He was succeeded by his son, Ferdinand VI.

3/7/1746, Thursday (-72,616) Henry Grattan, Irish statesman, was born (died 6/6/1820).

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14/6/1746, Saturday (-72,635) Colin MacLaurin, Scottish mathematician, died.

21/5/1746, Wednesday (-72,659) Mary Cork, daughter of 1st Viscount Galway, was born (died 30/5/1840).

10/5/1746, Saturday (-72,670) Gaspard Monge, inventor of descriptive geometry, was born (died 28/7/1818).

21/4/1746, Monday (-72,689) James Malmesbury, English statesman, was born (died 21/11/1820).

16/4/1746, Wednesday (-72,694) Bonnie Prince Charlie and his 5,000 Jacobite soldiers were decisively defeated at Culloden, near Inverness, by the Duke of Cumberland and an army of 9,000 regulars. Fought on flat ground, the battle gave the advantage to Cumberland�s latest artillery. This ended the Jacobite Rebellion and the hopes of the Stuart dynasty of any return to power in Britain. On 27/6/1746 Charles escaped over the sea to Skye, disguised as the Irish maid Betty Burke, with Flora MacDonald.In Scotland, the Highlanders were disarmed and forbidden to wear their tartan kilts. The hereditary jurisdiction of the Highland Chiefs over their clans was abolished. This was the last battle fought in Britain.

6/4/1746, Sunday (-72,704) Christian VI of Denmark died aged 47. He was succeeded by his son, 23, Frederick V.

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30/3/1746,Sunday (-72,711) Easter Sunday. Francisco de Goya, Spanish painter, was born in Fuendetodos, near Saragosa, son of a master gilder.

27/3/1746, Thursday (-72,714) Michael Bruce, Scottish poet, was born (died 5/7/1767).

20/3/1746, Thursday (-72,721) Nicolas Largilliere, French painter, died (born 20/10/1656).

18/3/1746, Tuesday (-72,723) George Harris, British General, was born (died 5/1829).

7/3/1746, Friday (-72,734) Andre Michaux, French botanical writer, was born (died 16/11/1802).

28/2/1746, Friday (-72,741) Hermann Hardt, German historical writer, died (born 15/11/1660).

27/2/1746, Thursday (-72,742) Louis Gohier, French politician, was born (died 29/5/1830).

8/2/1746, Saturday (-72,761) Thomas Chubb, religious writer, died (born 29/9/1679).

25/1/1746, Saturday (-72,775) Stephanie Genlis, French writer, was born (died 31/12/1830).

24/1/1746, Friday (-72,776) Gustavus III, King of Sweden, was born.

17/1/1746, Friday (-72,783) At the Battle of Falkirk, Charles and the Jacobites defeated the English under General Hawley, see 16/4/1746. This was the last Jacobite success.

8/1/1746, Wednesday (-72,792) Bonnie Prince Charlie occupied Stirling.

7/1/1746, Tuesday (-72,793) George Keith, Briitsh Admiral, was born (died 10/3/1823).

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25/12/1745, Wednesday (-72,806) The Peace of Dresden concluded the Second Silesian War.Frederick of Prussia retained Silesia, and recognised Francis as ruler of Austria.

19/12/1745, Thursday (-72,812) Etienne Fourmont, French writer on the Orient, died (born 23/6/1683).

18/12/1745, Wednesday (-72,813) Battle of Clifton Moor.The Jacobites won a victory over the English at Penrith.

15/12/1745, Sunday (-72,816) Frederick invaded Bohemia, and occupied most of Saxony.On this day his chief general, Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau, defeated the Austrians and Saxons at Kesselsdorf, near Dresden.

12/12/1745, Thursday (-72,819) John Jay, US statesman,was born (died 17/5/1829).

10/12/1745, Tuesday (-72,821) Thomas Holcroft, English writer, was born (died 23/3/1809).

9/12/1745, Monday (-72,822) Claude Fournier, French Revolutionary, was born (died 1825).

7/12/1745, Saturday (-72,824)

5/12/1745, Thursday (-72,826) Jean Epremesnil, French magistrate, was born (died 22/4/1794).

4/12/1745, Wednesday (-72,827) Marching south, Charles�s forces reached Derby. However they were faced there by the superior forces of General Wade and William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. The Jacobite army retreated, to be finally defeated at Culloden (16/4/1746).

16/11/1745, Saturday (-72,845) William Broome, English poet, died (born 3/5/1689).

9/11/1745, Saturday (-72,852) William Hayley, English writer, was born (died 12/11/1820).

31/10/1745, Thursday (-72,861) Charles led his 5,000-strong army into England hoping, in vain, for popular support.Not gaining this, he returned to Scotland.

19/10/1745, Saturday (-72,873) Satirist Jonathan Swift, author of Gulliver�s Travels, died aged 77.

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28/9/1745. Saturday (-72,894) The National Anthem God save the King was first played at the Drury lane Theatre, London.

21/9/1745. Saturday (-72,901) Bonnie Prince Charlie (Charles Stuart) and his Jacobite army defeated the English under Sir John Cope at the Battle of Prestonpans.

16/9/1745, Monday (-72,906) Mikhail Kutusov, Russian Field Marshal, was born (died 25/3/1813).

13/9/1745, Friday (-72,909) Francis I became Holy Roman Emperor.

11/9/1745. Wednesday (-72,911) The Jacobites under the Young Pretender occupied Edinburgh, with 2,000 men.

20/8/1745, Tuesday (-72,933) Francis Asbury, US clergyman, was born (died 31/3/1816)

19/8/1745, Monday (-72,934) To claim the English throne, Prince Charles raised his father�s flag at Glenfinnan, after travelling from France.

5/8/1745, Monday (-72,948)

26/7/1745. Friday (-72,958) The first recorded women�s cricket match took place at Gosden Common near Guildford. Hambledon Village played nearby Bramley.

25/7/1745, Thursday (-72,959) (Britain) Prince Charles (Edward Stuart), the Young Pretender, landed in Scotland. He proclaimed his father as King James VIII of Scotland and James III of England. Highland clans rose in support of him.

11/7/1745, Thursday (-72,973) Pierre Desmaiseaux, French writer, died.

2/7/1745, Tuesday (-72,982) (Britain) Sir Robert Calder, British Admiral, was born (died 31/8/1818).

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4/6/1745, Tuesday (-73,010) The Austrians attacked Silesia, allied with troops from Saxony,but were defeated by Prussia at Hohenfriedburg.

26/5/1745, Sunday (-73,019) Jonathan Edwards, philosophical writer, was born (died 1/8/1801).

11/5/1745, Saturday (-73,034) (Benelux, Britain, France)The Battle of Fontenoy took place in Belgium, during the War of the Austrian Succession. Marshal de Saxe won a French victory over British and Allied forces during the War of the Austrian Succession. William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, had been sent with Austrian, British, Dutch and Hanoverian troops to relieve Tournai, Belgium, under siege by the French. Cumberland�s army was beaten back with casualties of 7,000 and forced to retreat during the night towards Brussels. The British suffered further setbacks in Flanders and as troops were called back to fight the Young Pretender, Charles Edward Stuart. The British made peace with France at Aix la Chapelle in 1748.

22/4/1745, Monday (-73,054) Lindley Murray, writer, was born (died 16/1/1826).

20/4/1745, Saturday (-73,056) (Christian) Nathanael Emmons, US clergyman, was born (died 23/9/1840).

19/4/1745, Friday (-73,057) Oliver Ellsworth, US politician, was born (died 27/11/1807).

14/4/1745, Sunday (-73,061) Easter Sunday.

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25/3/1745, Monday (-73,081) Jacques Boutet, French dramatist, was born.

18/3/1745, Monday (-73,088) Sir Robert Walpole, British Whig Prime Minister from 1721 to 1742 died in London. He had been created the Earl of Orford.

18/2/1745, Monday (-73,116) Alessandro Volta, Italian scientist, was born in Como.

2/2/1745, Saturday (-73,132) Hannah More, English religious writer, was born (died 7/9/1833).

20/1/1745, Sunday (-73,145) Death of Frederick II of Prussia.

16/1/1745, Wednesday (-73,149) Antonio Cavanilles, painter, was born (died 4/5/1804).

7/1/1745, Monday (-73,158) Johann Fabricius, Danish scientific writer, was born (died 3/3/1808).

4/1/1745, Friday (-73,161) Johann Griesbach, German Biblical writer, was born (died 24/3/1812).

1/1/1745, Tuesday (-73,164)

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25/12/1744, Tuesday (-73,171)

8/12/1744, Saturday (-73,188) (France) Marie Chateauroux, mistress to King Louis XV of France, died (born 1717).

30/11/1744, Friday (-73,196) Karl Knebel, German poet, was born (died 23/2/1834).

4/11/1744, Sunday (-73,222) Jean Bernoulli, mathematician, was born (died 13/7/1807).

31/10/1744, Wednesday (-73,226) Leonardo Leo, Italian composer, died (5/8/1694).

4/10/1744, Thursday (-73,253) Juan Masdeu, Spanish historical writer, was born (died 11/4/1817).

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22/9/1744, Saturday (-73,265) (France) Claude Fauchet, French Revolutionary Bishop, was born (died 30/10/1793).

25/8/1744, Saturday (-73,293) Johann Herder, German writer, was born (died 18/12/1803).

23/8/1744, Thursday (-73,295) Rowland Hill, English religious writer, was born (died 11/4/1833).

19/8/1744, Sunday (-73,299) John Brand, English antiquarian and writer, was born in Washington, Durham (died 1806).

1/8/1744, Wednesday (-73,317) The Chevalier de Lamarck, naturalist, was born.

27/7/1744, Friday (-73,322) Gerard Lake, British General, was born (died 20/2/1808).

19/7/1744, Thursday (-73,330) Heinrich Boie, German author, was born in Meldorf (died in Meldorf 3/3/1806).

17/7/1744, Tuesday (-73,392) Elbridge Gerry, US statesman, was born (died 23/11/1814).

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4/6/1744, Monday (-73,375) Jeremy Belknap, US author, was born in Boston (died in Boston 20/6/1798).

31/5/1744, Thursday (-73,379) Richard Edgeworth, British writer, was born (died 13/6/1817).

24/5/1744, Thursday (-73,386) The Baltic Exchange in London was founded, as the marketplace where marine cargo rates were fixed. On this day the Daily Post announced that a coffee house in Threadneedle Street was changing its name from the Maryland Coffee House to the Virginia and Baltick Coffee House, and would act as an exchange point for news and post for sea captains engaged in North Atlantic cargo.

