Chronography of events from 1 January 1600 to 31 December 1699

Page last modified 5 March 2023


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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero=Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from


For dates from 1 January 1700 click here


7 January 1700, Sunday (-89,595) Raphael Fabretti, Italian historical writer, died (born 1618).


20 December1699, Wednesday (-89,613) Peter the Great changed New Year�s day in Russia from September 1 to January 1.

19 December1699, Tuesday (-89,614) William Bowyer, printer, was born in London.

29 November 1699, Wednesday (-96,634) Patrick Gordon, Scottish-born Russian General, died (born 1635).

20 October 1699, Friday (-89,674)


22 September 1699, Friday (-89,702) Citizens of Rotterdam went on strike over the high price of butter.

12 September 1699, Tuesday (-89,712) John Martyn, English botanist, was born (died 29 January 1768).

1 September 1699, Friday (-89,723) George Benson, English ecclesiastical writer, was born in Cumberland (died 6 April 1762).

25 August 1699, Friday (-89,730) (Denmark) Christian V, King of Norway and Denmark, died in a hunting accident (born 15 April 1646). He was succeeded by his 28-year-old son who ruled until 1730 as King Frederick IV.

17 August 1699, Thursday (-89,738) Bernard de Jussieu, writer, was born (died 6 November 1777).

14 July 1699, Friday (-89,772) William Bates, English writer, died in Hackney (born in London 11/1625).


14 June 1699, Wednesday (-89,802) Thomas Savery demonstrated his first steam engine to the Royal Society.

15 May 1699, Monday (-89,832) Sir Edward Petre, Jesuit Confessor to King Jsames II of England, died in Watten, Flanders (born 1631).

13 May 1699, Saturday (-89,834) Sebastiao Pombal, Portugiese statesman, was born near Pomba (died 8 May 1782 in Pomnbal)

1 May 1699, Monday (-89,846) Pierre le Moyne d�Iberville founded the first European settlement on the Mississippi at Fort Maurepas, now Ocean Springs, Mississippi.

21 April 1699, Friday (-89,856) Jean Racine, French poet, died in Paris.

13 April 1699, Thursday (-89,864) In India, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa, a Sikh military order.

9 April 1699, Sunday (-89,868) Easter Sunday.


28 March 1699, Tuesday (-89,880) Edward Stillingfleet, English religious writer, died in Westminster, London (born 17 April 1635 in Cranborne, Dorset)

25 March 1699, Saturday (-89,883) Johann Hasse, German composer, was born (died 23 December1783).

12 March 1699, Sunday (-89,896) Peder Griffenfeldt, Danish statesman, died (born 24 March 1635).

4 March 1699, Saturday (-89,904) The Jews were expelled from Lubeck, Germany.

11 February 1699, Saturday (-89,925) Bertrand la Bourdonnais, French naval Commender, was born (died 10 November 1753)

27 January 1699, Friday (-89,940) Sir William Temple, English statesman, died (born 1628)

26 January 1699, Thursday (-89,941) Prince Eugene (see 29 August 1697), having invaded Serbia and Bosnia, forced the Turks to conclude the Peace of Carlowitz.This restored the entire Kingdom of Hungary, with the exception of the Banat of Temesvar, to Austria from Turkey.This was the start of the rise to power of the Hapsburg Dynasty.

14 January 1699, Saturday (-89,953) Massachusetts held a day of mourning for having wrongly persecuted witches.

9 January 1699, Monday (-89,958) Robert Joseph Pothier, French jurist, was born in Orleans (died 2 March 1772 in Orleans)


25 December1698, Sunday (-89,973) Jacobus Houbraken, Dutch engraver, was born (died 14 November 1780).

28 November 1698, Monday (-90,000) Frontenac, French colonial Governor of Canada, died. He was very much mourned by the French Canadians.

16 November 1698, Wednesday (-90,012) A congress began in Sremski Karlovici to discuss an end to the war between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire.

23 October 1698, Sunday (-90,036) John Jortin, English religious writer, was born (died 5 September 1770).


5 September 1698, Monday (-90,084) (Russia) Tsar Peter I of Russia imposed a tax on beards in an effort to move his country from Asiatic to European customs.

3 September 1698, Saturday (-90,086) Sir Robert Howard, English dramatist, died (born 1626).

24 August 1698, Wednesday (-90,096) Erik Pontoppidan, Danish aiuthor, was born in Aarhus (died 20 December 1764 in Bergen, Norway).

19 July 1698, Tuesday (-90,132) Johann Bodmer, author, was born near Zurich (died in Zurich 2 January 1783).

18 July 1698, Monday (-90,133) Johann Heidegger, Swiss religious writer, died (born 1 July 1633).

17 July 1698, Sunday (-90,134) Pierre Maupertuis, French scientific writer, was born (died 27 July 1759).

14 July 1698, Thursday (-90,137) The first settlers left Scotland for an ill-fated scheme to colonise Panama; the Darien scheme.

2 July 1698, Saturday (-90,149) (Innovation) Thomas Savery patented an early steam engine. This engine could be used to pump water out of mines, an increasing problem as miners went ever deeper. However Savery�s (1650-1715) engine was fairly primitive. It could not pump water up from more than 10metres below it, meaning it had to be installed deep within mines. This was dangerous as Savery�s enginewas prone to explosions. In 1721 Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729), working with Savery, produced an improved atmospheric engine. The full potential of the steam engine was not realised until James Watt (1736-1819) added a condenser in 1769, with the backing of businessman Matthew Boulton.


15 May 1698, Sunday (-90,197) Marie Champmesle, French actress, died (born 1642).

8 May 1698, Sunday (-90,204) (Science) Henry Baker, English scientist, was born in London (died in London).

24 April 1698, Sunday (-90,218) Easter Sunday.


2 March 1698, Wednesday (-90,271)

16 February 1698, Wednesday (-90,285) Pierre Bouguer, French scientist, was born (died15 August 1758).

15 January 1698, Saturday (-90,117) Richard Boyle, Irish statesman, died (born 1612).

13 January 1698, Thursday (-90,119) Pietro Metastasio, Italian poet, was born (died 12 April 1782).

4 January 1698, Tuesday (-90,328) The Palace of Whitehall, London, was destroyed by fire.

1 January 1698, Saturday (-90,331) The Abenaki tribe and the Massachusetts colonists signed a treaty ending the conflict in New England.


14 December1697, Tuesday (-90,349) Charles XII was crowned King of Sweden, aged 15.

5 December1697, Sunday (-90,358) The first Sunday service was held in Sir Christopher Wren�s new St Paul�s Cathedral (consecrated 2 December1697), London; the foundation stone had been laid on 22 June 1675.

25 November 1697, Thursday (-90,368) Gerhard Tersteegen, German religious writer, was born in Mors (died 3 April 1769 in Westphalia)

10 November 1697, Wednesday (-90,383) Painter William Hogarth was born at Smithfield, London, the son of a teacher.

27 October 1697, Wednesday (-90,397) Lightning struck Athlone Castle, Ireland, igniting 260 barrels of gunpowder along with other munitions. The resultant fire destroyed the town of Athlone, although only 8 people were killed.

19 October 1697, Tuesday (-90,405) Claude Goujet, French religious writer, was born (died 1 February 1767).

18 October 1697, Monday (-90,406) Birth of the painter Canaletto. He was born in Venice, as Giovanni Antonio Canal, and was trained by his father who was a scene painter. As a youth Canaletto went to Rome to study under the classical painter Pannini. He returned to Venice to become the most famous painter of Venetian views of the 18th century. His patron was Joseph Smith who served as English consul in Venice; as a result Canaletto�s work became popular with English travellers and he came to England in 1746, staying there for most of the next 10 years. He painted his four views of Warwick Castle, the two largest of which are (2001) in the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery.

16 October 1697, Saturday (-30,408) Nicholas Amhurst, English poet, was born in Marden, Kent (died 27 April 1742 in Twickenham).


27 September 1697, Monday (-90,427) (Geology) Franz Bruckmann, German geologist, was born (died 21 March 1753).

20 September 1697, Monday (-90,434) (Benelux, Britain) The Treaty of Ryswick ended the Nine Years War. This Treaty led to the Barrier Treaties (1709-15) between Britain and the Netherlands, with the idea that Britain would assist The Netherlands to maintain a line of fortresses against any future French attacks. These fortresses included Ypres, Lille, Tournai, Valenciennes and Namur. In return the Dutch promised to send 6,000 troops to help Britain resist a Jacobite uprising, which they did supply in 1715. France recognised William III as King of England.

11 September 1697, Saturday (-90,443) At the Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy, leading an Austrian army, defeated the Ottomans under Mustafa II, see 26 January 1699.

6 August 1697, Friday (-90,481) Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, was born (died 20 January 1745).

11 July 1697, Sunday (-90,505) (Cartographer) Jean Anville, French cartographer, was born in Paris (died 1781).

7 July 1697, Wednesday (-90,509) John Eachard, English religious writer, died.


30 June 1697, Wednesday (-90,516) Sir Thomas Blount, English author, died in Tittenhanger (born in Upper Holloway 12 September 1649)

6 June 1697, Sunday (-90,540) Jean Saint Palaye, French scholarly writer, was born in Auxerre (died 1 March 1781)

2 June 1697, Wednesday (-90,544) Frederick Augiustus I, Elector of Saxony, was elected King of Poland as Augustus II.

7 May 1697, Friday (-90,570) The Royal Castle, Tree Kronor (Three Crowns) in Sweden burnt down, destroying a large part of the Royal Library.

23 April 1697, Friday (-90,584) (Britain) George Anson, British Admiral, was born in Shugborough, Staffordshire (died 6 June 1762).

9 April 1697, Friday (-90,598) William Craven, Lord Mayor of London, died (born 6/1608).

8 April 1697, Thursday (-90,599) Neils Juel, Danish Admiral, died (born 8 May 1629).

6 April 1697, Tuesday (-90,601)

5 April 1697, Monday (-90,602) Death of King Charles XI of Sweden, aged 40, after a 37-year reign. He was succeeded by his 14-year-old son, Charles XII, who ruled until 1718, see 14 December1697.

4 April 1697, Sunday (-90,603) Easter Sunday.

1 April 1697, Thursday (-90,606) Antoine Francois Prevost, French novelist, was born in Hesdin, Artois (died 23 December 1763)


6 March 1697, Saturday (-90,632) Stringer Lawrence, British soldier, was born (died 10 January 1775).

14 February 1697, Sunday (-90,652) (Medical) Bernhard Albinus, German anatomist, was born in Frankfurt on Oder (died 9 September 1770 in Leiden).

28 January 1697, Thursday (-90,669) (Britain) Sir John Fenwick, Jacobite conspirator against King William, was executed.

1 January 1697, Friday (-90,696) (India) Joseph Dupleix, French colonial governor of India, was born (died 10 November 1763).


21 December 1696, Monday (-90,707) (USA) James Edward Oglethorpe, English General who founded the US State of Georgia as a refuge for oppressed Protestants from Europe, was born in London (died 1 July 1785 in Essex).

12 December1696, Saturday (-90,716) John Hampden, English historical writer, died.

28 October 1696, Wednesday (-90,761) Maurice Saxe, Marshal of France, was born in Goslar (died 30 November 1750 in Chambord)

17 October 1696, Saturday (-90,772) (Poland) Augustus III, King of Poland, was born in Dresden (died in Saxony 5 October 1763).

13 October 1696, Tuesday (-90,776) John Hervey, English writer, was born (died 5 August 1743)


27 September 1696, Sunday (-90,792) (Christian) Alfonso Liguori, Roman Catholic saint, was born.

13 September 1696, Sunday (-90,806) Louis Richelieu, Marshal of France, was born in Paris (died 8 August 1788 in Paris)

22 August 1696, Saturday (-90,828) Forces of Venice and Turkey fought near Molino.

28 July 1696, Tuesday (-90,853) (Russia, Turkey) Russian forces under Peter the Great captured the fortress commanding the Sea of Azov from its Ottoman defenders. Russian troops also conquered Kamchatka.

18 July 1696, Saturday (-90,863) The Fleet of Tsar Peter I of Russia occupied Azov, at the mouth of the River Don.

14 July 1696, Tuesday (-90,867) William Oldys, British writer, was born (died 15 April 1761).

6 July 1696, Monday (-90,875) Frontenac, French colonial Governor of Canada, left Lachine for a campaign against the Iroquois people. However the Iroquois abandoned their villages and pursuit of them proved impracticable so on 10 August 1696 Frontenac left the area.


30 June 1696. Tuesday (-90,881) Greenwich Hospital founded.

27 June 1696, Saturday (-90,884) Sir William Pepperrrell, American soldier, was born (died 6 July 1759)

23 June 1696, Tuesday (-90,888) The first evening newspaper, Dawks�s News-Letter, began publishing in London.

17 June 1696, Wednesday (-90,894) John III Sobieski, King of Poland, died aged 72, after a 20-year reign. In 1697 Poland chose the Elector of Saxony, Frederick Augustus, aged 27, to succeed him. He was crowned in September 1697 and ruled as Augustus II until his death in 1733.

11 June 1696, Friday (-90,899) Francis Keith, Prussian Field Marshal, was born (died 14 October 1758).

10 May 1696, Sunday (-90,932) Jean de laBruyere, French essayist, died (born 16 August 1645).

30 April 1696, Thursday (-90,942) Robert Plot, naturalist writer, died.

27 April 1696, Monday (-90,945) Simon Foucher, French philosophical writer, died (born 1 March 1644).

17 April 1696, Friday (-90,955) Marie de Rabutin Chantal, Marquise de Sevigne, writer, died in France.

16 April 1696, Thursday (-90,956) Giovanni Batista Tiepolo, Venetian painter, was born.

12 April 1696, Sunday (-90,960) Easter Sunday

10 April 1696, Friday (-90,962) England�s Navigation Act forbade the Colonies in America from exporting directly to Ireland or Scotland.


18 March 1696, Wednesday (-90,985) (Britain) Robert Charnock, conspirator to kill King William III of England near Turnham Green London, and restore a Stuart monarchy, was hanged.

14 March 1696, Saturday (-90,989) Jean Domat, French legal writer, died (born 30 November 1625).

29 January 1696, Wednesday (-91,034) Ivan V, Tsar of Russia, died.Peter the Great became Tsar. He decreed that all Russians should be clean � shaven, or pay a beard tax.


31 December1695. Tuesday (-91,063) A window tax was imposed in Britain, resulting in many being blocked up.

8 December1695, Sunday (-91,086) Barthelemy Herbelot, French orientalist writer, died (born 14 December1625)

29 November 1695, Friday (-91,095) James Dalyrymple Stair, Scottish statesman, died in Edinburgh (born 1619 in Ayrshire)

28 November 1695, Thursday (-91,096) Giovanni Colonna, Italian musician, died.

26 November 1695, Tuesday (-91,098)

21 November 1695, Thursday (-91,103) Henry Purcell, English composer, died in London from tuberculosis.

20 November 1695, Wednesday (-91,104) (Brazil, Slavery) Zumbi dos Palmares, Brazilian of Congolese origin died. He was a leader of African resistance against Brazilian slavery.

16 November 1695, Saturday (-91,108) Pierre Nicole, French religious writer, died in Paris (born 1625).

5 October 1695, Saturday (-91,150) John Glas, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 1773).


21 September 1695, Saturday (-91,164)

3 September 1695, Tuesday (-91,182) Pietro Locatelli, composer, was born.

1 September 1695, Sunday (-91,184) (France) King William III took Namur (Spanish Netherlands) from French forces.

6 August 1695, Tuesday (-91,210) (France) Francois de Harlay, 5th Archbishop of Paris, died (born 14 August 1625).

19 July 1695, Friday (-91,228) The first dating advertisement appeared, in Britain. A gentleman of about 30 years of age of some wealth sought a woman with an estate of around �3,000 to match with.

8 July 1695, Monday (-91,239) (Innovation) Christiaan Huygens, the Dutch scientist who invented the pendulum clock, died (born 1629)


11 June 1695, Tuesday (-91,266) Andre Felibien, French writer, died (born 5/1619).

9 May 1695, Thursday (-91,299) The Scottish Parliament met to discuss the Glencoe Massacre.

25 April 1695, Thursday (-91,313) Henry Vaughan, religious poet, died in Llansantffraed, Brecon, Wales.

13 April 1695, Saturday (-91,325) Jean de la Fontaine, French poet, died in Paris.

8 April 1695, Monday (-91,330) Johann Gunther, German poet, was born (died 15 March 1723).

5 April 1695, Friday (-91,333) George Savile, English writer and politician, died in London.

3 April 1695, Wednesday (-91,335) Melchior d�Hondecoeterk Dutch painter, died.


24 March 1695, Sunday (-91,345) Easter Sunday.

12 March 1695, Tuesday (-91,357) Cristoval Rojas de Spinola, Spanish ecclesiastic, died.

18 February 1695, Monday (-91,379) Sir William Phips, colonial Governor of Massachusetts, died in London (born 2 Febriuary 1651 in Woolwich, Maine)

6 February 1695, Wednesday (-91,391) Ottoman Sultan Ahmed II died (born 1642, acceded 1691, succeeding his brother Suleiman II). He was defeated by the Austrians at Slankamen (20 August 1691), which denied possession of Hungary to the Ottomans, This battle established the Danube as the boundary between Austria and Ottoman Turkey.

2 February 1695, Saturday (-91,395) William Borlase, geologist, was born in Penden, Cornwall (died 31 August 1771).

27 January 1695, Sunday (-91,401) Nicolas Bernoulli, mathematician, was born (died 26 July `1726).

4 January 1695, Friday (-91,424) (France) France�s Marshal Luxembourg died aged 66. He was succeededby Duc de Villeroi Francois de Neufville, aged 51, who proved to be a far less capable military commander in the War of the League of Augsburg than his predecessor. In September 1695 England recaptured Namur from the French.


28 December1694. Friday (-91,431) (Britain) Queen Mary II died from smallpox (born 1662), leaving William III to reign alone.

26 December1694, Wednesday (-91,433) Charles, 2nd Earl of Dunfermline, died.

22 December 1694, Saturday (-91,437) Hermann Reimarius, German writer, was born in Hamburg (died 1 March 1768)

2 December 1694, Sunday (-91,457) Pierre Puget, French artist, died in Marseilles (born 31 October 1622 in Marseilles)

30 November 1694, Friday (-91,459) (Medical) Marcello Malpighi died in Rome.

21 November 1694, Wednesday (-91,468) (Education-Philosophers) Voltaire, French philosopher and writer, was born in Paris as Jean Francois-Marie Arouet (died 1778).

26 October 1694, Friday (-91,494) Samuel Pufendorf, German writer on jurisprudence, died.

4 October 1694, Thursday (-91,516) Lord George Murray, Scottish Jacobite, was born (died 11 October 1760).


22 September 1694, Saturday (-91,528) Philip Stanhope, British Earl and politician, was born (died 24 March 1773).

8 August 1694, Wednesday (-91,573) Frances Hutcheson, English philosophical writer, was born (died 1746).

5 August 1694, Sunday (-91,576) Leonardo Leo, Italian composer, was born (died 31 October 1744).

27 July 1694, Friday (-91,585) The Bank of England was founded, by Montagu, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, with government backing. Its remit was to carry out all the monetary business of the government and to obtain interest on the government�s money.


24 June 1694, Sunday (-91,618) Jean Burlamaqui, Swiss writer was born (died 3 April 1748).

4 June 1694, Monday (-91,638) Francois Quesnay, French economics writer, was born in Merey, near Paris (died 16 December 1774

11 May 1694, Friday (-91,662)

27 April 1694, Friday (-91,676) John George IV, Elector of Saxony, died (born 18 October 1668).

11 April 1694, Wednesday (-91,692) The Dukedom of Bedford was created.

8 April 1695, Sunday (-91,695) Easter Sunday.


27 March 1694, Tuesday (-91,707)

19 February 1694, Monday (-91,743) Earthquake in Ugo,Japan,390 killed.

17 February 1694, Saturday (-91,745) Antoinette Deshoulieres, French poet, died (born 1 January 1638).

6 February 1694, Tuesday (-91,756) Portuguese forces in Brazil captured Macaco, the last stronghold of the Palmares, after a siege of 42 days. The Palmares were Africans, Mocambos, who had fled from the Brazilian plantations and established their own de-facto independent state in eastern Brazil in the early 1600s. The name Palmares derives from the palm trees of the area which provided food and shelter.

27 January 1694, Saturday (-91,766)

7 January 1694, Sunday (-91,786) Charles Gerard, 1st Earl of Macclesfield, died.


27 December1693, Wednesday (-91,797)

24 November 1693, Sunday (-91,830) William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbiury, died (born in Fressingfield, Suffolk 30 January 1616)

1 November 1693, Wednesday (-91,853) The Bank of Scotland was founded.

11 October 1693, Wednesday (-91,874) Charleroi surrendered to the French.


11 August 1693, Thursday (-91,935)


27 June 1693, Tuesday (-91,980) The Ladies Mercury, the first magazine for women, was published.

1 June 1693, Thursday (-92,006) Alexius Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Grand Chancellor of Russia, born in Moscow (died 21 April 1768).

22 May 1693, Monday (-92,016) Heidelberg was captured by the French; Heidelberg Castle surrendered on 23 May 1693.

3 May 1693, Wednesday (-92,035) Claude Saint Simon, French courtier, died in Paris (born August 1607)

2 May 1695, Tuesday (-92,036) Jean Nicolas Servan, French artist, was born in Lyons (died 19 January 1766 in Paris)

16 April 1693, Sunday (-92,052) Easter Sunday.

9 April 1693, Sunday (-92,059) Roger Bussy, French writer, died (born 13 April 1618).

3 April 1693, Monday (-92,065) George Edwards, British naturalist, was born (died 23 July 1773).


7 March 1693, Tuesday (-92,092) Pope Clement XIII was born.

24 February 1693, Friday (-92,103) James Quin, English actor, was born in London (died 21 January 1766)

7 February 1693, Tuesday (-92,120) Paul Pelisson, French author, died (born in Beziers 30 October 1624)

4 February 1693, Saturday (-92,123) George Lillo, English dramatist, was born(died 3 September 1739).

23 January 1693, Monday (-92,135) Georg Bilfinger, German statesman, was born in Wurttemberg (died in Stuttgart 18 February 1750).

11 January 1693, Wednesday (-92,147) Mount Etna erupted; a large earthquake affected Sicily and Malta.

8 January 1693, Sunday (-92,150) Marguerite de la Sabliere, patron of La Fontaine, died in Paris.


9 December1692, Friday (-92,180) William Mountford, English writer, died.

21 November 1692, Monday (-92,198) Carlo Frugoni, Italian poet, was born (died 20 December1768)

19 November 1692, Saturday (-92,200) Thomas Shadwell, English writer, died in Chelsea, London.

15 November 1692, Tuesday (-92,204) (Christian) Eusebius Amort, German Catholic Theologian, was born in Bibermuhle, Upper Bavaria (died 5 February 1775 in Pulling, Bavaria).

6 November 1692, Sunday (-92,213) Louis Racine, Frenchy poet, was born in Paris (died 29 January 1763)

31 October 1692, Monday (-92,219) Anne Claude Caylus, writer, was born (died 1765).

25 October 1692, Tuesday (-92,225) (Spain) Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, was born (died 1766).

4 October 1692, Tuesday (-92,246) Charles Fleetwood, English politician, died.


11 September 1962, Sunday (-92,269)

10 August 1962, Wednesday (-92,301)

3 August 1692, Wednesday (-92,308) John Henley, English writer and cleric, was born (died 13 October 1759).

30 July 1692, Saturday (-92,312) Sir Robert Sawyer, English lawyer, died.

24 July 1692, Sunday (-92,318) (France) At the Battle of Steinkirk (Steenkirken), the French under the Duc de Luxembourg defeated England�s King William III.

23 July 1692, Saturday (-92,319) Gilles Menage, French scholarly writer, died (born 15 August 1613).


10 June 1692, Friday (-92,362) The first of the Salem Witches was hanged.She was Bridget Bishop, one of 150 respectable citizens accused of witchcraft by a hysterical band of young girls in the isolated Puritan town in Massachusetts.

7 June 1692, Tuesday (-92,365) (Earthquake, Jamaica) Earthquake in Jamaica. 3,000 killed, as Port Royal subsided into the sea.

25 May 1692, Wednesday (-92,378) Marie Lafayette, French novelist, died (born 18 March 1634).

19 May 1692, Thursday (-92,384) At the Battle of La Hogue, the British and Dutch destroyed a French fleet off Cap de la

Hague. The French fleet under Colbert was severely reduced, ending French hopes of invading England.

18 May 1692, Wednesday (-92,385) Elias Ashmole, founder of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, died (born 23 May 1617).

