Chronography of events from I January 1500 to 31 December 1599

Page last modified 7/12/2022

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

Dates checked at 1/1/xxxx.

 

For dates from 1/1/1600 click here

 

1/1/1600, Tuesday (-126,126) Scotland adopted 1st January as New Year�s Day.

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10/12/1599, Monday (-126,148) The Assembly of the Convention of States at Edinburgh.

10/11/1599, Saturday (-126,178)

31/10/1599, Wednesday (-126,188) Denzil Holles, English writer, was born (died 17/2/1680).

20/9/1599, Thursday (-126,229) Christian of Brunswick, Dutch General, was born (died 16/6/1626).

8/9/1599, Saturday (-126,241) (Ireland) Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, disobeyed Queen Elizabeth (see 27/3/1599) by signbing a truce with irish rebel Hugh O�Neill, rather than defeating him. Devereux was arrested on his return to England on 28 September. The truce broke down in January 1600, with hostilities resuming.

14/8/1599, Tuesday (-126,266) Florence Casaubon, English scholarly writer, was born (died 14/7/1671).

13/8/1599, Monday (-126,267) (Jewish) Johannes Buxtorf, Hebrew scholar, was born (died 1664).

10/7/1599, Tuesday (-126,301)

6/6/1599, Wednesday (-126,335) Diego Velasquez, Spanish painter, was born in Seville.

30/5/1599, Wednesday (-126,342) Samuel Bochart, French scholarly writer, was born in Rouen (died in Caen 16/.5/1667).

22/5/1599. Tuesday (-126,350)

25/4/1599. Wednesday (-126,377) Oliver Cromwell was born in Huntingdon. He became Lord Protector of England, Britain�s first and only dictator.

10/4/1599, Tuesday (-126,392) Gabrielle d�Estrees, mistress of King Henry IV of France, died (born 1573).

8/4/1599, Sunday (-126,394) Easter Sunday.

27/3/1599, Tuesday (-126,406) (Ireland) Queen Elizabeth I appointed Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, to the Lord Lieutenancy of Ireland, to crush the Irish rebels. See 8/9/1599.

22/3/1599, Thursday (-126,411) Sir Anthony van Dyck, Flemish artist and court painter to Charles I of England, was born in Antwerp, son of a cloth manufacturer.

28/2/1599, Wednesday (-126,433)

31/1/1599, Wednesday (-126,461)

13/1/1599, Saturday (-126,479) Edmund Spenser, English poet who wrote The Faerie Queene, died.

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31/12/1598, Sunday (-126,492)

7/12/1598, Thursday (-126,516) Gian Lorenzo Bernini, sculptor and architect, was born.

28/11/1598, Tuesday (-126,525) Hans Nansen, Danish statesman, was born (died 12/11/1667).

11/10/1598, Wednesday (-126,573) (Biology) Joachim Camerarius, botanist, died (born 6/11/1534).

18/9/1598, Monday (-126,596) Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japanese statesman (born 6/2/1537) died. A feudal lord of peasant origin, he completed the unification of Japan under Oda Nobunaga. This was accomplished by the defeat of the feudal barons (daimyo). He instituted a rigid system of class divisions, having farmers, merchants, monks and warriors living in different quarters of Japanese towns. In 1592 he attempted to take the Korean Peninsula from China, but his army was too small for this task. In 1597 he tried again, also unsuccessfully. He even harboured ambitions of much wider conquests, including China, the Philippines and India. His death left a power vacuum that plunged Japan into civil war.

13/9/1598, Wednesday (-126,601) King Philip II of Spain died after a reign of over 40 years, aged 71. Spain had acquired great wealth from its conquest of South America, but had squandered it in a series of wars, and had suffered the defeat of the Great Armada. He was succeeded by his fourth wife�s fourth son, Philip III.

14/8/1598, Monday (-126,631) (Ireland) The English were heavily defeated at the Battle of Yellow Ford, River Blackwater, County Armagh. In 1597 the English had built a fort on the River Blackwater, 8 km northwest of the garrison town of Armagh, to support military expeditions into neighbouring Tyrone, where the Earl of Tyrone had raised a well-trained army against the English. Soon afterwards, the Earl of Tyrone besieged this fort. The English attempted a relief operation but became bogged down in the local terrain, and their gunpowder store exploded. Cut down by cavalry and infantry, the English retreated to Armagh.

4/8/1598, Friday (-126,641) William Cecil, Baron Burghley, chief advisor to Queen Elizabeth I, died.

28/6/1598, Wednesday (-126,678) Abraham Ortelius, cartographer, died aged 72.

2/5/1598, Tuesday (-126,735) (France, Spain) The Treaty of Vervins ended the Franco-Spanish War. Spanish troops withdrew from Picardy.

23/4/1598, Sunday (-126,744) Maarten Tromp, Dutch Admiral, was born.

16/4/1598, Sunday (-126,751) Easter Sunday.

13/4/1598. Thursday (-126,754) Henry IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes, giving Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. See 24/8/1572, and 18/10/1685.

13/3/1598, Monday (-126,785)

21/2/1598, Tuesday (-126,805) (Russia) On the death of Tsar Fyodor, Boris Godunov was elected Tsar.

17/1/1598, Tuesday (-126,840) Death of Tsar Fyodor I (born 31/5/1557).

16/1/1598, Monday (-126,841) A legal case over land ownership made reference to a certain John Derrick who, then aged 59, attested that as a �scholler at the free school of Guldeforde� he had played �krickett;, which would thebe in the 1550s.

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31/12/1597, Saturday (-126,857)

29/10/1597, Saturday (-126,920)

25/9/1597, Sunday (-126,954) (France) King Henry IV of France captured Amiens from the Spanish.

20/8/1597, Saturday (-126,990) Dutch seafarers brought back spice cargo from Java, see 2/4/1595 and 20/3/1602.

20/6/1597, Monday (-127,051) Dutch navigator Willem Barents who led a team of three to find the North West Passage, and who discovered Spitsbergen on his last voyage, died at sea.

29/4/1597, Friday (-127,103)

27/4/1597, Wednesday (-127,105) Johannes Kepler, astronomer, married widow Barbara Muller.

23/4/1597, Saturday (-127,109) William Shakespeare�s play The Merry Wives of Windsor was first performed, with Queen Elizabeth I of England in the audience.

18/4/1597, Monday (-127,114)

27/3/1597, Sunday (-127,136) Easter Sunday.

5/2/1597, Saturday (-127,186) In Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi crucified 26 Christians in Nagasaki, then told all remaining missionaries to leave the country. When most defied the order, Hideyoshi took no action for fear of alienating Portuguese traders.

24/1/1597, Monday (-127,198) Battle of Turnhout, Netherlands. A Spanish force of 4,500 was routed by Maurice with sccarcely any loss to the Dutch.

1/1/1597, Saturday (-127,221)

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1/12/1596, Wednesday (-127,252)

29/11/1596, Monday (-127,254) Spain admitted that the Royal Treasury was bankrupt, drained by a series of wars and especially the attempt to invade England. Revolts against Spanish rule in the Americas were also costly. See 24/3/1603.

25/11/1596, Thursday (-127,258) (Finland) A Peasant�s evolt broke out in Finland. The peasants in Finland resented Swedish troops being billeted on them, and took up cudgels and clubs to fight themn; the so-called Club War. The urprisiing was brutally repressed.

3/10/1596, Sunday (-127,311) Florent Chrestien, French poet, died (born 26/1/1541).

4/9/1596, Saturday (-127,340) Sir Constantijn Huygens, Dutch poet, was born (died 28/3/1687).

9/8/1596, Monday (-127,366)

23/7/1596, Friday (-127,383) Henry Hunsdon, English soldier, died.

30/6/1596, Wednesday (-127,496) (Spain) Lord Howard of Effingham and Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, led an expedition to sack Cadiz and attack other Spanish coastal cities

23/6/1596, Wednesday (-127,413) (Sweden) Johan Baner, Swedish soldier during the Thirty Years War, was born in Djursholm Castle (died in Halberstadt 10/5/1641).

31/5/1596, Monday (-127,436) John Lesley, Scottish historical writer, died/

11/4/1596, Sunday (-127,486) Easter Sunday.

31/3/1596, Wednesday (-127,497) Rene Descartes, French philosopher, was born.

24/3/1596, Wednesday (-127,504) Jean Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, Duke of Epernon, recognised King Henry IV as legitimate King of France. Now only Brittany and Savoy opposed Henry.

28/1/1596, Wednesday (-127,560) Sir Francis Drake died of dysentery and was buried at sea off Porto Bello, Panama.

13/1/1596, Tuesday (-127,575) Jan Goyen, Dutch painter, was born (died 1656).

1/1/1596, Thursday (-127,587)

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4/12/1595, Thursday (-127,615) Jean Chapelain, French poet, was born (died 22/2/1674).

1/12/1595, Monday (-127,618) Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, was born (died 2/11/1677).

12/11/1595, Wednesday (-127,637) Sir John Hawkins, Briotish Admiral, died (born 1532)

30/10/1595, Thursday (-127,650)

26/10/1595, Sunday (-127,654) (East Europe, Turkey) Hungary defeated Ottoman Turkey at Giurgiu, Wallachia (modern-day Romania).

18/10/1595, Saturday (-127,662) Edward Winslow, Plymouth Colony leader, was born.

3/9/1595, Wednesday (-127,707)

28/8/1595, Thursday (-127,713) English adventurers Francis Drake and John Hawkins left Plymouth, Devon, ona voyage to plunder Spanish assets in the Americas. However withinafew months both had died of fever.

9/8/1595, Saturday (-127,732)

21/7/1595, Monday (-127,751) Alvaro Mendana discovered the Marquesas Islands.

10/7/1595, Thursday (-127,762) Charles Drelincourt, French religious writer, was born (died 3/11/1669).

12/6/1595, Thursday (-127,790) Large numbers of London apporentices protested against rising food prices by seizing fish and butter from vendors and paying what they considered a ;fair� price for it. On 14/6/1595 a crowd of over 1,000 gathered outside the Lord Mator;s housetore down the pillory in Cheapside. The Crown responded by empowering a provost-martial to arrest and even execute troublemakers.

9/6/1595, Monday (-127,793) Battle of Fontaine-Francaise; Huguenot victory.

27/5/1595, Tuesday (-127,806) Benedikt Carpzov, scholarly writer, was born (died 30/8/1666).

26/5/1595, Monday (-127,807) (Christian) Philip Neri, Italian churchman, died (born 21/7?1515).

25/5/1595, Sunday (-127,808) (Germany) German scholar Valens Acidalius died in Neisse.

6/5/1595, Tuesday (-127,828) John Frederick, Duke of Saxony, died (born 8/1/1529).

25/4/1595, Friday (-127,838) Italian poet Torquato Tasso died in Rome.

20/4/1595, Sunday (-127,843) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1595, Wednesday (-127,861) The Dutch launched an expedition to try and open up a trade route to the East Indies, or Spice Islands, independent from the Spanish.Before the Union of Spain and Portugal in 1580/81, the Dutch commanded most of the spice trade between Lisbon and northern Europe.After this date, the Spanish shut the Dutch out from this trade.This voyage was marred by losses, but the survivors who reached Texel on 20/8/1597 brought back valuable cargo, plus a treaty with the Sultan of Bantam, in Java.See 20/3/1602.

21/3/1595, Friday (-127,873)

21/2/1595. Friday (-127,901) Robert Southwell, English poet and Jesuit martyr, was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.

30/1/1595, Thursday (-127,923) Shakespeare�s play Romeo and Juliet was first performed.

24/1/1595, Friday (-127,929) Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria died.

17/1/1595, Friday (-127,936) (France) Philip II of Spain offered support to a Spanish claimant to the French throne. Because of this provocation, Henry IV of France deckared war on Spain.

1/1/1595, Wednesday (-127,952)

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9/12/1594, Monday (-127,975) Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, was born.

5/12/1594, Thursday (-127,979) Gerard Mercator, Flemish geographer and cartographer, died in Duisberg, aged 82. He projected the world map onto a flat surface using lines of longitude and latitude.

30/11/1594, Saturday (-127,984) John Cosin, English religious writer, was born (died 15/1/1672).

22/11/1594, Friday (-127,992) English explorer Sir Martin Frobisher died this day in Plymouth.

16/10/1594, Wednesday (-128,029) Death in Rome of William Allen, English Roman Catholic Cardinal who oversaw the Douai-Reims translation of the Bible into English.

3/9/1594, Tuesday (-128,072)

9/8/1594, Friday (-128,097)

14/6/1594, Friday (-128,153) Death in Munich, Bavaria, of Roland de Lassus, Franco-Flemish composer.

31/5/1594, Friday (-128,167) Tintoretto, his real name being Jacopo Robusti, one of the great Italian painters, died in Venice, aged 76.

29/4/1594, Monday (-128,199) Thomas Cooper, English author, died in Winchester.

31/3/1594, Sunday (-128,228) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1594, Friday (-128,237) (France) Henry IV entered Paris.

27/2/1594, Wednesday (-128,260) Coronation of King Henry IV of France at Chartres.

15/2/1594, Friday (-128,272) In England, William Harrington was hung drawn and quartered for being a Catholic priest.

2/2/1594, Saturday (-128,285) Composer Palestrina died in Rome (born ca. 1525).

31/1/1594, Thursday (-128,287)

24/1/1594, Thursday (-128,294) Pierre de Marca, French historical writer, was born (died 29/6/1662).

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30/12/1593, Sunday (-128,319)

14/10/1593, Sunday (-128,396) Arthur Grey, English statesman, died (born 1536).

25/9/1593, Tuesday (-128,415) Matthew Merian, Swiss engraver, was born (died 22/6/1650).

3/9/1593, Monday (-128,437)

9/8/1593, Thursday (-128,462) Author Izaak Walton was born at Stafford.

25/7/1593, Wednesday (-128,477) (France) In a shrewd move, King Henry IV of France declared himself a Catholic, although still at heart a Huguenot sympathiser, in order to fend off the threat of Catholics attacks upon him and to secure his rulership of Paris.

8/7/1593, Sunday (-128,494) Artemisia Gentileschi, painter, was born.

30/5/1593, Wednesday (-128,533) English playwright Christopher Marlowe was killed in a brawl at a London tavern, aged 29, in an argument over religion.

29/5/1593, Tuesday (-128,534) John Penry, Welsh Protestant and suspected author of the Martin Marprelate Tracts, was executed in England for denying the Royal Supremacy.

20/5/1593, Sunday (-128,543) Salomo Glassius, religious writer, was born (died 27/7/1656).

24/4/1593, Tuesday (-128,569) William Harrison, English writer, died (born 18/4/1534).

18/4/1593, Wednesday (-128,575) Shakespeare�s first published work, the poem Venus and Adonis, was entered into the Stationer�s Register.

15/4/1593, Sunday (-128,578) Easter Sunday.

13/4/1593, Friday (-128,580) Birth in London of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford and advisor to Charles I.

6/4/1593, Friday (-128,587) John Greenwood, English religious activist, was hanged.

3/4/1593, Tuesday (-128,590) George Herbert, English poet, was born (died 1633).

6/2/1593, Tuesday (-128,646) Jacques Amyot, French writer, died (born 30/10/1513 in Melun).

31/1/1593, Wednesday (-128, 652)

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3/12/1592, Sunday (-128,711) Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Governor-General of The Netherlands under King Philip II of Spain, died (born 27/8/1545).

29/10/1592, Sunday (-128,746)

13/9/1592, Wednesday (-128,792) Michel de Montaigne, French essayist, died.

3/9/1592, Sunday (-128,802) Robert Greene, dramatist, died.

28/8/1592, Monday (-128,808) Birth in Brooksby, Leicestershire, of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, and favoured advisor of James I and Charles I of England.

9/8/1592, Wednesday (-128,827)

10/7/1592, Monday (-128,857) Pierre d�Hozier, French writer, was born(died 1/12/1660).

23/5/1592, Tuesday (-128,905) (Japan) Hideyoshi started an invasion of Korea; he failed, and also failed on a subsequent invasion attempt in 1597.

21/5/1592, Sunday (-128,907) Parma escaped Protestant forces at Coudebec and marched south east to resupply forces at Paris.

17/5/1592, Wednesday (-128,911) The Duke of Parma withdrew from besieging Coudebec. His forces had been reduced to 15,000, and the Dutch Protestants were able to resupply Coudebec by sea, sailing up the River Seine.

21/4/1592, Friday (-128,937) The Duke of Parma raised the siege by Protestants of Catholics holding out at Rouen.

27/3/1592, Monday (-128,962) Henry of Navarre, Protestant, restarted the siege of Catholics holding Rouen.

26/3/1592, Sunday(-128,963) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1592, Friday (-128,965) The Duke of Parma, Catholic, began a siege of Protestants holding the town of Coudebec, on the lower Seine.

5/3/1592, Sunday (-128,984) Michael Coxcie, Flemish painter, died (born 1499).

29/2/1592, Tuesday (-128,989) Alessandrio Striggio,composer, died.

9/2/1592, Wednesday (-129,009) Parma attacked Protestants at Neufchatel.

4/2/1592, Friday (-129,014) Military skirmish at Aumale, west of Amiens, between Catholics and Huguenot Protestants.

30/1/1592, Sunday (-129,019) Pope Clement VIII (231st Pope) acceded (formerly Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini) (died 1605).

22/1/1592, Saturday (-129,027) Pierre Gassendi, French scientific writer, was born (died 24/10/1655).

16/1/1592, Sunday (-129,033) The Catholic Duke of Parma marched south west from Amiens with 30,000 men.

15/1/1592, Saturday (-129,034) Queen Elizabeth I of England recalled Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, from his command in Rouen, France.

12/1/1592, Wednesday (-129,037) Titus Andronicus, an early Tragic play by Shakespeare, was first stages at the Rose Theatre, London

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30/12/1591, Thursday (-129,050) Pope Innocent IX died.

3/12/1591. Friday (-129,077) The earliest recorded fire insurance policy. 101 persons, mainly brewers, agreed to pay out a maximum of 10 thalers to any fellow memberwhose property was damaged by fire.

29/10/1591, Friday (-129,112) Pope Innocent IX became the 230th Pope.

21/10/1591, Thursday (-129,120) Dutch forces captured Nijmegen.

16/10/1591, Saturday (-129,125) Pope Gregory XIV died.

25/9/1591, Saturday (-129,146) 8-year-old Christian II became Elector of Saxony on the death of his father Christian I. His guardians, John George Elector of Brandenbirg and the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, crushed the Calvinists and Saxony returned to Luthernaism.

21/9/1591, Tuesday (-129,150) French Bishops meeting at Rouen accepted Henry IV as King, despite his excommunication by Pope Gregory XIV.

16/9/1591, Thursday (-129,155)

27/8/1591, Friday (-129,175)

23/8/1591, Monday (-129,179) Luis Ponce de Leon, Spanish poet, died.

4/8/1591, Wednesday (-129,198) Francois de la Noue, French Huguenot captain, died.

20/6/1591, Sunday (-129,243) Dutch forces captured Deventer.

24/5/1591, Monday (-129,270) Sir John Norreys, leading an expeditionary force sent by Queen Elizabeth I, took the town of Guincamp after a brief siege, to assist the Protestant King Henry of Navarre, in his fight against Catholics in France.

20/5/1591, Thursday (-129,274) Dutch forces captured Zutphen.

15/5/1591, Saturday (-129,279) Dmitri, son of Ivan IV The Terrible and heir of Tsar Fyodor I, was killed, possibly by agents of Boris Gudonov.

10/4/1591, Saturday (-129,314) (Britain) Sir James Lancaster, English coloniser, was born.

4/4/1591, Sunday (-129,320) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1591, Saturday (-129,342) At the Battle of Tondibi, Moroccan forces under the Saadi Dynasty, led by Judar Pasha, defeated the Songhai Empire, despite being outnumbered at least 5 to 1.

1/3/1591, Monday (-129,354) Pope Gregory XIV excommunicated King Henry IV of france.

20/2/1591, Saturday (-129,363)

8/2/1591, Monday (-129,375) Painter Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri) was born near Ferrara, Italy.

16/1/1591, Saturday (-129,398) Henry King, English poet, was born (died 30/9/1669).

1/1/1591, Friday (-129,413)

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20/12/1590, Sunday (-129,425) Ambroise Pare, known as the father of modern surgery, died in Paris.

5/12/1590, Saturday (-129,440) Pope Gregory XIV (229th Pope), formerly Cardinal Niccolo Sfomdrato, acceded (died 1591).

29/11/1590, Sunday (-129,446) Philipp Frischlin, German poet, died (born 22/9/1547).

29/10/1590, Thursday (-129,477) Dirck Coonhert, Dutch politician, died (born 1522).

27/9/1590, Sunday (-129,509) Pope Urban VII died.

20/9/1590, Sunday (-129,516) Lodovico Agostini,composer, died.

15/9/1590, Tuesday (-129,521) Pope Urban VII (228th Pope), formerly Cardinal Giambattista Castagna, acceded, but died 12 days later.

27/8/1590, Thursday (-129,540) Pope Sixtus V (227th Pope) died.

17/8/1590, Monday (-129,550) John White, Governor of Roanoke Island, returned to find the British colony deserted and the first European child born in America vanished. The word �Croatoan� was left behind. See 18/8/1587.

13/7/1590, Monday (-129,585) Pope Clement X was born in Rome.

6/6/1590, Saturday (-129,622)

21/5/1590, Thursday (-129,638) (Turkey) The Ottoman-Safavid Peace Treaty extended the borders of the Ottoman Empire to the Caucasus and the Caspian.

17/5/1590, Sunday (-129,642) Coronation of Anne, wife of King James VI of Scotland, at Holyrood Abbey.

14/5/1590, Thursday (-129,645) King Henry IV of France defeated the Army of the Catholic League at Ivry and marched on Paris.

19/4/1590, Sunday (-129,670) Easter Sunday.

18/4/1590, Saturday (-129,671) Ahmed I, Ottoman Emperor, was born.

6/4/1590, Monday (-129,683) Sir Francis Walsingham, diplomat and creator of Elizabeth I�s secret service, died.

18/3/1590, Wednesday (-129,702) Manuel de Faria y Sousa, Portugiuese poet, was born (died 3/6/1649).

14/3/1590, Saturday (-129,706) Battle of Ivry; Huguenot victory.

8/3/1590, Sunday (-129,712) Dutch forces under Maurice made a surprise attack on Breda and captured it from the Spanish.

12/2/1590, Thursday (-129,736) Francois Hotman, French writer, died (born 23/8/1524).

1/2/1590, Sunday (-129,747) (Universities) Lawrence Humphrey, President of Magdalen College Oxford, died.

3/1/1590, Saturday (-129,776) Robert Boyd, Scottish statesman, died.

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31/12/1589, Wednesday (-129,779)

29/10/1589, Wednesday (-129,842)

21/9/1589, Sunday (-129,880) The Battle of Arques, NW France; Huguenot victory.

15/8/1589, Friday (-129,917) Diego Duque de Estrada, Spanish writer, was born.

1/8/1589, Friday (-129,931) (France) Henry III, King of France, murdered by a mad Dominican monk. On his deathbed he nominated the Protestant-sympathising Henry of Navarre as his successor.

1/7/1589, Tuesday (-129,962) Christopher Plantin, printer, died.

1/5/1589, Thursday (-130,023)

13/4/1589, Sunday (-130,043) (Spain) Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norrys sailed form Plymouth with 150 ships and 18,000 men to attack Spain and invade Portugal. They destroyed the Spanish port of Corunna, but were repulsed at Lisbon. The expedition was a failure.

30/3/1589, Sunday (-130,055) Easter Sunday.

28/2/1589, Friday (-130,085)

5/1/1589, Sunday (-130,139) Catherine di Medici, Italian wife of King Henry II of France, died.

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23/12/1588, Monday (-130,152) (France) Henry of Lorraine, 3rd Duke of Guise, (born 31/12/1550) was murdered, for being too presumptive and acting as the �effective King of France�.

5/11/1588, Tuesday (-130,200) The St Juan de Sicilia, a ship of the Spanish Armada that had taken refuge off the coast of Tobermory (see 23/9/1588) blew up. An English agent, John Smollett, had detonated the ship�s poweder store, although at one time the Irish or an accident was blamed. The English wanted to avoid a detachment of several hundred Spanish soldiers landing in neutral Scotland. Smollett, acting as double agent, ingratiated himself with the Spanish, supplying them with new sails. Secrecy was important as although Scotland was neutral, relations with England were tense after the execution of Mary Queen of Scots in 1587. Most of the Spanish were at the time helping the islanders of Tobermory besiege a castle on the mainland; those still on board were killed, and their supplies and ammunition were now destroyed.

1/11/1588, Friday (-130,204) Jean Dorat, French poet, died (born 1508).

18/10/1588, Friday (-130,218) The Polish postal service was created, when King Zygmunt August established a permanent postal route from Krakow to Venice.

23/9/1588, Monday (-130,243) A Spanish ship, the St Juan de Sicilia, was spotted off Tobermory, Scotland.

15/9/1588, Sunday (-130,251) The remnants of the Spanish Armada limped back into Spanish ports.

10//9/1588, Tuesday (-130,256) Nicholas Lanier, composer, was born.

8/9/1588, Sunday (-130,258) Marin Mersenne, French mathematicianwas born (died 1/9/1648).

4/9/1588. Wednesday (-130,262) The death of Queen Elizabeth�s favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester.

8/8/1588, Thursday (-130,289) Queen Elizabeth I reviewed her troops at Tilbury.

2/8/1588, Friday (-130,295) The Spanish Armada passed the Firth of Forth, sailing around Scotland. The English left off the pursuit and returned home.

29/7/1588. Monday (-130,299) The Spanish Armada under Medina Sidonia was defeated. (See 19/5/1588). On the night of the 28 July the English sent fireships amongst the 130 ships of the Armada sent by Philip II to invade England, as they were anchored off Calais. This caused panic amongst the Spanish, who cut anchor, one ship running aground. By now the Spanish had lost several of their best ships and, whilst maintaining good order, were demoralised. The Spanish sent a signal to Parma to put his ships to sea from Dunkirk but he could not as he was closely blockaded by the British. On 29 July the English decimated the Spanish with broadside fire, preventing the Spanish closing and boarding, which would have been their only chance of success. The Spanish soldiers were outgunned and had inferior seamanship to the English sailors. The Spanish were nearly driven aground off The Netherlands on 30 July but a sudden change of wind saved them, with only 6 fathoms below them, and they were able to sail northwest into the North Sea. The English, running low on food and ammunition, followed them as far as the Firth of Forth, then returned south, satisfied that the Spanish would not return via the Straits of Dover. The Armada, short of both food and fresh water, encountered further problems with strong westerly winds as they attempted to sail around the north of Scotland and south to Spain. Many ships were wrecked at open sea or off the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Only half the ships that left Spain returned home; death and sickness took a great toll of the crews. The failure of the Armada checked the naval growth of Spain and assisted the Netherlands to gain independence. Two further Armadas prepared by Spain, in 1596 and 1597, were disrupted by bad weather.

26/7/1588, Friday (-130,302) The Spanish Armada anchored off Calais, unable to fight further without new supplies of ammunition. Medina Sidonia requested Parma to come to his assistance, but Parma was unable to leave Bruges because of a blockade by the Dutch fleet under Justinian of Nassau. Meanwhile Howard did not risk coming close enough to the Spanish ships to do serious damage as that would put his own ships at risk of boarding by Spanish soldiers.

25/7/1588, Thursday (-130,303) The Spanish Armada and the English navy engaged off the Isle of Wight. There were fears that the Spanish planned to seize the island as a base.