25/4/1744, Wednesday (-73,415) Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer who devised the Centigrade temperature scale in 1742, died.

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26/3/1744, Monday (-73,445) Thomas Favras, French Royalist, was born (executed 19/2/1790).

25/3/1744, Sunday (-73,446) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1744, Tuesday (-73,458)

3/3/1744, Saturday (-73,468) Jean Barbeyrac, French legal writer, died (born in Beziers, Languedoc, 15/3/1674).

29/2/1744, Wednesday (-73,471) John Theophilus Desaguliers, philosopher, died

20/2/1744, Monday (-73,480) Sir William Cornwallis, British Admiral, was born (died 5/7/1819).

14/2/1744, Tuesday (-73,486) (Science) Joseph Hadley, optician who invented the reflecting octant, ancestor of the sextant, died in East Barnet in Hertfordshire.

10/2/1744, Friday (-73,490) William Mitford, English historian, was born (died 10/2/1827).

6/2/1744, Monday (-73,494) Pierre Desault, French surgeon, was born (died 1/6/1795).

26/1/1744, Thursday (-73,505) Ludwig Khevenhuller, Austrian Field Marshal, died.

10/1/1744, Tuesday (-73,521) Thomas Mifflin, US politician, was born (died 20/1/1800).

5/1/1744, Thursday (-73,526) Gaspar Jovellanos, Spanish author, was born (died 27/11/1811).

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7/12/1743, Wednesday (-73,555) Johann Eschenburg, German historical writer, was born (died 29/2/1820).

18/11/1743, Friday (-73,574) Johannes Ewald, Danish poet, was born (died 17/3/1781).

10/10/1743, Monday (-73,613) Marie Guimard, French dancer, was born (died1816).

4/10/1743, Tuesday (-73,619) Henry Carey, poet, died.

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22/9/1743, Thursday (-73,633) Quintin Crauford, British author, was born (died 23/11/1819).

17/9/1743, Saturday (-73,636) Marie Condorcet, French Revolutionary, was born (died 1794).

14/9/1743, Wednesday (-73,639) Nicolas Lancret, French painter, died (born 22/1/1660).

3/9/1743, Saturday (-73,650) (Germany) Johann Archenholz, German historian, was born in Langfuhr, Danzig (died 28/2/1812 at Oyendorf, Hamburg).

27/8/1743, Saturday (-73,657) Henry Pelham took up office as Prime Minister.

26/8/1743, Friday (-73,658) Antoine Lavoisier, French founder of modern chemistry, was born in Paris.

19/8/1743, Friday (-73,665) Comtesse du Barry, the last mistress of Louis XV, was born in Vancouleurs as Marie Jeanne Becu, daughter of a dressmaker.

16/8/1743, Tuesday (-73,668) The earliest prize-ring code of boxing was drawn up in England by champion fighter Jack Boughton.

7/8/1743, Sunday (-73,677) (Finland) As a consequence of the peace negotiations between Sweden and Russia (began 23/1/1743) Sweden ceded control of south-east Finland, east of the River Kymi (Kymmene) to Russia.

5/8/1743, Friday (-73,679) John Hervey, English writer, died (born 13/10/1696)

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27/6/1743, Monday (-73,718) The Battle of Dettingen. The last battle in which a British monarch commanded an army on the battlefield. George II defeated the French at the Battle of Dettingen, in Bavaria, during the War of Austrian Succession.

20/6/1743, Monday (-73,725) Anna Barbauld, English poet, was born in Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire (died 9/3/1825).

17/6/1743, Friday (-73,728) John Lowell, US jurist, was born (died 6/5/1802).

13/6/1743, Monday (-73,732) Francis Dana, US jurist, was born (died 25/4/1811).

11/6/1743, Saturday (-73,734) Robert Hamilton, Scottish economics writer, was born (died 1829).

8/6/1743, Wednesday (-73,737) (Italy) Alessandro Cagliostro, Italian alchemist and impostor, was born (died 1795).

24/5/1743, Tuesday (-73,752) Jean Paul Marat, French revolutionary, was born (died 13/7/1793).

 

21/5/1743, Saturday (-73,755) Bryan Edwards, British historical writer, was born (died 7/1800).

24/4/1743, Sunday (-73,782) Edward Cartwright, inventor of the power loom in 1785, was born at Marnham, Nottinghamshire.

18/4/1743, Monday (-73,788) James Blair, US cleric, died(born 1656).

13/4/1743, Wednesday (-73,793) Thomas Jefferson, 3rd American President, was born in Shadwell, Virginia, son of a civil engineer.

11/4/1743, Monday (-73,795) Jose del Campillo, Spanish statesman, died (born 1695).

4/4/1743, Monday (-73,802) (Arts) Robert Ainsworth, English writer, died in London (born 1660 in Eccles, Manchester).

3/4/1743, Sunday (-73,803) Easter Sunday.

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28/2/1743, Monday (-73,837) Rene Hauy, French mineralogist, was born (died 3/6/1822).

23/2/1743, Wednesday (-73,842) Meyer Rothschild, founder of the banking dynasty, was born in Germany.

13/2/1743, Sunday (-73,852) (Biology) Sir Joseph Banks, naturalist, was born in Argyle Street, London (died in Isleworth, 19/6/1820),

29/1/1743, Saturday (-73,867) Andre Fleury, French statesman, died (born 22/6/1653).

25/1/1743, Tuesday (-73,871) Friedrich Jacobi, German philosophical writer, was born (died 10/3/1819).

23/1/1743, Sunday (-73,873) (Russia, Sweden) Russia and Sweden began negotiations to end their conflict.

21/1/1743, Friday (-78,875) (Maritime) John Fitch, US pioneer of steam navigation, was born (died 2/7/1798).

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26/12/1742, Sunday (-73,901) Ignaz Born, Austrian mineralogist, was born in Transylvania (died 1791).

23/12/1743, Thursday (-73,904) Theophile la Tour, French soldier, was born (died 27/6/1800).

16/12/1742, Thursday (-73,911) Gebhard Blucher, Prussian General, was born in Silesia (died in Silesia 12/9/1819).

1/12/1743, Wednesday (-73,926) Martin Klaproth, german chemistry writer, was born (died1/1/1817).

24/11/1742, Wednesday (-73,933) Antonio de Capmany, Spanish scholarly writer, was born (died14/11/1813).

27/10/1742, Wednesday (-73,961) Nicholas Amhurst, English poet, died in Twickenham (born 16/10/1697 in Marden, Kent).

26/10/1742, Tuesday (-73,962) Charles Dupuis, French scientific writer, was born (died 29/9/1809).

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18/9/1742, Saturday (-74,000) Jean Massilon, French religious writer, died (born 24/6/1663).

7/8/1742, Saturday (-74,042) Nathanael Greene, US General, was born (died 19/6/1786).

29/7/1742, Thursday (-74,051) Armand kersaint, French politician, was born (executed 4/12/1793).

28/7/1742, Wednesday (-74,052) Maria Theresa of Austria made peace with Prussia; ceding control of all of Silesia to Prussia.

14/7/1742, Wednesday (-74,066) Richard Bentley, English scholar and writer, died (born near Wakefield 27/1/1662).

11/7/1742, Sunday (-74,069) A Papal Bull condemned Jesuit tolerance of Confucianism in China.

1/7/1742, Thursday (-74,079) Georg Lichtenberg, German writer, was born.

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17/6/1742, Thursday (-74,093) (Britain) Nathan Bailey, English lexicographer, died. His work formed the basis for Dr Johnson�s famous writing.

11/6/1742, Friday (-74,099) The Peace of Breslau concluded the First Silesian War.Austria ceded most of Silesia along with Glatz to Prussia, retaining only the principalities of Troppau and Teschen.In return Frederick promised his neutrality.

28/5/1742, Friday (-74,113) The first indoor swimming pool in England opened in London. The entrance fee was one guinea.

17/5/1742, Monday (-74,124) The Prussian cavalry defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Chotusitz.

13/5/1742, Thursday (-74,128) Manasseh Cutler, US statesman, was born (died 28/7/1823).

18/4/1742, Sunday (-74,153) Easter Sunday.

17/4/1742, Saturday (-74,154) Arvid Horn, Swedish statesman, died (born 6/4/1664).

13/4/1742, Tuesday (-74,158) The performance of Handel�s Messiah in Dublin marked the climax of his popularity.

2/4/1742, Friday (-74,169) James Douglas, physicist, died.

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8/2/1742, Monday (-74,222) Sir Robert Walpole left office as Prime Minister.

26/1/1742, Tuesday (-74,235) Arthir Middleton, US politician, was born (died 1/1/1787).

14/1/1742. Thursday (-74,247) Astronomer-Royal Edmond Halley died at Greenwich aged 85.

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21/12/1741, Monday (-74,271) Bernard de Montfaucon, French writer, died (born 13/1/1655).

19/12/1741, Saturday (-74,273) Vitus Bering, Danish born explorer of Russia, who gave his name to the Bering Strait and Bering Sea, died of scurvy on Bering Island after being shipwrecked. On earlier expeditions he had mapped the Bering Strait and much of the coast of Siberia.

6/12/1741, Sunday (-74,286) (Russia) Elizabeth Petrovna became Empress of Russia in a coup.

15/11/1741, Sunday (-74,307) Johann Lavater, German poet, was born (died 2/1/1801).

12/11/1742, Thursday (-74,310) Friedrich Hoffmann, German medical writer, died (born 19/2/1660)

30/10/1741, Friday (-74,323) Angelica Kauffman, French painter, was born.

11/10/1741, Sunday (-74,342) James Barry, English painter, was born in Cork (died 22/2/1806).

8/10/1741, Thursday (-74,345) Vasquez Cadalso, Spanish author, was born (killed at the siege of Gibraltar 27/2/1782).

4/10/1741, Sunday (-74,349) Edmond Malone, Irish literary writer, was born (died 25/4/1812).

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11/9/1741, Friday (-74,372) Johann Engel, German author, was born (died 28/6/1802).

3/9/1741, Thursday (-74,380) Owen Jones, Welsh historian, was born (died 26/12/1814).

 

31/8/1741, Monday (-74,383) Johann Heineccius, German legal writer, died (born 11/9/1681).

22/8/1741, Saturday (-74,392) Jean Francoise la Perouse, French navigator, was born.

28/7/1741, Tuesday (-74,417) Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer, notably of The Four Seasons, died in Vienna.