22 April 1692, Friday (-92,411) James Stirling, mathematician, was born.

12 April 1692, Tuesday (-92,421) Guiseppe Tartini, Italian composer and violinist, was born in Tirano (died 16 february 1770 in Padua)

5 April 1692, Tuesday (-92,428) Adrienne Lecouvreur, Frenchy actress, was born (died 20 March 1730).


27 March 1692, Sunday (-92,437) Easter Sunday.

26 March 1692, Saturday (-92,438) Jean Restout, French painter, was born (died 1 January 1768)

14 March 1692, Monday (-92,450) Pieter Musschenbroek, Dutch scientific writer, was born (died 9 September 1761).

1 March 1692, Tuesday (-92,463) In the US, the Salem witch hunt began.

29 February 1692, Monday (-92,464) John Byrom, English poet, was born (died 26 September 12763).

25 February 1692, Thursday (-92,468) Karl Ludwig Pollnitz, German adventurer, was born in Issum (died 23 June 1775 in Berlin)

13 February 1692, Saturday (-92,480) Massacre at Glencoe. 40 members of the MacDonald clan were massacred by the Campbells. This massacre was on the orders of William III, because of their Jacobite sympathies of the MacDonalds and their delay in swearing an oath of allegiance. On 27 August 1691 a proclamation was issued offering indemnity to all who took the oath of allegiance before 1 January 1692. All Scottish chiefs took the oath except MacIan, chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe, who postponed the submission until 31 December1691. He then could not take the oath until 6 January 1692 because there was no magistrate at Fort William. This irregularity gave Breadalbane (John Campbell, First Earl of Breadalbane) the excuse to destroy the clan that had for generations plundered the lands of himself and his neighbours. The Macdonalds were in fact giving hospitality to their murderers when they rose up and killed them.Breadalbane managed to prevent most of the evidence against him from being presented; he was imprisoned for a short time in Edinburgh Castle on the grounds of earlier negotiations with the Highland chiefs, but was released when it was known he was acting with the knowledge of King William.


30 December1691, Wednesday (-92,525) Robert Boyle, scientist, died.He formulated Boyle�s Laws on gases.

29 October 1691, Thursday (-92,587) William Hulme, English philanthropist, died.

16 October 1691, Friday (-92,600) Isaac de Benserade, French poet, died.

9 October 1691, Friday (-92,607) William Sacheverell, English statesman, born 1638, died.

3 October 1691, Saturday (-92,613) The surrender of Limerick. Irish soldiers were allowed to depart for France; 11,000 did so.

29 September 1691, Tuesday (-92,617) Richard Challoner, English religious writer, was born (died 12 January 1781).

12 September 1691, Saturday (-92,634) John George III, Elector of Saxony, died (born 20 June 1647).


19 August 1691, Wednesday (-92,658) (Turkey) Louis of Baden won a major victory overt the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Szelankemen. Louis had continued the war against the Ottomans after his ally Austria had been diverted inti fighting France as part of the League of Augsburg. Grand Vizier Zade Mustafa Kuprili, aged 54, died in the battle, which led to the expulsion of the Ottomans from Hungary.

30 July 1691, Thursday (-92,678) Daniel Morhof, German writer, died (born 6 February 1639)

16 July 1691, Thursday (-92,692) Francois Louvois, War Minister to Louis XIV of France, died.

12 July 1691, Sunday (-92,696) (1) King William III won a decisive victory over the Jacobites at Aughrim, Ireland. The Jacobite army under Charles Chalmont, Marquis de St Ruth, had initial success in the battle until Chalmont was killed, his forces lost morale and fled. 7,000 Jacobite soldiers were killed. By the end of 1691 all Jacobite resistance to William in Ireland had ceased.

(2) Pope Innocent XII (242nd Pope) acceded, formerly Cardinal Antonio Pignatelli, died 1700.


26 May 1691, Tuesday (-92,743) James Lesler was executed for treason in New York.He had led an uprising against the English in favour of James II.

8 May 1691, Friday (-92,761) Sir George MacKenzie, Scotish legal writer, died.

12 April 1691, Sunday (-92,787) Easter Sunday

9 April 1691, Thursday (-92,790) Johann Gesner, German scholarly writer, was born (died 3 August 1761).

3 April 1691, Friday (-92,796) Jean Petitot, enamel painter, died (born 1608)


27 February 1691, Friday (-92,831) Edward Cave, English printer, was born (died 10 January 1754).

13 January 1691, Tuesday (-92,876) George Fox, English religious leader who founded the Society of Friends (often known as the Quakers) died in London.


31 December1690, Wednesday (-92,889)

1 December1690, Monday (-92,919) Philip Hardiwicke, English Lord Chancellor, was born (died 6 March 1764).

25 November 1690, Tuesday (-92,925)

17 November 1690, Monday (-92,933) Charles Montausier, Frenchy soldier, died (born 6 October 1610).

25 October 1690, Saturday (-92,956) Martin Folkes, English writer, was born (died 1754).

17 October 1690, Friday (-92,964) (France) Marguerite Alacoque, French nun who was beatified by Pope Pius IX in1846, died (born 22 July 1647 near Autun).

8 October 1690, Wednesday (-92,973) Belgrade was retaken by the Ottoman Turks.

3 October 1690, Friday (-92,978) Robert Barclay, Scottish Quaker writer, died (born 1648).


24 August 1690, Sunday (-93,018) The port of Calcutta was founded by Job Charnock of the English East India Company.

9 August 1690, Saturday (-93,033) The siege of Limerick began.

11 July 1690, Friday (-93,062) William of Orange defeated the Jacobites under the deposed Catholic King James II at the Battle of the Boyne. The River Boyne was the only defensive barrier between Belfast and Dublin, and James II�s forces were well dug in on rising ground there. James II�s forces lost 1,600 men; William�s, only a third of that number. William won, and James fled to Waterford and then on to France.

7 September 1690,Monday (-93,066) Karl Bogatzky, German hymn writer, was born in Lower Silesia (died 15 June 1774).


30 June 1690, Monday (-93,073) The Battle of Beachy Head. An allied force of 37 British ships and 22 Dutch ships was at anchor off Beachy head whilst a French fleet of 70 ships waited off to the south-west, waiting to co-operate with an anticipated Catholic Jacobite uprising in England. The English commander, Torrington, aged 43, wished to retire to the mouth of the Thames till he could be reinforced, but the Council of Regency ordered him to remain where he was, and fight if he could secure an advantageous position. Torrington took this as an order to fight the French and bore down on them; however with inferior numbers, there were gaps between the British ships. The Anglo-Dutch fleets began to suffer heavy losses from French fire. But the tide turned from flood to ebb during the engagement, and whilst the Anglo-Dutch ships dropped anchor, the French did not, and were carried away westwards on the current. Some of the most damaged British ships were abandoned in Pevensey Bay. Torrington was tried for his conduct but acquitted.

1 June 1690, Sunday (-93,102) At Fleurus, Belgium, a French Army fought an allied Spanish and Dutch army.The French won.

21 May 1690, Wednesday (-93,113) (Christian) John Eliot, the �Apostle to the Indians�, died (born 1604). He preached to the Amerindian nations, and translated the Bible into the Algonquian language.

25 April 1690, Friday (-93,139) David Teniers the Younger, painter, died aged 79.

22 April 1690, Tuesday (-93,142) John Granville, Emglish statesman, was born (died 22 January 1763).

20 April 1690, Sunday (-93,144) Easter Sunday.

18 April 1690, Friday (-93,146) Charles Duke of Lorraine died (born 3 April 1643).

1 April 1690, Tuesday (-93,163)

16 March 1690, Sunday (-93,179) Louis XIV, King of France, sent troops to Ireland to support former King James II


22 February 1690, Saturday (-93,,201) Charles le Brun, French painter, died (born 24 February 1619).

19 February 1690, Wednesday (-93,204) (Russia) Alexius Petrovich, Tsarevich, was born (died 1718).

1 February 1690, Saturday (-93,222)

3 January 1690, Friday (-93,257) Richard Rwalinson, English divine, was born in London (died 6 April 1755 in London)


31 December1689, Tuesday (-93,254)

29 December 1689, Sunday (-93,256) Thomas Sydenham, physician, died in London (born 10 September 1624 in Dorset)

1 December1689, Sunday (-93,284)

16 November 1689, Saturday (-93,299) Marquard Gude, German scholarly writer, died (born 1 February 1635).

22 October 1689, Tuesday (-93,324) John V, King of Portugal, was born.


7 September 1689, Saturday (-93,369) China signed the Treaty of Nerchinsk with Russia. This was the first treaty signed by China with another country as opposed to a vassal state. The Treaty settled border disputes in the Amur region.

21 August 1689, Wednesday (-93,386) In Scotland, Covenanter Forces of the National Covenant (Proetstant) defeated Jacobite supporters of the former King James II at Dunkeld.

12 August 1689, Monday (-93,395) Pope Innocent XI died.

5 August 1689, Monday (-93,402) Massacre of Lachine, Canada.

1 August 1689, Thursday (-93,406) The Irish-French army of James II failed to take the besieged city of Londonderry, whose inhabitants reaffirmed their loyalty to William and Mary.

27 July 1689. Saturday (-93,411) The Scottish Jacobites, supporters of the deposed James II, won the Battle of Killiecrankie, near Pitlochry, against the English under William III. However the Jacobite leader John Graham, Earl of Dundee, was killed.

9 July 1689, Tuesday (-93,429) Alexis Piron, French writer, was born in Dijon (died 21 August 1773)


26 June 1689, Wednesday (-93,442) Edward Holyoke, President of Harvard University, was born.

26 May 1689, Sunday (-93,473) Mary Wortley Montagu, writer, was born.

24 May 1689. Friday (-93,475) The English Parliament passed the Act of Toleration exempting dissenting Protestants from certain legal penalties so long as they have sworn oaths of allegiance to the Crown. Catholics are specifically excluded from this relief.

12 May 1689, Sunday (-93,487) (France) English King William III joined the League of Augsburg (formed 9 July 1686) against France.

3 May 1689, Friday (-93,496) William Broome, English poet, was born (died 16 November 1745).

20 April 1689, Saturday (-93,509) The siege of Londonderry began.

19 April 1689, Friday (-93,510) Queen Christina of Sweden died; she had abdicated in 1654.

18 April 1689, Thursday (-93,511) Judge Jeffreys died in The Tower of London, aged 44, before he could be tried. A Protestant, he had been hired by King James II to set up a court to deal with the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685. He was the Lord Chancellor who was notorious for the harshness of his sentences at the �Bloody Assizes�. 300 of Monmouth�s peasant followers were sentenced to hang and a further 800 sent to forced labour in Barbados . After the trials, Jeffreys was made Lord Chancellor by James II, a position he held until the Glorious Revolution of 1688. See 19 August 1685.

16 April 1689, Tuesday (-93,513) Death of Aphra Benn, British novelist and early feminist.

11 April 1689, Thursday (-93,518) The coronation of King William III and Queen Mary as joint sovereigns (see 13 February 1689). The Bishop of London performed the service, as the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to participate.

3 April 1689. Wednesday (-93,526) After landing in Ireland with money and troops supplied by Louis XIV, James II was acknowledged as King of England by an Irish parliament in Dublin. England declared war on France on 17 May 1689.


31 March 1689, Sunday (-93,529) Easter Sunday.

13 February 1689. Wednesday (-93,575) William and Mary ascended the English throne. Mary was the daughter of James II; William was born in The Hague. This ended the �Glorious Revolution� (see 6 June 1685 and 6 July 1685); James II fled to France on 22 December1688. They were crowned by the Bishop of London, because the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to do this (see 11 April 1689). James II�s support for the Catholic cause had made him unpopular.

27 January 1689, Sunday (-93,592) Peter the Great of Russia married Eudoxia Lopukhina.

23 January 1689, Wednesday (-93,596) Joseph Ames, English author, was born in Yarmouth (died 7 October 1759 in Wapping).

22 January 1689, Tuesday (-93,597) The Convention Parliament agreed that Charles II had abdicated by fleeing to France (on 22 December1688) and that the throne was vacant, for William and Mary to accede.

18 January 1689, Friday (-93,601) Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, French political economics wrter, was born.

4 January 1689, Friday (-93,615) Juan de Matos Fragosa, Spanish dramatist, died.


12 December1688, Wednesday (-93,638) Judge Jeffreys took refuge from a mob in the Tower of London.

26 November 1688. Monday (-93,654) Louis XIV declared war on The Netherlands.

11 November 1688, Sunday (-93,669) Louis Castel, mathematician, was born (died 1757).

5 November 1688, Monday (-93,675) (Britain) William of Orange landed at Torbay, having been invited by Whig and Tory leaders to save Britain from Catholicism on 30 June 1688; William accepted this invitation on 5 November 1688. See 30 June 1688. William had some 40,000 troops in 463 ships but they were not necessary. James prepared to fight him, but was unsettled by defections in his army. The English population welcomed William. They almost missed Torbay, due to poor navigation, and the next port was Plymouth, strongly guarded by James II�s garrison. However the wind turned and William�s fleet was able to make landfall at Torbay as planned. James later fled to France.

23 October 1688, Tuesday (-93,688) Charles du Cange, historical writer, died (bprn 18 December1610).

19 October 1688, Friday (-93,692) (Medical) William Cheselden, English surgeon, was born (died 10 April 1752).


25 September 1688, Tuesday (-93,716) Louis XIV of France invaded the Palatinate, causing German Princes to unite against him.

24 September 1688, Monday (-93,717) Louis XIV, King of France, declared war on the Holy Roman Empire. This was the start of the Nine Years war, or the War of the League of Augsburg.

6 September 1688, Thursday (-93,735) Austrian forces captured Belgrade, Serbia, from the Turks. The Austrians went on to occupy Bosnia, Serbia and Wallachia.

31 August 1688, Friday (-93,741) John Bunyan religious writer, author of The Pilgrim�s Progress, died at the house of a friend in Holborn, London. See 12 November 1660.

15 August 1688, Wednesday (-93,757) Frederick William I, King of Prussia, was born.

21 July 1688, Saturday (-93,782) James Butler Ormonde, Irish statesman and soldier, died (born 19 October 1610).

11 July 1688, Wednesday (-93,792) Narai, King of Siam, died.


30 June 1688, Saturday (-93,803) William of Orange was invited to England.

26 June 1688, Tuesday (-93,807) Ralph Cudworth, scholarly writer, died (born 1617).

10 June 1688, Sunday (-93,823) A son (James Stuart, the �Old Pretender�) was born to James II, opening up the possibility of a line of Catholic Kings to rule England.He was James II�s only son; his mother was Mary of Modena.

21 May 1688, Wednesday (-93,841) Alexander Pope, English writer, was born.

9 May 1688, Wednesday (-93,855) Frederick William, Great Elector of Brandenburg, died. He was succeeded by Frederick III.

15 April 1688, Sunday (-93,879) Easter Sunday.

4 April 1688, Wednesday (-93,890) Joseph Delisle, French astronomer, was born (died 12 September 1768).


17 February 1688, Friday (-93,937) Cadwallader Colden, US medical writer, was born (died 28 September 1776).

15 February 1688, Wednesday (-93,939) Nicolas Freret, French scholarly writer, was born (died 8 March 1749).

4 February 1688, Saturday (-93,950) Pierre Marivaux, French novelist, was born (died 12 February 1763).

2 February 1688. Thursday (-93,952) Abraham Duquesne, French naval officer, died.

29 January 1688, Sunday (-93,956) Emmanuel Swedenborg, Swedish mystic, was born.

18 January 1688, Tuesday (-93,967) Lionel Cranfield Sackville, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was born (died 10 October 1765).

11 January 1688, Tuesday (-93,974) James Gardiner, Scottish soldier, was born (fell at Prestonpans 21 September 1745).


31 December1687, Saturday (-93,985) The first boatload of Huguenots sailed from Holland to settle in South Africa. They took vines to start a wine industry in the new colony.

16 December1687, Friday (-94,000) Death of Sir William Petty, political economist and writer.

9 December1687, Friday (-94,007) In consequence of the Diet of Pressburg (11 October 1687) Archfuke Joseph, son of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, was crowned King of Hungary.

13 November 1687. Sunday (-94,033) Nell Gywnne, actress, died, aged in London aged 37. The mistress of Charles II, who had borne him two sons, was perhaps the best known orange seller of all time.

7 November 1687, Monday (-94,039) William Stukeley, English historical writer, was born in Holbeach, Lincolnshire (died 3 March 1765 in London)

2 November 1687, Wednesday (-94,044) Ottoman Sultan Mohammed IV, aged 46, was deposed after a reign of nominally 43 years. This nwas a consequence of the Turkish defeat by Austria in Hungary. He was succeded by his 45-year-old brother who reigned until 1691 as Suleiman III. He introduced liberalising reforms.

21 October 1687, Friday (-94,056) Death of Edmund Waller, English poet.

14 October 1687, Friday (-94,063) Robert Simson, Scottish mathematician, was born (died 1 October 1768)

11 October 1687, Tuesday (-94,066) The Hungarian Diet of Pressburg renounced its right of resistance and recognised the Hungarian Crown as a hereditary right of the Habsburgs, see 9 December1687.

10 October 1687, Monday (-94,067) Nicolas Bernoulli, scientist, was born (died 29 November 1759).


26 September 1687. Monday (-94,081) The Parthenon and the Propylea were destroyed when the Venetians bombarded Athens. The Venetian army was besieging the Turks when a mortar bomb fired by the Venetians set off Turkish gunpowder stored in the Acropolis.

12 September 1687, Monday (-94,095) (USA) John Adlen, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, died in Duxbury.

1 September 1687, Thursday (-94,106) Henry More, English philosophical writer, died.

12 August 1687, Friday (-94,126) (Turkey) At the Second Battle of Mohacs, Charles of Lorraine defeated the Ottoman Turks.

26 July 1687, Tuesday (-94,143)


24 June 1687, Friday (-94,175) (Germany) Johann Bengel, German scholar, was born in Winenden (died 1742).

26 May 1687, Thursday (-94,204)

16 April 1687, Saturday (-94,244) George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham died (born 30 January 1628).

14 April 1687. Thursday (-94,246) Having failed to persuade Parliament to repeal the 1673 Test Act (forbidding aCatholic from being the monarch of England), James II issued a Declaration of Indulgence. This granted toleration to Catholics and to non-conformists.


28 March 1687, Monday (-94,263) Sir Constantijn Huygens, Dutch poet, was born (died 28 March 1687).

27 March 1687, Sunday (-94,264) Easter Sunday.

19 March 1687, Tuesday (-94,269) (Arts) Jean Baptiste, director of the Parisn Opera, died of sepsis after stabbing himself in the foot with his long baton whilst conductinga Te Deum of thanksgiving for King Louis XIV�s recoverty from illness.

7 March 1687, Thursday (-94,281) Jean Lebeuf, French historical writer, was born (died 10 April 1760).

14 February 1687, Monday (-94,305)

28 January 1687, Friday (-94,322) In Japan the killing of animals was forbidden. Shogun Sunayoshi, after the death of his only son, had become a devout Buddhist. On 27 February 1787 he forbade the eating of fish, shellfish or birds.


14 December1686, Tuesday (-94,367)

11 December1686, Saturday (-94,370) Death of Louis II de Bourbon, Prince of Conde, leader of the Fronde Rebellion (born 8 September 1621)

18 November 1686, Thursday (-94,393) King Louis XIV of France underwent a successful operation for haemorrhoids. The surgeon, Charles Francois, had specially-designed tools for the operation, and had practised on dozens of peasants and prisoners, some of whom died.

5 November 1686, Friday (-94,406) John Playford, British music publisher, died in London (born 1623 in Norfolk)

15 October 1686, Friday (-94,427) Allan Ramsay, Scottish poet, was born in Leadhills, Lanarkshire (died 7 January 1758)


19 August 1686, Thursday (-94,484) Eustace Budgell, writer, was born (died 4 May 1737).

16 July 1686, Friday (-94,518) John Pearson, English religious writer, died in Chester (born 28 February 1612 in Norfolk)

10 July 1686, Saturday (-94,524) John Fell, English religious writer, died (born 1625).

9 July 1686, Friday (-94,525) (France) The League of Augsburg was created against French King Louis XIV. It comprised an alliance of Spain (King Carlos II), Sweden (King Charles IX), the Holy Roman Empire (Emperor Leopold I) and the Electors of Bavaria, Saxony and The Palatine. The League was aimed at curbing French expansionism, and King Louis XIV had been clandestinelysupporting the Ottoman Empire against Austria.

6 July 1686, Tuesday (-94,528) The Austrians took Buda from the Ottoman Turks and annexed Hungary.


23 June 1686, Wednesday (-94,541) Sir William Coventry, English statesman, died.

24 May 1686, Monday (-94,571) Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, the German physicist who invented the mercury thermometer, was born in Danzig.

11 May 1686, Tuesday (-94,584) Otto von Guericke, German scientist, died (born 20 November 1602).

26 April 1686, Monday (-94,599) (Britain) Arthur Anglesey, British statesman, died in Blechingdon, Oxfordshire (born 10 July 1614 in Dublin)

19 April 1686, Monday (-94,606) Antonio de Solis, Spanish historical writer, died in Madrid (born 1610)

9 April 1686, Friday (-94,616) James Craggs the younger, English politician, was born (died 16 February 1721).

4 April 1686, Sunday (-94,621) Easter Sunday.


24 March 1686, Wednesday (-94,632)

25 February 1686, Thursday (94,659) Abraham Calovius, German Lutheran theologian (born 16 April 1612) died.

10 February 1686, Wednesday (-94,674) (Britain) Sir William Dugdale, English historian, died (born 12 September 1605). In 1641 he was commissioned by Sir Christopher Hatton (who foresaw the destruction of the Civil War) to make exact drafts of the monuments at all of England�s major cathedrals.

31 January 1686, Sunday (-94,684) (Christian) Hans Egede, Norwegian missionary to Greenland was born, see 3 May 1721.

9 January 1686, Saturday (-94,706) Andrew Carmichael Ramsay, French writer, was born in Ayr, Scotland (died 6 May 1743 in St Germain en Laye).


31 December1685, Thursday (-94,715)

12 December 1685, Saturday (-94,734) John Pell, English mathematician, died in London (born 1 March 1610 in Southwick, Sussex)

10 November 1685, Tuesday (-94,766) Duncan Forbes, Scottish statesman, was born (died 10 December1747).

30 October 1685, Friday (-94,777) Michel le Tellier, French statesman, died (born 19 April 1603).

26 October 1685, Monday (-94,781) Birth of Domenico Scarlatti, composer, son of composer Alessandro Scarlatti.

18 October 1685. Sunday (-94,789) Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes which had been issued by Henry IV of France and had given Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. The laity were also forbidden to emigrate; Louis XIV was concerned about the drain of skilled Huguenot merchants and craftsmen, many of whom had fled to England.

1 October 1685, Thursday (-94,806) Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, was born (died 20 October 1740).


19 August 1685. Wednesday (-94,849) Judge Jeffreys began sentencing people to death at what became known as the Bloody Assizes. This followed the Monmouth Rebellion, see 6 July 1685.

18 August 1685, Tuesday (-94,850) Brook Taylor, English mathematician, was born in Kent (died 29 December 1731 in London)

12 August 1686, Wednesday (-94,856) John Balguy, English writer, was born in Sheffield (died 21 September 1748 in Harrogate).

15 July 1685, Wednesday (-94,884) The Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of King Charles II and Lucy Walter, was executed on Tower Green, London, for leading a Protestant rebellion on the accession of King James II.

6 July 1685. Monday (-94,893) James II�s troops defeated the Duke of Monmouth at Sedgemoor, Somerset, the last battle fought on English soil. Monmouth�s troops had attempted a night attack late on 5 July 1685 but the King�s troops under John Churchill, later Duke of Marlborough, successfully counterattacked at dawn. The rebel Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of King Charles II, was executed on 15 July 1685. See 13 February 1689.


30 June 1685, Tuesday (-94,899) John Gay, poet and playwright, was born.

11 June 1685, Thursday (-94,918) An abortive rebellion against King James II, by the same faction as promoted the Rye House Plot of 1683 (21/7). Monmouth, having been expelled from Holland upon the accession of James II, landed at Lyme Regis, Dorset, and issued a proclamation claiming the throne of England. He gathered a small army of 3-4,000, mainly of middle social class status, and managed to capture Taunton before being defeated by pro-Royal troops at Sedgemoor on 6 July 1683.

6 June 1685. Saturday (-94,923) James II became King of England. See 13 February 1689.

20 May 1685, Wednesday (-94,940) In London, Titus Oates was convicted of perjury regarding his testimony about the Popish Plot, which he allegedly invented himself. He was flogged from Newgate to Adlgate and from Newgate to Tyburn.

19 April 1685, Sunday (-94,971) Easter Sunday.

16 April 1685, Thursday (-94,974) Thomas Otway, English dramatist, died (born near Midhiurst, Sussex, 3 March 1652)


21 March 1685, Saturday (-95,000) Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer, was born in Eisenach, Thuringia.

18 March 1685, Wednesday (-95,003) (Britain) Ralph Erskine, Scottish divine, was born (died 6 November 1752).

12 March 1685, Thursday (-95,009) George Berkeley, scholarly writer, was born (died 14 January 1753).

23 February 1685, Monday (-95,026) George Frederick Handel, German composer, was born in Halle, the son of a barber-surgeon.

10 February 1685, Tuesday (-95,039) Aaron Hill,English author, was born (died 8 February 1750).

8 February 1685, Sunday (-95,041) Charles Henault, French historical writer, was born (died 24 November 1770).

7 February 1685; Saturday (-95,042) Charles II, James II�s brother, died aged 54 after suffering an apoplectic fit on 2 February 1685, see 6 June 1685.

21 January 1685, Wednesday (-95,059) Wentworth Dillon Roscommon, English poet, died.

9 January 1685, Friday (-95,071) Tiberius Hemsterhuis, Dutch scholarly writer, was born (died 7 April 1766).

7 January 1685, Wednesday (-95,073) (Sweden) Jonas Alstromer, Swedish industrialist, was born in Alingsas, Vestergotland. He died 2 June 1761.

2 January 1685, Friday (-95,078) Sir Harbottle Grimston, English politician, died (born 27 January 1603).


10 December1684, Wednesday (-95,101) Isaac Newton�s derivation of Kepler�s Laws of Gravity was read in a paper to The Royal Society by Edmund Halley.