23/7/1588, Tuesday (-130,305) Second engagement between the Spanish and English, off the Isle of Portland.

21/7/1588, Sunday (-130,307) The English fleet first engaged with the Spanish Armada near Eddystone Rocks, south of Plymouth.

20/7/1588, Saturday (-130,308) Lord Howard of Effingham, Commander in Chief of the Fleet, saild from Plymouth to engage the Armada.

19/7/1588, Friday (-130,309) English scout ships first spotted the Armada off Lizard head.

16/7/1588, Tuesday (-130,312)

12/7/1588, Friday (-130,316) The Spanish Armada left Corunna, where it had put in to take refuge from a storm and make some repairs on vessels that had proved unseaworthy.

11/7/1588, Thursday (-130,317) King Henry III of France agreed to the demands of the Duke of Guise. Toleration of the Huguenots ended, and the claim of the Protestant heir to the French throne, Henry of Navarre, was set aside oin favour of the Catholic Cardinal Charles de Bourbon. Guise became Lieutenant-General of France.

18/6/1588, Tuesday (-130,340) Robert Crowley, English religious writer, died.

28/5/1588. Tuesday (-130,361) The Spanish Armada set sail from Lisbon. The Armada consisted of 130 vessels, containing 7,000 sailors and 17,000 soldiers, commended by the Duke of Medina, sent by King Philip II. It arrived off the Lizard, Cornwall, on 19/7/1588, and off Plymouth on 20/7/1588. The English Navy was only just able to get out to sea and avoid being blockaded in Plymouth harbour. On 23 July the English and Spanish fleets clashed off Portland, and again on 25 July off the Isle of Wight. The defeat of the Armada was on 29 July, see 29/7/1588.

13/5/1588, Monday (-130,376) King Henry III of France fled Paris for Chartres.

12/5/1588, Sunday (-130,377) Day of the Barricades in Paris; popular uprising against King Henry III.

23/4/1588, Tuesday (-130,396)

20/4/1588, Saturday (-130,399) (Germany) Johann Bugenhagen, German Protestant reformer, died (born 24/6/1485).

19/4/1588, Friday (-130,400) Paolo Veronese, Italian painter, died.

7/4/1588, Sunday (-130,412) Easter Sunday

5/4/1588, Friday (-130,414) Thomas Hobbes, philosopher, was born.

4/4/1588, Thursday (-130,415) Frederick II, King of Denmark, died, aged 53. He was succeeded by his 10-year old son, Christian IV (1577-1648)

8/1/1588, Monday (-130,502) Ivan Gundulich, Serbian poet, was born (died 8/12/1638).

===================================================================================

31/12/1587, Sunday (-130,510)

28/10/1587, Saturday (-130,574) (France) Non-French Protestants coming to help the Huguenots free King Henry III from the influence of the Catholics were defeated by Guise at Montargis. Henry III was now compelled to sign the �Edict of Union�, nominating the Cardinal of Bourbon as his successor.

20/10/1587, Friday (-130,582) (France) Battle of Coutras; Huguenot victory. However see 28/10/1587.

17/10/1587, Tuesday (-130,585) Nathan Field, English dramatist, was born (died 20/2/1633).

18/9/1587, Monday (-130,614) Francesca Caccini, composer, was born.

13/9/1587, Wednesday (-130,619) Jacques Godefroy, legal writer, was born (died 23/6/1652).

18/8/1587, Friday (-130,645) Virginia Dare became the first child born of English parents in America. She was born on Roanoke Island, North Carolina, seven days after Sir Walter Raleigh�s second expedition landed. The parents were called Ananias and Ellinor Dare, and named the child Virginia in honour of the virgin Queen of England and the fledgling colony. See17/8/1590.

6/8/1587, Sunday (-130,657) The Earl of Leicester, who had been leading English forces helping the Dutch to resist the Spanish, returned to England after failing to prevent Spanish forces capturing the port of Sluis.

25/7/1587. Tuesday (-130,669) (1) The Japanese Emperor Hideyoshi banned Christianity, and ordered the Jesuits to leave within 20 days. The Jesuits were accused of selling the Japanese as slaves.

(2) The Spanish Armada and the English navy engaged off the Isle of Wight. There were fears that the Spanish planned to seize the island as a base.

21/6/1587, Wednesday (-130,703) Kaspar von Barth, German writer, was born (died 1658).

25/5/1587, Thursday (-130,730)

19/4/1587, Wednesday (-130,766) Sir Francis Drake led his convoy of ships into Cadiz, where the Spanish Armada was being prepared to attack England, and, taking the Spanish completely by surprise, looted, burnt, and sank many ships. He also looted the harbour stores and managed to escape with no casualties. This adventure became known as �the singeing of the King of Spain�s beard�. Sir Francis Drake also brought back 2,900 barrels of �sack�, a wine made in the Jerez region of Spain, so named from the Spanish word �sacar�, meaning �to take out, or export�. This was the forerunner of today�s sherry drink. Sack had been popular abroad since a Spanish law passed in 1492 exempting wine made for export from taxes; it was a robust wine that did not go off easily.

18/4/1587, Tuesday (-130,767) John Foxe, preacher and author, died.

16/4/1587, Sunday (-130,769) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1587, Thursday (-130,800)

8/2/1587. Wednesday (-130,836) Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded in the Great Hall of Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, after nearly 19 years in prison. She had been implicated in a Catholic plot to overthrow her cousin Queen Elizabeth I. The leader of the plot, Anthony Babington, had planned to free Mary, and rally support amongst English Roman Catholics for a Spanish invasion force. Mary married the French Dauphin in her teens and was Queen of France for a year until he died. Her second marriage was to Lord Darnley. After Darnley�s murder, in which Mary may have been implicated, she married the Earl of Bothwell. Mary was defeated in battle in Scotland and fled to England, but her cousin Elizabeth I had her imprisoned. Elizabeth had been reluctant to execute Mary, because this might bring reprisals from Catholic Europe, and might legitimate her own execution at some future point; however Francis Walsingham persuaded Elizabeth to order the execution.

2/2/1587, Thursday (-130,842) (France) Francois des Adrets, French Protestant leader, died.

1/1/1587, Sunday (-130,874)

====================================================================================

31/12/1586, Saturday (-130,875)

12/12/1586, Monday (-130,894) Stephen Bathory of Poland died suddenly, aged 53. He was succeeded by the 12-year old son of the Swedish Kingas Sigismund II.

22/11/1586, Tuesday (-130,914)

17/10/1586, Monday, (-130,950) Philip Sydney, writer, died.

11/10/1586, Tuesday (-130,956) Mary Queen of Scots was sentenced to death for her part in the Babington Plot.

22/9/1586, Thursday (-130,975) The Battle of Zutphen. British and Dutch forces defeated by the Spanish.

20/9/1586, Tuesday (-130,977) Chidiock Tichborne, one of the conspirators in the Catholic Babington Plot to murder Queen Elizabeth I, was executed at the Tower of London.

28/8/1586, Sunday (-131,000)

28/7/1586, Thursday (-131,031) The first potatoes arrived in Britain, brought from Colombia by Sir Thomas Harriott. They were to be used to feed livestock.

21/7/1586, Thursday (-131,038) English navigator Thomas Cavendish left Plymouth on his west to east voyage around the world.

17/7/1586, Sunday (-131,042) Sir Francis Walsingham, Secretary of State under Queen Elizabeth I, uncovered the Babington Plot to murder the Queen.

26/5/1586, Thursday (-131,094)

17/4/1586, Sunday (-131,133) John Ford, English dramatist, was born.

8/4/1586, Friday (-131,142) Martin Chemnitz, German religious writer, died (born 9/11/1522).

3/4/1586, Sunday (-131,147) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1586, Sunday (-133,161) Sir Richard Maitland, Scottish poet, died.

4/2/1586, Friday (-133,205) (Britain) Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, accepted the title of Governor and Captain-Gneeral of The Netehrlands. However Queen Elizabeth I forced him to resign ths honour.

21/1/1586, Friday (-131,219) (Germany) Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, died in Dresden (born 31/7/1526 in Freiberg).

1/1/1586, Saturday (-131,239)

====================================================================================

27/12/1585, Monday (-131,244) Pierre de Ronsard, French poet, died near Tours, France.

13/12/1585, Monday (-131,258) William Drummond, Scottish poet, was born (died 4/12/1649).

4/12/1585, Saturday (-131,267) John Cotton, religious writer, was born (died 23/12/1652).

23/11/1585, Tuesday (-131,278) Thomas Tallis, English church music composer, died.

28/10/1585, Thursday (-131,304) (Christian) Cornelius Jansen, Bishop ofYpres, was born (died 6/5/1638).

17/9/1585, Friday (-131,345) Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss religious writer and reformer, died (born 18/7/1504).

9/9/1585, Thursday (-131,353) Cardinal Richelieu French politician and chief minister of King Louis XIII from 1624, who was ruthless at crushing all opposition to the monarchy, was born near Chinon.

17/8/1585, Tuesday (-131,376) The city of Antwerp, besieged by the Spanish for 13 months, surrendered to them.

10/8/1585, Tuesday (-131,383) Elizabeth I of England signed the Treaty of Nonsuch, promising 64,000 foot soldiers, 1,000 cavalry, and 600,000 florins a year to support Protestant rebels in The Netherlands against Spain. Although Elizabeth disliked involvement in foreign European wars, the Spanish presence in The Netherlands was too close to England to ignore. King Philip II of Spain, who had laid siege to Antwerp in 1584, saw this Treaty as a declaration of war.

28/7/1585, Wednesday (-131,396)

7/7/1585, Wednesday (-131,417) King Henry III of France bowed to Catholic pressure and revoked the tolerance allowed to Hugenots.

25/5/1585, Tuesday (-131,460)

11/4/1585, Sunday(-131,504) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1585, Saturday (-131,505) Pope Gregory XIII died.

5/3/1585, Friday (-131,541) John George I, Elector of Saxony, was born (died 8/10/1656)

1/1/1585, Friday (-131,604)

===================================================================================

31/12/1584, Thursday (-131,605)

23/11/1584, Monday (-131,643) (Jesuits) The English Parliament passed legislation to expel all Jesuits within 40 days.

16/10/1584, Friday (-131,681) John Feckenham, English ecclesiastic, died.

17/9/1584, Thursday (-131,710) John Finch, English Judge, was born (died 27/11/1660).

11/9/1584, Friday (-131,716) Thomas Erpenius, Dutch writer on the Orient, was born (died 13/11/1624).

8/8/1584, Saturday (-131,750) General Toyotomi Hideyoshimoved into Osaka Castle.

12/7/1584, Sunday (-131,777) William the Silent, Prince of Orange, was assassinated, shot by a fanatical Catholic, Balthazar Gerard (see 15/3/1581). His youngest son, Maurice of Nassau, was elected stadtholder of Zeeland and Holland in his place, subsequently also of Utrecht, Overyssel and Gelderland also. Maurice became Commander of the Netherlands Army and succeeded in driving the Spanish entirely out of the United Provinces (Netherlands). A 12-year truce with Spain was concluded in 1609, whereby Spain acknowledged the independence of the United Provinces. However in 1621 Spain again attempted to reassert control over the United Provinces, only to be evicted later on.

10/7/1584, Friday (-131,779) In England the Catholic conspirator Francis Throckmorton was executed.

17/6/1584, Wednesday (-131,802) The Catholic States of the Holy Roman Empire, also the Catholic cantons of Switzerland, adopted the Gregorian Calendar.

10/6/1584, Wednesday (-131,809) (France) The Duke of Anjou died, and French Huguenot-Catholic tensions heightened. Catholics were alarmed that on the death of King Henry III of France, the Crown would pass to Henry of Navarre, who was sympathetic to the Protestant cause.

12/5/1584, Tuesday (-131,838)

19/4/1584, Sunday (-131,861) Easter Sunday. John Hales, English writer, was born (died 19/5/1656).

29/3/1584, Sunday (-131,882) Fairfax of Cameron, British Parliamentary General, was born (died 14/3/`1648).

18/3/1584. Wednesday (-131,893) Czar Ivan IV, Ivan the Terrible, died aged 54, whilst about to play a game of chess. He may have died of grief for his son, whom he had killed in a mad fit of rage three years previously.

1/1/1584, Wednesday (-131,970)

===================================================================================

31/12/1583, Tuesday (-131,971) Thomas Erastus, religious writer, died (born 7/9/1524).

25/12/1583, Wednesday (-131,977) Orlando Gibbons, English composer, was born in Oxford.

29/10/1583, Tuesday (-132,034)

9/9/1583, Monday (-132,084) Sir Humphrey Gilbert (see 5/8/1583) was drowned when his ship, The Squirrel, sank off The Azores drowning all on board.

5/8/1583. Monday (-132,119) Sir Humphrey Gilbert landed on Newfoundland and claimed it for Britain.He founded the colony of St Johns there.

6/7/1583, Saturday (-132,149) Edmund Grindal, English Archbishop, died.

18/6/1583. Tuesday (-132,167) The first life insurance policy was sold in London. William Gibbons took out a policy whereby his relatives would be paid �383 if he died within 12 months of the policy date; the policy was underwritten by 16 individuals. Gibbons did indeed die in May 1584, and Richard Martin then disputed the policy and refused to pay out. The courts decided he had to pay. Many more such life policies were issued but it was not until 1923 that the Life Insurance Companies Act was passed.

11/6/1583, Tuesday (-132,174) Sir Humphrey Gilbert sailed from Plymouth, with the approval of Queen Elizabeth I, to found a British colony in America.

10/4/1583, Wednesday (-132,236) Hugo Grotius (De Groot), jurist, was born (died 29/8/1645).

31/3/1583, Sunday (-132,246) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1583, Sunday (-132,260) The Duke of Anjou attempted to gain more power in the United Provinces, by a surprise attack on Antwerp, but was successfully resisted by the citizenry. This was the �French Fury�.

3/3/1583, Sunday (-132,274) Birth of English poet Baron Herbert of Cherbury, in Eyton on Severn, Shropshire.

18/2/1583, Monday (-132,287) Antonio Grazzini, Italian author, died (born 22/3/1503).

26/1/1583, Saturday (-132,310) John Herries, Scottish politician, died.

1/1/1583, Tuesday (-132,335) (Christian) Simon Episcopius, Dutch theologian, was born (died 1643)

===================================================================================

11/12/1582, Tuesday (-132,337) In Portugal, Spanish military leader Fernando Alvarez de Toledo died.

9/12/1582, Sunday (-132,358) France adopted the Gregorian calendar; the day after 9/12/1582 was 20/12/1582.

27/11/1582, Tuesday (-132,370) William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway at the age of 18.

17/10/1582, Wednesday (-132,411) Johann Gerhard, religious writer,k was born (died 20/8/1637).

5/10/1582. Friday (-132,423) (see also 3/9/1752 when Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar). Pope Gregory XIII cancelled 10 days from the 5th to the 15th October 1582 to bring back the Spring Equinox to the 21st March and ensure that Easter fell on the proper date. Under the old Julian calendar, established in 46 BC, the calendar gained a whole day every 128 years. The new system cut out three leap years every 400 years to maintain accuracy.

28/9/1582, Friday (-132,430) George Buchanan, Scottish scholarly writer, died.

10/8/1582. Friday (-132,479) After 25 years of conflict, Russia made peace with Poland and gave up its claim on the Baltic state of Livonia.

21/6/1582, Thursday (-132,529) General Toyotomi Hideyoshibecame leader following the ritual suicide of Oda Nobunaga. Although born a peasant, within a decade Hideyoshimanaged to unify Japan. He disarmed all non-Samurai, to prevent another rebellion against him, and reformed the tax system and land holdings to create a stable tax base.

15/4/1582, Sunday (-132,596) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1582, Sunday (-132,603) (Hungary) Miklos Esterhazy was born (died 11/9/1645)

18/3/1852, Sunday (-132,624) (Netherlands) A youth named Jean Jaureguy attempted tassassinate the Duke of Anjou. He fired a bullet which badly wounded him but was not fatal.

15/3/1582, Thursday (-132,627) Daniel Featley, English religious writer, was born (died 17/4/1645).

24/2/1582, Saturday (-132,646) Pope Gregory XIII announced a change from the Julian calendar to the new Gregorian calendar, entailing a forward move of 11 days, see 5/10/1582.

28/1/1582, Sunday (-123,673) John Barclay, Scottish poet, was born (died in Rome 15/8/1621).

15/1/1582, Monday (-123,686) (Russia, Poland, Sweden) Ivan IV, The Terrible, of Russia ceded, at the Peace of Zapoli, Livonia and Polotsk to Stephen Bathory of Poland. He also ceded this day, by the Trucve of Ilyusa, Ingria to Sweden. Muscovy lost the Baltic seaboard for over a century.

1/1/1582, Monday (-132,700)

=====================================================================================

1/12/1581. Friday (-132,731) Jesuit martyr Edmund Campion was hanged at Tyburn, for distributing an anti-Anglican pamphlet in Oxford.

7/11/1581, Tuesday (-132,755) Richard Davies, Welsh religious writer, died.

21/10/1581, Saturday (-132,772) Il Domenichino, Italian painter (died 15/4/1641 in Naples) was born in Bologna, Italy.

30/9/1581, Saturday (-132,793) Hubert Languet, French Huguenot historical writer, died.

26/9/1581, Tuesday (-132,797)

1/9/1581, Friday (-132,822) Yermak Timofeyevich, the Cossack leader of a band of thieves who plundered the Russian countryside, and who was wanted by the Russian military for murder, fled up the Volga River where he was hired by the Stroganov Merchants to protect theor interests in western Siberia from the Tartars. This day he set out across the Urals, reaching the Tartar Khanate of Sibir by Spring 1582. With superior armaments, guns and cannons against the bows and arrows of a larger Tartar army, Timofeveyich captured the Tartar capital of Kashlyk (Sibir). Czar Ivan IV �The Terrible� now pardoned Timofeyevich, however a band of tartars managed to kill him in 1584.

26/7/1581. Wednesday (-132,859) (see 8/11/1576). The Estates General (Parliament) of The Hague deposed Philip II of Spain as the ruler of the Seven Provinces of the Union of Utrecht; effectively declaring UDI against Spain.

24/7/1581, Monday (-132,861) William of Orange agreed to become Count of the provinces of Holland and Zeeland (see 23/1/1581).

22/7/1581, Saturday (-132,863) (Britain) Richard Cox, Dean of Westminster and Bishop of Ely, died.

17/7/1581, Monday (-132,868) English Jesuit priest Edmund Campion was arrested in Lyford, Berkshire, for treason.

2/6/1581, Friday (-132,913) James Douglas 4th Earl of Morton, Scottish statesman, was executed.

26/5/1581, Friday (-132,920)

24/4/1581, Monday (-132,852) (Christian) St Vincent de Paul, founder of the Congregation of the Mission, was born in France.

4/4/1581. Tuesday (-132,972) Queen Elizabeth I knighted Francis Drake on his ship The Golden Hind at Deptford, London, after he completed his circumnavigation of the world. See 26/9/1580. En route, Drake had captured and plundered several Spanish galleons; Spain demanded that Elizabeth I hang Drake for piracy, but Drake was a hero in England.

26/3/1581, Sunday(-132,981) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1581, Thursday (-132,991) Pieter Hooft, Dutch writer, was born (died 21/5/1647).

15/3/1581, Wednesday (-132,992) Philip II of Spain declared William of Orange a traitor (the�Ban�) and a reward was offered to anyne who would assassinate him.

23/1/1581, Monday (-132,043) To gain an ally in order to withstand the power of Philip II of Spain, sovereignty of the Northern Provinces was offered to the Duke of Anjou, thereby gaining the support of France. However the Duke of Anjou was a Catholic, which initially raised suspicions of betrayal amongst some citizens of the Northern Provinces. William of Orange mainiained that the instal;lation of the Duke of Anjou was a necessity and persisted with this policy.

16/1/1581, Monday (-132,050) The English Parliament declared Catholicism illegal.

1/1/1581, Sunday (-132,065)

==================================================================================

31/12/1580, Saturday (-133,066)

1/12/1580, Thursday (-133,096) (Italy) Giovanni Morone, Italian Cardinal, died )born 25/1/1509).

21/11/1580, Monday (-133,106)

26/9/1580, Monday (-133,162) Sir Francis Drake arrived back in Plymouth in the 100 ton Golden Hind (originally The Pelican) after 33 months, the first Englishman to circumnavigate the world. See 13/12/1577 and 4/4/1581.

30/8/1580, Tuesday (-133,189) Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, died (born 8.7.1528).

25/8/1580, Thursday (-133,194) Spanish forces defeated the Portuguese at Alcantara and occupied Lisbon. Porto fell in October 1580. The conquest of Portugal by Spain doubled Spain�s overseas possessions.

14/7/1580, Thursday (-133,236) Theodore Godefroy, French writer, was born (died 1649)

25/6/1580, Saturday (-133,255) (Christian) Publication of the Lutheran Book of Concord. This set out the essential foundations of the Lutheran faith.

10/6/1580, Friday (-123,246) Luis de Camoes, famous Portuguese poet, died.

9/6/1580, Thursday (-123,247) Daniel Heinsius, scholarly writer, was born (died 25/2/1655).

18/4/1580, Monday (-133,323) Thomas Middleton, dramatist, was born.

6/4/1580, Wednesday (-133,335) An earth tremor damaged several old London churches, including the old St Paul�s Cathedral.

3/4/1580, Sunday (-133,338) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1580, Friday (-133,431)

===================================================================================

21/12/1579, Monday (-133,442) Vicente Joanes, Spanish painter, died (born 1506).

21/11/1579, Saturday (-133,472) Sir Thomas Gresham, who founded the Royal Exchange, died.

1/8/1579, Saturday (-133,584) Luis Guevara, Spanish novelist, was born (died 10/11/1644).

17/7/1579, Friday (-133,599)

17/6/1579. Wednesday (-133,629) Sir Francis Drake anchored the Golden Hind just north of what was to become San Francisco Bay; he named the area New Albion, claiming it for Britain.

19/5/1579, Tuesday (-133,658) Treaty of the Malcontents, between Catholic nobles in The Netherlands and the Prince of Parma.

19/4/1579, Sunday (-133,688) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1579, Thursday (-133,719)

29/1/1579, Thursday (-133,768) (Netherlands) Under the Treaty of Utrecht, the Northern Provinces were united to form what is now The Netherlands. This was largely due to the efforts of John of Nassau.

6/1/1579, Tuesday (-133,791) Union of Arras. The southern Netherlands principalities of Artois, Hainault and Douai signed a Union in opposition to the northern Netherlands, with the intention of returning to the Catholic rule of Philip II of Spain. Later in January 1579 the northern Netherlands provinces, opposed to Catholic Spain, formed the Union of Utrecht.

1/1/1579, Thursday (-133,796)

====================================================================================

31/12/1578, Wednesday (-133,797)

6/11/1578, Thursday (-133,852)

1/10/1578, Wednesday (-133,888) Don John of Austria died (born 24/2/1545).

6/9/1578, Saturday (-133,913)

5/8/1579, Tuesday (-133,945) Stanislaus Hosius, Polish Cardinal, died (born 5/5/1504).

4/8/1578, Monday (-133,946) Sebastian, King of Portugal, was killed in the Battle of Al Kasr al Kebir in Morocco, where Portuguese forces were annihilated by a larger Muslim army. 7,000 Portuguese soldiers were killed and a further 8,000 were taken prisoner. The Portuguese throne was left without an her, enabling Philip II of Spain to claim it in 1580.

9/7/1578, Wednesday (-133,972) Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, was born (died 15/2/1637).

4/6/1578, Wednesday (-134,007)

16/5/1578, Friday (-134,026) Sir Everard Digby, Gunpowder Plot conspirator, was born (executed 31/1/1606).

14/4/1578, Monday (-134,058) Philip III, King of Spain, was born.

1/4/1578, Tuesday (-134,071) William Harvey, British anatomist who discovered the circulation of the blood, was born at Folkestone.

31/3/1578, Monday (-134,072) Juan de Escovedo, Spanish politician, was killed.

30/3/1578, Sunday (-134,073) Easter Sunday

7/3/1578, Friday (-134,096) Margaret Lennox, grand-daughter of King henry VII of England, died (born 8/10/1515).

5/2/1578, Wednesday (-134,126) Giambattista Moron, Italian portratit painter, died.

31/1/1578, Friday (-134,131) Battle of Gemblours. Farnese attacked and defeated a Dutch force.

13/1/1578,Monday (-134,149)

1/1/1578, Wednesday (-134,161)

=====================================================================================

31/12/1577, Tuesday (-134,162)

13/12/1577. Friday (-134,180) Sir Francis Drake left Plymouth on his voyage round the world. See 26/9/1580.

10/11/1577, Sunday (-134,213) Jacob Cats, Dutch poet, was born (died 12/9/1660).

13/10/1577, Sunday (-134,241)

23/9/1577, Monday (-134,261) William of Orange entered Brussels, and the States-General deposed Don John of Austria and elected him as Governor, in defiance of the Habsburg supporters. These then appointed a rival Governor, Archduke Matthias, brother of Emperor Rudolph II.

17/9/1577, Tuesday (-134,267) The Peace of Bergerac was signed between King Henry III of France and the Hugenots.

13/8/1577, Tuesday (-134,302)

28/6/1577, Friday (-134,348) Peter Van Rubens, Flemish painter, was born in Siegen, Westphalia, the son of a lawyer.

7/4/1577, Sunday (-134,430) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1577, Monday (-134,436)

1/3/1577, Friday (-134,467)

24/2/1577, Sunday (-134,472) Former Swedish King Eric XIV died at Orbyhus prison, allegedly poisoned by the prison Governor, Johan Henriksen.

7/1/1577, Monday (-134,520) Ferdinand, Elector of Cologne, was born (died 13/9/1650).

3/1/1577, Thursday (-134,524) King Henry III of France reneged on the Peace of Monsieur, and the Sixth war of Religion began.

1/1/1577, Tuesday (-134,526)

=====================================================================================

13/12/1576, Thursday (-134,545)

8/11/1576. Thursday (-134,580) Spanish soldiers rampaged through Antwerp, killing some 7,000 people, and looting, in response to a rebellion against the tax imposed by the Spanish governor, the Duke of Alba. This caused a brutal repression, in 1572, against this rebellion, and some Spanish soldiers mutinied; some soldiers had also not been paid. Now leaders of the Catholic and Protestant Hapsburg Netherlands agreed to sink their differences and unite against the Spanish. See 26/7/1581.

12/10/1576, Friday (-134,607) Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian II died, aged 49. He was succeeded by his son Rudolf.

21/9/1576, Friday (-134,628) Girolamo Cardan, Italian physician, died (born 24/9/1501)..

27/8/1576. Monday (-134,653) Titian (Tiziano Vecelli) died, of bubonic plague, in Venice. His age was uncertain, but was believed to be over 90.

11/8/1576, Saturday (-134.669) Martin Frobisher entered �Frobisher Strait�, Baffin Island. Now known as Frobisher Bay, the long inlet was then thought to be a strait separating two islands.

8/8/1576, Wednesday (-134,672) The first purpose-built observatory was constructed in Denmark.

22/6/1576, Friday (-134,719) Queen Elizabeth�s Prayer Book was issued.

6/6/1576, Wednesday (-134,735) Giovanni Diodati, Swiss religious writer, was born (died 3/10/1649).

5/5/1576, Saturday (-134,767) (France) Peace of Monsieur was signed between Huguenots and Catholics. However hostilities soon recommenced, see 10/6/1584.

2/5/1576, Wednesday (-134,770) (Christian) Bartolome Carranza, Spanish theologian, died (born 1503).

