Chronography of events from I January 1500 to 31 December 1599

Page last modified 28 September 2023

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from

Dates checked at 1 January xxxx.

See also Julian Day Count,


For dates from 1 January 1600 click here


1 January 1600, Tuesday (-126,126) Scotland adopted 1st January as New Year�s Day.


10 December 1599, Monday (-126,148) The Assembly of the Convention of States at Edinburgh.

11 November 1599, Sunday (-126,177) Prince Octavio Piccolomini, Austrian General, was born in Florence (died 11 August 1656)

7 November 1599, Wednesday (-126,181) Gasparo Tagliacozzi, Italian surgeon, died in Bologna (born 1546 in Bologna)

31 October 1599, Wednesday (-126,188) Denzil Holles, English writer, was born (died 17 February 1680)

24 September 1599, Monday (-126,225) (India) 80 English merchants and adventurers met in Lomndon to prepare a petition t Queen Elizabeth I to form the East India Company.

20 September 1599, Thursday (-126,229) Christian of Brunswick, Dutch General, was born (died 16 June 1626).

8 September 1599, Saturday (-126,241) (Ireland) Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, disobeyed Queen Elizabeth (see 27 March 1599) by signbing a truce with irish rebel Hugh O�Neill, rather than defeating him. Devereux was arrested on his return to England on 28 September. The truce broke down in January 1600, with hostilities resuming.

14 August 1599, Tuesday (-126,266) Florence Casaubon, English scholarly writer, was born (died 14 July 1671).

13 August 1599, Monday (-126,267) (Jewish) Johannes Buxtorf, Hebrew scholar, was born (died 1664).

10 July 1599, Tuesday (-126,301)

6 June 1599, Wednesday (-126,335) Diego Velasquez, Spanish painter, was born in Seville.

30 May 1599, Wednesday (-126,342) Samuel Bochart, French scholarly writer, was born in Rouen (died in Caen 16 May 1667)

29 May 1599, Tuesday (-126,343) In Ireland, Essex was roiuted by guerrillas at Deputy�s Pass, County Wicklow.

22 May 1599. Tuesday (-126,350)

25 April 1599. Wednesday (-126,377) Oliver Cromwell was born in Huntingdon. He became Lord Protector of England, Britain�s first and only dictator.

10 April 1599, Tuesday (-126,392) Gabrielle d�Estrees, mistress of King Henry IV of France, died (born 1573).

8 April 1599, Sunday (-126,394) Easter Sunday.

27 March 1599, Tuesday (-126,406) (Ireland) Queen Elizabeth I appointed Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, to the Lord Lieutenancy of Ireland, to crush the Irish rebels. See 8 September 1599.

22 March 1599, Thursday (-126,411) Sir Anthony van Dyck, Flemish artist and court painter to Charles I of England, was born in Antwerp, son of a cloth manufacturer.

28 February 1599, Wednesday (-126,433)

31 January 1599, Wednesday (-126,461)

13 January 1599, Saturday (-126,479) Edmund Spenser, English poet who wrote The Faerie Queene, died.


31 December 1598, Sunday (-126,492)

15 December 1598, Friday (-126,508) Philips St Aldegonde, Dutch writer, died in Leiden (born 1538 in Brussels)

7 December 1598, Thursday (-126,516) Gian Lorenzo Bernini, sculptor and architect, was born.

28 November 1598, Tuesday (-126,525) Hans Nansen, Danish statesman, was born (died 12 November 1667).

11 October 1598, Wednesday (-126,573) (Biology) Joachim Camerarius, botanist, died (born 6 November 1534).

18 September 1598, Monday (-126,596) Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japanese statesman (born 6 February 1537) died. A feudal lord of peasant origin, he completed the unification of Japan under Oda Nobunaga. This was accomplished by the defeat of the feudal barons (daimyo). He instituted a rigid system of class divisions, having farmers, merchants, monks and warriors living in different quarters of Japanese towns. In 1592 he attempted to take the Korean Peninsula from China, but his army was too small for this task. In 1597 he tried again, also unsuccessfully. He even harboured ambitions of much wider conquests, including China, the Philippines and India. His death left a power vacuum that plunged Japan into civil war.

13 September 1598, Wednesday (-126,601) King Philip II of Spain died after a reign of over 40 years, aged 71. Spain had acquired great wealth from its conquest of South America, but had squandered it in a series of wars, and had suffered the defeat of the Great Armada. He was succeeded by his fourth wife�s fourth son, Philip III.

14 August 1598, Monday (-126,631) (Ireland) The English were heavily defeated at the Battle of Yellow Ford, River Blackwater, County Armagh. In 1597 the English had built a fort on the River Blackwater, 8 km northwest of the garrison town of Armagh, to support military expeditions into neighbouring Tyrone, where the Earl of Tyrone had raised a well-trained army against the English. Soon afterwards, the Earl of Tyrone besieged this fort. The English attempted a relief operation but became bogged down in the local terrain, and their gunpowder store exploded. Cut down by cavalry and infantry, the English retreated to Armagh.

7 August 1598, Monday (-126,638) Georg Stjernhjelm, Swedish poet, was born (died 22 April 1672 in Stockholm)

4 August 1598, Friday (-126,641) William Cecil, Baron Burghley, chief advisor to Queen Elizabeth I, died.

31 July 1598, Monday (-126,645) Alessandro Algardi, Italian sculptor, was born in Bologna (died 10 June 1654 in Rome)

28 June 1598, Wednesday (-126,678) Abraham Ortelius, cartographer, died aged 72.

2 May 1598, Tuesday (-126,735) (France, Spain) The Treaty of Vervins ended the Franco-Spanish War. Spanish troops withdrew from Picardy.

23 April 1598, Sunday (-126,744) Maarten Tromp, Dutch Admiral, was born.

16 April 1598, Sunday (-126,751) Easter Sunday.

13 April 1598. Thursday (-126,754) Henry IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes, giving Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. See 24 August 1572, and 18 October 1685.

12 March 1598, Sunday (-126,786)

21 February 1598, Tuesday (-126,805) (Russia) On the death of Tsar Fyodor, Boris Godunov was elected Tsar.

17 January 1598, Tuesday (-126,840) Death of Tsar Fyodor I (born 31 May 1557).

16 January 1598, Monday (-126,841) A legal case over land ownership made reference to a certain John Derrick who, then aged 59, attested that as a �scholler at the free school of Guldeforde� he had played �krickett;, which would thebe in the 1550s.


31 December 1597, Saturday (-126,857)

23 December 1597, Friday (-126,865) Martin Opitz von Boberfeld, German poet, was born in Silesia (died of the plague, 20 August 1639, in Danzig).

29 October 1597, Saturday (-126,920)

26 October 1597, Wednesday (-126,923) Japan again attempted an invasion of Korea. They were again defeated and pulled out by 1599, but Korea was devastated in the fighting. China was also weakened, with riots against the tatxatioin levied to fight Japan, and its NE frontier made more vulnerable; however Japan became isolationist and developed its economy.

13 October 1597, Thursday (-126,936) Lord Burgh, Lord Deputy of Ireland, died suddenly of typhus at Bewry.

25 September 1597, Sunday (-126,954) (France) King Henry IV of France captured Amiens from the Spanish.

20 August 1597, Saturday (-126,990) Dutch seafarers brought back spice cargo from Java, see 2 April 1595 and 20 March 1602.

23 July 1597, Saturday (-127,018) Earthquake was felt in Scotland.

3 July 1597, Sunday (-127,038) Sir John Norris, English soldier, died in Munster, Ireland.

2 July 1597, Saturday (-127,039) Theodoor Rombouts, Flemish painter, was born in Antwerp (died 14 September 1637in Antwerp)

20 June 1597, Monday (-127,051) Dutch navigator Willem Barents who led a team of three to find the North West Passage, and who discovered Spitsbergen on his last voyage, died at sea.

9 June 1592, Thursday (-127,062) Pieter Saenredam, Dutch painter, was born near Haarlem (died 1665 in Haarlem)

29 April 1597, Friday (-127,103)

27 April 1597, Wednesday (-127,105) Johannes Kepler, astronomer, married widow Barbara Muller.

23 April 1597, Saturday (-127,109) William Shakespeare�s play The Merry Wives of Windsor was first performed, with Queen Elizabeth I of England in the audience.

18 April 1597, Monday (-127,114)

27 March 1597, Sunday (-127,136) Easter Sunday.

5 March 1597, Saturday (-127,158) Thomas, Lord Burgh, replaced Sir William Russell as Lord Deputy of Ireland.

5 February 1597, Saturday (-127,186) In Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi crucified 26 Christians in Nagasaki, then told all remaining missionaries to leave the country. When most defied the order, Hideyoshi took no action for fear of alienating Portuguese traders.

24 January 1597, Monday (-127,198) Battle of Turnhout, Netherlands. A Spanish force of 4,500 was routed by Maurice with sccarcely any loss to the Dutch.

1 January 1597, Saturday (-127,221)


24 December 1596, Friday (-127,229) Leonaert Bramer, Dutch painter, was born in Delft (died1674 in Delft)

3 December 1596, Friday (-127,250) Italian cello and violin maker Nicolo Amati was born in Cremona.

29 November 1596, Monday (-127,254) Spain admitted that the Royal Treasury was bankrupt, drained by a series of wars and especially the attempt to invade England. Revolts against Spanish rule in the Americas were also costly. See 24 March 1603.

25 November 1596, Thursday (-127,258) (Finland) A Peasant�s Revolt broke out in Finland. The peasants in Finland resented Swedish troops being billeted on them, and took up cudgels and clubs to fight them; the so-called Club War. The urprisiing was brutally repressed.

1 November 1596, Monday (-127,282) Pierre Pithou, French scholarly writer, died in Nogent sur Seine (born in Troyes 1 November 1539)

26 October 1596, Tuesday (-127,288) Battle of Kerestes, in modern day northern Hungary. A narrow Turkish victory over the Austrians, who retreated in disorder; the Ottoman army, also badly mauled, did not pursue.

3 October 1596, Sunday (-127,311) Florent Chrestien, French poet, died (born 26 January 1541)

19 September 1596, Sunday (-127,325) Jacques Stella, French painter, was born in Lyons (died 29 April 1657 in Paris)

4 September 1596, Saturday (-127,340) Sir Constantijn Huygens, Dutch poet, was born (died 28 March 1687).

9 August 1596, Monday (-127,366)

23 July 1596, Friday (-127,383) Henry Hunsdon, English soldier, died.

6 July 1596, Tuesday (-127,490) In Munster, Ireland, Tyrone called for a war against the English.

30 June 1596, Wednesday (-127,496) (Spain) Lord Howard of Effingham and Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, led an expedition to sack Cadiz and attack other Spanish coastal cities

23 June 1596, Wednesday (-127,413) (Sweden) Johan Baner, Swedish soldier during the Thirty Years War, was born in Djursholm Castle (died in Halberstadt 10 May 1641).

31 May 1596, Monday (-127,436) John Lesley, Scottish historical writer, died.

27 May 1596, Thursday (-127,440) Pellegrino Tibaldi, Italian artist, died in Milan.

11 April 1596, Sunday (-127,486) Easter Sunday.

3 April 1596, Saturday (-127,494) Sinan Pasha, Turkish soldier and statesman, died (born 1515)

31 March 1596, Wednesday (-127,497) Rene Descartes, French philosopher, was born.

24 March 1596, Wednesday (-127,504) Jean Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, Duke of Epernon, recognised King Henry IV as legitimate King of France. Now only Brittany and Savoy opposed Henry.

23 March 1596, Tuesday (-127,505) Sir Henry Unton, British diplomatist, died in :La Fere, France.

17 February 1596, Tuesday (-127,540) Friedrich Sylburg, German scholarly writer, died (boirn 1536 near Marburg)

28 January 1596, Wednesday (-127,560) Sir Francis Drake died of dysentery and was buried at sea off Porto Bello, Panama.

13 January 1596, Tuesday (-127,575) Jan Goyen, Dutch painter, was born (died 1656).

1 January 1596, Thursday (-127,587)


4 December 1595, Thursday (-127,615) Jean Chapelain, French poet, was born (died 22 February 1674).

1 December 1595, Monday (-127,618) Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, was born (died 2 November 1677).

12 November 1595, Wednesday (-127,637) Sir John Hawkins, Briotish Admiral, died (born 1532)

30 October 1595, Thursday (-127,650)

26 October 1595, Sunday (-127,654) (East Europe, Turkey) Hungary defeated Ottoman Turkey at Giurgiu, Wallachia (modern-day Romania).

18 October 1595, Saturday (-127,662) Edward Winslow, Plymouth Colony leader, was born.

3 September 1595, Wednesday (-127,707)

28 August 1595, Thursday (-127,713) English adventurers Francis Drake and John Hawkins left Plymouth, Devon, ona voyage to plunder Spanish assets in the Americas. However withinafew months both had died of fever.

9 August 1595, Saturday (-127,732)

21 July 1595, Monday (-127,751) Alvaro Mendana discovered the Marquesas Islands.

10 July 1595, Thursday (-127,762) Charles Drelincourt, French religious writer, was born (died 3 November 1669)

1 July 1595, Tuesday (-127,771) Sir William Russell, Lord Deputy of Ireland, converted Armagh Cathedral into a garrison.

12 June 1595, Thursday (-127,790) Large numbers of London apporentices protested against rising food prices by seizing fish and butter from vendors and paying what they considered a ;fair� price for it. On 14 June 1595 a crowd of over 1,000 gathered outside the Lord Mator;s house tore down the pillory in Cheapside. The Crown responded by empowering a provost-martial to arrest and even execute troublemakers.

9 June 1595, Monday (-127,793) Battle of Fontaine-Francaise; Huguenot victory.

27 May 1595, Tuesday (-127,806) Benedikt Carpzov, scholarly writer, was born (died 30 August 1666).

26 May 1595, Monday (-127,807) (Christian) Philip Neri, Italian churchman, died (born 21/7?1515).

25 May 1595, Sunday (-127,808) (Germany) German scholar Valens Acidalius died in Neisse.

6 May 1595, Tuesday (-127,828) John Frederick, Duke of Saxony, died (born 8 January 1529).

25 April 1595, Friday (-127,838) Italian poet Torquato Tasso died in Rome.

20 April 1595, Sunday (-127,843) Easter Sunday.

2 April 1595, Wednesday (-127,861) The Dutch launched an expedition to try and open up a trade route to the East Indies, or Spice Islands, independent from the Spanish.Before the Union of Spain and Portugal in 1580/81, the Dutch commanded most of the spice trade between Lisbon and northern Europe.After this date, the Spanish shut the Dutch out from this trade.This voyage was marred by losses, but the survivors who reached Texel on 20 August 1597 brought back valuable cargo, plus a treaty with the Sultan of Bantam, in Java.See 20 March 1602.

21 March 1595, Friday (-127,873)

21 February 1595. Friday (-127,901) Robert Southwell, English poet and Jesuit martyr, was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.

2 February 1595, Sunday (-127,920) Jacob van Campen, Dutch painter, was born in Haarlem (died 13 september 1657 near Amersfoort)

30 January 1595, Thursday (-127,923) Shakespeare�s play Romeo and Juliet was first performed.

24 January 1595, Friday (-127,929) Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria died.

17 January 1595, Friday (-127,936) (France) Philip II of Spain offered support to a Spanish claimant to the French throne. Because of this provocation, Henry IV of France deckared war on Spain.

6 January 1595, Monday (-127,947) Claude Favre Vaugelas, French writer, was born in Ain (died1650)

1 January 1595, Wednesday (-127,952)


9 December 1594, Monday (-127,975) Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, was born.

2 December 1594, Monday (-127,982) Gerard Mercator, Flemish geographer and cartographer, died in Duisberg, aged 82. He projected the world map onto a flat surface using lines of longitude and latitude.

30 November 1594, Saturday (-127,984) John Cosin, English religious writer, was born (died 15 January 1672).

22 November 1594, Friday (-127,992) English explorer Sir Martin Frobisher died this day in Plymouth.

16 October 1594, Wednesday (-128,029) Death in Rome of William Allen, English Roman Catholic Cardinal who oversaw the Douai-Reims translation of the Bible into English.

3 September 1594, Tuesday (-128,072)

9 August 1594, Friday (-128,097)

14 June 1594, Friday (-128,153) Death in Munich, Bavaria, of Roland de Lassus, Franco-Flemish composer.

1 June 1594, Saturday (-128,166) (Yugoslavia) Sinan invaded northern Hungaryt and forced the Austrians to raise their siege of Gran. Sinan then captured Raab, but was repulsed after a long siege of Komarno, an important fortification on the Danube.

31 May 1594, Friday (-128,167) Tintoretto, his real name being Jacopo Robusti, one of the great Italian painters, died in Venice, aged 76.

29 May 1594, Wednesday (-128,169) Gottfried Heinrich Pappenheim, German Field Marshal, was born in Pappenheim, Bavaria (died 1620)

16 May 1594, Thursday (-128,182) Sir William Russell was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland.

29 April 1594, Monday (-128,199) Thomas Cooper, English author, died in Winchester.

1 April 1594, Monday (-128,227) Carlo Ridolfi, Italian painter, was born near Vicenza (died 5 September 1568 in Venice)

31 March 1594, Sunday (-128,228) Easter Sunday.

22 March 1594, Friday (-128,237) (France) Henry IV entered Paris.

27 February 1594, Wednesday (-128,260) Coronation of King Henry IV of France at Chartres.

19 February 1594, Tuesday (-128,268) In Lothian, Scotland, Queen Anne gave birth to a son and heir, Henry.

15 February 1594, Friday (-128,272) In England, William Harrington was hung drawn and quartered for being a Catholic priest.

2 February 1594, Saturday (-128,285) Composer Palestrina died in Rome (born ca. 1525).

31 January 1594, Thursday (-128,287)

24 January 1594, Thursday (-128,294) Pierre de Marca, French historical writer, was born (died 29 June 1662).


30 December 1593, Sunday (-128,319)

14 October 1593, Sunday (-128,396) Arthur Grey, English statesman, died (born 1536)

13 October 1593, Saturday (-128,397) (Yugoslavia) Sinan, leading an Ottoman army sent by Sultan Murad III, captured Beszprem (Vesprism) from Austria. Sinan had planned to o ntinue towards Vienna but the Janissaries refused to fight over the winter and Sinan had to retire to Belgrade.

25 September 1593, Tuesday (-128,415) Matthew Merian, Swiss engraver, was born (died 22 June 1650).

3 September 1593, Monday (-128,437)

9 August 1593, Thursday (-128,462) Author Izaak Walton was born at Stafford.

25 July 1593, Wednesday (-128,477) (France) In a shrewd move, King Henry IV of France declared himself a Catholic, although still at heart a Huguenot sympathiser, in order to fend off the threat of Catholics attacks upon him and to secure his rulership of Paris.

11 July 1593, Wednesday (-128,491) Guiseppe Arcimboldo, Italian painter, died in Milan.

8 July 1593, Sunday (-128,494) Artemisia Gentileschi, painter, was born.

20 June 1593, Wednesday (-128,512) (Yugoslavia) Battle of Sissek, An Austrian army annihilated the army of Hassan, Ottoman Governor of Bosnia. Sultan Murad III now prepared for a revenge invasion of Austria.

