Chronography of events from 1 January 1600 to 31 December 1699

Page last modified 17/11/2022


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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero=Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from


For dates from 1/1/1700 click here


7/1/1700, Sunday (-89,595) Raphael Fabretti, Italian historical writer, died (born 1618).


20/12/1699, Wednesday (-89,613) Peter the Great changed New Year�s day in Russia from September 1 to January 1.

19/12/1699, Tuesday (-89,614) William Bowyer, printer, was born in London.

29/11/1699, Wednesday (-96,634) Patrick Gordon, Scottish-born Russian General, died (born 1635).

20/10/1699, Friday (-89,674)


22/9/1699, Friday (-89,702) Citizens of Rotterdam went on strike over the high price of butter.

12/9/1699, Tuesday (-89,712) John Martyn, English botanist, was born (died 29/1/1768).

1/9/1699, Friday (-89,723) George Benson, English ecclesiastical writer, was born in Cumberland (died 6/4/1762).

25/8/1699, Friday (-89,730) (Denmark) Christian V, King of Norway and Denmark, died in a hunting accident (born 15/4/1646). He was succeeded by his 28-year-old son who ruled until 1730 as King Frederick IV.

17/8/1699, Thursday (-89,738) Bernard de Jussieu, writer, was born (died 6/11/1777).

14/7/1699, Friday (-89,772) William Bates, English writer, died in Hackney (born in London 11/1625).


14/6/1699, Wednesday (-89,802) Thomas Savery demonstrated his first steam engine to the Royal Society.

1/5/1699, Monday (-89,846) Pierre le Moyne d�Iberville founded the first European settlement on the Mississippi at Fort Maurepas, now Ocean Springs, Mississippi.

9/4/1699, Sunday (-89,868) Easter Sunday.


25/3/1699, Saturday (-49,883) Johann Hasse, German composer, was born (died 23/12/1783).

12/3/1699, Sunday (-89,896) Peder Griffenfeldt, Danish statesman, died (born 24/3/1635).

4/3/1699, Saturday (-89,904) The Jews were expelled from Lubeck, Germany.

11/2/1699, Saturday (-89,925) Bertrand la Bourdonnais, French naval Commender, was born (died 10/11/1753).

26/1/1699, Thursday (-89,941) Prince Eugene (see 29/8/1697), having invaded Serbia and Bosnia, forced the Turks to conclude the Peace of Carlowitz.This restored the entire Kingdom of Hungary, with the exception of the Banat of Temesvar, to Austria from Turkey.This was the start of the rise to power of the Hapsburg Dynasty.

14/1/1699, Saturday (-89,953) Massachusetts held a day of mourning for having wrongly persecuted witches.


Q.4 1698,

25/12/1698, Sunday (-89,973) Jacobus Houbraken, Dutch engraver, was born (died 14/11/1780).

28/11/1698, Monday (-90,000) Frontenac, French colonial Governor of Canada, died. He was very much mourned by the French Canadians.

16/11/1698, Wednesday (-90,012) A congress began in Sremski Karlovici to discuss an end to the war between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire.

23/10/1698, Sunday (-90,036) John Jortin, English religious writer, was born (died 5/9/1770).


5/9/1698, Monday (-90,084) (Russia) Tsar Peter I of Russia imposed a tax on beards in an effort to move his country from Asiatic to European customs.

3/9/1698, Saturday (-90,086) Sir Robert Howard, English dramatist, died (born 1626).

19/7/1698, Tuesday (-90,132) Johann Bodmer, author, was born near Zurich (died in Zurich 2/1/1783).

18/7/1698, Monday (-90,133) Johann Heidegger, Swiss religious writer, died (born 1/7/1633).

17/7/1698, Sunday (-90,134) Pierre Maupertuis, French scientific writer, was born (died 27/7/1759).

14/7/1698, Thursday (-90,137) The first settlers left Scotland for an ill-fated scheme to colonise Panama; the Darien scheme.

2/7/1698, Saturday (-90,149) (Innovation) Thomas Savery patented an early steam engine. This engine could be used to pump water out of mines, an increasing problem as miners went ever deeper. However Savery�s (1650-1715) engine was fairly primitive. It could not pump water up from more than 10metres below it, meaning it had to be installed deep within mines. This was dangerous as Savery�s enginewas prone to explosions. In 1721 Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729), working with Savery, produced an improved atmospheric engine. The full potential of the steam engine was not realised until James Watt (1736-1819) added a condenser in 1769, with the backing of businessman Matthew Boulton.


15/5/1698, Sunday (-90,197) Marie Champmesle, French actress, died (born 1642).

8/5/1698, Sunday (-90,204) (Science) Henry Baker, English scientist, was born in London (died in London).

24/4/1698, Sunday (-90,218) Easter Sunday.


2/3/1698, Wednesday (-90,271)

16/2/1698, Wednesday (-90,285) Pierre Bouguer, French scientist, was born (died15/8/1758).

15/1/1698, Saturday (-90,117) Richard Boyle, Irish statesman, died (born 1612).

13/1/1698, Thursday (-90,119) Pietro Metastasio, Italian poet, was born (died 12/4/1782).

4/1/1698, Tuesday (-90,328) The Palace of Whitehall, London, was destroyed by fire.

1/1/1698, Saturday (-90,331) The Abenaki tribe and the Massachusetts colonists signed a treaty ending the conflict in New England.


14/12/1697, Tuesday (-90,349) Charles XII was crowned King of Sweden, aged 15.

5/12/1697, Sunday (-90,358) The first Sunday service was held in Sir Christopher Wren�s new St Paul�s Cathedral (consecrated 2/12/1697), London; the foundation stone had been laid on 22/6/1675.

10/11/1697, Wednesday (-90,383) Painter William Hogarth was born at Smithfield, London, the son of a teacher.

27/10/1697, Wednesday (-90,397) Lightning struck Athlone Castle, Ireland, igniting 260 barrels of gunpowder along with other munitions. The resultant fire destroyed the town of Athlone, although only 8 people were killed.

19/10/1697, Tuesday (-90,405) Claude Goujet, French religious writer, was born (died 1/2/1767).

18/10/1697, Monday (-90,406) Birth of the painter Canaletto. He was born in Venice, as Giovanni Antonio Canal, and was trained by his father who was a scene painter. As a youth Canaletto went to Rome to study under the classical painter Pannini. He returned to Venice to become the most famous painter of Venetian views of the 18th century. His patron was Joseph Smith who served as English consul in Venice; as a result Canaletto�s work became popular with English travellers and he came to England in 1746, staying there for most of the next 10 years. He painted his four views of Warwick Castle, the two largest of which are (2001) in the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery.

16/10/1697, Saturday (-30,408) Nicholas Amhurst, English poet, was born in Marden, Kent (died 27/4/1742 in Twickenham).


27/9/1697, Monday (-90,427) (Geology) Franz Bruckmann, German geologist, was born (died 21/3/1753).

20/9/1697, Monday (-90,434) (Benelux, Britain) The Treaty of Ryswick ended the Nine Years War. This Treaty led to the Barrier Treaties (1709-15) between Britain and the Netherlands, with the idea that Britain would assist The Netherlands to maintain a line of fortresses against any future French attacks. These fortresses included Ypres, Lille, Tournai, Valenciennes and Namur. In return the Dutch promised to send 6,000 troops to help Britain resist a Jacobite uprising, which they did supply in 1715. France recognised William III as King of England.

11/9/1697, Saturday (-90,443) At the Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy, leading an Austrian army, defeated the Ottomans under Mustafa II, see 26/1/1699.

6/8/1697, Friday (-90,481) Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, was born (died 20/1/1745).

11/7/1697, Sunday (-90,505) (Cartographer) Jean Anville, French cartographer, was born in Paris (died 1781).

7/7/1697, Wednesday (-90,509) John Eachard, English religious writer, died.


30/6/1697, Wednesday (-90,516) Sir Thomas Blount, English author, died in Tittenhanger (born in Upper Holloway 12/9/1649)

7/5/1697, Friday (-90,570) The Royal Castle, Tree Kronor (Three Crowns) in Sweden burnt down, destroying a large part of the Royal Library.

23/4/1697, Friday (-90,584) (Britain) George Anson, British Admiral, was born in Shugborough, Staffordshire (died 6/6/1762).

9/4/1697, Friday (-90,598) William Craven, Lord Mayor of London, died (born 6/1608).

8/4/1697, Thursday (-90,599) Neils Juel, Danish Admiral, died (born 8/5/1629).

6/4/1697, Tuesday (-90,601)

5/4/1697, Monday (-90,602) Death of King Charles XI of Sweden, aged 40, after a 37-year reign. He was succeeded by his 14-year-old son, Charles XII, who ruled until 1718, see 14/12/1697.

4/4/1697, Sunday (-90,603) Easter Sunday.


6/3/1697, Saturday (-90,632) Stringer Lawrence, British soldier, was born (died 10/1/1775).

14/2/1697, Sunday (-90,652) (Medical) Bernhard Albinus, German anatomist, was born in Frankfurt on Oder (died 9/9/1770 in Leiden).

28/1/1697, Thursday (-90,669) (Britain) Sir John Fenwick, Jacobite conspirator against King William, was executed.

1/1/1697, Friday (-90,696) (India) Joseph Dupleix, French colonial governor of India, was born (died 10/11/1763).


12/12/1696, Saturday (-90,716) John Hampden, English historical writer, died.

17/10/1696, Saturday (-90,772) (Poland) Augustus III, King of Poland, was born in Dresden (died in Saxony 5/10/1763).

13/10/1696, Tuesday (-90,776) John Hervey, English writer, was born (died 5/8/1743)


27/9/1696, Sunday (-90,792) (Christian) Alfonso Liguori, Roman Catholic saint, was born.

22/8/1696, Saturday (-90,828) Forces of Venice and Turkey fought near Molino.

28/7/1696, Tuesday (-90,853) (Russia, Turkey) Russian forces under Peter the Great captured the fortress commanding the Sea of Azov from its Ottoman defenders. Russian troops also conquered Kamchatka.

18/7/1696, Saturday (-90,863) The Fleet of Tsar Peter I of Russia occupied Azov, at the mouth of the River Don.

6/7/1696, Monday (-90,875) Frontenac, French colonial Governor of Canada, left Lachine for a campaign against the Iroquois people. However the Iroquois abandoned their villages and pursuit of them proved impracticable so on 10/8/1696 Frontenac left the area.


30/6/1696. Tuesday (-90,881) Greenwich Hospital founded.

23/6/1696, Tuesday (-90,888) The first evening newspaper, Dawks�s News-Letter, began publishing in London.

17/6/1696, Wednesday (-90,894) John III Sobieski, King of Poland, died aged 72, after a 20-year reign. In 1697 Poland chose the Elector of Saxony, Frederick Augustus, aged 27, to succeed him. He was crowned in September 1697 and ruled as Augustus II until his death in 1733.

11/6/1696, Friday (-90,899) Francis Keith, Prussian Field Marshal, was born (died 14/10/1758).

30/4/1696, Thursday (-90,942) Robert Plot, naturalist writer, died.

27/4/1696, Monday (-90,945) Simon Foucher, French philosophical writer, died (born 1/3/1644).

16/4/1696, Thursday (-90,956) Giovanni Batista Tiepolo, Venetian painter, was born.

12/4/1696, Sunday (-90,960) Easter Sunday

10/4/1696, Friday (-90,962) England�s Navigation Act forbade the Colonies in America from exporting directly to Ireland or Scotland.


18/3/1696, Wednesday (-90,985) (Britain) Robert Charnock, conspirator to kill King William III of England near Turnham Green London, and restore a Stuart monarchy, was hanged.

14/3/1696, Saturday (-90,989) Jean Domat, French legal writer, died (born 30/11/1625).

29/1/1696, Wednesday (-91,034) Ivan V, Tsar of Russia, died.Peter the Great became Tsar. He decreed that all Russians should be clean � shaven, or pay a beard tax.


31/12/1695. Tuesday (-91,063) A window tax was imposed in Britain, resulting in many being blocked up.

8/12/1695, Sunday (-91,086) Barthelemy Herbelot, French orientalist writer, died (born 14/12/1625).

28/11/1695, Thursday (-91,096) Giovanni Colonna, Italian musician, died.

21/11/1695, Thursday (-91,103) Henry Purcell, English composer, died in London from tuberculosis.

20/11/1695, Wednesday (-91,104) (Brazil, Slavery) Zumbi dos Palmares, Brazilian of Congolese origin died. He was a leader of African resistance against Brazilian slavery.

5/10/1695, Saturday (-91,150) John Glas, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 1773).


21/9/1695, Saturday (-91,164)

3/9/1695, Tuesday (-91,182) Pietro Locatelli, composer, was born.

6/8/1695, Tuesday (-91,210) (France) Francois de Harlay, 5th Archbishop of Paris, died (born 14/8/1625).

19/7/1695, Friday (-91,228) The first dating advertisement appeared, in Britain. A gentleman of about 30 years of age of some wealth sought a woman with an estate of around �3,000 to match with.

8/7/1695, Monday (-91,239) (Innovation) Christiaan Huygens, the Dutch scientist who invented the pendulum clock, died (born 1629)


11/6/1695, Tuesday (-91,266) Andre Felibien, French writer, died (born 5/1619).

10/5/1696, Friday (-91,298) Jean de laBruyere, French essayist, died (born 16/8/1645).

8/4/1695, Monday (-91,330) Johann Gunther, German poet, was born (died 15/3/1723).

3/4/1695, Wednesday (-91,335) Melchior d�Hondecoeterk Dutch painter, died.


24/3/1695, Sunday (-91,345) Easter Sunday.

6/2/1695, Wednesday (-91,391) Ottoman Sultan Ahmed II died (born 1642, acceded 1691, succeeding his brother Suleiman II). He was defeated by the Austrians at Slankamen (20/8/1691), which denied possession of Hungary to the Ottomans, This battle established the Danube as the boundary between Austria and Ottoman Turkey.

2/2/1695, Saturday (-91,395) William Borlase, geologist, was born in Penden, Cornwall (died 31/8/1771).

27/1/1695, Sunday (-91,401) Nicolas Bernoulli, mathematician, was born (died 26/7/`1726).

4/1/1695, Friday (-91,424) (France) France�s Marshal Luxembourg died aged 66. He was succeededby Duc de Villeroi Francois de Neufville, aged 51, who proved to be a far less capable military commander in the War of the League of Augsburg than his predecessor. In September 1695 England recaptured Namur from the French.


28/12/1694. Friday (-91,431) (Britain) Queen Mary II died from smallpox (born 1662), leaving William III to reign alone.

26/12/1694, Wednesday (-91,433) Charles, 2nd Earl of Dunfermline, died.

30/11/1694, Friday (-91,459) (Medical) Marcello Malpighi died in Rome.

21/11/1694, Wednesday (-91,468) (Education-Philosophers) Voltaire, French philosopher and writer, was born in Paris as Jean Francois-Marie Arouet (died 1778).

4/10/1694, Thursday (-91,516) Lord George Murray, Scottish Jacobite, was born (died 11/10/1760).


22/9/1694, Saturday (-91,528) Philip Stanhope, British Earl and politician, was born (died 24/3/1773).

8/8/1694, Wednesday (-91,573) Frances Hutcheson, English philosophical writer, was born (died 1746).

5/8/1694, Sunday (-91,576) Leonardo Leo, Italian composer, was born (died 31/10/1744).

27/7/1694, Friday (-91,585) The Bank of England was founded, by Montagu, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, with government backing. Its remit was to carry out all the monetary business of the government and to obtain interest on the government�s money.


24/6/1694, Sunday (-91,618) Jean Burlamaqui, Swiss writer was born (died 3/4/1748).

11/5/1694, Friday (-91,662)

27/4/1694, Friday (-91,676) John George IV, Elector of Saxony, died (born 18/10/1668).

11/4/1694, Wednesday (-91,692) The Dukedom of Bedford was created.

8/4/1695, Sunday (-91,695) Easter Sunday.


27/3/1694, Tuesday (-91,707)

19/2/1694, Monday (-91,743) Earthquake in Ugo,Japan,390 killed.

17/2/1694, Saturday (-91,745) Antoinette Deshoulieres, French poet, died (born 1/1/1638).

6/2/1694, Tuesday (-91,756) Portuguese forces in Brazil captured Macaco, the last stronghold of the Palmares, after a siege of 42 days. The Palmares were Africans, Mocambos, who had fled from the Brazilian plantations and established their own de-facto independent state in eastern Brazil in the early 1600s. The name Palmares derives from the palm trees of the area which provided food and shelter.

27/1/1694, Saturday (-91,766)

7/1/1694, Sunday (-91,786) Charles Gerard, 1st Earl of Macclesfield, died.


27/12/1693, Wednesday (-91,797)

1/11/1693, Wednesday (-91,853) The Bank of Scotland was founded.

11/10/1693, Wednesday (-91,874) Charleroi surrendered to the French.


11/8/1693, Thursday (-91,935)


27/6/1693, Tuesday (-91,980) The Ladies Mercury, the first magazine for women, was published.

1/6/1693, Thursday (-92,006) Alexius Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Grand Chancellor of Russia, born in Moscow (died 21/4/1768).

22/5/1693, Monday (-92,016) Heidelberg was captured by the French; Heidelberg Castle surrendered on 23/5/1693.

16/4/1693, Sunday (-92,052) Easter Sunday.

9/4/1693, Sunday (-92,059) Roger Bussy, French writer, died (born 13/4/1618).

3/4/1693, Monday (-92,065) George Edwards, British naturalist, was born (died 23/7/1773).


7/3/1693, Tuesday (-92,092) Pope Clement XIII was born.

4/2/1693, Saturday (-92,123) George Lillo, English dramatist, was born(died 3/9/1739).

23/1/1693, Monday (-92,135) Georg Bilfinger, German statesman, was born in Wurttemberg (died in Stuttgart 18/2/1750).

11/1/1693, Wednesday (-92,147) Mount Etna erupted; a large earthquake affected Sicily and Malta.

8/1/1693, Sunday (-92,150) Marguerite de la Sabliere, patron of La Fontaine, died in Paris.


9/12/1692, Friday (-92,180) William Mountford, English writer, died.

21/11/1692, Monday (-92,198) Carlo Frugoni, Italian poet, was born (died 20/12/1768).

15/11/1692, Tuesday (-92,204) (Christian) Eusebius Amort, German Catholic Theologian, was born in Bibermuhle, Upper Bavaria (died 5/2/1775 in Pulling, Bavaria).

31/10/1692, Monday (-92,219) Anne Claude Caylus, writer, was born (died 1765).

25/10/1692, Tuesday (-92,225) (Spain) Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, was born (died 1766).

4/10/1692, Tuesday (-92,246) Charles Fleetwood, English politician, died.


11/9/1962, Sunday (-92,269)

10/8/1962, Wednesday (-92,301)

3/8/1692, Wednesday (-92,308) John Henley, English writer and cleric, was born (died 13/10/1759).

24/7/1692, Sunday (-92,318) (France) At the Battle of Steinkirk (Steenkirken), the French under the Duc de Luxembourg defeated England�s King William III.

23/7/1692, Saturday (-92,319) Gilles Menage, French scholarly writer, died (born 15/8/1613).


10/6/1692, Friday (-92,362) The first of the Salem Witches was hanged.She was Bridget Bishop, one of 150 respectable citizens accused of witchcraft by a hysterical band of young girls in the isolated Puritan town in Massachusetts.

7/6/1692, Tuesday (-92,365) (Earthquake, Jamaica) Earthquake in Jamaica. 3,000 killed, as Port Royal subsided into the sea.

25/5/1692, Wednesday (-92,378) Marie Lafayette, French novelist, died (born 18/3/1634).

19/5/1692, Thursday (-92,384) At the Battle of La Hogue, the British and Dutch destroyed a French fleet off Cap de la

Hague. The French fleet under Colbert was severely reduced, ending French hopes of invading England.

18/5/1692, Wednesday (-92,385) Elias Ashmole, founder of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, died (born 23/5/1617).

22/4/1692, Friday (-92,411) James Stirling, mathematician, was born.

5/4/1692, Tuesday (-92,428) Adrienne Lecouvreur, Frenchy actress, was born (died 20/3/1730).


27/3/1692, Sunday (-92,437) Easter Sunday.

14/3/1692, Monday (-92,450) Pieter Musschenbroek, Dutch scientific writer, was born (died 9/9/1761).

1/3/1692, Tuesday (-92,463) In the US, the Salem witch hunt began.

29/2/1692, Monday (-92,464) John Byrom, English poet, was born (died 26/9/12763).

13/2/1692, Saturday (-92,480) Massacre at Glencoe. 40 members of the MacDonald clan were massacred by the Campbells. This massacre was on the orders of William III, because of their Jacobite sympathies of the MacDonalds and their delay in swearing an oath of allegiance. On 27/8/1691 a proclamation was issued offering indemnity to all who took the oath of allegiance before 1/1/1692. All Scottish chiefs took the oath except MacIan, chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe, who postponed the submission until 31/12/1691. He then could not take the oath until 6/1/1692 because there was no magistrate at Fort William. This irregularity gave Breadalbane (John Campbell, First Earl of Breadalbane) the excuse to destroy the clan that had for generations plundered the lands of himself and his neighbours. The Macdonalds were in fact giving hospitality to their murderers when they rose up and killed them.Breadalbane managed to prevent most of the evidence against him from being presented; he was imprisoned for a short time in Edinburgh Castle on the grounds of earlier negotiations with the Highland chiefs, but was released when it was known he was acting with the knowledge of King William.


30/12/1691, Wednesday (-92,525) Robert Boyle, scientist, died.He formulated Boyle�s Laws on gases.

29/10/1691, Thursday (-92,587) William Hulme, English philanthropist, died.

16/10/1691, Friday (-92,600) Isaac de Benserade, French poet, died.

3/10/1691, Saturday (-92,613) The surrender of Limerick. Irish soldiers were allowed to depart for France; 11,000 did so.

29/9/1691, Tuesday (-92,617) Richard Challoner, English religious writer, was born (died 12/1/1781).

12/9/1691, Saturday (-92,634) John George III, Elector of Saxony, died (born 20/6/1647).


19/8/1691, Wednesday (-92,658) (Turkey) Louis of Baden won a major victory overt the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Szelankemen. Louis had continued the war against the Ottomans after his ally Austria had been diverted inti fighting France as part of the League of Augsburg. Grand Vizier Zade Mustafa Kuprili, aged 54, died in the battle, which led to the expulsion of the Ottomans from Hungary.

30/7/1691, Thursday (-92,678) Daniel Morhof, German writer, died (born 6/2/1639)

16/7/1691, Thursday (-92,692) Francois Louvois, War Minister to Louis XIV of France, died.

12/7/1691, Sunday (-92,696) (1) King William III won a decisive victory over the Jacobites at Aughrim, Ireland. The Jacobite army under Charles Chalmont, Marquis de St Ruth, had initial success in the battle until Chalmont was killed, his forces lost morale and fled. 7,000 Jacobite soldiers were killed. By the end of 1691 all Jacobite resistance to William in Ireland had ceased.

(2) Pope Innocent XII (242nd Pope) acceded, formerly Cardinal Antonio Pignatelli, died 1700.


26/5/1691, Tuesday (-92,743) James Lesler was executed for treason in New York.He had led an uprising against the English in favour of James II.

8/5/1691, Friday (-92,761) Sir George MacKenzie, Scotish legal writer, died.

12/4/1691, Sunday (-92,787) Easter Sunday

9/4/1691, Thursday (-92,790) Johann Gesner, German scholarly writer, was born (died 3/8/1761).


27/2/1691, Friday (-92,831) Edward Cave, English printer, was born (died 10/1/1754).

13/1/1691, Tuesday (-92,876) George Fox, English religious leader who founded the Society of Friends (often known as the Quakers) died in London.


31/12/1690, Wednesday (-92,889)

1/12/1690, Monday (-92,919) Philip Hardiwicke, English Lord Chancellor, was born (died 6/3/1764).

25/11/1690, Tuesday (-92,925)

17/11/1690, Monday (-92,933) Charles Montausier, Frenchy soldier, died (born 6/10/1610).

25/10/1690, Saturday (-92,956) Martin Folkes, English writer, was born (died 1754).

17/10/1690, Friday (-92,964) (France) Marguerite Alacoque, French nun who was beatified by Pope Pius IX in1846, died (born 22/7/1647 near Autun).

8/10/1690, Wednesday (-92,973) Belgrade was retaken by the Ottoman Turks.

3/10/1690, Friday (-92,978) Robert Barclay, Scottish Quaker writer, died (born 1648).


24/8/1690, Sunday (-93,018) The port of Calcutta was founded by Job Charnock of the English East India Company.

9/8/1690, Saturday (-93,033) The siege of Limerick began.

11/7/1690, Friday (-93,062) William of Orange defeated the Jacobites under the deposed Catholic King James II at the Battle of the Boyne. The River Boyne was the only defensive barrier between Belfast and Dublin, and James II�s forces were well dug in on rising ground there. James II�s forces lost 1,600 men; William�s, only a third of that number. William won, and James fled to Waterford and then on to France.

7/9/1690,Monday (-93,066) Karl Bogatzky, German hymn writer, was born in Lower Silesia (died 15/6/1774).


30/6/1690, Monday (-93,073) The Battle of Beachy Head. An allied force of 37 British ships and 22 Dutch ships was at anchor off Beachy head whilst a French fleet of 70 ships waited off to the south-west, waiting to co-operate with an anticipated Catholic Jacobite uprising in England. The English commander, Torrington, aged 43, wished to retire to the mouth of the Thames till he could be reinforced, but the Council of Regency ordered him to remain where he was, and fight if he could secure an advantageous position. Torrington took this as an order to fight the French and bore down on them; however with inferior numbers, there were gaps between the British ships. The Anglo-Dutch fleets began to suffer heavy losses from French fire. But the tide turned from flood to ebb during the engagement, and whilst the Anglo-Dutch ships dropped anchor, the French did not, and were carried away westwards on the current. Some of the most damaged British ships were abandoned in Pevensey Bay. Torrington was tried for his conduct but acquitted.