22/4/1576, Sunday (-134,780) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1576, Sunday (-134,892)

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16/12/1575, Friday (-134,908) A large earthquake at Valdivia.

15/12/1575, Thursday (-134,909) Stephen Bathory became King of Poland.

14/11/1575, Monday (-134,940) Queen Elizabeth I of England declined the sovereignty of The Netherlands, which had been offered to her by the Protestant Dutch Stadtholder, William of Orange.

4/11/1575, Friday (-134,950) Reni Guido, Italian painter, was born (died 18/8/1642).

17/10/1575, Monday (-134,968) King Rudolf of Hungary, son of Emperor Maximilian II, was elected King of Germany.

10/10/1575, Monday (-134,975) The Battle of Dormans.Catholic forces under Duke Henry of Guise defeated the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay amongst others.

1/9/1575, Thursday (-135,014) Philip II of Spain suspended all payments by the Spanish Crown, and Don Luis de Requesens in The Netehrlands was unable to continue paying his troops.

12/8/1575, Friday (-135,034)

8/8/1575, Monday (-135,038)

8/7/1575, Friday (-135,069)

28/6/1575, Tuesday (-135,079) At the Battle of Nagashino, Nobunaga armed his 3,000 foot soldiers with muskets. They succeeded in defeating the mounted Samurai.

17/5/1575, Tuesday (-135,121) Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

3/4/1575, Sunday (-135,165) Easter Sunday.

12/3/1575, Saturday (-135,187) During the current session of the English Parliament, English Puritans have become more demanding of radical reform. This day Peter Wentworth, a Puritan MP, was jailed for attacking Queen Elizabeth I�s interference with Parliamentary freedom of speech.

11/3/1575, Friday (-135,188) Matthius Flacius, religious reformer and writer, died (born 3/3/1520).

10/3/1575, Thursday (-135,189) The former Swedish King Eric XIV had become a source of troubke for the State, with three rebellions hoping to reinstate him having to be suppressed since his deposition for insanity in 1568. This day a formal sentence of death was passed upon him.

3/3/1575, Thursday (-135,196) In India, Mughal Emperor Akbar defeated the forces of Da�ud Khan, Afghan ruler of Bengal and conquetred the territory.

14/2/1575, Monday (-135,213) Henry III of France married Louise de Lorraine-Vaudemont.

13/2/1575, Sunday (-135,214) Henry III of France was crowned at Reims.

4/2/1575, Friday (-135,223) Pierre de Berulle, French statesman, was born near Troyes (died 2/10/1629).

1/1/1575, Saturday (-135,257)

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31/12/1574, Friday (-135,258)

12/12/1574, Sunday (-135,277) Selim II, Sultan of Turkey, died, aged 50. He was succeeded by his eldest son, 27-year old Murad III, who had his brothers strangled in his presence.

12/11/1574, Friday (-135,307)

14/10/1574,

3/10/1574, Sunday (-135,347) The relief of Leyden. William of Orange broke a dyke to flood the polders and then sailed his ships right up to the besieged city of Leyden to bring relief food, bread and herrings.

17/9/1574, Friday (-135,363) (Spain) Pedro Aviles, Spanish naval adventurer, died (born 15/2/1519 in Aviles, Asturia).

1/7/1574, Thursday (-135,441) Joseph Hall, English writer, was born (died 8/9/1656).

27/6/1574, Saturday (-135,446) Giorgio Vasari, Florentine painter, died.

13/6/1574, Sunday (-135,459) Richard Barnfield, English poet, was born in Norbury, Staffordshire (died in Stone 6/3/1627).

30/5/1574, Sunday (-135,473) (France) King Charles IX of France died aged 24. He was succeeded by his 23-year-old brother, who ruled as Henry III for 15 years, under the domination of his mother, Catherine de Medici.

6/5/1574, Thursday (-135,497) Pope Innocent X was born.

17/4/1574, Saturday (-135,516) Joachim Camerarius, German scholarly writer, died (born 12/4/1500).

14/4/1574, Wednesday (-135,519) Battle of Mookerheyde, Netherlands.

11/4/1574, Sunday (-135,522) Easter Sunday.

5/3/1574, Friday (-135,559) (Mathematics) William Oughtred was born in Eton. Around 1621 he invented the slide rule.

28/2/1574, Sunday (-135,564) The Spanish Inquisition burnt at the stake two Englishmen and an Irishman for �Lutheran heresy�. These were the first European victims of the Inquisition in the New World; previously only native Indians had been burnt, for �Aztec paganism�. A further 68 Englishmen were publically lashed and given long terms as galley-slaves. These men were from a fleet headed by Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake that had brought slaves from Africa to sell in the Caribbean, in defiance of a Spanish ban; Drake and Hawkins escaped but had to abandon two ships and crew.

23/2/1574, Tuesday (-135,569) The Fifth War of Religion broke out in France.

30/1/1574, Saturday (-135,593) Damiao de Goes, Portuguese writer, died (born 1502).

===================================================================================

31/12/1573, Thursday (-135,623)

18/12/1573, Friday (-135,636) Fernando, Duke of Alva, having failed to make headway against the Dutch rebels, asked to be relieves of his command and leave Brussels. He was replaced as Spanish Governor of The Netherlands by Don Luis de Requescens.

7/10/1573, Wednesday (-135,708) William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born.

28/9/1573, Monday (-135,717) Caravaggio, painter, was born.

21/8/1573, Friday (-135,755) Eight Years War. The Spanish laid siege to Alkmaar, but the Dutch successfully resisted and the Spanish raised the siege on 8/10/1573.

7/8/1573, Friday (-135,769)

16/7/1573, Thursday (-135,791) (France) The Edict of Boulogne limited Huguenot worship to the cities of La Rochelle, Momtauiban and Nimes. However neither Catholics nor Huguenots were satisfied and tensions remained.

15/7/1573, Wednesday (-135,792) The architect Inigo Jones was born in London.He was the son of a clothmaker.

13/7/1573, Monday (-135,794) (Netherlands) The Spanish captured Haarlem after a 7-month siege.

7/71573, Tuesday (-135,800) Giacomo Barocchio, Italian architect, died in Rome (born in Vignola 1/10/1507).

11/6/1573, Thursday (-135,826) In Britain, a Puritan pamphlet calling for the abolition of episcopacy was suppressed by Parliament.

28/4/1573, Tuesday (-135,870) (France) Charles de Valois Angoulmeme was born in Fayet Castle (died 24/9/1650).

26/4/1573, Sunday (-135,872) Marie de Medici, Queen of France, was born.

17/4/1573, Friday (-135,881) Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria, was born (died 17/9/1651).

22/3/1573, Sunday (-135,907) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1573, Friday (-135,916) Michel de l�Hopital, French statesman, died.

10/3/1573, Tuesday (-135,919) Dudley Dorchester, English statesman, was born (died 15/2/1632).

7/3/1573. Saturday (-135,,922) Venice concluded a peace with the Turks by which Venice recognised Turkey�s sovereignty over Cyprus.

23/2/1573, Monday (-135,934) Sir John Perrott, English Lord Deputy of Ireland, defeated Itrish rebels.

28/1/1573, Wednesday (-135,960) The Compact of Warsaw gave all non-Catholics in Poland freedom of worship.

20/1/1573, Tuesday (-135,968) (Space exploration) Simon Marius was born in Gunzenhausen, Germany. He was the first astronomer to mention Andromeda.

1/1/1573, Thursday (-135,987)

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22/12/1572, Monday (-135,997) Francois Clouet, French miniature painter, died.

24/11/1572. Monday (-136,025) John Knox, father of the Scottish reformation, died in Edinburgh. He had returned to Scotland after the rebellion against the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots.

23/11/1572, Sunday (-136,026) The painter Bronzino died in Florence, aged 69.

11/11/1572. Tuesday (-136,038) The astronomer Tycho Brahe saw a �new star�, a supernova, in the constellation of Cassiopeia. The fixed stars were meant to be eternal, unchanging. Along with Copernicus� assertion that the Sun, not the earth, is the centre of the Universe, this undermined traditional church cosmology.

29/10/1572, Wednesday (-136,051) (France) Francois Briquemault, French Huguenot, was executed.

24/10/1572, Friday (-136,056) Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby died (born 1508).

30/9/1572, Tuesday (-136,090) St Francis Borgia, Jesuit priest, died.

11/9/1572, Thursday (-136,099)

24/8/1572. Sunday (-136,117) The St Bartholomew�s Day Massacre took place in Paris. Thousands of French Huguenots were killed by order of the Catholic French court. See 13/4/1592.Gaspard de Coligny, Huguenot leader, was killed. This was 6 days after the marriage of Catholic Marguerite de Valois, daughter of Henry II of France, also known as Catherine de Medici, to the Protestant Henri de Bourbon, King of Navarre. The bride�s mother , Catherine was anxious over the influence of Protestants on the couple.

20/7/1572, Sunday (-136,152) (Denmark) Frederick II, King of Denmark and Norway, married his cousin Sophuia of Mecklenburg.

11/7/1572, Friday (-136,161) English volunteers under navigator Sir Humohrey Gilbert arrived in The Netherlands to mfight the Spanish.

7/7/1572, Monday (-136,165) The Estates of Poland now declared the monarchy to be elective. Henry, Duke of Anjou, heir to the French throne, was elected to the Polish throne in May 1573.

6/7/1572, Sunday (-136,166) Sigismund II, King of Poland, died.

30/6/1572, Monday (-136,172)

15/6/1572, Sunday (-136,187) Jeanne III, Queen of Navarre, died.

11/6/1572, Wednesday (-136,191) Ben Johnson, English dramatist and poet, was born.

2/6/1572, Monday (-136,200) In England, Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, was executed for his part in the Papal-backed Rudolfi Plot to depose Queen Elizabeth and restore the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots to the English throne.

14/5/1572, Wedcnesday (-136,219) Pope Gregory XIII acceded (226th Pope) . Formerly Cardinal Ugo Buoncompagni (born 1502), he died in 1585.

1/5/1572, Thursday (-136,232) Pope Pius V died.

6/4/1572, Sunday (-136,257) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1572, Tuesday (-136,262) Resistance fighters (the �Beggars�) against the Spanish rule of King Philip II over the Netherlands took the Dutch port of Brill and environs. This encouraged the spread of the anti-Spanish revolt across the Netherlands.

1/3/1572, Saturday (-136,293)

1/1/1572, Tuesday (-136,353)

====================================================================================

31/12/1571, Monday (-136,354)

27/12/1571, Thursday (-136,358) Johannes Kepler, astronomer, was born. He discovered that planets have elliptical orbits

7/10/1571. Sunday (-136,439) The Ottoman Turkish fleet under Ali Pasha was defeated by the navies of Spain, Venice, and the Pope at the Battle of Lepanto, in the Gulf of Corinth. Christendom was concerned at the fall of Cyprus to Turkey, under Selim II, Suleiman the Great�s successor. This was the last battle fought between galleys. The Turks used ramming tactics, but allied ships used firepower to defeat the Turks. Although Ottoman Turkey retained control of Cyprus, its western expansion in the Mediterranean was halted. The Ottomans lost 230 galleys to the Christian�s 17.

23/9/1571, Sunday (-136,453) John Jewel, English religious writer, died(born 24/5/1522).

1/8/1571, Wednesday (-136,506) Ottoman forces captured the port of Famagusta, Cyprus, from Venice.

17/7/1571, Tuesday (-136,521) Georg Fabricius, German poet, died (born 23/5/1516).

31/5/1571, Thursday (-136,568) Thomas Crawford, acting for the young King James VI, captured Dumbarton Castle.

29/5/1571, Tuesday (-136,570) In the session of he English Parliament that ended today (from 1/4/1571), the import of a Papal Bull into England was made treasonous, and subscription to the 39 Articles of the Church of England was made compulsory for the clergy. Intolerance of Catholicism in England was now enshrined in ;law.

19/5/1571, Saturday (-136,580) (Philippines) Manila, Philippines, was founded by Miguel Lopez de Legazpe.

15/4/1571, Sunday (-136,614) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1571, Friday (-136,623) John Hamilton, Scottish political activist, was hanged.

15/3/1571, Thursday (-136,645)

25/2/1571, Sunday (-136,663)

15/2/1571, Thursday (-136,673) Michael Praetorius, composer and organist, was born.

13/2/1571, Tuesday (-136,675) Renaissance Italian sculptor and goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini died.

23/1/1571. Tuesday (-136,696) The Royal Exchange, founded by financier Sir Thomas Gresham, was opened by Queen Elizabeth I as a bankers meeting house. Its foundation stone was laid on 7/6/1566.

22/1/1571, Monday (-136,697) Sir Robert Cotton, writer, was born (died 6/5/1631).

13/1/1571, Saturday (-136,706) John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Custrin, died (born 3/8/1513).

3/1/1571, Wednesday (-136,716) Joachim II, Elector of Brandenburg, died (born 13/1/1505).

===================================================================================

31/12/1570, Sunday (-136,719)

13/12/1570, Wednesday (-136,737) The Peace of Stettin ended the war between Sweden and Denmark, recognising Swedish independence.

5/12/1570, Tuesday (-136,745) Johan Friis, Danish statesman, died (born 1494).

2/11/1570. Thursday (-136,778) A tidal wave in the North Sea destroyed sea walls from Holland to Jutland; over a thousand were killed.

7/10/1570, Saturday (-136,804)

12/9/1570, Tuesday (-136,829) Henry Hudson, exploerer of North America, was born.

11/9/1570, Monday (-136,830) Johann Brenz, scholarly writer, died (born 24/6/1499).

8/8/1570, Tuesday (-136,864) (France) Peace of St Germain ended the Third French War of Religion. However this peace was broken two years later by the plan of Catherine de Medici, King Charles IX and the Duke of Anou to massacre the Huguenots (24/8/1572).

25/7/1570, Tuesday (-136,878) Ivan the Terrible had many of his advisers and ministers publicly executed in Moscow.

20/5/1570, Saturday (-136,944) (Cartography) Flemish cartographer Abraham Ortelius produced the first modern-style atlas, entitled �Theatre of the World�.

14/4/1570, Friday (-136,980) (Christian) At the Concensus of Sandomierz in Poland, Lutherans, Calvinists and Moravians agreed to unite against Catholic attempts to stamp out religious toleration, and to hold joint Protestant Synods.

13/4/1570, Thursday (-136,981) Guy Fawkes, who tried to blow up Parliament, was born.

26/3/1570, Sunday(-136,999) Easter Sunday.

25/2/1570. Saturday (-137,028) Queen Elizabeth I was excommunicated by Pope Pius V who declared her a usurper.

20/2/1570, Monday (-137, 033) The Northern Rebellion ended. In November 1569 the Catholic Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland had started the rebellion against Queen Elizabeth I, motivated by the flight of (Catholic) Mary Queen of Scots to England, also by the arrest of Thomas Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk, in October 1569. In November 1569 Northumberland had seized Durham Cathedral to celebrate Catholic Mass. The Earls now marched south to fight Thomas Radcliffe, Earl of Sussex, at York. However their elevated social position, and religious fervour, failed to inspire enough foot soldiers to follow them and their march petered out. After a battle at Naworth, Cumbria, this day, 20/2/1570, the Earls fled to Scotland. Government reprisals against Catholics were harsh and Protestantism became more firmly established in England.

8/1/1570, Sunday (-137,076) Philibert Delorme, French architect, died.

===================================================================================

31/12/1569, Saturday (-137,084)

10/12/1569, Saturday (-137,105) Paul Eber, German religious writer, died (born 1511).

9/11/1569, Wednesday (-137,136) In England, the Northern Rebellion began, see 20/2/1570.

29/10/1569, Saturday (-137,147)

18/10/1569, Tuesday (-137,158) Giambattista Marini, Italian poet, was born (died 25/3/1625).

3/10/1569, Monday (-137,173) At the Battle of Moncountour, Royalist forces of Tavannaes and Anjou defeated Coligny�s Huguenots.

5/9/1569, Monday (-137,201) (Britain) Edmond Bonner, Bishop of London, died in the Marshalsea Prison.

24/8/1569, Wednesday (-137,213) At the Battle of Orthez, Huguenot forces under Gabriel de Montgomery defeated Royalist forces under General Terride in French Navarre.Catholics surrendered on condition that their lives would be saved.The Huguenots agreed but then massacred them anyway.

1/7/1569, Friday (-137,267) The Union of Lublin united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Treaty was signed at Lublin Castle. This strengthened Poland against possible attacks from Russia.

10/6/1569, Friday (-137,288) German Protestant troops reinforced Gaspard de Coligny, near Limoges.

10/5/1569, Tuesday (-137,319)

16/4/1569, Saturday (-137,343) Sir John Davies, English poet, was born (died 8/12/1626).

10/4/1569, Sunday (-137,349) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1569, Sunday (-137,377) At the Battle of Jarnac, Royalist troops under Marshal Gaspard de Tavannes defeated the Huguenots under the Prince of Conde, who was captured and murdered.A large number of Huguenot troops escaped, under Gaspard de Coligny.

13/2/1569, Sunday (-137,405)

25/1/1569, Tuesday (-137,424) The Swedish Riksdag confirmed the choice of new King and formally deposed Eric XIV.

11/1/1569, Tuesday (-137,438) The first State Lottery was held in England. 40,000 lots at 10 shillings each were available from the west door of St Paul�s Cathedral.Proceeds were used to repair harbours and for other public works.

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31/12/1568, Friday (-137,449)

28/12/1568, Tuesday (-137,452) Oda Nobunaga deposed the Shogun (military ruler) in Kyoto and appointed Ashikaga Yoshiaki in his place. Japanese power was centralised, to avert more unrest.

25/12/1568, Saturday (-137,455) Revolt by the Moriscos in Andalusia, Spain. The Moriscos were Muslims who had been forced to convert to Christianity; however they continued to speak, write, and dress as Muslims, and therefore came under heavy persecution., King Philip II of Spain (1527-98) forbade their language amnd traditions in 1566. The Moriscxos inflicted heavy damage at Granada; in retaliation Spanish troops slaughtered many of them at the Alfajarali Pass in 1569. By 1`571 the Morisco rebellion was totally suppressed. However the Moriscos, scattered across Spain, continued their Muslim culture until 1609, when they were expelled to North Africa.

3/12/1568, Friday (-137,477) Spanish treasure ships intended to pay for Habsburg troops in The Netherlands were driven into Plymouth Harbour by bad weather where they were impounded. Commercial relations between Spain and England were suspended until 1574.

30/11/1568, Tuesday (-137,480)

5/10/1568, Tuesday (-137,536) William the Silent, William of Orange, led an army into Brabant, Spanish Netherlands. However he withdrew in November 1568 when Ferdinand, Duke of Alva, declined battle.

30/9/1568, Thursday (-137,541) King Eric XIV of Sweden was deposedby the Swedish army and nobility after several years of worsening insanity. He was succeeded by his 31-year-old brother who reiged until 1592 as John III.

28/9/1568, Tuesday (-137,543) The French monarchy declared the Huguenots outside the law.

3/9/1568, Friday (-137,568) Adriano Banchiieri, composer, died.

18/8/1568, Wednesday (-137,584) French Royalists reneged on their word and tried to capture Conde and Coligny. They failed but worsened the conflict with the Hugenots.

24/7/1568, Saturday (-137,609) (Spain) Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias, died (born 8/7/1545).

21/7/1568, Wednesday (-137,612) Battle of Jemmingen, Netherlands. Spanish soldiers under the Duke of Alba lured Dutch rebels into an open position, then massacred them.

4/7/1568, Sunday (-137,629) King Eric XIV of Sweden, having recovered his sanity somewhat, married Karin at Stockholm.

5/6/1568, Saturday (-137,658) Philip Horn, Netherrlands statesman, was executed by the Spanish.

4/6/1568, Friday (-137,659) Leaders of the Flemish opposition to the Inquisition were executed as traitors in Brussels. This sparked revolt in The Netherlands.

23/5/1568, Sunday (-137,671) Battle of Heiligerlee, Netherlands. Louis, with 3,000 men, defeated a slightly smaller German-Spanish force under John, Duke of Aremberg.

16/5/1568. Sunday (-137,678) Mary Queen of Scots escaped from Loch Leven Castle. She had been imprisoned there on 16/6/1567. She sailed from Point Mary, crossing the Firth of Forth to begin her exile in England. See 8/2/1587, 24/7/1567, and 29/7/1565.

18/4/1568, Sunday (-137,706) Easter Sunday.

23/3/1568, Tuesday (-137,732) Peace between the French Huguenots and Catholics was concluded at Longjumeau. However this truce only lasted a few weeks. Pope Pius V was still demanding the total suppressiom of the Huguenots.

20/3/1568, Saturday (-137,735) (Germany) Albert, 1st Duke of Prussia, died in Tapiau (born 16/5/1490 in Ansbach).

16/2/1568. Monday (-137,768) The death sentence was passed on an entire country when the Spanish Inquisition condemned The Netherlands for heresy. During the first week of the plan to kill 3 million people, 800 were hanged, burnt, or killed by other means.

16/1/1568, Friday (-137,799)

2/1/1568, Friday (-137,813) (Britain) Luisa de Carvajal, Catholic missionary in England, was born (died 2/1/1614).

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31/12/1567, Wednesday (-137,815)

10/11/1567, Friday (-137,866) Huguenots were defeated at St Denis.

29/10/1567, Wednesday (-137,878)

1/10/1567, Wednesday (-137,906) (Christian) Pietro Carnesecchi, religious reformer, was executed (born 1508).

29/9/1567, Monday (-137,908) Hugenot uprising in France. Conde and Coligny attempted but failed to seize the French Royal Family at Meaux.

27/8/1567, Wednesday (-137,941)

22/8/1567, Friday (-137,946) The Council of Blood (or, Council of Troubles) was established by the Duke of Alba, Spanish Hapsburg military commander of the Low Countries, in order to suppress heresy and rebellion. Its decisions were seen as harsh, and it helped foment revolt in the Netherlands; the Council was dissolved in 1576.

21/8/1567, Thursday (-137,947) St Francis of Sales, Roman Catholic writer, was born in Savoy, France.

8/8/1567, Friday (-137,958) Fernando, Duke of Alba, arrived in The Netherlands as military governor, with 10,000 Spanish and Italian troops, to re-establish autocratic rule.

29/7/1567, Tuesday (-137,970) James VI, then 12 months old, was crowned King at Stirling.

24/7/1567, Thursday (-137,975) Mary Queen of Scots abdicated, after being defeated by Protestants at Carberry Hill.

3/7/1567, Thursday (-137,996) Samuel de Champlain, explorer of Canada, was born.

15/5/1567, Thursday (-137,045) Mary Queen of Scots was married to the Earl of Bothwell.

18/4/1567, Friday (-138,072) Wilhelm von Grumbach, German adventurer, was executed (born 1/6/1503).

30/3/1567, Sunday (-138,091) Easter Sunday

15/3/1567, Saturday (-138,106) Anne Montmorency, Marshal of France, died.

12/2/1567, Wednesday (-138,137) Thomas Campion, English poet, was born (died 1620).

9/2/1567, Sunday (-138,140) Lord Darnley, second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and father of James IV of Scotland and I of England, was murdered at his house near Edinburgh.

26/1/1567, Sunday (-138,154) Nicholas Wotton, English diplomat, died.

16/1/1567, Thursday (-138,164) King Eric XIV of Sweden, already showing signs of incipient insanity, arrived at the Riksdag in Upsala where he delivered a speech condemning the treachery of the nobility.

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9/12/1566, Monday (-138,202)

19/11/1566, Tuesday (-118,222) Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, was born (died 25/2/1601).

3/10/1566, Thursday (-138,269) Richard Cork, Irish statesman, was born (died 15/9/1643).

22/9/1566, Sunday (-138,280) Johannes Agricola, German Protestant reformer (born 20/4/1494) died.

6/9/1566. Friday (-138,296) Suleiman the Magnificent, leader of the Ottoman Empire for 46 years, died. He had brought the OttomanEmpire to the peak of its power, ruling an area from Hungary to Mesopotamia, and promoting justice and culture. His eldest surviving son, the incompetent drunkard Selim, succeeded him. All other potential rivals had been eliminated by intrigue and murder.

4/9/1566, Wednesday (-138,298) Queen Elizabeth I visited Oxford, to consolidate her acceptance by the University and Town as Supreme Head of the Church.

1/9/1566, Sunday (-138,301) (Education, Schools) Edward Alleyn, English actor, was born (died 21/11/1626). He also founded Dulwich College on 21/6/1619.

3/8/1566, Saturday (-138,330)

13/7/1566, Saturday (-138,351) Sir Thomas Hoby, English diplomat, died (born 1530).

2/7/1566, Tuesday (-138,362) Nostradamus died � did he foresee this?

19/6/1566. Wednesday (-138,375) James VI of Scotland, later James I of England, the first Stuart King, was born in Edinburgh Castle.He was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Lord Darnley.

15/6/1566, Saturday (-138,379) In Sweden, Count Nils was ritually humiliated by King Eric XIV, who was fearful that the power of the Swedish aristocracy might supersede that of the monarchy.

7/6/1566, Friday (-138,387) Sir Thomas Gresham laid the foundation stone of the first Royal Exchange in London.

9/5/1566, Thursday (-138,416)

25/4/1566, Thursday (-138,430) Louise Labe, French poet, died.

20/4/1566, Saturday (-138,435) Sir John Mason, English diplomat, died.

14/4/1566, Sunday (-138,441) Easter Sunday

5/4/1566, Friday (-138,450) Unrest started in The Netherlands when the minor nobility bergan to object to the strict Catholicism being imposed by the Habsburgs. By August 1566, rioting in The Netherlands would force the Regent, Margaret of Parma, to acquiesce and the Inquisition in the Netherlands was disbanded.

9/3/1566, Saturday (-138,477) Lord Darnley killed the secretary of Mary Queen of Scots, David Riccio (born 1531?). Mary I, six months pregnant with the future James VI of Scotland, witnessed the murder. Mary had romantic feelings for Riccio, and the nobility feared the rising influence of Riccio upon the royal court.

3/2/1566, Sunday (-138,511) George Cassander, Flemish religious writer, died (born 1513).

8/1/1566, Tuesday(-138,537) Pope Pius V acceded. Formerly Cardinal Michaele Ghisleri (1504 � 1572).

7/1/1566, Monday (-138,538) Louis de Blois, Flemish mystical writer, died (born 10/1506).

==================================================================================

13/12/1565, Thursday (-138,563) Konrad von Gesner, Swiss scholarly writer, died (born 26/3/1516).

9/12/1565, Sunday (-138,567) Pope Pius IV died.

22/10/1565, Monday (-138,615) Benedict Carpzov, scholarly writer, was born (died 26/11/1624).

14/10/1565, Sunday (-138,623) Sir Thomas Chaloner, English poet, died (born 1521).

5/10/1565, Friday (-138,632) Lodovico Ferrari, mathematician, died.

29/9/1565, Saturday (-138,638) A combined force of Spanish troops under Garcia de Toledo amnd the Knights Hospitaller (Knights of St John) forced the Ottoman Turks to withdraw from Malta.

13/9/1565, Thursday (-138,654) (France) Guillaume Farel, French religious reformer, died (born 1489).

8/9/1565, Saturday (-138,659) (1) Spanish colonists founded the first permanent European settlement in North America, at St Augustine in Florida. The city was given this name because it was established on the feast day of St Augustine.. Today it is an afflkuent winter resort city.

(2) The Great Siege of Malta was raised.

28/8/1565, Tuesday (-138,670) (USA) The Spanish established the settlement of St Augustine, Florida.

29/7/1565. Sunday (-138,700) Mary Queen of Scots married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, in the Old Abbey Chapel at Holyrood, Edinburgh.