15/7/1741, Wednesday (-74,430) (USA) The first Europeans landed on the coast of Alaska. A Russian expedition led by Vitus Bering began exploration there.

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25/6/1741, Thursday (-74,450) John Lnngdon, US statesman, was born (died 18/9/1819).

24/6/1741, Wednesday (-74,451) (Arts) Alexander Adam, Scottish writer (died 18/12/1809) was born near Forres.

25/5/1741, Monday (-64,481) Daniel Jablonski, German religious writer, died (born 20/11/1660).

17/5/1741, Sunday (-64,489) Barthelemy Faujas, French geological writer, was born (died 18/7/1819).

17/4/1741, Friday (-74,519) Samuel Chase, US jurist, was born (died 19/6/1811).

11/4/1741, Saturday (-74,525) Johann Merck, German author, was born (died 27/6/1791).

10/4/1741, Friday (-74,526) The German Emperor crossed the Silesian frontier, advanced as far as Breslau, and this day defeated an Austrian Army near Mollwitz.This was during the War of the Austrian Succession.

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31/3/1741, Tuesday (-74,536) Pieter Burmann, Dutch scholarly writer, died (born 1668).

29/3/1741, Sunday (-74,538) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1741, Tuesday (-74,550) Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, poet, died.

13/3/1741, Friday (-74,554) Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, was born.

9/3/1741, Monday (-74,558) British Admiral Edward Vernon began an assault on the Spanish city of Cartagena, in modern-day Colombia.

21/2/1741, Saturday (-74,574) The agricultural pioneer Jethro Tull, who invented the seed drill around 1701, died near Hungerford, Berkshire, aged 67. He was inspired to develop the seed drill by the pipes of the church organ he played on Sundays. He also pioneered crop rotation, developing a new hoe for planting turnips between the grain crops; turnips meant winter feed, so more manure, so more fertile soil that didn�t need a whole year fallow to recover.

16/2/1741, Monday (-74,579) Benjamin Franklin, USA, began publication of his General Magazine.

13/2/1741, Friday (-74,582) In the House of Commons, Sir Robert Walpole first used the phrase �Balance of Power� to describe Britain�s approach to foreign policy.

8/2/1741. Sunday (-74,587) Neisse and Brieg still held out but the Prussians stormed and occupied Glogau on 9/3/1741. At the Battle of Mollwitz, 10/4/1741, the Prussians narrowly won the day. Europe realised that Prussia was now a major military power and France sent an envoy, Marshal Belleisle, to negotiate an alliance with Frederick.The �Silesian adventure� now became the War of the Austrian Succession. France supported the Elector of Bavaria. Sweden was supposed to stop Russia attacking Prussia but on 3/9/1742 the Swedes were heavily defeated by the Russians at Wilmanstrand, and Sweden capitulated in 1742 at Helsingfors, the Swedish capital. At the Peace of Dresden, 25/12/1745 Frederick recognised the Elector of Bavaria as ruler of Austria in return for his acquiring Silesia. The war of the Austrian Succession ended on 18/10/1748 with the Peace of Aachen (Aix la Chapelle).

7/2/1741, Saturday (-74,588) Henry Fuseli, Swiss-German painter, was born (died 16/4/1825).

31/1/1741, Saturday (-74,595) Theodor Hippel, German writer, was born (died 23/4/1796)

14/1/1741, Wednesday (-74,612) (USA) Benedict Arnold, US soldier, was born in Norwich, Connecticut (died 14/6/1801 in London, England).

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20/12/1740, Saturday (-74,637) Arthur Lee, US diplomat, was born (died 12/12/1792).

16/12/1740. Tuesday (-74,641) Without a declaration of war. Frederick II of Prussia invaded Silesia, an Austrian province. He occupied Silesia quite easily, besieging the few towns of Glogau, Breig, and Neisse still held by the Austrians. In February 1741 Austria prepared to reconquer Silesia.

24/11/1740, Monday (-74,663) John Bacon, sculptor, was born in Southwark (died 4/8/1799 in London)

3/11/1740, Monday (-74,684) Whitechapel Hospital, London, opened.

31/10/1740, Friday (-74,687) Philip de Loutherberg, English artist, was born (died 11/3/1812).

28/10/1740, Tuesday (-74,690) James Boswell, Scottish diarist and biographer of Samuel Johnson, was born.

22/10/1740, Wednesday (-74,696) Sir Philip Francis, English politician, was born (died 23/12/1818).

20/10/1740, Monday (-74,698) (Germany, Austria) Emperor Charles VI died unexpectedly. Maria Theresa, aged 23, became ruler of Austria. Frederick II of Prussia, taking advantage of Austria having a young female ruler, prepared to invade the wealthy Austrian province of Silesia. Meanwhile Bavaria and Saxony also had claims on Austrian lands (their claims supported by France), and Spain wanted the Italian provinces of Austria. Hungary supported Austria.

5/10/1740, Sunday (-74,713) (Germany) Johann Baratier, German scholar of precocious genius, died (born in Schwabach near Nuremberg 10/1/1721).

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12/9/1740, Friday (-74,736) Johann Jung, German author, was born (died 2/4/1817).

2/9/1740, Tuesday (-74,746) Johann Jacobi, German poet, was born (died 1814).

26/8/1740, Tuesday (-74,753) Joseph-Michel Montgolfier, pioneer balloonist, was born in Annonay, France. He and his brother got the idea for hot air balloons by filling paper bags with smoke from a fire and watching them rise to the ceiling.

15/8/1740, Friday (-74,764) Matthias Claudius, German poet, was born (died 21/1/1815).

14/8/1740, Thursday (-74,765) Pope Pius X was born.

10/8/1740, Sunday (-74,769) Samuel Arnold, English composer, was born in London (died 22/10/1802 in London).

1/8/1740, Friday (-74,778) Rule Britannia, written by Scotsman James Thomson, with music by Londoner Thomas Arne, was heard for the first time, at the Prince of Wales� country home at Cliveden.

2/7/1740, Wednesday (-74,808) (Britain) Thomas Baker, English antiquary, died(born in Lanchester, Durham, 14/9/1656).

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6/6/1740, Friday (-74,834) Louis Mercier, French writer, was born (died 25/4/1814).

2/6/1740, Monday (-74,838) Birth of Marquis de Sade, French writer who was imprisoned in the Bastille for his sexual perversions.

31/5/1740, Saturday (-74,840) Frederick William I of Prussia died aged 51. He had made his country into a significant military power with a standing army of 83,000 men. He was succeeded by his 28-year old son, Frederick II, who then occupied part of Silesia, starting a war with Austria.

28/5/1740, Wednesday (-74,843) Mahmud I, ruler of Turkey, agreed to respect Christian rights in the Holy Land.

15/5/1740, Thursday (-74,857) Ephraim Chambers, English encyclopaedist, died.

2/5/1740, Friday (-74,869) Elias Boudinot, US revolutionary leader, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (died in Burlington, New Jersey, 24/10/1821).

6/4/1740, Sunday (-74,895) Easter Sunday.

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18/3/1740, Tuesday (-74,914) Jean Houdon, French sculptor, was born (died 16/7/1828).

17/2/1740, Sunday (-74,944) Birth of meteorologist Horace Benedict de Saussure, inventor of the cyanometer, a device for measuring the blueness of the sky.

11/2/1740, Monday (-74,950) Pierre Malouet, French writer, was born (died 7/9/1814).

8/2/1740, Friday (-74,953) The great frost of London ended. It had begun on 24/12/1739.

6/2/1740, Wednesday (-74,955) Pope Clement XII (246thPope) died. Pope Benedict XIV (247thPope),acceded, formerly Cardinal Prospero Lambertini, died 1758.

4/2/1740, Monday (-74,957) Karl Bellman, Swedish poet, was born in Stockholm (died 11/2/1795).

8/1/1740, Tuesday (-74,984)

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31/12/1739, Monday (-74,992)

20/11/1739, Tuesday (-75,033) Jean la Harpe, French writer, was born (died 11/2/1803).

8/11/1739, Thursday (-75,045) Vasily Dolgoruki, Russian politician, was executed (born 1672).

2/11/1739, Friday (-75,051) Karl Dittersdorf, Austrian composer, was born (died 1/10/1799).

24/10/1739, Wednesday (-75,060) Mansion House, London, was founded.

19/10/1739, Friday (-75,065) The War of Jenkins Ear began. In 1738 Captain Jenkins alleged that whilst in the Caribbean his ship had been boarded by the Spanish, one of whom had cut off one of his ears. In October 1739 Lord Anson was despatched with a naval squadron to wreak revenge. The real cause of the war between England and Spain was a border dispute over Florida.

17/10/1739, Wednesday (-75,067) The Foundling Hospital (now Coram), the UK�s first dedicated children�s charity, was created by a Royal Charter of King George II.

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14/9/1739, Friday (-75,100) Pierre Dupont, French statesman, was born (died 6/8/1817).

3/9/1739, Monday (-75,111) George Lillo, English dramatist, died (born 4/2/1693).

26/7/1739, Thursday (-75,150) George Clinton, US political leader, was born (died 20/4/1812).

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4/6/1739, Monday (-75,202) Johann Beckman, German scientific author, was born in Hoya (died 3/2/1811).

22/5/1739, Tuesday (-75,215)

22/4/1739, Sunday (-75,245) Easter Sunday.

7/4/1739. Saturday (-75,260) (Road traffic) The infamous robber Dick Turpin was hanged at York for murder, sheep-stealing, smuggling, and holding up stage coaches. He was buried in York as �John Palmer�. He had been part of the infamous �Gregory Gang� of robbers and rapists in 1735. However as a horse-borne highwayman he enjoyed a reputation better than the �footpad� men who tended to disable their victims before fleeing on foot. Horse-borne robbers had no need of this and were even courteous to their victims.

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20/3/1739, Tuesday (-75,278) Persian ruler Nadir Shah sacked the Indian city of Delhi. The collapse of the Moghul Empire created a large power vacuum in India. The Afghans invaded from the north-west, Marathas invaded from the west, and local warlords carved out small independent states, perpetually fighting each other. In the middle of this chaos, Britain was able to take over.

19/3/1739, Monday (-75,279) Charles LeBrun, French statesman, was born (died 16/6/1824).

19/1/1739, Friday (-75,338) Guiseppe Bonomi, English architect, was born in Rome (died in London 9/3/1808).

10/1/1739, Wednesday (-75,347) (USA) Ethan Allen, US soldier, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut (died 11 2/1789 in Burlington, Vermont).