1/6/1690, Sunday (-93,102) At Fleurus, Belgium, a French Army fought an allied Spanish and Dutch army.The French won.

21/5/1690, Wednesday (-93,113) (Christian) John Eliot, the �Apostle to the Indians�, died (born 1604). He preached to the Amerindian nations, and translated the Bible into the Algonquian language.

25/4/1690, Friday (-93,139) David Teniers the Younger, painter, died aged 79.

22/4/1690, Tuesday (-93,142) John Granville, Emglish statesman, was born (died 22/1/1763).

20/4/1690, Sunday (-93,144) Easter Sunday.

18/4/1690, Friday (-93,146) Charles Duke of Lorraine died (born 3/4/1643).

1/4/1690, Tuesday (-93,163)


22/2/1690, Saturday (-93,,201) Charles le Brun, French painter, died (born 24/2/1619).

19/2/1690, Wednesday (-93,204) (Russia) Alexius Petrovich, Tsarevich, was born (died 1718).

1/2/1690, Saturday (-93,222)


31/12/1689, Tuesday (-93,254)

1/12/1689, Sunday (-93,284)

16/11/1689, Saturday (-93,299) Marquard Gude, German scholarly writer, died (born 1/2/1635).

22/10/1689, Tuesday (-93,324) John V, King of Portugal, was born.


7/9/1689, Saturday (-93,369) China signed the Treaty of Nerchinsk with Russia. This was the first treaty signed by China with another country as opposed to a vassal state. The Treaty settled border disputes in the Amur region.

12/8/1689, Monday (-93,395) Pope Innocent XI died.

5/8/1689, Monday (-93,402) Massacre of Lachine, Canada.

1/8/1689, Thursday (-93,406) The Irish-French army of James II failed to take the besieged city of Londonderry, whose inhabitants reaffirmed their loyalty to William and Mary.

27/7/1689. Saturday (-93,411) The Scottish Jacobites, supporters of the deposed James II, won the Battle of Killiecrankie, near Pitlochry, against the English under William III. However the Jacobite leader John Graham, Earl of Dundee, was killed.


26/6/1689, Wednesday (-93,442) Edward Holyoke, President of Harvard University, was born.

26/5/1689, Sunday (-93,473) Mary Wortley Montagu, writer, was born.

24/5/1689. Friday (-93,475) The English Parliament passed the Act of Toleration exempting dissenting Protestants from certain legal penalties so long as they have sworn oaths of allegiance to the Crown. Catholics are specifically excluded from this relief.

12/5/1689, Sunday (-93,487) (France) English King William III joined the League of Augsburg (formed 9/7/1686) against France.

3/5/1689, Friday (-93,496) William Broome, English poet, was born (died 16/11/1745).

20/4/1689, Saturday (-93,509) The siege of Londonderry began.

19/4/1689, Friday (-93,510) Queen Christina of Sweden died; she had abdicated in 1654.

18/4/1689, Thursday (-93,511) Judge Jeffreys died in The Tower of London, aged 44, before he could be tried. A Protestant, he had been hired by King James II to set up a court to deal with the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685. He was the Lord Chancellor who was notorious for the harshness of his sentences at the �Bloody Assizes�. 300 of Monmouth�s peasant followers were sentenced to hang and a further 800 sent to forced labour in Barbados . After the trials, Jeffreys was made Lord Chancellor by James II, a position he held until the Glorious Revolution of 1688. See 19/8/1685.

16/4/1689, Tuesday (-93,513) Death of Aphra Benn, British novelist and early feminist.

11/4/1689, Thursday (-93,518) The coronation of King William III and Queen Mary as joint sovereigns (see 13/2/1689). The Bishop of London performed the service, as the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to participate.

3/4/1689. Wednesday (-93,526) After landing in Ireland with money and troops supplied by Louis XIV, James II was acknowledged as King of England by an Irish parliament in Dublin. England declared war on France on 17/5/1689.


31/3/1689, Sunday (-93,529) Easter Sunday.

13/2/1689. Wednesday (-93,575) William and Mary ascended the English throne. Mary was the daughter of James II; William was born in The Hague. This ended the �Glorious Revolution� (see 6/6/1685 and 6/7/1685); James II fled to France on 22/12/1688. They were crowned by the Bishop of London, because the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to do this (see 11/4/1689). James II�s support for the Catholic cause had made him unpopular.

27/1/1689, Sunday (-93,592) Peter the Great of Russia married Eudoxia Lopukhina.

23/1/1689, Wednesday (-93,596) Joseph Ames, English author, was born in Yarmouth (died 7/10/1759 in Wapping).

22/1/1689, Tuesday (-93,597) The Convention Parliament agreed that Charles II had abdicated by fleeing to France (on 22/12/1688) and that the throne was vacant, for William and Mary to accede.

4/1/1689, Friday (-93,615) Juan de Matos Fragosa, Spanish dramatist, died.


12/12/1688, Wednesday (-93,638) Judge Jeffreys took refuge from a mob in the Tower of London.

26/11/1688. Monday (-93,654) Louis XIV declared war on The Netherlands.

11/11/1688, Sunday (-93,669) Louis Castel, mathematician, was born (died 1757).

5/11/1688, Monday (-93,675) (Britain) William of Orange landed at Torbay, having been invited by Whig and Tory leaders to save Britain from Catholicism on 30/6/1688; William accepted this invitation on 5/11/1688. See 30/6/1688. William had some 40,000 troops in 463 ships but they were not necessary. James prepared to fight him, but was unsettled by defections in his army. The English population welcomed William. They almost missed Torbay, due to poor navigation, and the next port was Plymouth, strongly guarded by James II�s garrison. However the wind turned and William�s fleet was able to make landfall at Torbay as planned. James later fled to France.

23/10/1688, Tuesday (-93,688) Charles du Cange, historical writer, died (bprn 18/12/1610).

19/10/1688, Friday (-93,692) (Medical) William Cheselden, English surgeon, was born (died 10/4/1752).


31/8/1688, Friday (-93,741) John Bunyan religious writer, author of The Pilgrim�s Progress, died at the house of a friend in Holborn, London. See 12/11/1660.

11/7/1688, Wednesday (-93,792) Narai, King of Siam, died.


30/6/1688, Saturday (-93,803) William of Orange was invited to England.

26/6/1688, Tuesday (-93,807) Ralph Cudworth, scholarly writer, died (born 1617).

10/6/1688, Sunday (-93,823) A son (James Stuart, the �Old Pretender�) was born to James II, opening up the possibility of a line of Catholic Kings to rule England.He was James II�s only son; his mother was Mary of Modena.

15/4/1688, Sunday (-93,879) Easter Sunday.

4/4/1688, Wednesday (-93,890) Joseph Delisle, French astronomer, was born (died 12/9/1768).


17/2/1688, Friday (-93,937) Cadwallader Colden, US medical writer, was born (died 28/9/1776).

15/2/1688, Wednesday (-93,939) Nicolas Freret, French scholarly writer, was born (died 8/3/1749).

4/2/1688, Saturday (-93,950) Pierre Marivaux, French novelist, was born (died 12/2/1763).

2/2/1688. Thursday (-93,952) Abraham Duquesne, French naval officer, died.

29/1/1688, Sunday (-93,956) Emmanuel Swedenborg, Swedish mystic, was born.

18/1/1688, Tuesday (-93,967) Lionel Cranfield Sackville, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was born (died 10/10/1765).

11/1/1688, Tuesday (-93,974) James Gardiner, Scottish soldier, was born (fell at Prestonpans 21/9/1745).


31/12/1687, Saturday (-93,985) The first boatload of Huguenots sailed from Holland to settle in South Africa. They took vines to start a wine industry in the new colony.

13/11/1687. Sunday (-94,033) Nell Gywnne, actress, died, aged in London aged 37. The mistress of Charles II, who had borne him two sons, was perhaps the best known orange seller of all time.

10/10/1687, Monday (-94,067) Nicolas Bernoulli, scientist, was born (died 29/11/1759).


26/9/1687. Monday (-94,081) The Parthenon and the Propylea were destroyed when the Venetians bombarded Athens. The Venetian army was besieging the Turks when a mortar bomb fired by the Venetians set off Turkish gunpowder stored in the Acropolis.

12/9/1687, Monday (-94,095) (USA) John Adlen, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, died in Duxbury.

1/9/1687, Thursday (-94,106) Henry More, English philosophical writer, died.

12/8/1687, Friday (-94,126) (Turkey) At the Second Battle of Mohacs, Charles of Lorraine defeated the Ottoman Turks.

26/7/1687, Tuesday (-94,143)


24/6/1687, Friday (-94,175) (Germany) Johann Bengel, German scholar, was born in Winenden (died 1742).

26/5/1687, Thursday (-94,204)

16/4/1687, Saturday (-94,244) George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham died (born 30/1/1628).

14/4/1687. Thursday (-94,246) Having failed to persuade Parliament to repeal the 1673 Test Act (forbidding aCatholic from being the monarch of England), James II issued a Declaration of Indulgence. This granted toleration to Catholics and to non-conformists.


28/3/1687, Monday (-94,263) Sir Constantijn Huygens, Dutch poet, was born (died 28/3/1687).

27/3/1687, Sunday (-94,264) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1687, Tuesday (-94,269) (Arts) Jean Baptiste, director of the Parisn Opera, died of sepsis after stabbing himself in the foot with his long baton whilst conductinga Te Deum of thanksgiving for King Louis XIV�s recoverty from illness.

7/3/1687, Thursday (-94,281) Jean Lebeuf, French historical writer, was born (died 10/4/1760).

14/2/1687, Monday (-94,305)

28/1/1687, Friday (-94,322) In Japan the killing of animals was forbidden. Shogun Sunayoshi, after the death of his only son, had become a devout Buddhist. On 27/2/1787 he forbade the eating of fish, shellfish or birds.


14/12/1686, Tuesday (-94,367)

18/11/1686, Thursday (-94,393) King Louis XIV of France underwent a successful operation for haemorrhoids. The surgeon, Charles Francois, had specially-designed tools for the operation, and had practised on dozens of peasants and prisoners, some of whom died.

11/11/1686, Thursday (-94,400) Louis II de Bourbon, Prince of Conde, died (born 8.9.1621).

5/11/1686, Friday (-94,406) John Playford, British music publisher, died in London (born 1623 in Norfolk)

14/10/1686, Thursday (-94,428)


19/8/1686, Thursday (-94,484) Eustace Budgell, writer, was born (died 4/5/1737).

10/7/1686, Saturday (-94,524) John Fell, English religious writer, died (born 1625).

9/7/1686, Friday (-94,525) (France) The Leagyue of Augsburg was created against French King Louis XIV. It comprised an alliance of Spain (King Carlos II), Sweden (King Charles IX), the Holy Roman Empire (Emperor Leopold I) and the Electors of Bavaria, Saxony and The Palatine. The League was aimed at curbing French expansionism, and King Louis XIV had been clandestinelysupporting the Ottoman Empire against Austria.

6/7/1686, Tuesday (-94,528) The Austrians took Buda from the Ottoman Turks and annexed Hungary.


23/6/1686, Wednesday (-94,541) Sir William Coventry, English statesman, died.

24/5/1686, Monday (-94,571) Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, the German physicist who invented the mercury thermometer, was born in Danzig.

11/5/1686, Tuesday (-94,584) Otto von Guericke, German scientist, died (born 20/11/1602).

26/4/1686, Monday (-94,599) (Britain) Arthur Anglesey, British statesman, died in Blechingdon, Oxfordshire (born 10/7/1614 in Dublin).

9/4/1686, Friday (-94,616) James Craggs the younger, English politician, was born (died 16/2/1721).

4/4/1686, Sunday (-94,621) Easter Sunday.


24/3/1686, Wednesday (-94,632)

25/2/1686, Thursday (94,659) Abraham Calovius, German Lutheran theologian (born 16/4/1612) died.

10/2/1686, Wednesday (-94,674) (Britain) Sir William Dugdale, English historian, died (born 12/9/1605). In 1641 he was commissioned by Sir Christopher Hatton (who foresaw the destruction of the Civil War) to make exact drafts of the monuments at all of England�s major cathedrals.

31/1/1686, Sunday (-94,684) (Christian) Hans Egede, Norwegian missionary to Greenland was born, see 3/5/1721.


31/12/1685, Thursday (-94,715)

10/11/1685, Tuesday (-94,766) Duncan Forbes, Scottish statesman, was born (died 10/12/1747).

30/10/1685, Friday (-94,777) Michel le Tellier, French statesman, died (born 19/4/1603).

18/10/1685. Sunday (-94,789) Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes which had been issued by Henry IV of France and had given Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. The laity were also forbidden to emigrate; Louis XIV was concerned about the drain of skilled Huguenot merchants and craftsmen, many of whom had fled to England.

1/10/1685, Thursday (-94,806) Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, was born (died 20/10/1740).


19/8/1685. Wednesday (-94,849) Judge Jeffreys began sentencing people to death at what became known as the Bloody Assizes. This followed the Monmouth Rebellion, see 6/7/1685.

12/8/1686, Wednesday (-94,856) John Balguy, English writer, was born in Sheffield (died 21/9/1748 in Harrogate).

15/7/1685, Wednesday (-94,884) The Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of King Charles II and Lucy Walter, was executed on Tower Green, London, for leading a Protestant rebellion on the accession of King James II.

6/7/1685. Monday (-94,893) James II�s troops defeated the Duke of Monmouth at Sedgemoor, Somerset, the last battle fought on English soil. Monmouth�s troops had attempted a night attack late on 5/7/1685 but the King�s troops under John Churchill, later Duke of Marlborough, successfully counterattacked at dawn. The rebel Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of King Charles II, was executed on 15/7/1685. See 13/2/1689.


30/6/1685, Tuesday (-94,899) John Gay, poet and playwright, was born.

11/6/1685, Thursday (-94,918) An abortive rebellion against King James II, by the same faction as promoted the Rye House Plot of 1683 (21/7). Monmouth, having been expelled from Holland upon the accession of James II, landed at Lyme Regis, Dorset, and issued a proclamation claiming the throne of England. He gathered a small army of 3-4,000, mainly of middle social class status, and managed to capture Taunton before being defeated by pro-Royal troops at Sedgemoor on 6/7/1683.

6/6/1685. Saturday (-94,923) James II became King of England. See 13/2/1689.

19/4/1685, Sunday (-94,971) Easter Sunday.


21/3/1685, Saturday (-95,000) Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer, was born in Eisenach, Thuringia.

18/3/1685, Wednesday (-95,003) (Britain) Ralph Erskine, Scottish divine, was born (died 6/11/1752).

12/3/1685, Thursday (-95,009) George Berkeley, scholarly writer, was born (died 14/1/1753).

23/2/1685, Monday (-95,026) George Frederick Handel, German composer, was born in Halle, the son of a barber-surgeon.

10/2/1685, Tuesday (-95,039) Aaron Hill,English author, was born (died 8/2/1750).

8/2/1685, Sunday (-95,041) Charles Henault, French historical writer, was born (died 24/11/1770).

7/2/1685; Saturday (-95,042) Charles II, James II�s brother, died aged 54 after suffering an apoplectic fit on 2/2/1685, see 6/6/1685.

9/1/1685, Friday (-95,071) Tiberius Hemsterhuis, Dutch scholarly writer, was born (died 7/4/1766).

7/1/1685, Wednesday (-95,073) (Sweden) Jonas Alstromer, Swedish industrialist, was born in Alingsas, Vestergotland. He died 2/6/1761.

2/1/1685, Friday (-95,078) Sir Harbottle Grimston, English politician, died (born 27/1/1603).


10/12/1684, Wednesday (-95,101) Isaac Newton�s derivation of Kepler�s Laws of Gravity was read in a paper to The Royal Society by Edmund Halley.

3/12/1684, Wednesday (-95,108) Ludvig Holberg, wriyter, was born in Bergen, Norway (died 28/1/1754, Copenhagen).

10/10/1684, Friday (-95,162)


30/9/1684, Tuesday (-95,172) Pierre Corneille, French poet and dramatist, died (born 6/6/1606).

15/8/1684, Friday (-95,218) (Spain, France/Germany, Netherlands) The Truce of Ratisbon (or, Truce of Regensburg) ended the War of the Reunions between Spain and the Holy Roman Empire on one side and France on the other. The War of the Reunions (1683�84) was a conflict between France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, with limited involvement by Genoa. It can be seen as a continuation of the 1667�1668 War of Devolution and the 1672�1678 Franco�Dutch War, which were driven by Louis XIV's determination to establish defensible boundaries along France's northern and eastern borders.

10/8/1684, Sunday (-95,223)

24/7/1684, Thursday (-95,240) Rene-Robert Cavelier sailed from France with a large expedition, to establish a French colony on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the Mississippi River.


24/5/1684, Saturday (-95,301)

15/4/1684, Tuesday (-95,340) (Russia) Katherine I of Russia was born (died 1727).


30/3/1684, Sunday (-95,356) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1684, Wednesday (-95,367) Jean Astruc, French writer, was born in Sauve, Languedoc (died 5/5/1766 in Paris).

15/3/1684, Saturday (-95,371) Francesco Durante, Italian composer, was born (died 13/8/1755).

4/2/1684, Monday (-95,411) The River Thames suddenly thawed, drowning many of the people shopping at the Frost Fair set up on the river.

14/1/1684, Monday (-95,432) Jean-Baptiste van Loo, painter, was born.

10/1/1684, Thursday (-95,436) The Dukedom of St Albans was created.

9/1/1684. Wednesday (-95,437) During a deep freeze, the River Thames at London froze over and puppet shows and shopping stalls were set up on the ice.

1/1/1684, Tuesday (-95,445) Arnold Drakenborgh, Dutch scholarly writer, was born (died 16/1/1748).


27/12/1683, Thursday (-95,450) Conyers Middleton, English religious writer, was born (died 28/7/1750).

19/12/1683, Wednesday (-95,458) Philip V, King of Spain, was born.

15/12/1683, Saturday (-95,462) Izaak Walton, author of The Compleat Angler, died at Winchester aged 90.

19/11/1683, Monday (-95,488) Johann Carpzov, scholarly writer, died (born 1607).

10/11/1683, Saturday (-95,497) George II, King of England, was born in Hanover, Germany, the only son of George I.


17/9/1683, Monday (-95,551) The Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek wrote to the Royal Society to report his discovery of bacteria.

11/9/1683. Tuesday (-95,557) (East Europe, Greece-Turkey), The conquering armies of Islam under Vizier Kara Mustafa were defeated at the gates of Vienna. The Turks had been besieging Vienna since July 1683. Relief came under Poland�s King John III (see 1/4/1683) and Charles, Duke of Normandy. The Ottoman Sultan ordered Mustafa to commit suicide.

7/9/1683, Friday (-95,561) German reinforcements arrived outside the besieged city of Vienna.

6/9/1683, Thursday (-95,562) Jean Colbert, French politician, died (born 1619).

7/8/1683, Tuesday (-95,592)

31/7/1683, Tuesday (-95,599) Invading Turkish forces reached the gates of Vienna.�� If Vienna fell, Germany would be open to a Turkish invasion.

30/7/1683, Monday (-95,600) Marie Therese, Queen Consort of France, died (born 10/9/1638).

21/7/1683, Saturday (-95,609) Algernon Sidney and William Russell were executed for their part on the Rye House Plot. Along with the Earl of Wessex (who cheated the executioner by committing suicide in gaol), they planned to ambush King Charles II and the Duke of York (future James II) on their return from Newmarket to London at a narrow point at Rye House, near Hoddesdon, and assassinate them. The plot failed because the monarch left Newmarket early. The Government took advantage of the plot to implicate others whose loyalty to Charles II was questionable.


23/6/1683, Saturday (-95,637) William Penn signed a treaty of peace and friendship with chiefs of the Lenapi Indian tribe, at Shakamaxon.

6/6/1683. Wednesday (-95,654) Elias Ashmole opened the first public museum, the Ashmolean, in Broad Street, Oxford. Exhibits included stuffed animals and a dodo.

3/6/1683, Sunday (-95,657) Sadlers Wells Theatre, London, was founded.

25/5/1683, Friday (-95,666) Elijah Fenton, English poet, was born (died 16/7/1730).

30/4/1683, Monday (-95,691) France, Brandenburg-Prussia, and Denmark agreed that Sweden should be expelled from German territories.

8/4/1683, Sunday (-95,713) Easter Sunday.

3/4/1683, Tuesday (-95,718)

1/4/1683, Sunday (-95,720) (East Europe, Poland), Poland made a treaty of mutual defence with the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, against the threat from Ottoman Turkey (see 11/9/1683).


19/3/1683, Monday (-95,733) Thomas Killigrew, English dramatist, died (born 7/2/1612).

9/3/1683, Friday (-95,743) Michael Ettmuller, physician, died (born 26/5/1644).

1/3/1683, Thursday (-95,752) Caroline, wife of King George II of Britain, was born (died 20/11/1737).

27/2/1683, Tuesday (-95,754)

6/2/1683, Tuesday (-95,774)

5/2/1683, Monday (-95,775)


2/12/1682, Saturday (-95,840) The Dukedom of Beaufort was created.

29/11/1682, Wednesday (-95,843) Prince Rupert, commander of the Royalist troops in the English Civil war, died.

21/11/1682, Tuesday (-95,851) Claude Lorrain, painter, died in Rome aged 82.

29/10/1682, Sunday (-95,874) Pierre Charlevoix, French historical writer, was born (died 1/2/1761).

27/10/1682, Friday (-95,876) Philadelphia, USA, was founded by William Penn.

19/10/1682, Wednesday (-95,885) Sir Thomas Browne, writer, died (born 19/10/1605).


1/8/1682, Tuesday (-95,963)

12/7/1682, Wednesday (-95,983) Death of Jean Picard, astronomer who first calculated the circumference of the Earth.

10/7/1682, Monday (-95,985) Roger Cotes, English mathematician, was born (died 5/6/1716).


28/6/1682, Wednesday (-95,997) Dom Perignon, a blind Benedictine cellarman at Hautevilliers Abbey, invented Champagne.

17/6/1682, Saturday (-96,008) (Sweden) Charles XII, King of Sweden, was born (died 1718).

18/5/1692, Thursday (-96,038) Joseph Butler, English religious writer, was born (died 16/6/1752).

6/5/1682, Saturday (-96,050) King Louis XIV arrived at his new chateau of Versailles.

27/4/1682, Thursday (-96,059) Theodore III, Tsar of Russia, died.

16/4/1682, Sunday (-96,070) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1682, Friday (-96,072) In Russia a priest calledAvvakum was burned at the stake for 4resisting reforms to the Russian Orthodox Church.

9/4/1682, Sunday (-96,077) The explorer de La Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi and claimed it for Louis XIV of France, naming the area Louisiana.

3/4/1682, Monday (-96,083) Bartolome Murillo, painter, died in Seville aged 64.


14/3/1682, Tuesday (-96,103) Jacob van Ruysdael, painter, died in Amsterdam, aged 53.

11/3/1682. Saturday (-96,106) Charles II founded the Chelsea Hospital for old soldiers (Chelsea Pensioners).It was designed by Wren, and opened in 1692.

25/2/1682, Saturday (-96,120) Giovanni Morgagni, Italian anatomist, was born (died 6/12/1771).

10/1/1682, Tuesday (-96,166)


21/12/1681, Wednesday (-96,186) Claude Prost, French military leader, died (born 17/6/1607).

28/11/1681, Monday (-96,209) Jean Cavalier, French Camisard leader, was born (died 1740).

17/11/1681, Thursday (-96,220) Pierre Courayer, French theological writer, was born (died 17/10/1776).

7/10/1681, Friday (-96,261) Nikolaes Heinsius, Dutch scholarly writer, died (born 20/7/1620)


28/9/1681, Wednesday (-96,270) Louis XIV�s army captured the previously independent city of Strasbourg. The French now controlled all of Alsace, except Mulhouse.

11/9/1681, Sunday (-96,287) Johann Heineccius, German legal writer, was born (died 31/8/1741).

27/7/1681, Wednesday (-96,333) (Britain) Donald Cargill, Scottish Covenanter, born 1610, was executed.

26/7/1681, Tuesday (-96,334)


25/5/1681, Wednesday (-96,396) Spanish dramatist Pedro Calderon de la Barca died.

3/4/1681, Sunday (-96,448) Easter Sunday.


14/3/1681, Monday (-96,468) Georg Philipp Telemann, composer, was born.

4/3/1681, Friday (-96,478) King Charles II granted the Quaker, William Penn, 38 years old, a Royal Charter for territory in North America, to be called Pennsylvania. In return Penn waived a debt of �16,000 owed by the Crown to his estate.

4/1/1681, Tuesday (-96,537)


31/12/1680, Friday (-96,541)

8/12/1680, Wednesday (-96,564) Henry Pierrepoint, Marquess of Dorchester, died.

28/11/1680, Sunday (-96,574) The Italian sculptor Giovanni Bernini died.

30/10/1680, Saturday (-96,603) Antoinette Bourignon, Flemish mystic, was born in Lille (died in Friesland 30/10/1680).

19/10/1680, Tuesday (-96,614) (Ireland) John Abernethy, Irish Presbyterian Minister, was born in Coleraine, County Londonderry.

16/10/1680, Saturday (-96,617) Raimondo Montecucculi, Austrian General, died.

12/10/1680, Tuesday (-96,621) Arthur Collier, scholarly writer, was born (died 1732).