30 May 1593, Wednesday (-128,533) English playwright Christopher Marlowe was killed in a brawl at a London tavern, aged 29, in an argument over religion.

29 May 1593, Tuesday (-128,534) John Penry, Welsh Protestant and suspected author of the Martin Marprelate Tracts, was executed in England for denying the Royal Supremacy.

22 May 1593, Tuesday (-128,541)

20 May 1593, Sunday (-128,543) Salomo Glassius, religious writer, was born (died 27 July 1656)

19 May 1593, Saturday (-128,544) Jacob Jordaens, Flemish painter, was born in Antwerp (died 18 October 1678 in Antwerp)

24 April 1593, Tuesday (-128,569) William Harrison, English writer, died (born 18 April 1534).

18 April 1593, Wednesday (-128,575) Shakespeare�s first published work, the poem Venus and Adonis, was entered into the Stationer�s Register.

15 April 1593, Sunday (-128,578) Easter Sunday.

13 April 1593, Friday (-128,580) Birth in London of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford and advisor to Charles I.

6 April 1593, Friday (-128,587) John Greenwood, English religious activist, was hanged.

4 April 1593, Wednesday (-128,588) Sir Edward Nicholas, English statesman, was born (died 1669).

3 April 1593, Tuesday (-128,590) George Herbert, English poet, was born (died 1633)

31 March 1593, Saturday (-128,593)

14 March 1593, Wednesday (-128,610)

8 February 1593, Thursday (-128,644) A Chinese and Korean army took Pyongyang from the Japanese.

6 February 1593, Tuesday (-128,646) Jacques Amyot, French writer, died (born 30 October 1513 in Melun).

31 January 1593, Wednesday (-128, 652)

1 January 1593, Monday (-128,682)


3 December 1592, Sunday (-128,711) Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Governor-General of The Netherlands under King Philip II of Spain, died (born 27 August 1545)

4 November 1592, Saturday (-128,740) Gerrit van Honthorst, Dutch painter, was born in Utrecht (died27 vApril 1656 in Utrecht)

29 October 1592, Sunday (-128,746)

15 September 1592, Friday (-128,790) (Ireland) Giovanni Rinuccini, pro-Catholic agitant in Ireland, was born in Rome (died 5 December 1653)

13 September 1592, Wednesday (-128,792) Michel de Montaigne, French essayist, died.

3 September 1592, Sunday (-128,802) Robert Greene, dramatist, died.

28 August 1592, Monday (-128,808) Birth in Brooksby, Leicestershire, of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, and favoured advisor of James I and Charles I of England.

9 August 1592, Wednesday (-128,827)

10 July 1592, Monday (-128,857) Pierre d�Hozier, French writer, was born(died 1 December 1660)

3 June 1592, Tuesday (-128,891) Bartolommeo Passarotti, Italian painter, died in Bologna (born 1529 in Bologna)

23 May 1592, Tuesday (-128,905) (Japan) Hideyoshi started an invasion of Korea; he failed, and also failed on a subsequent invasion attempt in 1597.

21 May 1592, Sunday (-128,907) Parma escaped Protestant forces at Coudebec and marched south east to resupply forces at Paris.

17 May 1592, Wednesday (-128,911) The Duke of Parma withdrew from besieging Coudebec. His forces had been reduced to 15,000, and the Dutch Protestants were able to resupply Coudebec by sea, sailing up the River Seine.

8 May 1592, Monday (-128,920) Framcis Quarles, English poet, was born in Romford, Essex (died 8 September 1644)

22 April 1592, Saturday (-128,936) Bartolommeo Ammanati, Italian sculptor, died in Florence (born 18 June 1511 in Settignano)

21 April 1592, Friday (-128,937) The Duke of Parma raised the siege by Protestants of Catholics holding out at Rouen.

18 April 1592, Tuesday (-128,940)

27 March 1592, Monday (-128,962) Henry of Navarre, Protestant, restarted the siege of Catholics holding Rouen.

26 March 1592, Sunday(-128,963) Easter Sunday.

24 March 1592, Friday (-128,965) The Duke of Parma, Catholic, began a siege of Protestants holding the town of Coudebec, on the lower Seine.

5 March 1592, Sunday (-128,984) Michael Coxcie, Flemish painter, died (born 1499)

3 March 1592, Friday (-128,986) Dublin University (Trinity College) was founded under a royal charter by English monarch Queen Elizabeth I. However an older establishment was founded in 1320, connected with St Patrick�s Cathedral.

29 February 1592, Tuesday (-128,989) Alessandrio Striggio,composer, died.

13 February 1592, Sunday (-129,005) Jacopo Bassano, Italian painter, died in Bassano.

9 February 1592, Wednesday (-129,009) Parma attacked Protestants at Neufchatel.

4 February 1592, Friday (-129,014) Military skirmish at Aumale, west of Amiens, between Catholics and Huguenot Protestants.

30 January 1592, Sunday (-129,019) Pope Clement VIII (231st Pope) acceded (formerly Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini) (died 1605).

22 January 1592, Saturday (-129,027) Pierre Gassendi, French scientific writer, was born (died 24 October 1655).

16 January 1592, Sunday (-129,033) The Catholic Duke of Parma marched south west from Amiens with 30,000 men.

15 January 1592, Saturday (-129,034) Queen Elizabeth I of England recalled Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, from his command in Rouen, France.

12 January 1592, Wednesday (-129,037) Titus Andronicus, an early Tragic play by Shakespeare, was first stages at the Rose Theatre, London


30 December 1591, Thursday (-129,050) Pope Innocent IX died.

3 December 1591. Friday (-129,077) The earliest recorded fire insurance policy. 101 persons, mainly brewers, agreed to pay out a maximum of 10 thalers to any fellow memberwhose property was damaged by fire.

20 November 1591, Saturday (-129,090) Sir Christopher Hatton, Lord Chancellor of England, died.

29 October 1591, Friday (-129,112) Pope Innocent IX became the 230th Pope.

21 October 1591, Thursday (-129,120) Dutch forces captured Nijmegen.

16 October 1591, Saturday (-129,125) Pope Gregory XIV died.

25 September 1591, Saturday (-129,146) 8-year-old Christian II became Elector of Saxony on the death of his father Christian I. His guardians, John George Elector of Brandenbirg and the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, crushed the Calvinists and Saxony returned to Luthernaism.

21 September 1591, Tuesday (-129,150) French Bishops meeting at Rouen accepted Henry IV as King, despite his excommunication by Pope Gregory XIV.

16 September 1591, Thursday (-129,155)

27 August 1591, Friday (-129,175)

23 August 1591, Monday (-129,179) Luis Ponce de Leon, Spanish poet, died.

4 August 1591, Wednesday (-129,198) Francois de la Noue, French Huguenot captain, died.

20 June 1591, Sunday (-129,243) Dutch forces captured Deventer.

24 May 1591, Monday (-129,270) Sir John Norreys, leading an expeditionary force sent by Queen Elizabeth I, took the town of Guincamp after a brief siege, to assist the Protestant King Henry of Navarre, in his fight against Catholics in France.

20 May 1591, Thursday (-129,274) Dutch forces captured Zutphen.

15 May 1591, Saturday (-129,279) Dmitri, son of Ivan IV The Terrible and heir of Tsar Fyodor I, was killed, possibly by agents of Boris Gudonov.

10 April 1591, Saturday (-129,314) (Britain) Sir James Lancaster, English coloniser, was born.

4 April 1591, Sunday (-129,320) Easter Sunday.

17 March 1591, Wednesday (-129,338) Jost Amman, Swiss book illustrator, died in Nuremberg (born 1539 in Zurich)

13 March 1591, Saturday (-129,342) At the Battle of Tondibi, Moroccan forces under the Saadi Dynasty, led by Judar Pasha, defeated the Songhai Empire, despite being outnumbered at least 5 to 1.

2 March 1591, Tuesday (-129,353) Gerard Desargues, Frnech mathematician, in Lyons.

1 March 1591, Monday (-129,354) Pope Gregory XIV excommunicated King Henry IV of france.

20 February 1591, Saturday (-129,363)

8 February 1591, Monday (-129,375) Painter Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri) was born near Ferrara, Italy.

16 January 1591, Saturday (-129,398) Henry King, English poet, was born (died 30 September 1669).

1 January 1591, Friday (-129,413)


20 December 1590, Sunday (-129,425) Ambroise Pare, known as the father of modern surgery, died in Paris.

5 December 1590, Saturday (-129,440) Pope Gregory XIV (229th Pope), formerly Cardinal Niccolo Sfomdrato, acceded (died 1591).

3 December 1590, Thursday (-129,442) Daniel Seghers, Flemish flower painter, was born in Antwerp (died 2 November 1661 in Antwerp)

29 November 1590, Sunday (-129,446) Philipp Frischlin, German poet, died (born 22 September 1547).

29 October 1590, Thursday (-129,477) Dirck Coonhert, Dutch politician, died (born 1522).

27 September 1590, Sunday (-129,509) Pope Urban VII died.

20 September 1590, Sunday (-129,516) Lodovico Agostini,composer, died.

15 September 1590, Tuesday (-129,521) Pope Urban VII (228th Pope), formerly Cardinal Giambattista Castagna, acceded, but died 12 days later.

27 August 1590, Thursday (-129,540) Pope Sixtus V (227th Pope) died.

17 August 1590, Monday (-129,550) John White, Governor of Roanoke Island, returned to find the British colony deserted and the first European child born in America vanished. The word �Croatoan� was left behind. See 18 August 1587.

13 July 1590, Monday (-129,585) Pope Clement X was born in Rome.

6 June 1590, Saturday (-129,622)

21 May 1590, Thursday (-129,638) (Turkey) The Ottoman-Safavid Peace Treaty extended the borders of the Ottoman Empire to the Caucasus and the Caspian.

17 May 1590, Sunday (-129,642) Coronation of Anne, wife of King James VI of Scotland, at Holyrood Abbey.

14 May 1590, Thursday (-129,645) King Henry IV of France defeated the Army of the Catholic League at Ivry and marched on Paris.

19 April 1590, Sunday (-129,670) Easter Sunday.

18 April 1590, Saturday (-129,671) Ahmed I, Ottoman Emperor, was born.

6 April 1590, Monday (-129,683) Sir Francis Walsingham, diplomat and creator of Elizabeth I�s secret service, died.

18 March 1590, Wednesday (-129,702) Manuel de Faria y Sousa, Portugiuese poet, was born (died 3 June 1649).

14 March 1590, Saturday (-129,706) Battle of Ivry; Huguenot victory.

8 March 1590, Sunday (-129,712) Dutch forces under Maurice made a surprise attack on Breda and captured it from the Spanish.

12 February 1590, Thursday (-129,736) Francois Hotman, French writer, died (born 23 August 1524)

3 February 1590, Tuesday (-129,745) Germain Pillon, French sculptor, died in Paris (born 1525 in Paris)

1 February 1590, Sunday (-129,747) (Universities) Lawrence Humphrey, President of Magdalen College Oxford, died.

9 January 1590, Friday (-129,770) Simon Vouet, French painter, was born in Paris (died 1649)

3 January 1590, Saturday (-129,776) Robert Boyd, Scottish statesman, died.


31 December 1589, Wednesday (-129,779)

1 November 1589, Saturday (-129,839) Henry IV of France attempted to enter Paris but was repulsed by the Catholic garrison there.

29 October 1589, Wednesday (-129,842)

21 September 1589, Sunday (-129,880) The Battle of Arques, NW France; Huguenot victory.

15 August 1589, Friday (-129,917) Diego Duque de Estrada, Spanish writer, was born.

1 August 1589, Friday (-129,931) (France) Henry III, King of France, murdered by a mad Dominican monk. On his deathbed he nominated the Protestant-sympathising Henry of Navarre as his successor.

1 July 1589, Tuesday (-129,962) Christopher Plantin, printer, died.

1 May 1589, Thursday (-130,023)

26 April 1589, Saturday (-130,028) (Britain) Andrew Perne, Dean of Ely and Vice Chancellor of Cambridge University, died).

13 April 1589, Sunday (-130,041) (Spain) Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norrys sailed form Plymouth with 150 ships and 18,000 men to attack Spain and invade Portugal. They destroyed the Spanish port of Corunna, but were repulsed at Lisbon. The expedition was a failure.

30 March 1589, Sunday (-130,055) Easter Sunday.

28 February 1589, Friday (-130,085)

18 February 1589, Tuesday (-130,095) Sir Henry Vane, English |Secretary of State, was born in Kent (died 1654)

5 February 1589, Wednesday (-130,108) Esteban Manuel de Villegas, Spanish poet, was born(died 3 September 1669)

5 January 1589, Sunday (-130,139) Catherine di Medici, Italian wife of King Henry II of France, died.


23 December 1588, Monday (-130,152) (France) Henry of Lorraine, 3rd Duke of Guise, (born 31 December 1550) was murdered, for being too presumptive and acting as the �effective King of France�.

24 November 1588, Sunday (-130,181) In St Pauls Cathedral, London, Queen Elizabeth I held a grand service of thanksgiving for the victory over the Spanish Armada.

5 November 1588, Tuesday (-130,200) The St Juan de Sicilia, a ship of the Spanish Armada that had taken refuge off the coast of Tobermory (see 23 September 1588) blew up. An English agent, John Smollett, had detonated the ship�s poweder store, although at one time the Irish or an accident was blamed. The English wanted to avoid a detachment of several hundred Spanish soldiers landing in neutral Scotland. Smollett, acting as double agent, ingratiated himself with the Spanish, supplying them with new sails. Secrecy was important as although Scotland was neutral, relations with England were tense after the execution of Mary Queen of Scots in 1587. Most of the Spanish were at the time helping the islanders of Tobermory besiege a castle on the mainland; those still on board were killed, and their supplies and ammunition were now destroyed.

4 November 1588, Monday (-130,201) In Ireland, Sir William FitzWilliam ordered a thorough search for any bSpanish castaways.

1 November 1588, Friday (-130,204) Jean Dorat, French poet, died (born 1508).

18 October 1588, Friday (-130,218) The Polish postal service was created, when King Zygmunt August established a permanent postal route from Krakow to Venice.

23 September 1588, Monday (-130,243) A Spanish ship, the St Juan de Sicilia, was spotted off Tobermory, Scotland.

15 September 1588, Sunday (-130,251) The remnants of the Spanish Armada limped back into Spanish ports.

10 September 1588, Tuesday (-130,256) Nicholas Lanier, composer, was born.

8 September 1588, Sunday (-130,258) Marin Mersenne, French mathematicianwas born (died 1 September 1648).

4 September 1588. Wednesday (-130,262) The death of Queen Elizabeth�s favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester.

8 August 1588, Thursday (-130,289) Queen Elizabeth I reviewed her troops at Tilbury.

2 August 1588, Friday (-130,295) The Spanish Armada passed the Firth of Forth, sailing around Scotland. The English left off the pursuit and returned home.

29 July 1588. Monday (-130,299) The Spanish Armada under Medina Sidonia was defeated. (See 19 May 1588). On the night of the 28 July the English sent fireships amongst the 130 ships of the Armada sent by Philip II to invade England, as they were anchored off Calais. This caused panic amongst the Spanish, who cut anchor, one ship running aground. By now the Spanish had lost several of their best ships and, whilst maintaining good order, were demoralised. The Spanish sent a signal to Parma to put his ships to sea from Dunkirk but he could not as he was closely blockaded by the British. On 29 July the English decimated the Spanish with broadside fire, preventing the Spanish closing and boarding, which would have been their only chance of success. The Spanish soldiers were outgunned and had inferior seamanship to the English sailors. The Spanish were nearly driven aground off The Netherlands on 30 July but a sudden change of wind saved them, with only 6 fathoms below them, and they were able to sail northwest into the North Sea. The English, running low on food and ammunition, followed them as far as the Firth of Forth, then returned south, satisfied that the Spanish would not return via the Straits of Dover. The Armada, short of both food and fresh water, encountered further problems with strong westerly winds as they attempted to sail around the north of Scotland and south to Spain. Many ships were wrecked at open sea or off the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Only half the ships that left Spain returned home; death and sickness took a great toll of the crews. The failure of the Armada checked the naval growth of Spain and assisted the Netherlands to gain independence. Two further Armadas prepared by Spain, in 1596 and 1597, were disrupted by bad weather.

26 July 1588, Friday (-130,302) The Spanish Armada anchored off Calais, unable to fight further without new supplies of ammunition. Medina Sidonia requested Parma to come to his assistance, but Parma was unable to leave Bruges because of a blockade by the Dutch fleet under Justinian of Nassau. Meanwhile Howard did not risk coming close enough to the Spanish ships to do serious damage as that would put his own ships at risk of boarding by Spanish soldiers.

25 July 1588, Thursday (-130,303) The Spanish Armada and the English navy engaged off the Isle of Wight. There were fears that the Spanish planned to seize the island as a base.

23 July 1588, Tuesday (-130,305) Second engagement between the Spanish and English, off the Isle of Portland.

21 July 1588, Sunday (-130,307) The English fleet first engaged with the Spanish Armada near Eddystone Rocks, south of Plymouth.

20 July 1588, Saturday (-130,308) Lord Howard of Effingham, Commander in Chief of the Fleet, saild from Plymouth to engage the Armada.

19 July 1588, Friday (-130,309) English scout ships first spotted the Armada off Lizard Head.

16 July 1588, Tuesday (-130,312)

12 July 1588, Friday (-130,316) The Spanish Armada left Corunna, where it had put in to take refuge from a storm and make some repairs on vessels that had proved unseaworthy.

11 July 1588, Thursday (-130,317) King Henry III of France agreed to the demands of the Duke of Guise. Toleration of the Huguenots ended, and the claim of the Protestant heir to the French throne, Henry of Navarre, was set aside oin favour of the Catholic Cardinal Charles de Bourbon. Guise became Lieutenant-General of France.

30 June 1588, Sunday (-130,328) Sir William FitzWilliam was sowrn in as Lord Deputy of Ireland.

18 June 1588, Tuesday (-130,340) Robert Crowley, English religious writer, died.

28 May 1588. Tuesday (-130,361) The Spanish Armada set sail from Lisbon. The Armada consisted of 130 vessels, containing 7,000 sailors and 17,000 soldiers, commended by the Duke of Medina, sent by King Philip II. It arrived off the Lizard, Cornwall, on 19 July 1588, and off Plymouth on 20 July 1588. The English Navy was only just able to get out to sea and avoid being blockaded in Plymouth harbour. On 23 July the English and Spanish fleets clashed off Portland, and again on 25 July off the Isle of Wight. The defeat of the Armada was on 29 July, see 29 July 1588.