28/6/1565, Thursday (-138,731)

18/5/1565. Friday (-138,772) The Ottoman Turks arrived at Malta to try and capture it, see 21/12/1522. However the island held out until relieved by a Christian fleet from Sicily arrived in September 1565. Casualties had been heavy for both the Turks and the Maltese; however the Turks had been riven by disputes between their naval and army commanders. The Turks returned to Istanbul, their hopes of dominating the western Mediterranean dashed.

14/5/1565, Monday (-138,776) (Christian) Nicolaus von Amsdorf, German Protestant reformer, died in Eisenach (born 3/12/1483 in Torgau).

22/4/1565, Sunday (-138,798) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1565, Saturday (-138,834) (Britain) Alexander Ales, Scottish clergyman, died in Leipzig (born 23/4/1500 in Edinburgh).

1/3/1565, Thursday (-138,850) (Brazil) The Portuguese established a colony at Rio de Janeiro.

13/2/1565, Tuesday (-138,866) (Philippines) Spain began the colonisation of the Philippines, initially claiming the central island of Cebu. However they shifted focus to Luzon, making Manila the capital in 1571.

13/1/1565, Saturday (-138,897)

===================================================================================

25/12/1564, Monday (-138,916) (Jewish) Johannes Buxtorf, German Jewish scholar, was born (died 1629).

13/11/1564, Monday (-138,958) The Tridentine Creed was promulgated.

25/7/1564, Tuesday (-139,069) Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, died.

22/6/1564, Thursday (-139,102) (USA) The French settlement of Fort Caroline was founded in Florida.

27/5/1564, Saturday (-139,128) John Calvin, French theologian who helped spread the Protestant revolution, died.

25/5/1564, Thursday (-139,130) St Philip Neri, Florentine Church reformer, founded the Congregation nof the Oratory in Rome.

23/4/1564, Sunday (-139,162) William Shakespeare was born in Stratford on Avon. He was the third of eight children.His father, John Shakespeare, was a glove maker and alderman, and his mother, Mary Arden, was a daughter of the gentry.

2/4/1564, Sunday (-139,183) Easter Sunday.

18/2/1564. Friday (-139,227) Michelangelo Buonarotti died in Rome, aged 88.

15/2/1564, Tuesday (-139,230) Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy.

6/2/1564, Sunday (-139,239) Christopher Marlowe, English poet, was born in Canterbury, son of a shoe maker.

26/1/1564, Wednesday (-139,250) Pope Pius IV confirmed the declarations of the Council of Trent.

===================================================================================

31/12/1563, Friday (-139,276)

4/12/1563, Saturday (-139,303) The Council of Trent was dissolved. It reaffirmed all major Catholic doctrines and declared the Apocrypha to be canonical along with the rest of the Bible.

19/11/1563, Friday (-139,318) Robert Sidney, Earl of Leicester, was born (died 13/7/1626).

8/9/1563, Wednesday (-139,390) Maximilian I, King of Germany, was elected King of Hungary.

28/8/1563, Saturday (-139,401)

28/7/1563, Wednesday (-139,432) The French recaptured Le Havre from the English/

1/6/1563, Tuesday (-139,489) Robert Cecil, English statesman, was born.

30/5/1563, Sunday (-139,491) (Scandinavia) The Nordic Seven Years War began between Denmark and Sweden.

23/4/1563, Friday (-139,528) King Philip II of Spain began construction of El Escorial.

13/4/1563, Tuesday (-139,538)

11/4/1563, Sunday (-139,540) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1563, Friday (-139,563) The Treaty of Amboise ended the First War of Religion in France. Hiuguenots wree now allowed to worship in all places where Protestantism was established, except in Paris.

5/3/1563, Friday (-139,577) Sir John Coke, English politician, was born (died 8/9/1644).

18/2/1563, Thursday (-139,592) Francis, Duke of Guise, was assassinated whilst besieging Orleans.

1/2/1563, Monday (-139,609) Sarsa Dengel succeeded his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia.

30/1/1563, Saturday (-139,611) Franz Gomarus, Dutch religious writer, was born (died 11/1/1641).

19/1/1563, Tuesday (-139,622) The Heidelberg Catechism of the Reformed Protestant Churches was published.

====================================================================================

19/12/1562, Saturday (-139,653) The Battle of Dreux; Catholics defeated the Huguenots.

12/11/1562, Thursday (-139,690) Peter Vermigli, Swiss Church reformer, died in Zurich.

26/10/1562, Monday (-139,707) French Catholic forces stormed the Protestants in Rouen, capturing the city.

19/10/1562, Monday (-139,714) George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born (died 5/8/1633).

9/10/1562, Friday (-129,724) Fallopius Gabriello, anatomist, died.

4/10/1562, Sunday (-139,729) Duke John of Sweden married Catherine, daughter of King Sigismund I of Poland. He also pledged to help Poland conquer Livonia. This was a breach of the Arboga Articles (drawn up by King Eric XIV on 15/4/1561 at Arboga) which proscribed the royal dukes from making any political treaties without Royal assent.

20/9/1562, Sunday (-139,743) (1) (France) Queen Elizabeth I of England sent a force under John, Earl of Warwick, to assist the Hugenots in France. They landed to capture le Havre.

(2) The Treaty of Hampton Court was signed.

20/7/1562, Monday (-139,805)

27/5/1562, Wednesday (-139,859) Jean Ribaut, leading an expedition to found a Huguenot colony in New France, founded Port Royal, South Carolina, USA.

11/4/1562, Friday (-139,906) Huguenot leaders issued a statement, at Orleans, declaring that, whilst they remained loyal subjects of the French Crown,, they must take up arms to preserve their freedom of worship.

29/3/1562, Sunday (-139,918) Easter Sunday.

9/3/1562. Monday (-139,938) Kissing in public was banned in Naples, contravention being punishable by death. This was an attempt to halt the spread of the plague.

1/3/1562, Sunday (-139,946) (France) The Guises slaughtered a group of Huguenots who were worshipping at a barn in Vassy. Armed conflict between Catholics and Huguenots was now inevitable.

1/2/1562, Sunday (-139,974)

18/1/1562, Sunday (-139,988) The Council of Trent reconvened, after a suspension of ten years.

=====================================================================================

31/12/1561, Wednesday (-140,006)

28/11/1561, Friday (-140,039) (Poland) The Order of the Teutonic Kinghts ceased toi rule Livonia. By the Union of Wilno, the last Master of the Teutonic Kinghts, Gotthard Kettler, became a secular Duke and Wilno was ceded to Poland.

18/11/1561, Tuesday (-140,049)

9/10/1561, Thursday (-140,089) The Colloquy of Poissy broke up.This was an attempt to find a working agreement between the Catholics and the Huguenot Protestants, which nearly succeeded.

19/8/1561, Tuesday (-140,140) Mary Queen of Scots returned from France. She arrived at Leith, near Edinburgh, in thick fog; this may have saved her life, because her half-brother, James Stuart Earl of Moray, wanted to rule Scotland and was waiting for her in English ships.

11/7/1561, Friday (-140,179) Luis de Gongora, Spanish poet, was born (died 24/5/1627).

4/6/1561, Wednesday (-140,216) (London) London�s Mediaeval St Pauls Cathedral, with a lead-lined wooden spire 584 feet high, was struck by lightning, and the entire building burned to the ground. The clergy blamed the destruction on divine displeasure at use of the Cathedral for worldy pursuits such as business deals and entertainment. By the end of the year, with donations of over �1,000 from Queen Elizabeth, also the City, the Cathedral was rebuilt. However the spire was not nrestored, much to Elizabeth�s displeasure. The new Cathedral fell into disrepair and was burnt down again in the Great Fire of London 1666.

15/4/1561, Tuesday (-140,266) King Eric XIV of Sweden summoned a Riksdag at Arboga which drew up the Arboga Articles this day, proscribing the power of the royal dukes, John and Charles.

6/4/1561, Sunday (-140,275) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1561, Saturday (-140,290)

26/2/1561, Wednesday (-140,314) Jorge Montemayor, Spanish novelist, died.

22/2/1561, Saturday (-140,318)

28/1/1561, Tuesday (-140,343) In France, the Edict of Orleans suspended the persecution of Huguenots.

22/1/1561, Wednesday (-140,349) Francis Bacon, author, philosopher, and statesman, was born at York House in The Strand, London.

=====================================================================================

31/12/1560, Tuesday (-140,371)

20/12/1560, Friday (-140,382) The first assembly of the Church of Scotland.

5/12/1560, Thursday (-140,397) Francis II, King of France, died, aged 16, he was succeeded by his brother, 10-year old Charles IX.

3/12/1560, Tuesday (-140,399) Jan Gruter, Dutch scholarly writer, was born (died 20/9/1627).

2/12/1560, Monday (-140,400) Charles de Marillac, French diplomat, died.

12/11/1560, Tuesday (-140,420) (Christian) Caspar Aquila, German religious reformer, died (born in Augsburg 7/8/1488).

10/10/1560, Thursday (-140,453) (Christian) Jacobus Arminius, Dutch religious reformer, was born in Oudewater, south Holland (died in Leiden 19/10/1609).

30/9/1560, Monday (-140,463) Melchior Cano, Spanish theologian (born 1525) died.

29/9/1560, Sunday (-140,464) Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden, died.

6/7/1560, Saturday (-140,549) The Treaty of Edinburgh was signed. This ended French interference in Scottish affairs. French troops in Scotland had tried to support Mary Queen of Scots claim to the throne.

25/6/1560, Sunday (-140,562) Gustavus I of Sweden abdicated, aged 64. He was succeeded by his son, Charles IX.

11/6/1560, Sunday (-140,576) Mary of Lorraine, Regent of Scotland, died (born 22/11/1515).

23/4/1560, Sunday (-140,625)

19/4/1560, Wednesday (-140,629) (Christian) Death of Philip Melancthon, German Church reformer.

17/3/1560, Friday (-140,662) The Tumult of Aboise. French Huguenots attempted to extricate the new King, Francis II, from the control of the Catholic Guise factiob, by storming the Royal Chateau at Amboise. The Huguenots were defeated and summarily executed by order of Francis, 2nd Duke of Guise. Religious tensions rose within France.

1/1/1560, Monday (-140,736)

===================================================================================

31/12/1559, Sunday (-140,737)

25/12/1559, Monday (-140,743) Pope Pius IV (born 31/3/1499), acceded (died 1565).

14/12/1559, Thursday (-140,754) Lupercio Argensola, Spanish poet, was born (baptised) in Barbastro (died in Saragossa4/2/1631).

10/11/1559, Friday (-140,788) Queen Elizabeth I confirmed the Charter of the Stationer�s company.

10/9/1559, Sunday (-140,849)

18/8/1559, Friday (-140,872) Pope Paul IV died, aged 83. In Rome his statue was torn down, the prisoners of the Inquisition freed, and Inquisition records destroyed.

10/7/1559, Monday (-140,911) Henry II, King of France, died aged 40. He was succeeded by his 14-year old son, Francois II. The Duc de Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine were Regents.

1/7/1559, Saturday (-140,920) Missing Church in Britain incurred a fine of one shilling (5p). However by 1581 this penalty had been raised to a swingeing �20 a month.

2/6/1559, Friday (-140,949) In France, King Henry II issued the Edict of Ecouen, making printing without ba licence a capital offence. This was aimed at curbing the French Huguenots.

8/5/1559, Monday (-140,974) The Act of Uniformity was signed by Queen Elizabeth I. This enshrined the monarch as head of the Church in England, ensuring the supremacy of Protestantism under Queen Elizabeth I.

17/4/1559, Monday (-140,995) The Act of Supremacy was partly re-enacted in England.

2/4/1559, Sunday (-141,010) (France-Germany, Spain) The Peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending the wars of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in Europe. Italy was recognised as a Spanish sphere of influence, and Franche Comte was to be part of the Spanish monarchy. French possession of Metz, Toul and Verdun was confirmed. A strategic marriage was arranged between King Philip II of Spain and Elizabeth Valois, daughter of King Henry II of France.

26/3/1559, Sunday(-141,017) Easter Sunday.

18/2/1559, Saturday (-141,053) Isaac Casaubon, scholarly writer, was born (died 1/7/1614).

16/2/1559, Thursday (-141,055) (Christian, Germany) Pope Paul IV issued the Papal Bull Cum Ex Apostolatus, calling for all heretical rulers to be deposed. This justified attempts by the Habsburgs to threaten Protestant rulers.

15/1/1559. Sunday (-141,087) Queen Elizabeth I crowned. She was born on 7/9/1533 at Greenwich Palace. Daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, she ruled from 1558 to 1603 and was one of England�s greatest rulers, succeeding her Catholichalf-sister Mary Tudor. She cleverly preserved England�s independence from Catholic Europe whilst also outflanking the more radical Puritans, and her reign saw the emergence of England as a major sea power through Drake and others.This was also a time when the arts thrived. She died on 24/3/1603.

13/1/1559, Friday (-141,089) Simons Menno, religious leader and writer, died.

1/1/1559, Sunday (-141,101) Christian III, King of Denmark and Norway, died aged 55 after a reign of nearly 24 years. He was succeeded by his 24-year-old son as Frederick II, who reigned for 29 years.

=====================================================================================

31/12/1558, Saturday (-141,102)

14/12/1558, Wednesday (-141,119) Funeral of Queen Mary of England.

17/11/1558. Thursday (-141,146) Queen Mary of England (Bloody Mary), daughter of Henry VIII, died in St James Palace London at the age of 42.Born in 1516 to Catharine of Aragon, she outmanoeuvred Lord Dudley�s attempt to put Lady Jane Grey on the throne, on the death of her half-brother King Edward VI. Mary�s marriage to Philip II of Spain dragged England into the war between France and Spain, and caused the loss to England of Calais, an English outpost since the reign of Edward III. Under her five-year reign Catholicism was restored and Protestants persecuted.On Mary�s death, her half-sister Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn, became Queen Elizabeth I.

21/10/1558, Friday (-141,173) Julius Caesar Scaliger, scholarly writer, died in Agen, SW France.

21/9/1558. Wednesday (-141,203) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 to 1556, died. His reign was marked by almost constant wars with France, through which he gained control of Italy in 1529 at the Peace of Cambrai.

9/9/1558, Friday (-141,215) Philippe Mercoeur, French soldier, was born (died 19/2/1602).

11/8/1558, Thursday (-141,244) Justius Menius, German religious writer, died (born 13/2/1499).

7/8/1558, Sunday (-141,248)

13/7/1558, Wednesday (-141,273) Battle of Gravelines, Franco-Spanish Wars. The Spanish under Comte d�Egmont, with English allies, defeated the French under Marshal de Thermes.

24/4/1558, Sunday (-141,353) Mary Queen of Scots, aged 16, married the Dauphin of France.

12/4/1558, Tuesday (-141,365)

10/4/1558, Sunday (-141,367) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1558, Tuesday (-141,372)

25/3/1558, Friday (-141,383) Marcos de Niza, geography writer, died.

14/3/1558, Monday (-141,394) Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria was elected Holy Roman Emperor. He ruled until 1564.

5/3/1558, Saturday (-141,403)

27/2/1558, Sunday (-141,409) Russia�s first trade mission to England reached London.

1/2/1558, Tuesday (-141,435)

31/3/1558, Monday (-141,436)

7/1/1558. Thursday (-141,460) (France, Britain) Calais, the last English possession on mainland France, was taken by the French under the Duke of Guise. The English had captured Calais in 1346 after a year besieging it. With the loss to England of its last Continental possession, public opinion turned against Queen Mary.

1/1/1558, Saturday (-141,466)

==================================================================================

31/12/1557, Friday (-141,467)

28/12/1557, Tuesday (-141,470)

6/12/1557, Tuesday (-141,491) (Christian) John Macalpine, Protestant theologian, died.

7/11/1557, Sunday (-141,521)

13/10/1557, Wednesday (-141,546)

13/9/1557, Monday (-141,576) Sir John Cheke, English scholarly writer, died (born 1514).

1/9/1557, Wednesday (-141,588) Jacques Cartier, French explorer of the North American coast and the St Lawrence river (born 1491), died in St Malo.

10/8/1557, Tuesday (-141,610) (France, Italy, Spain) The Battle of St Quentin. Spanish forces under the Duke of Savoy defeated the French under the Constable of Montmorency. The French were driven out of Italy.

16/7/1557, Friday (-141,635) Anne of Cleves, 4th wife of King Henry VIII, died.

19/6/1557, Saturday (-141,662)

11/6/1557, Friday (-141,670) John III, King of Portugal, died on his 55th birthday. He was succeeded by his 3-year old grandson, Sebastian.

7/6/1557, Monday (-141,674) (Britain) England., now an ally of Spain after the marriage of Queen Mary and Philip II of Spain, declared war on France.

18/4/1557, Sunday (-141,724) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1557, Tuesday (-141,736)

6/3/1557, Saturday (-141,767)

27/2/1557, Saturday (-141,774) The first Russian Embassy in London opened.

8/1/1557, Friday (-141,824) (Germany) Albert, Prince of Bayreuth, died in Pforzheim (born 28/3/1522 in Ansbach).

5/1/1557, Tuesday (-141,827)

1/1/1557, Friday (-141,831)

=====================================================================================

29/12/1556, Tuesday (-141,834)

27/12/1556, Sunday (-141,836)

31/12/1556, Thursday (-141,832)

1/12/1556, Tuesday (-141,862)

15/11/1556, Sunday (-141,878) (France) Jacques Duperron, French cardinal, was born (died 6/9/1618).

5/11/1556, Thursday (-141,888) Jalal-ud-Din, Moghul Emperor Akbar, defeated a Hindu army at the Battle of Panipat in the Punjab. He regained the Hindustani Empire.

25/10/1556, Sunday (-141,899) Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, retired to a Spanish monastery, dividing his possessions between his son and his brother.

21/10/1556, Wednesday (-141,903) Death in Venice of playwright Pietro Aretion.

16/10/1556, Friday (-141,908)

1/10/1556, Thursday (-141,923)

7/9/1556, Monday (-141,947) Emperor Charles V handed over government of the Holy Roman Empire to his brother Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria. Pope Paul IV objected that only he had the right toi bestow the title of Holy Roman Emperor.

1/9/1556, Tuesday (-141,953)

1/8/1556, Saturday (-141,984)

31/7/1556, Friday (-141,985) Ignatius Loyola, Spanish soldier and priest, and founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), died.

26/7/1556, Sunday (-141,990) James Melville, Scottish reformer and writer, was born.

1/7/1556, Wednesday (-142,015) In Winchester, England, a pound of beef cost 4d. A pound of candles cost 4d. A pound of butter cost 4d. A pound of cheese cost 4d. 2 eggs cost 1d. A whole sheep cost �1.

19/6/1556, Friday (-142,027) King James I of England, son of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley, the first Stuart King of England and Ireland, also King James VI of Scotland, was born.

10/5/1566, Sunday (-142,067) Leonhard Fuchs, German physician, died (born 17/1/1501).

18/4/1556, Saturday (-142,089) (Arts) Luigi Alamanni, Italian poet, died in Amboise (born in Florence, 1495).

5/4/1556, Sunday (-142,102) Easter Sunday.

21/3/1556, Saturday (-142,117) (Britain) Thomas Cranmer, first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, was burnt at the stake in Oxford as a heretic and a traitor, under the Catholic rule of Queen �Bloody� Mary. He had been deprived of his office on 11/12/1555. He had assisted in having the marriage of Mary�s parents, King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, annulled.

7/3/1556, Saturday (-142,131) Guillaume du Vair, French author, was born (died 3/8/1621).

29/2/1556, Saturday (-142,138)

21/2/1556, Friday (-1142,146) Sethus Calvisius, German scholarly writer, was born (died 24/11/1615).

27/1/1556, Monday (-142,171) The Moghul Emperor Humayun died after falling from his library roof in Delhi. He was succeeded by his 14-year old son, Jalal-ud-Din, who returned from exile.

23/1/1556. Thursday (-142,175) An earthquake in China�s Shanxi province killed an estimated 830,000 people.

16/1/1556, Thursday (-142,182) Emperor Charles V handed over government of Spain to his son Philip, who ruled as Philip II of Spain..

=====================================================================================

31/12/1555, Tuesday (-142,198)

4/12/1555, Wednesday (-142,225) Heinrich Meibom, German poet, was born (died 20/9/1625).

16/11/1555, Saturday (-142,243)

25/10/1555, Friday (-142,265) (Italy) Holy Roman Emperor Charles V handed over government of The Netherlands, Milan and Naples to his son Philip of Spain.

16/10/1555. Wednesday (-142,274) Bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley, British Protestant martyrs and Oxford reformers, were burnt at the stake for heresy.

25/9/1555, Wednesday (-142,295) (Christian, Germany) The Peace of Augsburg was signed between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League, at the city of Augsburg. It cemented the division within Christendom between Catholicism and Protestantism, and allowed German states to choose either Roman Catholicism or Lutheranism as their State Religion.

1/8/1555, Thursday (-142,350)

17/7/1555, Wednesday (-142,365) Richard Carew, poet, was born (died 6/11/1620).

12/7/1555, Friday (-142,370) The Jewish Ghetto in Rome was created, on the orders of Pope Paul IV.

25/5/1555, Saturday (-142,418) King Henry II of Navarre died (born 1503).

23/5/1555, Thursday (-142,420) Pope Paul IV (223rd Pope) acceded (formerly Cardinal Giovanni Pietro Caraffa).

30/4/1555, Tuesday (-142,443) Pope Marcellus II (formerly Cardinal Marcello Cervino) died, aged 54. He was succeeded by Pope Paul IV. Paul ordered that the Jewish quarter in Rome be walled, creating the Ghetto of Rome. Palestrina was appointed a member of the Pontifical Choir by Paul IV without examination creating resentment amongst the other choir members.

14/4/1555, Sunday (-142,459) Easter Sunday

10/4/1555, Wednesday (-142,463) Pope Marcellus II was elected Pope.

23/3/1555, Saturday (-142,481) Pope Julius III died, aged 67. He was succeeded by Pope Marcellus II,

1/3/1555, Friday (-142,503) Nostradamus published his famous book of predictions.

9/2/1555, Saturday (-142,523) John Hooper, English religious writer and martyr, died.

1/1/1555, Tuesday (-142,562)

======================================================================================

14/12/1554, Friday (-142,580)

30/11/1554, Friday (-142,594) Cardinal Pole pardoned England for its Protestant heresy and welcomed the country back into the Roman Catholic Church.

12/11/1554, Monday (-142,612) The English Parliament re-established Catholicisim in the country.

7/10/1554, Sunday (-142,648) (Britain) Walter Raleigh, explorer and adventurer, was born in Barton Hayes, Devon.

3/10/1554, Wednesday (-142,652) English poet and author Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke, was born.

28/9/1554, Friday (-142,657)

25/7/1554. Wednesday (-142,722) Mary I, Bloody Mary, married Philip II of Spain, son and heir of Charles V, in Winchester. This was her second marriage; the first had been when, aged three, she was married to the King of France, then nine months old. Catholicism returned to England. See 17/11/1558.

20/7/1554, Friday (-142,727) Philip II of Spain arrived in Southampton, having crossed the Channel during a terrible storm.

19/5/1554, Saturday (-142,789) Queen Elizabeth was released from the Tower of London.

10/5/1554, Thursday (-142,798) (Britain) Thomas Goodrich, English ecclesiastic, died.

17/4/1554, Tuesday (-142,821) Stephen Gosson, English satirical writer, was born (died 13/2/1624).

11/4/1555, Wednesday (-142,827) Joanna,Queen of Castille, died (born 6/11/1479).

30/3/1554, Friday (-142,839) Paul Laurentius, religious writer, was born (died 24/2/1624).

26/3/1554, Monday (-142,843) Charles Mayenne, 2nd Duke of Guise, was born (died 3/10/1611).

25/3/1554, Sunday (-142,844) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1554, Sunday (-142,851) Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower of London for alleged complicity in a plot against Mary led by Sir Thomas Wyatt; she was released on 19/5/1554.

3/3/1554, Saturday (-142,866) John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, died (born 30/6/1503).

11/2/1554, Sunday (-142,886) Lady Jane Grey and her husband Lord Guildford Dudley were executed on Tower Green, Tower of London, for high treason; she was aged 16. Lady Grey became Queen on 10/7/1553 but was deposed nine days later by her cousin Mary Tudor who then became Queen of England. The Protestant King Edward VI had proclaimed Jane Queen above her half sister Mary because that kept England away from Catholic Spain. Mary delayed executing Jane but changed her mind when Jane�s father attempted a revolution.

25/1/1554, Thursday (-142,903) In Rochester, Kewnt, Thomas Wyatt began to organise a plot against the proposed marriage of Mary Queen of Scots to Philip of Spain, son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

9/1/1554, Tuesday (-142,919) Pope Gregory XV born.

1/1/1554, Monday (-142,927)

======================================================================================

20/12/1553, Wednesday (-142,939) In England, Protestant Church services were ruled illegal.

14/12/1553, Thursday (-142,945) Henry IV, King of France, was born.

27/10/1553, Friday (-142,993) Michael Servetus, theologian, was burnt at the stake.

16/10/1553, Monday (-143,004) Death of German painter Lucas Cranach the Elder.

7/10/1553, Saturday (-143,013) Birth in London of Edmund Spenser, English poet.

1/10/1553, Sunday (-143,019) Mary Tudor was crowned Queen of England.

1/9/1553, Friday (-143,049)

2/8/1553, Wednesday (-143,079) Battle of Marciano. A French army invading Tuscany was defeated.

19/7/1553. Wednesday (-143,093) Lady Jane Grey, a Protestant, was deposed, aged 16, after a reign of only nine days. She was sent to the Tower of London and beheaded on 12/2/1554. Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary), a Catholic, half sister of Edward VI, was proclaimed Queen, but died on 17/11/1558.

11/7/1553, Tuesday (-143,101) Maurice, Elector of Saxony, died (born 21/3/1521).

10/7/1553. Monday (-143,102) Following the death of Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed Queen of England.

6/7/1553, Thursday (-143,106) King Edward VI died in Greenwich of tuberculosis.

26/6/1553, Monday (-143,116) Christ�s Hospital London was founded on the site of the former Greyfriars Monastery by King Edward VI, as a hospital for poor children.

21/5/1553, Sunday (-143,152) Lady Jane Grey was forced to marry Lord Guildford Dudley; Dudley had ambitions to be King of England.

14/5/1553, Sunday (-143,159) Marguerite de Valois, Queen of Navarre, was born.

5/5/1553, Friday (-143,168) (Arts) Erasmus Albertus, German writer, died in Mecklenburg.

9/4/1553, Sunday (-143,194) French satirical writer Francois Rabelais died.

2/4/1553, Sunday (-143,201) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1553, Sunday (-143,292) Holy bRoman Emperor Charles V retreated to Brussels. France gained the Bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun.

=====================================================================================

3/12/1552. Saturday (-143,321) (Christian) Death of Francis Xavier, Basque Jesuit missionary, called �the apostle of the Indies�, who helped Ignatius Loyola found the Jesuits.He died near Canton, China.

14/10/1552, Friday (-143,371) Oswald Myconius, Zwinglian religious writer, died.

6/10/1552, Thursday (-143,379) Birth of Matteo Ricci, pioneering Jesuit missionary to China.

2/10/1552, Sunday (-143,383) Ivan the Terrible took the Tartar city of Kazan, using artillery to break down the city walls. The Volga became a Russian river.

17/9/1552, Saturday (-143,398) Pope Paul V was born.

20/8/1552, Saturday (-143,426) Ivan IV (The Terrible) began an attack on Kazan with an army of 150,000 men, after a faction in Kazan promised him the Khanate.