25/9/1680, Saturday (-96,638) Samuel Butler, English poet, died (born 1612).

22/9/1680, Wednesday (-96,641) Barthold Brockes, German poet, was born (died 16/1/1747).

9/9/1680, Thursday (-96,654) Henry Marten, English Parliamentarian, died.

2/9/1680, Thursday (-96,661) Per Brahe, Swedish statesman, died in Visingborg (born near Stockholm 18/2/1602).

23/8/1680, Monday (-96,671) Captain Blood, the famous Irish adventurer, died.�� He had attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London on 9/5/1671.

22/8/1680, Sunday (-96,672) John George II, Elector of Saxony, died (born 31/5/1613).

20/8/1680, Friday (-96,674) (Britain) William Bledloe, English adventurer, died in Bristol (born Chepstow 20/4/1650)


22/6/1680, Tuesday (-96,733) Ebenezer Erskine, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 2/6/1754).

31/5/1680, Monday (-96,755) Joachim Neander, german hymn writer, died.

11/4/1680, Sunday (-96,805) Easter Sunday.


17/3/1680, Wednesday (-96,830) Francois de la Rochefoucauld, Fremch writer, died (born 15/9/1613).

14/3/1680, Sunday (-96,833) Rene le Bossu, French literary critic, died (born in Paris 16/3/1631).

23/2/1680, Monday (-96,853) Thomas Goodwin, English religious writer, died (born 5/10/1600).

17/2/1680, Tuesday (-96,859) Denzil Holles, English writer, died (born 31/10/1599).


31/12/1679, Wednesday (-96,907) Giovanni Borelli, Italian physicist, died in Rome (born in Naples 28/1/1608).

20/12/1679, Saturday (-96,918) John Maurice of Nassau died.

27/11/1679, Thursday (-96,941) A major fire in Boston, Massachusetts, burnt all the warehouses, all the ships in the dockyards, and 80 houses.

12/10/1679, Sunday (-96,987) William Gurnall, English author, died (born 1617).


29/9/1679, Monday (-97,000) Thomas Chubb, religious writer, was born (died 8/2/1746).

17/9/1679, Wednesday (-97,012) Don John the Younger of Austria died (born 1629).

17/7/1679, Thursday (-97,074) James Duport, English scholarly writer, died (born 1606).


29/6/1679, Sunday (-97,092) (Germany) The Peace of St Germain, forced on the Elector of Brandenburg by King Louis XIV of France, made him surrender all territories in Pomerania conquered from Sweden

22/6/1679, Sunday (-97,099) The Battle of Bothwell Bridge. The Duke of Monmouth defeated the Covenanters.

15/6/1679, Sunday (-97,106) Guillaume Courtois, French painter, died (born 1628).

1/6/1679, Sunday (-97,120) At the Battle of Drumclog, Scottish Covenanters defeated a small government force.

27/5/1679, Tuesday (-97,125) The Habeas Corpus Act, stating that nobody could be held in prison without a trial, was passed. The rights of a prisoner were mentioned as early as the 14th century in England, but it was Lord Shaftesbury who suggested such an Act on the statute books. Charles I believed himself to be above Parliament so the Act was passed to counter his rulings. This enabled political prisoners of the King to demand a trial, and to obtain bail if prison was not justified. Habeas Corpus can only be suspended in times of war or a terrorist threat.

22/4/1679, Tuesday (-97,160) John Davies, English scholarly writer, was born (died 7/3/1732).

20/4/1679, Sunday (-97,162) Easter Sunday.


6/3/1679, Thursday (-97,207) In England the Habeas Corpus Parliament, or First Exclusion Parliament, assembled for the first time.

5/2/1679, Wednesday (-97,236) (France) The Third Treaty of Nijmegen ended seven years of war in Europe.

24/1/1679, Friday (-97,248) (Britain) King Charles II of England dissolved the Cavalier Parliament.

18/1/1679, Saturday (-97,254) (Britain) John Hervey, courtier to Catherine, wife of King Charles II, died.

8/1/1679, Wednesday (-97,264) (USA, Canada) La Salle, French explorer, reached the Niagara Falls.

1/1/1679, Wednesday (-97,265)


31/12/1678, Tuesday (-97,272)

24/12/1678, Tuesday (-97 279)

14/12/1678, Saturday (-97,289) Daniel Neal, English historical writer, was born (died 4/4/1743).

24/11/1678, Sunday (-97,309)

12/11/1678, Tuesday (-97,321)

12/10/1678, Saturday (-97,352) Sir Edmund Godfrey, English politician, was murdered (born 23/12/1621).

1/10/1678, Tuesday (-97,363)


24/9/1678, Tuesday (-97,370)

19/9/1678, Thursday (-97,375) (Germany) Christoph Galen, Prince-Bishop of Munster, died (born 12/10/1606).

16/8/1678, Friday (-97,409) Andrew Marvell, English poet, died.

12/8/1678, Monday (-97,413) Titus Oates� Popish plot was revealed to King Charles II.


26/7/1678, Friday (-97,430) Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I was born.


25/5/1678, Saturday (-97,492)


31/3/1678, Sunday (-97,547) Easter Sunday

4/3/1678. Monday (-97,574) Birth of Venetian composer and violinist Antonio Lucio Vivaldi.

18/2/1678, Monday (-97,588) John Bunyan, 50-year old Baptist, published his book Pilgrim�s Progress.

29/1/1678, Tuesday (-97,608) Jeronimo Lobo, Jesuit missionary to India, died.

18/1/1678, Friday (-97,619)

2/1/1678, Wednesday (-97,635) The Hamburg Staatsoper (Opera JHouse) opened.


31/12/1677, Monday (-97.637)

19/11/1677, Monday (-97,679) Franz Junius junior, writer, died.

16/11/1677, Friday (-97,682) French troops occupied Freiberg.

4/11/1677, Sunday (-97,694) King William II married his cousin Princess Mary (future Queen Mary II of England), the eldest daughter of King James II and Anne Hyde.

2/11/1677, Friday (-97,696) Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, died (born 1/12/1595).

30/10/1677, Tuesday (-97,699) French troops in West Africa captured Dutch ports on the River Senegal and took Goree, near Cape Verde.


11/9/1677, Tuesday (-97,748) James Harrington, English writer, died (born 1/1611).

14/7/1677, Saturday (-97,807) At the Battle of Landskrona, Sweden defeated Denmark.


31/5/1677, Thursday (-97,851) Danish ships defeated a Swedish naval force.

29/5/1677, Tuesday (-97,853) The Treaty of Middle Plantation established peace between the Virginia colonists and the local Indians.

4/5/1677, Friday (-97,878) (Mathematics) Isaac Barrow, English mathematician, died (born 1630).

15/4/1677, Sunday (-97,897) Easter Sunday.

11/4/1677, Wednesday (-97,901) The Battle of Cassel; Philippe I of Orleans defeated William of Orange.


28/3/1677, Wednesday (-97,915) Wenzel Hoillar, Bohemian etcher, died (born 13/7/1607).

20/3/1677, Tuesday (-97,923) (Britain) George Digby, First Earl of Bristol, died.

21/2/1677, Wednesday (-97,950) Benedict Spinoza, Jewish philosopher, died.

8/2/1677, Thursday (-97,963) (Astronomy) Jacques Cassini, astronomer, was born (died 18/4/1756).

29/1/1677, Monday (-97,973) John Hughes, English poet, was born (died 17/2/1720)

1/1/1677, Monday (-98,001) Francois Lagrange-Chancel, French dramatist, was born.


25/12/1676, Monday (-98,008) Sir Matthew Hale, Lord Chief Justice of England, died (born 1/11/1609)

18/12/1676, Monday (-98,015) Edward Benlowes, English poet, died.

4/12/1676, Monday (-98,029) The Swedish town of Lund was defended in the Battle of Lund, one of the bloodiest battles fought in Scandinavia.

10/11/1676, Friday (-98,053)

28/10/1676, Saturday (-98,066) Jean Desmarets, French dramatist, died (born 1595).

16/10/1676, Monday (-98,078) (Poland, Turkey) The Treaty of Zuravno ended the 4 year war between Poland and tye Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Turkey acquired Podolia and much of the Polish Ukraine, thereby bringing Ottoman territory up to the border with Russia.


21/9/1676, Thursday (-98,103) Pope Innocent XI (240th Pope), acceded, formerly Cardinal Benedetto Odescalchi (died 1689).

17/9/1676, Sunday (-98,107) Cesar du Marsais, French scholarly writer, was born (died 11/6/1756).

26/8/1676, Saturday (-98,129) Sir Robert Walpole, the first British Prime Minister, was born at Houghton Hall, Norfolk.

17/8/1676, Thursday (-98,138) Hans Jakob Grimmelshausen, German author, died.

12/8/1676, Saturday (-98,143) King Philip, American Indian Chief, was killed.The Indian War in New England ended.

22/7/1676, Saturday (-98,164) Pope Clement X (239th Pope) died. Pope Innocent XI (240th Pope), acceded, formerly Cardinal Benedetto Odescalchi (died 1689).

4/7/1676, Tuesday (-98,182) Jose de Canizares, Spanish dramatist, was born (died 4/9/1750).


21/6/1676, Wednesday (-98,195) Anthony Collins, English writer, was born (died 13/12/1729).

11/6/1676, Sunday (-98,205) Battle of Entholm, Northern Wars. The Danish fleet under Admiral van Tromp defeateed the Swedes.

7/6/1676, Wednesday (-98,209) Paul Gerhardt, German hymn writer, died.

20/5/1676, Saturday (-98,227) Jacques Courtois, French painter, died (born 1621),

7/5/1676, Sunday (-98,240) Pietro Giannone, Italian historical writer, was born (died 7/3/1748).


26/3/1676, Sunday(-98,282) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1676, Friday (-98,291) (Britain) Thomas Boston, Scottish cleric, was born in Duns (died 20/5/1732).

12/2/1676, Saturday (-98,325)

8/2/1676, Tuesday (-98,329) (Russia) Czar Alexis Mikhailovich died aged 47 after a reign of 31 years. He was succeeded by his eldest sutrving son, aged 15, who ruled as Feodor III until his death in 1682.

1/1/1676, Saturday (-98,367)


29/12/1675, Wednesday (-98,370) The English Parliament ordered the closure of all coffee houses, believing they were centres from which malicious rumours about the government originated.

23/12/1675, Thursday (-98,376) Cesar Choiseul, French Marshal, died (born 1602).

19/12/1675, Sunday (-98,380) A White colonist army, 1,000 strong, attacked an indigenous American Narraganset fort near what is now Kingston, Rhode island. The colonists were repulsed but succeeded in enytering the fort by the rear. The Narraganset along with their Wampanoag allies foled, but their Chief, Canonchet,was killed in the following year.

15/12/1675, Wednesday (-98,384) Jan Vermeer, painter, died aged 43.

6/12/1675, Monday (-98,393) John Lightfoot, English religious writer, died (born 29/3/1602).

1/12/1675, Wednesday (-98,398) Barnaby Lintot, English writer, was born (died 3/2/1736).

28/11/1675, Sunday (-98,401) William Denbigh, English Civil War soldier, died.

21/11/1675, Sunday (-98,408) (Mathematics) Leibniz became the first mathematician to use the modern notation of f[x] dx for integration/differentiation.

14/11/1676, Sunday (-98,415) Benjamin Hoadly, English religious writer, was born (died 17/4/1761).

11/11/1675, Thursday (-98,418) (Medical, Food) Death of Thomas Willis, physician to King Charles II and to the Duke of York. He was the first to notice an increase in what we now know as diabetes amongst his more affluent clients � he called it �the pissing evil�. He also noted the very sweet nature of this urine. The wealthy in England were raising their consumption of sugar, now being imported from the Caribbean, both in desserts and in tea. In fact the issue of sweet urine and diabetes was also known to the ancient Greeks, Indians and Chinese.

11/10/1675, Monday (-98,449) Samuel Clarke, scholarly writer, was born (died 17/5/1729).

8/10/1676, Friday (-98,452) Benito Feijoo, Spanish monk and writer, was born (died 26/9/1764).


18/9/1675, Saturday (-98,472) Charles Duke of Lorraine died (born 5/4/1604).

11/9/1675, Saturday (-98,479) The Dukedom of Grafton was created.

10/8/1675, Tuesday (-98,511) (London, space exploration) King Charles II established Greenwich Observatory, at Flamsteed House, Greenwich.Its foundation stone was laid this day.

9/8/1675, Monday (-98,512) The Dukedom of Richmond (Lennox & Gordon) was created.

14/7/1675, Wednesday (-98,538) (France) Claude Bonneval, French adventurer, was born (died in Constantinople 23/3/1747).


28/6/1675, Monday (-98,554) (Germany) Sweden, allied to King Louis XIV of France, invaded Brandenburg, butr were defeated at the Battle of Fehrbellin. The Elector of Brandenburg then launched an invasion of Swedish Pomerania.

21/6/1675, Monday (-98,561) The foundation stone of Sir Christopher Wren�s new St Paul�s Cathedral, London, was laid. The new place of worship faced the old church that burned down in the Great Fire of London, (see 2/9/1666). The first Sunday service there was held on 5/12/1697.

1/6/1675, Tuesday (-98,581) Francesco Maffei, Italian writer, was born (died 11/2/1755).

29/5/1675, Saturday (-98,584) Humphry Ditton, English mathematician, was born (died 15/10/1715).

18/5/1675, Tuesday (-98,595) Jacques Marquette, French Jesuit missionary, died on the way home from preaching to the Illinois River Amerindians.

17/4/1675, Saturday (-98,626) (France) Marie Aiguillon, charity worker for the poor, died (born 1604).

4/4/1675, Sunday (-98,639) Easter Sunday.


4/3/1675, Thursday (-98,670) Charles II appointed John Flamsteed as the first Astronomer-Royal.

3/2/1675, Wednesday (-98,699)

5/1/1675, Tuesday (-98,728) French forces inflicted a heavy defeat on the German Army at Turckheim, forcing them to abandon an invasion of France and withdraw back across the Rhine.


25/12/1674, Friday (-96,739) Thomas Halyburton, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 1712).

9/12/1674, Wednesday (-96,755) Edward Clarendon, British statesman, died (born 18/2/1609).

10/11/1674, Tuesday (-98,784) All Dutch-held areas of New York were returned to Britain under the Treaty of Westminster. During the third Anglo-Dutch war, the Dutch had captured New York on 9/8/1672.

8/11/1674, Sunday (-98,786) Poet John Milton died at the age of 65. His best known work was Paradise Lost. He was born in Chalfont St Giles, Buckinghamshire, and studied at Christ College, Cambridge, from 1652-53, writing poetry in English, Latin, and Italian. He served as secretary for Cromwell�s government and pamphleteered for civil and religious liberty. After the monarchy was restored, Milton was arrested as a supporter of the Commonwealth but soon released. Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained were published in 1667 and 1671, after he went blind in 1652.

27/10/1674, Tuesday (-98,798) John Bona, Italian clerical writer, died (born in Piedmont 10/10/1609).

22/10/1674, Thursday (-98,803) Gerbrand Eeckhout, Dutch painter, died (born 19/8/1621)

18/10/1674, Sunday (-98,807) Richard (Beau) Nash, Master of Ceremonies at Bath, who established the city as a centre of fashion, was born.


9/9/1674, Wednesday (-98,846) Murrough Inchiquin, Irish statesman, died.

12/8/1674, Wednesday (-98,874) Philippe de Champaigne, Belgian painter, died (born 1602).

2/8/1674, Sunday (-98,884) PhilippeII, Regent of France, was born.

13/7/1674, Monday (-98,904)


14/6/1674, Sunday (-98,933) Marin Gomberville, French novelist, died (born 1600).

13/6/1674, Saturday (-98,934) Philip Carteret, the governor of New Jersey, launched a campaign to enforce the payment of quitrents; rents charged on land initially granted free to settlers from Europe. The colony had rebelled against this taxation. In 1673 London had enacted the Plantation Duty Act, imposing duties on any ship carrying certain products, such as sugar, cotton, or tobacco, between colonial ports.

13/5/1674, Wednesday (-98,965)

19/4/1674, Sunday (-98,989) Easter Sunday.

18/4/1674, Saturday (-98,990) (Britain) John Graunt, English statistician, diedin London.


23/3/1674, Monday (-99,016) Henry Cromwell, 4th son of Oliver Cromwell, died (born 20/1/1628).

15/3/1674, Sunday (-99,024) Jean Barbeyrac, French legal writer, was born in Beziers, Languedoc (died 3/3/1744).

22/2/1674, Sunday (-99,045) Jean Chapelain, French poet, died (born 4/12/1595).

19/2/1674, Thursday (-99,048) (Britain, Netherlands) The Treaty of Westminster ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

13/1/1674, Tuesday (-99,085) Prosper Crebillon, French poet, was born (died 17/6/1754).


19/12/1673, Friday (-99,110)

26/10/1673, Sunday (-99,164) (Moldova) Demeter Cantemir Prince of Moldavia was born. He acceded to the throne in 1710, but then joined forces with Peter the Great of Russia against Ottoman Turkey. The Turks were victorious, and Prince Cantemir emigrated to Russia.

13/10/1673, Monday (-99,177) Kristoffer Gabel, Danish statesman, died (born 6/1/1617).

11/8/1673, Monday (-99,240) Richard Mead, English medical writer, was born (died 16/2/1754).

10/8/1673, Sunday (-99,241) Johann Dippel, German religious writer, was born (died 25/4/1734).

8/8/1673, Friday (-99,243) John Ker, British spy, was born (died 8/7/1726).

10/6/1673, Tuesday (-99,302) (France) Rene Duguay-Trouin, French sea captain, was born (died 27/9/1736).

26/5/1673, Monday (-99,317) John Mason, Goveronr-General of the Connecticut Colony, led spoldiers to massacre Pequot indigenous Americans. His forces killed over 400, mainly women and children.

17/5/1673, Saturday (-99,326) Jacques Marquette, a French missionary, discovered the Mississippi River.

9/5/1673, Friday (-99,334) Jacques des Barreaux, French poet, died (born 1602).


30/3/1673, Sunday (-99,374) Easter Sunday.

15/3/1673, Saturday (-99,389) The painter Salvator Rosa died in Rome, aged 57.

17/2/1673, Monday (-99,415) French dramatist Moliere died.

1/1/1673. Wednesday (-99,462) A regular postal service was set up between New York and Boston. The mounted service used a special �post road� along which men and horses are posted at intervals.


31/12/1672, Tuesday (-99,463)

6/12/1672, Friday (-99,488) Jasper Mayne, English author, died.

1/11/1672, Friday (-99,523)

21/10/1672, Monday (-99,534) Ludovico Muratori, Italian scholatrly writer, was born (died 23/1/1750).


27/9/1672, Friday (-99,558) In Britain, The Royal African Company was granted a monopoly of the African slave trade. A healthy slave could be bought in America for under �20, but the trade was still very profitable.

12/9/1672, Thursday (-99,573) Frontenac was appointed as French colonial Governor of Canada, to succeed de Courcelle. This day Frontenac arrived in Quebec. However he was to prove too independent-minded and expansionist for the comfort of France.

20/8/1672, Tuesday (-99,596) (Netherlands) Johan de Witt, Dutch politician, was assassinated (born 24/9/1625).

1/7/1672, Monday (-99,646) England�s Royal Africa Company was formed this year to replace the Royal Adventurers of England set up by King Charles II. It was to supply Britain�s colonies with 3,000 slaves a year for a price of �17 each, or one ton of sugar, each slave. At this time slaves could be purchased in Africa for �3 each.


30/5/1672. Thursday (-99,678) Peter the Great of Russia was born in Moscow. He was the son of Tsar Alexei.

5/5/1672, Sunday (-99,703) Samuel Cooper, English miniature painter, died (born 1609).

1/5/1672, Wednesday (-99,707) Birth of Joseph Addison, English writer and Whig who co-founded The Spectator in 1711.

7/4/1672, Sunday (-99,731) Easter Sunday.


17/3/1672, Sunday (-99,752) The third Anglo-Dutch war began, because Charles II was bound under the secret provisions of the Treaty of Dover to support Louis XIV. The Treaty of Dover, 1670, was concluded between Charles II and Louis XIV of France, following negotiations begun back in 1668. However the weaker Dutch fleet held back the English, who were facing difficulties in financing this war. In 1673 the English Parliament agreed to raise taxes to fund the conflict in return for the passing of the Test Act. This Act required all holding civil or military office to accept the Church of England sacrament and reject the Catholic doctrine of Transubstantiation. The subsequent resignation of the Duke of York (the future James II) and others betrayed the presence of Catholics in the English high office. Meanwhile in August 1672 a revolution in the Netherlands brought William of Orange (future King William III) to power. In August / September 1673 Spain, Austria and Brandenburg, and in January 1674 Denmark, all declared war on France. The Dutch encouraged the belief amongst the English that the war constituted a betrayal of Protestant interests by Catholics in high office. In 1674 England concluded a separate peace with The Netherlands, the Treaty of Westminster.

26/2/1672, Monday (-99,772) Antoine Calmet, French Benedictine monk and teacher (died 25/10/1757) was born.

19/2/1672, Monday (-99,779) (University) Charles Chauncy, President of Harvard College, died (born 11/1592).

13/2/1672, Tuesday (-99,785) Etienne Geoffroy, French chemist, was born (died 6/1/1731).

21/1/1672, Sunday (-99,808) Painter Adriaen van de Velde died in Amsterdam aged 41.

18/1/1672, Thursday (-99,811) Antoine la Motte, French author, was born (died 26/12/1731).

15/1/1672, Monday (-99,814) John Cosin, English religious writer, died (born 30/11/1594).


31/12/1671, Sunday (-99,829)

12/11/1671, Sunday (-99,878) Thomas Fairfax, general and leader of the Parliamentary side in the Civil War, died in Nunappleton, Yorkshire.

6/11/1671, Monday (-99,884) Colley Cibber, English actor, was born (died 11/12/1757).


12/9/1671, Tuesday (-99,939)

1/9/1671, Friday (-99,950) Hugues de Lionne, French statesman, died (born 11/10/1611).

13/8/1671, Sunday (-99,969)

14/7/1671, Friday (-99,999) Florence Casaubon, English scholarly writer died (born 14/8/1500).


15/6/1671, Thursday (-100,028) Execution in Cagliari of the Marquis of Cea, leader of the Sardinian Conspiracy

8/6/1671, Thursday (-100,035) Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer, was born.

9/5/1671, Tuesday (-100,065) Irish adventurer Captain James Thomas Blood made an unsuccessful attempt, dressed as a clergyman, to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. See 24/8/1680.

5/5/1671, Friday (-100,069) Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester, died.

1/5/1671, Monday (-100,073) (Arts) Claude Capperonnier, French classical scholar, was born (died 1744).

23/4/1671, Sunday (-100,081) Easter Sunday.

21/4/1671, Friday (-100,083) John Law, financier, was born.

6/4/1671, Thursday (-100,098) Jean Baptiste-Rousseau, French poet, was born.

5/4/1671, Wednesday (-100,099) Edmund Calamy, English religious writer, was born (died 3/6/1732).


20/2/1671, Monday (-100,143)

28/1/1671, Saturday (-100,166) Panama City was sacked by Welsh pirate, Henry Morgan.


31/12/1670, Saturday (-100,194)

7/12/1670, Wednesday (-100,218) (Britain) John Aislabie, English politician, was born in York (died 1742).

20/10/1670, Thursday (-100,266)


21/8/1670, Sunday (-100,326) James Berwick, French Marshal, was born in Moulins (died at the siege of Philipsburg 12/6/1734).


30/6/1670, Thursday (-100,378) (France) Henrtietta, sister of English King Charles II, died aged 26 at St Cloud. She was allegedly poisoned by her estranged husband, Philip, Duc d�Orleans.

24/6/1670, Friday (-100,384) Astrakhan was captured by Stenka Razin.

1/6/1670, Wednesday (-100,407) Two Treaties of Dover � one public, one secret � were made by Charles II with Louis XIV. Charles II secretly agreed to declare his conversion to Catholicism and subsequently to restore it to Britain. Charles II did not announce his conversion, to the annoyance of Louis XIV.The public Treaty committed Britain and France to declare war on Holland � if this war was successful, Britain would receive Zeeland and the port of Ostend. Britain would assist Louis XIV�s claim on the Spanish throne. The private Treaty, known only to Charles II and a select few of his government ministers, stated that Charles would re-establish Catholicism in Britain in return for �150,000 from France and the use of 6,000 French troops to cope with any �internal resistance�.

12/5/1670, Thursday (-100,427) (Poland) Augustus II, King of Poland, was born in Dresden (died 1/2/1733 in Warsaw).

2/5/1670, Monday (-100,437) Charles II chartered the Hudson Bay Company.

3/4/1670, Sunday (-100,466) Easter Sunday.


2/3/1670, Wednesday (-100,498)

10/2/1670, Thursday (-100,518) William Congreve, English dramatist, was born (died 19/1/1729).

9/2/1670, Wednesday (-100,519) Frederick III, King of Denmark, died.
21/1/1670, Friday (-100,538) (London) Claude Duval, highwayman, was hanged at Tyburn (born 1643).


16/12/1669, Thursday (-100,574) Nathaniel Fiennes, English politician, died

4/11/1669, Thursday (-100,616) Johannes Cocceius, Dutch religious writer, died (born 1603).

3/11/1669, Wednesday (-100,617) Charles Drelincourt, French religious writer, died (born 19/7/1595).

4/10/1669. Monday (-100,647) Dutch painter Rembrandt died in solitude and poverty, aged 63, in Amsterdam, having survived both his wife and his mistress. He gradually went bankrupt after his wealthy wife died in 1642, although in his 30s he earned large sums of money from painting portraits of the elite in Amsterdam. He left a legacy of 600 paintings, 1500 drawings and 350 etchings.