13 May 1588, Monday (-130,376) King Henry III of France fled Paris for Chartres.

12 May 1588, Sunday (-130,377) Day of the Barricades in Paris; popular uprising against King Henry III.

23 April 1588, Tuesday (-130,396)

20 April 1588, Saturday (-130,399) (Germany) Johann Bugenhagen, German Protestant reformer, died (born 24 June 1485).

19 April 1588, Friday (-130,400) Paolo Veronese, Italian painter, died.

7 April 1588, Sunday (-130,412) Easter Sunday

5 April 1588, Friday (-130,414) Thomas Hobbes, philosopher, was born.

4 April 1588, Thursday (-130,415) Frederick II, King of Denmark, died, aged 53. He was succeeded by his 10-year old son, Christian IV (1577-1648)

17 February 1588, Saturday (-130,462) Sir William FitzWilliam was appointed Deputy of Ireland.

12 January 1588, Friday (-130,498) Guiseppe Ribera, Spanish painter, was born near Valencia (died 1656 in Naples)

8 January 1588, Monday (-130,502) Ivan Gundulich, Serbian poet, was born (died 8 December 1638).


31 December 1587, Sunday (-130,510)

17 November 1587, Friday (-130,554) Joost van den Vondel, Dutch poet, was born in Cologne (died 5 February 1679)

28 October 1587, Saturday (-130,574) (France) Non-French Protestants coming to help the Huguenots free King Henry III from the influence of the Catholics were defeated by Guise at Montargis. Henry III was now compelled to sign the �Edict of Union�, nominating the Cardinal of Bourbon as his successor.

20 October 1587, Friday (-130,582) (France) Battle of Coutras; Huguenot victory. However see 28 October 1587.

17 October 1587, Tuesday (-130,585) Nathan Field, English dramatist, was born (died 20 February 1633).

18 September 1587, Monday (-130,614) Poland elected the Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa (1566 � 1632) as their King.

13 September 1587, Wednesday (-130,619) Jacques Godefroy, legal writer, was born (died 23 June 1652).

18 August 1587, Friday (-130,645) Virginia Dare became the first child born of English parents in America. She was born on Roanoke Island, North Carolina, seven days after Sir Walter Raleigh�s second expedition landed. The parents were called Ananias and Ellinor Dare, and named the child Virginia in honour of the virgin Queen of England and the fledgling colony. See17 August 1590.

6 August 1587, Sunday (-130,657) The Earl of Leicester, who had been leading English forces helping the Dutch to resist the Spanish, returned to England after failing to prevent Spanish forces capturing the port of Sluis.

25 July 1587. Tuesday (-130,669) (1) The Japanese Emperor Hideyoshi banned Christianity, and ordered the Jesuits to leave within 20 days. The Jesuits were accused of selling the Japanese as slaves.

(2) The Spanish Armada and the English navy engaged off the Isle of Wight. There were fears that the Spanish planned to seize the island as a base.

21 June 1587, Wednesday (-130,703) Kaspar von Barth, German writer, was born (died 1658).

25 May 1587, Thursday (-130,730)

10 May 1587, Wednesday (-130,745) Hugh O�Niell, Baron of Dungannon, was created Earl of Tyrone.

3 May 1587, Wednesday (-130,752) Lelio Orsi, Italian painter, died in Novarella.

19 April 1587, Wednesday (-130,766) Sir Francis Drake led his convoy of ships into Cadiz, where the Spanish Armada was being prepared to attack England, and, taking the Spanish completely by surprise, looted, burnt, and sank many ships. He also looted the harbour stores and managed to escape with no casualties. This adventure became known as �the singeing of the King of Spain�s beard�. Sir Francis Drake also brought back 2,900 barrels of �sack�, a wine made in the Jerez region of Spain, so named from the Spanish word �sacar�, meaning �to take out, or export�. This was the forerunner of today�s sherry drink. Sack had been popular abroad since a Spanish law passed in 1492 exempting wine made for export from taxes; it was a robust wine that did not go off easily.

18 April 1587, Tuesday (-130,767) John Foxe, preacher and author, died.

16 April 1587, Sunday (-130,769) Easter Sunday.

16 March 1587, Thursday (-130,800)

8 February 1587. Wednesday (-130,836) Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded in the Great Hall of Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, after nearly 19 years in prison. She had been implicated in a Catholic plot to overthrow her cousin Queen Elizabeth I. The leader of the plot, Anthony Babington, had planned to free Mary, and rally support amongst English Roman Catholics for a Spanish invasion force. Mary married the French Dauphin in her teens and was Queen of France for a year until he died. Her second marriage was to Lord Darnley. After Darnley�s murder, in which Mary may have been implicated, she married the Earl of Bothwell. Mary was defeated in battle in Scotland and fled to England, but her cousin Elizabeth I had her imprisoned. Elizabeth had been reluctant to execute Mary, because this might bring reprisals from Catholic Europe, and might legitimate her own execution at some future point; however Francis Walsingham persuaded Elizabeth to order the execution.

2 February 1587, Thursday (-130,842) (France) Francois des Adrets, French Protestant leader, died.

1 January 1587, Sunday (-130,874)


31 December 1586, Saturday (-130,875)

12 December 1586, Monday (-130,894) Stephen Bathory of Poland died suddenly, aged 53. He was succeeded by the 12-year old son of the Swedish Kingas Sigismund II.

22 November 1586, Tuesday (-130,914)

17 October 1586, Monday, (-130,950) Philip Sydney, writer, died.

11 October 1586, Tuesday (-130,956) Mary Queen of Scots was sentenced to death for her part in the Babington Plot.

22 September 1586, Thursday (-130,975) The Battle of Zutphen. British and Dutch forces defeated by the Spanish.

20 September 1586, Tuesday (-130,977) Chidiock Tichborne, one of the conspirators in the Catholic Babington Plot to murder Queen Elizabeth I, was executed at the Tower of London.

28 August 1586, Sunday (-131,000)

28 July 1586, Thursday (-131,031) The first potatoes arrived in Britain, brought from Colombia by Sir Thomas Harriott. They were to be used to feed livestock.

21 July 1586, Thursday (-131,038) English navigator Thomas Cavendish left Plymouth on his west to east voyage around the world.

17 July 1586, Sunday (-131,042) Sir Francis Walsingham, Secretary of State under Queen Elizabeth I, uncovered the Babington Plot to murder the Queen.

26 May 1586, Thursday (-131,094)

17 April 1586, Sunday (-131,133) John Ford, English dramatist, was born.

11 April 1586, Monday (-131,139) Pietro della Valle, Italian Orientalist writer, was born (died 21 April 1652 in Rome)

8 April 1586, Friday (-131,142) Martin Chemnitz, German religious writer, died (born 9 November 1522).

3 April 1586, Sunday (-131,147) Easter Sunday.

20 March 1586, Sunday (-133,161) Sir Richard Maitland, Scottish poet, died.

4 February 1586, Friday (-133,205) (Britain) Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, accepted the title of Governor and Captain-Gneeral of The Netehrlands. However Queen Elizabeth I forced him to resign ths honour.

21 January 1586, Friday (-131,219) (Germany) Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, died in Dresden (born 31 July 1526 in Freiberg).

1 January 1586, Saturday (-131,239) Francis Drake captured Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) from the Spanish.


27 December 1585, Monday (-131,244) Pierre de Ronsard, French poet, died near Tours, France.

13 December 1585, Monday (-131,258) William Drummond, Scottish poet, was born (died 4 December 1649).

4 December 1585, Saturday (-131,267) John Cotton, religious writer, was born (died 23 December 1652).

23 November 1585, Tuesday (-131,278) Thomas Tallis, English church music composer, died.

28 October 1585, Thursday (-131,304) (Christian) Cornelius Jansen, Bishop ofYpres, was born (died 6 May 1638).

17 September 1585, Friday (-131,345) Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss religious writer and reformer, died (born 18 July 1504).

9 September 1585, Thursday (-131,353) Cardinal Richelieu French politician and chief minister of King Louis XIII from 1624, who was ruthless at crushing all opposition to the monarchy, was born near Chinon.

6 September 1585, Monday (-131,356) Luca Cambiaso, Italian painter, was bon near Genoa died in Escorial) (born 18 October 1527 near Genoa)

30 August 1585, Monday (-131,363) Italian composer Andrea Gabrielli died in Venice.

17 August 1585, Tuesday (-131,376) The city of Antwerp, besieged by the Spanish for 13 months, surrendered to them.

10 August 1585, Tuesday (-131,383) Elizabeth I of England signed the Treaty of Nonsuch, promising 64,000 foot soldiers, 1,000 cavalry, and 600,000 florins a year to support Protestant rebels in The Netherlands against Spain. Although Elizabeth disliked involvement in foreign European wars, the Spanish presence in The Netherlands was too close to England to ignore. King Philip II of Spain, who had laid siege to Antwerp in 1584, saw this Treaty as a declaration of war.

28 July 1585, Wednesday (-131,396)

7 July 1585, Wednesday (-131,417) King Henry III of France bowed to Catholic pressure and revoked the tolerance allowed to Hugenots.

25 May 1585, Tuesday (-131,460)

24 April 1585, Saturday (-131,491) Pope Sixtus V (227th Pope), formerly Cardinal Felice Peretti, acceded.

11 April 1585, Sunday(-131,504) Easter Sunday.

10 April 1585, Saturday (-131,505) Pope Gregory XIII died.

5 March 1585, Friday (-131,541) John George I, Elector of Saxony, was born (died 8 October 1656)

1 January 1585, Friday (-131,604)


31 December 1584, Thursday (-131,605)

16 December 1584, Wednesday (-131,620) John Selden, English jurist, was born in Sussex (died 30 November 1654 in London)

23 November 1584, Monday (-131,643) (Jesuits) The English Parliament passed legislation to expel all Jesuits within 40 days.

16 October 1584, Friday (-131,681) John Feckenham, English ecclesiastic, died.

30 September 1584, Wednesday (-131.697) Jacques Dubroeucq, Dutrch artist, died in Mons.

17 September 1584, Thursday (-131,710) John Finch, English Judge, was born (died 27 November 1660).

11 September 1584, Friday (-131,716) Thomas Erpenius, Dutch writer on the Orient, was born (died 13 November 1624)

21 August 1584, Friday (-131,737) In Dublin, the Archbishop and Protestant clergy opposed plans by the Lord Deputy, Sir John Perrot, to turn St Patrick�s Cathedral into a University.

8 August 1584, Saturday (-131,750) General Toyotomi Hideyoshimoved into Osaka Castle.

12 July 1584, Sunday (-131,777) William the Silent, Prince of Orange, was assassinated, shot by a fanatical Catholic, Balthazar Gerard (see 15 March 1581). His youngest son, Maurice of Nassau, was elected stadtholder of Zeeland and Holland in his place, subsequently also of Utrecht, Overyssel and Gelderland also. Maurice became Commander of the Netherlands Army and succeeded in driving the Spanish entirely out of the United Provinces (Netherlands). A 12-year truce with Spain was concluded in 1609, whereby Spain acknowledged the independence of the United Provinces. However in 1621 Spain again attempted to reassert control over the United Provinces, only to be evicted later on.

10 July 1584, Friday (-131,779) In England the Catholic conspirator Francis Throckmorton was executed.

19 June 1584, Friday (-131,800) Francisco de Hollanda, Portuguese artist, died in Lisbon (born 1517 in Lisbon)

17 June 1584, Wednesday (-131,802) The Catholic States of the Holy Roman Empire, also the Catholic cantons of Switzerland, adopted the Gregorian Calendar.

10 June 1584, Wednesday (-131,809) (France) The Duke of Anjou died, and French Huguenot-Catholic tensions heightened. Catholics were alarmed that on the death of King Henry III of France, the Crown would pass to Henry of Navarre, who was sympathetic to the Protestant cause.

12 May 1584, Tuesday (-131,838)

6 May 1584, Wednesday (-131,844) Diego de Saavedra Fajardo, Spanish writer, was born in Murcia (died 1648)

19 April 1584, Sunday (-131,861) Easter Sunday. John Hales, English writer, was born (died 19 May 1656).

29 March 1584, Sunday (-131,882) Fairfax of Cameron, British Parliamentary General, was born (died 14 March `1648).

18 March 1584. Wednesday (-131,893) Czar Ivan IV, Ivan the Terrible, died aged 54, whilst about to play a game of chess. He may have died of grief for his son, whom he had killed in a mad fit of rage three years previously.

14 January 1584, Tuesday (-143,957) Tobias Stimmer, Swiss painter, died in Strasbourg (born 17 April 1539 in Schaffhausem)

7 January 1584, Tuesday (-131,964)

1 January 1584, Wednesday (-131,970)


31 December 1583, Tuesday (-131,971) Thomas Erastus, religious writer, died (born 7 September 1524).

25 December 1583, Wednesday (-131,977) Orlando Gibbons, English composer, was born in Oxford.

29 October 1583, Tuesday (-132,034)

26 October 1583, Saturday (-132,037) Pirro Ligorio, Italian artist, died in Ferrara.

23 September 1583, Monday (-132,070) John Whitgift, then Bishop of Worcester, was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury.

15 September 1583, Sunday (-132,078) Albrecht Wallenstein, German statesman, was born in Bohemia (assassinated 25 February 1634)

9 September 1583, Monday (-132,084) Sir Humphrey Gilbert (see 5 August 1583) was drowned when his ship, The Squirrel, sank off The Azores drowning all on board.

21 August 1583, Wednesday (-132,103) Denys Peteau, Jesuit scholarly writer, was born in Orleans, France (died 11 December 1652 in Paris).

5 August 1583. Monday (-132,119) Sir Humphrey Gilbert landed on Newfoundland and claimed it for Britain.He founded the colony of St Johns there.

8 July 1583, Monday (-132,147) Fernao Mendes Pinto, Portuguese aedventurer, died (born 1509)

6 July 1583, Saturday (-132,149) Edmund Grindal, English Archbishop, died.

18 June 1583. Tuesday (-132,167) The first life insurance policy was sold in London. William Gibbons took out a policy whereby his relatives would be paid �383 if he died within 12 months of the policy date; the policy was underwritten by 16 individuals. Gibbons did indeed die in May 1584, and Richard Martin then disputed the policy and refused to pay out. The courts decided he had to pay. Many more such life policies were issued but it was not until 1923 that the Life Insurance Companies Act was passed.

11 June 1583, Tuesday (-132,174) Sir Humphrey Gilbert sailed from Plymouth, with the approval of Queen Elizabeth I, to found a British colony in America.

9 June 1583, Sunday (-132,176) Thomas Radclyffe Sussex, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, died.

10 April 1583, Wednesday (-132,236) Hugo Grotius (De Groot), jurist, was born (died 29 August 1645).

31 March 1583, Sunday (-132,246) Easter Sunday.

17 March 1583, Sunday (-132,260) The Duke of Anjou attempted to gain more power in the United Provinces, by a surprise attack on Antwerp, but was successfully resisted by the citizenry. This was the �French Fury�.

3 March 1583, Sunday (-132,274) Birth of English poet Baron Herbert of Cherbury, in Eyton on Severn, Shropshire.

18 February 1583, Monday (-132,287) Antonio Grazzini, Italian author, died (born 22 March 1503).

26 January 1583, Saturday (-132,310) John Herries, Scottish politician, died.

1 January 1583, Tuesday (-132,335) (Christian) Simon Episcopius, Dutch theologian, was born (died 1643)


11 December 1582, Tuesday (-132,337) In Portugal, Spanish military leader Fernando Alvarez de Toledo died.

9 December 1582, Sunday (-132,358) France adopted the Gregorian calendar; the day after 9 December 1582 was 20 December 1582.

27 November 1582, Tuesday (-132,370) William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway at the age of 18.

17 October 1582, Wednesday (-132,411) Johann Gerhard, religious writer,k was born (died 20 August 1637).

5 October 1582. Friday (-132,423) (see also 3 September 1752 when Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar). Pope Gregory XIII cancelled 10 days from the 5th to the 15th October 1582 to bring back the Spring Equinox to the 21st March and ensure that Easter fell on the proper date. Under the old Julian calendar, established in 46 BC, the calendar gained a whole day every 128 years. The new system cut out three leap years every 400 years to maintain accuracy.

29 September 1582, Saturday (-132,429) St Teresa of Avila died (born 28 March 1515). A Spanish noblewoman, she joined the Carmelite nuns in 1533, and reformed the order.

28 September 1582, Friday (-132,430) George Buchanan, Scottish scholarly writer, died.

31 August 1582, Friday (-132,458) Lord Grey de Wilton, Lord Deputy of Ireland, was recalled from post due to his harsh policies.

10 August 1582. Friday (-132,479) After 25 years of conflict, Russia made peace with Poland and gave up its claim on the Baltic state of Livonia.

21 June 1582, Thursday (-132,529) General Toyotomi Hideyoshibecame leader following the ritual suicide of Oda Nobunaga. Although born a peasant, within a decade Hideyoshimanaged to unify Japan. He disarmed all non-Samurai, to prevent another rebellion against him, and reformed the tax system and land holdings to create a stable tax base.

15 April 1582, Sunday (-132,596) Easter Sunday.

14 April 1582, Saturday (-132,597) Edinburgh University was founded. It opened to students in October 1583.

8 April 1582, Sunday (-132,603) (Hungary) Miklos Esterhazy was born (died 11 September 1645)

18 March 1852, Sunday (-132,624) (Netherlands) A youth named Jean Jaureguy attempted tassassinate the Duke of Anjou. He fired a bullet which badly wounded him but was not fatal.

15 March 1582, Thursday (-132,627) Daniel Featley, English religious writer, was born (died 17 April 1645).

24 February 1582, Saturday (-132,646) Pope Gregory XIII announced a change from the Julian calendar to the new Gregorian calendar, entailing a forward move of 11 days, see 5 October 1582.

28 January 1582, Sunday (-123,673) John Barclay, Scottish poet, was born (died in Rome 15 August 1621).

15 January 1582, Monday (-123,686) (Russia, Poland, Sweden) Ivan IV, The Terrible, of Russia ceded, at the Peace of Zapoli, Livonia and Polotsk to Stephen Bathory of Poland. He also ceded this day, by the Trucve of Ilyusa, Ingria to Sweden. Muscovy lost the Baltic seaboard for over a century.

1 January 1582, Monday (-132,700)


1 December 1581. Friday (-132,731) Jesuit martyr Edmund Campion was hanged at Tyburn, for distributing an anti-Anglican pamphlet in Oxford.

7 November 1581, Tuesday (-132,755) Richard Davies, Welsh religious writer, died.

21 October 1581, Saturday (-132,772) Il Domenichino, Italian painter (died 15 April 1641 in Naples) was born in Bologna, Italy.

30 September 1581, Saturday (-132,793) Hubert Languet, French Huguenot historical writer, died.

26 September 1581, Tuesday (-132,797)

6 September 1581, Wednesday (-132,817)

1 September 1581, Friday (-132,822) Yermak Timofeyevich, the Cossack leader of a band of thieves who plundered the Russian countryside, and who was wanted by the Russian military for murder, fled up the Volga River where he was hired by the Stroganov Merchants to protect theor interests in western Siberia from the Tartars. This day he set out across the Urals, reaching the Tartar Khanate of Sibir by Spring 1582. With superior armaments, guns and cannons against the bows and arrows of a larger Tartar army, Timofeveyich captured the Tartar capital of Kashlyk (Sibir). Czar Ivan IV �The Terrible� now pardoned Timofeyevich, however a band of Tartars managed to kill him in 1584.