15/8/1552, Monday (-143,431) Hermann, Elector of Cologne, died (born 14/1/1477).

14/8/1552, Sunday (-143,432) Paolo Sarpi, Venetian scholarly writer, was born.

2/8/1552, Tuesday (-143.444) Treaty of Passau. Lutherans were granted toleration of worship within the Holy Roman Empire.

18/7/1552, Monday (-143,459) The Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II, was born.

12/6/1552, Sunday (-143,495) Henry II of France retreated to Verdun, east of Metz, in Lorraine.

23/5/1552, Monday (-143,515) Sebastian Munster, German scholarly writer, died.

14/5/1552, Saturday (-143,524)

19/4/1552, Tuesday (-143,549) Emperor Charles V fled via the Brenner Pass to Carinthia, SE Austria.

18/4/1552, Monday (-143,550) Protestant German forces took Linz in Austria.

17/4/1552, Sunday (-143,551) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1552, Sunday (-143,558) Henry II of France captured Metz in Lorraine.

4/4/1552, Monday (-143,564) An army of German Protestants under Maurice, Elector of Saxony and Albert Alciabiades II, Margrave of Brandenburg, captired the wealthy Bavarian city of Augsburg.

13/3/1552, Sunday (-143,586) France invaded Lorraine.

8/2/1552, Monday (-143,620) Theodore Aubigne, French poet, was born in St Maury, Pons (died 29/4/1630 in Geneva).

1/2/1552, Monday (-143,627) Sir Edward Coke, English lawyer, was born (died 3/9/1634).

22/1/1552, Friday (-143,637) Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector of England, was executed for treason.

15/1/1552, Friday (-143,644) German Protestant Princes and King Henry II of France signed the Treaty of Chambord., France could occupy three bishoprics in Lorraine (a region now inNE France) in return for financial support for these Princes in their conflict against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

14/1/1552, Thursday (-143,645) Alberico Gentili, Italian legal writer, was born (died 19/6/1608).

10/1/1552, Sunday (-143,649) Johann Cochlaeus, German religious writer, died (born 1479).

=====================================================================================

28/12/1551, Monday (-143,662) Vicente Espinel, Spanish poet, was born (died 1624).

21/11/1551, Saturday (-143,699) Papal Legate Francis Xavier and fellow Jesuits returned from a two-year missionary trip to Japan. The Mikado was at first unimpressed with Xavier�s humble dress, but when he returned in more suitable attire, with gifts, he was even granted a disused Buddhist monastery for his work. Xavier left behind a community of 2,000 Christians, and was impressed with Japanese society.

2/10/1551, Friday (-143,749)

21/9/1551, Monday (-143,760) (1) (Education, Schools) (1) The King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth, received its charter. However a school here may date back to the 8th century (see 1276). After the religious guilds were dissolved in 1548 a petition was made to secure the school�s future, leading to the Charter.

(2) The National University of Mexico was founded in Mexico City. It formally opened on 25/1/1533.�����

19/9/1551, Saturday (-143,762) Henry III, King of France, was born.

20/8/1551, Thursday (-143,792)

14/8/1551, Friday (-143,798) Ottoman Turks captured the port of Tripoli, in modern-day Libya, from the Order of Knights of st John, a Christian Order based in Malta.

14/7/1551, Tuesday (-143,829)

14/5/1551, Thursday (-143,890)

2/5/1551, Saturday (-143,902) William Camden, English historian (died 1623) was born.

1/5/1551, Friday (-143,903) The Council of Trent reopened in Trent, Tirol (Trento, northern Italy). Protestant delegates were barred from entry, and the doctrine of Trsnasubstantiation was upheld.

21/4/1551, Tuesday (-143,913) (Japan) Death of Japanese warlord Oda Nobuhide (born 1510).

29/3/1551, Sunday (-143,935) Easter Sunday.

11/1/1551, Sunday (-144,013) Ketumati, Burma, was conquered by Bayinnaung.

====================================================================================

31/12/1550, Wednesday (-144,024) Henry of Lorraine, 3rd Duke of Guise, was born (died 25/12/1588).

24/12/1550, Wednesday (-144,031)

7/11/1550, Friday (-144,078) Bishop Jon Arason, the last Catholic Bishop in Iceland, who had campaigned against the Reformation and Luthernaism, was executed at Skalholt.

22/10/1550, Wednesday (-144,094)

17/9/1550, Wednesday (-144,129) Pope Paul V was born.

10/9/1550, Wednesday (-144,136) (Spain) Medina Sidonia, commander of the Spanish Armada, was born (died 1615).

21/7/1550, Monday (-144,187) The Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, was approved by Pope Julius III.

28/6/1550, Saturday (-144,210) Johannes Drusius, religious writer, was born (died 2/1616).

27/6/1550, Friday (-144,211) Charles IX, French monarch who ordered the massacre of the Hugenots on St Bartholomew�s Day in 1572, was born.

14/5/1550, Wednesday (-144,255)

4/5/1550, Sunday (-144,265)

6/4/1550, Sunday (-144,293) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1550, Monday (-144,306) (France) Treaty oif Boulogne between England and France. For a substantial payment, England withdrew from Boulogne earlier than agreed under the Treaty of Ardres, and would also abandon its gains in Scotland. This freed up Henry II of France to deploy his forces against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

6/3/1550, Thursday (-144,324)

8/2/1550, Saturday (-144,350) Julius III (221st Pope) acceded (born 1487). Prevoiously Cardinal Giovanni del Monte, he died in 1555.

6/1/1550, Monday (-144,383)

1/1/1550, Wednesday (-144,388)

==================================================================================

31/12/1549, Tuesday (-144,389)

7/12/1549, Saturday (-144,413) Robert Kett, rebel leader, was hanged.

10/11/1549, Sunday (-144,440) Pope Paul III died.

5/11/1549, Tuesday (-144,445) Philippe de Mornay, French politician, was born (died 11/11/1623).

17/10/1549, Thursday (-144,464) Denis Godefroy, French jurist, was born (died 7/9/1622).

21/9/1549, Saturday (-144,490) Marguerite d�Angoulmeme, Queen of Navarre, died.

15/8/1549, Thursday (-144,527) (Christian, Japan) Francis Xavier entered the Japanese port of Kagoshima to begin a conversion work.

9/8/1549. Friday (-144,533) England declared war on France.

12/7/1549, Friday (-144,561) Robert Kett, with 16,000 men, camped on Mousehold Heath outside Norwich and demanded an audience with Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, who was Protector of England during the minority years of King Edward VI. Kett�s demands concerned rising rents, rising food prices and the increase in sheep farming (which demanded enclosure whereas crop farming did not). Somerset ordered Kett�s mob to disperse, with a pardon for any crimes committed up to that point; Kett refused. Somerset now ordered William Parr, Marquis of Northampton, to defeat Kett. Parr marched into Norwich with 1,800 men, unopposed, but a surprise night attack by Kett�s men routed Parr�s force. Parr retreated to London and Kett was unable to follow, as his men had no wish to extend the dispute out of their native Norfolk. Somerset now ordered John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, south from Scotland, with 6,000 foot soldiers and 1,500 cavalry. Dudley surrounded Kett in Norwich, and the two leaders began negotiations. However some of Kett�s hotheads opened a fight with Dudley; Kett�s men were massacred with nearly 50 hanged.

20/6/1549, Thursday (-144,583) Kett�s Rebellion against enclosure of common land began when a group of men led by Robert Kett, a smallholder and tanner, tore down the new hedges and fences at Attleborough near Norwich. Copycat mobs sprang up all across Suffolk and Norfolk. In particular they resented the enclosure activities of landowner Edward Flowerdew.

9/6/1549. Sunday (-144,594) The Church of England adopted the Book of Common Prayer, compiled by Thomas Cranmer. In Devon, where the abolition of the chantries had caused economic hardship, there was considerable opposition.

20/5/1549, Monday (-144,614) From this date, only the new Book of Prayer was allowed to be used in English churches.

21/4/1549, Sunday (-144,643) Easter Sunday

8/4/1549, Monday (-144,656)

20/3/1549. Wednesday (-144,675) Death of Thomas Seymour, Lord High Admiral of England. He married King Henry VIII�s widow, Catherine Parr. When she died, he planned to marry Queen Elizabeth I, but was arrested for treason and executed.

15/2/1549, Friday (-144,708) Major earthquake hit Qayin, Iran, killing 3,000.

11/1/1549, Friday (-144,743)

1/1/1549, Tuesday (-144,753)

==================================================================================

31/12/1548, Monday (-144,754)

10/12/1548, Monday (-144,775)

24/11/1548, Saturday (-144,791) The English Parliament voted to allow clergymen to marry.

10/11/1548, Saturday (-144,805)

5/9/1548, Wednesday (-144,871) Catherine Parr, 6th wife of Henry VIII, died in childbirth.By then she was the wife of Lord Seymour, at Sudeley castle, near Cheltenham, Gloucestershire.

4/7/1548, Wednesday (-144,934)

30/6/1548, Saturday (-144,938) The Interim of Augsburg. A solution devised at the Diet of Augsburg by Charles V to solve the religious divisions of the Holy Roman Empire by devising a loosely-defined Catholicism that was acceptable to the Protestant Princes. It allowed the laity to receive the Communion cup and for Protestant Ministers to keep their wives. However the Catholics were unenthusiastic and most of the Protestant princes rejected it. Pope Paul refused to endorse it until August 1549.

1/4/1548, Sunday (-145,028) Easter Sunday. Sigismund I, King of Poland, died aged 81, after a reign of 42 years. He was succeeded by his 28-year old son, Sigismund II who ruled for 24 years.

11/2/1548, Saturday (-145,078) English churches were ordered to remove all images of saints, as the Reformation proceeded.

1/1/1548, Sunday (-145,119)

====================================================================================

5/12/1547, Monday (-145,146) Ubbo Emmius, Dutch historical writer, was born (died 9/12/1625).

2/12/1547, Friday (-145,149) Hernando Cortez, Spanish conqueror of Mexico in 1521, died near Seville.

2/10/1547, Sunday (-145,210)

29/9/1547, Thursday (-145,213) Miguel de Cervantes, author, was born.

22/9/1547, Thursday (-145,220) Philipp Frischlin, German poet, was born (died 29/11/1590).

14/9/1547, Wednesday (-145,228) Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, Dutch statesman who was instrumental in obtaining independence for The Netherlands, was born in Amersfoort.

10/9/1547. Saturday (-145,232) The English won a major victory over the Scots at Pinkie.

21/6/1547, Tuesday (-145,313) Moscow was destroyed by a fire which consumed 25,000 of the city�s wooden houses. 1,700 people died and 80,000 were made homeless.

23/5/1547,Monday (-145,342)

23/4/1547, Saturday (-145,372) Battle of Muhlberg. Charles (1500-58), who became King of Spain in 1516 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, was opposed to the growth of Lutheranism (Protestantism).At Muhlberg, Charles defeated the Protestant princes, allowing him to impose the Interim of Augsburg (1548) which was a temporary compromise making minimal concessions to these Protestants. Many German Protestants who felt these concessions were inadequate fled to England, assisting the Reformation there.

10/4/1547, Sunday (-145,385) Easter Sunday.

31/3/1547, Thursday (-145,395) King Francis I of France died aged 52.

20/2/1547, Sunday (-145,434) King Edward VI, aged 9, crowned as King at Westminster Abbey.

16/2/1547, Wednesday (-145,438) King Henry VIII was buried at Windsor.

28/1/1547. Friday (-145,457) King Henry VIII, born 28/6/1491, died aged 56, probably of kidney and liver failure. King Edward VI, the only son of Henry VIII, by Jane Seymour, born 12/10/1537 and now aged 9, ascended the throne on 20/2/1547. However he died on 9/7/1553 at the age of 15. He was succeeded by Lady Jane Grey, see 19/7/1553.

19/1/1547, Wednesday (-145,466) Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was beheaded at the Tower of London for treason.

18/1/1547, Tuesday (-145,467) Pietro Bembo, Italian writer, died (born in Venice 20/5/1470).

16/1/1547. Sunday (-145,469) Ivan the Terrible, first Russian to assume the title of Tsar, was crowned.

====================================================================================

31/12/1546, Friday (-145,485)

14/12/1546, Tuesday (-145,502) Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer and mathematician, was born in Knudstrup.

4/11/1546, Thursday (-145,542) Christ Church College, Oxford, founded by Thomas Wolsey.

4/10/1546, Monday (-145,573)

3/8/1546, Tuesday (-145,635) In Paris the printer Etienne Dolet was hanged and burned for heresy, after printing the works of humanists such as Erasmus.

16/7/1546, Friday (-145,653) (Britain) Protestant martyr Anne Askew was burnt at the stake.

10/7/1546, Saturday (-145,659) (Germany) The Schmalkaldic War began between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League.

4/7/1546, Sunday (-145,665) (Turkey) Death of Ottoman Admiral Khair el Din, better known as Barbarossa (born ca. 1478).

25/4/1546, Sunday (-145,735) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1546, Thursday (-145,752) At the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic Church declared the Apocrypha to be part of the Bible.

7/4/1546, Wednesday (-145,753) Friedrich Myconius, religious writer, died (born 26/12/1490).

26/3/1546, Friday (-145,765) Sir Thomas Elyot, English scholarly writer, died.

20/3/1546, Saturday (-145,771) Sheihk Bahai, theologian and wscientist, was born.

18/2/1546. Thursday (-145,801) Martin Luther, Augustinian friar and instigator of the Reformation, died (see 31/10/1517), at his birthplace of Eisleben, Germany, at the age of 63, apparently of overwork.

1/1/1546, Friday (-145,849)

===================================================================================

31/12/1545, Thursday (-145,850)

13/12/1545, Sunday (-145,868) The Council of Trent began.

7/12/1545, Monday (-145,874) Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was born.

6/12/1545, Sunday (-145,875) Janus Dousa, Dutch writer, was born (died 8/10/1604).

18/10/1545, Sunday (-145,924) John Taverner, English composer, died.

13/10/1545, Tuesday (-145,929)

24/9/1545, Thursday (-145,948) (Germany) Albert, Archbishop of Mainz, died.

27/8/1545, Thursday (-145,976) (Netherlands) Alexander Farnese, Governor-General of The Netherlands under King Philip II of Spain, was born (died 3/12/1592).

1/8/1545, Saturday (-146,002) (Scotland) Andrew Melville, Scottish religious reformer, was born.

19/7/1545, Sunday (-146,015) The Mary Rose, pride of Henry VIII�s battle fleet, keeled over and sank in the Solent with the loss of 700 lives. It was raised on 11/10/1982 and taken to Portsmouth Dockyard.

8/7/1545, Wednesday (-146,026) (Spain) Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias, was born (died 24/7/1568).

26/6/1545, Friday (-146,038) A botanical garden was established in Padua. This, or the garden in Pisa, is the oldest such garden in Europe.

1/5/1545, Friday (-149,094) Franz Junius, Hugenot French religious writer, was born (died 1`3/10/1602).

20/4/1545, Monday (-146,105) The Waldensians were massacred in Provence.

5/4/1545, Sunday (-146,120) Easter Sunday.

2/3/1545, Monday (-146,154) (Britain) Sir Thomas Bodley, founder of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, was born in Exeter (died in London 28/1/1613).

25/2/1545, Wednesday (-146,159) The English were defeated by the Scots at Ancrum Moor. See 24/11/1542. In September 1545 the English again invaded Scotland.

24/2/1545, Tuesday (-146,160) Don John of Austria was born (died 1/10/1578).

1/1/1545, Thursday (-146,214)

===================================================================================

31/12/1544, Wednesday (-146,215)

9/12/1544, Tuesday (-146,237) Teofilo Folengo, Italian poet, died (born 8/11/1491).

25/10/1544, Saturday (-146,282)

9/10/1544, Thursday (-146,298) French forces almost recaptured Boulogne, but the English raliied and drove them back.

18/9/1544, Thursday (-146,319) (Italy) France and Spain concluded the Peace of Crepy. Spain was growing weary of fighting. The Treaty prseerved the status quo, with France retaining north west Italy. Englamnd was suddenly without allies against France. King Henry VIII returned to England, leaving a garrison in Boulogne.

14/9/1544, Sunday (-146,323) Henry VIII of England captured Boulogne. On 7/6/1546 the English and French signed the Peace of Ardres. This said Boulogne was to remain in English hands for another eight years.

19/7/1544, Saturday (-146,380) Henry VIII laid siege to the French town of Boulogne, in revenge for French military assistance to Scotland.

24/5/1544, Saturday (-146,437) (Britain) William Gilbert, physician to Queen Elizabeth I, was born (died 30/11/1603).

14/4/1544, Monday (-146,477) Battle of Ceresole. France defeated the Spanish south of Turin.

13/4/1544, Sunday (-146,478) Easter Sunday

30/3/1544, Sunday (-146,492) Bartolome de las Casas, Spanish campaigner against the abuse of indigenous peoples, was consecrated as Bishop of Chiapas, Mexico.

19/1/1544, Saturday (-146,562) Francis II, King of France, was born.

1/1/1544, Tuesday (-146,580)

===================================================================================

14/12/1543, Friday (-146,598)

29/11/1543, Thursday (-146,613) German painter Hans Holbein the Younger died in London.

22/9/1543, Saturday (-146,681) Josse Clichtove, Belgian religious writer, died.

9/9/1543, Sunday (-146,694) Mary Queen of Scots was crowned at age 9 months. Her father James V had died when she was 1 week old. She was beheaded at age 44.

12/7/1543. Thursday (-146,753) King Henry VIII married his sixth wife, Katherine Parr.

24/5/1543. Thursday (-146,802) Polish astronomer, Nicolas Copernicus died of apoplexy.Born on 19/2/1473, in Torun, Poland, Copernicus is regarded as the founder of modern astronomy.When his father died, Copernicus� uncle Lucas Waczenrode became his guardian.In 1491 Copernicus went to the University of Krakow to study Latin, mathematics, astronomy, geography, and philosophy.He returned home after 4 years without a degree, and studied Canon Law at the University of Bologna so as to have a church career. From a turret on the walls of Bologna Cathedral, Copernicus studied the stars, and in 1530 produced a 400 page treatise, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the revolutions of the celestial spheres). This put forward the idea that the earth rotated on its own axis daily and annually around the Sun. It was published in the year of his death, 1543, and greeted with a hostile reception as it challenged the ancient teaching that the earth was the centre of the Universe.

24/4/1543, Tuesday (-146,832)

1/4/1543, Sunday (-146,855) Francois Lesdiguieres, Constable of France, was born (died 21/9/1626).

25/3/1543, Sunday (-146,862) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1453, Friday (-146,871) Gonzalo Cordoba, Spanish statesman, was born (died 2/12/1515).

10/2/1543, Saturday (-146,905) (Christian) Johann Maier Eck, opponent of the reforms of Martin Luther, died (born 13/11/1486).

1/1/1543, Monday (-146,945)

===================================================================================

31/12/1542, Sunday (-146,946)

21/12/1542, Thursday (-146,956) (Mathematics) Thomas Allen, English mathematician, was born in Uttoxeter, Staffordshire (died 30/9/1632 at Gloucester Hall).

14/12/1542, Thursday (-146,963) James V, King of Scotland, died, aged 30. He was succeeded by his baby daughter, Mary Queen of Scots.

7/12/1542, Thursday (-146,970) Mary Queen of Scots, cousin of Queen Elizabeth I, was born in Llinlithgow Palace, daughter of King James V of Scotland. See 9/9/1543.

24/11/1542. Friday (-146,983) The English defeated the Scots at Solway Moss as Henry VIII fought to gain control of Scotland. On 1/7/1543 England and Scotland signed the Peace of Greenwich, but this was repudiated by the Scottish Parliament on 11/12/1543. England invaded Scotland again in 1544, pillaging Edinburgh, but failed to gain a surrender from Scotland. See 25/2/1545.

4/10/1542, Wednesday (-147,034) (Christian) Roberto Bellarmine, Italian Cardinal, was born in Tuscany (died in Rome 17/9/1621).

16/9/1542, Saturday (-147,052) The French King, Francois I, was prescribed a new food by his Ottoman Turkish doctor. This food was yoghurt.

24/8/1542, Thursday (-147,075) Spanish explorers from Quito, Peru, pushed on over the Andes and explored the river they called the Amazon, after the women warriors they met there. However this territory was claimed by Portugal under the Treaty of Tordesillas.

30/7/1542, Sunday (-147,100)

21/7/1542, Friday (-147,109) Pope Paul III established the Universal Inquisition in order to halt the Reformation by repression.

24/6/1542, Saturday (-147,136) St John of the Cross, Spanish mystic and poet, was born (died 1591).

19/6/1542, Monday (-147,141) Leo Jud, Swiss Bible writer, died.

21/5/1542, Sunday (-147,170) Hernando de Soto, the first European to cross the Mississippi, died on the return journey.

6/5/1542, Saturday (-147,185) (Christian, India) Francis Xavier arrived at the Portuguese colony of Goa, India, to begin his work of converting the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity.

15/4/1542, Monday (-147,206) Leonardo da Vinci was born.His father, Piero da Vinci, was a notary and his mother, Caterina da Vinci, was a peasant.

9/4/1542, Sunday (-147,212) Easter Sunday.

28/3/1542, Tuesday (-147,224) In England, Margaret Davy was boiled to death. This rare punishment was inflicted for her committing murder by poisoning.

13/2/1542. Monday (-147,267) Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII, was beheaded. She stood accused of adultery. Her last words were �I die a queen but I would rather have died the wife of Culpepper�.

1/2/1542, Wednesday (-147,279) (Italy) Girolamo Aleandro, Italian Cardinal, died in Rome (born 13/2/1480 in Motta, near Venice).

1/1/1542, Sunday (-147,310)

====================================================================================

31/12/1541, Saturday (-147,311)

29/12/1541, Thursday (-147,313) By the Treaty of Gyalu, against the wishes of the Hungarian nobility, Isabella, widow of John Zapolya and mother of the infant King John Sigismund Zapolya, ceded Hungary to Frederick I, Archduke of Austria.

24/12/1541, Saturday (-147,318) (Christian) Carlstadt, German religious reformer, died (born 1480).

9/11/1541, Wednesday (-147,363) Catherine Howard, 5th wife of King Henry VIII, was confined to the Tower of London

18/10/1541, Tuesday (-147,385) Margaret, Queen of Scotland, died.

11/10/1541, Tuesday (-147,392)

24/9/1541, Saturday (-147,409) Paracelsus, scientist and occultist, died..

18/8/1541, Thursday (-147,446)

1/8/1541, Monday (-147,463) Simon Grynaeus, German scholarly writer, died (born 1493).

26/6/1541, Sunday (-147,499) Francisco Pizarro, Conquistador, was assassinated in Lima, by followers of a rival explorer, Almagro. The two had disputed over the area each was to control.

18/6/1541, Saturday (-147,507) The Irish Parliament selected King Henry VIII as King of Ireland

21/5/1541, Saturday (-147,535) Johann Faber, German religious writer, died (born 1478).

8/5/1541, Sunday (-147,548) The River Mississippi was first seen by Europeans. The Spanish Conquistador, Hernando de Soto, reached the River in the area where Arkansas City is now sited.

22/4/1541, Friday (-147,564)

17/4/1541, Sunday (-147,569) Easter Sunday.

7/4/1541, Thursday (-147,579) Francis Xavier and three Jesuit companions sailed from Lisbon to do conversion work in the West Indies.

12/2/1541, Saturday (-147,633) The Spaniards founded Santiago, Chile.

26/1/1541, Wednesday (-147, 650) Florent Chrestien, French poet, was born (died 3/10/1596).

====================================================================================

31/12/1540, Friday (-147,676)

5/10/1540, Tuesday (-147,763) Helius Hessus, German poet, died (born 6/1/1488).

1/10/1540, Friday (-147,767) Johann Grynaeus, Swiss religious writer, was born (died 13/8/1617).

2/9/1540, Thursday (-147,796) Dawit II, Emperor of Ethiopia, died.

24/8/1540, Tuesday (-147,805) Francesco Parmigiano, Italian painter, died.

23/8/1540, Monday (-147,806) Guillaume Bude, French scholarly writer, died.

30/7/1540, Friday (-147,830) (Britain) Thomas Abel, English priest, was executed for denying the Royal supremacy in the Church.

28/7/1540. Wednesday (-147,832) Thomas Cromwell, Chancellor to Henry VIII, was beheaded on Tower Hill for promoting the King�s failed marriage to Anne of Cleves. (See 6/1/1540). On the same day Henry VIII married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard. She was beheaded on 13/2/1542.

23/7/1540, Friday (-147,837) Following the death of John Zapolya, the infant John Sigismund Zapolya succeeded as King of Hungary, in violation of the Treaty of Nagyvarad. Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria, King of Bohemia and Germany, invaded to claim the whole of Hungary.

9/7/1540. Friday (147,851) Henry VIII divorced his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves. She was his fourth wife; nicknamed �The Flanders Mare�, she at least kept her head.

24/6/1540, Thursday (-147,866) Henry VIII ordered Anne of Cleves to leave the Royal Court

11/6/1540, Friday (-147,879) Barmabe Googe, English poet, was born (died 2/1594)

3/6/1540, Thursday (-147,887) Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto became the first European to cross the Appalachian mountains.

22/5/1540, Saturday (-147,899) Francesco Guicciiardini, Italian historical and political writer, died near Florence.

9/5/1540, Sunday (-147,912)

30/3/1540, Tuesday (-147,952) Matthaus Lang von Wellenburg, German statesman, died.

28/3/1540, Sunday (-147,954) Easter Sunday

23/3/1540. Tuesday (-147,959) The Crown seized Waltham Abbey. It was the last of the great monasteries to be seized by Henry VIII, bringing to an end a four-year campaign that had seen some 550 church properties, with their gold and jewels, pass to the King. The total income from these properties was around �132,000 a year and Henry VIII gave some of this to his supporters.

22/2/1540, Sunday (-147,989) Coronation of Queen Mary, second wife of King James V of Scotland.

9/2/1540. Monday (-148,002) The first recorded horse-racing meeting in Britain took place on Roodeye Field (now Roodee), Chester.

24/1/1540, Saturday (-148,018) Edmund Campion, Jesuit, was born.

6/1/1540. Tuesday (-148,036) King Henry VIII�s ill-fated marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves (see 28/7/1540). Anne was born on 22/9/1515; her father was leader of the German Protestants and so Anne was regarded as a suitable wife for Henry VIII by Cromwell. However she had no looks, spoke only her own language, and had no dowry. Her only recommendations were her proficiency in needlework and her meek and mild temper. The marriage contract was signed on 24/9/1539; she landed at Deal on 27/12/1539, and Henry VIII met her at Rochester on 1/1/1540. On 2/1/1540 Henry VIII openly said about her looks, �She is no better than a Flanders mare�. On the wedding morning, 6/1/1540, he said nothing would have persuaded him to marry her but the fear of driving the Duke of Cleves into the arms of the Holy Roman Emperor. Soon after Henry regretted identifying so closely with the German Protestants. Henry then declared the marriage non-consummated and so null and void, on 9/7/1540. Anne lived the rest of her life happily in retirement in England, dying on 28/7/1557; she was buried at Westminster Abbey.

====================================================================================

31/12/1539, Wednesday (-148,042)

6/11/1539, Thursday (-148,097)

 

7/9/1539, Sunday (-148,157) Guru Angad Dev became the second Guru of the Sikhs.

4/9/1539, Thursday (-148,160) King Henry VIII contracted to marry Anne of Cleves.

10/8/1539. Sunday (-148,185) King Francis of France orders that all legal documents are henceforth to be drawn up in French, not Latin. He also ordered all priests to keep records of baptisms and deaths.