3 December1684, Wednesday (-95,108) Ludvig Holberg, wriyter, was born in Bergen, Norway (died 28 January 1754, Copenhagen).

10 October 1684, Friday (-95,162) Birth of Pierre Corneille, French dramatist.


30 September 1684, Tuesday (-95,172) Pierre Corneille, French poet and dramatist, died (born 6 June 1606)

30 August 1684, Saturday (-95,203) Marguerite Staal, French author, was born in Paris (died 15 June 1750 in Gennevilliers)

15 August 1684, Friday (-95,218) (Spain, France/Germany, Netherlands) The Truce of Ratisbon (or, Truce of Regensburg) ended the War of the Reunions between Spain and the Holy Roman Empire on one side and France on the other. The War of the Reunions (1683�84) was a conflict between France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, with limited involvement by Genoa. It can be seen as a continuation of the 1667�1668 War of Devolution and the 1672�1678 Franco�Dutch War, which were driven by Louis XIV's determination to establish defensible boundaries along France's northern and eastern borders.

10 August 1684, Sunday (-95,223)

24 July 1684, Thursday (-95,240) Rene-Robert Cavelier sailed from France with a large expedition, to establish a French colony on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the Mississippi River.


24 May 1684, Saturday (-95,301)

15 April 1684, Tuesday (-95,340) (Russia) Katherine I of Russia was born (died 1727).


30 March 1684, Sunday (-95,356) Easter Sunday.

19 March 1684, Wednesday (-95,367) Jean Astruc, French writer, was born in Sauve, Languedoc (died 5 May 1766 in Paris).

15 March 1684, Saturday (-95,371) Francesco Durante, Italian composer, was born (died 13 August 1755).

4 February 1684, Monday (-95,411) The River Thames suddenly thawed, drowning many of the people shopping at the Frost Fair set up on the river.

14 January 1684, Monday (-95,432) Jean-Baptiste van Loo, painter, was born.

12 January 1684, Saturday (-95,434) After the death of his first wife Maria Theresa, King Louis XIV of France secretly married Francoise d�Aubignon, Marquise de Maintenon, also known as Madame Maintenon. Formerly his mistress, she now promoted pious and dignified behaviour at Court, exerting considerable political influence.

10 January 1684, Thursday (-95,436) The Dukedom of St Albans was created.

9 January 1684. Wednesday (-95,437) During a deep freeze, the River Thames at London froze over and puppet shows and shopping stalls were set up on the ice.

1 January 1684, Tuesday (-95,445) Arnold Drakenborgh, Dutch scholarly writer, was born (died 16 January 1748).


27 December1683, Thursday (-95,450) Conyers Middleton, English religious writer, was born (died 28 July 1750).

25 December1683, Tuesday (-95,452) James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, fled to the United Netherlands to escape being arrested in connection with the Rye House Plot.

19 December1683, Wednesday (-95,458) Philip V, King of Spain, was born.

15 December1683, Saturday (-95,462) Izaak Walton, author of The Compleat Angler, died at Winchester aged 90.

7 December1683, Friday (-95,470) English Whig politician Algernon Sydney was executed for plotting to assassinate King Charles II and his brother James Duke of York in the Rye House plot.

19 November 1683, Monday (-95,488) Johann Carpzov, scholarly writer, died (born 1607).

10 November 1683, Saturday (-95,497) George II, King of England, was born in Hanover, Germany, the only son of George I.

25 October 1683, Thursday (-95,513) Sir William Scroggs, Lord Chief Justice of England, died in London.

23 October 1683, Tuesday (-95,515) Jean Philippe Rameau, French composer, was born in Dijon (died 12 September 1764 in Paris)

4 October 1683, Thursday (-95,534) The City of London forfeited its Charter as the English Crown tried to remove centres pf Whig influence.


25 September 1683, Tuesday (-95,,543) Jean Philippe Rameau, composer, was born in Dijon, France.

17 September 1683, Monday (-95,551) The Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek wrote to the Royal Society to report his discovery of bacteria.

11 September 1683. Tuesday (-95,557) (East Europe, Greece-Turkey), The conquering armies of Islam under Vizier Kara Mustafa were defeated at the gates of Vienna. The Turks had been besieging Vienna since July 1683. Relief came under Poland�s King John III (see 1 April 1683) and Charles, Duke of Normandy. The Ottoman Sultan ordered Mustafa to commit suicide.

7 September 1683, Friday (-95,561) German reinforcements arrived outside the besieged city of Vienna.

6 September 1683, Thursday (-95,562) Jean Colbert, French politician, died (born 1619).

24 August 1683, Friday (-95,575) John Owen, religious writer, died 8in Ealing, London (born 1616 in Stadham, Oxfordshire).

7 August 1683, Tuesday (-95,592)

31 July 1683, Tuesday (-95,599) Invading Turkish forces reached the gates of Vienna.�� If Vienna fell, Germany would be open to a Turkish invasion.

30 July 1683, Monday (-95,600) Marie Therese, Queen Consort of France, died (born 10 September 1638).

21 July 1683, Saturday (-95,609) Algernon Sidney and William Russell were executed for their part on the Rye House Plot. Along with the Earl of Wessex (who cheated the executioner by committing suicide in gaol), they planned to ambush King Charles II and the Duke of York (future James II) on their return from Newmarket to London at a narrow point at Rye House, near Hoddesdon, and assassinate them. The plot failed because the monarch left Newmarket early. The Government took advantage of the plot to implicate others whose loyalty to Charles II was questionable.


23 June 1683, Saturday (-95,637) William Penn signed a treaty of peace and friendship with chiefs of the Lenapi Indian tribe, at Shakamaxon.

12 June 1683, Tuesday (-95,648) Discovery of the Rye House Plot to assassinate King Charles II and his brother and heir James Duke of York.

6 June 1683. Wednesday (-95,654) Elias Ashmole opened the first public museum, the Ashmolean, in Broad Street, Oxford. Exhibits included stuffed animals and a dodo.

3 June 1683, Sunday (-95,657) Sadlers Wells Theatre, London, was founded.

25 May 1683, Friday (-95,666) Elijah Fenton, English poet, was born (died 16 July 1730).

30 April 1683, Monday (-95,691) France, Brandenburg-Prussia, and Denmark agreed that Sweden should be expelled from German territories.

8 April 1683, Sunday (-95,713) Easter Sunday.

3 April 1683, Tuesday (-95,718)

1 April 1683, Sunday (-95,720) (East Europe, Poland), Poland made a treaty of mutual defence with the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, against the threat from Ottoman Turkey (see 11 September 1683).


19 March 1683, Monday (-95,733) Thomas Killigrew, English dramatist, died (born 7 February 1612).

9 March 1683, Friday (-95,743) Michael Ettmuller, physician, died (born 26 May 1644).

1 March 1683, Thursday (-95,752) Caroline, wife of King George II of Britain, was born (died 20 November 1737).

28 February 1683, Wednesday (-95,753) Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reamur, scientific writer, was born in La Rochelle (died 17 October 1757 by falling from a horse)

6 February 1683, Tuesday (-95,774)

5 February 1683, Monday (-95,775)

21 January 1683, Sunday (-95,790) Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury, English politician who favoured the exclusion of James Duke of York from the succession, died in the United Netherlands, he had fled there to avoid a trial for treason.


2 December1682, Saturday (-95,840) The Dukedom of Beaufort was created.

29 November 1682, Wednesday (-95,843) Prince Rupert, commander of the Royalist troops in the English Civil war, died.

21 November 1682, Tuesday (-95,851) Claude Lorrain, painter, died in Rome aged 82.

29 October 1682, Sunday (-95,874) Pierre Charlevoix, French historical writer, was born (died 1 February 1761).

27 October 1682, Friday (-95,876) Philadelphia, USA, was founded by William Penn.

19 October 1682, Wednesday (-95,885) Sir Thomas Browne, writer, died (born 19 October 1605).


1 August 1682, Tuesday (-95,963)

12 July 1682, Wednesday (-95,983) Death of Jean Picard, astronomer who first calculated the circumference of the Earth.

10 July 1682, Monday (-95,985) Roger Cotes, English mathematician, was born (died 5 June 1716).


28 June 1682, Wednesday (-95,997) Dom Perignon, a blind Benedictine cellarman at Hautevilliers Abbey, invented Champagne.

17 June 1682, Saturday (-96,008) (Sweden) Charles XII, King of Sweden, was born (died 1718).

18 May 1692, Thursday (-96,038) Joseph Butler, English religious writer, was born (died 16 June 1752).

6 May 1682, Saturday (-96,050) King Louis XIV arrived at his new chateau of Versailles.

27 April 1682, Thursday (-96,059) Theodore III, Tsar of Russia, died.

16 April 1682, Sunday (-96,070) Easter Sunday.

14 April 1682, Friday (-96,072) In Russia a priest calledAvvakum was burned at the stake for 4resisting reforms to the Russian Orthodox Church.

9 April 1682, Sunday (-96,077) The explorer de La Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi and claimed it for Louis XIV of France, naming the area Louisiana.

3 April 1682, Monday (-96,083) Bartolome Murillo, painter, died in Seville aged 64.


14 March 1682, Tuesday (-96,103) Jacob van Ruysdael, painter, died in Amsterdam, aged 53.

11 March 1682. Saturday (-96,106) Charles II founded the Chelsea Hospital for old soldiers (Chelsea Pensioners).It was designed by Wren, and opened in 1692.

25 February 1682, Saturday (-96,120) Giovanni Morgagni, Italian anatomist, was born (died 6 December1771).

10 January 1682, Tuesday (-96,166)


21 December1681, Wednesday (-96,186) Claude Prost, French military leader, died (born 17 June 1607).

28 November 1681, Monday (-96,209) Jean Cavalier, French Camisard leader, was born (died 1740).

17 November 1681, Thursday (-96,220) Pierre Courayer, French theological writer, was born (died 17 October 1776).

7 October 1681, Friday (-96,261) Nikolaes Heinsius, Dutch scholarly writer, died (born 20 July 1620)


28 September 1681, Wednesday (-96,270) Louis XIV�s army captured the previously independent city of Strasbourg. The French now controlled all of Alsace, except Mulhouse.

11 September 1681, Sunday (-96,287) Johann Heineccius, German legal writer, was born (died 31 August 1741).

27 July 1681, Wednesday (-96,333) (Britain) Donald Cargill, Scottish Covenanter, born 1610, was executed.

1 July 1681, Friday (-96,359) Oliver Plunket, Irish Catholic, was hung drawn and quartered on a very dubious conviction of treason for allegdly planning to assist a French invasion of Carlingford.


25 May 1681, Wednesday (-96,396) Spanish dramatist Pedro Calderon de la Barca died.

3 April 1681, Sunday (-96,448) Easter Sunday.


14 March 1681, Monday (-96,468) Georg Philipp Telemann, composer, was born.

4 March 1681, Friday (-96,478) King Charles II granted the Quaker, William Penn, 38 years old, a Royal Charter for territory in North America, to be called Pennsylvania. In return Penn waived a debt of �16,000 owed by the Crown to his estate.

4 January 1681, Tuesday (-96,537)


31 December1680, Friday (-96,541)

8 December1680, Wednesday (-96,564) Henry Pierrepoint, Marquess of Dorchester, died.

28 November 1680, Sunday (-96,574) The Italian sculptor Giovanni Bernini died.

30 October 1680, Saturday (-96,603) Antoinette Bourignon, Flemish mystic, was born in Lille (died in Friesland 30 October 1680).

19 October 1680, Tuesday (-96,614) (Ireland) John Abernethy, Irish Presbyterian Minister, was born in Coleraine, County Londonderry.

16 October 1680, Saturday (-96,617) Raimondo Montecucculi, Austrian General, died.

12 October 1680, Tuesday (-96,621) Arthur Collier, scholarly writer, was born (died 1732).


25 September 1680, Saturday (-96,638) Samuel Butler, English poet, died (born 1612).

22 September 1680, Wednesday (-96,641) Barthold Brockes, German poet, was born (died 16 January 1747).

9 September 1680, Thursday (-96,654) Henry Marten, English Parliamentarian, died.

2 September 1680, Thursday (-96,661) Per Brahe, Swedish statesman, died in Visingborg (born near Stockholm 18 February 1602).

23 August 1680, Monday (-96,671) Captain Blood, the famous Irish adventurer, died.�� He had attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London on 9 May 1671.

22 August 1680, Sunday (-96,672) John George II, Elector of Saxony, died (born 31 May 1613).

20 August 1680, Friday (-96,674) (Britain) William Bledloe, English adventurer, died in Bristol (born Chepstow 20 April 1650)

26 July 1680, Monday (-96,699) John Wilmot, writer, died in Woodstock, England.


22 June 1680, Tuesday (-96,733) Ebenezer Erskine, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 2 June 1754).

31 May 1680, Monday (-96,755) Joachim Neander, german hymn writer, died.

11 April 1680, Sunday (-96,805) Easter Sunday.


17 March 1680, Wednesday (-96,830) Francois de la Rochefoucauld, Fremch writer, died (born 15 September 1613).

14 March 1680, Sunday (-96,833) Rene le Bossu, French literary critic, died (born in Paris 16 March 1631).

4 March 1680, Thursday (-96,843) Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire in India, died (born 1630)

23 February 1680, Monday (-96,853) Thomas Goodwin, English religious writer, died (born 5 October 1600).

17 February 1680, Tuesday (-96,859) Denzil Holles, English writer, died (born 31 October 1599)

15 February 1680, Sunday (-96,861) Jan Swammerdam, naturalist, died in Amsterdam (born 12 February 1637 in Amsterdam)


31 December1679, Wednesday (-96,907) Giovanni Borelli, Italian physicist, died in Rome (born in Naples 28 January 1608).

20 December1679, Saturday (-96,918) John Maurice of Nassau died.

4 December1679, Thursday (-96,934) Thomas Hobbes, philosopher and political theorist, died at Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire.

27 November 1679, Thursday (-96,941) A major fire in Boston, Massachusetts, burnt all the warehouses, all the ships in the dockyards, and 80 houses.

26 October 1679, Sunday (-96,973) Roger Boyle, 1st earl of Orrery, British statesman, died (born 25 April 1621)

12 October 1679, Sunday (-96,987) William Gurnall, English author, died (born 1617).

8 October 1679, Wednesday (-96,991) Isaac Pennington, English writer, died (born 1616).


29 September 1679, Monday (-97,000) Thomas Chubb, religious writer, was born (died 8 February 1746).

18 September 1679, Thursday (-97,011) New Hampshire was constituted a separate colony from Massachusetts.

17 September 1679, Wednesday (-97,012) Don John the Younger of Austria died (born 1629).

24 August 1679, Sunday (-97,036) Jean Retz, French Cardinal and agitator, died in Paris (born 1614 in Montmirail)

22 August 1679, Friday (-97,038) Pierre Guerin de Tencin, French Cardinal, was born in Grenoble (died 2 March 1758)

17 July 1679, Thursday (-97,074) James Duport, English scholarly writer, died (born 1606).


29 June 1679, Sunday (-97,092) (Germany) The Peace of St Germain, forced on the Elector of Brandenburg by King Louis XIV of France, made him surrender all territories in Pomerania conquered from Sweden

22 June 1679, Sunday (-97,099) The Battle of Bothwell Bridge. The Duke of Monmouth defeated the Covenanters.

15 June 1679, Sunday (-97,106) Guillaume Courtois, French painter, died (born 1628).

1 June 1679, Sunday (-97,120) At the Battle of Drumclog, Scottish Covenanters defeated a small government force.

27 May 1679, Tuesday (-97,125) The Habeas Corpus Act, stating that nobody could be held in prison without a trial, was passed. The rights of a prisoner were mentioned as early as the 14th century in England, but it was Lord Shaftesbury who suggested such an Act on the statute books. Charles I believed himself to be above Parliament so the Act was passed to counter his rulings. This enabled political prisoners of the King to demand a trial, and to obtain bail if prison was not justified. Habeas Corpus can only be suspended in times of war or a terrorist threat.

3 May 1679, Saturday (-97,149) James Sharp, Scottish divine, was murdered (born in Banff 4 May 1618)

22 April 1679, Tuesday (-97,160) John Davies, English scholarly writer, was born (died 7 March 1732).

20 April 1679, Sunday (-97,162) Easter Sunday.


6 March 1679, Thursday (-97,207) In England the Habeas Corpus Parliament, or First Exclusion Parliament, assembled for the first time.

5 February 1679, Wednesday (-97,236) (France) The Third Treaty of Nijmegen ended seven years of war in Europe.

24 January 1679, Friday (-97,248) (Britain) King Charles II of England dissolved the Cavalier Parliament.

18 January 1679, Saturday (-97,254) (Britain) John Hervey, courtier to Catherine, wife of King Charles II, died.

8 January 1679, Wednesday (-97,264) (USA, Canada) La Salle, French explorer, reached the Niagara Falls.

1 January 1679, Wednesday (-97,265)


31 December1678, Tuesday (-97,272)

24 December1678, Tuesday (-97 279)

14 December1678, Saturday (-97,289) Daniel Neal, English historical writer, was born (died 4 April 1743).

24 November 1678, Sunday (-97,309)

12 November 1678, Tuesday (-97,321)

19 October 1678, Saturday (-97,345) Dutch painter Samuel Dirkz van Hoogstraten died (born 1627).

12 October 1678, Saturday (-97,352) Sir Edmund Godfrey, English politician, was murdered (born 23 December1621).

1 October 1678, Tuesday (-97,363)


24 September 1678, Tuesday (-97,370)

19 September 1678, Thursday (-97,375) (Germany) Christoph Galen, Prince-Bishop of Munster, died (born 12 October 1606).

16 August 1678, Friday (-97,409) Andrew Marvell, English poet, died.

12 August 1678, Monday (-97,413) Titus Oates� Popish plot was revealed to King Charles II.

6 August 1679, Tuesday (-97,419) John Snell, philanthropist to Oxford University, died in Oxford (born 1629 in Ayrshire)

26 July 1678, Friday (-97,430) Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I was born.


25 May 1678, Saturday (-97,492)

12 April 1678, Friday (-97,535) Thomas Stanley, English poet, died in Strand, London (born 1625)


31 March 1678, Sunday (-97,547) Easter Sunday

4 March 1678. Monday (-97,574) Birth of Venetian composer and violinist Antonio Lucio Vivaldi.

18 February 1678, Monday (-97,588) John Bunyan, 50-year old Baptist, published his book Pilgrim�s Progress.

29 January 1678, Tuesday (-97,608) Jeronimo Lobo, Jesuit missionary to India, died.

16 January 1678, Wednesday (-97,621) Madelaine de Souvre Sable, French writer, died in Paris (born 1599)

2 January 1678, Wednesday (-97,635) The Hamburg Staatsoper (Opera JHouse) opened.


31 December1677, Monday (-97.637)

19 November 1677, Monday (-97,679) Franz Junius junior, writer, died.

16 November 1677, Friday (-97,682) French troops occupied Freiberg.

4 November 1677, Sunday (-97,694) King William II married his cousin Princess Mary (future Queen Mary II of England), the eldest daughter of King James II and Anne Hyde.

2 November 1677, Friday (-97,696) Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, died (born 1 December1595).

30 October 1677, Tuesday (-97,699) French troops in West Africa captured Dutch ports on the River Senegal and took Goree, near Cape Verde.


11 September 1677, Tuesday (-97,748) James Harrington, English writer, died (born 1/1611).

14 July 1677, Saturday (-97,807) At the Battle of Landskrona, Sweden defeated Denmark.


31 May 1677, Thursday (-97,851) Danish ships defeated a Swedish naval force.

29 May 1677, Tuesday (-97,853) The Treaty of Middle Plantation established peace between the Virginia colonists and the local Indians.

4 May 1677, Friday (-97,878) (Mathematics) Isaac Barrow, English mathematician, died (born 1630).

15 April 1677, Sunday (-97,897) Easter Sunday.

11 April 1677, Wednesday (-97,901) The Battle of Cassel; Philippe I of Orleans defeated William of Orange.


28 March 1677, Wednesday (-97,915) Wenzel Hoillar, Bohemian etcher, died (born 13 July 1607).

20 March 1677, Tuesday (-97,923) (Britain) George Digby, First Earl of Bristol, died.

21 February 1677, Wednesday (-97,950) Benedict Spinoza, Jewish philosopher, died.

8 February 1677, Thursday (-97,963) (Astronomy) Jacques Cassini, astronomer, was born (died 18 April 1756).

29 January 1677, Monday (-97,973) John Hughes, English poet, was born (died 17 February 1720)

1 January 1677, Monday (-98,001) Francois Lagrange-Chancel, French dramatist, was born.


30 December 1676, Saturday (-98,003) John Philips, English poet, was born in Bampton, Oxfordshire.

25 December1676, Monday (-98,008) Sir Matthew Hale, Lord Chief Justice of England, died (born 1 November 1609)

18 December1676, Monday (-98,015) Edward Benlowes, English poet, died.

4 December1676, Monday (-98,029) The Swedish town of Lund was defended in the Battle of Lund, one of the bloodiest battles fought in Scandinavia.

10 November 1676, Friday (-98,053)

28 October 1676, Saturday (-98,066) Jean Desmarets, French dramatist, died (born 1595).

16 October 1676, Monday (-98,078) (Poland, Turkey) The Treaty of Zuravno ended the 4 year war between Poland and tye Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Turkey acquired Podolia and much of the Polish Ukraine, thereby bringing Ottoman territory up to the border with Russia.


21 September 1676, Thursday (-98,103) Pope Innocent XI (240th Pope), acceded, formerly Cardinal Benedetto Odescalchi (died 1689).

17 September 1676, Sunday (-98,107) Cesar du Marsais, French scholarly writer, was born (died 11 June 1756).

26 August 1676, Saturday (-98,129) Sir Robert Walpole, the first British Prime Minister, was born at Houghton Hall, Norfolk.

17 August 1676, Thursday (-98,138) Hans Jakob Grimmelshausen, German author, died.

12 August 1676, Saturday (-98,143) King Philip, American Indian Chief, was killed.The Indian War in New England ended.

22 July 1676, Saturday (-98,164) Pope Clement X (239th Pope) died. Pope Innocent XI (240th Pope), acceded, formerly Cardinal Benedetto Odescalchi (died 1689).

4 July 1676, Tuesday (-98,182) Jose de Canizares, Spanish dramatist, was born (died 4 September 1750).


21 June 1676, Wednesday (-98,195) Anthony Collins, English writer, was born (died 13 December1729).

11 June 1676, Sunday (-98,205) Battle of Entholm, Northern Wars. The Danish fleet under Admiral van Tromp defeateed the Swedes.

7 June 1676, Wednesday (-98,209) Paul Gerhardt, German hymn writer, died.

20 May 1676, Saturday (-98,227) Jacques Courtois, French painter, died (born 1621)

8 May 1676, Monday (-98,239) Jacopo Riccati, Italian mathematician, was born in Venice (died 15 April 1754 in Treviso)

7 May 1676, Sunday (-98,240) Pietro Giannone, Italian historical writer, was born (died 7 March 1748).


26 March 1676, Sunday(-98,282) Easter Sunday.

21 March 1676, Tuesday (-98,287) Henri Sauval, French historical writer, died (born 5 March 1623 in Paris)

17 March 1676, Friday (-98,291) (Britain) Thomas Boston, Scottish cleric, was born in Duns (died 20 May 1732).

12 February 1676, Saturday (-98,325)

8 February 1676, Tuesday (-98,329) (Russia) Czar Alexis Mikhailovich died aged 47 after a reign of 31 years. He was succeeded by his eldest sutrving son, aged 15, who ruled as Feodor III until his death in 1682.

1 January 1676, Saturday (-98,367)


29 December1675, Wednesday (-98,370) The English Parliament ordered the closure of all coffee houses, believing they were centres from which malicious rumours about the government originated.

23 December1675, Thursday (-98,376) Cesar Choiseul, French Marshal, died (born 1602).

19 December1675, Sunday (-98,380) A White colonist army, 1,000 strong, attacked an indigenous American Narraganset fort near what is now Kingston, Rhode island. The colonists were repulsed but succeeded in enytering the fort by the rear. The Narraganset along with their Wampanoag allies foled, but their Chief, Canonchet,was killed in the following year.

15 December1675, Wednesday (-98,384) Jan Vermeer, painter, died aged 43.

6 December1675, Monday (-98,393) John Lightfoot, English religious writer, died (born 29 March 1602).

1 December1675, Wednesday (-98,398) Barnaby Lintot, English writer, was born (died 3 February 1736).

28 November 1675, Sunday (-98,401) William Denbigh, English Civil War soldier, died.

21 November 1675, Sunday (-98,408) (Mathematics) Leibniz became the first mathematician to use the modern notation of f[x] dx for integration/differentiation.

14 November 1676, Sunday (-98,415) Benjamin Hoadly, English religious writer, was born (died 17 April 1761).

11 November 1675, Thursday (-98,418) (Medical, Food) Death of Thomas Willis, physician to King Charles II and to the Duke of York. He was the first to notice an increase in what we now know as diabetes amongst his more affluent clients � he called it �the pissing evil�. He also noted the very sweet nature of this urine. The wealthy in England were raising their consumption of sugar, now being imported from the Caribbean, both in desserts and in tea. In fact the issue of sweet urine and diabetes was also known to the ancient Greeks, Indians and Chinese.