30/9/1669, Thursday (-100,651) Henry King, English poet, died (born 16/1/1591).

28/9/1669, Tuesday (-100,653) London�s Royal Exchange Building was completed.

27/9/1669. Monday (-100,654) Candia, the capital of Crete, was captured by the Ottoman Turks from the Venetians after a 21 year siege. Spain, Britain, France, the Pope, Tuscany, and Malta, had all supplied troops to the Venetians but to no avail. Towards the end the Ottoman Turks intensified the blockade and disagreements broke out between the allies leading to the withdrawal of some of the Europeans.

27/7/1669, Tuesday (-100,716)

4/7/1669, Sunday (-100,739) Antonio Escobar, Spanish religious writer, died (born 1589).


31/5/1669. Monday (-100,773) Samuel Pepys, naval administrator and politician, made the last entry in his diary which began on 1/1/1660.

22/4/1669, Thursday (-100,812) Richard Mather, US religious writer, died.

18/4/1669. Sunday (-100,816) Aurangzeb, the Moghul Emperor of India, ordered that all recently constructed Hindu temples should be demolished.

11/4/1669, Sunday (-100,823) Easter Sunday.

4/4/1669, Sunday (-100,830) Johann Moscherosch, German satirical writer, died (born 5/3/1601).


11/3/1669, Thursday (-100,854) Mount Etna, Sicily, erupted, killing 20,000.

23/2/1669, Tuesday (-100,870) (Netherlands) Lieuwe Aitzema, Dutch statesman, died (born 19/11/1600, in Doccum, Friesland).

13/2/1669, Saturday (-100,880) Jean Folard, French military author, was born (died 1752).

17/1/1669, Sunday (-100,907)


31/12/1668, Thursday (-100,924) Hermann Boerhaave, Dutch physician, was born near Leiden (died in Leiden 23/9/1738).

13/12/1668, Sunday (-100,942) Alain le Sage, French novelist and dramatist, was born (died 17/11/1747).

27/11/1668, Friday (-100,958) Henri Aguesseau, Chancellor of France (died 9/2/1751) was born.

11/11/1668, Wednesday (-100,974) Johann Fabricius, German scholarly writer, was born (died 30/4/1736).

18/10/1668, Sunday (-100,998) John George IV, Elector of Saxony, was born (died 27/4/1694).

4/10/1669, Sunday (-101,012) Dutch painter Rembrandt died in solitude and poverty, aged 63, in Amsterdam, having survived both his wife and his mistress. He gradually went bankrupt after his wealthy wife died in 1642, although in his 30s he earned large sums of money from painting portraits of the elite in Amsterdam. He left a legacy of 600 paintings, 1500 drawings and 350 etchings.


17/9/1668, Thursday (-101,029)

9/8/1668, Sunday (-101,068) Jakob Balde, German writer, died in Neuberg, (born in Ensisheim, Alsace, 4/1/1604).

17/7/1668, Friday (-101,091)


28/6/1668, Sunday (-101,110) King Louis XIV issued letters of patent �to establish a music academy�. This was the start of the Paris Opera.

17/6/1668, Wednesday (-101,121)

28/5/1668, Thursday (-101,141) (Italy) Assassination of the Marquis de Camarassa, Viceroy of Sardinia.

10/5/1668, Sunday (-101,159) (France, Netherlands) Treaty of Aix la Chapelle ended the war between France and Holland

2/5/1668, Saturday (-101,167) France, Spain, Netherlands) Treaty of Aix la Chapelle ended the War of Devolution between France ans Spain. France returned most of the gains it had made from Spain in The Spanish Netherlands.

13/4/1668, Monday (-101,186) John Dryden was appointed the first Poet Laureate. He kept this office until 1689.

7/4/1668, Tuesday (-101,192) Sir William Davenant, English poet, died (born 1606).


22/3/1668, Sunday (-101,208) Easter Sunday.

13/2/1668, Thursday (-101,246) Spain recognised Portugal as an independent nation.

31/1/1668, Friday (-101,259) Herman Busenbaum, Christian writer, died (born 1600).

13/1/1668, Monday (-101,277) (Britain, France) The Triple Alliance was formed between England, Holland, and Sweden to defend The Netherlands from the ambitions of the French King, Louis XIV, who was pursuing a claim based on his wife�s rights as Spanish Infanta. This was the War of Devolution which was ended on 2/5/1668 by the Peace of Aix la Chapelle.


31/12/1667, Tuesday (-101,290)

30/11/1667, Saturday (-101,321) Jonathan Swift, author of Gulliver�s Travels, was born in Dublin.

25/11/1667, Monday (-101,326) Earthquake at Samakhi, Azerbaijan.

12/11/1667, Thursday (-101,323) Hans Nansen, Danish statesman, died (born 28/11/1598).

23/10/1667, Wednesday (-101,359) The foundation stone of London�s Royal Exchange was laid by King Charles II.

18/10/1667, Friday (-101,364) Brooklyn received its Town Charter under Mathias Nichols, Governor of the New Netherlands, as �Brueckelen�.


23/9/1667. Monday (-101,389) Alaw passed in Williamsburg, America, prevented slaves from gaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.

30/8/1667, Friday (-101,413) King Charles II dismissed the Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde over the humiliating terms imposed on Britain by Holland in the Treaty of Breda.

31/7/1667. Wednesday (-101,443) (Britain, France) The Peace of Breda ended the war between England and the Netherlands (Second Anglo-Dutch War) .Trade laws were modified in favour of the Dutch, who also gained Surinam but recognised British possession of New York.See 18/6/1667 and 2/2/1665. The English sought peace with the Dutch in order to curb the growing military power of (Catholic) France. In the �War of Devolution� France had already seized the Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comte; Holland and England now sought to mediate in this war between France and Spain. The other principal Protestant power in Europe, Sweden, then joined with (Protestant) Holland and Britain in a Triple Alliance (formalised by the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle, 2/5/1668). However (Catholic) King Charles II regretted this Triple Alliance against France and began negotiations with Louis XIV that led to the Treaties of Dover (1/6/1670).

28/7/1667, Sunday (-101,446) Abraham Cowley, English poet, died (born 1618).

27/7/1667, Saturday (-101,447) (Science) Jean Bernoulli, physicist, was born in Basel (died 1/1/1748).


18/6/1667, Tuesday (-101,486) The Dutch humiliated the English by breaking through a defensive chain in the Thames Estuary at Chatham and sailing up The Thames to burn or capture English ships. The English flagship Royal Charles was captured and carried off. See 31/7/1667.

12/6/1667, Wednesday (-101,492) The first blood transfusion was made at Montpellier University. A 15 year old boy was given 9 oz. of blood from a lamb � surprisingly he recovered from this, and the fever he had been suffering. It was likely that blood clotting, of the sheep�s blood, had prevented much from actually entering the boy�s own bloodstream.

26/5/1667, Sunday (-101,509) Abraham Demoivre, English mathematician, was born (died 27/11/1754).

16/5/1667, Thursday (-101,519) Samuel Bochart, French scholarly writer, died in Caen (born in Rouen 30/5/1599).

29/4/1667, Monday (-101,536) John Arbuthnot, British physician, was born (died 27/2/1735).

27/4/1667, Saturday (-101,538) John Milton, poet, then blind and destitute, sold the publishing rights to his epic work, Paradise Lost, for �10.

9/4/1667, Tuesday (-101,556) The world�s first art exhibition opened at the Palais Royale in Paris, organised by the Academie de Peinture et de Sculpture. It closed on 23/4/1667.

7/4/1667, Sunday (-101,558) Easter Sunday.


12/2/1667, Tuesday (-101,612)

31/1/1667, Thursday (-101,624) After eight years war between Russia and Poland, the Treaty of Andruszow between them divided up Ukraine between them, along the Dneiper River.


22/12/1666, Saturday (-101,664) Painter Guercino died in Bologna, aged 75.

15/12/1666, Saturday (-101,671)

29/10/1666, Monday (-101,718) James Shirley, dramatist, died.

15/10/1666, Monday (-101,732) King Charles II, according to Pepys, wore the first waistcoat this day.


19/9/1666, Saturday (-101,758) Several plans for the reconstruction of London were drawn up or in progress. The first was by Christopher Wren (11/9); John Evelyn�s was complete on 13/9, and Robert Hooke�s was finished on 19/9. Plans, according to a Royal proclamation of 13/9, must include wider streets, replacement of wooden buildings by brick and stone, and a quayside along the Thames. However questions of accurate compensation precluded many of the concepts for wide boulevards. Instead, the Rebuilding Act of 1667 set standards and heights for new buildings according to the width of the street they were in.

6/9/1666, Thursday (-101,771) The Great Fire of London ended � see 2/9/1666.

2/9/1666. Sunday (-101,775) The Great Fire of London began on a Sunday morning at the house and shop of Thomas Farynor (Farriner), baker to King Charles II, in Pudding Lane. Farynor allegedly forgot to put out the fire in his oven, which spread to nearby stacked firewood. Farynor and his family escaped their burning house by climbing out of a window and along roof tops. Their maid was too scared to climb along the rooftops, and became the fire�s first victim. The fire rapidly spread. It burns for 4 days. In all, 436 acres were burned, destroying 87 churches and over 13,000 houses. However only nine lives were lost. The fire also helped end the Great Plague.

31/8/1666, Friday (-101,777) Maria Henrietta, wife of Charles I of England, daughter of Henry IV of Framce, died (born 25/11/1609).

30/8/1666, Thursday (-101,778) Benedikt Carpzov, scholarly writer, died (born 27/5/1595).

26/8/1666, Sunday (-101,782) Painter Franz Hals died in Haatrlem aged 86.

10/7/1666, Tuesday (-101,829) John Grabe, religious writer, was born (died 3/11/1711).


17/6/1666, Sunday (-101,852) Antonio Maria Valsalva was born in Imola, Italy. In 1704 he provided the first detailed description of the physiology of the human ear.

2/5/1666, Wednesday (-101,898)

15/4/1666, Sunday (-101,915) Easter Sunday.


2/3/1666, Friday (-101,959)

2/2/1666, Friday (-101,987) Earthquake in Echigo, Japan, 1,500 killed.

22/1/1666, Monday (-101,998) Shah Jahan died, aged 74, in the fort where his son Aurangzeb had imprisoned him with his harem for the previous eight years. Shah Jahan had built the Taj Mahal as a mausoleum for his wife Mumtaz-i-Mahal and Shah Jahan was buried beside her. Aurangzeb had fought and killed his brothers to attain the throne, as Shah Jahan had done in 1628.

20/1/1666, Saturday (-102,000) The French Queen Mother, Anne of Austria, died in Paris of breast cancer aged 64.


2/12/1665, Saturday (-102,049)

17/11/1665, Friday (-102,064) John Earle, English writer, died.

2/10/1665, Monday (-102,110)


28/9/1665. Thursday (-102,114) London was in the grip of The Plague; 7,000 died in the last week alone. In July 1665, deaths averaged 200 a week. People were fleeing the city; graveyards were full, and corpses were thrown into Plague Pits.

17/9/1665, Sunday (-102,125) Philip IV, King of Spain, died, aged 60. He was succeeded by his son, Charles II.

27/8/1665, Sunday (-102,146) (Britain) John Hervey, First Earl of Bristol, was born.

17/8/1665, Thursday (-102,156) Josue de la Place, French religious writer, was born.

17/7/1665, Monday (-102,187)


11/6/1665, Sunday (-102,223) Sir Kenelm Digby, English author, died (born 11/7/1603).

7/6/1665, Wednesday (-102,227) The Plague was first reported in London. It was a very hot day. 70,000 people would die of the Plague by October. Plague forced Parliament to meet in Oxford.

3/6/1665, Saturday (-102,231) The Duke of York defeated a Dutch fleet off Lowestoft. The Dutch admiral was killed in the battle, and 16 of his ships sunk.

3/5/1665, Wednesday (-102,262)

19/4/1665, Wednesday (-102,276) Jacques Lelong, French bibliographical writer, was born (died 13/8/1721).

3/4/1665, Monday (-102,292)


29/3/1665, Wednesday (-102,297) Maria Agreda, Spanish religious visionary and Franciscan nun died 2/4/1602).

26/3/1665, Sunday(-102,300) Easter Sunday.

15/3/1665, Wednesday (-102,311) (USA) John Endecott, British colonial Governor of America, died.

12/2/1665, Sunday (-102,342) (Biology) Rudolf Camerarius, botanist, was born (died 11/9/1721).

6/2/1665, Monday (-102,348) Queen Anne was born at St James Palace, the second daughter of James II by his first wife, Anne Hyde. She was the last Stuart monarch of Britain.

2/2/1665. Thursday (-102,352) The British captured Manhattan Island from the Dutch, almost 40 years after the Dutch bought it from the Indians for beads in 1626. The Dutch colony was ruled by Peter Stuyvesant under strict Puritanical principles. The British renamed it �New York� after King Charles II�s brother the Duke of York. See 31/7/1667. British rule was more relaxed.

12/1/1665, Thursday (-102,373) French mathematician Pierre de Fermat (born 1601) died.


2/12/1664, Friday (-102,414)

2/11/1664, Wednesday (-102,444)

28/10/1664, Friday (-102,449) The Admiral�s Regiment was formed, later known as the Royal Marines.


11/9/1664, Sunday (-102,496) John Hutchinson, English Purtian soldier, died (born 1615).

24/8/1664, Thursday (-102,514) Maria Cunitz, Silesian astronomer, died.

1/8/1664. Monday (-102,537) The Ottoman Turkish advance into Austria was halted by Hapsburg (Austrian) defences at the Battle of St Gotthard.

16/7/1664, Saturday (-102,553) Andreas Gryphius, German poet, died (born 11/10/1616).


31/5/1664, Tuesday (-102,599) (Italy) Giulio Alberoni, Italian statesman, was born near Piacenza (died 16/6/1752)

10/4/1664, Sunday (-102,650) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1664, Wednesday (-102,654) Arvid Horn, Swedish statesman, was born (died 17/4/1742).


12/3/1664, Saturday (-102,679) New Jersey became a colony of England.

20/1/1664, Wednesday (-102,731) Giovanni Gravina, Italian scholarly writer, was born (died 6/1/1718).

18/1/1664, Monday (-102,733) (Christian) Moses Amyraut, Protestant theologian (born 1596) died.


31/12/1663, Thursday (-102,751)

12/11/1663, Thursday (-102,800)

18/10/1663, Sunday (-102,825) (France) Eugene of Savoy was born (died 21/4/1736).


16/9/1663, Wednesday (-102,857) (Sweden, Medical) The Swedish Collegium Medicorum was founded. This later became the Swedish National Board of Health.

12/9/1663, Saturday (-102,861)

31/8/1663, Monday (-312,873) (Science) Guillaume Amontons, French scientist, was born in Paris (died 11/10/1705 in Paris).

12/7/1663, Sunday (-102,923)


24/6/1663, Wednesday (-102,941) Jean Massilon, French religious writer, was born (died 18/9/1742).

4/6/1663, Thursday (-102,961) William Juxon, English prelate, died.

20/5/1663, Wednesday (-102,976) William Bradford, printer, was born in Leicestershire, UK (died in New York, USA, 23/5/1752).

7/5/1663, Thursday (-102,989) The first Drury Lane Theatre, London, opened.

20/4/1663, Monday (-103,006) The Dukedom of Buccleuch was created.

19/4/1663, Sunday (-103,007) Easter Sunday

7/4/1663, Tuesday (-103,019) Mary Manley, English writer, was born.


24/3/1663, Tuesday (-103,033) King Charles II of England granted Carolina (from Virginia down to Florida) to eight of his courtiers, who had helped him regain the throne.

22/3/1663, Sunday (-103,035) August Francke, German religious writer, was born (died 8/6/1727)

15/3/1663, Sunday (-103,042) John Campbell, 1st Earl of Loudon, died.

25/2/1663, Wednesday (-103,060) Pierre Motteaux, English dtramatist, was born (died 18/2/1718).

12/2/1663, Thursday (-103,073) Cotton Mather, US author, was born (died 13/2/1728).

2/1/1663, Friday (-103,114) William Christian, Manx politician, died (born 14/4/1608).


22/12/1662, Monday (-103,125) The first catamaran was built at Dublin for Sir William Petty, a founder member of the Royal Society. The vessel weighed 30 tons and carried 5 guns; it had a crew of 30 men. In January 1663 it won the first open yacht race and in July 1663 beat the Dublin Packet in a sea going race. King Charles II, a keen yachtsman, considered the catamaran a joke but declined a racing challenge from Sir Petty.

13/12/1662, Saturday (-103,134) Francesco Bianchini, Italian astronomer, was born in Verona (died in Rome 2/3/1729).

27/10/1662, Monday (-103,181) King Charles II sold Dunkirk to the French King Louis XIV (Treaty of Dunkirk) for 2.5 million livres.

18/10/1662, Saturday (-103,190) Matthew Henry, English religious writer, was born (died 22/6/1714).


22/9/1662, Monday (-103,216) (Britain) John Biddle, English preacher, died in a London prison (born in Wotton Under Edge, Gloucestershire 14/1/1615).

3/9/1662, Wednesday (-103,235) William Lenthall, Speaker of the House of Commons, England, died.

19/8/1662, Tuesday (-103,250) Blaise Pascal, French philosopher and mathematician, inventor of the first digital calculator, died in Paris.

5/8/1662, Tuesday (-105,264) (Britain) James Anderson, Scottish historian, was born in Edinburgh (died 3/4/1728).

15/7/1662, Tuesday (-103,285) The Royal Society received a royal charter.


16/6/1662, Monday (-103,314) Earthquake in Kyoto, Japan, 500 killed.

23/5/1662, Friday (-103,338) John Gauden, English writer, died (born 1605).

20/5/1662, Tuesday (-103,341) King Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza, starting a fruitful alliance with Portugal.

8/5/1662, Thursday (-103,353) Maria Countess of Konigsmark (Saxony) was born (died 16/2/1728).

30/4/1662, Wednesday (-103,361) Mary II of England was born.

1/4/1662, Tuesday (-103,390) King Charles II of Britain granted Royal Patronage to the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge. The group of scientists andnaturalists had been meeting since 1645.


30/3/1662, Sunday (-103,392) Easter Sunday

18/3/1662. Tuesday (-103,404) The world�s first bus service began, in Paris. Eight seater horse drawn vehicles ran every 8 minutes, and were at first used by the aristocracy, who left their carriages at the terminus, for the novelty factor. However by the summer of 1662 the nobility had returned to their carriages and the less wealthy walked to save the fare. The bus service managed to stay going till the 1680s. Bus services did not restart anywhere until a Parisian service began in 1819. The word �omnibus� was coined in Nantes in 1823, as people of all sorts were using the service there. See 4/7/1829.

26/2/1662, Wednesday (-103,424) Pierre de Marca, French historical writer, died (born 24/1/1594).

27/1/1662, Monday (-103,454) Richard Bentley, English scholar and writer, was born near Wakefield (died 14/7/1742).


31/12/1661, Tuesday (-103,481)

24/12/1660, Tuesday (-103,488) Mary, daughter of Charles I, died..

6/11/1661, Wednesday (-103,536) King Charles II of Spain was born.

1/11/1661, Friday (-103,541) Florent Dancourt, French dramatist, was born (died 7/12/1725).


7/9/1661, Saturday (-103,596) Gunno Dahlstjerna, Swedish poet, was born (died 7/9/1709).

16/8/1661, Friday (-103,618) Thomas Fuller, English historical writer, died (born 19/6/1608).

16/7/1661, Tuesday (-103,649) The first banknotes in Europe were issued, by the Bank of Stockholm.


25/5/1661, Saturday (-103,701) Claude Buffier, French philosophical writer, was born (died 1737).

23/4/1661, Tuesday (-103,733) The coronation of King Charles II.

19/4/1661, Friday (-103,737) Postmarks were introduced in Britain by the Post Office.

16/4/1661, Tuesday (-103,740) Charles Montagu, founder of the Bank of England, was born.

14/4/1661, Sunday (-103,742) Easter Sunday.

13/4/1661, Saturday (-103,743) Jacques Lenfant, French religious writer, was born (died 7/8/1728).


9/3/1661, Saturday (-103,778) (France) With the death of the French Regent, Cardinal Mazarin of cancer, the personal rule of King Louis XIV of France began. Louis was aged just 22 and knew that he was inexperienced in politics and would very much miss the advice of Mazarin. Louis signalled that his rule was to be Absolutist, by demanding that the entire Court, not just his immediate family, mourn for Mazarin.

3/3/1661, Sunday (-103,784) (France) Death of Cardinal Mazarin

5/2/1661, Tuesday (-103,810) (China) Emperor Kangxi began his reign in China; he ruled for over 61 years.

2/2/1661, Saturday (-103,813) Lucas Holstenius, German writer, died (born 1596).

30/1/1661, Wednesday (-103,816) (Britain) The body of Oliver Cromwell (died 3/9/1658) was exhumed, hanged and beheaded, and reburied at Tyburn.

7/1/1661, Monday (-103,839) Sir Arthur Hesilridge, English Parliamentarian, died

6/1/1661, Sunday (-103,840) The Royal Horse Guards Regiment was formed, by Royal Warrant.


8/12/1660, Saturday (-103,869) The first (unnamed) actress appeared on the English stage.

1/12/1660, Saturday (-103,876) Pierre d�Hozier, French writer, died (born 10/7/1592).

28/11/1660, Wednesday (-103,879) The Royal Society was founded in England.

27/11/1660, Tuesday (-103,880) John Finch, English Judge, died (born 17/9/1584).

20/11/1660, Tuesday (-103,887) DanielJablonski, German religious writer, was born (died 25/5/1741).

15/11/1660, Thursday (-103,892) Hermann Hardt, German historical writer, was born (died 28/2/1746).

12/11/1660. Monday (-103,895) John Bunyan, 32, author of Pilgrim�s Progress, was arrested for preaching without a licence, and not in a parish church. He was put in Bedford gaol.

13/10/1660, Saturday (-103,925) Thomas Harrison, Civil War Parliamentarian who opposed the Absolutist rule of Cromwell,was executed.

5/10/1658, Friday (-103,933) (Italy) Mary of Modena was born (died 7/5/1718).

1/10/1660. Monday (-103,937) The English reinforced the Navigation Act by insisting that certain colonial goods were only to be shipped to Britain. This was directed against the Dutch but caused resentment in the British colonies.


27/9/1660, Thursday (-103,941) Vincent de Paul, preacher, later beatified, died.

12/9/1660, Wednesday (-103,956) Jacob Cats, Dutch poet, died (born 10/11/1577).

31/8/1660, Friday (-103,968) Johann Freinsheim, German scholarly writer, died (born 16/11/1608).

6/8/1660, Monday (-103,993) Diego Rodriguez Velazquez, painter, died in Madrid.

1/8/1660, Wednesday (-103,998)


30/6/1660, Saturday (-104,030) William Oughtred, English mathematician who invented the slide rule in 1622, died in Albury, Surrey.

11/6/1660, Monday (-104,649) John Colepeper, English politician, died.

10/6/1660, Sunday (-104,650) (Madagascar) Etienne de Flacourt, French colonial Governor of Madagascar, died (born 1607).

9/6/1660, Saturday (-104,051) King Louis XIV of France, the �Sun King�, married Maria Theresa of Spain.

29/5/1660, Tuesday (-104,062) King Charles II entered London; he landed at Dover on 26/5/1660.

27/5/1660, Sunday (-104,064) The Treaty of Copenhagen. Denmark recovered some of its losses from the Peace of Roskilde (26/2/1658). Denmark recovered Trondheim and the island of Bornholm.

26/5/1660. Saturday (-104,065) The British monarchy was restored with Charles II, born 29/5/1630, as king.He was crowned on 23/4/1661, ending an exile of nearly nine years.On 29/5/1660, his 30th birthday, Charles II rode into London to scenes of great rejoicing.Everyone was glad to see the end of the kill-joy Puritan regime that had banned Christmas, maypoles, and theatre; a regime that had run out of steam after Cromwell died.The bodies of Cromwell and his chief associates were dragged from Westminster Abbey and buried beneath Tyburn Gallows.Other regicides were executed.

23/5/1660, Wednesday (-104,068) King Charles II sailed from Scheveningen, to return to England, ending his exile. See 16/3/1660.

17/5/1660, Thursday (-104,074) Abraham de Fabert, Marshal of France, died (born 1599).

3/5/1660, Thursday (-104,088) At the Peace of Oliva (near Danzig), Frederick William ceded Eastern Pomerania to Sweden.

25/4/1660, Wednesday (-104,096) The English Parliament voted for the restoration of the Monarchy, see 26/5/1660.

22/4/1660, Sunday (-104,099) Easter Sunday.

16/4/1660, Monday (-104,105) Sir Hans Sloane, physician and collector, was born.


28/3/1660, Wednesday (-104,124) George I, first Hanoverian king of England, was born at Osnabruck Castle in Hanover.

16/3/1660. Friday (-104,136) England�s Long Parliament was dissolved after sitting for 20 years (with a break, 1653-59), throughout the Civil War. This was an important step towards the restoration of the monarchy and the House of Lords. See 23/5/1660.

21/2/1660,Tuesday (-104,160) The Rump (Long) Parliament, recalled on 7/5/1659, was rejoined by surviving MPs that had been purged on 6/12/1648.

19/2/1660, Sunday (-104,162) Friedrich Hoffmann, German medical writer, was born (died 12/11/1742)

13/2/1660, Monday (-104,168) Charles X of Sweden died, aged 37. He was succeeded by his 4-year old son, Charles XI.

22/1/1660, Sunday (-104,190) Nicolas Lancret, French painter, was born (died 14/9/1743).