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31/12/1738, Sunday (-75,357) Charles Cornwallis, British soldier, was born (died 5/10/1805).

28/12/1738, Thursday (-75,360) Benjamin Franklin, using the pseudonym Richard Saunders, began publication of �Poor Man�s Almanack�

20/12/1738, Wednesday (-75,368) Claude Michel, French sculptor, was born (died 29/3/1814).

30/11/1738, Thursday (-75,388) Thomas Robinson, 2nd baron Grantham, was born (died 20/7/1786).

15/11/1738, Wednesday (-75,403) Sir William Herschel, who discovered Uranus in 1781, was born in Hanover, Germany.

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23/9/1738, Saturday (-75,456) Hermann Boerhaave, Dutch physician, died in Leiden (born near Leiden 31/12/1668).

23/8/1738, Wednesday (-75,487)

16/8/1738, Wednesday (-75,494)Joe Miller, English actor, died.

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22/6/1738, Thursday (-75,549) Jacques Delille, French poet, was born (died 1/5/1813).

21/6/1738, Wednesday (-75,550) Gottleib Harless, German scholarly writer, was born (died 2/11/1815).

13/6/1738, Tuesday (-75,558) Guiseppe Cerutti, Italian politician, was born (died 3/2/1792).

5/6/1738, Monday (-75,566) (France)Isaac de Beausobre, French theologian, died (born in Niort 8/3/1659).

4/6/1738, Sunday (-75,567) King George III, grandson of George II, was born in lodgings in St James Square, London.

31/5/1738, Wednesday (-75,571) Stanislas Boufflers, French statesman, was born near Nancy (died in Paris 18/1/1815).

28/5/1738, Sunday (-75,574) Dr Joseph Guillotin, inventor of the Guillotine, was born.

13/5/1738, Saturday (-75,589) (Medical) Ernst Baldinger, German physician, was born near Erfurt (died in Marburg 21/1/1804).

24/5/1738, Wednesday (-75,578) During a reading of Martin Luther�s preface to the Bible Book of Romans, John Wesley had a religious inspiration that led him to found the Methodist Church.

6/5/1738, Saturday (-75,596) Robespierre, French revolutionary, was born in Arras.

28/4/1738, Friday (-75,604) Pope Clement XII condemned freemasonry.

2/4/1738, Sunday (-75,630) Easter Sunday.

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12/3/1738, Sunday (-75,651) Jonathan Boucher, English scholarly writer, was born near Wigton (died in Epsom, Surrey, 17/4/1804).

21/2/1738, Tuesday (-75,670) (Geology) Mineralogist Franz Cancrin was born (died 1812).

17/1/1738, Tuesday (-75,705) German architect, Matthaus Poppelman, died aged 74.

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27/12/1737, Tuesday (-75,726) William Bowyer, printer, died.

24/12/1737, Saturday (-75,729) Silas Deane, US diplomat, was born (died 23/9/1789).

18/12/1737, Sunday (-75,735) Antonio Stradivari, famous Italian violin maker, died in Cremona, Lombardy.

17/12/1737, Saturday (-75,736) (Britain) John Almon, political pamphleteer, was born in Liverpool (died 12/12/1805)

20/11/1737, Sunday (-75,763) Caroline, wife of King George II of Britain, died (born 1/3/1683).

17/10/1737, Monday (-75,797) A cyclone caused a 12-metre tidal surge at Kolkata, killing 300,000.

11/10/1737, Tuesday (-75,803) An earthquake killed 300,000 in Kolkata.

2/10/1737, Sunday (-75,812) Francis Hopkinson, US author, was born (died 1791).

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19/9/1737, Monday (-75,825) Charles Carroll, US politician, was born (died 14/11/1832).

14/9/1737, Wednesday (-75,830) Alexander Geddes, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 26/2/1802).

9/9/1737, Friday (-75,835) Luigi Galvani, Italian scientist and anatomist, was born in Bologna.

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14/8/1737, Sunday (-78,861) Charles Hutton, Eglish mathematical writer, was born (died 27/1/1823).

30/6/1737, Thursday (-75,906) (Russia) The Russians attacked the Ottoman fortress of Ochakov, Romania.

20/5/1737, Friday (-75,947) William Lansdowne, British statesman, was born (died 7/5/1805).

14/5/1737, Saturday (-75,953) George Macartney, British statesman, was born (died 31/5/1806).

27/4/1737, Wednesday (-75,970) Thomas Gibbon, historian and writer of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was born at Putney, London.

14/4/1737, Thursday (-75,983) Dmitry Golitsun, Russian statesman, born 1665, died in prison after being denounced for anti-monarchical sentiments.

10/4/1737, Sunday (-75,987) Easter Sunday.

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2/3/1737, Wednesday (-76,026) William Heath, US soldier, was born (died 24/1/1814).

29/1/1737, Saturday (-76,058) Thomas Paine, US patriot, was born.

23/1/1737, Sunday (-76,064) John Hancock, US Revolutionary statesman, was born (died 8/10/1793).

4/1/1737, Tuesday (-76,083) Louis Guyton de Morveau, French chemistry writer, was born (died 2/1/1816).

3/1/1737, Monday (-76,084) Heinrich Gerstenberg, German poet, was born (died 1/11/1823).

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31/12/1736, Friday (-76,087)

27/10/1736, Thursday (-76,151) James MacPherson, Scottish writer, was born (died 17/2/1796).

18/10/1736, Tuesday (+76,160) The Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Winchester, UK, opened.

======================================================================================

27/9/1736, Monday (-76,182) (France) Rene Duguay-Trouin, French sea captain, died (born 10/6/1673).

16/9/1736, Thursday (-76,193) German scientist Gabriel Fahrenheit, who devised a scale of temperature, died.

15/9/1736, Wednesday (-76,194) (Astronomy) Jean Bailly,astronomer, was born in Paris (guillotined 12/11/1793).

14/7/1736, Wednesday (-76,257) Simon Linguet, French politician, was born (guillotined 27/6/1794).

====================================================================================

19/6/1736, Saturday (-76,282) (Russia) The Russians took Azov, Romania, from the Ottomans.

14/6/1736, Monday (-76,287) Charles Coulomb, electrical scientist, was born (died 23/8/1806).

29/5/1736, Saturday (-76,303) Patrick Henry, US politician, was born (died 6/6/1799).

21/5/1736, Friday (-76,311) (Canals) The Duke of Bridgewater, canal pioneer, was born.

4/5/1737, Tuesday (-76,328) Eustace Budgell, writer, died (born 19/8/1686).

30/4/1736, Friday (-76,332) Johann Fabricius, German scholarly writer, died (born 11/11/1668).

25/4/1736, Sunday (-76,337) Easter Sunday.

21/4/1736, Wednesday (-76,341) (France) Eugene of Savoy died (born 18/10/1663).

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25/3/1736, Thursday (-76,368) Nicholas Hawksmoor, Emglish architect, pupil of Christopher Wren, died (born 1661).

7/2/1736, Saturday (-76,415)(India) Rene-Marie Madec, French adventurer in India, was born.

3/2/1736, Tuesday (-76,419) (Arts) Johann Albrechtsberger, Austrian musician, was born in Kloster-Neuburg (died 7/3/1809 in Vienna).

25/1/1736, Sunday (-76,428) Joseph Lagrange, mathematician, was born (died 10/4/1813).

19/1/1736, Monday (-76,434) Scottish engineer and inventor James Watt was born in Greenock.

17/1/1736, Saturday (-76,436) German architect MatthausPoppelman died, aged 74.

8/1/1736, Thursday (-76,445) Jean Leclerc, French religious writer, died (born 19/3/1657).

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29/12/1735, Monday (-76,455) Thomas Banks, English sculptor, was born in London (died in London 2/2/1805).

30/10/1735, Thursday (-76,515) John Adams, American Federalist and 2nd President, was born in Braintree, Massachusetts, the son of a farmer.

25/10/1735, Saturday (-76,520) James Beattie, Scottish poet, was born in Kincardine (died 18/8/1803).

21/10/1735, Tuesday (-76,524) Richard Gough, English antiquarian writer, was born (died 20/2/1809).

9/10/1735, Thursday (-76,536) Karl Brunswick, German General, was born (died at the Battle of Quatre Bras, 16/7/1815).

8/10/1735, Wednesday (-76,537) Qianlong succeeded Yongzheng as Emperor of China.

5/10/1735, Sunday (-76,540) The War of the Polish Succession ended with the Treaty of Vienna. The Elector of Saxony was accepted as King Frederick Augustus III of Poland.

=====================================================================================

27/9/1735, Saturday (-76,548) (Biology) Peter Artedi, Swedish naturalist, died in Amsterdam (born 22/2/1705 in Angermania, Sweden).

22/9/1735, Monday (-76,553) Sir Robert Walpole became the first Prime Minister to move into 10 Downing Street. The office of �Prime Minister� was not officially recognised, and some considered it unconstitutional. However Walpole had widespread support of both the King and Parliament. Walpole was educated at Eton and Cambridge, and at age 24 inherited a country estate, which gave him the means of self-sufficiency to enter politics. In 1701 he became the Whig member for Castle Rising in Norfolk. An excellent speaker, he rose rapidly within the party. In 1717 he resigned amid in-party fighting, returning as Paymaster General in 1720.

14/9/1735, Sunday (-76,561) Robert Raikes, who founded the Sunday School system in 1780, was born in Gloucester, son of a printer.

7/9/1735, Sunday (-76,568) (Price) Thomas Coutts, founder of Coutts bank, was born (died 24/2/1822).

28/8/1735, Thursday (-76,578) Andreas Bernstorff, Danish statesman, was born in Hanover (died 21/6/1797).

27/8/1735, Wednesday (-76,579) (Ireland) Peter Browne, Bishop of Cork and Ross, died.

21/8/1735, Thursday (-76,585) (Britain) Tobias Furneaux, English navigator, was born (died 19/9/1781).

18/8/1735, Monday (-76,588) Francois Feller, Belgian author, was born (died 23/5/1802).

=====================================================================================

10/6/1735, Tuesday (-76,657) Thomas Hearne, English historical writer, died (born 7/1678).

28/5/1735, Wednesday (-76,670) Francois Kellerman, Marshal of France, was born (died 23/9/1820).

18/5/1735, Sunday (-76,680) Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland, English painter, was born (died 15/10/1811).

10/5/1735, Saturday (-76,688) Lorenzo Hervas, Spanish scholarly writer, was born

6/4/1735, Sunday (-76,722) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1753, Saturday (-76,723) William Derham, English religious writer, died (born 26/11/1657).