27 October 1675, Wednesday (-98,453) Gille Personne de Roberval, French mathematician, died in Paris (born 8 August 1602 in Roberval, near Beauvais)

11 October 1675, Monday (-98,449) Samuel Clarke, scholarly writer, was born (died 17 May 1729).

8 October 1676, Friday (-98,452) Benito Feijoo, Spanish monk and writer, was born (died 26 September 1764).


18 September 1675, Saturday (-98,472) Charles Duke of Lorraine died (born 5 April 1604).

11 September 1675, Saturday (-98,479) The Dukedom of Grafton was created.

2 September 1675, Thursday (-98,488) William Somerville, English poet, was born in Edstone, Worcestershire (died 19 July 1742)

10 August 1675, Tuesday (-98,511) (London, space exploration) King Charles II established Greenwich Observatory, at Flamsteed House, Greenwich.Its foundation stone was laid this day.

9 August 1675, Monday (-98,512) The Dukedom of Richmond (Lennox & Gordon) was created.

14 July 1675, Wednesday (-98,538) (France) Claude Bonneval, French adventurer, was born (died in Constantinople 23 March 1747).


28 June 1675, Monday (-98,554) (Germany) Sweden, allied to King Louis XIV of France, invaded Brandenburg, butr were defeated at the Battle of Fehrbellin. The Elector of Brandenburg then launched an invasion of Swedish Pomerania.

21 June 1675, Monday (-98,561) The foundation stone of Sir Christopher Wren�s new St Paul�s Cathedral, London, was laid. The new place of worship faced the old church that burned down in the Great Fire of London, (see 2 September 1666). The first Sunday service there was held on 5 December1697.

1 June 1675, Tuesday (-98,581) Francesco Maffei, Italian writer, was born (died 11 February 1755).

29 May 1675, Saturday (-98,584) Humphry Ditton, English mathematician, was born (died 15 October 1715).

18 May 1675, Tuesday (-98,595) Jacques Marquette, French Jesuit missionary, died on the way home from preaching to the Illinois River Amerindians.

17 April 1675, Saturday (-98,626) (France) Marie Aiguillon, charity worker for the poor, died (born 1604).

4 April 1675, Sunday (-98,639) Easter Sunday.


4 March 1675, Thursday (-98,670) Charles II appointed John Flamsteed as the first Astronomer-Royal.

3 February 1675, Wednesday (-98,699)

16 January 1675, Saturday (-98,717) Louis de Rouvroy Saint Simon, French soldier, was born in Versailles (died 2 March 1755 in Paris)

5 January 1675, Tuesday (-98,728) French forces inflicted a heavy defeat on the German Army at Turckheim, forcing them to abandon an invasion of France and withdraw back across the Rhine.


28 December 1674, Monday (-96,736) John Oxenbridge, English divine, died in Boston, Massachusetts (born in Daventry 30 January 1608)

25 December1674, Friday (-96,739) Thomas Halyburton, Scottish religious writer, was born (died 1712).

9 December1674, Wednesday (-96,755) Edward Clarendon, British statesman, died (born 18 February 1609).

10 November 1674, Tuesday (-98,784) All Dutch-held areas of New York were returned to Britain under the Treaty of Westminster. During the third Anglo-Dutch war, the Dutch had captured New York on 9 August 1672.

8 November 1674, Sunday (-98,786) Poet John Milton died at the age of 65. His best known work was Paradise Lost. He was born in Chalfont St Giles, Buckinghamshire, and studied at Christ College, Cambridge, from 1652-53, writing poetry in English, Latin, and Italian. He served as secretary for Cromwell�s government and pamphleteered for civil and religious liberty. After the monarchy was restored, Milton was arrested as a supporter of the Commonwealth but soon released. Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained were published in 1667 and 1671, after he went blind in 1652.

27 October 1674, Tuesday (-98,798) John Bona, Italian clerical writer, died (born in Piedmont 10 October 1609).

22 October 1674, Thursday (-98,803) Gerbrand Eeckhout, Dutch painter, died (born 19 August 1621)

18 October 1674, Sunday (-98,807) Richard (Beau) Nash, Master of Ceremonies at Bath, who established the city as a centre of fashion, was born.


9 September 1674, Wednesday (-98,846) Murrough Inchiquin, Irish statesman, died.

12 August 1674, Wednesday (-98,874) Philippe de Champaigne, Belgian painter, died (born 1602).

2 August 1674, Sunday (-98,884) PhilippeII, Regent of France, was born.

13 July 1674, Monday (-98,904)


14 June 1674, Sunday (-98,933) Marin Gomberville, French novelist, died (born 1600).

13 June 1674, Saturday (-98,934) Philip Carteret, the governor of New Jersey, launched a campaign to enforce the payment of quitrents; rents charged on land initially granted free to settlers from Europe. The colony had rebelled against this taxation. In 1673 London had enacted the Plantation Duty Act, imposing duties on any ship carrying certain products, such as sugar, cotton, or tobacco, between colonial ports.

21 May 1674, Thursday (-98,957) Jan III Sobieski was elected King of Poland-Lithuania.

13 May 1674, Wednesday (-98,965)

19 April 1674, Sunday (-98,989) Easter Sunday.

18 April 1674, Saturday (-98,990) (Britain) John Graunt, English statistician, diedin London.


23 March 1674, Monday (-99,016) Henry Cromwell, 4th son of Oliver Cromwell, died (born 20 January 1628).

15 March 1674, Sunday (-99,024) Jean Barbeyrac, French legal writer, was born in Beziers, Languedoc (died 3 March 1744)

8 March 1674, Sunday (-99,031) Charles Sorel, French writer, died in Paris.

22 February 1674, Sunday (-99,045) Jean Chapelain, French poet, died (born 4 December1595).

19 February 1674, Thursday (-99,048) (Britain, Netherlands) The Treaty of Westminster ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

25 January 1674, Sunday (-99,073) Thomas Tanner, English religious writer, was born in Market Lavington, Wiltshire (died 14 December 1735 in Oxford)

13 January 1674, Tuesday (-99,085) Prosper Crebillon, French poet, was born (died 17 June 1754)

2 January 1674, Sunday (-99,094)


31 December 1673, Friday (-99,096) Oliver St John, Englidsh Judge, died.

28 December 1673, Tuesday (-99,099)

21 December 1673, Tuesday (-99,106)

19 December1673, Sunday (-99,108)

26 October 1673, Sunday (-99,164) (Moldova) Demeter Cantemir Prince of Moldavia was born. He acceded to the throne in 1710, but then joined forces with Peter the Great of Russia against Ottoman Turkey. The Turks were victorious, and Prince Cantemir emigrated to Russia.

13 October 1673, Monday (-99,177) Kristoffer Gabel, Danish statesman, died (born 6 January 1617).

11 August 1673, Monday (-99,240) Richard Mead, English medical writer, was born (died 16 February 1754).

10 August 1673, Sunday (-99,241) Johann Dippel, German religious writer, was born (died 25 April 1734).

8 August 1673, Friday (-99,243) John Ker, British spy, was born (died 8 July 1726).

10 June 1673, Tuesday (-99,302) (France) Rene Duguay-Trouin, French sea captain, was born (died 27 September 1736).

26 May 1673, Monday (-99,317) John Mason, Goveronr-General of the Connecticut Colony, led spoldiers to massacre Pequot indigenous Americans. His forces killed over 400, mainly women and children.

17 May 1673, Saturday (-99,326) Jacques Marquette, a French missionary, discovered the Mississippi River.

9 May 1673, Friday (-99,334) Jacques des Barreaux, French poet, died (born 1602).


30 March 1673, Sunday (-99,374) Easter Sunday.

15 March 1673, Saturday (-99,389) The painter Salvator Rosa died in Rome, aged 57.

17 February 1673, Monday (-99,415) French dramatist Moliere died.

1 January 1673. Wednesday (-99,462) A regular postal service was set up between New York and Boston. The mounted service used a special �post road� along which men and horses are posted at intervals.


31 December1672, Tuesday (-99,463)

6 December1672, Friday (-99,488) Jasper Mayne, English author, died.

1 November 1672, Friday (-99,523)

21 October 1672, Monday (-99,534) Ludovico Muratori, Italian scholatrly writer, was born (died 23 January 1750).


27 September 1672, Friday (-99,558) In Britain, The Royal African Company was granted a monopoly of the African slave trade. A healthy slave could be bought in America for under �20, but the trade was still very profitable.

12 September 1672, Thursday (-99,573) Frontenac was appointed as French colonial Governor of Canada, to succeed de Courcelle. This day Frontenac arrived in Quebec. However he was to prove too independent-minded and expansionist for the comfort of France.

20 August 1672, Tuesday (-99,596) (Netherlands) Johan de Witt, Dutch politician, was assassinated (born 24 September 1625).

2 August 1672, Friday (-99,614) |Johann Jakob Scheuchzer, Swiss scholarly writer, was born in Zurich (died 23 Juhe 1733 in Zurich)

1 July 1672, Monday (-99,646) England�s Royal Africa Company was formed this year to replace the Royal Adventurers of England set up by King Charles II. It was to supply Britain�s colonies with 3,000 slaves a year for a price of �17 each, or one ton of sugar, each slave. At this time slaves could be purchased in Africa for �3 each.


30 May 1672. Thursday (-99,678) Peter the Great of Russia was born in Moscow. He was the son of Tsar Alexei.

28 May 1672, Tuesday (-99,680) Richard Nicolls, American colonial Governor, was killed at the naval Battle of Southwold Bay, England (born 1624).

5 May 1672, Sunday (-99,703) Samuel Cooper, English miniature painter, died (born 1609).

1 May 1672, Wednesday (-99,707) Birth of Joseph Addison, English writer and Whig who co-founded The Spectator in 1711.

22 April 1672, Monday (-99,716) Georg Stjernhjelm, Swedish poet, died in Stockholm (born 7 August 1598)

7 April 1672, Sunday (-99,731) Easter Sunday.


17 March 1672, Sunday (-99,752) The third Anglo-Dutch war began, because Charles II was bound under the secret provisions of the Treaty of Dover to support Louis XIV. The Treaty of Dover, 1670, was concluded between Charles II and Louis XIV of France, following negotiations begun back in 1668. However the weaker Dutch fleet held back the English, who were facing difficulties in financing this war. In 1673 the English Parliament agreed to raise taxes to fund the conflict in return for the passing of the Test Act. This Act required all holding civil or military office to accept the Church of England sacrament and reject the Catholic doctrine of Transubstantiation. The subsequent resignation of the Duke of York (the future James II) and others betrayed the presence of Catholics in the English high office. Meanwhile in August 1672 a revolution in the Netherlands brought William of Orange (future King William III) to power. In August / September 1673 Spain, Austria and Brandenburg, and in January 1674 Denmark, all declared war on France. The Dutch encouraged the belief amongst the English that the war constituted a betrayal of Protestant interests by Catholics in high office. In 1674 England concluded a separate peace with The Netherlands, the Treaty of Westminster.

26 February 1672, Monday (-99,772) Antoine Calmet, French Benedictine monk and teacher (died 25 October 1757) was born.

19 February 1672, Monday (-99,779) (University) Charles Chauncy, President of Harvard College, died (born 11/1592).

13 February 1672, Tuesday (-99,785) Etienne Geoffroy, French chemist, was born (died 6 January 1731)

28 January 1672, Sunday (-99,801) Pierre Seguier, Chancellor of France, died in St Germain (born 28 May 1588 in Paris)

21 January 1672, Sunday (-99,808) Painter Adriaen van de Velde died in Amsterdam aged 41.

18 January 1672, Thursday (-99,811) Antoine la Motte, French author, was born (died 26 December1731).

15 January 1672, Monday (-99,814) John Cosin, English religious writer, died (born 30 November 1594).


31 December1671, Sunday (-99,829)

30 December 1671, Saturday (-99,830) The French Royal Academy of Architecture was founded.

12 November 1671, Sunday (-99,878) Thomas Fairfax, general and leader of the Parliamentary side in the Civil War, died in Nunappleton, Yorkshire.

6 November 1671, Monday (-99,884) Colley Cibber, English actor, was born (died 11 December1757).


12 September 1671, Tuesday (-99,939)

1 September 1671, Friday (-99,950) Hugues de Lionne, French statesman, died (born 11 October 1611).

13 August 1671, Sunday (-99,969)

14 July 1671, Friday (-99,999) Florence Casaubon, English scholarly writer died (born 14 August 1500).


15 June 1671, Thursday (-100,028) Execution in Cagliari of the Marquis of Cea, leader of the Sardinian Conspiracy

8 June 1671, Thursday (-100,035) Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer, was born.

6 June 1671, Tuesday (-100,037) Stephen Razin, Cossack rebel and pirate in Russia, was executed.

9 May 1671, Tuesday (-100,065) Irish adventurer Captain James Thomas Blood made an unsuccessful attempt, dressed as a clergyman, to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. See 24 August 1680.

5 May 1671, Friday (-100,069) Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester, died.

1 May 1671, Monday (-100,073) (Arts) Claude Capperonnier, French classical scholar, was born (died 1744).

23 April 1671, Sunday (-100,081) Easter Sunday.

21 April 1671, Friday (-100,083) John Law, financier, was born.

6 April 1671, Thursday (-100,098) Jean Baptiste-Rousseau, French poet, was born.

5 April 1671, Wednesday (-100,099) Edmund Calamy, English religious writer, was born (died 3 June 1732).


22 February 1671, Wednesday (-100,141) Adam Oelschlager, German Orientalist writer, died in Gottorp.

20 February 1671, Monday (-100,143)

28 January 1671, Saturday (-100,166) Panama City was sacked by Welsh pirate, Henry Morgan.


31 December1670, Saturday (-100,194)

7 December1670, Wednesday (-100,218) (Britain) John Aislabie, English politician, was born in York (died 1742).

27 October 1670, Thursday (-100,259) Vavsor Powell, Welsh non-conformist preacher, died (born 1617 in Radnorshire)

20 October 1670, Thursday (-100,266)


21 August 1670, Sunday (-100,326) James Berwick, French Marshal, was born in Moulins (died at the siege of Philipsburg 12 June 1734).


30 June 1670, Thursday (-100,378) (France) Henrtietta, sister of English King Charles II, died aged 26 at St Cloud. She was allegedly poisoned by her estranged husband, Philip, Duc d�Orleans.

24 June 1670, Friday (-100,384) Astrakhan was captured by Stenka Razin.

1 June 1670, Wednesday (-100,407) Two Treaties of Dover � one public, one secret � were made by Charles II with Louis XIV. Charles II secretly agreed to declare his conversion to Catholicism and subsequently to restore it to Britain. Charles II did not announce his conversion, to the annoyance of Louis XIV.The public Treaty committed Britain and France to declare war on Holland � if this war was successful, Britain would receive Zeeland and the port of Ostend. Britain would assist Louis XIV�s claim on the Spanish throne. The private Treaty, known only to Charles II and a select few of his government ministers, stated that Charles would re-establish Catholicism in Britain in return for �150,000 from France and the use of 6,000 French troops to cope with any �internal resistance�.

12 May 1670, Thursday (-100,427) (Poland) Augustus II, King of Poland, was born in Dresden (died 1 February 1733 in Warsaw).

2 May 1670, Monday (-100,437) Charles II chartered the Hudson Bay Company.

3 April 1670, Sunday (-100,466) Easter Sunday.


2 March 1670, Wednesday (-100,498)

10 February 1670, Thursday (-100,518) William Congreve, English dramatist, was born (died 19 January 1729).

9 February 1670, Wednesday (-100,519) Frederick III, King of Denmark, died.
21 January 1670, Friday (-100,538) (London) Claude Duval, highwayman, was hanged at Tyburn (born 1643).

3 January 1670, Monday (-100,556) George Monck, Duke of Albermarle and English Royalist during the Civil War, died in London. He played a major role in the restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660.


16 December1669, Thursday (-100,574) Nathaniel Fiennes, English politician, died

4 November 1669, Thursday (-100,616) Johannes Cocceius, Dutch religious writer, died (born 1603).

3 November 1669, Wednesday (-100,617) Charles Drelincourt, French religious writer, died (born 19 July 1595).

24 October 1669, Sunday (-100,627) William Prynne, English Parliamentarian politician, died in Lincolns Inn, London (born 1600 in Swainswick, Bath)

4 October 1669. Monday (-100,647) Dutch painter Rembrandt died in solitude and poverty, aged 63, in Amsterdam, having survived both his wife and his mistress. He gradually went bankrupt after his wealthy wife died in 1642, although in his 30s he earned large sums of money from painting portraits of the elite in Amsterdam. He left a legacy of 600 paintings, 1500 drawings and 350 etchings.


30 September 1669, Thursday (-100,651) Henry King, English poet, died (born 16 January 1591).

28 September 1669, Tuesday (-100,653) London�s Royal Exchange Building was completed.

27 September 1669. Monday (-100,654) Candia, the capital of Crete, was captured by the Ottoman Turks from the Venetians after a 21 year siege. Spain, Britain, France, the Pope, Tuscany, and Malta, had all supplied troops to the Venetians but to no avail. Towards the end the Ottoman Turks intensified the blockade and disagreements broke out between the allies leading to the withdrawal of some of the Europeans.

27 July 1669, Tuesday (-100,716)

4 July 1669, Sunday (-100,739) Antonio Escobar, Spanish religious writer, died (born 1589).


19 June 1669, Saturday (-100,754) Michael Wisniowiecki, Lithiuanian, was elected King of Poland, thereby thwarting French attempts to gain influence in the country.

31 May 1669. Monday (-100,773) Samuel Pepys, naval administrator and politician, made the last entry in his diary which began on 1 January 1660.

14 May 1669, Friday (-100,790) Denis de Sallo, French writer, died.

22 April 1669, Thursday (-100,812) Richard Mather, US religious writer, died.

18 April 1669. Sunday (-100,816) Aurangzeb, the Moghul Emperor of India, ordered that all recently constructed Hindu temples should be demolished.

11 April 1669, Sunday (-100,823) Easter Sunday.

4 April 1669, Sunday (-100,830) Johann Moscherosch, German satirical writer, died (born 5 March 1601).


11 March 1669, Thursday (-100,854) Mount Etna, Sicily, erupted, killing 20,000.

10 March 1669, Wednesday (-100,855) John Denham, Irish poet, died.

23 February 1669, Tuesday (-100,870) (Netherlands) Lieuwe Aitzema, Dutch statesman, died (born 19 November 1600, in Doccum, Friesland).

13 February 1669, Saturday (-100,880) Jean Folard, French military author, was born (died 1752).

17 January 1669, Sunday (-100,907)


31 December1668, Thursday (-100,924) Hermann Boerhaave, Dutch physician, was born near Leiden (died in Leiden 23 September 1738).

13 December1668, Sunday (-100,942) Alain le Sage, French novelist and dramatist, was born (died 17 November 1747).

27 November 1668, Friday (-100,958) Henri Aguesseau, Chancellor of France (died 9 February 1751) was born.

11 November 1668, Wednesday (-100,974) Johann Fabricius, German scholarly writer, was born (died 30 April 1736).

10 November 1668, Tuesday (-100,975) Francois Couperin, French composer, was born.

18 October 1668, Sunday (-100,998) John George IV, Elector of Saxony, was born (died 27 April 1694).


19 September 1668, Saturday (-101,027) King John II Casimir of Poland abdicated, aged 58, to become a priest.

9 August 1668, Sunday (-101,068) Jakob Balde, German writer, died in Neuberg, (born in Ensisheim, Alsace, 4 January 1604).

17 July 1668, Friday (-101,091)


28 June 1668, Sunday (-101,110) King Louis XIV issued letters of patent �to establish a music academy�. This was the start of the Paris Opera.

23 June 1668, Tuesday (-101,115) Giambattista Vico, Italian philosopher, was born.

17 June 1668, Wednesday (-101,121)

28 May 1668, Thursday (-101,141) (Italy) Assassination of the Marquis de Camarassa, Viceroy of Sardinia.

10 May 1668, Sunday (-101,159) (France, Netherlands) Treaty of Aix la Chapelle ended the war between France and Holland

2 May 1668, Saturday (-101,167) France, Spain, Netherlands) Treaty of Aix la Chapelle ended the War of Devolution between France ans Spain. France returned most of the gains it had made from Spain in The Spanish Netherlands.

13 April 1668, Monday (-101,186) John Dryden was appointed the first Poet Laureate. He kept this office until 1689.

7 April 1668, Tuesday (-101,192) Sir William Davenant, English poet, died (born 1606).


22 March 1668, Sunday (-101,208) Easter Sunday.

13 February 1668, Thursday (-101,246) Spain recognised Portugal as an independent nation.

31 January 1668, Friday (-101,259) Herman Busenbaum, Christian writer, died (born 1600).

13 January 1668, Monday (-101,277) (Britain, France) The Triple Alliance was formed between England, Holland, and Sweden to defend The Netherlands from the ambitions of the French King, Louis XIV, who was pursuing a claim based on his wife�s rights as Spanish Infanta. This was the War of Devolution which was ended on 2 May 1668 by the Peace of Aix la Chapelle.


31 December1667, Tuesday (-101,290)

30 November 1667, Saturday (-101,321) Jonathan Swift, author of Gulliver�s Travels, was born in Dublin.

28 November 1667, Thursday (-101,323) Jean de Thevenot, French Orientalist writer, died (born in Paris 16 June 1633)

25 November 1667, Monday (-101,326) Earthquake at Samakhi, Azerbaijan.

12 November 1667, Thursday (-101,323) Hans Nansen, Danish statesman, died (born 28 November 1598).

23 October 1667, Wednesday (-101,359) The foundation stone of London�s Royal Exchange was laid by King Charles II.

18 October 1667, Friday (-101,364) Brooklyn received its Town Charter under Mathias Nichols, Governor of the New Netherlands, as �Brueckelen�.


23 September 1667. Monday (-101,389) Alaw passed in Williamsburg, America, prevented slaves from gaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.

31 August 1667, Saturday (-101,412) Johann von Rist, German poet, died (born in Holstein 8 March 1607)

30 August 1667, Friday (-101,413) King Charles II dismissed the Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde over the humiliating terms imposed on Britain by Holland in the Treaty of Breda.

13 August 1667, Tuesday (-101,430) Jeremy Taylor, English religious writer, died.

31 July 1667. Wednesday (-101,443) (Britain, France) The Peace of Breda ended the war between England and the Netherlands (Second Anglo-Dutch War) .Trade laws were modified in favour of the Dutch, who also gained Surinam but recognised British possession of New York. See 18 June 1667 and 2 February 1665. The English sought peace with the Dutch in order to curb the growing military power of (Catholic) France. In the �War of Devolution� France had already seized the Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comte; Holland and England now sought to mediate in this war between France and Spain. The other principal Protestant power in Europe, Sweden, then joined with (Protestant) Holland and Britain in a Triple Alliance (formalised by the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle, 2 May 1668). However (Catholic) King Charles II regretted this Triple Alliance against France and began negotiations with Louis XIV that led to the Treaties of Dover (1 June 1670).

28 July 1667, Sunday (-101,446) Abraham Cowley, English poet, died (born 1618).

27 July 1667, Saturday (-101,447) (Science) Jean Bernoulli, physicist, was born in Basel (died 1 January 1748)

7 July 1667, Sunday (-101,467) Nicolas Sanson, French geographical writer, died in Paris (born December 1600)


18 June 1667, Tuesday (-101,486) The Dutch humiliated the English by breaking through a defensive chain in the Thames Estuary at Chatham and sailing up The Thames to burn or capture English ships. The English flagship Royal Charles was captured and carried off. See 31 July 1667.

12 June 1667, Wednesday (-101,492) The first blood transfusion was made at Montpellier University. A 15 year old boy was given 9 oz. of blood from a lamb � surprisingly he recovered from this, and the fever he had been suffering. It was likely that blood clotting, of the sheep�s blood, had prevented much from actually entering the boy�s own bloodstream.

26 May 1667, Sunday (-101,509) Abraham Demoivre, English mathematician, was born (died 27 November 1754).

16 May 1667, Thursday (-101,519) Samuel Bochart, French scholarly writer, died in Caen (born in Rouen 30 May 1599).

29 April 1667, Monday (-101,536) John Arbuthnot, British physician, was born (died 27 February 1735).

27 April 1667, Saturday (-101,538) John Milton, poet, then blind and destitute, sold the publishing rights to his epic work, Paradise Lost, for �10.

9 April 1667, Tuesday (-101,556) The world�s first art exhibition opened at the Palais Royale in Paris, organised by the Academie de Peinture et de Sculpture. It closed on 23 April 1667.

7 April 1667, Sunday (-101,558) Easter Sunday.


12 February 1667, Tuesday (-101,612)

31 January 1667, Thursday (-101,624) After eight years war between Russia and Poland, the Treaty of Andruszow between them divided up Ukraine between them, along the Dneiper River.


26 December 1666, Wednesday (-101,660) 10th Sikh Guru Gobind Singh was born (died 1708).

22 December1666, Saturday (-101,664) Painter Guercino died in Bologna, aged 75.

15 December1666, Saturday (-101,671)

29 October 1666, Monday (-101,718) James Shirley, dramatist, died.

15 October 1666, Monday (-101,732) King Charles II, according to Pepys, wore the first waistcoat this day.


23 September 1666, Wednesday (-101,754) Hanibal Sehested, Danish statesman, died in Paris (born 1609)

19 September 1666, Saturday (-101,758) Several plans for the reconstruction of London were drawn up or in progress. The first was by Christopher Wren (11/9); John Evelyn�s was complete on 13/9, and Robert Hooke�s was finished on 19/9. Plans, according to a Royal proclamation of 13/9, must include wider streets, replacement of wooden buildings by brick and stone, and a quayside along the Thames. However questions of accurate compensation precluded many of the concepts for wide boulevards. Instead, the Rebuilding Act of 1667 set standards and heights for new buildings according to the width of the street they were in.