10/6/1539, Tuesday (-148,246)

30/5/1539, Friday (-148,257) Hernando de Soto landed in Florida, with 600 soldiers, in search of gold.He also introduced pigs into North America.

6/4/1439, Sunday (-143,311) Easter Sunday

30/3/1539, Sunday (-148,318)

12/1/1539, Sunday (-148,395) The Treaty of Toledo was signed by Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor, and King of Spain), and Francis I (King of France).Each agreed to make no further alliances with England.The origin of this Treaty was the dispute between King Henry VIII of England and Pope Paul III.

1/1/1539, Wednesday (-148,406)

=================================================================================

31/12/1538, Tuesday (-148,407)

28/12/1538, Saturday (-148,410) Andrea Gritti, Doge of Venice, died.

30/11/1538, Saturday (-148,438) (1) In England, Byland Abbey was dissolved.

(2) Sucre, Bolivia, was founded under the name of Ciudad de la Plata de la Nueva Toledo.

28/10/1538, Monday (-148,471) The first University in the Americas, the Universidad Santo Tomas de Aquino, was founded.

28/9/1538, Saturday (-148,501) At the Battle of Preveza, the Turkish fleet under Suleiman the Magnificent, commanded by Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, defeated the Holy League forces of Charles V, commanded by Andrea Doria.

22/8/1538, Thursday (-148,538) (Britain) John Lambert, English Protestant martyr, died.

6/8/1538, Tuesday (-148,554) Bogota, Colombia, was founded by Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada.

25/7/1539, Thursday (-148,566) (Christian) Lorenzo Campeggio, Italian Cardinal, died (born 1464).

18/6/1538, Tuesday (-148,603) The Truce of Nice; peace was declared between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King Francis I of France.

10/6/1538, Monday (-148,611) GermanCatholic Princes formed the League of Nuremberg, in opposition to the Protestant Schmalkaldic Leagie.

8/5/1538, Thursday (-148,643) (Britain) Edward Fox, Bishop of Hereford, died.

26/4/1538, Friday (-148,656) At the Battle of Los Salinas, Almagro was defeated by Francisco Pizarro, who then seized Cuzco.

21/4/1538, Sunday (-148,661) Easter Sunday.

24/2/1538, Sunday (-148,717) The Treaty of Nagyvarad; peace was declared between King Ferdinand and the Turks.John Zapolya was recognised as King of Hungary, whilst Ferdinand retained northern and western Hungary and was recognised as heir to the Hungarian throne.

12/2/1538, Tuesday (-148,729) Abrecht Altdorfer, painter, died.

1/1/1538, Tuesday (-148,771) German and Swiss states introduced the Gregorian Calendar.

===================================================================================

24/12/1537, Monday (-148,779)

10/12/1537, Monday (-148,793) Giovanni Guarini, Italian poet, was born (died 1612).

24/10/1537.Wednesday (-148,840) Jane Seymour, third wife of Henry VIII, died, of the all-too-common childbed fever.

12/10/1537. Friday (-148,852) Edward VI, son of Henry VIII and his third wife Jane Seymour, was born at Hampton Court Palace, London. He succeeded his father at the age of 9 but died aged 15. Henry intended him to marry Mary, daughter of King James V of Scotland. In 1543 the Treaty of Greenwich provided for this marriage when Edward reached the age of 10; however the Scottish Parliament rejected this Treaty.

4/10/1537, Thursday (-148,860) The Matthew Bible, ptinted under the pseudonym Thpomas Matthew, was produced.

2/9/1537, Sunday (-148,892) Protestant �superintendents� were appointed in Denmark to replace the former Catholic Bishops (see 27/9/1536).

25/8/1537, Saturday (-148,900) The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army and the second most senior, was founded.

15/8/1537, Wednesday (-148,910) Asunci�n was founded by Juan de Salazar y Espinoza.

25/7/1537. Wednesday (-148,931)

20/6/1537, Wednesday (-148,966) Thomas Darcy, English soldier died (born 1467).

2/6/1537, Saturday (-148,984) (Christian, Race Equality) A Papal Bull issued by Pope Paul III prohibited enslavement of American Indians, contrary to King Charles V�s policies. Paul excommunicated Catholic slave traders.

25/5/1537, Friday (-148,992)

1/4/1537, Sunday (-149,046) Easter Sunday.

12/3/1537, Monday (-149,066) The Portuguese founded the city of Recife, Brazil

6/2/1537, Tuesday (-149,100) Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japanese statesman, was born (see 18/8/1598).

6/1/1537, Saturday (-149,131) Alessandro de Medici was assassinated.

1/1/1537, Monday (-149,136)

===============================================================================

31/12/1536, Sunday (-149,137)

6/12/1536, Wednesday (-149,162)

6/11/1536, Monday (-149,192)

16/10/1536, Monday (-149,213) (Britain, Christian) York was occupied by rebels against the takeover of the Church by King Henry VIII. This was the Pilgrimage of Grace. Much of northern England, from Lincolnshire to north Yorkshire, was in uproar at this takeover, the valuation of Church property, the suppression of smaller monasteries, and the cancellation of some Saints day holidays. Led by Robert Aske, rebels seized northern towns. Henry VIII made peace with the rebels and issued a pardon, only to go back on this on a pretext in January 1537 and execute the leaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace, including Aske.

13/10/1536, Friday (-149,216) The Pilgrimage of Grace began in northern England, protesting at King Henry VIII�s break from Rome.

6/10/1536, Friday (-149,223) William Tyndale, English religious reformer and translator of the Bible, was burned at the stake as a heretic in Vilvarde, Brussels, on the orders of King Henry VIII.

6/9/1536, Wednesday (-149,253)

6/8/1536, Sunday (-149,284)

29/7/1536, Saturday (-149,292) End of the Count�s War in Denmark (began 1534). CountChristopher of Oldenburg, great nephew of King Christian I, Catholic, contested with Frederick�s son, Christian III. The poorer people supported the Catholics. Forces loyal to Protestant Christian III, backed by the Holstein Dukes and Gustavus Vasa of Sweden, captured Copenhagen this day, This ensured the primacy of Lutheranism over Roman Catholicism in Denmark. The property of the Catholic Bishops was now confiscated by the Danish State.

12/7/1536, Wednesday (-149,309) Desiderus Erasmus, Renaissance philosopher, died.

11/7/1536, Tuesday (-149,310) The Convocation of the Clergy. English clergy subscribed to the Ten Articles, beliefs of the English Church under King Henry VIII.

16/6/1536, Friday (-149,335) The St Lawrence River was named by explorer Jacques Cartier.

30/5/1536. Tuesday (-149,352) King Henry VIII married Jane Seymour, his third wife, in the Queen�s Chapel, Whitehall, eleven days after the execution of Anne Boleyn.

19/5/1536. Friday (-149,363) Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII, mother of Queen Elizabeth I, was beheaded at Tower Green, in the Tower of London, aged 29.She was accused of adultery � Henry VIII was already flirting with his third wife Jane. Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and lost her right of succession to the English throne.

6/5/1536, Saturday (-149,376) King Henry VIII ordered a copy of The Bible to be placed in every English church.

30/4/1536, Sunday (-149,382) The Inquisition was implemented in Portugal.

16/4/1536, Sunday (-149,396) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1536, Friday (-149,398) King Henry VIII of Engtland began expropriating the minor monasteries

2/3/1536, Thursday (-149,441)

25/2/1536, Friday (-149,447) (Christian) Berthold Haller, Swiss religious reformer, died (born 1492).

5/2/1536, Saturday (-149,467) Anne Boleyn was arrested and taken to the Tower of London.

7/1/1536, Friday (-149,496) Catharine of Aragon died at Kimbolton Palace, Huntingdonshire. She was the first of Henry VIII�s six wives, and the mother of Queen Mary I.

1/1/1536, Saturday (-149,502)

================================================================================

31/12/1535, Friday (-149,503)

7/11/1535, Friday (-149,559)

24/10/1535, Sunday (-149,571) Francesco Sforza II, Duke of Milan, died aged 45 without a successor. Milan became a suzerainty of Charles V.

16/10/1535, Saturday (-149,579) Niwa Nagahide, Japanese warlord, was born.

4/10/1535, Monday (-149,591) The first English Bible was printed, translated and published by Miles Coverdale.

4/8/1535, Wednesday (-149,652)

11/7/1535, Sunday (-149,676) Joachim I, Elector of Brandenburg, died (born 21/2/1484).

9/7/1535, Friday (-149,678) Antoine du Prat, Chancellor of France, died (born 17/1/1463).

6/7/1535, Tuesday (-149,681) (UK, Russia) Sir Thomas Moore was beheaded in London, for refusing to accept Henry VIII as head of the Church of England. Thomas More was born in 1477 in London. He published Utopia in 1515 which described a pagan, communist, city state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. His ideas contrasted with the self-interest and greed for power seen in Europe�s Christian states.

22/6/1535, Monday (-149,696) Cardinal John Fisher was beheaded on Tower Hill, London, for refusing to acknowledge King Henry VIII as head of the Church of England.

11/6/1535, Thursday (-149,707) (Denmark) A Danish-Swedish army led by King Christian III of Denmark and Norway defeated the army and navy of the Hanseatic port of Lubeck. The era of Hanseatic naval power ended. Christian III was able to conquer the island of Fyn and all of Zeeland except for Copenhagen.

1/6/1535, Monday (-149,717) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, captured Tunis.

6/5/1535, Thursday (-149,742)

28/4/1535, Wednesday (-149,750)

28/3/1535, Sunday (-149,781) Easter Sunday

6/3/1535, Saturday (-149,803)

18/2/1535, Thursday (-149,819) Henry Agrippa von Nettesheim, German writer, died in Grenoble (born in Cologne, 14/9/1486)

11/2/1535, Thursday (-149, 826) Pope Gregory XIV was born.

21/1/1535, Thursday (-149,847) Henry VIII appointed Cromwell as vice-regent in spiritual or vicar-general. Cromwell now set about assessing the value of England�s monasteries.

18/1/1535, Monday (-149,850) Lima, Peru, was founded by Francisco Pizarro.

15/1/1535, Friday (-149,853) The Act of Supremacy was passed in England. This made King Henry VIII head of the Church.

====================================================================================

31/12/1534, Thursday (-149,868) The Ottoman army captured Baghdad. By 1546 they controlled Yemen, gateway to the Red Sea.

6/11/1534, Friday (-149,923) (Biology) Joachim Camerarius, botanist, was born (died 11/10/1598).

13/10/1534, Tuesday (-149,947) Pope Paul III (220th Pope), formerly Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (1468-1549) acceded.

25/9/1534, Friday (-149,965) Pope Clement VII (219th Pope) died after eating poisonous mushrooms (born 1475).

15/8/1534, Saturday (-150,006) (Christian) The Jesuits (Society of Jesus) was founded by Ignatius Loyola. They became the main counter-Reformation movement in the Catholic Church.

9/8/1534, Sunday (-150,012) (Christian) Cardinal Cajetan (Tommaso de Vio) died (born 1470). He was a staunch defender of papal privilege, in the face of Protestant reform.

24/7/1534, Friday (-150,028) Jacques Cartier landed in Canada, claiming the territory for France.

13/7/1534, Monday (-150,039) Ottoman armies captured Tabriz in north western Persia.

1/7/1534, Wednesday (-150,051) Frederick II, King of Denmark, was born.

10/5/1534, Sunday (-150,103) Jacques Cartier explored Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage.

4/5/1534, Monday (-150,109) Five Carthusian momks from London Chartehouse were hung drawn and quartered at Tyburn, London, for refusing to acknowledge Henry VIII as head of the Church of England

20/4/1534, Monday (-150,123) Jacques Cartier sailed from St Malo, to explore the Canadian coast.

18/4/1534, Saturday (-150,125) William Harrison, English writer, was born (died 24/4/1593).

15/4/1534, Wednesday (-150,128) Thomas Cromwell was appointed Chief Secretary to King Henry VIII of England

5/4/1534, Sunday (-150,138) Easter Sunday.

1/3/1534, Sunday (-150,173)

2/2/1534, Monday (-150,200) The Great Swabian League was dissolved.

2/1/1534, Friday (-150,231)

====================================================================================

31/12/1533, Wednesday (-150,233)

4/12/1533, Thursday (-150,260) Ivan IV, aged 3, became ruler of Russia. He was to be known as Ivan the Terrible.

21/11/1533, Friday (-150,273) Basil III, Grand Duke of Muscovy, died aged 54 He was succeeded by his 3-year-old son who ruled until 1584 as Ivan IV (the Terrible).

15/11/1533, Saturday (-150,279) Pizarro entered Cuzco.

15/10/1533, Wednesday (-150,310)

2/10/1533, Thursday (-150,323)

7/9/1533, Sunday (-150,348) Queen Elizabeth I was born at Greenwich Palace in London, the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn (married 25/1/1533). Elizabeth was recognised as heir to the English throne ahead of her half sister Mary, daughter of Henry VIII�s first wife Catherine of Aragon. See 19/5/1536.

29/8/1533, Friday (-150,357) The end of the Inca Empire. Francisco Pizarro arranged for Atahualpa to be tried on charges of murder, sedition and idolatry. Found guilty this day, Atahualpa was executed by strangulation.

7/8/1533, Thursday (-150,379) Alonso de Ercilla y Zuniga, Spanish poet, was born (died 1595).

29/7/1533, Tuesday (-150,388)

11/7/1533, Friday (-150,406) Henry VIII was excommunicated by Pope Clement VII.

6/7/1533, Sunday (-150,411) Italian poet Ludovico Ariosto died.

4/7/1533, Friday (-150,413) John Frith, English religious writer ad reformer, was executed.

24/6/1533, Tuesday (-150,423) Mary Queen of France, daughter of Henry VII of England, died (born 21/12/1507).

22/6/1533, Sunday (-150,425) (Hungary) Peace treaty arranged between Suleiman I, Ottoman Sultan, and Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria, ruler of Germany and King of Bohemia. Ferdinand retained the parts of Hungary he still controlled, whilst voivoide (military viceroy) John Zapolya, ruler of Transylvania and ally of Suleiman, retained the rest of Hungary.

23/5/1533, Friday (-150,455) The marriage of Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon was annulled.

11/5/1533, Sunday (-150,467)

24/4/1533, Thursday (-150,484) William the Silent, Prince of Orange, was born at Dillenburg Castle, Nassau, Germany.

13/4/1533, Sunday (-150,495) Easter Sunday

10/4/1533, Thursday (-150,498) (Denmark) King Frederick I of Denmark died aged 62 (acceded 1523). Civil war ensured in Denmark, the Counts War, because the Diet refused to acknowledge the succession of his son, Christian, because he was a Lutheran. The Diet supported the accession of Frederick�s younger infant son, Hans. He was succeeded as King of Denmark and Norway by his 30-tear-old son, who ruled as King Christian III until 1559.

24/3/1533, Monday (-150,515)

28/2/1533, Friday (-150,539) Michel de Montaigne, French essayist, was born.

30/1/1533, Thursday (-150,568) Protestant reformer Thomas Cranmer was consecrated as Archboishop of Canterbury.

25/1/1533, Saturday (-150,573) King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn were officially married by the Bishop of Lichfield, and became the future parents of Queen Elizabeth I on 7/9/1533. Anne Boleyn was crowned at Westminster on 1/6/1533, shortly after Thomas Cranmer (who was appointed as Archbishop of Canterbury on 30/3/1533) had declared Henry VIII�s marriage to Catherine of Aragon null and void. On 23/5/1533 Henry VIII actually divorced Catherine of Aragon, resulting in a break between England and the Church of Rome.

1/1/1533, Wednesday (-150,597)

===============================================================================

31/12/1532, Tuesday (-150,598)

17/12/1532, Tuesday (-150,612)

25/11/1532, Monday (-150,634)

16/11/1532, Saturday (-150,643) (Peru) Atuahalpa met Pizarro at his mountain fortress of Cajamarca. The Spanish handed Atahualpa a Bible and demanded that he convert to Christianity. Atahualpa refused, and was taken hostage by the Spanish. The Inca offered the Spanish a �roomful of gold� to release Atahualpa; the ransom was paid, but Pizarro did not keep his side of the bargain. Instead he had Atahualpa garrotted in the main square in July 1533.

14/11/1532, Thursday (-150,645) King Henry VIII of England seceretly married Anne Boleyn.

16/10/1532, Wednesday (-150,674)

1/9/1532, Sunday (-150,719) Lady Anne Boleyn was created Marquess of Pembroke by her fianc�, King Henry VIII.

22/8/1532, Thursday (-150,729) William Warham, Arhcbishop of Canterbury who was opposed to secular control of the Church by King Henry VIII, died.

16/8/1532, Friday (-150,735) John the Steadfast, Elector of Saxony, died (born 30/6/1468).

13/8/1532, Tuesday (-150,738) Union of Brittany and France: The Duchy of Brittany was absorbed into the Kingdom of France.

13/7/1532, Saturday (-150,769)

25/6/1532, Tuesday (-150,787) Suleiman I attempted another invasion of Hungary, but failed.

1/6/1533, Saturday (-150,811) Coronation as Queen of Anne Boleyn, second wife of King Henry VIII of England, at Westminster Abbey.

28/5/1533, Tuesday (-150,815) The Archbishop of Canterbury declared the marriage of King Henry VII and Anne Bolryn to be void.

26/5/1532, Sunday (-150,817) King Francis I of France co-ordinated an anti-Habsburg alliance of German Princes opposed to the election of Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria and King of Bohemia, as King of Germany. This alliance included both Protestants and Catholics.

16/5/1532, Thursday (-150,827) Sir Thomas More resigned as Lord Chancellor of England. This was in protest at King Henry VIII�s break with Rome.

13/5/1532, Monday (-150,830) Francisco Pizarro landed on the northern coast of Peru.

24/4/1532, Wednesday (-150,849) Sir Thomas Lucy, acquaintance of Shakespear and Justice of the Peace at Stratford on Avon, was born (died 7/7/1600).

13/4/1532, Saturday (-150,860)

31/3/1532, Sunday (-150,873) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1532, Wednesday (-150,891)

13/2/1532, Tuesday (-150,920)

18/1/1532, Monday (-150,956) English Parliament banned payment by English churches to Rome.

1/1/1532, Monday (-150,963)

=================================================================================

31/12/1531, Sunday (-150,964)

17/12/1531. Sunday (-150,978)

17/11/1531, Friday (-151,008)

11/10/1531, Wednesday (-151,045) Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Church reformer, was killed in a fight with soldiers from the Catholic-supporting Forest Cantons at Kappel, near Zurich. Zwingli was Chaplain to the Protestant troops from Zurich.

11/9/1531, Monday (-151,075)

11/8/1531, Friday (-151,106)

11/7/1531, Tuesday (-151,137)

25/6/1531, Sunday (-151,153)

25/5/1531, Thursday (-151,184)

25/4/1531, Tuesday (-151,214)

9/4/1531, Sunday (-151,230) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1531, Monday (-151,257)

25/2/1531. Saturday (-151,273) A severe earthquake killed an estimated 20,000 people in Lisbon.

11/2/1531, Saturday (-151,287) King Henry VIII was recognised as official head of the Church of England.

22/1/1531, Sunday (-151,307) Death of Florentine painter Andrea del Sarto.

5/1/1531, Thursday (-151,324) Pope Clement VII forbade King Henry VIII ofEngland from remarrying.

1/1/1531, Sunday (-151,328)

=================================================================================

31/12/1530, Saturday (-151,329) At Schmalkaldin, in Thiuringia, Germany, Protestant Princes, including the Elector of Saxony and the Lamdgrave of Hesse, formed the Schmalkaldic League, against Emperor Charles V.

27/12/1530, Tuesday (-151,333) Spanish ships under Pizarro set sail from Panama into the Pacific to capture the gold and silver of the Inca Empire.

26/12/1530, Monday (-151,334) (India) Death of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire (born 1483).

23/12/1530, Friday (-151,337)

11/12/1530, Sunday (-151,349)

29/11/1530. Tuesday (-151,361) Cardinal Wolsey died after being arrested as a traitor. He died at Market Harborough whilst being taken from York to London.

4/11/1530, Friday (-151,386) Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was arrested as a traitor, after it was discovered that he had corresponded secretly with Pope Clement VII.

26/10/1530, Wednesday (-151,395) The Knights of Malta were formed when the Knights Hospitaller were given Malta by Charles V.

29/9/1530, Thursday (-151,422)

23/9/1530, Friday (-151,428)

25/8/1530, Thursday (-151,457) Ivan the Terrible of Russia was born. As Ivan IV, he killed over 3,000, including the royal heir.

12/8/1530, Friday (-151,470) Florence surrendered to the Holy Roman empire/

2/8/1530, Tuesday (-151,480) (Italy) Battle of Gavinana; Florence was fighting to keep out the Holy Roman Empire.

3/7/1530, Sunday (-151,510) Claude Fauchet, French historical writer, was born (died 1601).

25/6/1530, Saturday (-151,518) The Confession of Augsburg was read to the Diet.

22/5/1530, Sunday (-151,552)

18/4/1530, Monday (-151,586) (Christian) Francis Lambert, Protestant reformer, died.

17/4/1530, Sunday (-151,587) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1530, Tuesday (-151,613)

23/2/1530, Wednesday (-151,640) (Spain, Italy, Germany) Carlos I of Spain was crowned Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Italy by Pope Clement V.

19/1/1530, Wednesday (-151,675) Francisco Pizarro sailed from Spain, with a commission to conquer Peru. He sailed to Panama, and from there to Peru in 12/1530.

1/1/1530, Saturday (-151,693)

==================================================================================

31/12/1529, Friday (-151,694)

23/12/1529, Thursday (-151,702)

23/11/1529, Tuesday (-151,732)

17/10/1529, Sunday (-151,769) Henry VIII of England dismissed Cardinal Wolsey as Lord Chancellor, replacing him with Thomas Moore. The main cause of his dismissal was his failure to curb Habsburg expsansion, and Henry�s wish for a divorce from Catherine of Aragon due to the lack of a healthy male heir.

15/10/1529. Friday (-151,771) The Ottoman Turks withdrew from their siege of Vienna, as winter approached.

23/9/1529, Thursday (-151,793) Turkish forces began a siege of Vienna.

8/9/1529, Wednesday (-151,808) (1) The city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, was founded by Ambrosius Ehinger.

(2) Invading Turkish forces captured the city of Buda.

25/8/1529, Wednesday (-151,822)

5/8/1529, Thursday (-151,842) The Treaty of Cambrai was signed, between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King Francis I of France.France abandoned its claims in Italy, but kept Burgundy.

21/7/1529, Wednesday (-151,857)

29/6/1529, Tuesday (-151,879) (Italy) The Treaty of Barcelona was agreed. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V will be formally crowned king of Naples by Pope Clement VII.

21/6/1529, Monday (-151,887) John Skelton, tutor to the King Henry VIII as a boy, died.

27/5/1529, Thursday (-151,912) Ad-Din Barbarossa completed his conquest of Algeria, bringing the Ottoman Empire to its peak.

10/5/1529, Monday (-151,929) The Turkish Army under Suleiman I left Constantinople to invade Hungary.

5/5/1529, Wednesday (-150,934) (Italy) Paulus Aemilius, Italian historian, died in Paris (born in Verona).

22/4/1529, Thursday (-151,947) The Treaty of Saragossa divided the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, along a north-south line 17 degrees 9297.5 leagues) east of the Moluccas.

19/4/1529, Monday (-151,950) At the Diet of Speyer, an alliance of German principalities and city states protested against the reinstatement of the Diet of Worms, so beginning the Protestant movement.

28/3/1529, Sunday (-151,972) Easter Sunday.

7/3/1529, Sunday (-151,993) At the Battle of Shimbra Kure, Imam Ahmad Ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi defeated the forces of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia.

8/1/1529, Friday (-152,051) John Frederick, Duke of Saxony, was born (died 6/5/1595).

1/1/1529, Friday (-152,058)

================================================================================

31/12/1528, Thursday (-152,059)

5/10/1528, Monday (-155,146) Richard Fox, Emglish statesman, died.

29/8/1528, Saturday (-152,183)

20/8/1528, Thursday (-153,192) Georg von Frundsberg, German soldier, died (born 24/9/1473).

15/8/1528, Saturday (-152,197) (France) Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, French military leader (born 1485) died.

8/7/1528, Wednesday (-152,235) Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, was born (died 30/8/1580).

26/6/1529, Friday (-152,247) the Treaty of Kapp[el ended the Swiss Civil war between the Catholic Forest Cantons and the Protestant Civic League. The Catholics agreed to end their alliance with the Habsburgs, and both sides agreed to more freedom of religion.

10/5/1529, Sunday (-152,296) (Hungary) Suleiman I, Ottoman Sultan, left Constantinople to attack Habsburg Austria. He was in league with John Zapolya, claimant to the Hungarian throne, who had been elected by anti-Habsburg factions of the Hungarian nobility.

12/4/1528, Sunday (-152,322) Easter Sunday

6/4/1528. Monday (-152,328) Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, died in Nuremberg, aged 57.

29/2/1528, Saturday (-152,365) Patrick Hamilton, Scottish martyr, was burnt at the stake.

22/1/1528, Wednesday (-152,403) (Britain) King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France declared war on the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. This led to a suspension of trade between England and its most important trading partner, The Netherlands. Resultant economic problems in England caused widespread civil unrest, and forced England to declare a truce with Charles V in June 1528.

1/1/1528, Wednesday (-152,424)

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31/12/1527, Tuesday (-152,425)

8/11/1527, Friday (-152,478) (Christian) Jerome Emser, opponent of Martin Luther�s reforms, died (born 20/3/1477)

5/11/1527, Tuesday (-152,481) Ferdinand I of Austria and Bohemia, brother of Emperor Charles V, was recognised as King of Hungary by the Diet in Buda. John Zapolya continued to press his rival claim to the throne until 1528.

29/10/1527, Tuesday (-152,488)

29/8/1527, Thursday (-152,549)

31/7/1527, Wednesday (-152,578) Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II was born.

26/7/1527, Friday (152,583) The (Spanish) Council of the Indies granted Francisco Pizarro, 54, the right to conquer and take riches from the Panama area.

13/7/1527, Saturday (152,596) John Dee, English mathematician, was born (died 1608).

24/6/1526, Monday (-152,615) Religious reform began in Sweden, under King Gustavus I Vasa. The Swedish Diet accepted the King�s demand for Royal control of the Swedish Church and all its assets.

22/6/1527. Saturday (-152,617) Nicolo Macchiavelli died in Florence, Italy, aged 58.

17/6/1527, Monday (-152,622) The Protestant Reformation began in Sweden.

21/5/1526, Tuesday (-162,649) King Philip II was born in Valladolid, Spain. He was the son of Emperor Charles V, and ruled over Spain at the peak of its power.

16/5/1526, Thursday (-152,654) Florence became a Republic again, as the Medici rulers, nephews of Pope Clement VII, were exiled.

6/5/1527, Monday (-152,664) German mercenaries sacked the city of Rome, an event considered by many to mark the end of the Renaissance. This occurred during warfare between the Holy League and the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.

30/4/1527, Tuesday (-152,670) (Britain) King Henry VIII of England signed a treaty at Wedstminster providing that his daughter, the future Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary), then aged 11, would marry either King Francis I of France or to his 2nd son Henry Duke of Orleans.

21/4/1527, Sunday (-152,679) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1527, Sunday (-152,686) King Philip of Spain was born; in 1588 he sent an Armada against England but was defeated.

21/3/1527, Thursday (-152,710) Hermann Finck, German composer, was born (died 1558).