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29/3/1735, Saturday (-75,730) Johann Musaus, German writer, was born (died 28/10/1787).

20/3/1735, Thursday (-76,739) (Biology) Torbern Bergman, Swedish naturalist, was born in Katrineberg (died in Medevi 8/7/1784).

15/3/1735, Saturday (-76,744) Cesare Beccaria-Bonesana, Italian writer, was born in Milan (died in Milan 28/11/1794).

27/2/1735, Thursday (-76,760) John Arbuthnot, English author, died in London.

8/1/1735, Wednesday (-76,810) (Christian) John Carroll, US Roman Catholic prelate, was born (died 3/12/1815).

4/1/1735, Saturday (-76,814) Claud Martin, French adventurer, was born (died 13/9/1800).

1/1/1735, Wednesday (-76,817) Paul Revere, American silversmith and patriot who was famous for his ride from Charlestown to Lexington to warn of the British advance on Concord, was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

======================================================================================

31/12/1734, Tuesday (-76,818) Claude Dorat, French writer, was born (died 29/4/1780).

28/12/1734, Saturday (-76,821) (Britain) Rob Roy, Scottish outlaw (real name Robert McGregor, nicknamed �Roy�, Gaelic for �red� because of his ruddy complexion and red hair, died at his home in the Scottish Highlands. Born in 1671, he became famous for his sword-fighting skills and was chosen as head of the MacGregor clan in 1693. His business was selling Scottish black cattle to England; he was declared an outlaw in 1712 after defaulting on a business debt owed to the Duke of Montrose. He then gathered a group of armed followers and harassed the estates and tenants of the Duke of Montrose. In 1722 he surrendered to the English authorities and was imprisoned. He was nearly transported, but was pardoned and allowed to return home. He was also noted for his generosity to the poor, at the expense of the wealthy.

14/12/1734, Saturday (-76,835) (Britain) John Barrington, English lawyer, died (born 1678).

11/12/1734, Wednesday (-76,838) (Medical) Paul Barthez, French physician, was born in Montpellier (died in Paris 15/10/1806).

8/12/1734, Sunday (-76,841) James Figg, champion boxer, died in London.

2/11/1734, Saturday (-76,877) Daniel Boone, American frontiersman, was born.

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19/9/1734, Thursday (-76,921) The Battle of Luzzara.

31/7/1734, Wednesday (-76,971) Robert Morris, US financier, was born (died 7/5/1806).

13/7/1734, Saturday (-76,989) Thomas Bath, English politician, was born (died 19/11/1796).

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29/6/1734, Saturday (-77,003) The Battle of Parma.

12/6/1734, Wednesday (-77,020) (France) James Berwick, French Marshal, died at the siege of Philipsburg (born in Moulins 21/8/1670).

2/6/1734, Sunday (-77,030) Danzig fell to the Russians after an 8-month siege. Stanislas managed to escape to Prussia.

25/5/1734, Saturday (-77,038) The Battle of Bitonto.

23/5/1734, Thursday (-77,040) Franz Anton Mesmer, Austrian doctor and founder of Mesmerism, was born near Constance. He was the son of a gamekeeper.

25/4/1734, Thursday (-77,068) Johann Dippel, German religious writer, died (born 10/8/1673).

17/4/1734, Wednesday (-77,076) Taksin, King of Thailand, was born.

14/4/1734, Sunday (-77,079) Easter Sunday

=====================================================================================

9/3/1734, Friday (-77,116) Vicente Garcia, Spanish dramatist, was born (died 12/3/1787).

1/2/1734, Thursday (-77,152) Sir John Floyer, English medical writer, died (born 1649).

6/1/1734, Sunday (-77,177) John Dennis, English dramatist, died (born 1657).

1/1/1734, Tuesday (-77,182) St George�s Hospital, Hyde Park Corner, London, opened.

=====================================================================================

31/12/1733, Monday (-77,183)

23/12/1733, Sunday (-77,191) Antoine Montyon, French philanthropist, was born (died 29/12/1820).

====================================================================================

15/9/1733, Saturday (-77.286) Samuel Horsley, English religious writer, was born (died 4/10/1806).

12/9/1733, Wednesday (-77,289) Stanislas Lesczcynski (1677-1766) was elected as (disputed) King of Poland.

4/9/1733, Tuesday (-77,301) The first lioness to be kept in Britain died of old age.

22/8/1733, Wednesday (-77,314) Jean Ducis, French dramatist, was born (died 1816).

====================================================================================

29/5/1733, Tuesday (-77,399) Canadians given the right to have Indians as slaves, and buy and sell them.

23/5/1733, Wednesday (-77,405) Friedrich Mesmer, medical researcher, was born (died 5/3/1815).

4/5/1733, Friday (-77,424) Jean Borda, French mathematician, was born in Dax (died in Paris 20/2/1799).

25/4/1733, Wednesday (-77,433)

===================================================================================

25/3/1733, Sunday (-77,464) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1733, Tuesday (-77,476) Joseph Priestley, who discovered oxygen in 1774, was born in Leeds, the son of a cloth merchant.

4/3/1733, Sunday (-77,485) Claude de Forbin, French naval commander, died (born 1656).

1/2/1733, Thursday (-77,516) Augustus II of Poland died aged 62, precipitating the War of the Polish Succession. Austria and Russia demanded the succession of Augustus�s only legitimate son, the 36-year old Elector of Saxony, However France persuaded the Polish nobilityto restore Stanislas Leszczynski. Russia invaded Poland, forcing Leszczynski to flee to Danzig.

25/1/1733, Thursday (-77,523) (London) Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Lord mayor of London, died.

12/1/1733, Friday (-77,536) Antoine Lemierre, French poet and dramatist, was born (died 4/7/1793).

==================================================================================

23/12/1732, Saturday (-77,556) Sir Richard Arkwright, inventor of the spinning frame, was born at Preston, the last of 13 children.

7/12/1732, Thursday (-77,572) The Covent Garden Theatre, London, opened.

6/12/1732, Wednesday (-77,573) Warren Hastings, British ambassador and first Governor-General of India, was born in Churchill, Oxfordshire.

4/12/1732, Monday (-77,575) John Gay, English poet, died (born 1685).

9/11/1732, Thursday (-77,600) Jeanne Lespinnasse, French author, was born (died 23/5/1776).

8/11/1732, Wednesday (-77,601) John Dickinson, US politician, was born (died 14/2/1808).

1/11/1732, Wednesday (-77,608)

6/10/1732, Friday (-77,634) Nevil Maskelyne, English astronomer, was born (died 9/2/1811).

5/10/1732, Thursday (-77,635) Lloyd Kenyon, Lord Chief Justice of England, was born (died 4/4/1802).

====================================================================================

29/9/1732, Friday (-77,641) Samuel Musgrave, English scholarly writer, was born (died 5/7/1780).

25/9/1732, Monday (-77,645) Angelo Fabbroni, Italian biographer, was born (died 22/9/1803).

8/8/1732, Tuesday (-77,693) Johann Adelung, German grammarian, was born (died 10/9/1806).

11/7/1732, Tuesday (-77,721) Joseph Lalande, French astronomer, was born (died 4/4/1807).

====================================================================================

13/6/1732, Tuesday (-77,749) Sir Elijah Impey, Chief Justoce of Bengal, was born (died 1809).

9/6/1732, Friday (-77,753) King George II of Britain granted a Charter for the establishment of the State of Georgia.

3/6/1732, Saturday (-77,759) Edmund Calamy, English religious writer, died (born 5/4/1671).

20/5/1732, Saturday (-77,773) (Britain) Thomas Boston, Scottish cleric, died (born in Duns 17/6/1676).

28/4/1732, Friday (-77,795) Thomas Parker, Earl of Maclesfield, died.

21/4/1731, Friday (-77,802) Edward Evanson, English religious writer, was born (died 25/9/1805).

13/4/1732, Thursday (-77,810) Birth of Frederick North, Earl of Guildford, who introduced the Tea Act that led to the Boston Tea Party.

9/4/1732, Sunday (-77,814) Easter Sunday.

=====================================================================================

31/3/1732, Friday (-77,823) Franz Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer, was born in Rohrau, son of a wheelwright.

7/3/1732, Tuesday (-77,847) John Davies, English scholarly writer, died (born 22/4/1679).

22/2/1732, Tuesday (-77,861) George Washington, soldier and Federal President, was born in Wakefield, Westmoreland County, Virginia.

19/2/1732, Saturday (-77,864) Richard Cumberland, Engish dramatist, was born (died 7/5/1811).

11/2/1732, Friday (-77,873) William Falconer, British poet, was born (died1769).

24/1/1732, Monday (-77,890) Pierre Beaumarchais, French dramatist, was born in Paris (died in Paris 18/5/1799).

20/1/1732, Thursday (-77,894) Richard Lee, US statesman, was born (died 19/6/1794).

18/1/1732, Tuesday (-77,896) (Italy) Francesco Caracciolo, Neapolitan Admiral and revolutionary, was born (died 30/1/1799).

12/1/1732, Wednesday (-77,902) John Horsley, British archeological writer, died.

===================================================================================

26/12/1731, Sunday (-77,919) Antoine la Motte, French author, died (born 18/1/1672).

17/12/1731, Friday (-77,928) George Lockhart, Scottish writer, died in a duel.

12/12/1731, Sunday (-77,933) Erasmus Darwin, scientific writer, was born (died 18/4/1802).

7/12/1731, Tuesday (-77,938) (France) Duperron Anquetil, French orientalist, was born in Paris (died 17/1/1805 in Paris).

26/11/1731, Friday (-77,949) William Cowper, English poet, was born (died 25/4/1800).

8/11/1731, Monday (-77,967) In Philadelphia, USA, Benjamin Franklin opened the first library in the American Colonies.

18/10/1731, Monday (-77,988) (Britain) John Dunning Ashburton, English lawyer, was born in Ashburton, Devon (died 18/8/1783 in Exmouth).

10/10/1731, Sunday (-77,996) Henry Cavendish, who discovered hydrogen, was born in Nice, France.

=====================================================================================

16/7/1731, Friday (-78,082) At the Treaty of Vienna, between Britain, Spain, Austria, and Holland, the Ostend East India Company, Britain�s main trading rival in cotton and spices, was dissolved.

5/7/1731, Monday (-78,093) Jose de Antequera y Castro (1690-1731), who resisted the autocratic rule of the Spanish monarchy ovetr its colony of Paraguay, was captured in Lima, Peru, and executed by the Spanish this day.