15 September 1666, Saturday (-101,762) Dorothea Sophia, wife of King George I of England, was born (died 23 November 1726)

6 September 1666, Thursday (-101,771) The Great Fire of London ended � see 2 September 1666.

2 September 1666. Sunday (-101,775) The Great Fire of London began on a Sunday morning at the house and shop of Thomas Farynor (Farriner), baker to King Charles II, in Pudding Lane. Farynor allegedly forgot to put out the fire in his oven, which spread to nearby stacked firewood. Farynor and his family escaped their burning house by climbing out of a window and along roof tops. Their maid was too scared to climb along the rooftops, and became the fire�s first victim. The fire rapidly spread. It burns for 4 days. In all, 436 acres were burned, destroying 87 churches and over 13,000 houses. However only nine lives were lost. The fire also helped end the Great Plague.

31 August 1666, Friday (-101,777) Maria Henrietta, wife of Charles I of England, daughter of Henry IV of Framce, died (born 25 November 1609).

30 August 1666, Thursday (-101,778) Benedikt Carpzov, scholarly writer, died (born 27 May 1595).

26 August 1666, Sunday (-101,782) Painter Franz Hals died in Haatrlem aged 86.

26 July 1666, Thursday (-101,813) Hans Svane, Danish statesman, died (born in Horsens 27 March 1606)

10 July 1666, Tuesday (-101,829) John Grabe, religious writer, was born (died 3 November 1711).


26 June 1666, Tuesday (-101,843) Richard Fanshawe, English poet, died in Madrid, Spain.

17 June 1666, Sunday (-101,852) Antonio Maria Valsalva was born in Imola, Italy. In 1704 he provided the first detailed description of the physiology of the human ear.

2 May 1666, Wednesday (-101,898)

15 April 1666, Sunday (-101,915) Easter Sunday.

11 April 1666, Wednesday (-101,919) Jose Patino, Spanish statesman, was born in Milan (died 3 November 1736)


2 March 1666, Friday (-101,959)

2 February 1666, Friday (-101,987) Earthquake in Echigo, Japan, 1,500 killed.

22 January 1666, Monday (-101,998) Shah Jahan died, aged 74, in the fort where his son Aurangzeb had imprisoned him with his harem for the previous eight years. Shah Jahan had built the Taj Mahal as a mausoleum for his wife Mumtaz-i-Mahal and Shah Jahan was buried beside her. Aurangzeb had fought and killed his brothers to attain the throne, as Shah Jahan had done in 1628.

20 January 1666, Saturday (-102,000) The French Queen Mother, Anne of Austria, died in Paris of breast cancer aged 64.


2 December1665, Saturday (-102,049)

19 November 1665, Sunday (-102,062) French painter Nicolas Poussin died in Rome, Italy.

17 November 1665, Friday (-102,064) John Earle, English writer, died.

29 October 1665, Sunday (-102,083) Battle of Mbwila; the Portuguese defeated and killed King Antonio I of the Kongo Kingdom.

2 October 1665, Monday (-102,110)


28 September 1665. Thursday (-102,114) London was in the grip of The Plague; 7,000 died in the last week alone. In July 1665, deaths averaged 200 a week. People were fleeing the city; graveyards were full, and corpses were thrown into Plague Pits.

17 September 1665, Sunday (-102,125) Philip IV, King of Spain, died, aged 60. He was succeeded by his son, Charles II.

27 August 1665, Sunday (-102,146) (Britain) John Hervey, First Earl of Bristol, was born.

17 August 1665, Thursday (-102,156) Josue de la Place, French religious writer, was born.

17 July 1665, Monday (-102,187)

2 July 1665, Sunday (-102,202) Samuel Penhallow, American historical writer, was born in St Mahon, Cornwall (died 2 December 1726)


11 June 1665, Sunday (-102,223) Sir Kenelm Digby, English author, died (born 11 July 1603).

7 June 1665, Wednesday (-102,227) The Plague was first reported in London. It was a very hot day. 70,000 people would die of the Plague by October. Plague forced Parliament to meet in Oxford.

3 June 1665, Saturday (-102,231) The Duke of York defeated a Dutch fleet off Lowestoft. The Dutch admiral was killed in the battle, and 16 of his ships sunk.

3 May 1665, Wednesday (-102,262)

29 April 1665, Saturday (-102,266) James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde, was born in Dublin (died 16 November 1745)

19 April 1665, Wednesday (-102,276) Jacques Lelong, French bibliographical writer, was born (died 13 August 1721).

3 April 1665, Monday (-102,292)


29 March 1665, Wednesday (-102,297) Maria Agreda, Spanish religious visionary and Franciscan nun died 2 April 1602).

26 March 1665, Sunday(-102,300) Easter Sunday.

15 March 1665, Wednesday (-102,311) (USA) John Endecott, British colonial Governor of America, died.

12 February 1665, Sunday (-102,342) (Biology) Rudolf Camerarius, botanist, was born (died 11 September 1721).

6 February 1665, Monday (-102,348) Queen Anne was born at St James Palace, the second daughter of James II by his first wife, Anne Hyde. She was the last Stuart monarch of Britain.

2 February 1665. Thursday (-102,352) The British captured Manhattan Island from the Dutch, almost 40 years after the Dutch bought it from the Indians for beads in 1626. The Dutch colony was ruled by Peter Stuyvesant under strict Puritanical principles. The British renamed it �New York� after King Charles II�s brother the Duke of York. See 31 July 1667. British rule was more relaxed.

12 January 1665, Thursday (-102,373) French mathematician Pierre de Fermat (born 1601) died.


15 December1664, Thursday (-102,401) The colonies of New haven and Connecticut united.

2 December1664, Friday (-102,414)

2 November 1664, Wednesday (-102,444)

28 October 1664, Friday (-102,449) The Admiral�s Regiment was formed, later known as the Royal Marines.


11 September 1664, Sunday (-102,496) John Hutchinson, English Purtian soldier, died (born 1615).

24 August 1664, Thursday (-102,514) Maria Cunitz, Silesian astronomer, died.

1 August 1664. Monday (-102,537) The Ottoman Turkish advance into Austria was halted by Hapsburg (Austrian) defences at the Battle of St Gotthard.

21 July 1664, Thursday (-102,548) Matthew Prior, English poet, was born.

16 July 1664, Saturday (-102,553) Andreas Gryphius, German poet, died (born 11 October 1616).

22 June 1664, Wednesday (-102,577) Katharine Philips, English poet, died in London of smallpox (born 1 January1631 in London)


31 May 1664, Tuesday (-102,599) (Italy) Giulio Alberoni, Italian statesman, was born near Piacenza (died 16 June 1752)

10 April 1664, Sunday (-102,650) Easter Sunday.

6 April 1664, Wednesday (-102,654) Arvid Horn, Swedish statesman, was born (died 17 April 1742).

5 April 1664, Tuesday (-102,655) In England the Triennial act was passed. This stipulated that Parliament must meet at least every three years.


12 March 1664, Saturday (-102,679) New Jersey became a colony of England.

24 January 1664, Sunday (-102,727) John Vanbrugh, English architect, was born.

20 January 1664, Wednesday (-102,731) Giovanni Gravina, Italian scholarly writer, was born (died 6 January 1718).

18 January 1664, Monday (-102,733) (Christian) Moses Amyraut, Protestant theologian (born 1596) died.

1 January 1664, Friday (-102,750)


31 December1663, Thursday (-102,751)

17 December1663, Thursday (-102,765) Death of Nzinga, Queen of the Mbundu Kingdom, in what is now Angola.

25 November 1663, Wednesday (-102,787) Jean Frederic Ostervald, Swiss religious writer, was born in Neuchatel (died 14 April 1747)

12 November 1663, Thursday (-102,800)

18 October 1663, Sunday (-102,825) (France) Eugene of Savoy was born (died 21 April 1736).


16 September 1663, Wednesday (-102,857) (Sweden, Medical) The Swedish Collegium Medicorum was founded. This later became the Swedish National Board of Health.

12 September 1663, Saturday (-102,861)

31 August 1663, Monday (-312,873) (Science) Guillaume Amontons, French scientist, was born in Paris (died 11 October 1705 in Paris).

12 July 1663, Sunday (-102,923)

8 July 1663, Wednesday (-102,927) King Charles II granted a Charter to the colony of Rhode Island, allowing ot to elect its own Governor, sand have religious toleration.


24 June 1663, Wednesday (-102,941) Jean Massilon, French religious writer, was born (died 18 September 1742).

4 June 1663, Thursday (-102,961) William Juxon, English prelate, died.

20 May 1663, Wednesday (-102,976) William Bradford, printer, was born in Leicestershire, UK (died in New York, USA, 23 May 1752).

7 May 1663, Thursday (-102,989) The first Drury Lane Theatre, London, opened.

20 April 1663, Monday (-103,006) The Dukedom of Buccleuch was created.

19 April 1663, Sunday (-103,007) Easter Sunday

7 April 1663, Tuesday (-103,019) Mary Manley, English writer, was born.


24 March 1663, Tuesday (-103,033) King Charles II of England granted Carolina (from Virginia down to Florida) to eight of his courtiers, who had helped him regain the throne.

22 March 1663, Sunday (-103,035) August Francke, German religious writer, was born (died 8 June 1727)

15 March 1663, Sunday (-103,042) John Campbell, 1st Earl of Loudon, died.

25 February 1663, Wednesday (-103,060) Pierre Motteaux, English dtramatist, was born (died 18 February 1718).

12 February 1663, Thursday (-103,073) Cotton Mather, US author, was born (died 13 February 1728).

10 January 1663,

29 January 1663, Thursday (-103,087) Robert Sanderson, English divine, died (born 1587)

6 January 1663, Tuesday (-103,110) George Goring, Earl of Norwich, died in Brentford, Middlesex.

2 January 1663, Friday (-103,114) William Christian, Manx politician, died (born 14 April 1608).


22 December1662, Monday (-103,125) The first catamaran was built at Dublin for Sir William Petty, a founder member of the Royal Society. The vessel weighed 30 tons and carried 5 guns; it had a crew of 30 men. In January 1663 it won the first open yacht race and in July 1663 beat the Dublin Packet in a sea going race. King Charles II, a keen yachtsman, considered the catamaran a joke but declined a racing challenge from Sir Petty.

13 December1662, Saturday (-103,134) Francesco Bianchini, Italian astronomer, was born in Verona (died in Rome 2 March 1729).

27 October 1662, Monday (-103,181) King Charles II sold Dunkirk to the French King Louis XIV (Treaty of Dunkirk) for 2.5 million livres.

18 October 1662, Saturday (-103,190) Matthew Henry, English religious writer, was born (died 22 June 1714).


22 September 1662, Monday (-103,216) (Britain) John Biddle, English preacher, died in a London prison (born in Wotton Under Edge, Gloucestershire 14 January 1615).

15 September 1662, Monday (-103,223) James Renwick, Scottish Covenanter, was born in Dumfriesshire (executed 17 February 1688).

3 September 1662, Wednesday (-103,235) William Lenthall, Speaker of the House of Commons, England, died.

19 August 1662, Tuesday (-103,250) Blaise Pascal, French philosopher and mathematician, inventor of the first digital calculator, died in Paris.

5 August 1662, Tuesday (-105,264) (Britain) James Anderson, Scottish historian, was born in Edinburgh (died 3 April 1728).

15 July 1662, Tuesday (-103,285) The Royal Society received a royal charter.


16 June 1662, Monday (-103,314) Earthquake in Kyoto, Japan, 500 killed.

23 May 1662, Friday (-103,338) John Gauden, English writer, died (born 1605).

20 May 1662, Tuesday (-103,341) King Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza, starting a fruitful alliance with Portugal.

8 May 1662, Thursday (-103,353) Maria Countess of Konigsmark (Saxony) was born (died 16 February 1728).

30 April 1662, Wednesday (-103,361) Mary II of England was born.

1 April 1662, Tuesday (-103,390) King Charles II of Britain granted Royal Patronage to the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge. The group of scientists andnaturalists had been meeting since 1645.


30 March 1662, Sunday (-103,392) Easter Sunday

23 March 1662, Sunday (-103,399) Samuel Rutherford, Scottish religious writer, died.

18 March 1662. Tuesday (-103,404) The world�s first bus service began, in Paris. Eight seater horse drawn vehicles ran every 8 minutes, and were at first used by the aristocracy, who left their carriages at the terminus, for the novelty factor. However by the summer of 1662 the nobility had returned to their carriages and the less wealthy walked to save the fare. The bus service managed to stay going till the 1680s. Bus services did not restart anywhere until a Parisian service began in 1819. The word �omnibus� was coined in Nantes in 1823, as people of all sorts were using the service there. See 4 July 1829.

26 February 1662, Wednesday (-103,424) Pierre de Marca, French historical writer, died (born 24 January 1594).

27 January 1662, Monday (-103,454) Richard Bentley, English scholar and writer, was born near Wakefield (died 14 July 1742).

21 January 1662, Tuesday (-103,460)


31 December1661, Tuesday (-103,481)

29 December 1661, Sunday (-103,483) Marc Saint Amant, French poet, died in Paris (born 1594 near Rouen)

17 December 1661, Tuesday (-103,495) Sir Isaac Pennington, advisor to Cromwell, died in the Tower of London after being convicted of treason following the Restoration.

10 December 1661, Tuesday (-103,502)

5 December 1661, Thursday (-103,507) Robert Harley 1st earl of Oxford, English statesman, was born (died 21 May 1724)

6 November 1661, Wednesday (-103,536) King Charles II of Spain was born.

5 November 1661, Tuesday (-103,537)

1 November 1661, Friday (-103,541) Florent Dancourt, French dramatist, was born (died 7 December1725).


4 October 1661, Friday (-103,569) Jacqueline Pascal, writer, died (born 4 October 1625)

7 September 1661, Saturday (-103,596) Gunno Dahlstjerna, Swedish poet, was born (died 7 September 1709).

16 August 1661, Friday (-103,618) Thomas Fuller, English historical writer, died (born 19 June 1608).

16 July 1661, Tuesday (-103,649) The first banknotes in Europe were issued, by the Bank of Stockholm.

25 June 1661, Tuesday (-103,670)


25 May 1661, Saturday (-103,701) Claude Buffier, French philosophical writer, was born (died 1737).

23 April 1661, Tuesday (-103,733) The coronation of King Charles II.

19 April 1661, Friday (-103,737) Postmarks were introduced in Britain by the Post Office.

16 April 1661, Tuesday (-103,740) Charles Montagu, founder of the Bank of England, was born.

14 April 1661, Sunday (-103,742) Easter Sunday. William Fiennes Saye and Sele, British statesman, died.

13 April 1661, Saturday (-103,743) Jacques Lenfant, French religious writer, was born (died 7 August 1728).


25 March 1661, Monday (-103,762) Paul de Rapin, French historical writer, was born in Tarn (died 1725)

9 March 1661, Saturday (-103,778) (France) With the death of the French Regent, Cardinal Mazarin of cancer, the personal rule of King Louis XIV of France began. Louis was aged just 22 and knew that he was inexperienced in politics and would very much miss the advice of Mazarin. Louis signalled that his rule was to be Absolutist, by demanding that the entire Court, not just his immediate family, mourn for Mazarin.

3 March 1661, Sunday (-103,784) (France) Death of Cardinal Mazarin

5 February 1661, Tuesday (-103,810) (China) Emperor Kangxi began his reign in China; he ruled for over 61 years.

2 February 1661, Saturday (-103,813) Lucas Holstenius, German writer, died (born 1596).

30 January 1661, Wednesday (-103,816) (Britain) The body of Oliver Cromwell (died 3 September 1658) was exhumed, hanged and beheaded, and reburied at Tyburn.

7 January 1661, Monday (-103,839) Sir Arthur Hesilridge, English Parliamentarian, died

6 January 1661, Sunday (-103,840) The Royal Horse Guards Regiment was formed, by Royal Warrant.


24 December1660, Monday (-103,853) Mary, daughter of Charles I, died..

8 December1660, Saturday (-103,869) The first (unnamed) actress appeared on the English stage.

3 December 1660, Monday (-103,874) Jacques Sarrazin, French painter, died in Paris (born 1588 in Noyon)

1 December1660, Saturday (-103,876) Pierre d�Hozier, French writer, died (born 10 July 1592).

28 November 1660, Wednesday (-103,879) The Royal Society was founded in England.

27 November 1660, Tuesday (-103,880) John Finch, English Judge, died (born 17 September 1584).

20 November 1660, Tuesday (-103,887) Daniel Jablonski, German religious writer, was born (died 25 May 1741).

15 November 1660, Thursday (-103,892) Hermann Hardt, German historical writer, was born (died 28 February 1746)

12 November 1660. Monday (-103,895) John Bunyan, 32, author of Pilgrim�s Progress, was arrested for preaching without a licence, and not in a parish church. He was put in Bedford gaol.

21 October 1660, Sunday (-103,917) Georg Ernst Stahl, German chemist, was born in Anspach (died14 May 1734 in Berlin)

13 October 1660, Saturday (-103,925) Thomas Harrison, Civil War Parliamentarian who opposed the Absolutist rule of Cromwell,was executed.

6 October 1660, Saturday (-103,932) Paul Scarron, French poet, died.

1 October 1660. Monday (-103,937) The English reinforced the Navigation Act by insisting that certain colonial goods were only to be shipped to Britain. This was directed against the Dutch but caused resentment in the British colonies.


27 September 1660, Thursday (-103,941) Vincent de Paul, preacher, later beatified, died.

12 September 1660, Wednesday (-103,956) Jacob Cats, Dutch poet, died (born 10 November 1577).

31 August 1660, Friday (-103,968) Johann Freinsheim, German scholarly writer, died (born 16 November 1608).

6 August 1660, Monday (-103,993) Diego Rodriguez Velazquez, painter, died in Madrid.

1 August 1660, Wednesday (-103,998)

24 July 1660, Tuesday (-104,006) Charles Talbot Shrewsbury, English politician, was born (died 1 February 1718)


30 June 1660, Saturday (-104,030) William Oughtred, English mathematician who invented the slide rule in 1622, died in Albury, Surrey.

11 June 1660, Monday (-104,649) John Colepeper, English politician, died.

10 June 1660, Sunday (-104,650) (Madagascar) Etienne de Flacourt, French colonial Governor of Madagascar, died (born 1607).

9 June 1660, Saturday (-104,051) King Louis XIV of France, the �Sun King�, married Maria Theresa of Spain.

29 May 1660, Tuesday (-104,062) King Charles II entered London; he landed at Dover on 26 May 1660.

27 May 1660, Sunday (-104,064) The Treaty of Copenhagen. Denmark recovered some of its losses from the Peace of Roskilde (26 February 1658). Denmark recovered Trondheim and the island of Bornholm.

26 May 1660. Saturday (-104,065) The British monarchy was restored with Charles II, born 29 May 1630, as king.He was crowned on 23 April 1661, ending an exile of nearly nine years.On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, Charles II rode into London to scenes of great rejoicing.Everyone was glad to see the end of the kill-joy Puritan regime that had banned Christmas, maypoles, and theatre; a regime that had run out of steam after Cromwell died.The bodies of Cromwell and his chief associates were dragged from Westminster Abbey and buried beneath Tyburn Gallows.Other regicides were executed.

23 May 1660, Wednesday (-104,068) King Charles II sailed from Scheveningen, to return to England, ending his exile. See 16 March 1660.

17 May 1660, Thursday (-104,074) Abraham de Fabert, Marshal of France, died (born 1599).

3 May 1660, Thursday (-104,088) At the Peace of Oliva (near Danzig), Frederick William ceded Eastern Pomerania to Sweden.

30 April 1660, Monday (-104,091) Peter Schrijver, Dutch scholarly writer, died in Oudewater (born 12 January 1576 in Haarlem)

25 April 1660, Wednesday (-104,096) The English Parliament voted for the restoration of the Monarchy, see 26 May 1660.

22 April 1660, Sunday (-104,099) Easter Sunday.

16 April 1660, Monday (-104,105) Sir Hans Sloane, physician and collector, was born.


28 March 1660, Wednesday (-104,124) George I, first Hanoverian king of England, was born at Osnabruck Castle in Hanover.

16 March 1660. Friday (-104,136) England�s Long Parliament was dissolved after sitting for 20 years (with a break, 1653-59), throughout the Civil War. This was an important step towards the restoration of the monarchy and the House of Lords. See 23 May 1660.

21 February 1660,Tuesday (-104,160) The Rump (Long) Parliament, recalled on 7 May 1659, was rejoined by surviving MPs that had been purged on 6 December1648.

19 February 1660, Sunday (-104,162) Friedrich Hoffmann, German medical writer, was born (died 12 November 1742)

13 February 1660, Monday (-104,168) Charles X of Sweden died, aged 37. He was succeeded by his 4-year old son, Charles XI.

2 February 1660, Thursday (-104,179) Jean Baptiste Gaston, Duke of Orleans, died (born in Fontainebleau 25 April 1606)

22 January 1660, Sunday (-104,190) Nicolas Lancret, French painter, was born (died 14 September 1743).

1 January 1660, Sunday (-104,211) Samuel Pepys began his Diary.This was discontinued on 31 May 1669.


7 November 1659, Monday (-104,266) The war between France and Spain ended. France gained northern Catalonia, under the Treaty of the Pyrenees. Spain�s treasury was empty and England had joined on the side of the French.

28 October 1659, Friday (-104,276) Nicholas Brady, poet, was born in Cork (died 20 May 1726).

22 October 1659, Saturday (-104,282) Explorer Abel Tasman died.


22 August 1659, Monday (-104,343)

28 July 1659, Thursday (-104,368) (France) Charles Ancillon, French educationalist, was born in Metz (died 5 July 1715).

20 July 1659, Wednesday (-104,376) Hyacinthe Rigaud, French painterm was born in Perpignan (died 27 December 1743)

22 June 1659, Wednesday (-104,404)


25 May 1659, Wednesday (-104,432) Richard Cromwell resigned as Lord Protector.

7 May 1659, Saturday (-104,450) The Long (Rump) Parliament was recalled (see 20 April 1653). It called for Cromwell�s resignation.

5 May 1659, Thursday (-104,452) Saint Helena was occupied by Captain John Dutton of the East India Company.

4 May 1659, Wednesday (-104,453) John Dutton, English author, was born (died 1733).

22 April 1659, Friday (-104,465) (1) Richard Cromwell dissolved the English Parliament, at the request of the Army.

(2) (Price) The first cheque was drawn. It was for �10, on a London bank. This first cheque, written on 16 February 1659 by Nicholas Vanacker, made out almost exactly like a modern cheque, was sold at Sotheby�s in December 1976 for �1,000.

16 April 1659, Saturday (-104,471) Simon Dach, German poet, died (born 29 July 1605)

3 April 1659, Sunday (-104,484) Easter Sunday.


8 March 1659, Tuesday (-104,510) (France)Isaac de Beausobre, French theologian, was born in Niort (died 5 June 1738).

21 February 1659, Monday (-104,525)

17 February 1659, Thursday (-104,529) Abel Servien, French diplomat, died in Meudon (born 1593 in Grenoble)

4 February 1658, Friday (-104,542) (Denmark) King Charles X of Sweden took advantage of the freezing of the Baltic between Sweden and Denmark to march hs army across and attack Copenhagen, an event Denmark was not prepared for. Danish forces were overwhelmed, and King Frederick III at once sued for peace.

14 January 1659, Friday (-104,563) (Spain, Portugal) The Battle of Elvas practically ensured Portuguese independence from Spain.


6 December1658, Monday (-104,602) Baltasar Gracian, Spanish writer, died (born 8 January 1601).

6 November 1658, Saturday (-104,632) Pierre du Ryer, French dramatist, died (born 1606).

23 October 1658, Saturday (-164,646) Thomas Pride, parliamentarian general in the English Civil War, died at nonesuch House, Surrey

5 October 1658, Tuesday (-104,664) (Italy) Mary of Modena was born (died 7 May 1718).

3 October 1658, Sunday (-104,666) Myles Sundish, leader of the Pilgrim Fathers, died.


22 September 1658, Wednesday (-104,675) Georg Harsdorffer, German poet, died (born 1 November 1607).

3 September 1658. Friday (-104,696) Oliver Cromwell died of pneumonia. A Puritan, he was aged 60 and had ruled England for 5 years. His son Richard succeeded him as Protector. However Richard lacked the authority of his father.

1 September 1658, Wednesday (-304,698) Jacques Bernard, French theological writer, was born in Nions (died 27 April 1718).

1 August 1658, Sunday (-104,729)

17 July 1658, Saturday (-104,744) Despite the Peace of Roskilde (26 February 1658), and without a declaration of war, Charles X of Sweden suddenly began an invasion of Denmark, to try and eliminate an inconvenient neighbour once and for all. The Swedish army landed at Korsor, Zeeland, and Copenhagen was poorly defended. However the Danes rallied vigorously against the Swedish threat and by 1 September 1658 the defenders of Copenhagen numbered 7,000, up from 2,000 earlier. See 29 October 1658.

10 July 1658, Saturday (-104,751) Luigi Marsigli, scientific writer, was born (died 1 November 1730).

1 July 1658, Thursday (-104,760) (Road, Price) The stage coach fare from London to Salisbury (2 days journey) was 20 shillings. From London to Exeter cost 40 shillings (4 days), and from London to Durham cost 55 shillings (no set journey time).