16/3/1527, Saturday (-152,715) The Battle of Khanwa. Babur, Moghul Emperor, continued his conquest of northern India.

1/1/1527, Tuesday (-152,789)

================================================================================

31/12/1526, Monday (-152,790)

10/11/1526, Saturday (-152,841) John Zapolya, Voivode (Military Viceroy) of Trasylvania, was elected King of Hungary, by Hungarian nobles eager to avoid Habsburg domination.

23/10/1526, Tuesday (-152,859) Following the death of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia, Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria and brother of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was elected King of Bohemia.

18/10/1526, Thursday (-152,864) (Spain) Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, Spanish adventurer, died.

29/8/1526, Wednesday (-152,914) (Turkey, East Europe) The Battle of Mohacs.The Turkish army under Suleiman I defeated the Hungarians under King Louis II, who was killed whilst retreating.Suleiman took Buda, whilst Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and John Zapolya, Prince of Transylvania, disputed over the succession.As a result of this dispute, Dubrovnik achieved independence, although it recognised Turkish overlordship. The Hapsburgs now ruled Bohemia and Hungary.

31/7/1526, Tuesday (-152,943) (Germany) Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, was born in Freiberg (died 21/1/1586 in Dresden).

24/7/1526, Tuesday (-152,950) The Spanish captured Milan.

9/6/1526, Saturday (-152,995) Emperor No-Gara became ruler of Japan.

22/5/1526, Tuesday (-153,013) France repudiated the Treaty of Madrid, and formed the League of Cognac, against Charles V.This League included the Pope, Milan, Venice, and Florence.

2/5/1526, Wednesday (-153,033) The Leagie of Gotha was joined by the Princes of Mecklenburg, Brunswick-Luneberg, Anholt, Brandenburg-Ansbach and Mansfeld.

27/4/1526, Friday (-153,038) Babur occupied Delhi.

21/4/1526, Saturday (-153,044) The First Battle of Panipat.Barbur became first Moghul (Mughal) Emperor of India.He captured Delhi, and northern India, beginning the Moghul Empire, which lasted until 1857.

1/4/1526, Sunday (-153,064) Easter Sunday.

30/3/1526, Friday (-153,066) Konrad Mutian, German Humanist writer, died (born 15/10/1471).

27/2/1526, Tuesday (153,097) The League of Gotha, a group of German Protestant Pri nces, was formed. John Frederick, Elector of Saxony, and Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, were the founding members.

14/1/1526, Sunday (-153,141) The Peace of Madrid; Francis I of France agreed to cede Burgundy to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.France also abandoned all claims to Flanders, Artois, Naples, and Milan.

1/1/1526, Monday (-153,154)

=================================================================================

30/12/1525, Saturday (-153,156) Jakob II Fugger, German banker and merchant, died in Augsburg, Bavaria.

29/10/1525, Sunday (-153,218)

25/9/1525, Monday (-153,252) Steven Borough, English navigator, was born in Northam, Devon (died 12/7/1584).

14/8/1525, Monday (-153,294) (Britain, France) Cardinal Wolsey agreed peace terms between England and France, as he sought to recreate a balance of power within Europe.

13/7/1525, Thursday (-153,326)

27/5/1525, Saturday (-153,373) Thomas Muntzer, most radical of the leaders of the Peasants Rebellion in Germany, was executed.

15/5/1525, Monday (-153,385) The Battle of Frankenhausen. Final defeat of the Peasant�s Revolt in Germany

7/5/1525. Sunday (-153,393) The Peasant�s Revolt in Germany was defeated. It had begun in 1524 when the peasants demanded abolition of feudal dues, serfdom, and tithes.

16/4/1525, Sunday (-153,414) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1525, Monday (-153,420) The new Protestant Duchy of Prussia was formed when Albert von Hohenzollern , Grand Master of the Order of Teutonic Knights, surrendered his lands to King Sigismund I of Poland. Albert became Duke under Polish suzerainty.

7/3/1525, Tuesday (-153,454)

28/2/1525, Tuesday (-153, 461) (Mexico) Aztec Emperor Cuahtemoc was executed by Hernando Cortez.

24/2/1525. Friday (-153,465) (France-Germany, Italy, Spain, Science-Tech) The Battle of Pavia. Pavia, held by the French, had been under siege by Spanish forces since October 1524. Italy itself was a territory being fought over by the rival powers of France, Germany, Turkey and Spain. The French under King Charles VIII defended Pavia with cavalry and cannon, but the Spanish had adopted the arquebus or hackenbushe, an early version of the handgun; this weapon replaced the Spanish crossbow. The arquebus meant an unskilled infantryman could kill a skilled knight and Pavia was the start of the dominance of the handgun as a military weapon.

25/1/1525, Wednesday (-153,495) (Italy) Italian troops approached Pavia from the east and dug in across an unfordable river from the French besieging Pavia.

1/1/1525, Sunday (-153,519)

==================================================================================

31/12/1524, Saturday (-153,520)

24/12/1524. Saturday (-153,527) Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama, who discovered the sea route from Europe to the East, died on his second voyage after landing in Cochin, on the Malabar coast of India. See 22/11/1497.

19/11/1524, Saturday (-153,562)

28/10/1524, Friday (-153,584) (Italy) France began a siege of Pavia (to 24/2/1525) but the French commender recklessly split his forces, sending some to attack Naples, which they failed to take, and leaving just 25,000 men at Pavia.

26/10/1524, Wednesday (-153,586) In Italy, France took Milaan from the Spanish.

20/10/1524, Thursday (-153,592) Thomas Linacre, physician to King Henry VII and VIII and founder of the Royal College of Physicians in 1518, died.

7/9/1524, Wednesday (-153,635) Thomas Erastus, religious writer, was born (died 31/12/1583).

23/8/1524, Tuesday (-153,650) Francois Hotman, French writer, was born (died 12/2/1590).

19/8/1524, Friday (-153,654) French rebel Duke Charles laid siege to Marseilles.

8/8/1524, Monday (-153,665) French rebel Duke Charles occupied Aix en Provence.

8/7/1524, Friday (-153,696) Verrazzano's expedition returned to Dieppe.

25/5/1524, Wednesday (-153,740) (France) Henry VIII, King of England and Emperor Charles V formed a new anti-French league in support of the rebel Charles, Duke of Bourbon and Constable of France.

23/5/1524, Monday (-153,742) Shah Ismail of Persia died aged 38. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Tahmasp, aged 10.

30/4/1524, Saturday (-153,765) (Italy) France defeated at the Battle of the Sesia, and retreated back across the Alps.

17/4/1524, Sunday (-153,778) Verrazzano's expedition makes the first European entry into New York Bay and sighted the island of Manhattan.

27/3/1524, Sunday (-153,799) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1524, Friday (-153,885)

==================================================================================

31/12/1523, Thursday (-153,886)

19/11/1523, Thursday (-153,928) Pope Clement VII succeeded Pope Adrian VI as the 219th Pope.

2/10/1523, Friday (-153,976) (Italy) Alessandro Alessandri, Italian jurist, died in Rome.

14/9/1523, Monday (-153,994), Pope Adrian VI, Adrian Dedel, Dutch, (218th Pope) died, aged 64. The last non-Italian Pope until John Paul II (acceded 1978), he allied with the Holy Roman Emperor, Venice and England against France. This split the forces of Christendom, resulting in the loss of Rhodes to the Ottoman Turks.

14/7/1523, Tuesday (-154,056)

6/6/1523, Saturday (-154,094) Gustav Vasa, aged 27, was elected King of Sweden, finally established full independence from Denmark.

5/6/1523, Friday (-154,095) Marguerite, daughter of King Francis I of France, was born.

1/6/1523, Monday (-154,099) Two followers of Martin Luther were burnt alive in Brussels.

12/5/1523, Tuesday (-154,119) (France) Imbert de Batarnay, French statesman, died.

23/4/1523, Thursday (-154,138) Henry Clifford, supporter of King Henry VII of England, died.

5/4/1523, Sunday (-154,156) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1523, Thursday (-154,173)

19/1/1523, Monday (-154,232) Huldreich Zwingli published his 67 Articles in Zurich. They attacked the authority of the Pope, and the concept of Transubstantiation.

1/1/1523, Thursday (-154,250)

===============================================================================

31/12/1522, Wednesday (-154,251)

21/12/1522. Sunday (-154,261) Rhodes, formerly the base of the Knights of St John, was conquered by the Ottoman Turks, led by Suleiman, after a six-month siege.The Knights of St John, driven out of Rhodes, were given permission by Emperor Charles V in 1530 to settle in Malta.See 18/5/1565.

18/12/1522, Thursday (-154,264) The Turks finally broke into Rhodes, but the Knights continued fierce resistance in the streets.

9/11/1522, Sunday (-154,303) Martin Chemnitz, German religious writer, was born (died 8/4/1586).

15/10/1522, Wednesday (-154,328) Spanish Emperor Charles V promoted Herman Cortes to Governor-General of the new colony of Mexico, founded in 1521.

11/9/1522, Thursday (-154,362) (Biology) Ulissi Aldrovandi, Italian naturalist, was born in Bologna (died 10/5/1605 in Bologna).

6/9/1522, Saturday (-154,367) Ferdinand Magellan�s ship, the Vittoria, under the command of Juan Sebastian Del Cano, arrived in San Lucar, Spain, after completing the first circumnavigation of the world.Magellan himself was killed on the Philippine island of Mactan.

24/8/1522, Sunday (-154,380) Gustavus Vasa was appointed administrator of Sweden and promised to free the whole country from Danish rule. In November 1522 the Danish nobility also rebelled against King Christian II.

13/8/1522, Wednesday (-154,391) Emperor Cuauhtemotzin surrendered Mexico City to the Spanish under Cortezs.

28/7/1522, Monday (-154,407) Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I began a siege of the Knights of St. John in Rhodes.

19/7/1522, Saturday (-154,416)

30/6/1522, Monday (-154,435) Johann Reuchlin, German scholarly religious writer, died in Bad Loebenzell.

19/6/1522, Thursday (-154,446) (France) Emperor Charles V visited England and signed the Treaty of Windsor with King Henry VIII. They both agreed to invade France in May 2024.

30/5/1522, Friday (-154,466) The French were evicted from Genoa.

24/5/1522, Saturday (-154,472) John Jewel, English religious writer, was born (died 23/9/1571).

27/4/1522, Sunday (-154,499) (Italy) France was forced to surrender control over Milan after defeat at the Battle of Bicocca. France was again fighting in Italy to counter the potential hegemony of Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor.

20/4/1522, Sunday (-154,506) Easter Sunday.

28/3/1522, Friday (-154,529) (Germany) Albert, Prince of Bayreuth, was born in Ansbach (died 8/1/1557 in Pforzheim).

19/3/1522, Wednesday (-154,538)

25/2/1522, Tuesday (-154,560) William Lilye, English scholarly writer, died.

19/2/1522, Wednesday (-154,566)

30/1/1522, Thursday (-154,586) (Sweden) The powerful German port of Lubeck allied with Gustavus Vasa of Sweden, against Danish King Christian II.

9/1/1522, Thursday (-154,607) Pope Adrian VI (218th Pope) acceded (died 1523).

1/1/1522, Wednesday (-154,615)

===============================================================================

13/12/1521, Friday (-154,634) Manuel I, 14th King of Portugal, died aged 52 (born 3/5/1469). He was succeeded by his son, Joao III.

1/12/1521, Sunday (-154,646) Pope Leo X died.

23/11/1521, Saturday (-154,654) (Italy) The Italians under General Prosper Colonna, with their Spanish and Papal allies, made a surprise attack on the French in Milan under Marshal Odet de Lautrec and ousted tehm from the city. Then in 4/1522 Lautrec, having obtained Swiss, Venetian and French reinforcements, and prepared to retake the city. The Swiss troops threatened to depart unless paid, then agreed tp fight one more time.

1/11/1521, Friday (-154,676)

11/10/1521, Friday (-154,697) Pope Leo X conferred the title of Defender of the faith on King Henry VIII.Twelve years later Henry VIII broke with Rome to marry Anne Boleyn.

25/9/1521, Wednesday (-154,713) (France) Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Cardinal Wolsey, Lord Chancellor of Engfland, agreed secretly at Bruges that war would be declared on France in March 1523.

13/9/1521, Friday (-154,725) (Britain) William Burghley, English statesman, was born (died 4/8/1598).

31/8/1521, Saturday (-154,738) The major city of Tenochtitlan in Central America was conquered by Cortez after an 85-day battle.

27/8/1521, Tuesday (-154,742) Josquin des Pres, French composer, died.

15/8/1521, Thursday (-154,754) King Henry VIII of England and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V signed the Treaty of Bruges against France, in contrast to the Anglo-French friendship at the Field of the Cloth of Gold (6/6/1520). This Treaty involved English forces in long campaigns in northern Europe.

30/7/1521, Tuesday (-154,770)

19/7/1521, Friday (-154,781)

19/6/1521, Wednesday (-154,811)

28/5/1521, Tuesday (-154,833) Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Pope Leo X agreed a secret treaty to expel the French from Milan.

25/5/1521, Saturday (-154,836) The Holy Roman Empire ordered the destruction of all of Martin Luther�s writings within its territory.

17/5/1521, Friday (-154,844) Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, was executed for fear he might try to claim the English throne.

16/5/1521, Thursday (-154,845) The Edict of Worms imposed the Ban of Empire on Martin Luther.

30/4/1521, Tuesday (-154,861)

28/4/1521, Sunday (-154,863) Holy Roman Emperor Charles V granted his brother Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria the Habsburg possessions in Lower Austria, Carinthia, Styria and Carniola.

27/4/1521. Saturday (-154,864) Inhabitants of the island of Mactan, Philippines, killed the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan. He was on a voyage around the world.

25/4/1521, Thursday (-154,866)

24/4/1521, Wednesday (-154,867) In Spain, the Communeros rebel leaders were executed.

23/4/1521, Tuesday (-154,868) Comuneros uprising in Spain, against the autocratic rule of King Charles I (1500-58). On this day the Comuneros were defeated at Villalar; the movement�s leaders were subsequently captured and arrested. Charles�s autocratic powers were increased.

20/4/1521, Saturday (-154,871)

18/4/1521, Thursday (-154,873) Martin Luther ended his defence at the Imperial Diet of Worms with the words �I cannot and will not recant anything.God help me.Amen�.

16/4/1521, Tuesday (-154,875) Martin Luther arrived at the Diet of Worms.

7/4/1521, Sunday (-154,884) Ferdinand Magellan arrived at Cebu.

31/3/1521, Sunday (-154,891) Easter Sunday

21/3/1521, Thursday (-154,901) Maurice, Elector of Saxony, was born (died 11/7/1553).

16/3/1521, Saturday (-154,906) Ferdinand Magellan sighted the Philippine Islands.

11/3/1521, Monday (-154,911) (Britain) Andrew Forman, Scottish ecclesiastic, died.

15/2/1521, Friday (-154,935)

28/1/1521, Monday (-154,953) The Diet of Worms began.

3/1/1521, Thursday (-154,978) Pope Leo X again issued a Papal Bull, Decet Romanum Pontificem,re-excommunicating Martin Luther, after a deadline by which Luther had been ordered to recant his �heretical� views expired. Martin Luther had condemned the sale of Indulgences (Papal forgiveness for sins) to raise funds for the Papacy, promoted by the Archbishop of Mainz as away of raising money for rebuilding St Peters in Rome.

1/1/1521, Tuesday (-154,980)

================================================================================

28/12/1520, Friday (-154,984) (Mexico) Cortes returned to attack Tenochtitlan with a Tlaxacalan army, who were sworn enemies of the Aztecs. He laid siege to the city, and destroyed the aqueduct that brought in fresh water.

10/12/1520, Monday (-1545,002) Martin Luther publicly burnt the papal Bull, Exurge, that had excommunicated him.

28/11/1520, Wednesday (-155,014) After navigating through the South American strait, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific (the strait was later named the Strait of Magellan).

8/11/1520, Thursday (-155,034) The Stockholm Bloodbath. King Christian II killed leading Swedish nobles and churchmen, starting a national revolt under the future leader Gustavus Vasa.

4/11/1520, Sunday (-155,038) Christian was crowned King of Sweden.

23/10/1520, Tuesday (-155,050) Charles I of Spain was crowned Holy Roman EmperorCharles V at Aachen, Germany, He promised to live in Germany, to preserve the rights of the Estates, and to restore the Council of the Regency.

21/10/1520, Sunday (-155,052) The islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon were discovered by Portuguese explorer Jo�o �lvares Fagundes off Newfoundland. He named them "Islands of the 11,000 Virgins" in honour of Saint Ursula.

21/9/1520, Friday (-155,082) Ottoman Sultan Selim died, aged 53. He was succeeded by his 24-year old son, Suleiman I (The Magnificent).

13/9/1520, Thursday (-155,090) William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, Lord High Treasurer to Queen Elizabeth 1st, was born in Bourne Lincolnshire.

30/8/1520 Thursday (-155,104)

14/7/1520, Saturday (-155,151) The Communeros Revolt in Spainbegan, against abolition of ancient rights by the Habsburgs.

10/7/1520, Tuesday (-155,155) In Mexico, Cortez was driven out of Tenochtitlan by the Aztec leader, Cuauhtemoc. Cortez retreated to Tlaxcala.

30/6/1520. Saturday (-155,165) Montezuma II, the last Aztec ruler, was killed by his own people in Mexico City during the Spanish conquest of Mexico under Cortez.

15/6/1520, Friday (-155,180) Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther.

6/6/1520. Wednesday (-155,189) Henry VIII and Francis I of France met in a glittering ceremony at The Field Of The Cloth Of Gold near Calais. However see 15/8/1521.

6/5/1520, Sunday (-155,220)

8/4/1520, Sunday (-155,248) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1520. Friday (-155,250) The painter Raphael died on his 37th birthday.He was born in Urbino, Italy, on 6/4/1483.

3/3/1520, Saturday (-155,284) Matthius Flacius, religious reformer and writer, was born (died 11/3/1575).

6/2/1520, Monday (-155,310)

18/1/1520, Wednesday (-155,329) (Sweden) Christian II of Denmark defeated the Swedes at Lake Malar. The Swedish regent, Sten Sture the Younger, died of his wounds on 3/2/1520, and Christian Ii could now become King of Sweden also.

1/1/1520, Sunday (-155,346)

===============================================================================

31/12/1519, Saturday (-155,347)

6/12/1519, Tuesday (-155,372)

8/11/1519, Tuesday (-155,400) (Mexico) Hern�n Cort�s entered Tenochtitlan and the court of Aztec ruler Montezuma. The Spanish band of about 400 men became alarmed at the obvious signs of human sacrifice and realised they were heavily outnumbered by the 250,000 Aztecs. They feared they were being led into a trap; in order to escape, Cortes ordered his men to seize Montezuma as a hostage. Montezuma, to avert a rebellion amongst his own people, went along and pretended he was accompanying the Spanish voluntarily.

8/10/1519, Saturday (-155,431)

20/9/1519. Tuesday (-155,449) Portuguese-born navigator Ferdinand Magellan started on a voyage to cross the Pacific Ocean and circumnavigate the world. He had a fleet of five small ships; Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepcion, Vittoria, and Santiago. On 28/11/1520 Magellan discovered a strait at the southern tip of South America and entered the Pacific. Magellan was killed on 27/4/1521 by natives of the Philippines. Magellan�s ship, the Vittoria, arrived alone in San Lucar, Spain, on 6/9/1522 under the command of Del Cano, to become the first ship to circumnavigate the world.

16/9/1519, Friday (-155,453) Death of John Colet, who founded the modern St Pauls School.

15/8/1519, Monday (-155,485) Panama City was founded.

11/8/1519, Thursday (-155,489) Johann Tetzel died in Leipzig Priory, aged 54. He defended the Church practice of selling indulgences (forgiveness), promoted by the Archbishop of Mainz as away of raising money for rebuilding St Peters in Rome.

11/7/1519, Monday (-155,520)

4/7/1519, Monday (-155,527) Death of Johann Tetzel, German Dominican whose sale of Indulgences was criticised by Martin Luther.

28/6/1519, Tuesday (-155,533) Charles V was elected as Holy Roman Emperor. He was already the ruler of several territories across Europe,in Italy, Austria, Spain and the Low Countries. He had ambitions to establish a wealthy Catholic pan-European State which would push back the ottoman threat, In practice the varied peoples he ruled were disinclined to surrender power to a remote central authority, or to pay taxes to him, and religious differences between his lands persisted. Other European powers were suspicious of his pan-European aims. This resulted in his reign being one of almost continual warfare.

26/6/1519, Sunday (-155,535) Martin Luther publicly debated with German Catholic theologian Johann Eck at Leipzig, Saxony. Luther went further than before in contesting Papal authority.

24/6/1519, Friday (-155,537) Lucrezia Borgia, Italian noblewoman from a corrupt family, illegitimate daughter of Pope Alexander VII, died.

12/6/1519, Sunday (-155,549) (Italy) Cosimo I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, was born. He was Duke of Florence from 1539 and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1569; he died in 1574.

2/5/1519. Monday (-155,590) (Science) Leonardo Da Vinci died, at the Chateaux Cloux near Amboise, aged 67.

24/4/1519, Sunday (-155,598) Easter Sunday. Montezuma II, the Aztec Emperor, sent envoys to attend the first Easter Mass to be celebrated in the Americas.

13/4/1519, Wednesday (-155,609) (France) Catherine di Medici was born in Florence, Italy. She became the wife of Henry II of France and the mother of three French Kings (Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III of France. She also served as Regent of France, 1560-74.

31/3/1519, Thursday (-155,622) Henry II, King of France, was born in Saint German en Laye, France.

12/3/1519, Saturday (-155,641)

16/2/1519, Wednesday (-155,665) Gaspard II de Coligny, Huguenot leader, was born in Chatillion sur Loing, France.

15/2/1519, Tuesday (-155,666) (Spain) Pedro Aviles, Spanish naval adventurer, was born in Aviles, Asturia (died 17/9/1574).

12/1/1519, Wednesday (-155,700) Holy Roman Emperor, Maximillian I, died aged 59. He had been King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor from 1493. He was succeeded by Spain�s Carlos I, elected Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V.

1/1/1519, Saturday (-155,711)

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31/12/1518, Friday (-155,712)

30/11/1518, Tuesday (-155,743) Andrea Palladio, Italian architect, was born.

27/11/1518, Saturday (-155,746) Daniel Bomberg completed the Rabbinical Bible.

12/10/1518, Sunday (-155,794) At the Diet of Augsburg, Germany, Church reformer Martin Luther refused to withdraw his 95 theses against the Church.

2/10/1518, Saturday (-155,802) (Turkey) A major political triumph for Cardinal Wolsey of England. He got all major European powers (England, The Papacy, France, the Holy Roman Empire and Spain) to sign the Treaty of London, uniting them to fight Ottoman Turkey.

29/9/1518, Wednesday (-155,805) Tintoretto, Venetian painter, was born as Jabobi Robusti, the son of a dyer.

20/9/1518, Monday (-155,814)

4/4/1518, Sunday (-155,983) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1518, Thursday (-156,014)

1/1/1518, Friday (-156,076)

================================================================================

31/12/1517, Thursday (-156,077)

7/12/1517, Monday (-156,101) Albert Krantz, German historical writer, died.

8/11/1517, Sunday (-156,130) Cardinal Jimenez de Cisneros, recently appointed Regent of Spain, died. The Habsburgs now ruled Spain; Charles I, grandson of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, made a triumphal entry into Madrid.

31/10/1517. Saturday (-156,138) Martin Luther, born 10/11/1483 in Eisleben, Germany, nailed his 95 Theses to the churchdoor at Wittenburg, so starting the Reformation. He died on 18/2/1546. These theses condemned the sale of indulgences granting forgiveness of sin. On 15/6/1520 Pope Leo X condemned Luther�s theses as �heretical and scandalous�.

5/10/1517, Monday (-156,164)

17/7/1517, Friday (-156,244) The Sherif (Chief magistrate) of Mecca accepted Ottoman suzerainty over Arabia.

3/7/1517, Friday (-156,258)

30/4/1517, Thursday (-156,322) (Race discrimination) This evening the Evil May Day riots began in London; one of the earliest race riots recorded. Riots were directed against foreigners, whom they claimed were protected by their nations�s ambassadors from punishment for crimes that English citizens would be penalised for. In fact, London was suffering an economic downturn after a poor harvest the previous autumn. Prices were rising and wages being cut. Hanseatic merchants and foreign bankers were targeted, also foreign courtiers.

12/4/1517, Sunday (-156,340) Easter Sunday

16/3/1517, Monday (-156,367) The Fifth Lateran Council ended.

20/1/1517, Tuesday (-156,422) The Ottomans conquered Cairo, Egypt.

=================================================================================

31/12/1516, Wednesday (-156,442)

13/12/1516, Sunday (-156,459) (Italy) Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I overturned his treaty with England and by the Treaty of Brussels, accepted the Treaty of Noyon, The Emperor�s claims on Italy were withdrawn for a payment of 200,000 ducats, and Verona was transferred to Venice.

29/11/1516, Saturday (-156,474) (Switzerland) King Francis I of Ftrance signed the Treaty of Freiburg, agreeing to peace with Switzerland. This Treaty remained in force until 1789.

24/8/1516, Sunday (-156,571) Selim I, Ottoman Sultan, defeated and killed Mamluk Sultan Kansu al Guari of Egypt, near Aleppo in Syria. Selim I now took control of Syria.

13/8/1516, Wednesday (-156,582) (Spain, France, Italy) The Treaty of Noyon. Charles I, newly crowned King of Spain (later Emperor Charles V), made peace with France, recognising French control of Milan in return for French renunciation of its claims over Naples.

25/7/1516, Friday (-156,601)

23/5/1516, Friday (-156,664) Georg Fabricius, German poet, was born (died 17/7/1571).

23/4/1516, Wednesday (-156,694) Duke Wilhelm I of Germany passed laws against the adulteration and dilution of beer.

6/4/1516, Sunday (-156,711)

26/3/1516, Wednesday (-156,722) Konrad von Gesner, Swiss scholarly writer, was born (died 13/12/1565).

23/3/1516, Sunday (-156,725) Easter Sunday.

13/3/1516, Thursday (-156,735) Death of King Ladislas II of Hungary and Bohemia. He was succeeded by his son, aged 10, as King Louis II.

18/2/1516, Monday (-156,759) Queen Mary I, Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary), was born at Greenwich Palace, the daughter of Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon. She was known as Bloody Mary due to her relentless persecution of the Protestants.

23/1/1516, Wednesday (-156,785) Ferdinand V, King of Castile and Leon, also Ferdinand II of Aragon, died aged 63. He was succeeded by his 16-year old grandson, Carlos I, then a student in Flanders.

1/1/1516, Tuesday (-156,807)
=================================================================================

24/12/1515, Monday (-156,815) Thomas Wolsey became Lord Chancellor of England.

16/12/1515, Sunday (-156,823) (Portugal) Alphonso D�Albuquerque, Portuguese naval military expert, died at sea.

11/12/1515, Tuesday (-156,828) Treaty of Bologna. Pope Leo X surrendered the northern Italian cities of Parma and Piacenza to the French.

2/12/1515, Sunday (-156,837) Gonzalo Cordoba., Spanish military commander, died (born 16/3/1453).

22/11/1515, Thursday (-156,847) Mary of Lorraine, Regent of Scotland, was born (died 11/6/1560).

15/11/1515, Thursday (-156,854) Thomas Wolsey was invested as a Cardinal.

7/11/1515, Wednesday (-156,862) (Switzerland) Switxerland and France signed the Treaty of Geneva. The Swiss retainedthe southern canton of Ticino, and recognised French sovereignty over the Duchy of Milan.