1/1/1660, Sunday (-104,211) Samuel Pepys began his Diary.This was discontinued on 31/5/1669.


7/11/1659, Monday (-104,266) The war between France and Spain ended. France gained northern Catalonia, under the Treaty of the Pyrenees. Spain�s treasury was empty and England had joined on the side of the French.

28/10/1659, Friday (-104,276) Nicholas Brady, poet, was born in Cork (died 20/5/1726).

22/10/1659, Saturday (-104,282) Explorer Abel Tasman died.


22/8/1659, Monday (-104,343)

28/7/1659, Thursday (-104,368) (France) Charles Ancillon, French educationalist, was born in Metz (died 5/7/1715).

22/6/1659, Wednesday (-104,404)


25/5/1659, Wednesday (-104,432) Richard Cromwell resigned as Lord Protector.

7/5/1659, Saturday (-104,450) The Long (Rump) Parliament was recalled (see 20/4/1653). It called for Cromwell�s resignation.

5/5/1659, Thursday (-104,452) Saint Helena was occupied by Captain John Dutton of the East India Company.

4/5/1659, Wednesday (-104,453) John Dutton, English author, was born (died 1733).

22/4/1659, Friday (-104,465) (1) Richard Cromwell dissolved the English Parliament, at the request of the Army.

(2) (Price) The first cheque was drawn. It was for �10, on a London bank. This first cheque, written on 16/2/1659 by Nicholas Vanacker, made out almost exactly like a modern cheque, was sold at Sotheby�s in December 1976 for �1,000.

16/4/1659, Saturday (-104,471) Simon Dach, German poet, died (born 29/7/1605)

3/4/1659, Sunday (-104,484) Easter Sunday.


8/3/1659, Tuesday (-104,510) (France)Isaac de Beausobre, French theologian, was born in Niort (died 5/6/1738).

21/2/1659, Monday (-104,525)

4/2/1658, Friday (-104,542) (Denmark) King Charles X of Sweden took advantage of the freezing of the Baltic between Sweden and Denmark to march hs army across and attack Copenhagen, an event Denmark was not prepared for. Danish forces were overwhelmed, and King Frederick III at once sued for peace.

14/1/1659, Friday (-104,563) (Spain, Portugal) The Battle of Elvas practically ensured Portuguese independence from Spain.


6/12/1658, Monday (-104,602) Baltasar Gracian, Spanish writer, died (born 8/1/1601).

6/11/1658, Saturday (-104,632) Pierre du Ryer, French dramatist, died (born 1606).

3/10/1658, Sunday (-104,666) Myles Sundish, leader of the Pilgrim Fathers, died.


22/9/1658, Wednesday (-104,675) Georg Harsdorffer, German poet, died (born 1/11/1607).

3/9/1658. Friday (-104,696) Oliver Cromwell died of pneumonia. A Puritan, he was aged 60 and had ruled England for 5 years. His son Richard succeeded him as Protector. However Richard lacked the authority of his father.

1/9/1658, Wednesday (-304,698) Jacques Bernard, French theological writer, was born in Nions (died 27/4/1718).

1/8/1658, Sunday (-104,729)

17/7/1658, Saturday (-104,744) Despite the Peace of Roskilde (26/2/1658), and without a declaration of war, Charles X of Sweden suddenly began an invasion of Denmark, to try and eliminate an inconvenient neighbour once and for all. The Swedish army landed at Korsor, Zeeland, and Copenhagen was poorly defended. However the Danes rallied vigorously against the Swedish threat and by 1/9/1658 the defenders of Copenhagen numbered 7,000, up from 2,000 earlier. See 29/10/1658.

10/7/1658, Saturday (-104,751) Luigi Marsigli, scientific writer, was born (died 1/11/1730).

1/7/1658, Thursday (-104,760) (Road, Price) The stage coach fare from London to Salisbury (2 days journey) was 20 shillings. From London to Exeter cost 40 shillings (4 days), and from London to Durham cost 55 shillings (no set journey time).


4/6/1658, Friday (-104,787) (France, Spain) The Battle of the Dunes was fought near Dunkirk. Marshal Turenne commanded the French and English armies, against the Spanish under Don Juan of Austria and the Prince of Conde. The Spanish were attempting to relieve Dunkirk, which Turenne was besieging. The Spanish were defeated, and Dunkirk surrendered to the French.

29/5/1658, Saturday (-104,793) Battle of Samugarh, Mughal Civil War. A decisive battle in the power striuggle for the Mughal throne. Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh, 3rd and 4th sons of Shah jehan, defeated the ledest son, Dara Shikoh. This paved the way for Aurnagzeb to become Emperor.

29/4/1658, Thursday (-104,823) John Cleveland, English poet, died (born 20/6/1613).


26/2/1658, Friday (-104,885) The Peace of Roskilde, The Danes ceded the three provinces of Scania, the southern tip of Scandinavia, also the island of Bornholm, and Baahus and Trondheim in Norway, to Sweden. Denmark also promised not to make any anti-Swedish alliances and to exempt all Swedish vessels from tolls when passing through Danish waters out of the Baltic.

24/2/1658, Wednesday (-104,867) Conflict between the four sons of Shah Jehan, Moghul Emperor of India, over the succession. The Shah�s second son, Shuja, set himself up as Governor of Bengal was was defeated by the son of Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Jehan. Aurangzeb, third son of Jehan, later executed his nephew, Sulayman Shikoh.

3/2/1658, Wednesday (-104,908)


31/12/1657, Thursday (+104,942)

3/12/1657, Thursday (-104,970)

26/11/1657, Thursday (-104,977) William Derham, English religious writer, was born (died 5/4/1735).

3/10/1657, Saturday (-105,031)


29/8/1657, Saturday (-105,066) John Lilburne, English political agitator, died.

3/8/1657, Monday (-105,092)

24/7/1657, Friday (-105,128) (Cartography) Jean Chazelles, French hydrographer, was born (died 16/1/1710). He surveyed the French coast.

11/7/1657, Saturday (-105,115) Frederick I, King of Prussia, was born.


17/6/1657, Wednesday (-105,139) Louis du Pin, French religious writer, was born (died 6/6/1719).

16/6/1657, Tuesday (-105,140) The first mention of chocolate in Britain, in the Public Advertiser. The foodstuff was then used either as a drink or as a paste for brewing a tasty but rather greasy beverage, as the ground beans were rich in cocoa butter. At that time it was being sold by a Frenchman in Bishopsgate, London. The first factory to produce chocolate bars opened at Vevey, Switzerland, in 1819; the bars were used as emergency rations. In 1842 John Cadbury introduced �French Eating Chocolate�, the first chocolate bar for pleasurable eating. Cadbury also introduced the first chocolate boxes to Britain, in 1866. Their first assortment included almond, lemon, orange and raspberry flavoured centres. Also in 1866 Cadbury introduced the first modern cocoa powder, with all the greasy butter removed, for an improved chocolate drink.

10/6/1657, Wednesday (-105,146) James Craggs, English politician, was born (died 16/3/1721).

3/6/1657, Wednesday (-105,153) William Harvey, anatomist and physician, died near Saffron Walden, Essex. He discovered and demonstrated the circulation of the blood.

27/5/1657, Wednesday (-105,160) Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell refused an offer to make him King of England. To have accepted the Crown would have lost him the loyalty of the anti-Royalist Army.

9/5/1657, Saturday (-105,178) Pilgrim Father William Bradford, Governor of Plymouth County in Massachusetts, died.

23/4/1657, Thursday (-105,194) The Danish Rigsraad approved a Danish attack on Sweden, believing the Swedes to be occupied with an invasion of Poland they had begun in 7/1654. However see 4/2/1658.

20/4/1657, Monday (-105,097) Jews in New Amsterdam (now, New York) were granted freedom of worship.

2/4/1657, Thursday (-105,215) Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III died aged 48. He was succeeded by his 16-year old son, Leopold I.


29/3/1657, Sunday (-105,219) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1657, Thursday (-105,229) Jean Leclerc, French religious writer, was born (died 8/1/1736).

11/2/1657, Wednesday (-105,265) Bernard Fontenelle, French author, was born (died 9/1/1757).

2/2/1657, Monday (-105,274)

19/1/1657, Monday (-105,288) The Japanese city of Edo was destroyed in a huge fire; over 100,000 people died.


31/12/1656, Wednesday (-105,307)

28/12/1656, Sunday (-105,310) Laureint de Lahire, French painter, died (born 27/2/1606).

8/11/1656, Saturday (-105,360) Astronomer Edmund Halley, who discovered Halley�s comet, was born in London. He was the first to realise that comets do not appear at random, but have predictable orbits.

6/11/1656, Thursday (-105,362) John IV of Portugal died, aged 53. He was succeeded by his 13-year old son, Alfonso VI.

20/10/1656, Monday (-105,,379) Nicolas Largilliere, French painter, was born (died 20/3/1746).

8/10/1656, Wednesday (-105,391) John George I, Elector of Saxony, died (born 5/3/1585)


17/9/1656, Wednesday (-105,412) Cromwell�s Third Parliament convened.

14/9/1656, Sunday (-105,415) (Britain) Thomas Baker, English antiquary, was born in Lanchester, Durham (died 2/7/1740).

8/9/1656, Monday (-165,421) Joseph Hall, English writer, died (born 1/7/1574).

6/9/1656, Saturday (-105,423) Guillaume Dubois, French statesman, was born (died 10/8/1723).

28/7/1656, Monday (-105,463) (Poland) The Battle of Warsaw began (ended 30/7/1656). Warsaw fell to a Swedish-Brandenburg army.

27/7/1656, Sunday (-105,464) (Jewish) Jewish religious authorities in Amsterdam excommunicated 24 year student Benedict Spinoza for maintaining that the Bible did not support the idea of an immortal soul, or that God has no body, or that angels exist. The secular authorities also banished Spinoza from Amsterdam for a short period. The Jewish community was concerned as Jews still did not have full citizenship rights in Amsterdam.

5/7/1656, Saturday (-105,486) (Britain) John Belhaven, British politician, was born (died in London 31/6/1708).


25/6/1656, Wednesday (-105,496) The Treaty of Marienburg was concluded between Sweden and Brandenburg-Prussia.The Poles under John Casimir had expelled the Swedes, and under this Treaty Brandenburg-Prussia was promised part of the spoils should Poland be defeated by Sweden.

22/6/1656, Sunday (-105,499) Robert Nelson, English religious writer, was born.

30/5/1656, Friday (-105,522) The Grenadier Guards, the senior regiment of the British Army, was formed.

19/5/1656,Monday (-105,533) Easter Sunday. John Hales, English writer, died (born 19/4/1584).

27/4/1656, Sunday (-105,555) Jan van Goyen, painter, died.

24/4/1656, Thursday (-105,558) The Jews petitioned Cromwell to be allowed to live and trade in England. This was permitted, althoughthey were denied legal toleration by the Puritan clergy of England.

6/4/1656, Sunday (-105,576) Easter Sunday.


30/3/1656, Sunday (-105,583)

27/2/1656, Wednesday (-105,615) Johan Van Heemskerk, Dutch poet, died (born 1597).

1/2/1656, Friday (-105,641)

3/1/1656, Thursday (-105,670) Mathieu Mole, French statesman, died.

1/1/1656, Tuesday (-105,672) William Fleetwood, English cleric, was born (died 4/8/1723).


1/12/1655, Saturday (-105,703) Samuel Pepys married Elizabeth St Michael in St Margarets, Westminster.

24/11/1655, Saturday (-195,710) Charles XI, King of Sweden, was born (died 5/4/1697).

24/10/1655, Wednesday (-105,741) Pierre Gassendi, French scientific writer, died (born 22/1/1592.

15/10/1655, Monday (-105,750) The Jews of Lublin, Poland, were massacred.

13/10/1655, Saturday (-105,752) Tobias Matthew, writer, died.


1/8/1655, Wednesday (-105,825)

28/7/1655, Saturday (-105,829) Cyrano de Bergerac, poet, died.

24/7/1655, Tuesday (-105,833) Friedrich :Logau, German writer, died.


1/6/1655, Friday (-105,886)

13/5/1655, Sunday (-105,905) Pope Innocent XIII was born.

10/5/1655. Thursday (-105,908) The English captured Jamaica from the Spanish. Christopher Columbus had arrived in Jamaica in 1494, and claimed the island in the name of the King and Queen of Spain. However Europeans did not occupy the island until 1509. 146 years later the English forces arrived at Passage Fort in Kingston harbour. Commanded by Admiral Penn and General Venables they marched on Spanish Town. They had been sent by Oliver Cromwell to capture Hispaniola but failed so went to Jamaica instead. After surrendering, the Spanish were given a few days to leave Jamaica. Most went to Cuba, but a few secretly went to the north side of Jamaica.

2/5/1655, Wednesday (-105,916) Bartolommeo Cristofori, Italian who invented the first piano, was born in Padua.

30/4/1655, Monday (-105,918) Eustache le Sueur, French painter, died (born 19/11/1617).

15/4/1655, Sunday (-105,933) Easter Sunday.


25/3/1655, Sunday (-105,954) Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, was discovered by Christiaan Huygens.

25/2/1655, Sunday (-105,982) Daniel Heinsius, scholarly writer, died (born 9/6/1580).

13/1/1655, Saturday (-106,025) Bernard de Montfaucon, French writer, was born (died 21/12/1741).

7/1/1655, Sunday (-106,031) Pope Innocent X died.


27/12/1654, Wednesday (-106,042) Jacques Bernoulli, mathematician, was born in Basel (died 16/8/1705).

15/12/1654. Friday (-106,054) A meteorological office in Tuscany began daily temperature readings.

30/11/1654, Thursday (-106,069) William Habington, English poet, died (born 4/11/1605).

27/11/1654, Monday (-106,072) Friedrich Canitz, German poet, was born (died 1699).

30/10/1654, Monday (-106,100) (Japan) The Japanese Emperor Go-Komyo died (born 1633).


12/9/1654, Tuesday (-106,148) (Britain) Cromwell ordered the exclusion of Members of Parliament that were hostile to him.

3/9/1654, Sunday (-106,157) (Britain) In the English Parliament, a Republican, Vance, questioned the pre-eminence of Cromwell.

28/8/1654, Monday (-106,163) (Sweden) Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna died (born 1583).

24/8/1654, Thursday (-106,167) (France) Battle of Arras. Turenne attacked the Spanish forces who were besieging Arras; Arras was relieved but the besieging forces under Conde managed to withdraw safely.


16/6/1654, Friday (-106,236) (Sweden) Queen Christina of Sweden abdicated in favour of her cousin, Charles Gustavus (Charles X). There had been discontent at her luxurious lifestyle and failure to produce an heir. She had sold off large amounts of Crown Property to support the 500 nobles she had created. She fled disguised in men�s clothes as �Count Dohna�, to settle in Rome.

10/6/1654, Saturday (-106,242) Alessandro Algardi, Italian sculptor (born 1602 in Bologna) died in Rome.

3/6/1654, Saturday (-106,249) (France) Coronation of King Louis XIV of France.

13/5/1654, Saturday (-106,270) The Battle of the Dardanelles took place. The Venetian navy defeated Turkish forces.

3/5/1654, Wednesday (-106,280) The first toll bridge in America was licensed to Richard Thurley at Newbury River. There was a charge for animals but not for people.

27/4/1654, Thursday (-106,286) Charles Blount, English author, was born in Upper Holloway (died 8/1693).

16/4/1654, Sunday (-106,297) The Peace of Westminster ended the First Anglo-Dutch war between England and The Netherlands, but the Navigation Act which led to the war was retained. See 6/10/1651.

13/4/1654, Thursday (-106,300)


26/3/1654, Sunday(-106,318) Easter Sunday.

15/2/1654, Wednesday (-106,357)

27/1/1654, Friday (-106,876) Some 150 Sephardic Jewish families fled Brazil for the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (now, New York). The colony mamnager Peter Stuyvesant wanted to expel these Jews, but the company refused.

22/1/1654, Sunday (-106,381) Richard Blackmore, writer and physician, was born.

18/1/1654, Wednesday (-106,385) The Ukraine came under Russian domination.

10/1/1654, Tuesday (-106,393) Joshua Barnes, English writer, was born in London (died in Hemingford, Hampshire, 3/8/1712).


31/12/1653, Saturday (-106,403)

16/12/1653, Friday (-106,418) Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector of England, effectively an uncrowned King.He ruled for over four years.

13/12/1653, Tuesday (-106,421) The Barebones Parliamentended.

13/10/1653, Thursday (-106,482)


13/9/1653, Tuesday (-106,512)

1/9/1653, Thursday (-106,524) Johann Pachelbel, composer, was born.

9/8/1653, Tuesday (-106,547) Marten Harpertszoon Tromp, the Dutch Admiral who fought against Spainand England, was killed in battle against England off the Dutch coast.

30/7/1653, Saturday (-106,557) Gabriel Naude, French scholarly writer, died (born 2/2/1600).

11/7/1653, Monday (-106,576) (France) Revolt of the Lucustrus in the Boulogne region was suppressed this day.

4/7/1653, Monday (-106,583) The Barebones Parliament began sitting.


22/6/1653, Wednesday (-106,595) Andre Fleury, French statesman, was born (died 29/1/1743).

8/6/1653. Wednesday (-106,609) A Peasant�s Revolt, the latest in a series of them, was put down in Switzerland.

21/5/1653, Saturday (-106,627) Bern was besieged by a 16,000 strong peasant army; revolt later suppressed at Herzogenburg.

20/4/1653, Wednesday (-106,658) Cromwell dissolved the Long Parliament (Rump Parliament) due to its slowness in implementing Cromwellian reforms. It was recalled on 7/5/1659, after Cromwell�s death.

10/4/1653, Sunday (-106,668) Easter Sunday.


31/3/1653, Thursday (-106,678) Battle of Leghorn, Anglo-Dutch Wars. Dutch Admiral van Gelen, although killed in action, destroyed 6 Engloish ships under Commodore Appleton.

20/3/1653, Sunday (-106,689)

20/2/1653. Sunday (-106,717) Admiral Robert Blake defeated the Dutch under Martin Van Tramp off Portsmouth.

16/1/1653, Sunday (-106,752) (Britain) John Digby Bristol, British diplomat, died in Paris.


23/12/1652, Thursday (-106,776) John Cotton, religious writer, died (born 4/12/1585).

20/11/1652, Saturday (-106,809) Battle of Dover, Anglo-Dutch Wars. The Dutch fleet under Admiral van Tromp defeated vthe English fleet under Admiral Blake just off Dover. The Dutch scored another victory at Dungeness soon after.

21/10/1652, Thursday (-106,839) The exiled boy-King, Louis XIV, returned from exile to Paris.

20/10/1652, Wednesday (-106,840) Antonio Coello, Spanish poet, died.

8/10/1652, Friday (-106,852) John Greaves, English mathematician, died (born 1602).

2/10/1652, Saturday (-106,858) In Paris, the middle class disputed with the Fronde, and allowed Louis XIV to enter the city.


2/9/1652, Thursday (-106,888)

20/8/1652, Friday (-106,901)

8/7/1652, Thursday (-106,944) The First Anglo-Dutch war began.


23/6/1652, Wednesday (-106,959) Jacques Godefroy, legal writer, died (born 13/9/1587).

21/6/1652. Monday (-106,961) The great architect, Inigo Jones, died. He had designed the Queen�s House at Greenwich and the Banqueting Hall at Whitehall. He also laid out Lincoln�s Inn Fields and Covent Garden.

19/6/1652, Saturday (-106,963) Francis Cottington, English Lord Treasurer, died (born 1578).

18/5/1652, Tuesday (-106,995)

18/4/1652, Sunday (-107,025) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1652, Thursday (-107,035) The first permanent European settlement in Africa was founded by the Dutchman Jan Van Riebeck, at Table Bay. For decades earlier, since the 1500s, ships, mostly Dutch and English, had anchored here to refit their vessels for the voyage to the east. In 1620 two Englishmen, officers of the East India Company, took it upon their own initiative to possess Table Bay in the name of King James, for fear that the Dutch would claim the area and charge English ships to refit there. But London did not approve of their action and it had no effect. The Portuguese influence was declining and they were not in a position to resist the Dutch. The English seized St Helena island as a halfway house to the east. France took colonies in Madagascar and elsewhere. The Dutch settlement was the beginning of the Boer, farmer, settlers.

7/4/1652, Wednesday (-107,036) In France, the Battle of Bleneau; Conde defeated Marshall Turenne, who had defected back to the Royalist side. Both armies marched to Paris to negotiate. In July 1652 the Duchesse de Montpensier persuaded the Parisians to open the city gates to the Fronde (anti-Royalist) army, and the Bastille�s guns were turned on Turenne�s Royalists. See 2/10/1652.


29/3/1652, Monday (-107,045) �Black Monday� � a total eclipse of the Sun in Britain caused anxiety.

13/3/1652, Saturday (-107,061) Claude Bouthillier, French statesman, died in Paris (born 1581).

7/2/1652, Saturday (-107,096) Gregorio Allegri, composer, died.

8/1/1652, Thursday (-107,126) Wilhelm Homberg, Dutch chemist, was born (died 24/9/1715).


14/12/1651, Sunday (-107,151) Pierre Dupuy, French scholarly writer, died (born 27/11/1582).

26/11/1651, Wednesday (-107,169) Henry Ireton, English Parliamentary General, died (born 3/11/1611).

16/11/1651, Sunday (-107,179) Engelbrecht Kaempper, German scholarly writer, was born (died 2/11/1716).

15/10/1651, Wednesday (-107,211) James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby, died (born 31/1/1607).

14/10/1651, Tuesday (-107,212) Massachusetts passed laws forbidding the poor to wear excessively luxurious dress.

6/10/1651, Monday (-107,220) The English issued a commercial challenge to the Dutch by passing the Navigation Act; this prohibited the import of goods into England from America, Asia, or Africa in any except British or colonial ships; with a crew at least half-English. This was a challenge to Amsterdam�s status as Europe�s leading port. This was an attempt to revive the English economy, depressed by three years of plague and bad harvests. In 1652 England declared war on The Netherlands (First Anglo-Dutch War) after an incident where a Dutch fleet refused to be searched by the British. See 15/4/1654, and 1/10/1660.


27/9/1651, Saturday (-107,229) Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria, died (born 17/4/1573).

3/9/1651, Wednesday (-107,253) Oliver Cromwell�s army defeated the Royalist army at Worcester. Charles II, destitute and friendless, spent the night in an oak tree at Boscobel to evade capture, and fled to France on 17/10/1651.

Cromwell�s troops hauled twenty large boats upstream to make a pontoon bridge, crossing the Severn into the Royalist side.The battle concluded with fighting inside Worcester itself.Some 3,000 Royalist forces were killed, and 10,000 taken prisoner, many of whom were transported to New England as slaves.The Parliamentarian forces lost only 200 men.This was the final battle for the Royalist cause.

28/8/1651, Thursday (-107,259) The Parliamentarians captured Upton bridge, 10 miles south of Worcester.The Royalist General Massey was badly wounded.Cromwell�s forces occupied the west bank of the Severn with 11,000 troops, so cutting off any support for Charles II from Wales, and aiming to attack Worcester from the south.

25/8/1651, Monday (-107,262) A force of Lancashire Royalists raised by the Earl of Derby was crushed by Colonel Robert Lilburne at Wigan.Cromwell returned to England via the east coast from Scotland; harassing Charles II�s rearguard.Cromwell marched on Worcester with a force of around 28,000 regular troops plus a further 3,000 militiamen who were against the Scots.Lilburne blockaded Charles route back into Scotland. Charles hoped to draw extra forces from Wales and the south-west.

22/8/1651,Friday (-107,265) Charles II occupied the loyal Royalist city of Worcester, but his army numbered less than 16,000 troops.See 25/8/1651.

6/8/1651, Wednesday (-107,281) Francois Fenelon, French author and Archbishop of Cambrai (1695-1715) was born in Perigord (died 7/1/1715 in Cambrai).

5/8/1651, Tuesday (-107,282) King Charles II began a march south into England, crossing the border from Scotland this day.His plan was to march through the traditionally Royalist regions of Lancashire and the Welsh border, picking up troops along the way.However the English Royalists and Presbyterians failed to join him, due to anti-Scots propaganda from the Cromwellian camp.See 22/8/1651.

2/8/1651, Saturday (-107,285) Cromwell�s army took Perth.


2/6/1651, Monday (-107,346)

6/4/1651, Sunday (-107,403) Andre Dacier, French scholarly writer, was born (died 17/8/1720)


30/3/1651, Sunday (-107,410) Easter Sunday

1/2/1651, Saturday (-107,467)

1/1/1651, Wednesday (-107,498) Charles II was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Palace. He then marched south into England (see 5/8/1651).


19/12/1650. Thursday (-107,511 )Cromwell�s army took Edinburgh Castle.

15/12/1650, Sunday (-107,515) (France) Battle of Blanc-Champ. The Fronde, under Turenne, was defeated. Turenne later changed sides to the Royalists.

13/12/1650, Friday (-107,517) (France) Pressis-Preslin (for Mazarin) secured the surrender of the town of Rethel. Turenne, who was marching to relieve the town, now fell back hurriedly.

6/11/1650, Wednesday (-107,554) (Netherlands) William II of Nassau died.

4/11/1650, Monday (-107,556) William III, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born in The Hague, Holland, son of William II of Orange.

31/10/1650, Thursday (-107,560) John Bradshaw, English politician, died(born 1602).

30/10/1650, Wednesday (-107,561) �Quakers�, the more common name for the Religious Society of Friends, came into being during a court case at which George Fox, the founder, told magistrates to �quake and tremble at the word of the Lord�.

29/10/1650, Tuesday (-107,562) David Calderwood, Scottish historian, died (born 1575).