4 June 1658, Friday (-104,787) (France, Spain) The Battle of the Dunes was fought near Dunkirk. Marshal Turenne commanded the French and English armies, against the Spanish under Don Juan of Austria and the Prince of Conde. The Spanish were attempting to relieve Dunkirk, which Turenne was besieging. The Spanish were defeated, and Dunkirk surrendered to the French.

29 May 1658, Saturday (-104,793) Battle of Samugarh, Mughal Civil War. A decisive battle in the power striuggle for the Mughal throne. Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh, 3rd and 4th sons of Shah jehan, defeated the ledest son, Dara Shikoh. This paved the way for Aurnagzeb to become Emperor.

29 April 1658, Thursday (-104,823) John Cleveland, English poet, died (born 20 June 1613).


26 February 1658, Friday (-104,885) The Peace of Roskilde, The Danes ceded the three provinces of Scania, the southern tip of Scandinavia, also the island of Bornholm, and Baahus and Trondheim in Norway, to Sweden. Denmark also promised not to make any anti-Swedish alliances and to exempt all Swedish vessels from tolls when passing through Danish waters out of the Baltic.

24 February 1658, Wednesday (-104,887) Conflict between the four sons of Shah Jehan, Moghul Emperor of India, over the succession. The Shah�s second son, Shuja, set himself up as Governor of Bengal was was defeated by the son of Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Jehan. Aurangzeb, third son of Jehan, later executed his nephew, Sulayman Shikoh.

18 February 1658, Thursday (-104,893) Charles Saint Pierre, French writer, was born near Cherbourg (died 29 April 1743 in Paris)

3 February 1658, Wednesday (-104,908)


31 December1657, Thursday (+104,942)

3 December1657, Thursday (-104,970)

26 November 1657, Thursday (-104,977) William Derham, English religious writer, was born (died 5 April 1735).

20 November 1657, Friday (-104,983) Manasseh ben Israel (Manoel Dias Soeiro), founder of the modern Jewish community in England, died in Middelburg, Netherlands.

3 October 1657, Saturday (-105,031)


29 August 1657, Saturday (-105,066) John Lilburne, English political agitator, died.

3 August 1657, Monday (-105,092)

24 July 1657, Friday (-105,128) (Cartography) Jean Chazelles, French hydrographer, was born (died 16 January 1710). He surveyed the French coast.

11 July 1657, Saturday (-105,115) Frederick I, King of Prussia, was born.


17 June 1657, Wednesday (-105,139) Louis du Pin, French religious writer, was born (died 6 June 1719).

16 June 1657, Tuesday (-105,140) The first mention of chocolate in Britain, in the Public Advertiser. The foodstuff was then used either as a drink or as a paste for brewing a tasty but rather greasy beverage, as the ground beans were rich in cocoa butter. At that time it was being sold by a Frenchman in Bishopsgate, London. The first factory to produce chocolate bars opened at Vevey, Switzerland, in 1819; the bars were used as emergency rations. In 1842 John Cadbury introduced �French Eating Chocolate�, the first chocolate bar for pleasurable eating. Cadbury also introduced the first chocolate boxes to Britain, in 1866. Their first assortment included almond, lemon, orange and raspberry flavoured centres. Also in 1866 Cadbury introduced the first modern cocoa powder, with all the greasy butter removed, for an improved chocolate drink.

10 June 1657, Wednesday (-105,146) James Craggs, English politician, was born (died 16 March 1721).

3 June 1657, Wednesday (-105,153) William Harvey, anatomist and physician, died near Saffron Walden, Essex. He discovered and demonstrated the circulation of the blood.

27 May 1657, Wednesday (-105,160) Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell refused an offer to make him King of England. To have accepted the Crown would have lost him the loyalty of the anti-Royalist Army.

9 May 1657, Saturday (-105,178) Pilgrim Father William Bradford, Governor of Plymouth County in Massachusetts, died.

23 April 1657, Thursday (-105,194) The Danish Rigsraad approved a Danish attack on Sweden, believing the Swedes to be occupied with an invasion of Poland they had begun in 7/1654. However see 4 February 1658.

20 April 1657, Monday (-105,097) Jews in New Amsterdam (now, New York) were granted freedom of worship.

2 April 1657, Thursday (-105,215) Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III died aged 48. He was succeeded by his 16-year old son, Leopold I.


29 March 1657, Sunday (-105,219) Easter Sunday.

19 March 1657, Thursday (-105,229) Jean Leclerc, French religious writer, was born (died 8 January 1736).

18 March 1657, Wednesday (-105,230) Guiseppe Ottavio Pitoni, Italian composer, was born in Rieti (died1 February 1743 in Rome)

11 February 1657, Wednesday (-105,265) Bernard Fontenelle, French author, was born (died 9 January 1757).

2 February 1657, Monday (-105,274)

19 January 1657, Monday (-105,288) The Japanese city of Edo was destroyed in a huge fire; over 100,000 people died.


31 December1656, Wednesday (-105,307)

28 December1656, Sunday (-105,310) Laureint de Lahire, French painter, died (born 27 February 1606).

8 November 1656, Saturday (-105,360) Astronomer Edmund Halley, who discovered Halley�s comet, was born in London. He was the first to realise that comets do not appear at random, but have predictable orbits.

6 November 1656, Thursday (-105,362) John IV of Portugal died, aged 53. He was succeeded by his 13-year old son, Alfonso VI.

20 October 1656, Monday (-105,,379) Nicolas Largilliere, French painter, was born (died 20 March 1746).

8 October 1656, Wednesday (-105,391) John George I, Elector of Saxony, died (born 5 March 1585)

3 October 1656, Friday (-105,396) Miles Standish, early English colonist of America, died in Duxbury, New England.


17 September 1656, Wednesday (-105,412) Cromwell�s Third Parliament convened.

14 September 1656, Sunday (-105,415) (Britain) Thomas Baker, English antiquary, was born in Lanchester, Durham (died 2 July 1740).

8 September 1656, Monday (-165,421) Joseph Hall, English writer, died (born 1 July 1574).

6 September 1656, Saturday (-105,423) Guillaume Dubois, French statesman, was born (died 10 August 1723).

11 August 1656, Monday (-105,449) Prince Octavio Piccolomini, Austrian General, died (born in Florence 11 November 1599)

28 July 1656, Monday (-105,463) (Poland) The Battle of Warsaw began (ended 30 July 1656). Warsaw fell to a Swedish-Brandenburg army.

27 July 1656, Sunday (-105,464) (Jewish) Jewish religious authorities in Amsterdam excommunicated 24 year student Benedict Spinoza for maintaining that the Bible did not support the idea of an immortal soul, or that God has no body, or that angels exist. The secular authorities also banished Spinoza from Amsterdam for a short period. The Jewish community was concerned as Jews still did not have full citizenship rights in Amsterdam.

5 July 1656, Saturday (-105,486) (Britain) John Belhaven, British politician, was born (died in London 31 June 1708).


25 June 1656, Wednesday (-105,496) The Treaty of Marienburg was concluded between Sweden and Brandenburg-Prussia.The Poles under John Casimir had expelled the Swedes, and under this Treaty Brandenburg-Prussia was promised part of the spoils should Poland be defeated by Sweden.

22 June 1656, Sunday (-105,499) Robert Nelson, English religious writer, was born.

30 May 1656, Friday (-105,522) The Grenadier Guards, the senior regiment of the British Army, was formed.

19 May 1656,Monday (-105,533) Easter Sunday. John Hales, English writer, died (born 19 April 1584).

27 April 1656, Sunday (-105,555) Jan van Goyen, painter, died.

24 April 1656, Thursday (-105,558) The Jews petitioned Cromwell to be allowed to live and trade in England. This was permitted, althoughthey were denied legal toleration by the Puritan clergy of England.

6 April 1656, Sunday (-105,576) Easter Sunday.


30 March 1656, Sunday (-105,583)

27 February 1656, Wednesday (-105,615) Johan Van Heemskerk, Dutch poet, died (born 1597).

1 February 1656, Friday (-105,641)

24 January 1656, Thursday (-105,649) The Protestant cantons of Zurich and Berne were defeated by catholic forces in the First Villmergen War.

3 January 1656, Thursday (-105,670) Mathieu Mole, French statesman, died.

1 January 1656, Tuesday (-105,672) William Fleetwood, English cleric, was born (died 4 August 1723).


1 December1655, Saturday (-105,703) Samuel Pepys married Elizabeth St Michael in St Margarets, Westminster.

24 November 1655, Saturday (-195,710) Charles XI, King of Sweden, was born (died 5 April 1697).

24 October 1655, Wednesday (-105,741) Pierre Gassendi, French scientific writer, died (born 22 January 1592.

15 October 1655, Monday (-105,750) The Jews of Lublin, Poland, were massacred.

13 October 1655, Saturday (-105,752) Tobias Matthew, writer, died.


1 August 1655, Wednesday (-105,825)

28 July 1655, Saturday (-105,829) Cyrano de Bergerac, poet, died.

24 July 1655, Tuesday (-105,833) Friedrich :Logau, German writer, died.


1 June 1655, Friday (-105,886)

13 May 1655, Sunday (-105,905) Pope Innocent XIII was born.

10 May 1655. Thursday (-105,908) The English captured Jamaica from the Spanish. Christopher Columbus had arrived in Jamaica in 1494, and claimed the island in the name of the King and Queen of Spain. However Europeans did not occupy the island until 1509. 146 years later the English forces arrived at Passage Fort in Kingston harbour. Commanded by Admiral Penn and General Venables they marched on Spanish Town. They had been sent by Oliver Cromwell to capture Hispaniola but failed so went to Jamaica instead. After surrendering, the Spanish were given a few days to leave Jamaica. Most went to Cuba, but a few secretly went to the north side of Jamaica.

2 May 1655, Wednesday (-105,916) Bartolommeo Cristofori, Italian who invented the first piano, was born in Padua.

30 April 1655, Monday (-105,918) Eustache le Sueur, French painter, died (born 19 November 1617).

15 April 1655, Sunday (-105,933) Easter Sunday.


25 March 1655, Sunday (-105,954) Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, was discovered by Christiaan Huygens.

11 March 1655, Sunday (-105,968) Penruddock�s Uprising began in Wiltshire. It was a small-scale Royalist rebellion, and was easily defeated by 14 March.

25 February 1655, Sunday (-105,982) Daniel Heinsius, scholarly writer, died (born 9 June 1580).

7 February 1655, Wednesday (-106,000) Jean Francois Regnard, French comic dramatist, was born in Paris (died 4 Septrember 1709)

13 January 1655, Saturday (-106,025) Bernard de Montfaucon, French writer, was born (died 21 December1741).

7 January 1655, Sunday (-106,031) Pope Innocent X died.


27 December1654, Wednesday (-106,042) Jacques Bernoulli, mathematician, was born in Basel (died 16 August 1705).

15 December1654. Friday (-106,054) A meteorological office in Tuscany began daily temperature readings.

30 November 1654, Thursday (-106,069) William Habington, English poet, died (born 4 November 1605).

27 November 1654, Monday (-106,072) Friedrich Canitz, German poet, was born (died 1699).

30 October 1654, Monday (-106,100) (Japan) The Japanese Emperor Go-Komyo died (born 1633).


12 September 1654, Tuesday (-106,148) (Britain) Cromwell ordered the exclusion of Members of Parliament that were hostile to him.

3 September 1654, Sunday (-106,157) (Britain) In the English Parliament, a Republican, Vance, questioned the pre-eminence of Cromwell.

28 August 1654, Monday (-106,163) (Sweden) Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna died (born 1583).

24 August 1654, Thursday (-106,167) (France) Battle of Arras. Turenne attacked the Spanish forces who were besieging Arras; Arras was relieved but the besieging forces under Conde managed to withdraw safely.


16 June 1654, Friday (-106,236) (Sweden) Queen Christina of Sweden abdicated in favour of her cousin, Charles Gustavus (Charles X). There had been discontent at her luxurious lifestyle and failure to produce an heir. She had sold off large amounts of Crown Property to support the 500 nobles she had created. She fled disguised in men�s clothes as �Count Dohna�, to settle in Rome.

10 June 1654, Saturday (-106,242) Alessandro Algardi, Italian sculptor (born 1602 in Bologna) died in Rome.

3 June 1654, Saturday (-106,249) (France) Coronation of King Louis XIV of France.

13 May 1654, Saturday (-106,270) The Battle of the Dardanelles took place. The Venetian navy defeated Turkish forces.

3 May 1654, Wednesday (-106,280) The first toll bridge in America was licensed to Richard Thurley at Newbury River. There was a charge for animals but not for people.

27 April 1654, Thursday (-106,286) Charles Blount, English author, was born in Upper Holloway (died 8/1693).

16 April 1654, Sunday (-106,297) The Peace of Westminster ended the First Anglo-Dutch war between England and The Netherlands, but the Navigation Act which led to the war was retained. See 6 October 1651.

13 April 1654, Thursday (-106,300)


26 March 1654, Sunday(-106,318) Easter Sunday.

15 February 1654, Wednesday (-106,357)

27 January 1654, Friday (-106,876) Some 150 Sephardic Jewish families fled Brazil for the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (now, New York). The colony mamnager Peter Stuyvesant wanted to expel these Jews, but the company refused.

22 January 1654, Sunday (-106,381) Richard Blackmore, writer and physician, was born.

18 January 1654, Wednesday (-106,385) The Ukraine came under Russian domination.

15 January 1654, Sunday (-106,388) Paul Potter, Dutch animal painter, died (born 1625)

10 January 1654, Tuesday (-106,393) Joshua Barnes, English writer, was born in London (died in Hemingford, Hampshire, 3 August 1712).


31 December1653, Saturday (-106,403)

16 December1653, Friday (-106,418) Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector of England, effectively an uncrowned King.He ruled for over four years.

13 December1653, Tuesday (-106,421) The Barebones Parliamentended.

5 December 1653, Monday (-106,429) Giovanni Rinuccini, pro-Catholic agitant in Ireland, died (born in Rome 15 September 1592)

13 October 1653, Thursday (-106,482)


13 September 1653, Tuesday (-106,512)

1 September 1653, Thursday (-106,524) Johann Pachelbel, composer, was born.

9 August 1653, Tuesday (-106,547) Marten Harpertszoon Tromp, the Dutch Admiral who fought against Spainand England, was killed in battle against England off the Dutch coast.

30 July 1653, Saturday (-106,557) Gabriel Naude, French scholarly writer, died (born 2 February 1600)

25 July 1653, Monday (-106,562) Agostino Steffani, Italian composer, was born 8in Castelfranco (died 12 February 1728 in Frankfort)

11 July 1653, Monday (-106,576) (France) Revolt of the Lucustrus in the Boulogne region was suppressed this day.

5 July 1653, Tuesday (-106,582) Thomas Pitt, East India Company merchant, was born I n Blandford, Dorset (died 28 April 1726 in Swallowfield near Reading, Berkshire)

4 July 1653, Monday (-106,583) The Barebones Parliament began sitting.


22 June 1653, Wednesday (-106,595) Andre Fleury, French statesman, was born (died 29 January 1743).

8 June 1653. Wednesday (-106,609) A Peasant�s Revolt, the latest in a series of them, was put down in Switzerland.

26 May 1653, Thursday (-106,622) Sir Robert Filmer, English author who promoted the idea of an absolutist monarchy, died in East Sutton, Kent.

21 May 1653, Saturday (-106,627) Bern was besieged by a 16,000 strong peasant army; revolt later suppressed at Herzogenburg.

20 April 1653, Wednesday (-106,658) Cromwell dissolved the Long Parliament (Rump Parliament) due to its slowness in implementing Cromwellian reforms. It was recalled on 7 May 1659, after Cromwell�s death.

10 April 1653, Sunday (-106,668) Easter Sunday.


31 March 1653, Thursday (-106,678) Battle of Leghorn, Anglo-Dutch Wars. Dutch Admiral van Gelen, although killed in action, destroyed 6 Engloish ships under Commodore Appleton.

20 March 1653, Sunday (-106,689)

20 February 1653. Sunday (-106,717) Admiral Robert Blake defeated the Dutch under Martin Van Tramp off Portsmouth.

12 February 1653, Saturday (-106,725) Arcangelo Corelli, Italian composer and violinist, was born in Fusignano.

16 January 1653, Sunday (-106,752) (Britain) John Digby Bristol, British diplomat, died in Paris.


25 December 1652, Saturday (-106,774) Archibald Pitcairne, Scottish physician, was born in Edinbiurgh (died 20 october 1713 in Edinburgh)

23 December1652, Thursday (-106,776) John Cotton, religious writer, died (born 4 December1585).

11 December 1652, Saturday (-106,788) Denys Peteau, Jesuit scholarly writer, died in Paris (born 21 August 1583 in Orleans, France)

20 November 1652, Saturday (-106,809) Battle of Dover, Anglo-Dutch Wars. The Dutch fleet under Admiral van Tromp defeated vthe English fleet under Admiral Blake just off Dover. The Dutch scored another victory at Dungeness soon after.

21 October 1652, Thursday (-106,839) The exiled boy-King, Louis XIV, returned from exile to Paris.

20 October 1652, Wednesday (-106,840) Antonio Coello, Spanish poet, died.

8 October 1652, Friday (-106,852) John Greaves, English mathematician, died (born 1602).

2 October 1652, Saturday (-106,858) In Paris, the middle class disputed with the Fronde, and allowed Louis XIV to enter the city.


2 September 1652, Thursday (-106,888)

20 August 1652, Friday (-106,901)

8 July 1652, Thursday (-106,944) The First Anglo-Dutch war began.


23 June 1652, Wednesday (-106,959) Jacques Godefroy, legal writer, died (born 13 September 1587).

21 June 1652. Monday (-106,961) The great architect, Inigo Jones, died. He had designed the Queen�s House at Greenwich and the Banqueting Hall at Whitehall. He also laid out Lincoln�s Inn Fields and Covent Garden.

19 June 1652, Saturday (-106,963) Francis Cottington, English Lord Treasurer, died (born 1578).

18 May 1652, Tuesday (-106,995)

18 April 1652, Sunday (-107,025) Easter Sunday.

8 April 1652, Thursday (-107,035) The first permanent European settlement in Africa was founded by the Dutchman Jan Van Riebeck, at Table Bay. For decades earlier, since the 1500s, ships, mostly Dutch and English, had anchored here to refit their vessels for the voyage to the east. In 1620 two Englishmen, officers of the East India Company, took it upon their own initiative to possess Table Bay in the name of King James, for fear that the Dutch would claim the area and charge English ships to refit there. But London did not approve of their action and it had no effect. The Portuguese influence was declining and they were not in a position to resist the Dutch. The English seized St Helena island as a halfway house to the east. France took colonies in Madagascar and elsewhere. The Dutch settlement was the beginning of the Boer, farmer, settlers.

7 April 1652, Wednesday (-107,036) In France, the Battle of Bleneau; Conde defeated Marshall Turenne, who had defected back to the Royalist side. Both armies marched to Paris to negotiate. In July 1652 the Duchesse de Montpensier persuaded the Parisians to open the city gates to the Fronde (anti-Royalist) army, and the Bastille�s guns were turned on Turenne�s Royalists. See 2 October 1652.

1 April 1652, Thursday (-107,042)


29 March 1652, Monday (-107,045) �Black Monday� � a total eclipse of the Sun in Britain caused anxiety.

28 March 1652, Sunday (-107,046) Samuel Sewall, US jurist, was born in Hampshire, England (died 1 Jasnuary 1730 in Boston, Massachusetts)

13 March 1652, Saturday (-107,061) Claude Bouthillier, French statesman, died in Paris (born 1581).

3 March 1652, Wednesday (-107,071) Thomas Otway, English dramatist, was born near Midhiurst, Sussex 9died16 April 1685)

7 February 1652, Saturday (-107,096) Gregorio Allegri, composer, died.

8 January 1652, Thursday (-107,126) Wilhelm Homberg, Dutch chemist, was born (died 24 September 1715).


14 December1651, Sunday (-107,151) Pierre Dupuy, French scholarly writer, died (born 27 November 1582).

26 November 1651, Wednesday (-107,169) Henry Ireton, English Parliamentary General, died (born 3 November 1611).

16 November 1651, Sunday (-107,179) Engelbrecht Kaempper, German scholarly writer, was born (died 2 November 1716).

26 October 1651, Sunday (-107,200) Jakob Voorbroek, Dutch scholarly writer, was born in Groningen (died 6 April 1715 in Leiden)

15 October 1651, Wednesday (-107,211) James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby, died (born 31 January 1607).

14 October 1651, Tuesday (-107,212) Massachusetts passed laws forbidding the poor to wear excessively luxurious dress.

11 October 1651, Saturday (-107,215)

7 October 1651, Tuesday (-107,219) Jacques Sirmond, French scholarly writer, died (born Otober 1559 in Riom, Auvergne)

6 October 1651, Monday (-107,220) The English issued a commercial challenge to the Dutch by passing the Navigation Act; this prohibited the import of goods into England from America, Asia, or Africa in any except British or colonial ships; with a crew at least half-English. This was a challenge to Amsterdam�s status as Europe�s leading port. This was an attempt to revive the English economy, depressed by three years of plague and bad harvests. In 1652 England declared war on The Netherlands (First Anglo-Dutch War) after an incident where a Dutch fleet refused to be searched by the British. See 15 April 1654, and 1 October 1660.


27 September 1651, Saturday (-107,229) Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria, died (born 17 April 1573).

3 September 1651, Wednesday (-107,253) Oliver Cromwell�s army defeated the Royalist army at Worcester. Charles II, destitute and friendless, spent the night in an oak tree at Boscobel to evade capture, and fled to France on 17 October 1651.

Cromwell�s troops hauled twenty large boats upstream to make a pontoon bridge, crossing the Severn into the Royalist side.The battle concluded with fighting inside Worcester itself.Some 3,000 Royalist forces were killed, and 10,000 taken prisoner, many of whom were transported to New England as slaves.The Parliamentarian forces lost only 200 men.This was the final battle for the Royalist cause.

28 August 1651, Thursday (-107,259) The Parliamentarians captured Upton bridge, 10 miles south of Worcester.The Royalist General Massey was badly wounded.Cromwell�s forces occupied the west bank of the Severn with 11,000 troops, so cutting off any support for Charles II from Wales, and aiming to attack Worcester from the south.

25 August 1651, Monday (-107,262) A force of Lancashire Royalists raised by the Earl of Derby was crushed by Colonel Robert Lilburne at Wigan.Cromwell returned to England via the east coast from Scotland; harassing Charles II�s rearguard.Cromwell marched on Worcester with a force of around 28,000 regular troops plus a further 3,000 militiamen who were against the Scots.Lilburne blockaded Charles route back into Scotland. Charles hoped to draw extra forces from Wales and the south-west.

22 August 1651,Friday (-107,265) Charles II occupied the loyal Royalist city of Worcester, but his army numbered less than 16,000 troops.See 25 August 1651.

6 August 1651, Wednesday (-107,281) Francois Fenelon, French author and Archbishop of Cambrai (1695-1715) was born in Perigord (died 7 January 1715 in Cambrai).

5 August 1651, Tuesday (-107,282) King Charles II began a march south into England, crossing the border from Scotland this day.His plan was to march through the traditionally Royalist regions of Lancashire and the Welsh border, picking up troops along the way.However the English Royalists and Presbyterians failed to join him, due to anti-Scots propaganda from the Cromwellian camp.See 22 August 1651.

2 August 1651, Saturday (-107,285) Cromwell�s army took Perth.


2 June 1651, Monday (-107,346)

6 April 1651, Sunday (-107,403) Andre Dacier, French scholarly writer, was born (died 17 August 1720)


30 March 1651, Sunday (-107,410) Easter Sunday

4 March 1651, Tuesday (-107,436) Joihn Somers, English Lord Chancellor, was born near Worcester (died 26 April 1716)

2 February 1651, Sunday (-107,466) Sir William Phips, colonial Governor of Massachusetts, was born in Wollwich, Maine (died 18 February 1695 in London)

1 February 1651, Saturday (-107,467)

1 January 1651, Wednesday (-107,498) Charles II was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Palace. He then marched south into England (see 5 August 1651).


19 December1650. Thursday (-107,511 )Cromwell�s army took Edinburgh Castle.

15 December1650, Sunday (-107,515) (France) Battle of Blanc-Champ. The Fronde, under Turenne, was defeated. Turenne later changed sides to the Royalists.

13 December1650, Friday (-107,517) (France) Pressis-Preslin (for Mazarin) secured the surrender of the town of Rethel. Turenne, who was marching to relieve the town, now fell back hurriedly.

7 November 1650, Thursday (-107,553) John Robinson, English diplomatist, was born near Darlington (died 11 April 1723 in Hampstead)

6 November 1650, Wednesday (-107,554) (Netherlands) William II of Nassau died.

4 November 1650, Monday (-107,556) William III, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born in The Hague, Holland, son of William II of Orange.

31 October 1650, Thursday (-107,560) John Bradshaw, English politician, died(born 1602).

30 October 1650, Wednesday (-107,561) �Quakers�, the more common name for the Religious Society of Friends, came into being during a court case at which George Fox, the founder, told magistrates to �quake and tremble at the word of the Lord�.