1 August 1581, Tuesday (-132,853)

31 July 1581, Monday (-132,854)

26 July 1581. Wednesday (-132,859) (see 8 November 1576). The Estates General (Parliament) of The Hague deposed Philip II of Spain as the ruler of the Seven Provinces of the Union of Utrecht; effectively declaring UDI against Spain.

24 July 1581, Monday (-132,861) William of Orange agreed to become Count of the provinces of Holland and Zeeland (see 23 January 1581).

22 July 1581, Saturday (-132,863) (Britain) Richard Cox, Dean of Westminster and Bishop of Ely, died.

17 July 1581, Monday (-132,868) English Jesuit priest Edmund Campion was arrested in Lyford, Berkshire, for treason.

11 July 1581, Tuesday (-132,874) Peder Skram, Danish naval hero, died in Urup.

2 June 1581, Friday (-132,913) James Douglas 4th Earl of Morton, Scottish statesman, was executed.

26 May 1581, Friday (-132,920)

24 April 1581, Monday (-132,952) (Christian) St Vincent de Paul, founder of the Congregation of the Mission, was born in France.

4 April 1581. Tuesday (-132,972) Queen Elizabeth I knighted Francis Drake on his ship The Golden Hind at Deptford, London, after he completed his circumnavigation of the world. See 26 September 1580. En route, Drake had captured and plundered several Spanish galleons; Spain demanded that Elizabeth I hang Drake for piracy, but Drake was a hero in England.

26 March 1581, Sunday(-132,981) Easter Sunday.

18 March 1581, Saturday (-132,989) The English Parliament made it a treasonable offence to convert anyone to Catholicism.

16 March 1581, Thursday (-132,991) Pieter Hooft, Dutch writer, was born (died 21 May 1647).

15 March 1581, Wednesday (-132,992) Philip II of Spain declared William of Orange a traitor (the�Ban�) and a reward was offered to anyne who would assassinate him.

23 January 1581, Monday (-132,043) To gain an ally in order to withstand the power of Philip II of Spain, sovereignty of the Northern Provinces was offered to the Duke of Anjou, thereby gaining the support of France. However the Duke of Anjou was a Catholic, which initially raised suspicions of betrayal amongst some citizens of the Northern Provinces. William of Orange mainiained that the instal;lation of the Duke of Anjou was a necessity and persisted with this policy.

16 January 1581, Monday (-132,050) The English Parliament declared Catholicism illegal.

4 January 1581, Wednesday (-132,062) Archbishop Usher was born in Dublin (died 20 March 1658 in Reigate)

1 January 1581, Sunday (-132,065)


31 December 1580, Saturday (-133,066)

1 December 1580, Thursday (-133,096) (Italy) Giovanni Morone, Italian Cardinal, died )born 25 January 1509).

21 November 1580, Monday (-133,106)

10 November 1580, Thursday (-133,017) The revolt of James FitzMaurice FitzGerald was crushed by English forces under Lord Grey.

12 October 1580, Wednesday (-133,046) Hortensio Felix Paravicino y Artega, Spanish poet, was born in Madrid (died 12 December 1633 in Madrid).

26 September 1580, Monday (-133,162) Sir Francis Drake arrived back in Plymouth in the 100 ton Golden Hind (originally The Pelican) after 33 months, the first Englishman to circumnavigate the world. See 13 December 1577 and 4 April 1581.

30 August 1580, Tuesday (-133,189) Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, died (born 8.7.1528).

25 August 1580, Thursday (-133,194) Spanish forces defeated the Portuguese at Alcantara and occupied Lisbon. Porto fell in October 1580. The conquest of Portugal by Spain doubled Spain�s overseas possessions.

24 August 1580, Wednesday (-133,195) John Taylor, English pamphleteer, was born in Gloucester (died 5 December 1653 in London)

19 August 1580, Friday (-133,200) Pierre Vernier was born in Ornans, France. In 1631 he described his invention for precision measurement, known as the Vernier Scale.

29 July 1580, Friday (-133,221) Francesco Mochi, Italian sculptor, was born near Arezzo (died 6 february 1654 in Rome)

15 July 1580, Friday (-133,235) Arthur, Lord Grey de Wilton, was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland.

14 July 1580, Thursday (-133,236) Theodore Godefroy, French writer, was born (died 1649)

25 June 1580, Saturday (-133,255) (Christian) Publication of the Lutheran Book of Concord. This set out the essential foundations of the Lutheran faith.

10 June 1580, Friday (-123,246) Luis de Camoes, famous Portuguese poet, died.

9 June 1580, Thursday (-123,247) Daniel Heinsius, scholarly writer, was born (died 25 February 1655)

6 June 1580, Monday (-123,250) Godfried Wendilin, astronomer, was born in Herken, Belgium.

3 May 1580, Tuesday (-133,308) Thomas Tusser, English poet, died (born in Essex)

18 April 1580, Monday (-133,323) Thomas Middleton, dramatist, was born.

6 April 1580, Wednesday (-133,335) An earth tremor damaged several old London churches, including the old St Paul�s Cathedral.

3 April 1580, Sunday (-133,338) Easter Sunday.

31 January 1580, Sunday (-133,401) King Henry I of Portugal died (born 1512), causing a succession crisis.

1 January 1580, Friday (-133,431)


21 December 1579, Monday (-133,442) Vicente Joanes, Spanish painter, died (born 1506).

21 November 1579, Saturday (-133,472) Sir Thomas Gresham, who founded the Royal Exchange, died.

1 August 1579, Saturday (-133,584) Luis Guevara, Spanish novelist, was born (died 10 November 1644).

18 July 1579, Saturday (-133,598) Queen Elizabeth I faced a revolt in Ireland led by James FitzMaurice FitzGerald, a cousin of the Earl of Desmond. James, who had earlier fled to the Continent, now landed at Smerwick, SW Ireland, with 700 men, to preach a �Crusade� against Protestant heresy, with the backing of Philip II of Spain and Pope Gregory III.

17 June 1579. Wednesday (-133,629) Sir Francis Drake anchored the Golden Hind just north of what was to become San Francisco Bay; he named the area New Albion, claiming it for Britain.

19 May 1579, Tuesday (-133,658) Treaty of the Malcontents, between Catholic nobles in The Netherlands and the Prince of Parma.

19 April 1579, Sunday (-133,688) Easter Sunday.

28 March 1579, Saturday (-133,710) Juan Fernandez de Navarrete, Spanish painter, died in Toledo.

19 March 1579, Thursday (-133,719)

29 January 1579, Thursday (-133,768) (Netherlands) Under the Treaty of Utrecht, the Northern Provinces were united to form what is now The Netherlands. This was largely due to the efforts of John of Nassau.

12 January 1579, Monday (-153,785) Jan Baptista van Helmont was born in Brussels, Belgium. In 1626 he proposed the diseases were caused by tiny organisms he called archaea.

6 January 1579, Tuesday (-133,791) Union of Arras. The southern Netherlands principalities of Artois, Hainault and Douai signed a Union in opposition to the northern Netherlands, with the intention of returning to the Catholic rule of Philip II of Spain. Later in January 1579 the northern Netherlands provinces, opposed to Catholic Spain, formed the Union of Utrecht.

1 January 1579, Thursday (-133,796)


31 December 1578, Wednesday (-133,797)

6 November 1578, Thursday (-133,852)

1 October 1578, Wednesday (-133,888) Don John of Austria died (born 24 February 1545).

6 September 1578, Saturday (-133,913)

5 August 1579, Tuesday (-133,945) Stanislaus Hosius, Polish Cardinal, died (born 5 May 1504).

4 August 1578, Monday (-133,946) Sebastian, King of Portugal, was killed in the Battle of Al Kasr al Kebir in Morocco, where Portuguese forces were annihilated by a larger Muslim army. 7,000 Portuguese soldiers were killed and a further 8,000 were taken prisoner. The Portuguese throne was left without an her, enabling Philip II of Spain to claim it in 1580.

9 July 1578, Wednesday (-133,972) Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, was born (died 15 February 1637)

11 June 1578, Wednesday (-134,000) (Canada) The Charter for colonising Newfoundland was granted to navigator Sir Humphrey Gilbert.

4 June 1578, Wednesday (-134,007)

16 May 1578, Friday (-134,026) Sir Everard Digby, Gunpowder Plot conspirator, was born (executed 31 January 1606).

14 April 1578, Monday (-134,058) Philip III, King of Spain, was born.

1 April 1578, Tuesday (-134,071) William Harvey, British anatomist who discovered the circulation of the blood, was born at Folkestone.

31 March 1578, Monday (-134,072) Juan de Escovedo, Spanish politician, was killed.

30 March 1578, Sunday (-134,073) Easter Sunday

15 March 1578, Saturday (-134,088) Francesco Albani, Italian painrer, was born in Bologna (died4 october 1660 in Bologna)

7 March 1578, Friday (-134,096) Margaret Lennox, grand-daughter of King henry VII of England, died (born 8 October 1515)

2 March 1578, Sunday (-134,101) George Sandys, English poet, was born (died 1644)

5 February 1578, Wednesday (-134,126) Giambattista Moron, Italian portratit painter, died.

31 January 1578, Friday (-134,131) Battle of Gemblours. Farnese attacked and defeated a Dutch force.

13 January 1578,Monday (-134,149)

3 January 1578, Friday (-134,159) Giulio Clovio, Italian painter, died in Rome.

1 January 1578, Wednesday (-134,161)


31 December 1577, Tuesday (-134,162) In London, John Hawkins, a slave trader, succeeded his father-in-law Benjamin Gonson as Treasurer of the Navy.

13 December 1577. Friday (-134,180) Sir Francis Drake left Plymouth on his voyage round the world. See 26 September 1580.

10 November 1577, Sunday (-134,213) Jacob Cats, Dutch poet, was born (died 12 September 1660).

13 October 1577, Sunday (-134,241)

23 September 1577, Monday (-134,261) (1) William of Orange entered Brussels, and the States-General deposed Don John of Austria and elected him as Governor, in defiance of the Habsburg supporters. These then appointed a rival Governor, Archduke Matthias, brother of Emperor Rudolph II.

(2) Queen Elizabeth I appointed John Whitgift, then Dean of Lincoln, as Bishop of Worcester, He was a strong opponent of Puritanism.

17 September 1577, Tuesday (-134,267) The Peace of Bergerac was signed between King Henry III of France and the Hugenots.

13 August 1577, Tuesday (-134,302)

11 August 1577, Sunday (-134,304) Sir Thomas Smith, English diplomatist, died (born 23 December 1513 in Saffron Walden, Essex)

28 June 1577, Friday (-134,348) Peter Van Rubens, Flemish painter, was born in Siegen, Westphalia, the son of a lawyer.

7 April 1577, Sunday (-134,430) Easter Sunday.

1 April 1577, Monday (-134,436)

24 March 1577, Sunday (-134,444) Queen Elizabeth I appointed John Aylmer, then Archbishop of Lincoln, as Bishop of London. He was a strong oppomnent of Puritanism.

1 March 1577, Friday (-134,467)

24 February 1577, Sunday (-134,472) Former Swedish King Eric XIV died at Orbyhus prison, allegedly poisoned by the prison Governor, Johan Henriksen.

7 January 1577, Monday (-134,520) Ferdinand, Elector of Cologne, was born (died 13 September 1650).

6 January 1577, Sunday (-134,521) Gugliemo della Porta, Italian sculptor, died in Rome.

3 January 1577, Thursday (-134,524) King Henry III of France reneged on the Peace of Monsieur, and the Sixth war of Religion began.

1 January 1577, Tuesday (-134,526)


13 December 1576, Thursday (-134,545)

4 December 1576, Tuesday (-134,554) George Joachim, German mathematician, died in Hungary (born 15 February 1514 in Tirol)

8 November 1576. Thursday (-134,580) Spanish soldiers rampaged through Antwerp, killing some 7,000 people, and looting, in response to a rebellion against the tax imposed by the Spanish governor, the Duke of Alba. This caused a brutal repression, in 1572, against this rebellion, and some Spanish soldiers mutinied; some soldiers had also not been paid. Now leaders of the Catholic and Protestant Hapsburg Netherlands agreed to sink their differences and unite against the Spanish. See 26 July 1581.

12 October 1576, Friday (-134,607) Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian II died, aged 49. He was succeeded by his son Rudolf.

21 September 1576, Friday (-134,628) Girolamo Cardan, Italian physician, died (born 24 September 1501)..

27 August 1576. Monday (-134,653) Titian (Tiziano Vecelli) died, of bubonic plague, in Venice. His age was uncertain, but was believed to be over 90.

13 August 1576, Monday (-134,667) David Vinckboons, Dutch painter, was born in Malines.

11 August 1576, Saturday (-134.669) Martin Frobisher entered �Frobisher Strait�, Baffin Island. Now known as Frobisher Bay, the long inlet was then thought to be a strait separating two islands.

8 August 1576, Wednesday (-134,672) The first purpose-built observatory was constructed in Denmark.

12 July 1576, Thursday (-134,699) Moghul Emperor Akbar defeated Da�ud Khan Karrani, last Sultan of Bengal, at the Battle of Rajmahal.

23 June 1576, Saturday (-134,718) Levina Turlinc, minsaturist painter, died in London.

22 June 1576, Friday (-134,719) Queen Elizabeth�s Prayer Book was issued.

6 June 1576, Wednesday (-134,735) Giovanni Diodati, Swiss religious writer, was born (died 3 October 1649)

27 May 1576, Sunday (-134,745) Caspar Schoppe, German scholarly writer, was born in Neumarkt (died 1649)

26 May 1576, Saturday (-134,746) Vicenzo Danti, Italian artist, died in Perugia (born 17 April 1530 in Perugia)

5 May 1576, Saturday (-134,767) (France) Peace of Monsieur was signed between Huguenots and Catholics. However hostilities soon recommenced, see 10 June 1584.

2 May 1576, Wednesday (-134,770) (Christian) Bartolome Carranza, Spanish theologian, died (born 1503)

24 April 1576, Tuesday (-134,778) St Vincent de Paul, founder of the Congregation of Priests of the Mission (Lazarites), was born in Pouy, France (died 27 September 1660 in Paris)

22 April 1576, Sunday (-134,780) Easter Sunday.

9 March 1576, Friday (-134,824) Walter Devereux, Earl of Essex, was appointed Marshal of Ireland.

5 March 1576, Monday (-134,828) The successor to the Duke of Alba, Luis Requescens, died as Spanish Governor of The Nteherlands. His governnence was made impossible by an empty Treasury and unpaid mutinous troops.

19 January 1576, Thursday (-134,874) Hans Sachs, German poet, died.

12 January 1576, Thursday (-134,881) Peter Schrijver, Dutch scholarly writer, was born in Haarlem (died 30 April 1660 in Oudewater)

1 January 1576, Sunday (-134,892)


16 December 1575, Friday (-134,908) A large earthquake at Valdivia.

15 December 1575, Thursday (-134,909) Stephen Bathory became King of Poland.

14 November 1575, Monday (-134,940) Queen Elizabeth I of England declined the sovereignty of The Netherlands, which had been offered to her by the Protestant Dutch Stadtholder, William of Orange.

4 November 1575, Friday (-134,950) Reni Guido, Italian painter, was born (died 18 August 1642).

24 October 1575, Monday (-134,961) Peder Ox, Danish Finance Minister who greatly contributed to the prosperity of his country, died (born 1520).

17 October 1575, Monday (-134,968) King Rudolf of Hungary, son of Emperor Maximilian II, was elected King of Germany.

10 October 1575, Monday (-134,975) The Battle of Dormans.Catholic forces under Duke Henry of Guise defeated the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay amongst others.

1 September 1575, Thursday (-135,014) Philip II of Spain suspended all payments by the Spanish Crown, and Don Luis de Requesens in The Netehrlands was unable to continue paying his troops.

12 August 1575, Friday (-135,034)

8 August 1575, Monday (-135,038)

25 July 1575, Monday (-135,052) Christoph Scheiner, astronomer, was born in Germany.

8 July 1575, Friday (-135,069)

28 June 1575, Tuesday (-135,079) At the Battle of Nagashino, Nobunaga armed his 3,000 foot soldiers with muskets. They succeeded in defeating the mounted Samurai.

17 May 1575, Tuesday (-135,121) Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.

3 April 1575, Sunday (-135,165) Easter Sunday.

12 March 1575, Saturday (-135,187) During the current session of the English Parliament, English Puritans have become more demanding of radical reform. This day Peter Wentworth, a Puritan MP, was jailed for attacking Queen Elizabeth I�s interference with Parliamentary freedom of speech.

11 March 1575, Friday (-135,188) Matthius Flacius, religious reformer and writer, died (born 3 March 1520).

10 March 1575, Thursday (-135,189) The former Swedish King Eric XIV had become a source of troubke for the State, with three rebellions hoping to reinstate him having to be suppressed since his deposition for insanity in 1568. This day a formal sentence of death was passed upon him.

3 March 1575, Thursday (-135,196) In India, Mughal Emperor Akbar defeated the forces of Da�ud Khan, Afghan ruler of Bengal and conquetred the territory.

14 February 1575, Monday (-135,213) Henry III of France married Louise de Lorraine-Vaudemont.

13 February 1575, Sunday (-135,214) Henry III of France was crowned at Reims.

4 February 1575, Friday (-135,223) Pierre de Berulle, French statesman, was born near Troyes (died 2 October 1629)

21 January 1575, Friday (-135,237) In England, Queen Elizabeth I granted composers Thomas Tallis and William Byrd the right to print music and music paper.

1 January 1575, Saturday (-135,257)


31 December 1574, Friday (-135,258)

12 December 1574, Sunday (-135,277) Selim II, Sultan of Turkey, died, aged 50. He was succeeded by his eldest son, 27-year old Murad III, who had his brothers strangled in his presence.

10 December 1574, Friday (-135,279) Ascanio Condivi, Italian painter, died (born 1525)

12 November 1574, Friday (-135,307)

14 October 1574,

3 October 1574, Sunday (-135,347) The relief of Leyden. William of Orange broke a dyke to flood the polders and then sailed his ships right up to the besieged city of Leyden to bring relief food, bread and herrings.

1 October 1574, Friday (-135,349) Maerten van Heemskerck, Dutch painter, died in Haarlem (born 1498 in Heemskerck)

17 September 1574, Friday (-135,363) (Spain) Pedro Aviles, Spanish naval adventurer, died (born 15 February 1519 in Aviles, Asturia)

27 August 1574, Friday (-135,384) Bartolomeo Eustachio, Italian anatomist, died in Urbino.

1 July 1574, Thursday (-135,441) Joseph Hall, English writer, was born (died 8 September 1656).

27 June 1574, Saturday (-135,446) Giorgio Vasari, Florentine painter, died.

13 June 1574, Sunday (-135,459) Richard Barnfield, English poet, was born in Norbury, Staffordshire (died in Stone 6 March 1627).