21/10/1650, Monday (-107,570) Jean Bart, French naval commander, was born in Dunkirk (died 1702).

8/10/1650, Tuesday (-107,583)


24/9/1650, Tuesday (-107,597) (France) Charles de Valois Angoulmeme (died (born 28/4/1573 in Fayet Castle).

23/9/1650, Monday (-107,598) Jeremy Collier, English writer, was born (died 26/4/1726).

13/9/1650, Friday (-107,608) Ferdinand, Elector of Cologne, died (born 7/1/1577).

8/9/1650, Sunday (-107,613) (British Royal Family) Elizabeth, 2nd daughter of Charles I if England, died of a chill after getting soaked in the rain upon arriving at Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight. Born 28/12/1635, when the English Civil War broke and Charles left London with his two elder princes, Elizabeth was left under the care of Parliament. Cared for by various nobility, she bid farewell to her father on 29/1/1649, the day before his execution. In June 1650 she was entrusted to the care of the earl and countess of Leicester at Penshurst, but when King Charles II landed in Scotland she was taken to Carisbrooke for security.

3/9/1650, Tuesday (-107,618) The Battle of Dunbar; Cromwell�s army marched into Scotland and defeated a Scottish Royalist Presbyterian army under David Leslie twice its size. This battle, along with Worcester (3/9/1651), put an end to Charles I�s Royalist cause.

25/8/1650, Sunday (-107,627) Richard Crashaw, English poet, died (born 1613).

3/7/1650, Wednesday (-107,680)


24/6/1650, Monday (-107,689) Charles II landed in Scotland and was proclaimed King.

22/6/1650, Saturday (-107,691) Matthew Merian, Swiss engraver, died (born 25/9/1593).

26/5/1650, Sunday (-107,718) The Duke of Marlborough, British general, was born as John Churchill in Ashe, Devon.

14/5/1650, Tuesday (-107,730) The UK Parliament voted in favour of the death penalty for adultery but this was never implemented.

27/4/1650, Saturday (-107,747) Battle of Carbisdale, English Civil War. The Marquis of Montrose was captured by Parliamentarian forces, and executed in May 1650.

20/4/1650, Saturday (-107,754) (Britain) William Bledloe, English adventurer, was born in Chepstow (died in Bristol 20/8.1680)

14/4/1650, Sunday (-107,760) Easter Sunday


14/3/1650, Thursday (-107,791)

11/2/1650, Monday (107,822) Death of Rene Descartes (born 31/3/1596), founder of French philosophy.

2/2/1650, Saturday (-107,831) Nell Gwynne, mistress of King Charles II, was born Eleanor Gwynne, the daughter of a fishwife. Originally an orange-seller, she became an actress at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.

14/1/1650, Monday (-107,850) In France, Cardinal Mazarin ordered the arrest of Conde and his associates. However in early 1651 the French Parliament dismissed Mazarin and released Conde. Mazarin left France.


12/12/1649, Wednesday (-107,883)

4/12/1649, Tuesday (-107,891) William Drummond, Scottish poet, died (born 13/12/1585).

20/11/1649, Tuesday (-107,905) (Netherlands) Jan van Broekhuizen, Dutch classical scholar, was born (died 15/12/1707)

3/10/1649, Wednesday (-107,953) Giovanni Diodati, Swiss religious writer, died (born 6/6/1576).


15/9/1649, Saturday (-107,971) Birth of Titus Gates, English Anglican priest who successfully stirred up anti-Catholic sentiments by creating a �Popish plot�.

12/9/1649, Wednesday (-107,974) The Sack of Drogheda by soldiers under Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell�s 16,000 troops put to death 2,000 Irish rebels to deter further insurrection. Another massacre was perpetrated at Wexford soon after. The Irish rebellion had begun in 1641.

12/8/1649. Sunday (-108,005) Britain�s first employment agency, the Office of Entries, was set up in King Street, London, by newspaper proprietor Henry Walker.He was running a paper called Perfect Occurrences in which he advertised jobs.His agency charged 4d to both employer and employee. See 4/7/1631.

22/7/1649, Sunday (-108,026) Pope Clement XI was born in Urbino, Italy.


13/6/1649, Wednesday (-108,065) Adrien Baillet, French writer, was born in Neuville, Picardy (died 21/1/1706).

3/6/1649, Sunday (-108,075) Manuel de Faria y Sousa, Portuguese poet, died (born 18/3/1590).

10/5/1649, Thursday (-108,099) (Britain) Isaac Dorislaus, Anglo-Dutch lawyer and diplomatist, was murdered by English Royalist refugees in The Hague. Born 1595 in Alkmaar, Holland, he moved to England in ca. 1627 and helped prepare treason charges against King Charles I.

9/4/1649, Monday (-108,130) The Duke of Monmouth, son of King Charles II and Lucy Walter, was born in Rotterdam.

5/4/1649, Thursday (-108,134) Death of John Winthrop, first Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company.


25/3/1649, Sunday (-108,145) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1649. Friday (-108,154) Oliver Cromwell, (born 25/4/1599 in Huntingdon, died 3/9/1658) declared England to be a republic, and abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords.

9/3/1649, Friday (-108,161) James Hamilton, English Civil war Royalist, was executed (born 19/6/1609).

11/2/1649, Sunday (-108,187) (Britain) William Carstairs, Scottish statesman, was born (died 28/12/1715).

9/2/1649, Friday (-108,189) King Charles I was buried at St George�s Chapel, Windsor.

8/2/1649, Thursday (-108,190) Gabriel Daniel, French Jesuit historian, was born in Rouen (died 1728).

5/2/1649, Monday (-108,193) King Charles I�s son, 18 years old, was proclaimed Charles II.

30/1/1649. Tuesday (-108,199) Charles I, convicted of treason on 29/1/1649 (see 22/8/1642), was beheaded outside the Banqueting House in Whitehall. He stepped on to the scaffold at 2pm. Four years had passed since the decisive Royalist defeat at Naseby (14/6/1645). Since then Charles I had sought the support of the Irish and the Roman Catholics and even the Pope, all in vain. The Scots, too, were sceptical of his promises to re-establish Presbyterianism and handed him over to the English. The executioner, Richard Brandon, received �30 for a job well done. Charles I�s funeral and burial was in St George�s Chapel on 9/2/1649.

20/1/1649 - 27/1/1649, Saturday (-108,209) At the week-long trial of Charles I, no defence witnesses were called.


17/12/1648, Sunday (-108,243) George Gillespie, Scottish religious writer, died (born 21/1/1613)

6/12/1648, Wednesday (-108,254) Pride�s purge of Parliament. Oliver Cromwell�s troops surrounded Parliament and refused to admit the 200 Presbyterian MPs, purging the whole of the majority that was opposing Cromwell�s Independents. The remaining 50 MPs, all Independents, then voted for Cromwell�s purge. They then discussed the fate of King Charles, who Cromwell was holding prisoner on the Isle of Wight. The Presbyterian faction had tried to make a deal with the King, and Cromwell�s swift solution was unexpected. The remaining MPs were dubbed the Rump Parliament.

24/11/1648, Friday (-108,266)

24/10/1648. Tuesday (-108,297) The Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War. The Treaty was between the Holy Roman Empire and France. Under it, a large part of Alsace, formerly a German dukedom, was ceded to France, which seized the rest at the Peace of Ryswick, 1697. Sweden also received territories on the German coast of the Baltic, Spain was forced to acknowledge the independence of the United Netherlands, and the Protestant states of Saxony and Brandenburg (=Prussia) received additional territories.

22/10/1648, The French Parlement, having no army of its own to call upon to counter the Parisian rioters, was forced to issue placatory reforms, freeing prisoners; it then fled from Paris.


10/9/1648, Sunday (-108,341) Nicolas Desmarets, French statesman, was born (died 1721).

1/9/1648, Friday (-108,349) Marin Mersenne, French mathematician, died (born 8/9/1588).

20/8/1648, Sunday (-108,362) (France) Conde defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Lens.

19/8/1648, Saturday (-108,363) Rioting in Paris, barricades erected, after the arrest of Brousel, a leader of the Parlement.

17/8/1648. Thursday (-108,365) (Britain) Cromwell�s army was victorious at the Battle of Preston, against a small and poorly-trained force of Scottish soldiers under the Duke of Hamilton.

10/8/1648, Thursday (-108,372) Battle of Lens, Belgium.

8/8/1648, Tuesday (-108,374) In Constantinople, the Janissaries deposed Sultan Ibrahim after he ordered the lifting of the siege of Candia (Heraklion), Crete. On 18/8/1648 Ibrahim was strangled by his own executioner and replaced by his eldest son, 9-year old Mohammed IV.

6/7/1648, Thursday (-108,407) King Frederick III of Denmark was officially crowned, only after he had agreed to a diminution of Royal powers.


17/6/1648, Saturday (-108,426)

29/5/1648, Monday (-108,445) Conde captured Ypres.

20/5/1648, Saturday (-108,454) King Ladislas IV of Poland died aged 55, after a 16-year reign. He was succeeded by his 39-year-old Jesuit brother, who reigned until 1668 as John II Casimir.

17/5/1648, Wednesday (-108,457) Battle of Zusmarshausen, Germany.

13/5/1648, Saturday (-108,461) Conde commenced a siege of Ypres.

13/4/1648, Thursday (-108,491) Jeanne Guyon, French writer, was born (died 9/6/1717).

7/4/1648, Friday (-108.497) John Sheffield, poet and Duke, was born (died 24/2/1721).

2/4/1648, Sunday (-108,502) Easter Sunday.


14/3/1648, Tuesday (-108,521) Fairfax of Cameron, British Parliamentary General, died.

28/2/1648, Monday (-108,536) Christian IV, King of Denmark, died.

30/1/1648. Sunday (-108,565) (Spain, Netherlands) To free his forces for the war against France, Philip IV of Spain made peace in the United Provinces at Munster. Spain therefore made major concessions. The United Provinces (Netherlands) were recognised as independent by Spain, all Dutch conquests were recognised, and freedom of trade in the east and West Indies was conceded.

15/1/1648, Saturday (-108,580) The English parliament renounced allegiance to the King and voted to have no further communication with him. This was because of his secret treaty with Scotland.


31/12/1647, Friday (-108,595)

24/12/1647, Friday (-108,602) The British Parliament presented Charles I with four Bills to sign. One gave Parliament control of the army for 20 years, another required all declarations of Parliament so far to be recalled, a third excluded all peers created by Charles I from sitting in the Lords, and the last allowed the two Houses to adjourn at their own pleasure.

18/11/1647, Thursday (-108,638) (France) Pierre Bayle, French philosopher, was born near Pamiers (died in Rotterdam 28/12/1706).

11/11/1647, Thursday (-108,645) Charles I fled from Hampton Court to the Isle of Wight. He was arrested and detained in Carisbrooke Castle. He signed a secret treaty with the Scots, who promised to restore him by force.

25/10/1647, Monday (-108,662) Evangelista Torricelli, Italian mathematician and scientist who devised the barometer or �Torricellian Tube�, died in Florence.


25/8/1647, Wednesday (-108,723)

22/7/1647, Thursday (-108,757) (France) Marguerite Alacoque, French nun who was beatified by Pope Pius IX in1846, was born near Autun (died17/10/1690).

16/7/1647, Friday (-108,763) Tommaso Aniello, fisherman who led the revolt in Naples against Spanish rule, died.

7/7/1647, Wednesday (-108,772) Thomas Hooker, US religious writer, died (born 1586).


20/6/1647, Sunday (-108,789) John George III, Elector of Saxony, was born (died 12/9/1691).

12/6/1647, Saturday (-108,797) (Education-Schools) Thomas Farnaby, educationalist who founded a school in Cripplegate, London, died.

4/6/1647, Friday (-108,805) At Holmby House in Northamptonshire, Charles I was seized by the Army, and taken to Hampton Court

26/5/1647, Wednesday (-108,814) A new law in Massachusetts banned Catholic priests from the colony. The penalty was banishment, or death for a second offence.

21/5/1647, Friday (-108,819) Pieter Hooft, Dutch writer, died (born 16/3/1581).

19/5/1647, Wednesday (-108,821) Uprising in Palermo against the salt tax.

18/4/1647, Sunday (-108,852) Easter Sunday.


26/3/1647, Friday (-108,875)

14/3/1647, Sunday (-108,887) (1) The Treaty of Ulm. Elector Maximillian I of Bavaria made an agreement with France to end his alliance with Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.

(2) (Netherlands) Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, died.

14/2/1647, Sunday (-108,915)

30/1/1647, Saturday (-108,930) The Scots agreed to hand over Charles I to the English Army for the sum of �400,000.

29/1/1647, Friday (-108,931) Francis Meres, English religious writer, died.


31/12/1646, Thursday (-108,960)

23/12/1646, Wednesday (-108,968) Francois de Maynard, French poet, died.

23/11/1646, Monday (-108,998) The first advertisement in in English-language newspaper. It was in Samuel Pecke�s Perfect Diurnall, for books.

12/10/1646, Monday (-109,040) (France) Francois de Bassompierre, French courtier (born 1579) died in Tillieres, Normandy.


14/9/1646, Monday (-109,068) Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, died (born 1591).

19/8/1646, Wednesday (-109,094) John Flamsteed, first Astronomer Royal, was born in Denby, near Derby.

8/8/1646, Saturday (-109,105) Sir Godfrey Kneller, portrait painter, was born (died 7/11/1723).

19/7/1646, Sunday (-109,125)

1/7/1646, Wednesday (-109,143) Gottfried Leibnitz, German scholarly writer, was born (died 14/11/1716).


19/6/1646, Friday (-109,155)

5/6/1646, Friday (-109,169) Battle of Benburb. Rebel victory over the English during the Confederate War (1641-53)

5/5/1646, Tuesday (-109,200) Charles I surrendered to the Scots at Newark, ending the military phase of the Civil War.

16/4/1646, Thursday (-109,219) Birth of Jules Hardouin-Mansart, French court architect to King Louis XIV who designed the Hall of Mirrors and the Orangery at Versailles.

15/4/1646, Wednesday (-109,220) Christian V, King of Norway and Denmark, was born (died 25/8/1699).

4/4/1646, Monday (-109,229) Antoine Galland, French historical writer, was born (died 17/2/1715).


29/3/1646, Sunday (-109,237) Easter Sunday.

3/2/1646, Tuesday (-109,291) Chester fell to Parliamentarian forces.

4/1/1646, Sunday (-109,321)


31/12/1645, Wednesday (-109,325)

17/11/1645, Monday (-109,369) Nicolas Lemery, chemist, was born (died 19/6/1715).

4/11/1645, Tuesday (-109,382)

14/10/1645, Tuesday (-109,403) (Britain) Battle of Basing House, near Basingstoke, Charles could not risk fighting here in case Parliamentarian forces cut him off from Oxford, so he retreated back towards Newbury.


13/9/1645, Saturday (-109,434) The Battle of Philiphaugh, at which Montrose�s forces army, supporting Charles I, was routed by General Leslie�s forces. Montrose escaped to the Continent.

11/9/1645, Thursday (-109,436) (Hungary) Miklos Esterhazy died (born 8/4/1582)

29/8/1645, Friday (-109,449) Hugo Grotius, Dutch statesman, died.

27/8/1645, Wednesday (-109,451) Edward Littleton, Chief Justice of Wales, died.

15/8/1645, Friday (-109,463) Battle of Kilsyth, English Civil War. The Royalists under the Marquis of Montrose defeated the Covenanters under General Baillie.

6/8/1645, Wednesday (-109,472) Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex, died.

3/8/1645, Sunday (-109,475) Battle of Allerheim, Germany

23/7/1645, Wednesday (-109,486) The Royalist town of Bridgewater fell to the Parliamentarians.

12/7/1645, Saturday (-109,497) The Russian Tsar, Michael Romanov, died aged 49. He was succeeded by his 16-year old son, Alexis.

10/7/1645, Thursday (-109,499) Battle of Langport (Somerset), English Civil War. The Parliamentarians under Thomas Fairfax defeated the Royalists under Lord Goring.

2/7/1645, Wednesday (-109,507) At the Battle of Alford, Royalists beat the Covenanters.


14/6/1645. Saturday (-109,525) Battle of Naseby, Northamptonshire, in the Civil War. 10,000 Royalists (Cavaliers), under Prince Rupert, were heavily defeated by 14,000 Roundheads under Cromwell and Fairfax, and effectively lost the Civil War. The Royalists had lost their best officers as well as artillery and other weaponry they could ill-afford to lose. The Royalists successfully attacked Cromwell�s left wing, but then made the fatal mistake of pursuing the fleeing soldiers. Cromwell regrouped the right wing of his cavalry to rout Prince Rupert�s army.

13/6/1645, Friday (-109,526) Cromwell arrived at Naseby, raising the morale of the Parliamentary troops there.

11/6/1645, Wednesday (-109,528) Cromwell�s New Model Army marched northwards from its siege of Oxford, travelling from Stony Stratford to Wootton, three miles from Northampton. Rainy weather hampered their progress, turning dirt roads into mud.

30/5/1645, Friday (-109,540) (Britain) A Royalist Army, 10,000 strong led by Prince Rupert attacked and besieged Parliamentarian forces in Leicester. The Parliamentarians, 480 soldiers, 900 armed townsmen, and 150 volunteers from the rest of Leicestershire, were heavily outnumbered. Moreover the city�s walls had been badly maintained and had to be hurriedly bolstered with earthen banks. Nevertheless the Royalists suffered heavy losses as they finally took the city; they then brutally slaughtered the defenders. Ultimately, Charles� treatment of the defenders of Leicester proved to be a turning point in his popularity amongst Britons.

9/5/1645, Friday (-109,561) Battle of Auldearn, English Civil War. Royalists under the Marquis of Montrose defeated the Covenanters east oif Nairn.

2/5/1645, Friday (-109,568) Battle of Mergentheim, Germany.

19/4/1645, Saturday (-109,581) (Australia) Anthony Van Diemen, Dutch explorer of Australia, died in Batavia (born 1593).

17/4/1645, Thursday (-109,583) Daniel Featley, English religious writer, died (born 15/3/1582).

6/4/1645, Sunday (-109,594) Easter Sunday.


6/3/1645, Thursday (-109,625) Battle of Jankow, Bohemia.

8/2/1645, Saturday (-109,651) By the Peace of Bromsebro, Sweden acquired Osel and Gotland from Denmark. Denmark also lost Jemteland and Herjedal in Norway.

2/2/1645, Sunday (-109,657) At the Battle of Inverlochy, Royal Highlanders under the Marquess of Montrose defeated the covenanters under the Earl of Argyll

10/1/1645, Friday (-109,680) At Tower Hill, William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury since 1633, was beheaded for treason.He was not replaced until 1660.


31/12/1644, Tuesday (-109,690)

8/12/1644, Sunday (-109,713) �China drink�, probably tea, was mentioned on a bill in Yorkshire, A bottle of it cost 4 shillings. It was initially viewed as a tonic for the sick.

10/11/1644, Sunday (-109,741) Luis Guevara, Spanish novelist, died (born 1/8/1579).

27/10/1644, Sunday (-109,755) The second Battle of Newbury was indecisive. After it, Charles escaped to Oxford.The Parliamentarian Army, under Charles Montagu, Duke of Manchester, failed to prevent a Royalist force relieving the siege of Donnington Castle.

14/10/1644, Monday (-109,768) Quaker Leader William Penn, founder of the State of Pennsylvania, was born in London, the son of an admiral.

3/10/1644, Thursday (-109,779) Battle of Freiburg, Germany.


15/9/1644, Sunday (-109,797) Pope Innocent X (236th Pope) acceded, formerly Cardinal Giovanni Battista Pamfili (died 1655).

13/9/1644, Friday (-109,799) Battle of Aberdeen, English Civil War. Royalists under the Marquis of Montrose defeated the Covenanters under Lord Burleigh.

8/9/1644, Sunday (-109,804) Sir John Coke, English politician, died (born 5/3/1563).

2/9/1644, Monday (-109,810) Royalists defeated the Roundheads at the Battle of Lostwithiel (Cornwall). Charles now planned an advance on London.

1/9/1644, Sunday (-109,811) At the Battle of Tippamuir, Royalist Highlanders beat the Covenanters.

16/8/1644, Friday (-109,827) Francois Choisy, French author, was born (died 2/10/1724).

3/8/1644, Saturday (-109,840) At Freiberg, Saxony, the French fought a combined force of Bavarians and Austrians during the Thirty Years War.Fighting at Frieburg also occurred on 5th and15th August.

2/7/1644, Tuesday (-109,872) Battle of Marston Moor, near York, in the Civil War. The Royalists were crushed, and Cromwell�s forces took some 1,500 prisoners and killed 4,000 Royalist troops.This was the turning point in the Civil War; the Royalists had effectively lost the north of England.

1/7/1644, Monday (-109,873) Prince Rupert lifted the siege of York.


30/6/1644, Sunday (-109,874) Prince Rupert reached Knaresborough, near York.

29/6/1644, Saturday (-109,875) Battle of Cropredy Bridge, English Civil War. Royalists under Charles I defeated the Parliamentarians under Sir William Wallers near Banbury.

15/6/1644, Saturday (-109,889) Essex, Parliamentarian, relieved the siege of Lyme Regis, and occupied Weymouth. Elsewhere in the South, Parliamentarian forces were pressing closer to Oxford, although Charles was able to manoeuvre skilfully in an area around Oxford Gloucester, Abingdon, Stourbridge and Northampton, avoiding total defeat by the Parliamentarian forces.

26/5/1644, Sunday (-109,909) Michael Ettmuller, physician, was born (died 9/3/1683).

16/5/1644, Thursday (-109,919) Prince Rupert left Shrewsbury and fought his way across hostile country to Lancashire, where he hoped to drum up more support for the Royalists. He took Stockport and Liverpool, then swung towards Yorkshire, intending to relieve the siege of York. Once York was relieved, or if it was lost before he arrived, Rupert was to head back south to the Woircester area to help the Royalist forces there. See 1/7/1644.

25/4/1644, Thursday (-109,940) China�s last Ming Emperor committed suicide. The Qing Dynasty began.

21/4/1644, Sunday (-109,944) Easter Sunday.

13/4/1644, Saturday (-109,952) Fairfax and Leven commenced a siege of the Royalist forces in York. Demolition of the Globe Theatre on the South Bank, London.

11/4/1644, Thursday (-109,954) Fairfax, Parliamentarian, stormed into Yorkshire from Lancashire, occupying Selby this day. The Marquis of Newcastle, Royalist, had to retreat from fighting the Scots in Durham and consolidate his position in York.


29/3/1644, Friday (-109,967) (Britain) Battle of Cheriton, a few miles east of Winchester, Hampshire. Hopton, Royalist, was defeated. Although he had the advantage in the initial stages of this battle, indiscipline and bad coordination undermined his efforts, and Waller gained the final victory.

22/3/1644, Friday (-109,974) Newark capitulated to Prince Rupert. Rupert captured a large quantity of armaments. However he was being too thinly stretched, with Royalists in the Noirth of England, Lancashire and the South all needing his assistance.

1/3/1644, Friday (-109,995) Simon Foucher, French philosophical writer, was born (died 27/4/1696).

13/2/1644, Tuesday (-110,012)

25/1/1644, Thursday (-110,031) Royalists were defeated at the Battle of Nantwich.

22/1/1644, Monday (-110,034) King Charles summoned a �Counter Assembly�, a rival Parliament to the London one,at Oxford. He was pleased to find that 83 Peers and 175 MPs attended. However there was bad news for Charles on the military front, with the arrival on the Parliamentarian side of a Scottish army of 18,000 foot soldiers and 3,000 horsemen. London agreed to pay the Scots �31,000 a month plus cost of equipment for this military assistance. From the Scottish point of view, they were being invited to invade a larger country, at its own expense, and would gain considerable influence over its religious affairs.

10/1/1644, Wednesday (-110,046) Louis Boufflers, French Marshal, was born (died in Fontainebleau 22/8/1711).

6/1/1644, Saturday (-110,050) Waller, Parliamentarian, recaptured Arundel (see 9/12/1643).


13/12/1643, Wednesday (-110,074) Parliamentarians under Waller made a surprise attack on a Royalist force at Alton (Hampshire) (see 15/9/1643).

9/12/1643, Saturday (-110,078) Lord Hopton captured Arundel for the Royalists. See 6/1/1644.

8/12/1643, Friday (-110,079) Pym, Parliamentarian English politician, died.

24/11/1643, Friday (-110,093) Battle of Tuttlingen, Germany.

22/11/1643, Wednesday (-110,095) (USA) Rene la Salle, French explorer of North America, was born (died 19/3/1687).

3/10/1644, Tuesday (-110,145) The London-based Parliamentarian regiments defending Reading deserted back home, leaving Essex too weak to defend the town, which was recaptured by the Royalists this day.

1/10/1643, Sunday (-110,147) Frederick III, King of Denmark, married Sophia Amelia of Brunswick.


20/9/1643, Wednesday (-110,158) The First Battle of Newbury was indecisive.The Royalist Army was attempting to block the path of the Parliamentarians under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, who were returning to their base at Reading after raising the siege of Gloucester.�� Essex�s Army failed to break through the Royalist position but made such an impact that the Royalists withdrew anyway.

18/9/1643, Monday (-110,160) Eastern Association Parliamentary forces reinforced Hull with more infantry and ammunition supplies, against the Royalists attacking the town from the rural East Riding. Meanwhile cavalry released from Hiull (by the arrival of the Parliamentarian infantry) � the sea routes from the town were open � crossed the Humber and defeated the Royalists at Winceby this day, just east of Horncastle, Lincolnshire.

16/9/1643, Saturday (-110,162) Parliamentary �Eastern Association� forces moved into Lincolnshire and besieged Royalist Kings Lynn, which surrendered this day. See 18/9/1643.