29 October 1650, Tuesday (-107,562) David Calderwood, Scottish historian, died (born 1575).

21 October 1650, Monday (-107,570) Jean Bart, French naval commander, was born in Dunkirk (died 1702).

8 October 1650, Tuesday (-107,583)


24 September 1650, Tuesday (-107,597) (France) Charles de Valois Angoulmeme (died (born 28 April 1573 in Fayet Castle).

23 September 1650, Monday (-107,598) Jeremy Collier, English writer, was born (died 26 April 1726).

13 September 1650, Friday (-107,608) Ferdinand, Elector of Cologne, died (born 7 January 1577).

8 September 1650, Sunday (-107,613) (British Royal Family) Elizabeth, 2nd daughter of Charles I if England, died of a chill after getting soaked in the rain upon arriving at Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight. Born 28 December1635, when the English Civil War broke and Charles left London with his two elder princes, Elizabeth was left under the care of Parliament. Cared for by various nobility, she bid farewell to her father on 29 January 1649, the day before his execution. In June 1650 she was entrusted to the care of the earl and countess of Leicester at Penshurst, but when King Charles II landed in Scotland she was taken to Carisbrooke for security.

3 September 1650, Tuesday (-107,618) The Battle of Dunbar; Cromwell�s army marched into Scotland and defeated a Scottish Royalist Presbyterian army under David Leslie twice its size. This battle, along with Worcester (3 September 1651), put an end to Charles I�s Royalist cause.

25 August 1650, Sunday (-107,627) Richard Crashaw, English poet, died (born 1613).

3 July 1650, Wednesday (-107,680)


24 June 1650, Monday (-107,689) Charles II landed in Scotland and was proclaimed King.

22 June 1650, Saturday (-107,691) Matthew Merian, Swiss engraver, died (born 25 September 1593).

26 May 1650, Sunday (-107,718) The Duke of Marlborough, British general, was born as John Churchill in Ashe, Devon.

14 May 1650, Tuesday (-107,730) The UK Parliament voted in favour of the death penalty for adultery but this was never implemented.

10 May 1650, Friday (-107,734) At Macroom, an Irish force advancing to relieve Clonmel was routed by the English under Roger Boyle.

27 April 1650, Saturday (-107,747) Battle of Carbisdale, English Civil War. The Marquis of Montrose was captured by Parliamentarian forces, and executed in May 1650.

20 April 1650, Saturday (-107,754) (Britain) William Bledloe, English adventurer, was born in Chepstow (died in Bristol 20/8.1680)

14 April 1650, Sunday (-107,760) Easter Sunday


14 March 1650, Thursday (-107,791)

11 February 1650, Monday (107,822) Death of Rene Descartes (born 31 March 1596), founder of French philosophy.

2 February 1650, Saturday (-107,831) Nell Gwynne, mistress of King Charles II, was born Eleanor Gwynne, the daughter of a fishwife. Originally an orange-seller, she became an actress at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.

14 January 1650, Monday (-107,850) In France, Cardinal Mazarin ordered the arrest of Conde and his associates. However in early 1651 the French Parliament dismissed Mazarin and released Conde. Mazarin left France.


12 December1649, Wednesday (-107,883)

4 December1649, Tuesday (-107,891) William Drummond, Scottish poet, died (born 13 December1585).

20 November 1649, Tuesday (-107,905) (Netherlands) Jan van Broekhuizen, Dutch classical scholar, was born (died 15 December1707)

16 October 1649, Tuesday (-107,940) Isaac Ostade, Dutch painter, died (born in Haarlem, 1621)

3 October 1649, Wednesday (-107,953) Giovanni Diodati, Swiss religious writer, died (born 6 June 1576).


15 September 1649, Saturday (-107,971) Birth of Titus Gates, English Anglican priest who successfully stirred up anti-Catholic sentiments by creating a �Popish plot�.

12 September 1649, Wednesday (-107,974) The Sack of Drogheda by soldiers under Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell�s 16,000 troops put to death 2,000 Irish rebels to deter further insurrection. Another massacre was perpetrated at Wexford soon after. The Irish rebellion had begun in 1641.

21 August 1649, Tuesday (-107,996) Richard Crawshaw, English religious poet, died in Loreto, Italy.

12 August 1649. Sunday (-108,005) Britain�s first employment agency, the Office of Entries, was set up in King Street, London, by newspaper proprietor Henry Walker.He was running a paper called Perfect Occurrences in which he advertised jobs.His agency charged 4d to both employer and employee. See 4 July 1631.

22 July 1649, Sunday (-108,026) Pope Clement XI was born in Urbino, Italy.


13 June 1649, Wednesday (-108,065) Adrien Baillet, French writer, was born in Neuville, Picardy (died 21 January 1706).

3 June 1649, Sunday (-108,075) Manuel de Faria y Sousa, Portuguese poet, died (born 18 March 1590).

10 May 1649, Thursday (-108,099) (Britain) Isaac Dorislaus, Anglo-Dutch lawyer and diplomatist, was murdered by English Royalist refugees in The Hague. Born 1595 in Alkmaar, Holland, he moved to England in ca. 1627 and helped prepare treason charges against King Charles I.

9 April 1649, Monday (-108,130) The Duke of Monmouth, son of King Charles II and Lucy Walter, was born in Rotterdam.

5 April 1649, Thursday (-108,134) Death of John Winthrop, first Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company.


25 March 1649, Sunday (-108,145) Easter Sunday.

16 March 1649. Friday (-108,154) Oliver Cromwell, (born 25 April 1599 in Huntingdon, died 3 September 1658) declared England to be a republic, and abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords.

9 March 1649, Friday (-108,161) James Hamilton, English Civil war Royalist, was executed (born 19 June 1609).

11 February 1649, Sunday (-108,187) (Britain) William Carstairs, Scottish statesman, was born (died 28 December1715).

9 February 1649, Friday (-108,189) King Charles I was buried at St George�s Chapel, Windsor.

8 February 1649, Thursday (-108,190) Gabriel Daniel, French Jesuit historian, was born in Rouen (died 1728).

5 February 1649, Monday (-108,193) King Charles I�s son, 18 years old, was proclaimed Charles II.

30 January 1649. Tuesday (-108,199) Charles I, convicted of treason on 29 January 1649 (see 22 August 1642), was beheaded outside the Banqueting House in Whitehall. He stepped on to the scaffold at 2pm. Four years had passed since the decisive Royalist defeat at Naseby (14 June 1645). Since then Charles I had sought the support of the Irish and the Roman Catholics and even the Pope, all in vain. The Scots, too, were sceptical of his promises to re-establish Presbyterianism and handed him over to the English. The executioner, Richard Brandon, received �30 for a job well done. Charles I�s funeral and burial was in St George�s Chapel on 9 February 1649.

20 January 1649 - 27 January 1649, Saturday (-108,209) At the week-long trial of Charles I, no defence witnesses were called.


17 December1648, Sunday (-108,243) George Gillespie, Scottish religious writer, died (born 21 January 1613)

6 December1648, Wednesday (-108,254) Pride�s purge of Parliament. Oliver Cromwell�s troops surrounded Parliament and refused to admit the 200 Presbyterian MPs, purging the whole of the majority that was opposing Cromwell�s Independents. The remaining 50 MPs, all Independents, then voted for Cromwell�s purge. They then discussed the fate of King Charles, who Cromwell was holding prisoner on the Isle of Wight. The Presbyterian faction had tried to make a deal with the King, and Cromwell�s swift solution was unexpected. The remaining MPs were dubbed the Rump Parliament.

24 November 1648, Friday (-108,266)

24 October 1648. Tuesday (-108,297) The Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War. The Treaty was between the Holy Roman Empire and France. Under it, a large part of Alsace, formerly a German dukedom, was ceded to France, which seized the rest at the Peace of Ryswick, 1697. Sweden also received territories on the German coast of the Baltic, Spain was forced to acknowledge the independence of the United Netherlands, and the Protestant states of Saxony and Brandenburg (=Prussia) received additional territories.

22 October 1648, The French Parlement, having no army of its own to call upon to counter the Parisian rioters, was forced to issue placatory reforms, freeing prisoners; it then fled from Paris.


10 September 1648, Sunday (-108,341) Nicolas Desmarets, French statesman, was born (died 1721).

1 September 1648, Friday (-108,349) Marin Mersenne, French mathematician, died (born 8 September 1588).

20 August 1648, Sunday (-108,362) (France) Conde defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Lens.

19 August 1648, Saturday (-108,363) Rioting in Paris, barricades erected, after the arrest of Brousel, a leader of the Parlement.

17 August 1648. Thursday (-108,365) (Britain) Cromwell�s army was victorious at the Battle of Preston, against a small and poorly-trained force of Scottish soldiers under the Duke of Hamilton.

10 August 1648, Thursday (-108,372) Battle of Lens, Belgium.

8 August 1648, Tuesday (-108,374) In Constantinople, the Janissaries deposed Sultan Ibrahim after he ordered the lifting of the siege of Candia (Heraklion), Crete. On 18 August 1648 Ibrahim was strangled by his own executioner and replaced by his eldest son, 9-year old Mohammed IV.

6 July 1648, Thursday (-108,407) King Frederick III of Denmark was officially crowned, only after he had agreed to a diminution of Royal powers.


17 June 1648, Saturday (-108,426)

29 May 1648, Monday (-108,445) Conde captured Ypres.

20 May 1648, Saturday (-108,454) King Ladislas IV of Poland died aged 55, after a 16-year reign. He was succeeded by his 39-year-old Jesuit brother, who reigned until 1668 as John II Casimir.

17 May 1648, Wednesday (-108,457) Battle of Zusmarshausen, Germany.

13 May 1648, Saturday (-108,461) Conde commenced a siege of Ypres.

3 May 1648, Wednesday (-108,471) Humphrey Prideaux, English religious writer, was born in Place, Cormwall (died 1 November 1724 in Norwich)

13 April 1648, Thursday (-108,491) Jeanne Guyon, French writer, was born (died 9 June 1717)

9 April 1648, Sunday (-108,495) Henri de Massue Ruvigny, French diplomatist, was born in Paris (died 3 September 1720)

7 April 1648, Friday (-108.497) John Sheffield, poet and Duke, was born (died 24 February 1721).

2 April 1648, Sunday (-108,502) Easter Sunday.


14 March 1648, Tuesday (-108,521) Fairfax of Cameron, British Parliamentary General, died.

28 February 1648, Monday (-108,536) Christian IV, King of Denmark, died.

30 January 1648. Sunday (-108,565) (Spain, Netherlands) To free his forces for the war against France, Philip IV of Spain made peace in the United Provinces at Munster. Spain therefore made major concessions. The United Provinces (Netherlands) were recognised as independent by Spain, all Dutch conquests were recognised, and freedom of trade in the east and West Indies was conceded.

15 January 1648, Saturday (-108,580) The English parliament renounced allegiance to the King and voted to have no further communication with him. This was because of his secret treaty with Scotland.

1 January 1648, Saturday (-108,594) Elkanah Settle, �nglish writer, was born in Dunstable (died 12 February 1724)


31 December1647, Friday (-108,595)

24 December1647, Friday (-108,602) The British Parliament presented Charles I with four Bills to sign. One gave Parliament control of the army for 20 years, another required all declarations of Parliament so far to be recalled, a third excluded all peers created by Charles I from sitting in the Lords, and the last allowed the two Houses to adjourn at their own pleasure.

18 November 1647, Thursday (-108,638) (France) Pierre Bayle, French philosopher, was born near Pamiers (died in Rotterdam 28 December1706).

11 November 1647, Thursday (-108,645) Charles I fled from Hampton Court to the Isle of Wight. He was arrested and detained in Carisbrooke Castle. He signed a secret treaty with the Scots, who promised to restore him by force.

25 October 1647, Monday (-108,662) Evangelista Torricelli, Italian mathematician and scientist who devised the barometer or �Torricellian Tube�, died in Florence.


24 August 1647, Tuesday (-108,724) Nicholas Stone, English sculptor, died in London (born 1586 near Exeter)

22 August 1647, Sunday (-100,726) Denis Papin, French p[hysicist who helped develop[ the steram engine, was born in Blois.

29 July 1647, Thursday (-108,750) Carl Piper, Swedish statesman, was born in Stockholm (died 29 May 1716 in Schlusselburg)

22 July 1647, Thursday (-108,757) (France) Marguerite Alacoque, French nun who was beatified by Pope Pius IX in1846, was born near Autun (died17 October 1690).

16 July 1647, Friday (-108,763) Tommaso Aniello, fisherman who led the revolt in Naples against Spanish rule, died.

7 July 1647, Wednesday (-108,772) Thomas Hooker, US religious writer, died (born 1586).


20 June 1647, Sunday (-108,789) John George III, Elector of Saxony, was born (died 12 September 1691).

12 June 1647, Saturday (-108,797) (Education-Schools) Thomas Farnaby, educationalist who founded a school in Cripplegate, London, died.

4 June 1647, Friday (-108,805) At Holmby House in Northamptonshire, Charles I was seized by the Army, and taken to Hampton Court

26 May 1647, Wednesday (-108,814) A new law in Massachusetts banned Catholic priests from the colony. The penalty was banishment, or death for a second offence.

21 May 1647, Friday (-108,819) Pieter Hooft, Dutch writer, died (born 16 March 1581).

19 May 1647, Wednesday (-108,821) Uprising in Palermo against the salt tax.

18 April 1647, Sunday (-108,852) Easter Sunday.


26 March 1647, Friday (-108,875)

14 March 1647, Sunday (-108,887) (1) The Treaty of Ulm. Elector Maximillian I of Bavaria made an agreement with France to end his alliance with Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.

(2) (Netherlands) Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, died.

14 February 1647, Sunday (-108,915)

30 January 1647, Saturday (-108,930) The Scots agreed to hand over Charles I to the English Army for the sum of �400,000.

29 January 1647, Friday (-108,931) Francis Meres, English religious writer, died.


31 December1646, Thursday (-108,960)

23 December1646, Wednesday (-108,968) Francois de Maynard, French poet, died.

23 November 1646, Monday (-108,998) The first advertisement in in English-language newspaper. It was in Samuel Pecke�s Perfect Diurnall, for books.

20 November 1646, Friday (-109,001) Achille Harlay de Sancy, Bishop of St Malo, died (born 1581)

12 October 1646, Monday (-109,040) (France) Francois de Bassompierre, French courtier (born 1579) died in Tillieres, Normandy.


14 September 1646, Monday (-109,068) Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, died (born 1591).

19 August 1646, Wednesday (-109,094) John Flamsteed, first Astronomer Royal, was born in Denby, near Derby.

8 August 1646, Saturday (-109,105) Sir Godfrey Kneller, portrait painter, was born (died 7 November 1723).

19 July 1646, Sunday (-109,125)

1 July 1646, Wednesday (-109,143) Gottfried Leibnitz, German scholarly writer, was born (died 14 November 1716).


25 June 1646, Thursday (-109,149) The traditionally Royalist city of Oxford surrendered to Parliamentarian forces.

19 June 1646, Friday (-109,155)

5 June 1646, Friday (-109,169) Battle of Benburb. Rebel victory over the English during the Confederate War (1641-53)

5 May 1646, Tuesday (-109,200) Charles I surrendered to the Scots at Newark, ending the military phase of the Civil War.

16 April 1646, Thursday (-109,219) Birth of Jules Hardouin-Mansart, French court architect to King Louis XIV who designed the Hall of Mirrors and the Orangery at Versailles.

15 April 1646, Wednesday (-109,220) Christian V, King of Norway and Denmark, was born (died 25 August 1699).

4 April 1646, Monday (-109,229) Antoine Galland, French historical writer, was born (died 17 February 1715).


29 March 1646, Sunday (-109,237) Easter Sunday.

3 February 1646, Tuesday (-109,291) Chester fell to Parliamentarian forces.

4 January 1646, Sunday (-109,321)


31 December1645, Wednesday (-109,325)

17 November 1645, Monday (-109,369) Nicolas Lemery, chemist, was born (died 19 June 1715).

4 November 1645, Tuesday (-109,382)

14 October 1645, Tuesday (-109,403) (Britain) Battle of Basing House, near Basingstoke, Charles could not risk fighting here in case Parliamentarian forces cut him off from Oxford, so he retreated back towards Newbury.


28 September 1645, Sunday (-109,419) The Royalists lost Winchester.

13 September 1645, Saturday (-109,434) The Battle of Philiphaugh, at which Montrose�s forces army, supporting Charles I, was routed by General Leslie�s forces. Montrose escaped to the Continent.

11 September 1645, Thursday (-109,436) (Hungary) Miklos Esterhazy died (born 8 April 1582)

10 September 1645, Wednesday (-109,437) Prince Rupert, nephew of King Charles I, surrendered the key port of Bristol to the Parliamentarians.

9 September 1645, Tuesday (-109,438) William Strode, Engliah Parliamentarian, died (born 1598)

29 August 1645, Friday (-109,449) Hugo Grotius, Dutch statesman, died.

27 August 1645, Wednesday (-109,451) Edward Littleton, Chief Justice of Wales, died.

16 August 1645, Saturday (-109,462) Jean de laBruyere, French essayist, was born in Paris (died 10 May 1696).

15 August 1645, Friday (-109,463) Battle of Kilsyth, English Civil War. The Royalists under the Marquis of Montrose defeated the Covenanters under General Baillie.

6 August 1645, Wednesday (-109,472) Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex, died.

3 August 1645, Sunday (-109,475) Battle of Allerheim, Germany. The French under Marshal Turenne defeated the Bavarians, but then had to withdraw.

23 July 1645, Wednesday (-109,486) The Royalist town of Bridgewater fell to the Parliamentarians.

22 July 1645,

22 July 1645, Tuesday (-109,487) In Spain, Gaspar de Guzman, Count of Olivares and Chief Minister of Spain 1623-43, died.

12 July 1645, Saturday (-109,497) The Russian Tsar, Michael Romanov, died aged 49. He was succeeded by his 16-year old son, Alexis.

10 July 1645, Thursday (-109,499) Battle of Langport (Somerset), English Civil War. The Parliamentarians under Thomas Fairfax defeated the Royalists under Lord Goring.

2 July 1645, Wednesday (-109,507) At the Battle of Alford, Royalists beat the Covenanters.

28 June 1645, Saturday (-109,511) Parliamentarian forces captured Carlisle.

17 June 1645, Tuesday (-109,522) The Parliamentarians recaptured Leicester.


14 June 1645. Saturday (-109,525) Battle of Naseby, Northamptonshire, in the Civil War. 10,000 Royalists (Cavaliers), under Prince Rupert, were heavily defeated by 14,000 Roundheads under Cromwell and Fairfax, and effectively lost the Civil War. The Royalists had lost their best officers as well as artillery and other weaponry they could ill-afford to lose. The Royalists successfully attacked Cromwell�s left wing, but then made the fatal mistake of pursuing the fleeing soldiers. Cromwell regrouped the right wing of his cavalry to rout Prince Rupert�s army.

13 June 1645, Friday (-109,526) Cromwell arrived at Naseby, raising the morale of the Parliamentary troops there.

11 June 1645, Wednesday (-109,528) Cromwell�s New Model Army marched northwards from its siege of Oxford, travelling from Stony Stratford to Wootton, three miles from Northampton. Rainy weather hampered their progress, turning dirt roads into mud.

30 May 1645, Friday (-109,540) (Britain) A Royalist Army, 10,000 strong led by Prince Rupert attacked and besieged Parliamentarian forces in Leicester. The Parliamentarians, 480 soldiers, 900 armed townsmen, and 150 volunteers from the rest of Leicestershire, were heavily outnumbered. Moreover the city�s walls had been badly maintained and had to be hurriedly bolstered with earthen banks. Nevertheless the Royalists suffered heavy losses as they finally took the city; they then brutally slaughtered the defenders. Ultimately, Charles� treatment of the defenders of Leicester proved to be a turning point in his popularity amongst Britons.

9 May 1645, Friday (-109,561) Battle of Auldearn, English Civil War. Royalists under the Marquis of Montrose defeated the Covenanters east oif Nairn.

2 May 1645, Friday (-109,568) Battle of Mergentheim, Germany.

19 April 1645, Saturday (-109,581) (Australia) Anthony Van Diemen, Dutch explorer of Australia, died in Batavia (born 1593).

17 April 1645, Thursday (-109,583) Daniel Featley, English religious writer, died (born 15 March 1582).

6 April 1645, Sunday (-109,594) Easter Sunday.


6 March 1645, Thursday (-109,625) Battle of Jankow, Bohemia.

22 February 1645, Saturday (-109,637) Peace negotiations in the English Civil War broke up without result.

16 February 1645, Sunday (-109,643) John Sharp, Archbishop of York, was born in Bradford (died 2 February 1714 in Bath)

8 February 1645, Saturday (-109,651) By the Peace of Bromsebro, Sweden acquired Osel and Gotland from Denmark. Denmark also lost Jemteland and Herjedal in Norway.

2 February 1645, Sunday (-109,657) At the Battle of Inverlochy, Royal Highlanders under the Marquess of Montrose defeated the Covenanters under the Earl of Argyll

29 January 1645, Wednesday (-109,661) Peace negotiatioms opened to try and end the English Civil War.

10 January 1645, Friday (-109,680) At Tower Hill, William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury since 1633, was beheaded for treason.He was not replaced until 1660.


31 December1644, Tuesday (-109,690)

8 December1644, Sunday (-109,713) �China drink�, probably tea, was mentioned on a bill in Yorkshire, A bottle of it cost 4 shillings. It was initially viewed as a tonic for the sick.

10 November 1644, Sunday (-109,741) Luis Guevara, Spanish novelist, died (born 1 August 1579)

6 November 1644, Wednesday (-109,745) Sir Thomas Roe, English diplomatist, died.

27 October 1644, Sunday (-109,755) The second Battle of Newbury was indecisive. After it, Charles escaped to Oxford.The Parliamentarian Army, under Charles Montagu, Duke of Manchester, failed to prevent a Royalist force relieving the siege of Donnington Castle.

22 October 1644, Tuesday (-109,760) Scottish forces under Alexander Leslie, 1st earl of Leven, allied to the Parliamentarians, took Newcastle on Tyne.

14 October 1644, Monday (-109,768) Quaker Leader William Penn, founder of the State of Pennsylvania, was born in London, the son of an Admiral.

3 October 1644, Thursday (-109,779) Battle of Freiburg, Germany.


25 September 1644, Wednesday (-109,787) Ole Roemer, Danish astronomer, was born in Aarhus (died 23 September 1710 in Copenhagen)

15 September 1644, Sunday (-109,797) Pope Innocent X (236th Pope) acceded, formerly Cardinal Giovanni Battista Pamfili (died 1655).

13 September 1644, Friday (-109,799) Battle of Aberdeen, English Civil War. Royalists under the Marquis of Montrose defeated the Covenanters under Lord Burleigh.

8 September 1644, Sunday (-109,804) Sir John Coke, English politician, died (born 5 March 1563).

2 September 1644, Monday (-109,810) Royalists defeated the Roundheads at the Battle of Lostwithiel (Cornwall). Charles now planned an advance on London.

1 September 1644, Sunday (-109,811) At the Battle of Tippamuir, Royalist Highlanders beat the Covenanters.

16 August 1644, Friday (-109,827) Francois Choisy, French author, was born (died 2 October 1724).

3 August 1644, Saturday (-109,840) At Freiberg, Saxony, the French fought a combined force of Bavarians and Austrians during the Thirty Years War.Fighting at Frieburg also occurred on 5th and15th August.

2 July 1644, Tuesday (-109,872) Battle of Marston Moor, near York, in the Civil War. The Royalists were crushed, and Cromwell�s forces took some 1,500 prisoners and killed 4,000 Royalist troops.This was the turning point in the Civil War; the Royalists had effectively lost the north of England.

1 July 1644, Monday (-109,873) Prince Rupert lifted the siege of York.


30 June 1644, Sunday (-109,874) Prince Rupert reached Knaresborough, near York.

29 June 1644, Saturday (-109,875) Battle of Cropredy Bridge, English Civil War. Royalists under Charles I defeated the Parliamentarians under Sir William Wallers near Banbury.

18 June 1644, Tuesday (-109,886)

16 June 1644, Sunday (-109,888) Henrietta Orleans, 3rd daughter of English King Charles I, was born (died 30 June 1670)

15 June 1644, Saturday (-109,889) Essex, Parliamentarian, relieved the siege of Lyme Regis, and occupied Weymouth. Elsewhere in the South, Parliamentarian forces were pressing closer to Oxford, although Charles was able to manoeuvre skilfully in an area around Oxford Gloucester, Abingdon, Stourbridge and Northampton, avoiding total defeat by the Parliamentarian forces.

26 May 1644, Sunday (-109,909) Michael Ettmuller, physician, was born (died 9 March 1683).

16 May 1644, Thursday (-109,919) Prince Rupert left Shrewsbury and fought his way across hostile country to Lancashire, where he hoped to drum up more support for the Royalists. He took Stockport and Liverpool, then swung towards Yorkshire, intending to relieve the siege of York. Once York was relieved, or if it was lost before he arrived, Rupert was to head back south to the Woircester area to help the Royalist forces there. See 1 July 1644.

25 April 1644, Thursday (-109,940) China�s last Ming Emperor committed suicide. The Qing Dynasty began.

21 April 1644, Sunday (-109,944) Easter Sunday.

13 April 1644, Saturday (-109,952) Fairfax and Leven commenced a siege of the Royalist forces in York. Demolition of the Globe Theatre on the South Bank, London.

11 April 1644, Thursday (-109,954) Fairfax, Parliamentarian, stormed into Yorkshire from Lancashire, occupying Selby this day. The Marquis of Newcastle, Royalist, had to retreat from fighting the Scots in Durham and consolidate his position in York.


29 March 1644, Friday (-109,967) (Britain) Battle of Cheriton, a few miles east of Winchester, Hampshire. Hopton, Royalist, was defeated. Although he had the advantage in the initial stages of this battle, indiscipline and bad coordination undermined his efforts, and Waller gained the final victory.