30 May 1574, Sunday (-135,473) (France) King Charles IX of France died aged 24. He was succeeded by his 23-year-old brother, who ruled as Henry III for 15 years, under the domination of his mother, Catherine de Medici.

6 May 1574, Thursday (-135,497) Pope Innocent X was born.

17 April 1574, Saturday (-135,516) Joachim Camerarius, German scholarly writer, died (born 12 April 1500).

14 April 1574, Wednesday (-135,519) Battle of Mookerheyde, Netherlands. Louis� army was routed by the Spanish under Sancho de Avila and Louis himself was killed.

11 April 1574, Sunday (-135,522) Easter Sunday.

5 March 1574, Friday (-135,559) (Mathematics) William Oughtred was born in Eton. Around 1621 he invented the slide rule.

28 February 1574, Sunday (-135,564) The Spanish Inquisition burnt at the stake two Englishmen and an Irishman for �Lutheran heresy�. These were the first European victims of the Inquisition in the New World; previously only native Indians had been burnt, for �Aztec paganism�. A further 68 Englishmen were publically lashed and given long terms as galley-slaves. These men were from a fleet headed by Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake that had brought slaves from Africa to sell in the Caribbean, in defiance of a Spanish ban; Drake and Hawkins escaped but had to abandon two ships and crew.

23 February 1574, Tuesday (-135,569) The Fifth War of Religion broke out in France.

30 January 1574, Saturday (-135,593) Damiao de Goes, Portuguese writer, died (born 1502).


31 December 1573, Thursday (-135,623)

21 December 1573, Monday (-135,633) Mathurin Regnier, French satirical writer, was born in Chartres (died 22 October 1613 in Rouen)

18 December 1573, Friday (-135,636) Fernando, Duke of Alva, having failed to make headway against the Dutch rebels, asked to be relieves of his command and leave Brussels. He was replaced as Spanish Governor of The Netherlands by Don Luis de Requescens.

7 October 1573, Wednesday (-135,708) William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born.

6 October 1573, Tuesday (-135,709) Henry Wriothesley Southampton, a patron of Shakespeare, was born in Midhurst (died 10 November 1624)

28 September 1573, Monday (-135,717) Caravaggio, painter, was born.

27 August 1573, Thursday (-135,749) In Japan, the Muromachi Shogunate submitted to Oda Nobunaga .

21 August 1573, Friday (-135,755) Eight Years War. The Spanish laid siege to Alkmaar, but the Dutch successfully resisted and the Spanish raised the siege on 8 October 1573.

7 August 1573, Friday (-135,769)

16 July 1573, Thursday (-135,791) (France) The Edict of Boulogne limited Huguenot worship to the cities of La Rochelle, Momtauiban and Nimes. However neither Catholics nor Huguenots were satisfied and tensions remained.

15 July 1573, Wednesday (-135,792) The architect Inigo Jones was born in London.He was the son of a clothmaker.

13 July 1573, Monday (-135,794) (Netherlands) The Spanish captured Haarlem after a 7-month siege.

7 July 1573, Tuesday (-135,800) Giacomo Barocchio, Italian architect, died in Rome (born in Vignola 1 October 1507).

11 June 1573, Thursday (-135,826) In Britain, a Puritan pamphlet calling for the abolition of episcopacy was suppressed by Parliament.

28 April 1573, Tuesday (-135,870) (France) Charles de Valois Angoulmeme was born in Fayet Castle (died 24 September 1650).

26 April 1573, Sunday (-135,872) Marie de Medici, Queen of France, was born.

17 April 1573, Friday (-135,881) Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria, was born (died 17 September 1651)

22 March 1573, Sunday (-135,907) Easter Sunday.

13 March 1573, Friday (-135,916) Michel de l�Hopital, French statesman, died.

10 March 1573, Tuesday (-135,919) Dudley Dorchester, English statesman, was born (died 15 February 1632).

7 March 1573. Saturday (-135,,922) Venice concluded a peace with the Turks by which Venice recognised Turkey�s sovereignty over Cyprus.

23 February 1573, Monday (-135,934) Sir John Perrott, English Lord Deputy of Ireland, defeated Itrish rebels.

11 February 1573, Wednesday (-135,946) The Catholic Duke of Anjou began a siege of the Huguenot city of La Rochelle, to 6 July.

28 January 1573, Wednesday (-135,960) The Compact of Warsaw gave all non-Catholics in Poland freedom of worship.

20 January 1573, Tuesday (-135,968) (Space exploration) Simon Marius was born in Gunzenhausen, Germany. He was the first astronomer to mention Andromeda.

1 January 1573, Thursday (-135,987)


22 December 1572, Monday (-135,997) Francois Clouet, French miniature painter, died.

24 November 1572. Monday (-136,025) John Knox, father of the Scottish reformation, died in Edinburgh. He had returned to Scotland after the rebellion against the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots.

23 November 1572, Sunday (-136,026) The painter Bronzino died in Florence, aged 69.

11 November 1572. Tuesday (-136,038) The astronomer Tycho Brahe saw a �new star�, a supernova, in the constellation of Cassiopeia. The fixed stars were meant to be eternal, unchanging. Along with Copernicus� assertion that the Sun, not the earth, is the centre of the Universe, this undermined traditional church cosmology.

29 October 1572, Wednesday (-136,051) (France) Francois Briquemault, French Huguenot, was executed.

24 October 1572, Friday (-136,056) Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby died (born 1508).

30 September 1572, Tuesday (-136,090) St Francis Borgia, Jesuit priest, died.

11 September 1572, Thursday (-136,099)

24 August 1572. Sunday (-136,117) The St Bartholomew�s Day Massacre took place in Paris. Thousands of French Huguenots were killed by order of the Catholic French court. See 13 April 1592.Gaspard de Coligny, Huguenot leader, was killed. This was 6 days after the marriage of Catholic Marguerite de Valois, daughter of Henry II of France, also known as Catherine de Medici, to the Protestant Henri de Bourbon, King of Navarre. The bride�s mother , Catherine was anxious over the influence of Protestants on the couple.

20 July 1572, Sunday (-136,152) (Denmark) Frederick II, King of Denmark and Norway, married his cousin Sophuia of Mecklenburg.

11 July 1572, Friday (-136,161) English volunteers under navigator Sir Humohrey Gilbert arrived in The Netherlands to mfight the Spanish.

7 July 1572, Monday (-136,165) The Estates of Poland now declared the monarchy to be elective. Henry, Duke of Anjou, heir to the French throne, was elected to the Polish throne in May 1573.

6 July 1572, Sunday (-136,166) Sigismund II, King of Poland, died.

30 June 1572, Monday (-136,172)

15 June 1572, Sunday (-136,187) Jeanne III, Queen of Navarre, died.

11 June 1572, Wednesday (-136,191) Ben Johnson, English dramatist and poet, was born.

2 June 1572, Monday (-136,200) In England, Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, was executed for his part in the Papal-backed Rudolfi Plot to depose Queen Elizabeth and restore the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots to the English throne.

14 May 1572, Wedcnesday (-136,219) Pope Gregory XIII acceded (226th Pope) . Formerly Cardinal Ugo Buoncompagni (born 1502), he died in 1585.

1 May 1572, Thursday (-136,232) Pope Pius V died.

6 April 1572, Sunday (-136,257) Easter Sunday.

1 April 1572, Tuesday (-136,262) Resistance fighters (the �Beggars�) against the Spanish rule of King Philip II over the Netherlands took the Dutch port of Brill and environs. This encouraged the spread of the anti-Spanish revolt across the Netherlands.

1 March 1572, Saturday (-136,293)

13 January 1572, Sunday (-136,341) Sir William Petre, English politician, died in Ingatestone, Essex.

1 January 1572, Tuesday (-136,353)


31 December 1571, Monday (-136,354)

27 December 1571, Thursday (-136,358) Johannes Kepler, astronomer, was born. He discovered that planets have elliptical orbits

18 October 1571, Thursday (-136,428) Wolfgang Ratke, German educationalist, was born in Holstein (died 27 April 1635 in Erfurt).

7 October 1571. Sunday (-136,439) The Ottoman Turkish fleet under Ali Pasha was defeated by the navies of Spain, Venice, and the Pope at the Battle of Lepanto, in the Gulf of Corinth. Christendom was concerned at the fall of Cyprus to Turkey, under Selim II, Suleiman the Great�s successor. This was the last battle fought between galleys. The Turks used ramming tactics, but allied ships used firepower to defeat the Turks. Although Ottoman Turkey retained control of Cyprus, its western expansion in the Mediterranean was halted. The Ottomans lost 230 galleys to the Christian�s 17.

23 September 1571, Sunday (-136,453) John Jewel, English religious writer, died(born 24 May 1522).

22 September 1571, Saturday (-136,454) The Allied Christian Fleet was formed. It consisted of 300 ships at Messina, under the command of Don Juan of Austria. On 23 September the fleet sailed to attack the Turks.

1 August 1571, Wednesday (-136,506) Ottoman forces captured the port of Famagusta, Cyprus, from Venice.

17 July 1571, Tuesday (-136,521) Georg Fabricius, German poet, died (born 23 May 1516)

27 June 1571, Wednesday (-136,541) Giorgio Vasari, Italian architect who designed the Uffizi Palace in Florence, died (born 30 July 1511)

1 June 1571, Friday (-136,567) John Storey, English Catholic martyr, was executed at Tybirn.

31 May 1571, Thursday (-136,568) Thomas Crawford, acting for the young King James VI, captured Dumbarton Castle.

29 May 1571, Tuesday (-136,570) In the session of he English Parliament that ended today (from 1 April 1571), the import of a Papal Bull into England was made treasonous, and subscription to the 39 Articles of the Church of England was made compulsory for the clergy. Intolerance of Catholicism in England was now enshrined in ;law.

19 May 1571, Saturday (-136,580) (Philippines) Manila, Philippines, was founded by Miguel Lopez de Legazpe.

21 April 1571, Saturday (-156,608) Jacob van Swanenburgh, Dutc painter, was born in leiden (died16 October 1638 in Utrecht)

15 April 1571, Sunday (-136,614) Easter Sunday.

6 April 1571, Friday (-136,623) John Hamilton, Scottish political activist, was hanged.

15 March 1571, Thursday (-136,645)

25 February 1571, Sunday (-136,663)

15 February 1571, Thursday (-136,673) Michael Praetorius, composer and organist, was born.

13 February 1571, Tuesday (-136,675) Renaissance Italian sculptor and goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini died.

12 February 1571, Monday (-136,676) Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, English politician, died (born 1515)

6 February 1571, Tuesday (-136,682)

23 January 1571. Tuesday (-136,696) The Royal Exchange, founded by financier Sir Thomas Gresham, was opened by Queen Elizabeth I as a bankers meeting house. Its foundation stone was laid on 7 June 1566.

22 January 1571, Monday (-136,697) Sir Robert Cotton, writer, was born (died 6 May 1631)

19 January 1571, Friday (-136,700) Paris Bordone, Italian painter, died in Venice (born 1500 in Treviso)

13 January 1571, Saturday (-136,706) John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Custrin, died (born 3 August 1513).

3 January 1571, Wednesday (-136,716) Joachim II, Elector of Brandenburg, died (born 13 January 1505).


31 December 1570, Sunday (-136,719)

13 December 1570, Wednesday (-136,737) The Peace of Stettin ended the war between Sweden and Denmark, recognising Swedish independence.

5 December 1570, Tuesday (-136,745) Johan Friis, Danish statesman, died (born 1494)

27 November 1570, Monday (-136,753) Jacopo Sansovino, Italian artist, died in Venice (born 1486 in Florence)

2 November 1570. Thursday (-136,778) A tidal wave in the North Sea destroyed sea walls from Holland to Jutland; over a thousand were killed.

7 October 1570, Saturday (-136,804)

4 October 1570, Wednesday (-136,807) Peter Pazmany, Hungarian statesman, was born (died 1637)

18 September 1570, Monday (-136,823) Ottoman Turkey began a siege of Famagusta, Cyprus.

12 September 1570, Tuesday (-136,829) Henry Hudson, exploerer of North America, was born.

11 September 1570, Monday (-136,830) Johann Brenz, scholarly writer, died (born 24 June 1499)

9 September 1570, Saturday (-136,832) Ottoman Turkey took Nicosia, Cyprus, The defenders were not numerous enough to fully man the defences.

8 August 1570, Tuesday (-136,864) (France) Peace of St Germain ended the Third French War of Religion. However this peace was broken two years later by the plan of Catherine de Medici, King Charles IX and the Duke of Anou to massacre the Huguenots (24 August 1572).

25 July 1570, Tuesday (-136,878) Ivan the Terrible had many of his advisers and ministers publicly executed in Moscow.

22 July 1570, Saturday (-136,881) Ottoman Turkey began a siege oif Nicosia, Cyprus.

20 May 1570, Saturday (-136,944) (Cartography) Flemish cartographer Abraham Ortelius produced the first modern-style atlas, entitled �Theatre of the World�.

14 April 1570, Friday (-136,980) (Christian) At the Concensus of Sandomierz in Poland, Lutherans, Calvinists and Moravians agreed to unite against Catholic attempts to stamp out religious toleration, and to hold joint Protestant Synods.

13 April 1570, Thursday (-136,981) Guy Fawkes, who tried to blow up Parliament, was born.

26 March 1570, Sunday(-136,999) Easter Sunday.

25 February 1570. Saturday (-137,028) Queen Elizabeth I was excommunicated by Pope Pius V who declared her a usurper.

20 February 1570, Monday (-137, 033) The Northern Rebellion ended. In November 1569 the Catholic Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland had started the rebellion against Queen Elizabeth I, motivated by the flight of (Catholic) Mary Queen of Scots to England, also by the arrest of Thomas Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk, in October 1569. In November 1569 Northumberland had seized Durham Cathedral to celebrate Catholic Mass. The Earls now marched south to fight Thomas Radcliffe, Earl of Sussex, at York. However their elevated social position, and religious fervour, failed to inspire enough foot soldiers to follow them and their march petered out. After a battle at Naworth, Cumbria, this day, 20 February 1570, the Earls fled to Scotland. Government reprisals against Catholics were harsh and Protestantism became more firmly established in England.

8 January 1570, Sunday (-137,076) Philibert Delorme, French architect, died.


31 December 1569, Saturday (-137,084)

10 December 1569, Saturday (-137,105) Paul Eber, German religious writer, died (born 1511)

14 November 1569, Monday (-137,131) The Catholic Mass was reinstated at Durham Cathedral.

9 November 1569, Wednesday (-137,136) In England, the Northern Rebellion began, see 20 February 1570.

29 October 1569, Saturday (-137,147)

18 October 1569, Tuesday (-137,158) Giambattista Marini, Italian poet, was born (died 25 March 1625).

3 October 1569, Monday (-137,173) At the Battle of Moncountour, Royalist forces of Tavannaes and Anjou defeated Coligny�s Huguenots.

5 September 1569, Monday (-137,201) (Britain) Edmond Bonner, Bishop of London, died in the Marshalsea Prison.

24 August 1569, Wednesday (-137,213) At the Battle of Orthez, Huguenot forces under Gabriel de Montgomery defeated Royalist forces under General Terride in French Navarre.Catholics surrendered on condition that their lives would be saved.The Huguenots agreed but then massacred them anyway.

1 July 1569, Friday (-137,267) The Union of Lublin united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Treaty was signed at Lublin Castle. This strengthened Poland against possible attacks from Russia.

10 June 1569, Friday (-137,288) German Protestant troops reinforced Gaspard de Coligny, near Limoges.

10 May 1569, Tuesday (-137,319)

16 April 1569, Saturday (-137,343) Sir John Davies, English poet, was born (died 8 December 1626).

10 April 1569, Sunday (-137,349) Easter Sunday.

13 March 1569, Sunday (-137,377) At the Battle of Jarnac, Royalist troops under Marshal Gaspard de Tavannes defeated the Huguenots under the Prince of Conde, who was captured and murdered.A large number of Huguenot troops escaped, under Gaspard de Coligny.

13 February 1569, Sunday (-137,405)

25 January 1569, Tuesday (-137,424) The Swedish Riksdag confirmed the choice of new King and formally deposed Eric XIV.

11 January 1569, Tuesday (-137,438) The first State Lottery was held in England. 40,000 lots at 10 shillings each were available from the west door of St Paul�s Cathedral.Proceeds were used to repair harbours and for other public works.


31 December 1568, Friday (-137,449)

28 December 1568, Tuesday (-137,452) Oda Nobunaga deposed the Shogun (military ruler) in Kyoto and appointed Ashikaga Yoshiaki in his place. Japanese power was centralised, to avert more unrest.

25 December 1568, Saturday (-137,455) Revolt by the Moriscos in Andalusia, Spain. The Moriscos were Muslims who had been forced to convert to Christianity; however they continued to speak, write, and dress as Muslims, and therefore came under heavy persecution., King Philip II of Spain (1527-98) forbade their language amnd traditions in 1566. The Moriscxos inflicted heavy damage at Granada; in retaliation Spanish troops slaughtered many of them at the Alfajarali Pass in 1569. By 1`571 the Morisco rebellion was totally suppressed. However the Moriscos, scattered across Spain, continued their Muslim culture until 1609, when they were expelled to North Africa.

3 December 1568, Friday (-137,477) Spanish treasure ships intended to pay for Habsburg troops in The Netherlands were driven into Plymouth Harbour by bad weather where they were impounded. Commercial relations between Spain and England were suspended until 1574.

30 November 1568, Tuesday (-137,480)

5 October 1568, Tuesday (-137,536) William the Silent, William of Orange, led an army into Brabant, Spanish Netherlands. However he withdrew in November 1568 when Ferdinand, Duke of Alva, declined battle.

30 September 1568, Thursday (-137,541) King Eric XIV of Sweden was deposedby the Swedish army and nobility after several years of worsening insanity. He was succeeded by his 31-year-old brother who reiged until 1592 as John III.

28 September 1568, Tuesday (-137,543) The French monarchy declared the Huguenots outside the law.

5 Serptember 1568, Sunday (-137,566) Tommaso Campanella, Italian philolsopher, was born in Stilo.

3 September 1568, Friday (-137,568) Adriano Banchiieri, composer, died.

18 August 1568, Wednesday (-137,584) French Royalists reneged on their word and tried to capture Conde and Coligny. They failed but worsened the conflict with the Hugenots.

24 July 1568, Saturday (-137,609) (Spain) Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias, died (born 8 July 1545).

21 July 1568, Wednesday (-137,612) Battle of Jemmingen, Netherlands. Spanish soldiers under the Duke of Alba lured Dutch rebels into an open position, then massacred them.

4 July 1568, Sunday (-137,629) King Eric XIV of Sweden, having recovered his sanity somewhat, married Karin at Stockholm.

5 June 1568, Saturday (-137,658) Philip Horn, Netherrlands statesman, was executed by the Spanish.

4 June 1568, Friday (-137,659) Leaders of the Flemish opposition to the Inquisition were executed as traitors in Brussels. This sparked revolt in The Netherlands.