15/9/1643, Friday (-110,163) (Ireland, Britain) King Charles made a truce with rebels in Ireland, to free up more forces for the Civil War. . However these troops proved less than reliable fighters for Charles, and at Alton (13/12/1643) many defected to the Parliamentarian side.

5/9/1643, Tuesday (-110,173) In the face of Essex�s newly arrived army, now at Cheltenham, the Royalists suddenly raised the siege of Gloucester and withdrew to Painswick. The danger to Gloucester now over, Essex�s men now began a march back to their headquarters at Reading; hiowever see 20/9/1643.

3/9/1643, Sunday (-110,175) (Medical) Lorenzo Bellini, Italian physician, was born in Florence (died in Florence 8/1/1704).

26/8/1643, Saturday (-110,183) Parliamentarian forces under Essex began a march westwards to relieve the siege of Gloucester. Moving through Aylesbury and then by-pasing Royalist Oxford to the north, going via Stow on the Wold, Essex�s forces successfully withstood both food shortages and flanking skirmishes by Royalist forces from Oxford. See 5/9/1643.

16/8/1645, Wednesday (-110,193) Jean de laBruyere, French essayist, was born (died 10/5/1696).

10/8/1643, Thursday (-110,199) Royalist forces began a siege of Gloucester. The city constituted a vital strategic link between the Royalist areas of Wales and Oxfordshire, and its governor, the Parliamentarian Massey, was rumoured to be ready to switch allegiance. However Charles could instead have taken his army against London where the Parliamentarian Army had suffered desertions and disease, and riots had broken out against them.A possible opportunity to win the peace movement in London and so end the civil war with a Royalist victory was foregone.

26/7/1643, Wednesday (-110,214) Prince Rupert, Royalist, captured Bristol after a 4-day siege. Waller, with his forces badly mauled, was powerless to intervene from his headquarters in Bath. The Royalists now overran all of Dorset.

25/7/1643, Tuesday (-110,215) (Britain) Roger Pierrepoint, Royalisy who had been taken prisoner by the Parliamnentarians whilst defending Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, was accidentally killed whilst being taken to Hull.

13/7/1643, Thursday (-110,227) Wallers Parliamentarian forces attempted to surround and capture Devizes, along with Hopton�s army and guns defending the town. However the Royalists fought back strongly, and Royalist reinforcements soon arrived from Oxford. Waller�s forces were detstroyed, and the Royalists now advanced on Parliamentarian-held Bristol.

8/7/1643, Saturday (-110,232) (France) The Protestants of France were guaranteed freedom of worship, reaffirming the Edict of Nantes.

6/7/1643, Thursday (-110,234) Royalist forces, having failed to make a breakthrough at Bath, and with Hopton badly wounded, moved east to Devizes, closely followed by Parliamentarian soldiers.

5/7/1643, Wednesday (-110,235) Waller, Parliamentarian commander holding Bath, to avoid being surrounded, engaged the Royalists at Lansdown, just north of Bath. Neither side really won this battle, having fought to exhaustion all day, and Hopton was severely injured next day by the explosion of an ammunition wagon.

30/6/1643, Friday (-110,240) Fairfax�s Parliamentarian forces were decisively defeated at the battle of Adwalton (Atherton) Moor, near Bradford, Yorkshire, This led to the fall of the West Riding clothing towns to the Royalists.

24/6/1643, Saturday (-110,246) John Hamden, Parliamentarian commander, died after eing wounded in the shoulder by gunfire at the Battle of Chalgrove.

18/6/1643, Sunday (-110,252) An epidemic had weakened Essex�s Parliamentarian forces holding Reading, and this day the Parliamentarian forces were routed, and their commander John Hampden mortally wounded at the Battle of Chalgrove Field (Chiselhampton, between Wallingford and Oxford). When Essex obtained reinforcements and attempted to take Oxford from the Aylesbuty side he found his men demoralised and withdrew from Rupert�s Parliamentarian cavalry over towards Bedfordshire, in July 1643.


19/5/1643, Friday (-110,282) Battle of Rocroi. The French, under the Prince of Conde, defeated the Spanish.

16/5/1643, Tuesday (-110,285) Hopton, Royalist, virtually annihilated Parliamentarian forces in a battle at Stratton, Cornwall/Devon border.

14/5/1643. Sunday (-110,287) Louis XIV became King of France at the age of four years, 231 days, and then reigned for over 72 years.He succeeded his father, Louis XIII.

27/4/1643, Thursday (-110,304) 27/4/1643, Charles� plan for victory was now to tie down Essex�s forces with the Royalist stronghold in the Oxford area whilst other Royalist forces fought their way towards London from the North and West. London would ultimately be surrounded and starved into surrender. However this plan failed due to the number of towns still held by the Parliamentarians, even as the Royalists controlled the countryside around. Places like Hull, Parliamentarian-held, tied up Royalist forces and thwarted Charles� plans. However this day Parliamentarian forces captured Reading, an important part of the Royalist Oxford defence perimeter, a development which, although not fatal to Charles� plans, would severely delay him.

25/4/1643, Tuesday (-110,306) Hopton�s Royalist forces were defeated at Sourton Down, Dartmoor.

24/3/1643, Monday (-110,307) The Parliamentarian position was improving somewhat after a bad winter 1642/3. Parliament had feared foreign intervention in support of Charles, and had to impose taxation, alienating some, whilst others in London wanted peace at almost any cost. Parliament was considering calling in the Scots to help against Charles.. However this day Sir William Waller defeated the Royalists at Highnam, just west of Gloucester, reinforcing the Parliamentarian hold on Gloucester. Parliament still held the West Riding of Yorkshire, and Hampshire and Wiltshire were cleared of Royalist forces. Some of Charles� supporters too wanted to negotiate a peace.

12/4/1643, Wednesday (-110,319) The Dukedom of Hamilton was created.

3/4/1643, Monday (-110,328) Charles Duke of Lorraine was born (died 18/4/1690).

2/4/1643, Sunday (-110,329) Easter Sunday.


19/3/1643, Sunday (-110,343) An indecisive battle at Hopton Heath, Staffordshire.

2/2/1643, Thursday (-110,388) Royalist forces from Oxford captured Cirencester, widening the area they controlled in the south Midlands. In the lower Severn Valley, the Parliamentarians still controlled the garrison towns of Gloucester and Bristol.

16/1/1643, Monday (-110,405) Hopton, Royalist, defeated the Parliamentarians under the Earl of Stamford at Bradock Down, near Liskeard.


30/12/1642, Friday (-110,422) Vicenzo da Filicaja, Italian poet, was born (died 24/9/1707).

25/12/1642, Sunday (-110,427) Isaac Newton was born at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham, the son of a farmer.

13/12/1642. Tuesday (-110,439) New Zealand was discovered by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman.

4/12/1642, Sunday (-110,448) Cardinal Richelieu (Armand du Plessis), French politician and chief minister to Louis XIII from 1624, died aged 57 in Paris. He was succeeded by Mazarin. Mazarin was to alienate the nobility of France, and parliament, due to his policies of high taxation and supreme position, provoking the rebellion by the Fronde.

24/11/1642. Thursday (-110,458) Tasmania was discovered by Abel Tasman, Dutch explorer.It was originally called van Diemen�s Land, and renamed in 1853.

12/11/1642, Saturday (-110,470) Charles I marched on London, but was turned back at Turnham Green.

7/11/1642, Monday (-110,575) Sir Henry Montagu, 1st Earl of Manchester, died.

2/11/1642, Wednesday (-110,480) (Germany), In the Thirty years War, at Breitenfeld, Swedish forces under Torstensson defeated the Imperialists under Archduke Leopold and Prince Piccolomini, who were attempting to relieve the siege of Lepizig.

1/11/1642, Tuesday (-110,481) Death of Jean Nicolet (born ca. 1598), French explorer of the Lake Michigan area (now Wisconsin).

25/10/1642, Tuesday (-110,488)

24/10/1642, Monday (-110,489) Essex retured from the battle scene at Edgehill, leaving the Royalists to claim victory. The Royalists now continued towards London, taking Banbury and Oxford, London started quickly erecting defences, although some Londoners wanted to sue for peace..

23/10/1642. Sunday (-110,490) The Royalists narrowly beat the Roundheads at the Battle of Edgehill, the first of the English Civil War. Both sides claimed victory.

22/10.1642, Saturday (-110,491) Essex, marching at full speed, reached Kineton, just 7 miles from the Royalist headquarters at Edgecote.

12/10/1642, Wednesday (-110,501) Prince Rupert, Royalist, found many of his army in Shrewsbury keen to attack the Parliamentarians under Essex at their new headquarters at Worcester. However the road from Shrewsbury to London was now open and the Royalists decided to take it, anticipating that Essex would intercept them. They were keen to attack the Parliamentarian forces before they grew too strong. This day the Royalist Army left Shrewsbury gaining two days start on the Parliamentarians, moving south east via Bridgnorth, Birmingham and Kenilworth. Parliament in London became alarmed and ordered Essex to find and defeat Charles.


23/9/1642, Friday (-110,520) A cavalry skirmish at Worcester between the retreating Royalists, moving north, and an advance guard of Parliamentarian cavalry The Royalists won, raising their morale.

13/9/1642, Tuesday (-110,530) King Charles marched west from Nottingham to marshal his supporters and their armouries in Derbyshire and Staffordshire, and to link up, via Chester, with his regiments in Ireland. The Parliamentarian forces shadowed this move, also moving west from Northampton towards Worcester.

6/9/1642, Tuesday (-110,537) The English Long Parliament ordered the closure of all London theatres.

22/8/1642. Monday (-110,552) The English Civil War began, between the Cavaliers who supported King Charles I and the Roundheads who supported Parliament, when the King raised his standard at Nottingham. Parliament raised an army of 20,000; the nobility and gentry supported the King, fearing a Parliament of commoners.

18/8/1642, Thursday (-110,556) Reni Guido, Italian painter, died (born 4/11/1575).

3/7/1642, Sunday (-110,602) Marie de Medici, Queen Consort of France, died.

2/7/1642, Saturday (-110,603)


9/6/1642, Thursday (-110,626) Battle of Schweidnitz, Moravia.

1/6/1642, Wednesday (-110,634) Parliament presented nineteen propositions (demands) to Charles I. These asked for Parliamentary control of the military, the Church, and of the tutors of the Royal children

18/5/1642. Wednesday (-110,648) Montreal in Canada was founded.

10/4/1642, Sunday (-110,686) Easter Sunday.


10/3/1642, Thursday (-110,717) Parliament requested the Lord High Admiral to appoint Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, as commander of the fleet. Simultaneously Charles told him to appoint the Royalist Sir John Pennington. Warwick was appointed, and Charles had lost the navy.

20/1/1642, Thursday (-110,766) George Hickes, English religious writer, was born (died 15/12/1715).

10/1/1642, Monday (-110,776) Charles I withdrew from London, to Hampton Court. The Commons, emboldened, prepared Bills excluding bishops from the House of Lords and giving Parliament control of the army.

8/1/1642, Saturday (-110,778) Galileo, Italian mathematician physicist and astronomer, professor at the University of Padua, died.

4/1/1642, Tuesday (-110,782) Charles I entered Parliament and attempted to arrest five members for treasonable correspondence with the Scots. He failed; the five were in hiding, and Parliament refused to back the arrests. The five MPs were John Hampden, Arthur Haselrigg, Denzil Holles, John Pym and William Strode. This was the first time a monarch had entered the Commons, with militia, in defiance of convention. Charles left the Commons, angry, and five days later left London and began raising an army against Parliament.


9/12/1641, Thursday (-110,808) Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Flemish court painter to Charles I from 1632, died in his studio in Blackfriars, London, aged 42, and was buried in Old St Pauls.

29/11/1641, Monday (-110,818) The first English newspaper was published.

22/11/1641, Monday (-110,825) The Long Parliament passed the Grand Remonstrance, part of a series of measures to curb the excesses of King Charles I�s absolutist ambitions.

4/11/1641, Thursday (-110,843) A Dutch fleet defeated a Spanish fleet off Cape St Vincent.

22/10/1641, Wednesday (-110,858) Irish rebellion in Ulster.

10/5/1641, Monday (-111,021) (Sweden) Johan Baner, Swedish soldier during the Thirty Years War, died in Halberstadt (born in Djursholm Castle 23/6/1596).

25/4/1641, Sunday (-111,036) Easter Sunday.

15/4/1641, Thursday (-111,046) Zampieri Domenichino, Italian painter, died (born 21/10/1581).

13/4/1641, Tuesday (-111,048) Richard Montagu, English religious writer, died.

18/3/1641, Thursday (-111,074)

18/2/1641, Thursday (-111,102)

18/1/1641, Monday (-111,133) Pau Claris proclaimed the Catalan Republic.

11/1/1641, Monday (-111,140) Franz Gomarus, Dutch religious writer, died (born 30/1/1563).

3/1/1641, Sunday (-111,148) Jeremiah Horrocks, English astronomer, died (born 1619).


13/12/1640, Sunday (-111,169) The Duke of Braganza was crowned John IV, King of Portugal.

6/12/1640, Sunday (-111,176) Claude Fleury, French historical writer, was born (died 14/7/1723).

1/12/1640, Tuesday (-111,181) Portugal regained its independence from the Spanish.

13/11/1640, Friday (-111,199) Laurence Chaderton, religious writer, died.

3/11/1640, Tuesday (-111,209) In Britain, the Long Parliament assembled. It lasted until 1660, due to the Civil War.

20/10/1640, Tuesday (-111,223) John Ball, writer, died (born 10/1585).

29/9/1640, Sunday (-111,253) Charles Coysevox, French sculptor, was born (died 10/10/1720).

17/9/1640, Thursday (-111,256) The French captured Turin.

17/7/1640, Friday (-111,318)

9/6/1640, Tuesday (-111,356) The Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, was born.

30/5/1640, Saturday (-111,366) Peter Paul Reubens, Flemish Baroque painter, died in Antwerp.

18/4/1640, Saturday (-111,408) Etienne Chauvin, French religious writer, was born (died 1725).

13/4/1640, Monday (-111,413) In order to raise money for a war against Scotland, Charles I convened Parliament for the first time since 1629. This �Short Parliament� was dissolved on 4/5/1640 after refusing to give the King any money.

5/4/1640, Sunday (-111,421) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1640, Thursday (-111,424) Paul Fleming, German poet, died (born 5/10/1609).

25/1/1640, Saturday (-111,492) William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire, was born (died 18/8/1707).

14/1/1640, Tuesday (-111,503) Thomas Coventry, Lord Keeper of England, died (born 1578).

11/1/1641, Saturday (-111,506) Juan Jauregui, Spanish poet, died (born 1583).


31/12/1639, Tuesday (-111,517)

24/11/1639, Sunday (-111,554) A transit of Venus across the Sun was first observed by Jeremiah Horrocks.

21/10/1639, Monday (-111,588) (Netherlands, Spain) Battle of the Downs. A Dutch fleet under Maarten Tromp defeated the Spanish in The Channel, effectively ending Spain�s role as a major naval power.Spain was weakened by the breakaway of Portugal, and the rise of France.Spain�s colonial quarrels with the Dutch, in Brazil and the Portuguese spice islands, were now superseded by these areas now being under Portuguese rule.

4/8/1639, Sunday (-111,666)(Arts) Juan Alarcon, Spanish dramatist, died in Madrid.

21/6/1639, Friday (-111,710) Increase Mather, Us author, was born (died 23/8/1723).

17/6/1639, Monday (-111,714)

21/5/1639, Tuesday (-111,741) Tommaso Campanella, Italian philosophical writer, died (born 1568).

14/4/1639, Sunday (-111,778) Easter Sunday
12/4/1639, Friday (-111,780) Robert Carey, 1st earl of Monmouth, died.

22/3/1639, Friday (-111,801) Thomas Carew, poet, died.

3/3/1639, Sunday (-111,820)

6/2/1639, Wednesday (-111,845) Daniel Morhof, German writer, was born (died 30/7/1691)

3/2/1639, Sunday (-111,848)

24/1/1639, Thursday (-111,858) American settlers meeting in Hartford voted to adopt a new constitution called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. It allowed colonists to administer their own laws and to raise taxes, and made no mention of allegiance to the British Crown.

19/1/1639, Saturday (-111,863) (France) Noel Alexandre, French theologian (died 1724) was born in Rouen.

8/1/1639, Tuesday (-111,874) Henry, son of Charles I, was born.


8/12/1638, Saturday (-111,905) Ivan Gundulich, Serbian poet, died (born 8/1/1588).

6/11/1638, Tuesday (-111,937) James Gregory, Scottish mathematician who gave a demonstration of the first practical reflecting telescope, was born.

28/10/1638, Sunday (-111,946) Mr John Harvard left a bequest of 400 books and �700 to what is now Harvard University, see 28/10/1636.

10/9/1638, Monday (-111,994) Marie Therese, Queen Consort of France, was born (died 30/7/1683).

5/9/1638, Wednesday (-111,999) Louis XIV, King of France, known as the �Sun King�, was born in St German en Laye, just outside Paris.

25/6/1638, Monday (-112,071) Juan Montalban, Spanish writer, died.

2/6/1638, Saturday (-112,094) Henry Clarendon, English statesman, was born (died 31/10/1709)

6/5/1638, Sunday (-112,121) Cornelius Jansen, Bishop ofYpres, died (born 28/10/1585).

25/3/1638, Sunday (-112,163) Easter Sunday.

14/3/1638, Wednesday (-112,174) (Christian) Johann Gichtel, German preacher, was born (died 21/1/1710).

28/2/1638, Wednesday (-112,188) Japanese peasants occupying Hara Castle, near Nagasaki, surrendered to Shogun Iemitsu�s besieging 124,000-strong army because of lack of food. The army then massacred most of the 37,000 peasants. Furthermore, Iemitsu expelled the Portuguese traders from Japan, suspecting them of complicity in stirring up the peasant�s demands, and prohibited the building of large seagoing ships that might carry Japanese to other countries. The isolation of Japan began.

24/1/1638, Wednesday (-112,223) Charles Sackville, English poet, was born (died 29/1/1706).

6/1/1638, Saturday (-112,241) Nicolas Malebranche, French philosophical writer, was born (died 13/10/1715).

1/1/1638, Monday (-112,246) Antoinette Deshoulieres, French poet, was born (died 17/2/1694).


6/12/1637, Wednesday (-132,272) (USA) Sir Edmond Andros, English colonial Governor of the North American colonies, was born in London (died in London February 1714).

3/10/1637, Tuesday (-112,336) (Britain) George Aberdeen, Scottish lawyer and statesman (died 20/4/1720) was born.

29/9/1637, Friday (-112,340) Lorenzo Ruiz, Christian missionary to Japan who was killed for his beliefs there, later beatified, died thids day.

8/9/1637, Friday (-112,361) Robert Fludd, English mystical writer, died (born 1574).

20/8/1637, Sunday (-112,380) Johann Gerhard, religious writer, died (born 17/10/1582).

6/8/1637. Sunday (-112,394) The first poet laureate, Ben Johnson, died in poverty.

28/7/1637, Friday (-112,403)

26/5/1637, Friday (-112,466) The English massacred women and children of the Pequot Indians, in revenge for the murder of a slave trader, John Oldham, in July 1636. The Pequot men were away from their villages, tending the fields, so the English massacre was a very one-sided affair. Other Amerindian tribes were either enemies of the Pequot, or intimidated into not assisting them, and a guerrilla war by the Pequot finally ended when these other tribes captured and killed the Pequot leader, Sassacus.

22/5/1637, Monday (-112,470) John Kyrle, English philanthropist, was born (died 7/11/1724).

9/4/1637, Sunday (-112,513) Easter Sunday.

15/2/1637, Wednesday (-112,566) Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II died, aged 57, in Vienna. He was succeeded by his 28-year old son, Ferdinand III.

12/2/1637, Sunday (-112,569) (Medicine) Jan Swammerdam was born this day in Amsterdam. In 1658 he became the first person to see and describe red blood cells.

3/2/1637, Friday (-112,578) The price of tulip bulbs in Dutch markets, which had reached the heights of 15 years� salary for just one bulb, collapsed, ruining many.

13/1/1637, Friday (-112,599)


31/12/1636, Saturday (-112,612)

13/12/1636, Tuesday (-112,630) The Massachusetts Bay Colony organised three militia regiments to defend against the Pequot Indians.This was the founding of the United States National Guard.

2/11/1636, Wednesday (-112,671) Edward Colston, English philanthropist, was born (died 1721).

1/11/1636, Tuesday (-112,672) Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux, French poet, was born in Paris (died 13/3/1711).

28/10/1636, Friday (-112,676) Harvard University, the oldest in the USA, was founded at Cambridge, Massachusetts by Puritan emigrants from Britain. The General Council of Massachusetts set up a college with the comparatively modest sum of �400. However on 28/10/1638 Mr John Harvard, assistant pastor of the First Church of Charleston, who died aged 31, left the College a bequest of �780 and 400 books. The aim was establish an educational institution equal to Oxford or Cambridge in England.

9/10/1636, Sunday (-112,695) (Britain) King Charles I issued a third writ for ship money

15/8/1636, Monday (-112,750) The Spanish besieged Corbie, France.

8/7/1636, Friday (-112,788) Sir John Hepburn, Scottish soldier, killed at the siege of Zabern, Thirty Years War.

4/7/1636, Monday (-112,792) (USA) The city of Providence, Rhode island, was founded.

29/6/1636, Wednesday (-112,797) Thomas Hyde, English Orientalist writer, was born (died 18/2/1703).

17/4/1636, Sunday (-112,870) Easter Sunday.

26/3/1636, Saturday (-112,892) (Education) The University of Utrecht was founded in the Netherlands.

18/3/1636, Friday (-112,900)

24/2/1636, Wednesday (-112,923) (Denmark) King Christian of Denmark ordered that all beggars able to work must be sent to Brinholmen Island, to work at building ships or work as galley rowers.

24/1/1636, Sunday (-112.954)


28/12/1635, Monday (-112,981) (British Royal) Elizabeth, 2nd daughter of Charles I, was born. See 8/9/1650.

25/12/1635, Friday (-112,984) (Canada) Explorer Samuel de Champlain died (born ca.1567).

27/11/1635, Friday (-113,012) Francois Maintenon, 2nd wife of King Louis XIV of France, was born (died 15/4/1719).

22/11/1635, Sunday (-113,017) (Biology) Naturalist Francis Willoughby was born in Middleton, England. His systematic work on birds and fish helped pave the way for Linnaeus� classification.

20/9/1635, Sunday (-113,080)

7/9/1635, Monday (-113,093) (Hungary) Paul Esterhazy was born (died 26/3/1713).

6/9/1635, Sunday (-113,094) Metius, astronomer and mathematician, died.

4/8/1635, Tuesday (-113,127) (Britain) King Charles I issued a second writ for ship money (see 11/2/1628), again the writ was resisted.

31/7/1635. Friday (-113,131) (Britain) British inland public postal services were established, with charges of between 2d and 8d.

18/7/1635, Saturday (-113,144) Robert Hooke, English scientist, was born in Freshwater, Isle of Wight.

11/7/1635, Saturday (-113,151) By the Treaty of Rivoli, Victor Amadeus I of Savoy took command of the Italian league against Milan.

25/6/1635, Thursday (-113,167) The French Compagnie des Iles d�Amerique took possession of Martinique. A colony established by Pierre Belain, Sieur d�Esnambuc, grew to 700 inhabitants by 1637.

30/5/1635, Saturday (-113,193) The Peace of Prague was signed, ending Saxony�s role in the Thirty Years War.

19/5/1635, Tuesday (-113,204) France declared war on Spain.Spain initially had success, capturing Corbie, near Amiens.However the Spaniards did not follow up their successes and faced with revolts in Portugal and Catalonia, lost Artois and Roussillion.

19/4/1635, Sunday (-113,234)

29/3/1635, Sunday (-113,255) Easter Sunday.

27/3/1635, Friday (-113,257) Sir Robert Naunton, English politician, died.

24/3/1635, Tuesday (-113,260) Peder Griffenfeldt, Danish statesman, was born (died 12/3/1699).

10/3/1635, Tuesday (-113,274) The Academie Francaise in Paris was expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite.

1/2/1635, Sunday (-113,311) Marquard Gude, German scholarly writer, was born (died 16/11/1689).

27/1/1635, Tuesday (-113,316) Edward Fairfax, English poet, died.

2/1/1635, Friday (-113,341) Cardinal Richelieu established the Academie Francaise to protect the purity of the French language.


25/12/1634, Thursday (-113,349)

14/12/1634, Sunday (-113,360) John Erskine, 7th Earl of Mar, Scotland, died.

18/10/1634, Saturday (-113,417) Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg, Austrian statesman (born 1568) died at Laibach.

6/9/1634, Saturday (-113,459) (Sweden, Germany) Battle of Nordlingen, Germany. Hapsburg forces defeated Sweden.

3/9/1634, Wednesday (-113,462) Sir Edward Coke, English lawyer, died (born 1/2/1552).

22/7/1634, Tuesday (-113,505) (Austria) Johann Aldringer, Austrian military commander, died at the defence of Landshut against the Swedes on the Danube.

25/6/1634, Wednesday (-113,532) John Marston, English dramatist, died.

21/4/1634, Monday (-113,597) Jan van Riebeck, Dutch surgeon and founder of Cape Town, was born in The Netherlands.

6/4/1634, Sunday (-113,612) Easter Sunday

25/3/1634, Tuesday (-113,624) George Bull, English religious writer, was born (died 17/2/1710).

18/3/1634, Tuesday (-113,631) Marie Lafayette, French novelist, was born (died 25/5/1692).