22 March 1644, Friday (-109,974) Newark capitulated to Prince Rupert. Rupert captured a large quantity of armaments. However he was being too thinly stretched, with Royalists in the Noirth of England, Lancashire and the South all needing his assistance.

1 March 1644, Friday (-109,995) Simon Foucher, French philosophical writer, was born (died 27 April 1696).

13 February 1644, Tuesday (-110,012)

25 January 1644, Thursday (-110,031) Royalists were defeated at the Battle of Nantwich.

22 January 1644, Monday (-110,034) King Charles summoned a �Counter Assembly�, a rival Parliament to the London one,at Oxford. He was pleased to find that 83 Peers and 175 MPs attended. However there was bad news for Charles on the military front, with the arrival on the Parliamentarian side of a Scottish army of 18,000 foot soldiers and 3,000 horsemen. London agreed to pay the Scots �31,000 a month plus cost of equipment for this military assistance. From the Scottish point of view, they were being invited to invade a larger country, at its own expense, and would gain considerable influence over its religious affairs.

10 January 1644, Wednesday (-110,046) Louis Boufflers, French Marshal, was born (died in Fontainebleau 22 August 1711).

6 January 1644, Saturday (-110,050) Waller, Parliamentarian, recaptured Arundel (see 9 December 1643).


13 December1643, Wednesday (-110,074) Parliamentarians under Waller made a surprise attack on a Royalist force at Alton (Hampshire) (see 15 September 1643).

9 December1643, Saturday (-110,078) Lord Hopton captured Arundel for the Royalists. See 6 January 1644.

8 December1643, Friday (-110,079) Pym, Parliamentarian English politician, died.

29 November 1643, Wednesday (-110,088) Claudio Monteverdi, Italian composer, died.

24 November 1643, Friday (-110,093) Battle of Tuttlingen, Germany.

22 November 1643, Wednesday (-110,095) (USA) Rene la Salle, French explorer of North America, was born (died 19 March 1687)

1 November 1643, Wednesday (-110,118) John Strype, English historical writer, was born in Houndsditch, London (died 11 December 1737 in Hackney)

3 October 1644, Tuesday (-110,145) The London-based Parliamentarian regiments defending Reading deserted back home, leaving Essex too weak to defend the town, which was recaptured by the Royalists this day.

1 October 1643, Sunday (-110,147) Frederick III, King of Denmark, married Sophia Amelia of Brunswick.


20 September 1643, Wednesday (-110,158) The First Battle of Newbury was indecisive.The Royalist Army was attempting to block the path of the Parliamentarians under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, who were returning to their base at Reading after raising the siege of Gloucester.�� Essex�s Army failed to break through the Royalist position but made such an impact that the Royalists withdrew anyway.

18 September 1643, Monday (-110,160) Eastern Association Parliamentary forces reinforced Hull with more infantry and ammunition supplies, against the Royalists attacking the town from the rural East Riding. Meanwhile cavalry released from Hiull (by the arrival of the Parliamentarian infantry) � the sea routes from the town were open � crossed the Humber and defeated the Royalists at Winceby this day, just east of Horncastle, Lincolnshire.

16 September 1643, Saturday (-110,162) Parliamentary �Eastern Association� forces moved into Lincolnshire and besieged Royalist Kings Lynn, which surrendered this day. See 18 September 1643.

15 September 1643, Friday (-110,163) (Ireland, Britain) King Charles made a truce with rebels in Ireland, to free up more forces for the Civil War. . However these troops proved less than reliable fighters for Charles, and at Alton (13 December1643) many defected to the Parliamentarian side.

5 September 1643, Tuesday (-110,173) In the face of Essex�s newly arrived army, now at Cheltenham, the Royalists suddenly raised the siege of Gloucester and withdrew to Painswick. The danger to Gloucester now over, Essex�s men now began a march back to their headquarters at Reading; hiowever see 20 September 1643.

3 September 1643, Sunday (-110,175) (Medical) Lorenzo Bellini, Italian physician, was born in Florence (died in Florence 8 January 1704).

26 August 1643, Saturday (-110,183) Parliamentarian forces under Essex began a march westwards to relieve the siege of Gloucester. Moving through Aylesbury and then by-pasing Royalist Oxford to the north, going via Stow on the Wold, Essex�s forces successfully withstood both food shortages and flanking skirmishes by Royalist forces from Oxford. See 5 September 1643.

16 August 1645, Wednesday (-110,193) Jean de laBruyere, French essayist, was born (died 10 May 1696).

10 August 1643, Thursday (-110,199) Royalist forces began a siege of Gloucester. The city constituted a vital strategic link between the Royalist areas of Wales and Oxfordshire, and its governor, the Parliamentarian Massey, was rumoured to be ready to switch allegiance. However Charles could instead have taken his army against London where the Parliamentarian Army had suffered desertions and disease, and riots had broken out against them.A possible opportunity to win the peace movement in London and so end the civil war with a Royalist victory was foregone.

26 July 1643, Wednesday (-110,214) Prince Rupert, Royalist, captured Bristol after a 4-day siege. Waller, with his forces badly mauled, was powerless to intervene from his headquarters in Bath. The Royalists now overran all of Dorset.

25 July 1643, Tuesday (-110,215) (Britain) Roger Pierrepoint, Royalisy who had been taken prisoner by the Parliamnentarians whilst defending Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, was accidentally killed whilst being taken to Hull.

13 July 1643, Thursday (-110,227) Wallers Parliamentarian forces attempted to surround and capture Devizes, along with Hopton�s army and guns defending the town. However the Royalists fought back strongly, and Royalist reinforcements soon arrived from Oxford. Waller�s forces were detstroyed, and the Royalists now advanced on Parliamentarian-held Bristol.

8 July 1643, Saturday (-110,232) (France) The Protestants of France were guaranteed freedom of worship, reaffirming the Edict of Nantes.

6 July 1643, Thursday (-110,234) Royalist forces, having failed to make a breakthrough at Bath, and with Hopton badly wounded, moved east to Devizes, closely followed by Parliamentarian soldiers.

5 July 1643, Wednesday (-110,235) Waller, Parliamentarian commander holding Bath, to avoid being surrounded, engaged the Royalists at Lansdown, just north of Bath. Neither side really won this battle, having fought to exhaustion all day, and Hopton was severely injured next day by the explosion of an ammunition wagon.

30 June 1643, Friday (-110,240) Fairfax�s Parliamentarian forces were decisively defeated at the battle of Adwalton (Atherton) Moor, near Bradford, Yorkshire, This led to the fall of the West Riding clothing towns to the Royalists.

24 June 1643, Saturday (-110,246) John Hamden, Parliamentarian commander, died after eing wounded in the shoulder by gunfire at the Battle of Chalgrove.

18 June 1643, Sunday (-110,252) An epidemic had weakened Essex�s Parliamentarian forces holding Reading, and this day the Parliamentarian forces were routed, and their commander John Hampden mortally wounded at the Battle of Chalgrove Field (Chiselhampton, between Wallingford and Oxford). When Essex obtained reinforcements and attempted to take Oxford from the Aylesbuty side he found his men demoralised and withdrew from Rupert�s Parliamentarian cavalry over towards Bedfordshire, in July 1643.


19 May 1643, Friday (-110,282) Battle of Rocroi. The French, under the Prince of Conde, defeated the Spanish.

16 May 1643, Tuesday (-110,285) Hopton, Royalist, virtually annihilated Parliamentarian forces in a battle at Stratton, Cornwall/Devon border.

14 May 1643. Sunday (-110,287) Louis XIV became King of France at the age of four years, 231 days, and then reigned for over 72 years. He succeeded his father, Louis XIII.

13 May 1643, Saturday (-110,288) The Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell defeated the Royalists at Grantham, Lincolnshire.

27 April 1643, Thursday (-110,304) 27 April 1643, Charles� plan for victory was now to tie down Essex�s forces with the Royalist stronghold in the Oxford area whilst other Royalist forces fought their way towards London from the North and West. London would ultimately be surrounded and starved into surrender. However this plan failed due to the number of towns still held by the Parliamentarians, even as the Royalists controlled the countryside around. Places like Hull, Parliamentarian-held, tied up Royalist forces and thwarted Charles� plans. However this day Parliamentarian forces captured Reading, an important part of the Royalist Oxford defence perimeter, a development which, although not fatal to Charles� plans, would severely delay him.

25 April 1643, Tuesday (-110,306) Hopton�s Royalist forces were defeated at Sourton Down, Dartmoor.

24 March 1643, Monday (-110,307) The Parliamentarian position was improving somewhat after a bad winter 1642/3. Parliament had feared foreign intervention in support of Charles, and had to impose taxation, alienating some, whilst others in London wanted peace at almost any cost. Parliament was considering calling in the Scots to help against Charles.. However this day Sir William Waller defeated the Royalists at Highnam, just west of Gloucester, reinforcing the Parliamentarian hold on Gloucester. Parliament still held the West Riding of Yorkshire, and Hampshire and Wiltshire were cleared of Royalist forces. Some of Charles� supporters too wanted to negotiate a peace.

12 April 1643, Wednesday (-110,319) The Dukedom of Hamilton was created.

3 April 1643, Monday (-110,328) Charles Duke of Lorraine was born (died 18 April 1690).

2 April 1643, Sunday (-110,329) Easter Sunday.


19 March 1643, Sunday (-110,343) An indecisive battle at Hopton Heath, Staffordshire.

1 March 1643, Wednesday (-110,361) Italian composer Girolamo Frescobaldi died in Rome.

2 February 1643, Thursday (-110,388) Royalist forces from Oxford captured Cirencester, widening the area they controlled in the south Midlands. In the lower Severn Valley, the Parliamentarians still controlled the garrison towns of Gloucester and Bristol.

24 January 1643, Tuesday (-110,397) Gaspar de Guzman, Count Olivares, Chief Minister to King Philip IV of Spain, was removed from office following revolts in Catalonia and Portugal.

23 January 1643, Monday (-110,398) Parliamentarian forces captured Leeds.

16 January 1643, Monday (-110,405) Hopton, Royalist, defeated the Parliamentarians under the Earl of Stamford at Bradock Down, near Liskeard.


30 December1642, Friday (-110,422) Vicenzo da Filicaja, Italian poet, was born (died 24 September 1707).

25 December1642, Sunday (-110,427) Isaac Newton was born at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham, the son of a farmer.

13 December1642. Tuesday (-110,439) New Zealand was discovered by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman.

5 December1642. Monday (-110,447) Royalist forces occupied Marlborough, Wiltshire. On 13 December1642 Parliamentarian forces occupied Winchester, Hampshire.

4 December1642, Sunday (-110,448) Cardinal Richelieu (Armand du Plessis), French politician and chief minister to Louis XIII from 1624, died aged 57 in Paris. He was succeeded by Mazarin. Mazarin was to alienate the nobility of France, and parliament, due to his policies of high taxation and supreme position, provoking the rebellion by the Fronde.

24 November 1642. Thursday (-110,458) Tasmania was discovered by Abel Tasman, Dutch explorer.It was originally called van Diemen�s Land, and renamed in 1853.

12 November 1642, Saturday (-110,470) Charles I marched on London, but was turned back at Turnham Green.

7 November 1642, Monday (-110,575) Sir Henry Montagu, 1st Earl of Manchester, died.

2 November 1642, Wednesday (-110,480) (Germany), In the Thirty years War, at Breitenfeld, Swedish forces under Torstensson defeated the Imperialists under Archduke Leopold and Prince Piccolomini, who were attempting to relieve the siege of Lepizig.

1 November 1642, Tuesday (-110,481) Death of Jean Nicolet (born ca. 1598), French explorer of the Lake Michigan area (now Wisconsin).

25 October 1642, Tuesday (-110,488)

24 October 1642, Monday (-110,489) Essex retured from the battle scene at Edgehill, leaving the Royalists to claim victory. The Royalists now continued towards London, taking Banbury and Oxford, London started quickly erecting defences, although some Londoners wanted to sue for peace..

23 October 1642. Sunday (-110,490) The Royalists narrowly beat the Roundheads at the Battle of Edgehill, the first of the English Civil War. Both sides claimed victory.

22 October 1642, Saturday (-110,491) Essex, marching at full speed, reached Kineton, just 7 miles from the Royalist headquarters at Edgecote.

12 October 1642, Wednesday (-110,501) Prince Rupert, Royalist, found many of his army in Shrewsbury keen to attack the Parliamentarians under Essex at their new headquarters at Worcester. However the road from Shrewsbury to London was now open and the Royalists decided to take it, anticipating that Essex would intercept them. They were keen to attack the Parliamentarian forces before they grew too strong. This day the Royalist Army left Shrewsbury gaining two days start on the Parliamentarians, moving south east via Bridgnorth, Birmingham and Kenilworth. Parliament in London became alarmed and ordered Essex to find and defeat Charles.


23 September 1642, Friday (-110,520) A cavalry skirmish at Worcester between the retreating Royalists, moving north, and an advance guard of Parliamentarian cavalry at Powicke Bridge, near Worcester. The Royalists won, raising their morale.

13 September 1642, Tuesday (-110,530) King Charles marched west from Nottingham to marshal his supporters and their armouries in Derbyshire and Staffordshire, and to link up, via Chester, with his regiments in Ireland. The Parliamentarian forces shadowed this move, also moving west from Northampton towards Worcester.

12 September 1642, Monday (-110,531) In France, Henry, Marquis of Cinq Mars and favourite of King Louis XIII, was executed after Chief Minister Cardinal Richelieu, discovered he had plotted with Spain to assassinate him.

9 September 1642, Friday (-110,534) Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, led a Parliamentary Army from London to the Midlands.

6 September 1642, Tuesday (-110,537) The English Long Parliament ordered the closure of all London theatres.

22 August 1642. Monday (-110,552) The English Civil War began, between the Cavaliers who supported King Charles I and the Roundheads who supported Parliament, when the King raised his standard at Nottingham. Parliament raised an army of 20,000; the nobility and gentry supported the King, fearing a Parliament of commoners.

18 August 1642, Thursday (-110,556) Reni Guido, Italian painter, died (born 4 November 1575).

4 July 1642, Monday (-110,601) The House of Commons formed a Committee of Public Safety to prepare for war.

3 July 1642, Sunday (-110,602) Marie de Medici, Queen Consort of France, died.


9 June 1642, Thursday (-110,626) Battle of Schweidnitz, Moravia.

1 June 1642, Wednesday (-110,634) Parliament presented nineteen propositions (demands) to Charles I. These asked for Parliamentary control of the military, the Church, and of the tutors of the Royal children

18 May 1642. Wednesday (-110,648) Montreal in Canada was founded.

10 April 1642, Sunday (-110,686) Easter Sunday.


10 March 1642, Thursday (-110,717) Parliament requested the Lord High Admiral to appoint Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, as commander of the fleet. Simultaneously Charles told him to appoint the Royalist Sir John Pennington. Warwick was appointed, and Charles had lost the navy.

23 February 1642, Wednesday (-110,732) Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of King Charles I, left England for Holland, because of the deteriorating political situation at home.

20 January 1642, Thursday (-110,766) George Hickes, English religious writer, was born (died 15 December1715).

10 January 1642, Monday (-110,776) Charles I withdrew from London, to Hampton Court. The Commons, emboldened, prepared Bills excluding bishops from the House of Lords and giving Parliament control of the army.

8 January 1642, Saturday (-110,778) Galileo, Italian mathematician physicist and astronomer, professor at the University of Padua, died.

4 January 1642, Tuesday (-110,782) Charles I entered Parliament and attempted to arrest five members for treasonable correspondence with the Scots. He failed; the five were in hiding, and Parliament refused to back the arrests. The five MPs were John Hampden, Arthur Haselrigg, Denzil Holles, John Pym and William Strode. This was the first time a monarch had entered the Commons, with militia, in defiance of convention. Charles left the Commons, angry, and five days later left London and began raising an army against Parliament.


22 December 1641, Wednesday (-110,795) Maximilien de Bethune, Duc de Sully, French statesman, died in Villebon (born 13 December 1560 near Mantes)

16 December1641, Thursday (-110,801) (France) Mazarin, Italian born French churchman and politician, was elected a Cardinal by Pope Urban VIII.

9 December1641, Thursday (-110,808) Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Flemish court painter to Charles I from 1632, died in his studio in Blackfriars, London, aged 42, and was buried in Old St Pauls.

29 November 1641, Monday (-110,818) The first English newspaper was published.

22 November 1641, Monday (-110,825) The Long Parliament passed the Grand Remonstrance, part of a series of measures to curb the excesses of King Charles I�s absolutist ambitions.

4 November 1641, Thursday (-110,843) A Dutch fleet defeated a Spanish fleet off Cape St Vincent.

22 October 1641, Wednesday (-110,858) Irish rebellion in Ulster.

14 July 1641, Wednesday (-110,956)

5 July 1641, Monday (-110,965) The English Parliament abolished the Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission, accusing these of extending Charles I�s prerogative powers.

12 May 1641, Wednesday (-111,019) Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Stafford, favoured advisor of King Charles I, was beheaded at Tower Hill.

10 May 1641, Monday (-111,021) (Sweden) Johan Baner, Swedish soldier during the Thirty Years War, died in Halberstadt (born in Djursholm Castle 23 June 1596).

2 May 1641, Sunday (-111,029) The marriage of Mary, daughter of King Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria, to William, son of the Prince of Orange.

25 April 1641, Sunday (-111,036) Easter Sunday.

15 April 1641, Thursday (-111,046) Zampieri Domenichino, Italian painter, died (born 21 October 1581).

13 April 1641, Tuesday (-111,048) Richard Montagu, English religious writer, died.

18 March 1641, Thursday (-111,074)

18 February 1641, Thursday (-111,102)

18 January 1641, Monday (-111,133) Pau Claris proclaimed the Catalan Republic.

11 January 1641, Monday (-111,140) Franz Gomarus, Dutch religious writer, died (born 30 January 1563).

3 January 1641, Sunday (-111,148) Jeremiah Horrocks, English astronomer, died (born 1619).


18 December1640, Friday (-111,164) The English Parliament impeached Archbishop William Laud.

13 December1640, Sunday (-111,169) The Duke of Braganza was crowned John IV, King of Portugal.

11 December1640, Friday (-111,171) The English Parliament presented the Root and Branch Petition to abolish episcopacy.

7 December1640, Monday (-111,175) The English Parliament declared Ship Money to be illegal.

6 December1640, Sunday (-111,176) Claude Fleury, French historical writer, was born (died 14 July 1723).

1 December1640, Tuesday (-111,181) Portugal regained its independence from the Spanish.

13 November 1640, Friday (-111,199) Laurence Chaderton, religious writer, died.

3 November 1640, Tuesday (-111,209) In Britain, the Long Parliament assembled. It lasted until 1660, due to the Civil War.

20 October 1640, Tuesday (-111,223) John Ball, writer, died (born 10/1585).

29 September 1640, Tuesday (-111,244) Charles Coysevox, French sculptor, was born (died 10 October 1720).

21 September 1640, Monday (-111,252) Philip I Duke of Orleans was born (died 8 June 1701)

17 September 1640, Thursday (-111,256) The French captured Turin.

17 July 1640, Friday (-111,318)

9 June 1640, Tuesday (-111,356) The Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, was born.

30 May 1640, Saturday (-111,366) Peter Paul Reubens, Flemish Baroque painter, died in Antwerp.

12 May 1640, Tuesday (-111,384) Catalonia began a 19-year revolt against Spain, in protest at high taxes and suppression of Catalan rights.

18 April 1640, Saturday (-111,408) Etienne Chauvin, French religious writer, was born (died 1725).

13 April 1640, Monday (-111,413) In order to raise money for a war against Scotland, Charles I convened Parliament for the first time since 1629. This �Short Parliament� was dissolved on 4 May 1640 after refusing to give the King any money.

5 April 1640, Sunday (-111,421) Easter Sunday.

2 April 1640, Thursday (-111,424) Paul Fleming, German poet, died (born 5 October 1609)

12 February 1640, Wednesday (-111,474) William Alexander Stirling, Scottish statesman, died in Covent Garden, London)

25 January 1640, Saturday (-111,492) William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire, was born (died 18 August 1707).

14 January 1640, Tuesday (-111,503) Thomas Coventry, Lord Keeper of England, died (born 1578).

11 January 1641, Saturday (-111,506) Juan Jauregui, Spanish poet, died (born 1583).


31 December1639, Tuesday (-111,517)

22 December1639, Sunday (-111,526) Jean Racine, French playwright, was born in Ferte-Milon.

24 November 1639, Sunday (-111,554) A transit of Venus across the Sun was first observed by Jeremiah Horrocks.

21 October 1639, Monday (-111,588) (Netherlands, Spain) Battle of the Downs. A Dutch fleet under Maarten Tromp defeated the Spanish in The Channel, effectively ending Spain�s role as a major naval power.Spain was weakened by the breakaway of Portugal, and the rise of France.Spain�s colonial quarrels with the Dutch, in Brazil and the Portuguese spice islands, were now superseded by these areas now being under Portuguese rule.

29 September 1639, Sunday (-111,610) Lord William Russell, British politician, was born (died 21 July 1683)

20 August 1639, Tuesday (-111,650) Martin Opitz von Boberfeld, German poet, died of the plague in Danzig (born in Silesia 23 December 1597)

4 August 1639, Sunday (-111,666)(Arts) Juan Alarcon, Spanish dramatist, died in Madrid.

21 June 1639, Friday (-111,710) Increase Mather, Us author, was born (died 23 August 1723).

17 June 1639, Monday (-111,714)

21 May 1639, Tuesday (-111,741) Tommaso Campanella, Italian philosophical writer, died (born 1568).

14 April 1639, Sunday (-111,778) Easter Sunday
12 April 1639, Friday (-111,780) Robert Carey, 1st earl of Monmouth, died.

22 March 1639, Friday (-111,801) Thomas Carew, poet, died.

3 March 1639, Sunday (-111,820)

7 February 1639, Thursday (-111,844) The Academie Francaise began work on the Dictionary of the French Language.

6 February 1639, Wednesday (-111,845) Daniel Morhof, German writer, was born (died 30 July 1691)

3 February 1639, Sunday (-111,848)

24 January 1639, Thursday (-111,858) American settlers meeting in Hartford voted to adopt a new constitution called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. It allowed colonists to administer their own laws and to raise taxes, and made no mention of allegiance to the British Crown.

19 January 1639, Saturday (-111,863) (France) Noel Alexandre, French theologian (died 1724) was born in Rouen.

8 January 1639, Tuesday (-111,874) Henry, son of Charles I, was born.


8 December1638, Saturday (-111,905) Ivan Gundulich, Serbian poet, died (born 8 January 1588).

6 November 1638, Tuesday (-111,937) James Gregory, Scottish mathematician who gave a demonstration of the first practical reflecting telescope, was born.

28 October 1638, Sunday (-111,946) Mr John Harvard left a bequest of 400 books and �700 to what is now Harvard University, see 28 October 1636.

10 September 1638, Monday (-111,994) Marie Therese, Queen Consort of France, was born (died 30 July 1683).

5 September 1638, Wednesday (-111,999) Louis XIV, King of France, known as the �Sun King�, was born in St German en Laye, just outside Paris.

25 June 1638, Monday (-112,071) Juan Montalban, Spanish writer, died.

2 June 1638, Saturday (-112,094) Henry Clarendon, English statesman, was born (died 31 October 1709)

13 May 1638, Sunday (-112,114) Richard Simon, French religious writer, was born in Dieppe (died 11 April 1712 in Dieppe)

6 May 1638, Sunday (-112,121) Cornelius Jansen, Bishop ofYpres, died (born 28 October 1585).

25 March 1638, Sunday (-112,163) Easter Sunday.

14 March 1638, Wednesday (-112,174) (Christian) Johann Gichtel, German preacher, was born (died 21 January 1710).

28 February 1638, Wednesday (-112,188) Japanese peasants occupying Hara Castle, near Nagasaki, surrendered to Shogun Iemitsu�s besieging 124,000-strong army because of lack of food. The army then massacred most of the 37,000 peasants. Furthermore, Iemitsu expelled the Portuguese traders from Japan, suspecting them of complicity in stirring up the peasant�s demands, and prohibited the building of large seagoing ships that might carry Japanese to other countries. The isolation of Japan began.

19 February 1638, Monday (-112,197) King Charles I issues a proclamation supporting the new Scottish Prayer Book.,

24 January 1638, Wednesday (-112,223) Charles Sackville, English poet, was born (died 29 January 1706).

6 January 1638, Saturday (-112,241) Nicolas Malebranche, French philosophical writer, was born (died 13 October 1715).

1 January 1638, Monday (-112,246) Antoinette Deshoulieres, French poet, was born (died 17 February 1694).


8 December 1637, Friday (-132,270) Bernardo Pasquini, Italian composer, was born in Tuscany (died 22 November 1710 in Rome)

6 December1637, Wednesday (-132,272) (USA) Sir Edmond Andros, English colonial Governor of the North American colonies, was born in London (died in London February 1714).

3 October 1637, Tuesday (-112,336) (Britain) George Aberdeen, Scottish lawyer and statesman (died 20 April 1720) was born.

29 September 1637, Friday (-112,340) Lorenzo Ruiz, Christian missionary to Japan who was killed for his beliefs there, later beatified, died thids day.

8 September 1637, Friday (-112,361) Robert Fludd, English mystical writer, died (born 1574).

20 August 1637, Sunday (-112,380) Johann Gerhard, religious writer, died (born 17 October 1582).