23 May 1568, Sunday (-137,671) Battle of Heiligerlee, Netherlands. Louis, with 3,000 men, defeated a slightly smaller German-Spanish force under John, Duke of Aremberg.

16 May 1568. Sunday (-137,678) Mary Queen of Scots escaped from Loch Leven Castle. She had been imprisoned there on 16 June 1567. She sailed from Point Mary, crossing the Firth of Forth to begin her exile in England. See 8 February 1587, 24 July 1567, and 29 July 1565.

18 April 1568, Sunday (-137,706) Easter Sunday.

23 March 1568, Tuesday (-137,732) Peace between the French Huguenots and Catholics was concluded at Longjumeau. However this truce only lasted a few weeks. Pope Pius V was still demanding the total suppressiom of the Huguenots.

20 March 1568, Saturday (-137,735) (Germany) Albert, 1st Duke of Prussia, died in Tapiau (born 16 May 1490 in Ansbach)

1 March 1568, Monday (-137,754) In Ieland, Hugh O�Neill received royal recognition as Baron of Dungannon.

16 February 1568. Monday (-137,768) The death sentence was passed on an entire country when the Spanish Inquisition condemned The Netherlands for heresy. During the first week of the plan to kill 3 million people, 800 were hanged, burnt, or killed by other means.

11 February 1568, Wednesday (-137,773) Honore d�Urfe, French wroiter, was born in Marseilles (died 1 June 1625 in Villafranca)

22 January 1568, Thursday (-137,793) In Yoxford, Suffolk, Lady Jane Grey died. She was a distant cousin of Queen Elizabeth I and possible successor to the throne. Elizabeth sent her to the Tower in 1561 for martrying the Earl of Hertford without royal consernt.

16 January 1568, Friday (-137,799)

2 January 1568, Friday (-137,813) (Britain) Luisa de Carvajal, Catholic missionary in England, was born (died 2 January 1614).


31 December 1567, Wednesday (-137,815)

10 November 1567, Friday (-137,866) Huguenots were defeated at St Denis.

29 October 1567, Wednesday (-137,878)

1 October 1567, Wednesday (-137,906) (Christian) Pietro Carnesecchi, religious reformer, was executed (born 1508).

29 September 1567, Monday (-137,908) Hugenot uprising in France. Conde and Coligny attempted but failed to seize the French Royal Family at Meaux.

27 August 1567, Wednesday (-137,941)

22 August 1567, Friday (-137,946) The Council of Blood (or, Council of Troubles) was established by the Duke of Alba, Spanish Hapsburg military commander of the Low Countries, in order to suppress heresy and rebellion. Its decisions were seen as harsh, and it helped foment revolt in the Netherlands; the Council was dissolved in 1576.

21 August 1567, Thursday (-137,947) St Francis of Sales, Roman Catholic writer, was born in Savoy, France.

8 August 1567, Friday (-137,958) Fernando, Duke of Alba, arrived in The Netherlands as military governor, with 10,000 Spanish and Italian troops, to re-establish autocratic rule.

29 July 1567, Tuesday (-137,970) James VI, then 12 months old, was crowned King at Stirling.

24 July 1567, Thursday (-137,975) Mary Queen of Scots abdicated, after being defeated by Protestants at Carberry Hill.

3 July 1567, Thursday (-137,996) Samuel de Champlain, explorer of Canada, was born.

12 June 1567, Thursday (-137,017) Richard Rich, First Baron Rich, Lord Chancellor of England, died in Rochford, Essex.

15 May 1567, Thursday (-137,045) Mary Queen of Scots was married to the Earl of Bothwell.

1 May 1567, Thursday (-137,059) Michiel van Miereveld, Dutch painter, was born in Delft (died 17 June 1641 in Delft)

18 April 1567, Friday (-138,072) Wilhelm von Grumbach, German adventurer, was executed (born 1 June 1503)

8 April 1567, Tuesday (-138,082) Michael Stifel, German mathematician, died in Jena.

31 March 1567, Monday (-138,090) Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, died (born 13 November 1504)

30 March 1567, Sunday (-138,091) Easter Sunday

15 March 1567, Saturday (-138,106) Anne Montmorency, Marshal of France, died.

12 February 1567, Wednesday (-138,137) Thomas Campion, English poet, was born (died 1620).

9 February 1567, Sunday (-138,140) Lord Darnley, second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and father of James IV of Scotland and I of England, was murdered at his house near Edinburgh.

26 January 1567, Sunday (-138,154) Nicholas Wotton, English diplomat, died.

16 January 1567, Thursday (-138,164) King Eric XIV of Sweden, already showing signs of incipient insanity, arrived at the Riksdag in Upsala where he delivered a speech condemning the treachery of the nobility.


25 December 1566, Wednesday (-138,186) Abraham Bloemaert, Dutch historical and landscape painter, was born in Gorinchem (died 13 January 1651 in Utrecht)

9 December 1566, Monday (-138,202)

19 November 1566, Tuesday (-138,222) Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, was born (died 25 February 1601).

3 October 1566, Thursday (-138,269) Richard Cork, Irish statesman, was born (died 15 September 1643).

22 September 1566, Sunday (-138,280) Johannes Agricola, German Protestant reformer (born 20 April 1494) died.

6 September 1566. Friday (-138,296) Suleiman the Magnificent, leader of the Ottoman Empire for 46 years, died. He had brought the OttomanEmpire to the peak of its power, ruling an area from Hungary to Mesopotamia, and promoting justice and culture. His eldest surviving son, the incompetent drunkard Selim, succeeded him. All other potential rivals had been eliminated by intrigue and murder.

4 September 1566, Wednesday (-138,298) Queen Elizabeth I visited Oxford, to consolidate her acceptance by the University and Town as Supreme Head of the Church.

1 September 1566, Sunday (-138,301) (Education, Schools) Edward Alleyn, English actor, was born (died 21 November 1626). He also founded Dulwich College on 21 June 1619.

3 August 1566, Saturday (-138,330)

13 July 1566, Saturday (-138,351) Sir Thomas Hoby, English diplomat, died (born 1530).

2 July 1566, Tuesday (-138,362) Nostradamus died � did he foresee this?

19 June 1566. Wednesday (-138,375) James VI of Scotland, later James I of England, the first Stuart King, was born in Edinburgh Castle.He was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Lord Darnley.

15 June 1566, Saturday (-138,379) In Sweden, Count Nils was ritually humiliated by King Eric XIV, who was fearful that the power of the Swedish aristocracy might supersede that of the monarchy.

7 June 1566, Friday (-138,387) Sir Thomas Gresham laid the foundation stone of the first Royal Exchange in London.

10 May 1566, Friday (-138,415) Leonhard Fuchs, German botanist, died in Tubingen.

25 April 1566, Thursday (-138,430) Louise Labe, French poet, died.

20 April 1566, Saturday (-138,435) Sir John Mason, English diplomat, died.

14 April 1566, Sunday (-138,441) Easter Sunday

5 April 1566, Friday (-138,450) Unrest started in The Netherlands when the minor nobility bergan to object to the strict Catholicism being imposed by the Habsburgs. By August 1566, rioting in The Netherlands would force the Regent, Margaret of Parma, to acquiesce and the Inquisition in the Netherlands was disbanded.

4 April 1566, Thursday (-138,451) Daniele de Volterra, Italian painter, died in Rome.

9 March 1566, Saturday (-138,477) Lord Darnley killed the secretary of Mary Queen of Scots, David Riccio (born 1531?). Mary I, six months pregnant with the future James VI of Scotland, witnessed the murder. Mary had romantic feelings for Riccio, and the nobility feared the rising influence of Riccio upon the royal court.

3 February 1566, Sunday (-138,511) George Cassander, Flemish religious writer, died (born 1513).

8 January 1566, Tuesday(-138,537) Pope Pius V acceded. Formerly Cardinal Michaele Ghisleri (1504 � 1572).

7 January 1566, Monday (-138,538) Louis de Blois, Flemish mystical writer, died (born 10/1506).


13 December 1565, Thursday (-138,563) Konrad von Gesner, Swiss scholarly writer, died (born 26 March 1516).

9 December 1565, Sunday (-138,567) Pope Pius IV died.

22 October 1565, Monday (-138,615) Benedict Carpzov, scholarly writer, was born (died 26 November 1624).

14 October 1565, Sunday (-138,623) Sir Thomas Chaloner, English poet, died (born 1521).

5 October 1565, Friday (-138,632) Lodovico Ferrari, mathematician, died.

29 September 1565, Saturday (-138,638) A combined force of Spanish troops under Garcia de Toledo amnd the Knights Hospitaller (Knights of St John) forced the Ottoman Turks to withdraw from Malta.

13 September 1565, Thursday (-138,654) (France) Guillaume Farel, French religious reformer, died (born 1489).

8 September 1565, Saturday (-138,659) (1) Spanish colonists founded the first permanent European settlement in North America, at St Augustine in Florida. The city was given this name because it was established on the feast day of St Augustine.. Today it is an afflkuent winter resort city.

(2) The Great Siege of Malta was raised.

28 August 1565, Tuesday (-138,670) (USA) The Spanish established the settlement of St Augustine, Florida.

27 August 1565, Monday (-138,671) William Rastell, English Judge, died in Louvain.

29 July 1565. Sunday (-138,700) Mary Queen of Scots married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, in the Old Abbey Chapel at Holyrood, Edinburgh.

28 June 1565, Thursday (-138,731)

25 June 1565, Monday (-158,734) Herluf Trolle, Danish naval hero, died in Copenhagen, after abjuring medical treatment for injuroes so his crew could be better treated (born 14 January 1516 in Lillo)

18 May 1565. Friday (-138,772) The Ottoman Turks arrived at Malta to try and capture it, see 21 December 1522. However the island held out until relieved by a Christian fleet from Sicily arrived in September 1565. Casualties had been heavy for both the Turks and the Maltese; however the Turks had been riven by disputes between their naval and army commanders. The Turks returned to Istanbul, their hopes of dominating the western Mediterranean dashed.

15 May 1565, Tuesday (-138,775) Hendrick de Keyser, Dutch sculptor, was born in Utrecht (died 15 May 1621 in Amsterdam)

14 May 1565, Monday (-138,776) (Christian) Nicolaus von Amsdorf, German Protestant reformer, died in Eisenach (born 3 December 1483 in Torgau).

22 April 1565, Sunday (-138,798) Easter Sunday.

17 March 1565, Saturday (-138,834) (Britain) Alexander Ales, Scottish clergyman, died in Leipzig (born 23 April 1500 in Edinburgh).

1 March 1565, Thursday (-138,850) (Brazil) The Portuguese established a colony at Rio de Janeiro.

22 February 1565, Thursday (-138,857) Archbishop Creagh of Armagh was arrested by Elizabeth I and taken to the Tower of London.

13 February 1565, Tuesday (-138,866) (Philippines) Spain began the colonisation of the Philippines, initially claiming the central island of Cebu. However they shifted focus to Luzon, making Manila the capital in 1571.

13 January 1565, Saturday (-138,897)


25 December 1564, Monday (-138,916) (Jewish) Johannes Buxtorf, German Jewish scholar, was born (died 1629).

13 November 1564, Monday (-138,958) The Tridentine Creed was promulgated.

15 October 1564, Sunday (-138,987) Flemish anatomist Vesalius died (born 1514)

28 September 1564, Thursday (-138,970) Lord Robert Dudley was created Earl of Leicester by Queen Elizabeth I.

25 July 1564, Tuesday (-139,069) Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, died.

22 June 1564, Thursday (-139,102) (USA) The French settlement of Fort Caroline was founded in Florida.

27 May 1564, Saturday (-139,128) John Calvin, French theologian who helped spread the Protestant revolution, died.

25 May 1564, Thursday (-139,130) St Philip Neri, Florentine Church reformer, founded the Congregation nof the Oratory in Rome.

15 May 1564, Monday (-139,140) Thomas Radcliffe, Earl of Sussex, was recalled from his post as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

23 April 1564, Sunday (-139,162) William Shakespeare was born in Stratford on Avon. He was the third of eight children.His father, John Shakespeare, was a glove maker and alderman, and his mother, Mary Arden, was a daughter of the gentry.

2 April 1564, Sunday (-139,183) Easter Sunday.

22 March 1564, Sunday (-139,204) Richard Creagh was appointed Archbishop of Armagh.

9 March 1564, Monday (-139,217) Astronomer David Fabricius was born in Esens. In 1592 he discovered the variable star now known as Mira; he watched it gradually disappear.

18 February 1564. Friday (-139,227) Michelangelo Buonarotti died in Rome, aged 88.

15 February 1564, Tuesday (-139,230) Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy.

6 February 1564, Sunday (-139,239) Christopher Marlowe, English poet, was born in Canterbury, son of a shoe maker.

26 January 1564, Wednesday (-139,250) Pope Pius IV confirmed the declarations of the Council of Trent.

20 January 1564, Thursday (-139,256) Very cold weather in Scotland, with many thousand dying ogf hunger and cold in the Highlands. Sheep, cattle and fowl were also dying, ensuring the famine that began after a series of poor hatrvests and high food prices would continue.


31 December 1563, Friday (-139,276)

4 December 1563, Saturday (-139,303) The Council of Trent was dissolved. It reaffirmed all major Catholic doctrines and declared the Apocrypha to be canonical along with the rest of the Bible.

1 December 1563, Wednesday (-139,306) Andrea Schiavone, Italian painter, died in Venice.

19 November 1563, Friday (-139,318) Robert Sidney, Earl of Leicester, was born (died 13 July 1626)

11 November 1563, Thursday (-139,326) Francesco Salviati, Italian painter, died in Rome (born 1510 in Florence)

22 October 1563, Friday (-139,346) Diego de Siloe, Spanish sculptor, died in Granada.

8 September 1563, Wednesday (-139,390) Maximilian I, King of Germany, was elected King of Hungary.

28 August 1563, Saturday (-139,401)

28 July 1563, Wednesday (-139,432) The French recaptured Le Havre from the English

9 June 1563, Wednesday (-139,481) William Paget, 1st Baron of Beaudesert, died (born 1506)

1 June 1563, Tuesday (-139,489) Robert Cecil, English statesman, was born.

30 May 1563, Sunday (-139,491) (Scandinavia) The Nordic Seven Years War began between Denmark and Sweden.

23 April 1563, Friday (-139,528) King Philip II of Spain began construction of El Escorial.

13 April 1563, Tuesday (-139,538)

11 April 1563, Sunday (-139,540) Easter Sunday.

1 April 1563, Thursday (-139,550)

19 March 1563, Friday (-139,563) The Treaty of Amboise ended the First War of Religion in France. Hiuguenots wree now allowed to worship in all places where Protestantism was established, except in Paris.

5 March 1563, Friday (-139,577) Sir John Coke, English politician, was born (died 8 September 1644)

1 March 1563, Monday (-139,581)

18 February 1563, Thursday (-139,592) Francis, Duke of Guise, was assassinated whilst besieging Orleans.

1 February 1563, Monday (-139,609) Sarsa Dengel succeeded his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia.

30 January 1563, Saturday (-139,611) Franz Gomarus, Dutch religious writer, was born (died 11 January 1641).

19 January 1563, Tuesday (-139,622) The Heidelberg Catechism of the Reformed Protestant Churches was published.

1 Jaunary 1563, Friday (-139,640)


25 December 1562, Friday (-139,647)

19 December 1562, Saturday (-139,653) The Battle of Dreux; Catholics defeated the Huguenots.

18 December 1562, Friday (-139,654)

6 December 1562, Sunday (-139,666) Jan van Scorel, Dutch painter, died in Utrecht (born 1 August 1495 near Alkmaar)

1 December 1562, Tuesday (-139,671)

25 November 1562, Wednesday (-139,677) Lope Felix de Vega Carpio, Spanish writer, was born Madrid (died 27 August 1635 in Madrid)

12 November 1562, Thursday (-139,690) Peter Vermigli, Swiss Church reformer, died in Zurich.

1 November 1562, Sunday (-139,701)

26 October 1562, Monday (-139,707) French Catholic forces stormed the Protestants in Rouen, capturing the city.

19 October 1562, Monday (-139,714) George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born (died 5 August 1633).

9 October 1562, Friday (-129,724) Fallopius Gabriello, anatomist, died.

4 October 1562, Sunday (-139,729) Duke John of Sweden married Catherine, daughter of King Sigismund I of Poland. He also pledged to help Poland conquer Livonia. This was a breach of the Arboga Articles (drawn up by King Eric XIV on 15 April 1561 at Arboga) which proscribed the royal dukes from making any political treaties without Royal assent.

1 October 1562, Thursday (-139,732)

20 September 1562, Sunday (-139,743) (1) (France) Queen Elizabeth I of England sent a force under John, Earl of Warwick, to assist the Hugenots in France. They landed to capture le Havre.

(2) The Treaty of Hampton Court was signed.

20 July 1562, Monday (-139,805)

27 May 1562, Wednesday (-139,859) Jean Ribaut, leading an expedition to found a Huguenot colony in New France, founded Port Royal, South Carolina, USA.

11 April 1562, Friday (-139,906) Huguenot leaders issued a statement, at Orleans, declaring that, whilst they remained loyal subjects of the French Crown,, they must take up arms to preserve their freedom of worship.

29 March 1562, Sunday (-139,918) Easter Sunday.

9 March 1562. Monday (-139,938) Kissing in public was banned in Naples, contravention being punishable by death. This was an attempt to halt the spread of the plague.

1 March 1562, Sunday (-139,946) (France) The Guises slaughtered a group of Huguenots who were worshipping at a barn in Vassy. Armed conflict between Catholics and Huguenots was now inevitable.

1 February 1562, Sunday (-139,974)

18 January 1562, Sunday (-139,988) The Council of Trent reconvened, after a suspension of ten years.


31 December 1561, Wednesday (-140,006)

26 December 1561, Friday (-140,011) Queen Elizabeth created Lord Ambrose Ducley, elder brother of Lord Robert, as Earl of Warwick.

10 December 1561, Wednesday (-140,027) Kaspar Schwenkfeld, German religious writer, died in Ulm (born 1490)

9 December 1561, Tuesday (-140,028) Sir Edwin Sandys, one of the founders of the colony of Virginia, was born 8in Worcestershire (died October 1629)

28 November 1561, Friday (-140,039) (Poland) The Order of the Teutonic Kinghts ceased toi rule Livonia. By the Union of Wilno, the last Master of the Teutonic Kinghts, Gotthard Kettler, became a secular Duke and Wilno was ceded to Poland.

18 November 1561, Tuesday (-140,049)

6 November 1561, Thursday (-140,961) Simon Bening, book illuminator, died in Bruges.

9 October 1561, Thursday (-140,089) The Colloquy of Poissy broke up.This was an attempt to find a working agreement between the Catholics and the Huguenot Protestants, which nearly succeeded.

21August 1561, Thursday (-140,138) Thomas Howard, 1st Earl Suffolk, British Admiral, was born (died 18 May 1626)

20 August 1561, Wednesday (-140,139) Jacopo Peri, Italian composer, was born in Florence.

19 August 1561, Tuesday (-140,140) Mary Queen of Scots returned from France. She arrived at Leith, near Edinburgh, in thick fog; this may have saved her life, because her half-brother, James Stuart Earl of Moray, wanted to rule Scotland and was waiting for her in English ships.