4/3/1634, Tuesday (-113,645) Samuel Cole opened the first tavern in Boston, Massachusetts.

1/3/1634, Saturday (-113,648) (Russia) The Poles and Cossacks lifted the Russian siege of Smolensk.

16/1/1634, Thursday (-113,692) Dorthe Engelbrechtsdatter, Norwegian poet, was born (died 19/2/1716).


31/12/1633, Tuesday (-113,708)

28/10/1633, Monday (-113,772) (Italy) Antonio Magliabechi, Italian bibliophile, was born (died 4/7/1714).

26/10/1633, Saturday (-113,774|) Horio Tadaharu, Japanese warlord, died.

14/10/1633, Monday (-113,786) James II was born at St James Palace, the second son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria.

14/8/1533, Wednesday (-113,847)

5/8/1633, Monday (-113,856) George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, died (born 19/10/1562).

1/7/1633, Monday (-113,891) Johann Heidegger, Swiss religious writer, was born (died 18/1/1698).

19/6/1633, Wednesday (-113,903) Philipp von Limborch, Dutch religious writer, was born (died 30/4/1712).

18/6/1633, Tuesday (-113,904) King Charles I of England finally visited Scotland and was crowned King there, at Holyrood Abbey.

5/6/1633, Wednesday (-113,917)

16/5/1633, Thursday (-113,937) Charles I was crowned King of Scotland at Edinburgh.

15/5/1633, Wednesday (-113,938) (France) French military engineer Sebastian le Prestre de Vauban was born in Nivernais, France. He developed a system of fortifications to defend France against invasion.

21/4/1633, Sunday (-113,962) Easter Sunday.

12/4/1633, Friday (-113,971) The trial of Galileo Galilei before the Inquisition began. At the end of which he would be ordered to recant his belief that the Sun not the Earth was the centre of the Universe, as heretical.

10/4/1633. Wednesday (-113,973) Bananas were displayed for the first time in a London shop window.

23/2/1633, Saturday (-114,019) Samuel Pepys, diarist, born in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, London. He was the son of a tailor.

20/2/1633, Wednesday (-114,022) Nathan Field, English dramatist, died (born 17/10/1587).

31/1/1633, Thursday (-114,042) (Britain) Nathaniel Crew, Bishop of Durham, was born (died 18/9/1721).


31/12/1632, Monday (-114,073)

29/11/1632, Saturday (-114,105) (Germany) Frederick died oif the Plague.

27/11/1632, Tuesday (-114,107) Sir John Eliot, English politician, died (born 1592).

24/11/1632, Saturday (-114,110) Benedict Spinoza, Jewish philosopher, was born in Amsterdam.

16/11/1632, Friday (-114,118) (Sweden, Germany) Gustavus II, King of Sweden from 1611, killed as his army gained victory in the Battle of Lutzen (Thirty Years War) near Leipzig. He was succeeded by his 6-year old daughter, Christina; in the interim, Sweden was governed by Count Axel Oxenstierna.

31/10/1632, Wednesday (-114,134) Jan Vermeer, Dutch painter, was born in Delft, the son of an art dealer.

24/10/1632, Wednesday (-114,141) Anthony van Leeuwenhoek, naturalist, was born. Inventor of the microscope, he was the first person to see bacteria.

20/10/1632, Saturday (-114,145) Christopher Wren, English astronomer and architect, designer of St Paul�s Cathedral, was born in East Knoyle, Wiltshire, the son of a dean.

30/9/1632, Sunday (-114,165) (Mathematics) Thomas Allen, English mathematician, died at Gloucester Hall (born 21/12/1542 at Gloucester Hall).

31/8/1632, Friday (-114,195) Battle of Alte Veste, Germany. Gustavus attacked Wallenstein, but rough ground and heavy scrub denied Gustavus the deployment of his heavy artillery or cavalry. Gustavus withdrew with heavy losses. The region around Nuremberg was now denuded of food, so both armies withdrew, Gustavus to the northwest and Wallenstein to the south.

29/8/1632, Wednesday (-114,197) John Locke, philosopher, was born.

20/8/1632, Monday (-114,206) (France) Louis Bourdaloue, French Jesuit, was born in Bourges (died in Paris 13/5/1704).

11/7/1632, Wednesday (-114,246) Wallenstein joined Maximilian at Schwabach, and they encamped their army of 60,000 men at Furth. Gustavus, with 20,000 men, encamped near Nuremberg and sent for reinforcements, which raised his strength to 45,000 men.

24/6/1632, Sunday (-114,263) At Hooghly (founded by Portuguese traders, 1537) the Portuguese had secured a monopoly on salt trading and also enforced a high duty on the tobacco trade; they refused to share any of this income with the indigenous Moguls. They also seized Muslim and Hindu children, to sell as slaves. Shah Jehan (1592-1666)therefore, in 1631, resolved to destroy Hooghly, and this day began a 3-month siege of the port, with a 150,000 man army. Hooghly was defended by 300 Portuguese soldiers and some 700 Indian Christians. After it fell, some 400 surviving defenders were taken captive to Agra, and in 1635 those who refused to convert to Islam were executed.

10/6/1632, Sunday (-114,277) Esprit Flechier, French religious writer, was born (died 16/2/1710).

15/4/1632, Sunday (-114,333) (Sweden, Germany) Battle of Rain, Bavaria. Swedish forces destroyed the Bavarian army, which had been allied to the Hapsburgs.

7/4/1632, Saturday (-114,341) Gustavus advanced into southern Germany, crossing the Danube at Donauworth, then marched east into Bavaria. Here the reorganised German Army under Tilly and Maximilian of Bavaria awaited him.

5/4/1632, Thursday (-114,343) Battle of Leck, Thiryty Years War. Gustavus of Sweden defeated Tilly in southern Germany.

1/4/1632, Sunday (-114,347) Easter Sunday.

15/2/1632, Wednesday (-114,393) Dudley Dorchester, English statesman, died (born 10/3/1573).

29/1/1632, Sunday (-114,410) Johann Graevius, German scholarly writer, was born (died 11/1/1703).


23/12/1631, Friday (-114,447) (Sweden, Germany) The Swedes captured Mainz, Germany. Gustavus now decided to spend the winter there.

16/12/1631, Friday (-114,454) Major eruption of Vesuvius killed 18,000 people.

10/12/1631, Saturday (-114,460) Sir Hugh Myddelton,contractor for London�s New River scheme, died.

7/11/1631, Monday (-114,493) Pierre Gassendi observed the transit of Mercury across the Sun.This was the first observation of a planetary transit.

4/11/1631, Friday (-114,496) Mary, daughter of Charles I, was born.

17/9/1631, Saturday (-114,544) (Sweden, Germany) During the Thirty Years War, a battle was fought between Gustavus II, King of Sweden (1594-1632) and the Holy Roman Empire forces under Tilly at Brietenfeld, Germany. (see 4/7/1630).The Swedes overwhelmingly won. Gustavus II had extended the Kingdom of Sweden right around the eastern Baltic, turning it into a �Swedish lake�. Gustavus now began to conquer the wealthy lands of the rivers Main and Rhine.

15/9/1631, Thursday (-114,546) Tilly took Leipzig; his army had now grown to 36,000 men. The Swedish and Saxon armies, 26,000 and 16,000 strong respectively, joined at Duben.

11/9/1631, Sunday (-114,550) John Georg placed his troops undetr the command of Gustavus, to save Saxony from an invasion by Gustavus.

9/8/1631, Tuesday (-114,583) John Dryden, poet, was born at Aldwinde in Northampton.

16/7/1631, Saturday (-114,607) Francis Erroll, Scottish nobleman, died.

15/7/1631, Friday (-114,608) Jens Juel, Danish statesman, was born.

4/7/1631, Monday (-114,619) The first employment agency, the �Bureau d�Adresse� was established in Paris by Theophraste Renaudot. It charged 3 sous to both employers and employees; unless too poor to pay, when the bureau was free.In 1639 the Paris police ordered that all unemployed strangers arriving in Paris must register at the bureau within 24 hours or be sent to the galleys for vagabondage. Vacancies were mainly for domestic servants and shop assistants.See 12/8/1649.

20/6/1631, Monday (-114,633) (Ireland) Pirates attacked the Irish village of Baltimore, abducting 100 for slavery. These would be sold in the slave markets of Algiers, the men for galley work, the women for harems. The village was abandoned afterwards.

25/5/1631, Wednesday (-114,659) Samuel Harsnett, English religious writer, died (born 5/1561).

23/5/1631, Monday (-114,661) (Britain) John Buckeridge, Bishop of Ely from 1628, died.

20/5/1631, Friday (-114,664) Tilly and Pappenheim stormed Magdeburg, which was thoroughly looted by the hungry troops. All but 5,000 of its 30,000 inhabitants were slaughtered.

14/5/1631, Saturday (-114,670) Having had their demands refused by Ferdinand, the German Protestant Princes now established an army under Hans Georg von Arnim.

6/5/1631, Friday (-114,678) Sir Robert Cotton, writer, died (born 22/1/1571).

2/5/1631, Monday (-114,682) (Britain) John Murray, 1st Earl of Atholl, was born (died 6/5/1703).

13/4/1631, Wednesday (-114,701) Gustavus suprised the Germans by marching on and then capturing Frankfurt on Oder. However Tilly did not then raise hs seige of Magdeburg, as Gustavus had hoped. Gustavus now prepared to march himself on Magdeburg. Due to the alliance between Maximilian of Bavaria and France, Tilly renounced his allegiance to Maximilian and gave his loyalty to the Emperor.

10/4/1631, Sunday (-114,704) Easter Sunday.

31/3/1631, Thursday (-114,714) John Donne, English poet, born in London in 1572, died in London.

28/3/1631, Monday (-114,717) The Leipzig Manifesto. Encouraged by Sweden�s entry into the war, the German Protestant Princes, led by John George of Saxony, now demanded restoration of their Rights, including repeal of the Edict of Restitution. Ferdinand did not comply.

20/3/1631, Sunday (-114,725) (Germany) The sack of Magdeburg by Tilly�s army rallied the undeciuded Proetstant German Princes to Gustav Adolphus�s side.

16/3/1631, Wednesday (-114,729) Rene le Bossu, French literary critic, was born in Paris (died 14/3/1680).

1/3/1631, Tuesday (-114,744)

28/2/1630, Monday (-114,745)

4/2/1631, Friday (-114,769) Lupercio Argensola, Spanish poet, died in Saragossa (baptised in Barnastro 14/12/1559).

31/1/1630, Monday (-114,773)

23/1/1630, Sunday (-114,781) (Sweden, Germany) Under the Treaty of Barwalde, Sweden agreed, in return for an annual tribute of one million pounds to King Gustavus Adolphus, to respect the neutrality of Bavaria and the Catholic League.

1/1/1631, Saturday (-114,803)


31/12/1630, Friday (-114,804)

24/11/1630, Wednesday (-114,841) Etienne Balzuc, French writer, was born in Tulle (died in Paris 28/7/1718).

15/11/1630, Monday (-114,850) Johannes Kepler, astronomer, died in Regensburg, Germany.

14/10/1630, Thursday (-114,882) Sophia, Electress of Hanover, was born.

30/9/1630, Thursday (-114,896) The first death sentence in America. John Billington was executed for murder in New Plymouth.

18/9/1630, Saturday (-114,908) Melchior Klesl, Austrian statesman, died.

17/9/1630. Friday (-114,909) The city of Boston, USA, officially received its name.It was named after Boston, Lincolnshire, from where the Puritan leaders of the town had come.

24/8/1630, Tuesday (-114,933) Under pressure from the Protestant Electors of Germany, Ferdinand dismissed Wallenstein, his favourite General, at Regensburg, in order to achieve German unity. Ferdinand was alarmed at the Swedish invasion.

4/7/1630, Sunday (-114,984) (Sweden, Germany) During the Thirty Years War, Gustavus Adolphus, Protestant King of Sweden, landed at Peenemunde with an army of 13,000 men, in an attempt to bring the entire Baltic under Swedish control.See 17/9/1631.

12/6/1630, Saturday (-115,006) The fleet of the Massachusetts Bay Company docked at Salem, with 700 Puritan colonists on board.

29/5/1630, Saturday (-115,020) King Charles II was born.

17/5/1630, Monday (-115,032) The belts of the planet Jupiter were first observed.

29/4/1630, Thursday (-115,050) Theodore Aubigne, French poet, died in Geneva (born 8/2/1552 in St Maury, Pons).

28/4/1630, Wednesday (-115,051) Charles Cotton, English poet, was born (died 1687).

17/4/1630, Saturday (-115,062)

28/3/1630, Sunday (-115,082) Easter Sunday.

26/1/1630, Tuesday (-115,143) (Mathematics) Henry Briggs, mathematician, died.


31/12/1629, Thursday (-115,169)

7/11/1629, Saturday (-115,223) John Mason procured a grant from the Council of New England for a tract of land between the Merrimac and Piscataqua Rivers, which he named New Hampshire.

2/10/1629, Friday (-115,259) Pierre de Berulle, French statesman, died (born near Troyes 4/2/1575).

25/9/1629,Friday (-115,266) (Germany, Poland, Sweden) The Treaty of Altmark ended the Polish-Swedish war, for six years. Gustavus of Sweden was now, summer 1627, to start a campaign in northern Germany.

5/9/1629, Saturday (-115,286) Domenico Allegri, composer, died.

20/7/1629, Monday (-115,333) English adventurer Sir David Kirke seized Quebec from the French.

28/6/1629, Sunday (-115,355) (France) France�s Huguenot civil wars finally ended with the Peace of Alais.

7/6/1629, Sunday (-115,376) (Germany, Denmark) Peace of Lubeck. Denmark withdrew from the war, and gave up the north German Bishoprics, also Holstein, Stormarn and Ditmarschen, and agreed not to interfere in the politics of Lower Saxony.

4/6/1629, Thursday (-115,379) The VOC (Dutch) ship Batavia ran aground west of Australia.

17/5/1629, Sunday (-115,397)

8/5/1629, Friday (-115,406) Neils Juel, Danish Admiral, was born (died 8/4/1697).

14/4/1629, Tuesday (-115,430) Christiaan Huygens, Dutch astronomer, was born (died 8/6/1695).

5/4/1629, Sunday (-115,439) Easter Sunday.

10/3/1629, Tuesday (-115,465) King Charles I of England dissolved Parliament, starting the Eleven Years Tyranny.

9/3/1629, Monday (-115,466) Tsar Alexis I of Russia was born (died 1676).

6/3/1629, Friday (-115,469) Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Edict of Restitution.Under this, all Catholic properties lost to Protestantism since 1552 were to be restored and only Catholics and Lutherans (not Calvinists, Hussites, or other groups) were to be allowed to practise their faith.

4/3/1629, Wednesday (-115,471) Massachusetts Bay Colony was granted a Royal Charter.

3/1/1629, Saturday (-115,531)


31/12/1628, Wednesday (-115,534)

28/11/1628, Friday (-115,567) (Britain) John Felton, assassin of the 1st Duke of Buckingham, was hanged.

28/10/1628, Tuesday (-115,598) (France) The siege of La Rochelle ended; the last refuge of the Huguenots in France fell.

16/10/1628, Thursday (-115,610) Francois de Malherbe, French poet, died (born 1555).

2/9/1628, Tuesday (-115,654) Battle of Wolgast. Wallenstein heavily defeated Christian of Denmark.

23/8/1628, Saturday (-115,664) The Duke of Buckingham, courtier and royal favourite of James I, was assassinated in Portsmouth.

12/8/1628, Tuesday (-115,675) Gabriel Gerberon, French religious writer, was born (died 29/3/1711).

10/8/1628, Sunday (-115,677) (Sweden) The Swedish flagship Vasa sank on her maiden voyage at Stockholm.

13/6/1628, Friday (-115,735)

13/4/1628, Sunday (-115,796) Easter Sunday

29/3/1628, Saturday (-115,811) Tobias Matthew, Archbishop of York and religious writer, died.

17/3/1628, Monday (-115,823) Francois Girardon, French sculptor, was born (died 1715).

12/3/1628, Wednesday (-115,828) John Bull, composer and organist, died.

10/3/1628, Monday (-115,830) (Medical) Marcello Malpighi was born in Crevalcore, Italy. In 1660 he demonstrated, using the newly-invented microscope. that the lungs consist of many small air pockets and a complex system of capillaries.

14/2/1628, Thursday (-115,855) Coronation of Mughal Emperor Shah Jehan in Agra.

11/2/1628, Monday (-115, 858) King Charles I demanded �ship money� of �173,000 to secure Britain against French invasion.Ship money could be levied by The Crown without Parliamentary consent, although it was of dubious legality.,However on this occasion the demands caused serious unrest but Charles I was determined to rule without parliamentary consent.See 4/8/1635.

30/1/1628, Wednesday (-115,870) George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham was born (died 16/4/1687).

20/1/1628, Sunday (-115,880) Henry, fourth son of Cromwell, was born.

17/1/1628, Thursday (-115,883) Charles I of Goganza took possession of mantua, after the death of his cousin Vincent II.

8/1/1628, Tuesday (-115,892) Francois Luxemburg, Marshal of France, was born (died 4/1/1695).


31/12/1627, Monday (-115,900)

26/12/1627, Wednesday (-115,905) Vincent II of Mantua (Lombardy, Italy) died.

28/10/1627, Sunday (-115,964) Jahangir, ruler of the Moghul Empire, died.

27/9/1627, Thursday (-115,995) Jacques Bossuet, French writer, was born in Dijon (died 12/4/1704).

29/5/1627, Tuesday (-116,116) Anne Montpensier, Frenchy writer, was born (died 9/4/1693).

24/5/1627, Thursday (-116,121) Luis de Gongora, Spanish poet, died (born 11/7/1561).

20/5/1627, Sunday (-116,125) Jan Gruter, Dutch scholarly writer, died (3/12/1560).

27/4/1627, Friday (-116,148)

27/3/1627, Tuesday (-116,179) Sir Stephen Fox, English statesman, was born (died 28/10.1716).

25/3/1627, Sunday (-116,181) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1627, Tuesday (-116,200) Richard Barnfield, English poet, died in Stone (born in Norbury, Staffordshire 8/2/1544).

27/2/1627, Tuesday (-116,207)

25/1/1627, Thursday (-116,240) Robert Boyle, Irish chemist and physicist, was born at Lismore Castle, Munster, Eire.


10/12/1626, Sunday (-116,286) Edmund Gunter, English mathematician, died (born 1581).

8/12/1626, Friday (-116,288) (Sweden) Queen Christina of Sweden was born.

21/11/1626, Tuesday (-116,305) (Education, Schools) Edward Alleyn, actor, who also founded Dulwich School on 21/6/1619, died.

18/11/1626. Saturday (-116,308) St Peter�s Church in Rome was consecrated.

4/10/1626, Wednesday (-116,353) Richard Cromwell, third son of Oliver Cromwell, was born.

30/9/1626, Saturday (-116,357) Manchu leader Nurhaci died (born 1559)

21/9/1626, Thursday (-116,366) Francois Lesdiguieres, Constable of France, died (born 1/4/1543).

24/8/1626, Thursday (-116,394) (Germany, Denmark) Battle of Lutter, Germany. Christian of Denmark was heavily defeated by Tilly. Christian lost half his army, and fled. Many Protestant Princes now sued for peace, the fortunes of the Protestants being at a major low.

13/7/1626, Saturday (-116,434) Robert Sidney, Earl of Leicester, died (born 19/11/1563).

4/7/1626, Tuesday (-116,445)

16/6/1626, Friday (-116,463) Christian of Brunswick, Dutch General, died (born 20/9/1599).

6/5/1626, Saturday (-116,504) (USA) Manhattan Island, now part of New York, was bought by Peter Minuit, Director-General of the Dutch West India Company, from the local Indian tribes for goods and trinkets worth 60 Dutch Guilders (1980 US$ 24).

25/4/1626, Tuesday (-116,515) (Germany) Battle of Dessau, Germany. Mansfeld, heading for Magdeburg, attempted to cross the River Elbe with 12,000 men, but was repulsed by Wallenstein, suffering heavy ;losses. Wallenstein then pursued Mansfeld into Silesia. Mansfeld died soon afterwards.

9/4/1626. Sunday (-116,531) Easter Sunday. The statesman and philosopher Francis Bacon died near Highgate, London, (as Lord Verulam) of bronchitis. This was brought on by a cold caught whilst stuffing a fowl with snow to observe the effects of cold in preserving meat.

26/3/1626, Sunday (-116,545) The Peace of Monzon. France withdrew form the war, after a Huguenot revolt caused Richelieu to recall troops home form the fighting.

12/3/1626, Sunday (-116,559) John Aubrey, English writer, was born near Malmesbury (died June 1697 in Oxford).

5/3/1626, Sunday (-116,566) Spanish troops evacuated from the Valtelline, Lombardy, Italy.

8/2/1626, Wednesday (-116,591)

2/2/1626, Thursday (-116,597) Coronation of King Charles I of England, at Westminster Abbey.

20/1/1626, Friday (-116,610)


14/12/1625, Wednesday (-116,647) Barthelemy Herbelot, French orientalist writer, was born (died 8/12/1695).

9/12/1625, Friday (-116,652) Ubbo Emmius, Dutch historical writer, died (born 5/12/1547).

30/11/1625, Wednesday (-116,661) Jean Domat, French legal writer, was born (died 14/3/1696).

24/9/1625, Saturday (-116,728) John de Witt, Dutch statesman, was born (died 1672).

20/9/1625, Tuesday (-116,732) Heinrich Meibom, German poet, died (born 4/12/1555).

6/9/1625, Tuesday (-116,746) Thomas Dempster, Scottish historical writer, died (born 1579).

20/8/1625, Saturday (-116,763) Thomas Corneille, French dramatist, was born (died 8/12/1709).

14/8/1625, Sunday (-116,769) (France) Francois de Harlay, 5th Archbishop of Paris, was born (died 6/8/1895).

2/7/1625. Saturday (-116,812) The Spanish, fighting to gain control over The Netherlands, captured the town of Breda after nearly a year of siege.

8/6/1625, Wednesday (-116,836) (Astronomy) Giovanni Cassini astronomer, was born (died 11/9/1712).

5/6/1625, Sunday (-116,839) Spinola captured Breda, after a siege fom 28/8/1624.

11/5/1625. Wednesday (-116,864) Charles I married Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV of France.

23/4/1625, Saturday (-116,882) (Netherlands) Maurice died, disappointed by his failure to relieve Breda.

22/4/1625, Friday (-116,883) Fort Amsterdam was on the southern tip of Manhattan Island founded by Dutch colonists from the Dutch West India Company.

17/4/1625, Sunday (-116,888) Easter Sunday.

4/4/1625, Monday (-116,901) (Netherlands) Maurice, Prince of Nassau, died.

27/3/1625. Sunday (-116,909) Charles I became king.

25/3/1625, Monday (-116,911) Giambattista Marini, Italian poet, died (born 18/10/1569).

5/3/1625, Saturday (-116,931) King James I, the �wisest fool in Christendom� died suddenly at Theobalds Park, Hertfordshire.. He had been born in Edinburgh Castle on 19/6/1566, and was originally King James IV of Scotland. As King James I of England he was the first Stuart King.

19/2/1625, Monday (-116,943) (Ireland) Arthur Chichester, Lord Deputy of Ireland, died (born 5/1563).

4/1/1625, Tuesday (-116,991)


31/12/1624, Friday (-116,995)

26/11/1624, Friday (-117,030) Benedict Carpzov, scholarly writer, died (born 22/10/1565).

13/11/1624, Saturday (-117,043) Thomas Erpenius, Dutch writer on the Orient, died (born 11/9/1584).

10/9/1624, Friday (-117,107) (Medical) Physician Thomas Sydenham was born in England. He was the first to describe measles and identify scarlet fever. He advocated the use of opium to alleviate pain, chinchona bark (quinine) to relieve malaria, and iron to treat anaemia.

8/9/1624, Wednesday (-117,109) (Christian) Marco Dominis, Italian theologian, died (born 1560).

28/8/1624, Saturday (-117,120)

28/8/1624, Saturday (-117,020) Spinola began a siege of Breda, a key fortress on the road to Utrecht and Amsterdam.

25/8/1624, Wednesday (-117,123) Francois de Lachaise, father confessor to Louis XIV, was born (died 20/1/1709). The cememtery of Pere Lachaise, Paris, built on land acquired by the Jesuits in 1826, is named after him.

4/8/1625, Wednesday (-117,144)

11/7/1624, Sunday (-117,168) Savoy and Venice joined the alliance against the Austrian Hapsburgs. The Alpine passes could now be blocked, preventing effective Spanish-Hapsburg co-operation.

9/7/1624, Friday (-117,170) Sweden and Denmark joined the alliance against the Austrian Hapsburgs.

4/7/1624, Sunday (-117,175)

15/6/1624, Tuesday (-117,194) England joined the alliance of France and Holland against Hapsburg Austria.

10/6/1624, Thursday (-117,199) Treaty of Compeigne. France and Holland allied against the Hapsburgs.

2/6/1624, Wednesday (-117,207) John Sobieski, King of Poland, was born.

29/4/1624, Thursday (-117,241) Louis XIII of France appointed Richelieu as his chief minister.

28/3/1624, Sunday (-117,273) Easter Sunday

28/2/1624, Saturday (-117,302)

24/2/1624, Tuesday (-117,306) Paul Laurentius, religious writer, died (born 30/3/1554).

17/2/1624, Tuesday (-117,313) Juan de Mariana, Spanish historical writer, died.

13/2/1624, Friday (-117,317) Stephen Gosson, English satirical writer, died (born 17/4/1554).

31/1/1624, Saturday (-117,330) Arnold Geulincx, Belgian philosophical writer, was born (died 11/1669).