1/7/1731, Thursday (-78,097) Adam Duncan, British naval commander, was born (died 4/8/1804).

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26/4/1731, Monday (-78,163) Daniel Defoe, English author who wrote Robinson Crusoe, died.

18/4/1731, Sunday (-78,171) Easter Sunday.

====================================================================================

28/3/1731, Sunday (-78,192) Ramon de la Cruz, Spanish dramatist, was born (died 5/3/1794).

27/1/1731, Wednesday (-78,252) Bartolommeo Cristofori, Italian harpsichord maker, who designed the first piano in 1710, died in Florence.

6/1/1731, Wednesday (-78,273) Etienne Geoffroy, French chemist, died (born 13/2/1672).

===================================================================================

14/12/1730, Monday (-78,296) (Africa) James Bruce, Scottish explorer of Africa, was born (died 27/4/1794).

13/12/1730, Sunday (-78,297) Sir William Hamilton, British diplomat, was born (died 6/4/1803).

23/11/1730, Monday (-78,317) William Moultrie, Us soldier, was born (died 27/9/1805).

1/11/1730, Sunday (-78,339) George Horne, English writer, was born (died 17/1/1792).

12/10/1730, Monday (-78,359) Frederick IV of Denmark died, the day after his 59th birthday, at Odense. He had reigned for 31 years, and lost some territory in Germany He was succeeded by his 31-year old son, Christian VI, who ruled until 1746.

====================================================================================

20/9/1730, Sunday (-78,381) Mahmud I succeeded Ahmed III as Ottoman Sultan.

17/9/1730, Thursday (-78,384) The Ottoman Grand Vizier was strangled in a revolt by the Janissaries. Sultan Ahmed III was forced to abdicate.

1/9/1730, Tuesday (-78,400) Founding US Father Benjamin Franklin established a common-law marriage with Deborah Read.

27/8/1730, Thursday (-78,405) Johann Hamann, German scholarly writer, was born (died 21/6/1788).

20/8/1730, Thursday (-78,412) Thomas King, English dramatist, was born (died 11/12/1805).

1/8/1730, Saturday (-78,431) (Britain) Frederick Augustus Hervey, Fourth Earl of Bristol, was born (died 8/7/1803).

16/7/1730, Thursday (-78,447) Elijah Fenton, English poet, died (born 25/5/1683).

12/7/1730, Sunday (-78,451) (1) Josiah Wedgewood was born at Burslem, Staffordshire.

(2) Pope Benedict XIII (245th Pope) died. Pope Clement XII (246th Pope) acceded, formerly Cardinal Lorenzo Corsini, died 1740,

=====================================================================================

4/6/1730, Thursday (-78,489) King George III of Britain was born. His mental health was unstable, and his mishandling of the American colonies led to their independence.

29/5/1730, Friday (-78,495) William Jackson, English musician, was born (died 5/7/1803).

5/5/1730, Tuesday (-78,519)

1/4/1730, Wednesday (-78,553) Solomon Gessner, Swiss poet, was born (died 2/3/1788).

====================================================================================

29/3/1730, Sunday (-78,556) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1730, Friday (-78,565) Adrienne Lecouvreur, Frenchy actress, died (born 5/4/1692).

7/3/1730, Saturday (-78,578) (France) Louis Breteuil, French diplomat, was born (died 2/11/1807).

3/2/1730, Tuesday (-78,610) The London Daily Advertiser published the first ever Stock Exchange quotations.

30/1/1730, Friday (-78,614) (Russia) Peter II, Tsar of Russia, died of smallpox aged 14. This day he was to have married Catherine, second daughter of Alexis Dolgoruki. He was succeeded by Anna of Russia.

15/1/1730, Thursday (-78,629) Louis Dutens, French writer, was born (died 23/5/1812).

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30/12/1729, Tuesday (-78,645) Richard Brunck, French scholarly writer, was born (died 12/6/1803).

22/12/1729, Monday (-78,653) Michel Baron, French actor, died (born in Paris 1635).

13/12/1729, Saturday (-78,662) Anthony Collins, English writer, died (21/6/1676).

28/11/1729, Friday (-78,677) In Louisiana, Natchez Indians massacred over 200 White settlers after the colonists tried to appropriate the Indians traditional burial grounds.

12/11/1729, Wednesday (-78,693) Alexander Menshikov, Russian statesman, died.

11/11/1729, Tuesday (-78,694) Louis Bougainville, French navigator, was born in Paris (died in Paris 31/8/1811).

9/11/1729, Sunday (-78,696) Spain signed the Treaty of Seville, renouncing its right to Gibraltar in favour of the British. See 11/4/1713.

9/10/1729, Wednesday (-78,727) Richard Blackmore, writer and physician, died.

===================================================================================

27/9/1729, Saturday (-78,739) Johann Denis, Austrian poet, was born (died 29/9/1800).

25/9/1729, Thursday (-78,741) Christian Heyne, German scholarly writer, was born (died 14/7/1812).

12/9/1729, Friday (-78,754) John Fletcher, English religious writer, was born (died 14/8/1785).

3/9/1729, Wednesday (-78,763) (Britain) The Treaty of Hanover was signed between Britain, France and Prussia. It was to counterbalance the Treaty of Vienna, between Spain and Austria, which treaty had broken the Quadruple Alliance. The Vienna treaty was intended to restore the Stuarts to the English throne and to compel Britain to return Gibraltar and Minorca to Spain. The Treaty of Hanover was a mutual defence pact, in case any signatory was attacked.

24/8/1729, Sunday (-78,773) George Hay, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 15/10/1811).

11/8/1729, Monday (-78,786) Ponce Lebrun, French poet, was born (died 31/8/1807).

5/8/1729, Tuesday (-78,792) Thomas Newcomen, who invented the first atmospheric steam engine in 1705, died in London.

30/7/1729, Wednesday (-78,798) The city of Baltimore, Maryland, USA, was founded.

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17/5/1729, Saturday (-78,872) Samuel Clarke, scholarly writer, died (born 11/10/1675).

16/5/1729, Friday (-78,873) Charles Jenkinson, 1st Earl of Liverpool, was born (died 17/12/1808).

2/5/1729, Friday (-78,887) (Russia) Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia, was born in Stettin, Germany (died 1796). She became ruler of Russia in 1762 in a coup in which her husband Peter III was assassinated.

6/4/1729, Sunday (-78,913) Easter Sunday.

====================================================================================

24/3/1729, Monday (-78,926) Simon Lantara, French landscape painter, was born (died 22/12/1778).

21/3/1729, Friday (-78,929) John Law, financier, died.

2/3/1729, Sunday (-78,948) Francesco Bianchini, Italian astronomer, died in Rome (born in Verona 13/12/1662).

28/1/1729, Tuesday (-78,981) William Hamilton, English statesman, was born (died 16/7/1796).

22/1/1729, Wednesday (-78,987) Gotthold Lessing, German dramatist, was born (died 15/2/1781).

19/1/1729, Sunday (-78,990) William Congreve, English dramatist, died (born 10/2/1670).

12/1/1729, Sunday (-78,997) The statesman Edmund Burke was born in Dublin.

===================================================================================

2/12/1728, Monday (-79,038) Ferdinando Galiani, Italian economics writer, was born (died 30/10/1787).

10/11/1728, Sunday (-79,060) Oliver Goldsmith, poet, was born.

28/10/1728, Monday (-79,073) The naval officer and explorer Captain James Cook was born at Marton, Cleveland, Yorkshire, the son of a farmer. His voyages in the Endeavour led to the discovery of Australia, New Zealand and Hawaii.

20/10/1728, Sunday (-79,081) (Denmark) A major fire that destroyed a quarter of Copenhagen started. It burned until 23/10/1728.

7/10/1728, Monday (-79,094) Eon de Beaumont (Chevalier d�Eon, French politician, was born (died 22/5/1810).

=====================================================================================

3/9/1728, Tuesday (-79,128) Birth of Matthew Boulton, who invented the steam modern engine along with James Watt.

26/8/1728, Sunday (-79,137) Johann Lambert, German mathematician, was born (died 25/9/1777).

18/8/1728, Saturday (-79,145) James Charlemont, Irish statesman, was born (died 4/8/1799).

14/8/1728, Tuesday (-79,149) Danish explorer Vitus Bering discovered that the Bering Strait was the easternmost limit of Siberia.

7/8/1728, Tuesday (-79,156) Jacques Lenfant, French religious writer, died (born 13/4/1661).

1/8/1728, Wednesday (-79,162)

26/7/1728, Thursday (-79,168) John Friend, scientific writer, died (born 1675).

=====================================================================================

21/4/1728, Sunday (-79,263) Easter Sunday.

16/4/1728, Tuesday (-79,268) Joseph Black, chemist, was born.

14/4/1728, Sunday (-79,270) Henri Louis Cain, French actor, was born (died 8/2/1778).

13/4/1728, Saturday (-79,271) Paolo Frisi, Italian mathematician, was born (died 22/11/1784).

3/4/1728, Wednesday (-79,281) (Britain) James Anderson, Scottish historian, died (born 5/8/1662 in Edinburgh).

=====================================================================================

21/3/1728, Thursday (-79,294)

26/2/1728, Monday (-79,318) (Chemistry) Antoine Baume, chemist, was born in Senlis (died in Paris 15/10/1804).

21/2/1728, Wednesday (-79,323) (Russia) Peter III, Tsar of Russia and grandson of Peter the Great, was born in Kiel.

16/2/1728, Friday (-79,328) Maria Countess of Konigsmark (Saxony) died (born 8/5/1662).

13/2/1728, Tuesday (-79,331) John Hunter, British surgeon, was born (died 16/10/1793).

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27/12/1727, Wednesday (-79,379) Arthur Murphy, Irish dramatist, was born (died 18/6/1805).

22/12/1727, Friday (-79,384) William Ellery, US politician, was born (died 15/2/1820).

18/11/1727, Saturday (-79,418) (India) The new Indian city of Jaipur was founded.

17/11/1727, Friday (-79,419) Pierre Buirette, French dramatist, was born in Auvergne (died 5/3/1775).

27/10/1727, Friday (-79,440) Hester Chapone, English writer, was born (died 25/12/1801).

17/10/1727, Tuesday (-79,450) John Wilkes, British political reformist who called for a free press, was born in Clerkenwell, London, the son of a distiller.

9/10/1727, Monday (-79,458) Etienne Lomenie de Brienne., French religious writer, was born (died 16/2/1794).