11 July 1561, Friday (-140,179) Luis de Gongora, Spanish poet, was born (died 24 May 1627).

4 June 1561, Wednesday (-140,216) (London) London�s Mediaeval St Pauls Cathedral, with a lead-lined wooden spire 584 feet high, was struck by lightning, and the entire building burned to the ground. The clergy blamed the destruction on divine displeasure at use of the Cathedral for worldy pursuits such as business deals and entertainment. By the end of the year, with donations of over �1,000 from Queen Elizabeth, also the City, the Cathedral was rebuilt. However the spire was not nrestored, much to Elizabeth�s displeasure. The new Cathedral fell into disrepair and was burnt down again in the Great Fire of London 1666.

15 April 1561, Tuesday (-140,266) King Eric XIV of Sweden summoned a Riksdag at Arboga which drew up the Arboga Articles this day, proscribing the power of the royal dukes, John and Charles.

6 April 1561, Sunday (-140,275) Easter Sunday.

29 March 1561, Saturday (-140,283) Sanctorius Sanctorius, physician, was born in Justinopolis (Yugoslavia). He invented a device that used a pendulum to count heatbeats.

22 March 1561, Saturday (-140,290)

26 February 1561, Wednesday (-140,314) Jorge Montemayor, Spanish novelist, died.

22 February 1561, Saturday (-140,318)

28 January 1561, Tuesday (-140,343) In France, the Edict of Orleans suspended the persecution of Huguenots.

22 January 1561, Wednesday (-140,349) Francis Bacon, author, philosopher, and statesman, was born at York House in The Strand, London.


31 December 1560, Tuesday (-140,371)

20 December 1560, Friday (-140,382) The first assembly of the Church of Scotland.

13 December 1560, Friday (-140,389) Maximilien de Bethune, Duc de Sully, French statesman, was born near Mantes (died 22 December 1641 in Villebon)

5 December 1560, Thursday (-140,397) Francis II, King of France, died, aged 16, he was succeeded by his brother, 10-year old Charles IX.

3 December 1560, Tuesday (-140,399) Jan Gruter, Dutch scholarly writer, was born (died 20 September 1627).

2 December 1560, Monday (-140,400) Charles de Marillac, French diplomat, died.

12 November 1560, Tuesday (-140,420) (Christian) Caspar Aquila, German religious reformer, died (born in Augsburg 7 August 1488).

10 October 1560, Thursday (-140,453) (Christian) Jacobus Arminius, Dutch religious reformer, was born in Oudewater, south Holland (died in Leiden 19 October 1609).

30 September 1560, Monday (-140,463) Melchior Cano, Spanish theologian (born 1525) died.

29 September 1560, Sunday (-140,464) Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden, died.

6 July 1560, Saturday (-140,549) The Treaty of Edinburgh was signed. This ended French interference in Scottish affairs. French troops in Scotland had tried to support Mary Queen of Scots claim to the throne.

25 June 1560, Sunday (-140,562) Gustavus I of Sweden abdicated, aged 64. He was succeeded by his son, Charles IX.

11 June 1560, Sunday (-140,576) Mary of Lorraine, Regent of Scotland, died (born 22 November 1515)

6 May 1560, Saturday (-140,612) The Earl of Sussex was swoen in as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

23 April 1560, Sunday (-140,625)

19 April 1560, Wednesday (-140,629) (Christian) Death of Philip Melancthon, German Church reformer.

17 March 1560, Friday (-140,662) The Tumult of Aboise. French Huguenots attempted to extricate the new King, Francis II, from the control of the Catholic Guise faction, by storming the Royal Chateau at Amboise. The Huguenots were defeated and summarily executed by order of Francis, 2nd Duke of Guise. Religious tensions rose within France.

7 February 1560, Wednesday (-140,699) Baccio Bandinelli, Italian sculptor and painter, died in Florence (born 12 November 1493 in Florence)

1 February 1560, Thursday (-140,705) (Ireland) Queen Elizabeth I of England imposed the Uniformity Act on Ireland to establish Protestantism there. Attendance at church service was now compulsory, on pain of a fine of 1 shilling.

17 January 1560, Wednesday (-140,720) Gaspard Bauhin, biologist, was born in Basel, Switzerland. In 1623 he established the practice of bnary species names, one for the genus and the second for the species.

12 January 1560, Friday (-140,725) Parliament in Dublin passed the Uniformity Act, see 1 February 1560.

1 January 1560, Monday (-140,736)


31 December 1559, Sunday (-140,737)

17 December 1559, Sunday (-140,751) Matthew Parker was consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury.

25 December 1559, Monday (-140,743) Pope Pius IV (born 31 March 1499), acceded (died 1565).

14 December 1559, Thursday (-140,754) Lupercio Argensola, Spanish poet, was born (baptised) in Barbastro (died in Saragossa4 February 1631)

18 November 1559, Saturday (-140,780) Cuthbert Tunstall, English Prelate, died in Lambeth (born 1474)

10 November 1559, Friday (-140,788) Queen Elizabeth I confirmed the Charter of the Stationer�s company.

21 September 1559, Thursday (-140,838) Ludovici Cigoli, Italian painter, was born (died 8 June 1613 in Rome)

10 September 1559, Sunday (-140,849)

6 September 1559, Wednesday (-140,853) Benvenuto Garofalo, Italian pa8inter, died in Ferrara.

30 August 1559, Wednesday (-140,860) Thomas Radcliffe, Earl of Sussex, was reappointed Lord Deputy of Ireland.

18 August 1559, Friday (-140,872) Pope Paul IV died, aged 83. In Rome his statue was torn down, the prisoners of the Inquisition freed, and Inquisition records destroyed.

10 July 1559, Monday (-140,911) Henry II, King of France, was succeeded by his 14-year old son, Francois II. The Duc de Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine were Regents.

1 July 1559, Saturday (-140,920) Missing Church in Britain incurred a fine of one shilling (5p). However by 1581 this penalty had been raised to a swingeing �20 a month.

30 June 1559, Friday (-140,921) Henry II, King of France, was killed in a jousting toutnament, aged 40.

2 June 1559, Friday (-140,949) In France, King Henry II issued the Edict of Ecouen, making printing without ba licence a capital offence. This was aimed at curbing the French Huguenots.

8 May 1559, Monday (-140,974) The Act of Uniformity was signed by Queen Elizabeth I. This enshrined the monarch as head of the Church in England, ensuring the supremacy of Protestantism under Queen Elizabeth I.

17 April 1559, Monday (-140,995) The Act of Supremacy was partly re-enacted in England.

2 April 1559, Sunday (-141,010) (France-Germany, Spain) The Peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending the wars of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in Europe. Italy was recognised as a Spanish sphere of influence, and Franche Comte was to be part of the Spanish monarchy. French possession of Metz, Toul and Verdun was confirmed. A strategic marriage was arranged between King Philip II of Spain and Elizabeth Valois, daughter of King Henry II of France.

26 March 1559, Sunday(-141,017) Easter Sunday.

18 February 1559, Saturday (-141,053) Isaac Casaubon, scholarly writer, was born (died 1 July 1614).

16 February 1559, Thursday (-141,055) (Christian, Germany) Pope Paul IV issued the Papal Bull Cum Ex Apostolatus, calling for all heretical rulers to be deposed. This justified attempts by the Habsburgs to threaten Protestant rulers.

29 January 1559, Sunday (-141,073) Sir Thomas Pope, founder of Trinity College Oxford, died in Clerkenwell, London.

15 January 1559. Sunday (-141,087) Queen Elizabeth I crowned. She was born on 7 September 1533 at Greenwich Palace. Daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, she ruled from 1558 to 1603 and was one of England�s greatest rulers, succeeding her Catholichalf-sister Mary Tudor. She cleverly preserved England�s independence from Catholic Europe whilst also outflanking the more radical Puritans, and her reign saw the emergence of England as a major sea power through Drake and others.This was also a time when the arts thrived. She died on 24 March 1603.

13 January 1559, Friday (-141,089) Simons Menno, religious leader and writer, died.

1 January 1559, Sunday (-141,101) Christian III, King of Denmark and Norway, died aged 55 after a reign of nearly 24 years. He was succeeded by his 24-year-old son as Frederick II, who reigned for 29 years.


31 December 1558, Saturday (-141,102)

14 December 1558, Wednesday (-141,119) Funeral of Queen Mary of England.

17 November 1558. Thursday (-141,146) Queen Mary of England (Bloody Mary), daughter of Henry VIII, died in St James Palace London at the age of 42.Born in 1516 to Catharine of Aragon, she outmanoeuvred Lord Dudley�s attempt to put Lady Jane Grey on the throne, on the death of her half-brother King Edward VI. Mary�s marriage to Philip II of Spain dragged England into the war between France and Spain, and caused the loss to England of Calais, an English outpost since the reign of Edward III. Under her five-year reign Catholicism was restored and Protestants persecuted.On Mary�s death, her half-sister Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn, became Queen Elizabeth I.

21 October 1558, Friday (-141,173) Julius Caesar Scaliger, scholarly writer, died in Agen, SW France.

21 September 1558. Wednesday (-141,203) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 to 1556, died. His reign was marked by almost constant wars with France, through which he gained control of Italy in 1529 at the Peace of Cambrai.

9 September 1558, Friday (-141,215) Philippe Mercoeur, French soldier, was born (died 19 February 1602).

11 August 1558, Thursday (-141,244) Justius Menius, German religious writer, died (born 13 February 1499).

7 August 1558, Sunday (-141,248)

13 July 1558, Wednesday (-141,273) Battle of Gravelines, Franco-Spanish Wars. The Spanish under Comte d�Egmont, with English allies, defeated the French under Marshal de Thermes.

26 April 1558, Tuesday (-141,351) Jean Francois Fernal, French physician, died in Fontainebelau.

24 April 1558, Sunday (-141,353) Mary Queen of Scots, aged 16, married the Dauphin of France.

12 April 1558, Tuesday (-141,365)

10 April 1558, Sunday (-141,367) Easter Sunday.

5 April 1558, Tuesday (-141,372)

25 March 1558, Friday (-141,383) Marcos de Niza, geography writer, died.

14 March 1558, Monday (-141,394) Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria was elected Holy Roman Emperor. He ruled until 1564.

5 March 1558, Saturday (-141,403)

27 February 1558, Sunday (-141,409) Russia�s first trade mission to England reached London.

1 February 1558, Tuesday (-141,435)

31 March 1558, Monday (-141,436)

7 January 1558. Thursday (-141,460) (France, Britain) Calais, the last English possession on mainland France, was taken by the French under the Duke of Guise. The English had captured Calais in 1346 after a year besieging it. With the loss to England of its last Continental possession, public opinion turned against Queen Mary.

1 January 1558, Saturday (-141,466)


31 December 1557, Friday (-141,467)

28 December 1557, Tuesday (-141,470)

13 December 1557, Monday (-141,485) Niccolo Tartaglia, Italian mathematician, died in Venice.

6 December 1557, Monday (-141,492) (Christian) John Macalpine, Protestant theologian, died.

7 November 1557, Sunday (-141,521)

13 October 1557, Wednesday (-141,546)

13 September 1557, Monday (-141,576) Sir John Cheke, English scholarly writer, died (born 1514).

1 September 1557, Wednesday (-141,588) Jacques Cartier, French explorer of the North American coast and the St Lawrence river (born 1491), died in St Malo.

10 August 1557, Tuesday (-141,610) (France, Italy, Spain) The Battle of St Quentin. Spanish forces under the Duke of Savoy defeated the French under the Constable of Montmorency. The French were driven out of Italy.

16 July 1557, Friday (-141,635) Anne of Cleves, 4th wife of King Henry VIII, died.

19 June 1557, Saturday (-141,662)

11 June 1557, Friday (-141,670) John III, King of Portugal, died on his 55th birthday. He was succeeded by his 3-year old grandson, Sebastian.

7 June 1557, Monday (-141,674) (Britain) England., now an ally of Spain after the marriage of Queen Mary and Philip II of Spain, declared war on France.

18 April 1557, Sunday (-141,724) Easter Sunday.

6 April 1557, Tuesday (-141,736)

6 March 1557, Saturday (-141,767)

27 February 1557, Saturday (-141,774) The first Russian Embassy in London opened.

17 February 1557, Wednesday (-141,784) Lord Fitzwalter was created Earl of Sussex.

8 January 1557, Friday (-141,824) (Germany) Albert, Prince of Bayreuth, died in Pforzheim (born 28 March 1522 in Ansbach).

5 January 1557, Tuesday (-141,827)

1 January 1557, Friday (-141,831)


31 December 1556, Thursday (-141,832) Jacopo Carucci OPontormo, Italian painter, died in Florence (born 26 May 1494)

1 December 1556, Tuesday (-141,862)

15 November 1556, Sunday (-141,878) (France) Jacques Duperron, French cardinal, was born (died 6 September 1618).

5 November 1556, Thursday (-141,888) Jalal-ud-Din, Moghul Emperor Akbar, defeated a Hindu army at the Battle of Panipat in the Punjab. He regained the Hindustani Empire.

25 October 1556, Sunday (-141,899) Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, retired to a Spanish monastery, dividing his possessions between his son and his brother.

21 October 1556, Wednesday (-141,903) Death in Venice of playwright Pietro Aretion.

16 October 1556, Friday (-141,908)

1 October 1556, Thursday (-141,923)

7 September 1556, Monday (-141,947) Emperor Charles V handed over government of the Holy Roman Empire to his brother Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria. Pope Paul IV objected that only he had the right toi bestow the title of Holy Roman Emperor.

1 September 1556, Tuesday (-141,953)

1 August 1556, Saturday (-141,984)

31 July 1556, Friday (-141,985) Ignatius Loyola, Spanish soldier and priest, and founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), died.

26 July 1556, Sunday (-141,990) James Melville, Scottish reformer and writer, was born.

15 July 1556, Wednesday (-142,001) (Music) The first book of music printed in The Americas, the Latin Ordinary Mass, was published by Mexican printer Juan Pablos.

1 July 1556, Wednesday (-142,015) In Winchester, England, a pound of beef cost 4d. A pound of candles cost 4d. A pound of butter cost 4d. A pound of cheese cost 4d. 2 eggs cost 1d. A whole sheep cost �1.

19 June 1556, Friday (-142,027) King James I of England, son of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley, the first Stuart King of England and Ireland, also King James VI of Scotland, was born.

10 May 1566, Sunday (-142,067) Leonhard Fuchs, German physician, died (born 17 January 1501)

28 April 1556, Tuesday (-142,079) The English began the confiscation of lands and the �plantation� of County Laois and County Offaly.

20 April 1556, Monday (-142,087) Valentin Friedland Trotzendorff, German educationalist, died (born near Gorlitz, Silesia 14 February 1490)

18 April 1556, Saturday (-142,089) (Arts) Luigi Alamanni, Italian poet, died in Amboise (born in Florence, 1495).

6 April 1556, Monday (-142,101) Conrad Pelicanus, German religious writer,died (born in Alsace 8 January 1478)

5 April 1556, Sunday (-142,102) Easter Sunday.

29 March 1556, Sunday (-142,109)

22 March 1556, Sunday (-142,116) Cardinal Pole was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury.

21 March 1556, Saturday (-142,117) (Britain) Thomas Cranmer, first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, was burnt at the stake in Oxford as a heretic and a traitor, under the Catholic rule of Queen �Bloody� Mary. He had been deprived of his office on 11 December 1555. He had assisted in having the marriage of Mary�s parents, King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, annulled.

7 March 1556, Saturday (-142,131) Guillaume du Vair, French author, was born (died 3 August 1621).

29 February 1556, Saturday (-142,138)

21 February 1556, Friday (-142,146) Sethus Calvisius, German scholarly writer, was born (died 24 November 1615).

14 February 1556, Friday (-142,153) Akbar was enthroned as Mughal Emperor.

27 January 1556, Monday (-142,171) The Moghul Emperor Humayun died after falling from his library roof in Delhi. He was succeeded by his 14-year old son, Jalal-ud-Din, who returned from exile.

23 January 1556. Thursday (-142,175) An earthquake in China�s Shanxi province killed an estimated 830,000 people.

16 January 1556, Thursday (-142,182) Emperor Charles V handed over government of Spain to his son Philip, who ruled as Philip II of Spain..


31 December 1555, Tuesday (-142,198)

4 December 1555, Wednesday (-142,225) Heinrich Meibom, German poet, was born (died 20 September 1625).

21 November 1555, Thursday (-142,238) Agrocola, German, mineralogist, died in Chemnitz, Saxony.

16 November 1555, Saturday (-142,243)

25 October 1555, Friday (-142,265) (Italy) Holy Roman Emperor Charles V handed over government of The Netherlands, Milan and Naples to his son Philip of Spain.

16 October 1555. Wednesday (-142,274) Bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley, British Protestant martyrs and Oxford reformers, were burnt at the stake for heresy.

25 September 1555, Wednesday (-142,295) (Christian, Germany) The Peace of Augsburg was signed between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League, at the city of Augsburg. It cemented the division within Christendom between Catholicism and Protestantism, and allowed German states to choose either Roman Catholicism or Lutheranism as their State Religion.

8 September 1555, Saturday (-142,313) Hugh Curwin, nominated by Queen Mary of England, was consecrated Archbishop of Dublin, replacing Archbishop Browne.

1 August 1555, Thursday (-142,350)

17 July 1555, Wednesday (-142,365) Richard Carew, poet, was born (died 6 November 1620).

12 July 1555, Friday (-142,370) The Jewish Ghetto in Rome was created, on the orders of Pope Paul IV.

29 May 1555, Wednesday (-142,414) George Carew, Earl of Totnes, English politician, was born (died 27 March 1629)

25 May 1555, Saturday (-142,418) King Henry II of Navarre died (born 1503).

23 May 1555, Thursday (-142,420) Pope Paul IV (223rd Pope) acceded (formerly Cardinal Giovanni Pietro Caraffa).

30 April 1555, Tuesday (-142,443) Pope Marcellus II (formerly Cardinal Marcello Cervino) died, aged 54. He was succeeded by Pope Paul IV. Paul ordered that the Jewish quarter in Rome be walled, creating the Ghetto of Rome. Palestrina was appointed a member of the Pontifical Choir by Paul IV without examination creating resentment amongst the other choir members.

14 April 1555, Sunday (-142,459) Easter Sunday

10 April 1555, Wednesday (-142,463) Pope Marcellus II was elected Pope.

23 March 1555, Saturday (-142,481) Pope Julius III died, aged 67. He was succeeded by Pope Marcellus II,

1 March 1555, Friday (-142,503) Nostradamus published his famous book of predictions.

9 February 1555, Saturday (-142,523) John Hooper, English religious writer and martyr, died.

1 January 1555, Tuesday (-142,562)


14 December 1554, Friday (-142,580)

30 November 1554, Friday (-142,594) Cardinal Pole pardoned England for its Protestant heresy and welcomed the country back into the Roman Catholic Church.