8/10/1515, Monday (-156,892) Margaret Lennox, grand-daughter of King henry VII of England, was born (died 7/3/1578).

22/9/1515, Saturday (-156,908) Anne of Cleves, one of King Henry VIII�s wives, was born.

13/9/1515, Thursday (-156,917) (Italy, France) The French defeated the Swiss at the Battle of Marengo (Marignano). After fierce fighting in which many on both sides were killed, the French now occupied Milan. Switzerland negotiated peace with France, a peace that endured until the French Revolution. The Pope then also also sued for peace, and the anti-French alliance collapsed. France now occupied most of Lombardy.

10/9/1515, Monday (-156,920) Thomas Wolsey was made a Cardinal. He commissioned Hampton Court Palace.

23/8/1515, Thursday (-156,938) Battle of Chaldiran. Ottoman troops defeated the Pewrsians.

21/7/1515, Saturday (-156,971) (Christian) Philip Neri, Italian churchman, was born (died 26/5/1595).

12/7/1515, Thursday (-156,980)

5/7/1515. Thursday (-156,987) The Ottoman Turks, led by Sultan Selim, invaded Egypt. The Mameluke dynasty was destroyed.

16/4/1515, Monday (-157,067) Roman Catholic Mass was banned in Zurich as the Lutheran Revolution spread across Europe.

8/4/1515, Sunday (-157,075) Easter Sunday.

28/3/1515, Wednesday (-157,086) St Teresa of Avila was born. A Spanish noblewoman, she joined the Carmelite nuns in 1533, and reformed the order.

6/2/1515, Tuesday (-157,136) Death of Aldus Manutius, the first publisher of paperbacks and inventor of italics.

1/1/1515, Monday (-157,172) King Louis XII of France was succeeded by his nephew, Francis, who continued France�s policy of attempting to invade Italy.

================================================================================

25/10/1514, Wednesday (-157,240) William Elphinstone, founder of the University iof Aberdeen in 1498, died (born 1431).

9/10/1514, Monday (-157,256) Louis XII, King of France, married Mary Tudor.

15/9/1514, Friday (-157,280) Thomas Wolsey was appointed Archbishop of York.

8/9/1514, Friday (-157,287) At the Battle of Orsha, a combined force of Poles and Ukrainians defeated the Russians.

23/8/1514, Wednesday (-157,303) (Iran, Turkey) At the Battle of Chaldiran, Selim I , ruler of the Shia Muslim Ottoman Empire, defeated the Sunni Muslim Persians under Shah Ismail I. Drawing on lessons learnt from fighting European armies, the Ottoman Army was well disciplined and equipped with heavy cannon and musket-armed infantry. In contrast the smaller Persian Army relied on the cavalry charge and possessed no artillery. The Safavid capital at Tabriz was taken by the Ottoman Turks, forcing the Persians to move their capital further east. This battle was instrumental in fixing the present day frontier between Turkey and Iran.

20/7/1514, Thursday (-157,337) A peasant�s rebellion in Hiungary, led by George Dozsa, was crushed by John Zapolya, ruler of Transylvania, near Temesvar in the Bansat.

16/4/1514, Sunday (-157,432) Easter Sunday.

11/4/1514, Tuesday (-157,437) Italian architect Donate Bramante died whilst still building St Peters in Rome, which he had begun in 1506.

11/3/1514, Saturday (-157,468) Lazzari Bramante, Italian painter and architect, died.

1/1/1514, Sunday (-157,537)

================================================================================

31/12/1513, Saturday (-157,538)

30/11/1513, Wednesday (-157,569)

30/10/1513, Sunday (-157,600) Jacques Amyot, French writer, was born in Melun (died 6/2/1593).

24/10/1513, Monday (-157,606) In England, clergymen who committed murder were no longer exempt from punishment.

11/10/1513, Tuesday (-157,619) Church reformer Huldrych Zwingli died (born 1/1/1484). He was killed, as Army Chaplain for the forces of Zurich, in battle during the War of Kappel, against the Forest Cantons.

7/10/1513, Friday (-157,623) (Italy) Battle of La Motta. Cardona, Viceroy of Naples, defeated Venice, due to his superior Spanish pikemen.

25/9/1513, Sunday (-157,635) Spaniard Vasco Nunez de Balboa became the first European to see the Pacific from the Americas. Leaving his base near Darien he headed west across the Isthmus of Panama in a gruelling 25 day trek across 45 miles of almost impenetrable rainforest. Hostile indigenous people were an added hazard.

24/9/1513, Saturday (-157,636) (France) The French city of Tournai (now in Belgium) surrendered to the English.

21/9/1513, Wednesday (-157,639) Coronation of King James V of Scotland. He was then less than 18 months old.

9/9/1513, Friday (-157,651) Battle of Flodden Field, at Branxton, Northumberland. The Scots were defeated by the English, under Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, and James IV of Scotland was killed. James IV had abandoned his alliance with Henry VIII and attempted an invasion of England. Margaret, the sister of King Henry VIII, became regent for her one year old son, James V.

1/9/1513, Thursday (-157,659)

22/8/1513, Monday (-157,669) (France) Therouanne surrendered to the British.

16/8/1513, Tuesday (-157,675) (France) The Battle of the Spurs. King Henry VIII defeated the French. The English were besieging Therouanne, near Calais, King Henry VIII having invaded France from Calais. The French this day tried to relieve Therouanne but encountered stronger than expected opposition and had to retreat., Many French knights lost their spurs, which were subsequently recovered by local villagers, hence the name of the battle.

3/8/1513, Wednesday (-157,688) John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Custrin, was born (died 13/1/1571).

6/6/1513, Monday (-157,746) (Italy) Battle of Novara. Swiss forces made a surprise attack on the French, forcing to withdraw back across the Alps into southern France.

3/5/1513, Tuesday (-157,780)

8/4/1513, Friday (-157,805) The Spaniard, Juan Ponce de Leon, claimed Florida, which he believed to be an island, for Spain. He called it Florida because of the abundance of wild flowers there and because it was discovered close to the religious festival Pasqua de Flores.

5/4/1513, Tuesday (-157,808) (France) The Treaty of Mechlin was signed. Emperor Maximillian I, Henry VIII of England, Ferdinand II of Spain and the Pope agreed to unite for an invasion of France.

27/3/1513, Sunday (-157,817) Easter Sunday.

11/3/1513, Friday (-157,833) Pope Leo X acceded.

28/2/1513, Monday (-157,844) Robert Fabyan, English writer, died

21/2/1513, Monday (-157,851) Pope Julius II died.

9/2/1513, Wednesday (-157,863) Portuguese explorer Pedro Mascarenhas discovered the island of Reunion.

20/1/1513, Thursday (-157,883) King John I of Denmark (who was also King John II of Sweden, 1497-1501), died after a 32-year reign. He founded the Danish Navy. He was succeeded by his 32-year-old son as King Christian II of Denmark and Norway, but Sweden under Sten Mure the Younger refused to accept his rule.

1/1/1513, Saturday (-157,902)

=================================================================================

31/12/1512, Friday (-157,903)

27/12/1512, Monday (-157,907) Spain enacted the Laws of Burgos, giving New World indigenous peoples legal protection against abuse but authorising slavery of Black people.

1/11/1512. Monday (-157,963) Michelangelo unveiled his painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

1/9/1512, Wednesday (-158,024)

12/8/1512, Thursday (-158,044) (France) An English fleet under Sir Edward Howard destroyed 25 French ships in Brest harbour.

2/8/1512, Monday (-158,054) (Biology) Alessandro Achillini, Italian anatomist, (born 29/10/1453 in Bologna) died in Bologna.

25/5/1512, Tuesday (-158,123) Ottoman Sultan Bayazid II died shortly after abdicating. He was succeeded by his youngest son, Selim, who successfully defeated his two brothers in the ensuing civil war.

3/5/1512, Monday (-158,145) The Fifth Lateran Council began. It declared that the immortality of the soul was a dogma ofd the Church.

11/4/1512, Sunday (-158,167) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1512, Saturday (-158,168) James V, King of Scotland, born.

2/4/1512, Friday (-158,176) At the Battle of Ravenna, French forces defeated a Spanish � Papal army.

5/3/1512, Friday (-158,204) Gerardus Mercator, Flemish cartographer, was born in Flanders, as Gerhard Kremer.

22/2/1512. Sunday (-158,216) Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who gave America his name, died in Seville.

22/1/1512, Thursday (-158,247)

1/1/1512, Thursday (-158,268)

==================================================================================

31/12/1511, Wednesday (-158,269)

4/12/1511, Thursday (-158,296) (Race Equality) Antonio de Montesinos, aSpanish Dominican friar, denounced the cruelty of settlers enslaving indigenous peoples.

17/11/1511, Monday (-158,313) (France) England and Spain allied (see 5/10/1511) to attack French cities in Navarre and Guienne, SW France.

15/11/1511, Saturday (-158,315) Johannes Secundus, poet, was born.

13/11/1511, Thursday (-158,317) (Italy) England intervened in Italian politics when King Henry VIII joined the Holy League (see 5/10/1511).

5/10/1511, Sunday (-158,356) (Italy) Pope Julius II formed the Holy League, allying the Papacy with Venice and Spain to evict the French from Italy.

4/8/1511, Monday (-158,418) (Portugal, SE Asia) The Portuguese explorer, Alfonso de Aberquerque, captured Malacca, now in Malaysia. This gave Portugal control over the strategic Strait of Malacca, through which all trade between China and India passed.

30/7/1511, Wednesday (-158,423) Giorgio Vasari, Italian architect who designed the Uffizi Palace in Florence, was born

20/4/1511, Sunday (-158,524) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1511, Thursday (-158,534)

1/1/1511, Wednesday (-158,633)

================================================================================

31/12/1510, Tuesday (-158,634)

10/12/1510, Tuesday (-158,655) (India) The Portuguese seized Goa.

25/10/1510, Friday (-158,701) Giorgione, painter, died.

6/10/1510, Sunday (-158,720) John Caius, founder of Caius College Cambridge, was born.

4/8/1510, Sunday (-158,783)

3/7/1510, Wednesday (-158,815) (Italy) Pope Julius II invested the Kingdom of Naples to Ferdinand II of Spain, and gained thye support of the Holy Roman emperor in an alliance against France.

17/5/1510. Friday (158,862) Death of Florentine painter Sandro Botticelli, 65, whose work included The Birth of Venus.

10/4/1510, Wednesday (-158,899)

31/3/1510, Sunday (-158,909) Easter Sunday

10/3/1510, Sunday (-158,930) Johann Geiler, German religious writer, died (born 16/3/1445)

1/3/1510, Friday (-158,939) Francesco de Almeida, the first Portuguese viceroy to India, died.

23/1/1510, Wednesday (-158,976) King Henry VIII of England, then aged 18, competed incognito in a jousting tournament at Richmond. Having won praise for his jousting, he then revealed his identity.

1/1/1510, Tuesday (-158,998)

==============================================================================

31/12/1509, Monday (-158,999)

29/10/1509, Monday (-159,062)

12/10/1509, Friday (-159,079) (Italy) Emperor Maximilian I, having failed to recapture Padua, departed for the Tyrol.

11/9/1509, Tuesday (-159,110) Portuguese Fidalgo Diogo Lopes de Sequeira became the first European to reach Malacca, having crossed the Gulf of Bengal.

10/9/1509, Monday (-159,111) Istanbul earthquake destroyed 109 mosques and killed an estimated 10,000 people.

3/8/1509, Sunday (-159,147) Etienne Dolet, French scholarly writer, was born (executed 3/8/1546).

17/7/1509, Thursday (-159,164) Padua rebelled against the Holy Roman Empire. Emperor Maximilian I besieged the city.

10/7/1509, Thursday (-159,171) John Calvin, French priest who spread the Reformation, was born at Noyon, Picardy.

1/7/1509, Tuesday (-159,180) Because the Queen of England customarily did not breastfeed her children, a �wet nurse� was appointed, a woman who had recently given birth herself, was appointed. The salary for this post in 1509 was �20 a year.

29/6/1509, Sunday (-159,182) Death of Lady Margaret, mother of King Henry VII, Countess of Richmond and Derby. She was noted for her patronage of the arts and education.

24/6/1509, Tuesday (-159,187) King Henry VIII of England was crowned.

11/6/1509, Wednesday (-159,200) King Henry VIII, aged 18, married his sister in law, the Spanish princess Catharine of Aragon, aged 24. She was the first of his six wives.

14/5/1509, Wednesday (-159,228) (Italy) French victory over Venice at the Battle of Agnadello, near Milan.

11/5/1509, Sunday (-159,231) Louis II was crowned King of Bohemia.

27/4/1509, Friday (-159,247) Pope Julius II excommunicated the Venetian Republic.

21/4/1509. Saturday (-159,253) King Henry VII died in Richmond, Surrey, probably from tuberculosis. His second son, Henry VIII, succeeded him. The coronation of Henry VIII was on 24/6/1509.

15/4/1509, Sunday (-159,259) France began an invasion of Venice.

8/4/1509, Sunday (-159,266) Easter Sunday.

8/3/1599, Thursday (-159,297)

3/2/1509, Saturday (-159,330) (India, Portugal) Portugal defeated the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Diu, Indian Ocean. Portugal was moving to dominate the spice trade, which had been lucrative for the Sultan of Gujarat, Mahmud Begada. Begada was supported by other beneficiaries of the established trade; Egypt, the Ottoman Empire and Venice. However the Portuguese ships, built to withstand the rigours of a long voyage, were superior, and Portugal�s victory gave them control of the Indian spice trade for a century.

25/1/1509, Thursday (-159,339) (Italy) Giovanni Morone, Italian Cardinal, was born (died 1/12/1580).

1/1/1509, Monday (-159,363)

===================================================================================

31/12/1508, Sunday (-159,364)

24/12/1508, Sunday (-159,371) London houses received piped water for the first time.

22/10/1508, Sunday (-159,434)

11/9/1508, Monday (-159,475)

8/8/1508, Tuesday (-159,509) Juan Ponce de Le�n, a lieutenant under Columbus, founded the first Spanish settlement on Puerto Rico, Caparra, on August 8, 1508.

4/6/1508, Sunday (-159,574) (Hungary) Louis II was crowned King of Hungary.

23/5/1508, Tuesday (-159,586)

23/4/1508, Sunday (-159,616) Easter Sunday.

4/4/1508, Tuesday (-159,635) The first book was printed in Scotland.

4/2/1508, Friday (-159,695) Konrad Celtes, German poet, died (born 1459)

31/1/1508, Monday (-159,699)

1/1/1508, Saturday (-159,729)

================================================================================

31/12/1507, Friday (-159,730)

21/12/1507, Tuesday (-159,740) |Mary Queen of France, daughter of Henry VII of England, was born (died 24/6/1533).

29/10/1507, Friday (-159,793)

1/10/1507, Friday (-159,821) Giacomo Barocchio, Italian architect, was born in Vignola (died in Rome 7/71573).

11/9/1507, Saturday (-159,841)

23/8/1507, Monday (-159,860) Jean Molinet, French poet, died.

20/8/1507, Friday (-159,863) Guru Nanak Dev became the first guru and leader of the Sikh religion.

1/7/1507, Thursday (-159,913) The earliest records of coal-mining at Nailsea, near Bristol. Coal was being transported to Yatton for household fireplaces. By the late 19th century coal mining had died out south of Bristol as the industry migrated to the richer seams of south Wales.

29/4/1507, Thursday (-159,976) Louis XII, King of France, led his troops into Genoa.

25/4/1507, Sunday (-159,980) The name �America� was first used on a map, by German cartographer Martin Waldseemuller, in honour of Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci.

7/4/1507, Wednesday (-159,998) Birth of Spanish Jesuit St Francis Xavier, in Sangesa, Navarre, Spain.

4/4/1507, Sunday (-160,001) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1507, Thursday (-160,004)

25/3/1507, Thursday (-160,011) (Italy) King Louis XII of France attacked Genoa with a Swiss army to restore law and order there, after a popular uprising in 1506.

12/3/1507, Friday (-160,024) Cesare Borgia died at the siege of Viana in Navarre.

20/2/1507, Saturday (-160,044) Death of Gentile Bellini, Venetian painter.

24/1/1507, Sunday (-160,071) Cornation of King Sigismund I of Poland.

1/1/1507, Friday (-160,094)

=================================================================================

31/12/1506, Thursday (-160,095)

29/10/1506, Thursday (-160,158)

20/10/1506, Tuesday (-160,167) King Sigismund I of Poland succeeded the late King Alexander I.

25/9/1506, Friday (-160,192) Philip the Handsome, King of Spain, died suddenly aged 28, at Burgos. His wife went mad after his death. Her father Ferdinand II of Aragon ruled as Regent of Castile, as Ferdinand V.

13/9/1506, Sunday (-160,204) Andrea Mantegna, Italian painter, died in Mantua.

11/9/1506, Friday (-160,206)

5/8/1506, Wednesday (-160,243) Death of King Alexander of Poland. Born in 1461, he succeeded his brother Albert to the Polish throne in 1501.His power was greatly eroded by the Polish nobility and senate. Consequently, because of lack of funds, Alexander was unable to restrain much the expansion of the Muscovy or the Teutonic Order in Prussia.

1/7/1506, Monday (-160,308) Louis II, King of Hungary and Bohemia, was born.

20/5/1506. Wednesday (-160,320) Christopher Columbus, Italian navigator who discovered the New World in 1492, died aged 55 in Valladolid, Spain. See 3/8/1492. He was virtually penniless. However his discovery of favourable winds in both directions across the Atlantic opened up the way for European exploration of the New World.

12/5/1506, Tuesday (-160,328)

12/4/1506, Sunday (-160,358) Easter Sunday

7/4/1506, Tuesday (-160,363) St Francis Xavier, Spanish Jesuit missionary, was born near Sanguesa.

1/1/1506, Thursday (-160,459)

=================================================================================

31/12/1505, Wednesday (-160,460)

27/10/1505.Monday (-160,525) Ivan the Great (Ivan III), Czar of Russia, died aged 65. He was succeeded by his 26-year-old son who ruled as Basil III Ivanovitch until 1553.

11/9/1505, Thursday (-160,571)

7/4/1505, Monday (-160,728)

23/3/1505, Sunday (-160,743) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1505, Monday (-160,749) Prince Christopher, son of Janos Corvinus of Hungary, died.

13/1/1505, Monday (-160,812) Joachim II, Elector of Brandenburg, was born (died 3/1/1571).

==================================================================================

31/12/1504, Tuesday (-160,825)

24/11/1504, Sunday (-160,862) Isabella, Queen of Castille and Leon, died aged 53. She was succeeded by her daughter Juana and Juana�s husband, Philip. However they remained in Flanders, and Ferdinand ruled instead.

12/10/1504, Saturday (-160,905) Janos Corvinus of Hungary died (born 1473).

8/9/1504. Sunday (-160,939) Michelangelo, 29, unveiled his statue of David in Florence. The 13 foot high marble statue had taken him three years to carve.

6/8/1504. Tuesday (-160,972) Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born.He had a very long nose, and was extremely inquisitive, hence the expression �nosey parker�.

18/7/1504, Thursday (160,991) Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss religious writer and reformer, was born (died 17/9/1585).

5/5/1504, Sunday (-160,065) Stanislaus Hosius, Polish Cardinal, was born (died 5/8/1579).

7/4/1504, Sunday (-161,093) Easter Sunday.

7/3/1504, Thursday (-161,124)

29/2/1504, Thursday (-161,131) A total eclipse of the Moon. Christopher Columbus was stranded in Jamaica and needed provisions but the locals were reluctant to help him. Columbus knew the eclipse was due and warned the tribal leaders that his God would turn the Moon blood-red if they did not help him. The locals did not comply but when the Moon turned red as Columbus had foretold they did give him necessary provisions.

31/1/1504, Wednesday (-161,160) (Italy) France ceded Naples to Spain under the Treaty of Lyons. Spain retained the territory until 1713.

25/1/1504, Thursday (-161,166) The English Parliament passed statutes against retainers (paid military dependants) and liveries (dependant�s uniforms) to stop private warfare and to place giuilds and companies under State supervision.

17/1/1504, Wednesday (-161,174) Pope Pius V was born.

11/1/1504, Thursday (-161,180) Parmigianino (Francesco Mazzola), painter, was born in Italy.

1/1/1504, Monday (-161,190) (Italy) French forces left Gaeta by sea, under the terms of a peace treaty with the victorious Spanish.

====================================================================================

29/12/1503, Friday (-161,193) At the Battle of Garigliano, near Gaeta, Italy, Spanish forces under Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba defeated a French-Italian mercenary army under Ludovico II, Marquis of Saluzzo.French forces withdrew to Gaeta.

14/12/1503. Thursday (-161,208) The French astrologer Nostradamus was born, as Michel de Nostradame.He wrote his book of prophecies in 1555.

3/11/1503, Friday (-161,249) Michaelangelo was commissioned to painta portrait of Lisa Gherardini, by her husband, Francesco del Giocondo. This painting, completed in 1507, is now known as the Mona Lisa.

2/11/1503, Thursday (-161,250) Columbus discovered Panama. He also observed the inhabitants playing with a heavy black bouncing ball, made of a substance new to him, rubber.

1/11/1503, Wednesday (-161,251)

31/10/1503, Tuesday (-161,252) Pope Julius II succeeded Pope Pius as 216th Pope.

30/10/1503, Monday (-161,253) Queen Isabella of Spain banned violence against native tribes.

18/10/1503, Wednesday (-161,265) PopePius III died.

22/9/1503, Friday (-161,291) Pope Pius III (Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini) succeeded Pope Alexander VI as 215th Pope.However he died on 18/10/1503.

11/9/1503, Monday (-161,302)

3/9/1503, Sunday (-161,310) Ferdinand II of Spain sent an army to Morocco to fight the Moors. Mers el Kebir fell to Spain.

18/8/1503, Friday (-161,326) Death of Pope Alexander VI, or Rodrigo Borgia, aged 74. See 10/8/1492.

8/8/1503, Tuesday (-161,336) The marriage of King James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII, took place at Holyrod Palace, Edinburgh.

30/6/1503, Friday (-161,375) John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, was born (died 3/3/1554).

23/6/1503, Friday (-161,382) The future King Henry VIII of England was engaged to Catherine of Aragon, widow of of his older brother Arthur.

1/6/1503, Thursday (-161,404) Wilhelm von Grumbach, German adventurer, was born (executed 18/4/1567).

28/5/1503, Sunday (-161,408) The Treaty of Everlasting Peace between Scotland and England was signed; peace actually lasted ten years.

13/5/1503, Saturday (-161,423) The Spanish captured Naples.

10/5/1503, Wednesday (-161,426) Christopher Columbus discovered the Cayman islands, he called them Las Tortugas, after the numerous sea turtles there.

21/4/1503, Friday (-161,445) (France, Italy, Spain) The Battle of Cerignola, Italy.The Spanish under Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba defeated the French under the Duc de Nemoura, who was killed.This was the first battle considered to have been won by gunpowder and small arms.

16/4/1503, Sunday (-161,450) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1503, Wednesday (-161,475) Antonio Grazzini, Italian author, was born (died 18/2/1583).

10/3/1503, Friday (-161,487) Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, was born.

23/2/1503, Thursday (-161,502) At the Battle of Ruvo, the Spanish defeated the French.

18/2/1503, Saturday (-161,507) Henry Tudor, the future King Henry VIII, was created Prince of Wales

20/1/1503, Friday (-161,536) Seville, in Castille, was awarded exclusive rights to trade with the New World.

1/1/1503, Sunday (-161,555)

===============================================================================

31/12/1502, Saturday (-161,556)

29/10/1502, Saturday (-161,619)

18/9/1502, Sunday (-161,660) Christopher Columbus landed at Costa Rica.

11/9/1502, Sunday (-161,667)

6/6/1502, Monday (-161,764) John III, King of Portugal, was born.

21/5/1502, Saturday (-161,780) The Portuguese explorer Joao de Nova discovered the island of St Helena, in the south Atlantic.

11/5/1502. Wednesday (-161,790) Christopher Columbus left on his fourth voyage of exploration, returning on 7/11/1504.

8/5/1502, Sunday (-161,793)

2/4/1502, Saturday (-161,829) Arthur, eldest son of King Henry VII, died after an illness.

27/3/1502, Sunday (-161,835) Easter Sunday.

12/2/1502. Saturday (-161,878) Spain expelled all Moors who had not been baptised as Christians.See 30/3/1492.

7/1/1502, Friday (-161,914) Pope Gregory XIII born

1/1/1502, Saturday (-161,920)

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31/12/1501, Friday (-161,921)

7/11/1501, Sunday (-161,975) Edmund de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, was condemned as a traitor by King Henry VII after he tried to raise forces abroad to support the Yorkist cause.

29/10/1501, Friday (-161,984)

24/9/1501, Friday (-162,019) Girolamo Cardan, Italian physician, was born (died 21/9/1576).

11/9/1501, Saturday -162,032)

4/8/1501, Wednesday (-162,070) (Italy) Louis D�Armagnac, Duke of Nemours, was named Viceroy of Naples by King Louis XII of France.

21/5/1501, Friday (-162,145) The island of St Helena was first visited by the Portuguese, on St Helena�s Day.

10/5/1501. Monday (-162,156) Amerigo Vespucci set sail for what is now called South America.On 1/1/1502 his fleet entered the bay of Guanabara, where Rio de Janeiro now stands.

6/5/1501, Thursday (-102,160) Pope Marcellus II was born.

11/4/1501, Sunday (-162,185) Easter Sunday.

25/3/1501, Thursday (-162,202) Ascension Island was first sighted by the Portuguese navigator, Joao de Nova Gallego. He named it Ilha de Nossa Senhora de Conceicoa in honour of the Annunciation. It was rediscovered by Alfonso D�Albuquerque on Ascension Day 1503, and thereby acquired its present name.

17/1/1501, Sunday (-163,269) Leonhard Fuchs, German physician, was born (died 10/5/1566).

1/1/1501, Friday (-162,285)

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31/12/1500, Thursday (-162,286)

11/11/1500, Wednesday (-162,336) (Italy) The Treaty of Granada. Spain and France agreed to divide Naples between them.

1/11/1500, Sunday (-162,346) Birth of Benvenuto Cellini, Italian sculptor.

12/10/1500, Tuesday (-162,365) John Morton, English statesman, died.

12/9/1500, Saturday (-162,396) Albert III, Duke of Saxony, died in Emden (born 27/1/1443).

11/9/1500, Friday (-162,397)

29/5/1500, Friday (-162,502) Bartholomew Diaz, the Portuguese explorer who discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, was drowned during a storm at sea.

5/5/1500, Tuesday (-162,526) Moorish revolt in Spain, following the forced mass conversions to Catholicism by Cardinal Cisneros and the Inquisition, was suppressed by King Ferdinand II.

23/4/1500, Thursday (-162,538) (Britain) Alexander Ales, Scottish clergyman, was born in Edinburgh (died 17/3/1565 in Leipzig).

22/4/1500. Wednesday (-162,539) Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvarez Cabral discovered the coast of Brazil. He claimed this territory for Portugal, which he named Vera Cruz or �true cross� but which was to be called Brazil, after the red-coloured brazil-wood, which grew there.

19/4/1500, Sunday (-162,542) Easter Sunday.

12/4/1500, Sunday (-162,549) Joachim Camerarius, German scholarly writer, was born (died 17/4/1574).

20/2/1500, Thursday (-162,601) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, was born.

26/1/1500, Sunday (-162,626)

1/1/1500, Wednesday (-162,651)

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31/12/1499, Tuesday (-162,652)

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