===================================================================================

1/9/1727, Thursday (-79,497) Jean Gobel, French politician, was born (guillotined 12/4/1794).

14/8/1727, Monday (-79,514) William Croft, English composer, died (born 1678).

23/7/1727, Sunday (-79,536) Simon Harcourt, Lord Chancellor of England, died.

=================================================================================

22/6/1727, Thursday (-79,567) (Britain) King George I, the first Hanoverian King, died of apoplexy, aged 67, in Osnabruck castle where he was born, on route to Hanover. His son, 44-year old George II, succeeded him.

12/6/1727, Monday (-79,577) (Spain) Spain lifted the siege of Gibraltar (imposed 11/2/1727).

8/6/1727, Thursday (-79,581) August Francke, German religious writer, died (born 22/3/1663)

16/5/1727, Tuesday (-79,604) (Russia) Katherine I of Russia died aged 44. She was succeeded by her 12-year-old son Peter, who reigned until 1730.

14/5/1727, Sunday (-79,606) (Arts) Artist Thomas Gainsborough was born in Sudbury, Suffolk. He was the son of a cloth merchant.

10/4/1727, Monday (-79,640) Samuel Heinicke, German educator of the deaf and dumb, was born (died 30/4/1790).

7/4/1727, Friday (-79,643) (Biology) Michel Adanson, French naturalist, was born in Aix en Provence (died 3/8/1806 in Paris).

2/4/1727, Sunday (-79,648) Easter Sunday

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20/3/1727, Monday (-79,661) Sir Isaac Newton, born 5/1/1642, died in London aged 84. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

7/3/1727, Tuesday (-79,674) Andre Morellet, French writer, was born (died 12/1/1819).

8/2/1727, Wednesday (-79,701) Jean Deluc, Swiss geologist, was born (died 7/11/1817).

2/1/1727, Monday (-79,738) General James Wolfe was born at Westerham, Kent. Wolfe, son of a general, was to command the British army at the capture of Quebec from the French.

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31/12/1726, Saturday (-79,740)

28/10/1726, Friday (-79,804) David Hailes, Scottish historical writer, was born (died 29/11/1792).

12/10/1726, Wednesday (-79,820) Pierre Larcher, French archeological writer, was born (died 22/12/1812).

15/9/1726, Thursday (-79,847) Angelo Bandini, Italian author, was born in Florence (died 1800).

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2/9/1726, Friday (-79,860) (Prisons) Birth of prison reformer John Howard. English campaigner for better conditions for prisoners and wages for gaolers.

7/8/1726, Sunday (-79,886) James Bowdoin, US politician, was born in Boston, Massachusetts (died in Massachusetts 11/10/1811).

30/7/1726, Saturday (-79,894) William Jones, English religious writer, was born (died 6/1/1800).

28/7/1726, Thursday (-79,896) (Clothing) Jedediah Strutt was born in Derbyshire, England.In 1758 he invented the ribbing machine for the manufacture of stockings.

8/7/1726, Friday (-79,916) John Ker, British spy, died (born 8/8/1673).

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27/6/1726, Monday (-79,927) Nicolas Bernoulli, mathematician, died (born 27/1/1695).

20/6/1726, Monday (-79,934) The first municipal fire brigade was established, at Beverley, Yorkshire.

3/6/1726, Friday (-79,951) James Hutton, Scottish geologist, was born (died 26/3/1797).

20/5/1726, Friday (-79,965) Nicholas Brady, poet, died (born in Cork 28/10/1659).

26/4/1726, Tuesday (-79,989) Jeremy Collier, English writer, died (born 23/9/1650).

12/4/1726, Tuesday (-80,003) Charles Burney, writer on the history of music, was born (died 12/4/1814).

10/4/1726, Sunday (-80,005) Easter Sunday.

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26/3/1726, Saturday (-80,020) Sir John Vanbrugh, English playwright and architect of Blenheim Palace, Castle Howard, and many other stately homes, died of quinsy.

11/3/1726, Friday (-80,035) Louise Epinay, French writer, was born (died 17/4/1783).

8/3/1726, Tuesday (-80,038) Richard Howe, British Admiral, was born (died 5/8/1799)

12/1/1726, Wednesday (-80,093) Edmund Burke, British politician and orator, was born in Dublin.

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25/12/1725, Saturday (-80,111) Johann Hiller, German composer, was born (died 16/6/1804)

7/12/1725, Tuesday (-80,129) Florent Dancourt, French dramatist, died (born 1/11/1661).

21/10/1725, Thursday (-80,176) Franz Lacy, Austrian Field Marshal, was born (died 24/11/1801).

12/10/1725, Tuesday (-80,185) Etienne Louis Geoffroy, entomologist, was born.

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29/9/1725, Wednesday (-80,198) Robert Clive, British soldier and politician, was born in Styche, near Market Drayton, Shropshire.He was the son of a lawyer, the eldest of 13 children.

16/9/1725, Thursday (-80,211) Nicolas Desmarest, French geologist, was born (died 20/9/1815).

12/9/1725, Sunday (-88,215) Guillaume le Gentil, astronomer, was born.

5/9/1725, Sunday (-80,222) Jean Montucla, French mathematician, was born (died 18/12/1799).

21/8/1725, Saturday (-80,237) Jean Greuze, French painter, was born (died 4/3/1805).

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22/5/1725, Saturday (-80,328) Ewald Hertzberg, Orussian statesman, was born (died 22/5/1795).

25/4/1725, Sunday (-80,355) Augustus Keppel, British Admiral, was born (died 2/10/1786).

2/4/1725, Friday (-80,378) Giovanni Casanova, Italian adventurer, gambler, secret agent, and �world�s greatest lover�, was born in Venice.

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28/3/1725, Sunday (-80,383) Easter Sunday; Andrew Kippis, English religious writer, was born (died 8/10/1795).

23/3/1725, Tuesday (-80,388) Jean Latude, French writer and prisoner in the bastille, was born (died 1/1/1805).

26/2/1725, Friday (-80,413) French inventor Nicolas Joesph Cugnot was born this day. In 1769 he built a prototype steam-driven road vehicle or �fardier�.

12/2/1725, Friday (-80,427) William Mason, English poet, was born (died 7/4/1797).

8/2/1725, Monday (-80,431) Katherine I became Empress of Russia on the death of her husband Peter the Great.

28/1/1725, Thursday (-80,442) (Russia) Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia from 1682, died in St Petersburg after a 42-year reign. Aged 52, he had established Russia as a major European power.

16/1/1725, Saturday (-80,454) Jean Colson, French actor, was born(died 5/8/1799).

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30/12/1724, Wednesday (-80,471) Louis Lagrenee, French painter, was born (died 19/6/1805).

17/12/1724, Thursday (-80,484) Thomas Guy, founder of Guys Hospital, died (born 1644).

13/12/1724, Sunday (-80,488)(Germany) Franz Aepinus, German natural philosopher, was born in Rostock (died 10/8/1802 in Dorpat).

16/11/1724, Monday (-80,515) The highwayman Jack Sheppard was hanged at Tyburn in front of a crowd of 200,000.

7/11/1724, Saturday (-80,524) John Kyrle, English philanthropist, died (born 22/5/1637).

31/10/1724, Saturday (-80,531) Christopher Anstey, poet, was born in Brinkley, Cambridgeshire (died 3/8/1805).

2/10/1724, Friday (-80,560) Francois Choisy, French author, died (born 16/8/1644).

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27/9/1724, Sunday (-80,565) Anton Busching, scholarly writer, was born (died 28/5/1793).

24/9/1724, Thursday (-80,568) Sir Arthur Guinness, brewer, was born.

3/9/1724, Thursday (80,589) (Canada) Guy Dorchester, British Governor of Canada, was born (died `10/11/1808).

2/7/1724, Thursday (-80,652) Gottleib Kloppstock, German poet, was born (died 14/3/1803).

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3/6/1724, Wednesday (-80,681) John Gregory,Scottish physician, was born (died 10/2/1773).

19/5/1724, Tuesday (-80,696) (Britain) Augustus John Hervey, Third Earl of Bristol, was born (died 23/12/1779).

22/4/1724, Wednesday (-80,723) Immanuel Kant, German philosopher, was born in Konigsberg, East Prussia, the son of a saddler.

5/4/1724, Sunday (-80,740) Easter Sunday.

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7/3/1724, Saturday (-80,769) Pope Innocent XIII died.

24/2/1724, Monday (-80,781) Henry Laurens, US statesman, was born (died 8/12/1792).

12/2/1724, Wednesday (-80,793) Samuel Hood, British Admiral, was born (died 27/1/1816)

17/1/1724, Friday (-80,819) (Spain) King Philip V of Spain abdicated.

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26/12/1723, Thursday (-80,841) Friedrich Grimm, French author, was born (died 19/12/1807).

1/12/1723, Sunday (-80,866) Susanna Centlivre, French writer, died.

8/11/1723, Friday (-80,889) (Britain) John Byron, British Vice-Admiral, was born (died 10/4/1786).

7/11/1723, Thursday (-80,890) Sir Godfrey Kneller, portrait painter, died (born 8/8/1648).

10/10/1723, Thursday (-80,918) William Cowper, Lord Chancellor of England, died.

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22/9/1723, Sunday (-80,936) (France) Jacques Basnage, French politician, died (born in Rouen 1653).

12/9/1723, Thursday (-80,946) (Iran) The Russians occupied Gilan, on the south of the Caspian Sea, compelling Persia to cede it, along with Mazandaran and Astarabad, by Treaty this day. However see 1734.

11/9/1723, Wednesday (-80,947) (Education-Schools) Johann Basedow, German educational reformer, was born in Hamburg (died in Magdeburg 25/7/1790).

26/8/1723, Monday (-80,963) Anthony van Leeuwenhoek, naturalist, died.

23/8/1723, Friday (-80,966) Increase Mather, US author, died (born 21/6/1639).

10/8/1723, Saturday (-80,979) Guillaume Dubois, French statesman, died (born 6/9/1656).

4/8/1723, Sunday (-80,985) William Fleetwood, English cleric, died (born 1/1/1656).

16/7/1723, Tuesday (-81,004) Joshua Reynolds, English portrait painter, was born at Plympton Earls, Devon.

14/7/1723, Sunday (-81,006) Claude Fleury, French historical writer, died (born 6/12/1640).

11/7/1723, Thursday (-81,009) Jean Marmontel, French writer, was born (died 31/12/1799).

10/7/1723, Wednesday (-81,010) (Britain) Sir William Blackstone, English jurist, was born in London (died 14/2/1780).

1/7/1723, Monday (-81,019) Pedro Campomanes, Spanish writer, was born (died 3/2/1802).

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20/6/1723, Thursday (-81,030) Adam Ferguson, Scottish philosophical writer, was born (died 22/2/1816).

5/6/1723, Wednesday (-81,045) The economist and philosopher Adam Smith was born at Kirkcaldy.He was the son of a customs officer.

17/5/1723, Friday (-81,064) Christopher Layer was hung, drawn and quartered for treason, for a plot to kill King George I and restore the Catholic Stuart dynasty. James Francis Edward Stuart, son of James II, would have become James III. In England the military was reinforced and put on standby against a possible Catholic invasion of the country; this was paid for by a �100,000 tax (�313 million in 2015 prices) on Catholic estates. This was the Atterbury plot, named after Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester, who was exiled for his part in it.

11/5/1723, Saturday (-81,070) Jean Campistron, French dramatist, died (born 1656).

30/4/1723, Tuesday (-81,081) (Biology) Mathurin Brisson, French zoologist, was born (died 23/6/1806).

14/4/1723, Sunday (-81,097) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1723, Friday (-81,109) Austrian architect JB Fischer von Erlach died aged 66

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15/3/1723, Friday (-81,127) Johann Gunther, German poet, died (born 8/4/1695).

26/2/1723, Tuesday (-81,144) Thomas d�Urfey, English dramatist, died (born 1653).

25/2/1723. Monday (-81,145) Sir Christopher Wren, born 20/10/1632 in East Knoyle, Wiltshire, died aged 91, in London. His works included St Paul�s Cathedral (see 22/6/1675) and Chelsea Hospital. He was buried in the crypt of St Pauls Cathedral.

21/2/1723, Thursday (-81,149) (France) Louis Anquetil, French historian, was born in Paris (died 6/9/1808).

17/2/1723, Sunday (-81,153) (Maritime) Johann Tobias Mayer was born in Marbach, Germany. In 1752 he published tables of the Moon�s motion relative to the stars, which was accurate enough to enable ships at sea to determine their longitude.

25/1/1723, Friday (-81,176) La Clairon, French actress, was born (died 1803).

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25/12/1722, Tuesday (-81,207) After this date, under Britain�s Calico Act 1721, it became illegal for anyone to use or wear calico, an Indian-made fabric, in Great Britain. This removed a source of competition for UK textile producers.

20/12/1722, Thursday (-81,212) (China) Qing Kangxi, Emperor of China, born 1654, died after the longest reign in China.

9/11/1721, Friday (-81,253) (Arts) Mark Akenside, English poet, was born in Newcastle on Tyne (died 23/6/1770 in London).

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27/9/1722, Thursday (-81,296) Birth of Samuel Adams, American revolutionary who was involved in the Boston Tea Party. He died on 2/10/1803.

22/9/1722, Saturday (-81,301) John Home, Scottish poet, was born (died 5/9/1808).

11/8/1722, Saturday (-81,343) (Medical) Richard Brockelsby, English physician, was born (died 11/12/1797).

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16/6/1722, Saturday (-81,399) John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, British General famous for his victories in the Spanish War of Succession, died at Windsor aged 72.

16/5/1722, Wednesday (-81,430)

11/5/1722, Friday (-81,435) (Medical) Peter Camper, Dutch anatomist, was born (died 7/4/1789).

13/4/1722, Friday (-81,463) Charles Leslie, religious writer, died.

11/4/1722, Wednesday (-81,465) Christopher Smart, poet, was born

5/4/1722, Thursday (-81,471) Dutch Admiral Jakob Roggeveen discovered Easter Island.

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25/3/1722, Sunday (-81,482) Easter Sunday.

25/2/1722, Sunday (-81,510)

26/1/1722, Friday (-81,540) (Christian) Alexander Carlyle, Scottish religious leader, was born (died 28/8/1805).

23/1/1722, Tuesday (-81,543) Henri Boulainvilliers, French political writer, died in Paris (born in Normandy 1658).

20/1/1722, Saturday (-81,546) Charles Montagu, 1st Duke of Manchester, died.

3/1/1722, Wednesday (-81,563) Frederik Hasselquist, Swedish writer, was born (died 9/2/1752).

1/1/1722, Monday (-81,565) So-called �blacking� was becoming a problem for British landowners. Large deer parks established by the landed gentry were excluding commoners from their traditional grazing lands where they could also gather peat and firewood. The commoners would black their faces and raid these parks. In response to this Parliament passed the Black Act in May 1723, making it a hanging offence to black one�s face and carry weapons, many other offenders were transported under this Act. The Black Act was not repealed until 1824.

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29/12/1721, Friday (-81,568) Madame de Pompadour, French Mistress of Louis XV of France, was born in Paris as Jeanne Antoinette Poisson.

27/12/1721, Wednesday (-81,570) Francois Hemsterhuis, Dutch philosophical writer, was born (died 7/7/1790).

25/12/1721, Monday (-81,572) William Collins, English poet, was born (died 12/6/1759).

6/12/1721, Wednesday (-81,591) Chretien Malesherbes, French statesman, was born (guillotined 23/4/1794).

19/10/1721, Thursday (-81,639) Joseph de Guignes, Fremnch orientalist writer, was born (died 1800).

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18/9/1721, Monday (-81,670) (Britain) Nathaniel Crew, Bishop of Durham, died (born 31/1/1633).

17/9/1721, Sunday (-81,671) Samuel Hopkins, US writer, was born (died 20/12/1803).

11/9/1721, Monday (-81,677) (Biology) Rudolf Camerarius, botanist, died (born 12/2/1665).

8/9/1721, Friday (-81,680) Michael Brokoff, sculptor, died.

31/8/1721, Thursday (-81,688) (Britain) George William Hervey, Second Earl of Bristol, was born.

30/8/1721, Wednesday (-81,689) Conclusion of the Peace of Nystad. Peter the Great obtained Swedish lands including Estonia, and an outlet to the Baltic and the West.

13/8/1721, Sunday (-81,706) Jacques Lelong, French bibliographical writer, died (born 19/4/1665).

9/8/1721, Wednesday (-81,710) Prisoners in Newgate Gaol were offered a pardon if they agreed to be inoculated to test Dr Charles Maitland�s theories on the subject. Seven men volunteered, and all survived to live in freedom.

18/7/1721, Tuesday (-81,732) Painter Jean Antoine Watteau died aged 36 of smallpox in Nogent sur Marne.

14/7/1721, Friday (-81,736) John Douglas, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 18/5/1807).

9/7/1721, Sunday (-81,741) Johann Gotz, German poet, was born (died 4/11/1781).

8/7/1721, Saturday (-81,742) Elihu Yale, American philanthropist and benefactor of Yale University, named after him in New Haven, died.

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29/6/1721, Thursday (-81,751) Johann Kalb, German-born soldier in the US War of Independence, was born (died 19/8/1780).

2/6/1721, Friday (-81,778) John Erskine, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 19/1/1803).

8/5/1721, Monday (-81,803) Pope Innocent XIII (244th Pope) acceded (died 1724).

3/5/1721, Wednesday (-81,808) (Christian, Greenland) Hans Egede, Norwegian missionary, set sail from Bergen with the aim of converting the Norsemen of Greenland to Christianity. However on arrival he found no Norsemen, only Inuit, whose language he did not understand. He persisted, founding the settlement of Godthaab, until ill-health forced his return to Norway in 1736 where he became Principal of a seminary in Copenhagen.

15/4/1721, Saturday (-81,826) William Cumberland, British soldier, was born (died 31/10/1765).

14/4/1721, Friday (-81,827) Michel Chamillart, French statesman, died (born 1652).

11/4/1721, Tuesday (-81,830) David Zeisberger, missionary in the Ohio area, was born.

9/4/1721, Sunday (-81,832) Easter Sunday.

3/4/1721, Monday (-81,838) Sir Robert Walpole was appointed First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer, effectively making him Britain�s first Prime Minister. He held this office until 12/2/1742.

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26/3/1721, Sunday (-81,846) Nicolas le Camus, French architect, was born (died 27/7/1789).

19/3/1721, Sunday (-81,853) Pope Clement XI died.

16/3/1721, Thursday (-81,856) James Craggs, English politician, died (born 10/6/1657).

24/2/1721, Friday (-81,876) John Sheffield, poet and Duke, died (born 7/4/1648).

16/2/1721, Thursday (-81,884) James Craggs the younger, English politician, died (born 9/4/1686).

12/1/1721, Thursday (-81,919) Ferdinand, Prussian General, was born (died 3/7/1792).

10/1/1721, Tuesday (-81,921) (Germany) Johann Baratier, German scholar of precocious genius, was born in Schwabach near Nuremberg (died 5/10/1740).

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31/12/1720, Saturday (-81,931) Bonnie Prince Charlie, Charles Edward Stuart, was born in Rome, the elder son of James, the �Old Pretender�.

29/12/1720, Thursday (-81,933) The Haymarket Theatre, London, was founded.

14/12/1720, Wednesday (-81,948) Justus Moser, German writer, was born (died 8/1/1794).

10/10/1720, Monday (-82,013) Charles Coysevox, French sculptor, died (born 29/9/1640).

8/10/1720, Satutrday (-92,015) Jonathan Mayhew, US religious writer, was born (died 9/7/1766).

2/10/1720, Sunday (-92,021) Elizabeth Montagu, English soclalite, was born (died 25/8/1800).

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18/8/1720, Thursday (-82,066) Laurence Ferrers, 4th Earl, was born (died 5/5/1760).

17/8/1720, Wednesday (-82,067) Andre Dacier, French scholarly writer, died (born 6/4/1651).

12/8/1720, Friday (-82,072) Konrad Ekhof, German actor, was born (died 16/6/1778).

31/7/1720, Sunday (-82,084) (France) Emmanuel Aiguillon, French soldier, was born (died 1782).

24/7/1720, Sunday (-82,091) Financial crisis hit Paris as the South Sea Bubble collapsed.

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27/6/1720, Monday (-82,118) Guillaume Chaulieu, French poet, died (born 1639).

20/4/1720, Wednesday (-82,186) (Britain) George Aberdeen, Scottish lawyer and statesman (born 3/10/1637) died.

17/4/1720, Sunday (-82,189) Easter Sunday.

4/4/1720, Monday (-82,202) In return for a loan of �7 million to finance war against France, the House of Lords passed the South Sea Bill, granting the South Sea Company a monopoly on trade with South America.

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13/3/1720, Sunday (-82,224) (