12 November 1554, Monday (-142,612) The English Parliament re-established Catholicisim in the country.

7 October 1554, Sunday (-142,648) (Britain) Walter Raleigh, explorer and adventurer, was born in Barton Hayes, Devon.

3 October 1554, Wednesday (-142,652) English poet and author Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke, was born.

28 September 1554, Friday (-142,657)

25 July 1554. Wednesday (-142,722) Mary I, Bloody Mary, married Philip II of Spain, son and heir of Charles V, in Winchester. This was her second marriage; the first had been when, aged three, she was married to the King of France, then nine months old. Catholicism returned to England. See 17 November 1558.

20 July 1554, Friday (-142,727) Philip II of Spain arrived in Southampton, having crossed the Channel during a terrible storm.

19 May 1554, Saturday (-142,789) Queen Elizabeth was released from the Tower of London.

10 May 1554, Thursday (-142,798) (Britain) Thomas Goodrich, English ecclesiastic, died.

17 April 1554, Tuesday (-142,821) Stephen Gosson, English satirical writer, was born (died 13 February 1624)

14 April 1554, Saturday (-142,824) In Ireland, George Dowdall, Archbishop of Armagh, was ordered by Pope Julius III to deprive all married clergy of their positions.

11 April 1555, Wednesday (-142,827) Joanna,Queen of Castille, died (born 6 November 1479).

30 March 1554, Friday (-142,839) Paul Laurentius, religious writer, was born (died 24 February 1624).

26 March 1554, Monday (-142,843) Charles Mayenne, 2nd Duke of Guise, was born (died 3 October 1611).

25 March 1554, Sunday (-142,844) Easter Sunday.

18 March 1554, Sunday (-142,851) Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower of London for alleged complicity in a plot against Mary led by Sir Thomas Wyatt; she was released on 19 May 1554.

3 March 1554, Saturday (-142,866) John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, died (born 30 June 1503).

11 February 1554, Sunday (-142,886) Lady Jane Grey and her husband Lord Guildford Dudley were executed on Tower Green, Tower of London, for high treason; she was aged 16. Lady Grey became Queen on 10 July 1553 but was deposed nine days later by her cousin Mary Tudor who then became Queen of England. The Protestant King Edward VI had proclaimed Jane Queen above her half sister Mary because that kept England away from Catholic Spain. Mary delayed executing Jane but changed her mind when Jane�s father attempted a revolution.

25 January 1554, Thursday (-142,903) In Rochester, Kewnt, Thomas Wyatt began to organise a plot against the proposed marriage of Mary Queen of Scots to Philip of Spain, son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

9 January 1554, Tuesday (-142,919) Pope Gregory XV born.

1 January 1554, Monday (-142,927)


20 December 1553, Wednesday (-142,939) In England, Protestant Church services were ruled illegal.

14 December 1553, Thursday (-142,945) Henry IV, King of France, was born.

23 November 1553, Thursday (-142,966) Prospero Alpini, botanist, was birn in Venice. He proved that plants, like animals, have two sexes,

30 October 1553, Monday (-142,990) Jacob Sturm von Sturmbeck, German statesman, died (born (died 10 August 1489)

27 October 1553, Friday (-142,993) Michael Servetus, theologian, was burnt at the stake.

16 October 1553, Monday (-143,004) Death of German painter Lucas Cranach the Elder.

7 October 1553, Saturday (-143,013) Birth in London of Edmund Spenser, English poet.

1 October 1553, Sunday (-143,019) Mary Tudor was crowned Queen of England.

1 September 1553, Friday (-143,049)

8 August 1553, Tuesday (-143,073) Girolamo Fracastoro, Italian physician, died in Incaffi, Italy.

2 August 1553, Wednesday (-143,079) Battle of Marciano. A French army invading Tuscany was defeated.

19 July 1553. Wednesday (-143,093) Lady Jane Grey, a Protestant, was deposed, aged 16, after a reign of only nine days. She was sent to the Tower of London and beheaded on 12 February 1554. Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary), a Catholic, half sister of Edward VI, was proclaimed Queen, but died on 17 November 1558.

11 July 1553, Tuesday (-143,101) Maurice, Elector of Saxony, died (born 21 March 1521).

10 July 1553. Monday (-143,102) Following the death of Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed Queen of England.

6 July 1553, Thursday (-143,106) King Edward VI died in Greenwich of tuberculosis.

26 June 1553, Monday (-143,116) Christ�s Hospital London was founded on the site of the former Greyfriars Monastery by King Edward VI, as a hospital for poor children.

3 June 1553, Saturday (-143,139) Wolfgang Huber, Austrian painter, died in Passau.

21 May 1553, Sunday (-143,152) Lady Jane Grey was forced to marry Lord Guildford Dudley; Dudley had ambitions to be King of England.

14 May 1553, Sunday (-143,159) Marguerite de Valois, Queen of Navarre, was born.

5 May 1553, Friday (-143,168) (Arts) Erasmus Albertus, German writer, died in Mecklenburg.

9 April 1553, Sunday (-143,194) French satirical writer Francois Rabelais died.

2 April 1553, Sunday (-143,201) Easter Sunday.

19 February 1553, Sunday (-143,243) Erasmus Reinhold, German mathematician, died in Thiringia,

2 February 1553, Thursday (-143,260) John Bale, an English Protestant, was consecrated as Bishop of Ossory, Ireoland.,

1 January 1553, Sunday (-143,292) Holy Roman Emperor Charles V retreated to Brussels. France gained the Bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun.


3 December 1552. Saturday (-143,321) (Christian) Death of Francis Xavier, Basque Jesuit missionary, called �the apostle of the Indies�, who helped Ignatius Loyola found the Jesuits.He died near Canton, China.

19 October 1552, Wednesday (-143,366) Veronese Bonifazio, Italian painter, died in Venice.

17 October 1552, Monday (-143,368) Andreas Osiander, German religious writer, died (born 1498).

14 October 1552, Friday (-143,371) Oswald Myconius, Zwinglian religious writer, died.

6 October 1552, Thursday (-143,379) Birth of Matteo Ricci, pioneering Jesuit missionary to China.

2 October 1552, Sunday (-143,383) Ivan the Terrible took the Tartar city of Kazan, using artillery to break down the city walls. The Volga became a Russian river.

17 September 1552, Saturday (-143,398) Pope Paul V was born.

20 August 1552, Saturday (-143,426) Ivan IV (The Terrible) began an attack on Kazan with an army of 150,000 men, after a faction in Kazan promised him the Khanate.

15 August 1552, Monday (-143,431) Hermann, Elector of Cologne, died (born 14 January 1477).

14 August 1552, Sunday (-143,432) Paolo Sarpi, Venetian scholarly writer, was born.

2 August 1552, Tuesday (-143.444) Treaty of Passau. Lutherans were granted toleration of worship within the Holy Roman Empire.

18 July 1552, Monday (-143,459) The Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II, was born.

12 June 1552, Sunday (-143,495) Henry II of France retreated to Verdun, east of Metz, in Lorraine.

23 May 1552, Monday (-143,515) Sebastian Munster, German scholarly writer, died.

14 May 1552, Saturday (-143,524)

21 April 1552, Thursday (-143,547) Peter Apian, German astronomer, died in Ingolstadt.

19 April 1552, Tuesday (-143,549) Emperor Charles V fled via the Brenner Pass to Carinthia, SE Austria.

18 April 1552, Monday (-143,550) Protestant German forces took Linz in Austria.

17 April 1552, Sunday (-143,551) Easter Sunday.

10 April 1552, Sunday (-143,558) Henry II of France captured Metz in Lorraine.

4 April 1552, Monday (-143,564) An army of German Protestants under Maurice, Elector of Saxony and Albert Alciabiades II, Margrave of Brandenburg, captired the wealthy Bavarian city of Augsburg.

13 March 1552, Sunday (-143,586) France invaded Lorraine.

28 February 1552, Sunday (-143,600) Mathematician Joost Burgi was born in Lichtensteg, Switzerland.

8 February 1552, Monday (-143,620) Theodore Aubigne, French poet, was born in St Maury, Pons (died 29 April 1630 in Geneva).

1 February 1552, Monday (-143,627) Sir Edward Coke, English lawyer, was born (died 3 September 1634).

22 January 1552, Friday (-143,637) Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector of England, was executed for treason.

15 January 1552, Friday (-143,644) German Protestant Princes and King Henry II of France signed the Treaty of Chambord., France could occupy three bishoprics in Lorraine (a region now inNE France) in return for financial support for these Princes in their conflict against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

14 January 1552, Thursday (-143,645) Alberico Gentili, Italian legal writer, was born (died 19 June 1608).

10 January 1552, Sunday (-143,649) Johann Cochlaeus, German religious writer, died (born 1479).


28 December 1551, Monday (-143,662) Vicente Espinel, Spanish poet, was born (died 1624).

21 November 1551, Saturday (-143,699) Papal Legate Francis Xavier and fellow Jesuits returned from a two-year missionary trip to Japan. The Mikado was at first unimpressed with Xavier�s humble dress, but when he returned in more suitable attire, with gifts, he was even granted a disused Buddhist monastery for his work. Xavier left behind a community of 2,000 Christians, and was impressed with Japanese society.

8 October 1551, Thursday (-143,743) Italian composer Giulio Caccini was born in Rome.

2 October 1551, Friday (-143,749)

21 September 1551, Monday (-143,760) (1) (Education, Schools) (1) The King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth, received its charter. However a school here may date back to the 8th century (see 1276). After the religious guilds were dissolved in 1548 a petition was made to secure the school�s future, leading to the Charter.

(2) The National University of Mexico was founded in Mexico City. It formally opened on 25 January 1533.���

19 September 1551, Saturday (-143,762) Henry III, King of France, was born.

20 August 1551, Thursday (-143,792)

14 August 1551, Friday (-143,798) Ottoman Turks captured the port of Tripoli, in modern-day Libya, from the Order of Knights of st John, a Christian Order based in Malta.

14 July 1551, Tuesday (-143,829)

14 May 1551, Thursday (-143,890)

2 May 1551, Saturday (-143,902) William Camden, English historian (died 1623) was born.

1 May 1551, Friday (-143,903) The Council of Trent reopened in Trent, Tirol (Trento, northern Italy). Protestant delegates were barred from entry, and the doctrine of Trsnasubstantiation was upheld.

21 April 1551, Tuesday (-143,913) (Japan) Death of Japanese warlord Oda Nobuhide (born 1510).

29 March 1551, Sunday (-143,935) Easter Sunday.

11 January 1551, Sunday (-144,013) Ketumati, Burma, was conquered by Bayinnaung.


31 December 1550, Wednesday (-144,024) Henry of Lorraine, 3rd Duke of Guise, was born (died 25 December 1588).

24 December 1550, Wednesday (-144,031)

6 December 1550, Saturday (-144,049) Pieter Coecke van Aelst, Dutch painter, died in Brussels (born 14 August 1502 in Aelst)

22 November 1550, Saturday (-144,063) Sebald Beham, German engraver, died in Nuremberg.

7 November 1550, Friday (-144,078) Bishop Jon Arason, the last Catholic Bishop in Iceland, who had campaigned against the Reformation and Luthernaism, was executed at Skalholt.

22 October 1550, Wednesday (-144,094)

17 September 1550, Wednesday (-144,129) Pope Paul V was born.

10 September 1550, Wednesday (-144,136) (Spain) Medina Sidonia, commander of the Spanish Armada, was born (died 1615).

4 August 1550, Monday (-144,173) Pedro Machuca, Spanish painter, died in Granada.

21 July 1550, Monday (-144,187) The Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, was approved by Pope Julius III.

28 June 1550, Saturday (-144,210) Johannes Drusius, religious writer, was born (died 2/1616).

27 June 1550, Friday (-144,211) Charles IX, French monarch who ordered the massacre of the Hugenots on St Bartholomew�s Day in 1572, was born.

14 May 1550, Wednesday (-144,255)

4 May 1550, Sunday (-144,265)

12 April 1550, Saturday (-144,287) Edward de Vere Oxford, English statesman, was born (died 24 June 1604 in Newington, London)

6 April 1550, Sunday (-144,293) Easter Sunday.

24 March 1550, Monday (-144,306) (France) Treaty oif Boulogne between England and France. For a substantial payment, England withdrew from Boulogne earlier than agreed under the Treaty of Ardres, and would also abandon its gains in Scotland. This freed up Henry II of France to deploy his forces against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

6 March 1550, Thursday (-144,324)

8 February 1550, Saturday (-144,350) Julius III (221st Pope) acceded (born 1487). Prevoiously Cardinal Giovanni del Monte, he died in 1555.

6 January 1550, Monday (-144,383)

1 January 1550, Wednesday (-144,388)


31 December 1549, Tuesday (-144,389)

7 December 1549, Saturday (-144,413) Robert Kett, rebel leader, was hanged.

10 November 1549, Sunday (-144,440) Pope Paul III died.

5 November 1549, Tuesday (-144,445) Philippe de Mornay, French politician, was born (died 11 November 1623).

17 October 1549, Thursday (-144,464) Denis Godefroy, French jurist, was born (died 7 September 1622).

21 September 1549, Saturday (-144,490) Marguerite d�Angoulmeme, Queen of Navarre, died.

15 August 1549, Thursday (-144,527) (Christian, Japan) Francis Xavier entered the Japanese port of Kagoshima to begin a conversion work.

9 August 1549. Friday (-144,533) England declared war on France.

12 July 1549, Friday (-144,561) Robert Kett, with 16,000 men, camped on Mousehold Heath outside Norwich and demanded an audience with Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, who was Protector of England during the minority years of King Edward VI. Kett�s demands concerned rising rents, rising food prices and the increase in sheep farming (which demanded enclosure whereas crop farming did not). Somerset ordered Kett�s mob to disperse, with a pardon for any crimes committed up to that point; Kett refused. Somerset now ordered William Parr, Marquis of Northampton, to defeat Kett. Parr marched into Norwich with 1,800 men, unopposed, but a surprise night attack by Kett�s men routed Parr�s force. Parr retreated to London and Kett was unable to follow, as his men had no wish to extend the dispute out of their native Norfolk. Somerset now ordered John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, south from Scotland, with 6,000 foot soldiers and 1,500 cavalry. Dudley surrounded Kett in Norwich, and the two leaders began negotiations. However some of Kett�s hotheads opened a fight with Dudley; Kett�s men were massacred with nearly 50 hanged.

20 June 1549, Thursday (-144,583) Kett�s Rebellion against enclosure of common land began when a group of men led by Robert Kett, a smallholder and tanner, tore down the new hedges and fences at Attleborough near Norwich. Copycat mobs sprang up all across Suffolk and Norfolk. In particular they resented the enclosure activities of landowner Edward Flowerdew.

9 June 1549. Sunday (-144,594) The Church of England adopted the Book of Common Prayer, compiled by Thomas Cranmer. In Devon, where the abolition of the chantries had caused economic hardship, there was considerable opposition.

20 May 1549, Monday (-144,614) From this date, only the new Book of Prayer was allowed to be used in English churches.

21 April 1549, Sunday (-144,643) Easter Sunday

8 April 1549, Monday (-144,656)

20 March 1549. Wednesday (-144,675) Death of Thomas Seymour, Lord High Admiral of England. He married King Henry VIII�s widow, Catherine Parr. When she died, he planned to marry Queen Elizabeth I, but was arrested for treason and executed.

15 February 1549, Friday (-144,708) Major earthquake hit Qayin, Iran, killing 3,000.

11 January 1549, Friday (-144,743)

1 January 1549, Tuesday (-144,753)


31 December 1548, Monday (-144,754)

10 December 1548, Monday (-144,775)

24 November 1548, Saturday (-144,791) The English Parliament voted to allow clergymen to marry.

10 November 1548, Saturday (-144,805)

5 September 1548, Wednesday (-144,871) Catherine Parr, 6th wife of Henry VIII, died in childbirth.By then she was the wife of Lord Seymour, at Sudeley castle, near Cheltenham, Gloucestershire.

4 July 1548, Wednesday (-144,934)

30 June 1548, Saturday (-144,938) The Interim of Augsburg. A solution devised at the Diet of Augsburg by Charles V to solve the religious divisions of the Holy Roman Empire by devising a loosely-defined Catholicism that was acceptable to the Protestant Princes. It allowed the laity to receive the Communion cup and for Protestant Ministers to keep their wives. However the Catholics were unenthusiastic and most of the Protestant princes rejected it. Pope Paul refused to endorse it until August 1549.

21 May 1548, Monday (-144,978) Sir Edward Bellingham was appointed Deputy of Ireland after the recall of Sir Anthony St Leger.

1 April 1548, Sunday (-145,028) Easter Sunday. Sigismund I, King of Poland, died aged 81, after a reign of 42 years. He was succeeded by his 28-year old son, Sigismund II who ruled for 24 years.

18 March 1548, Sunday (-145,035) Cornelis Ketel, Dutch painter, was born in Gouda (died 8 August 1616 in Amsterdam)

11 February 1548, Saturday (-145,078) English churches were ordered to remove all images of saints, as the Reformation proceeded.

5 January 1548, Thursday (-145,115) Francisco Suraez, Spanish religious writer, was born in Granada (died 25 September 1617 in Lisbon)

1 January 1548, Sunday (-145,119)


5 December 1547, Monday (-145,146) Ubbo Emmius, Dutch historical writer, was born (died 9 December 1625).

2 December 1547, Friday (-145,149) Hernando Cortez, Spanish conqueror of Mexico in 1521, died near Seville.

19 October 1547, Wednesday (-145,193) Perino del Vaga, Italian painter, died (born near Florence 28 June 1500)

2 October 1547, Sunday (-145,210)

29 September 1547, Thursday (-145,213) Miguel de Cervantes, author, was born.

22 September 1547, Thursday (-145,220) Philipp Frischlin, German poet, was born (died 29 November 1590).

14 September 1547, Wednesday (-145,228) Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, Dutch statesman who was instrumental in obtaining independence for The Netherlands, was born in Amersfoort.

10 September 1547. Saturday (-145,232) The English won a major victory over the Scots at Pinkie.

20 July 1547, Wednesday (-154,304) Beatus Rhenanus, Gerrman scholarly writer, died in Strassburg (born 1485 in Alsace)

21 June 1547, Tuesday (-145,313) Moscow was destroyed by a fire which consumed 25,000 of the city�s wooden houses. 1,700 people died and 80,000 were made homeless.

23 May 1547,Monday (-145,342)

23 April 1547, Saturday (-145,372) Battle of Muhlberg. Charles (1500-58), who became King of Spain in 1516 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, was opposed to the growth of Lutheranism (Protestantism).At Muhlberg, Charles defeated the Protestant princes, allowing him to impose the Interim of Augsburg (1548) which was a temporary compromise making minimal concessions to these Protestants. Many German Protestants who felt these concessions were inadequate fled to England, assisting the Reformation there.

10 April 1547, Sunday (-145,385) Easter Sunday.

31 March 1547, Thursday (-145,395) King Francis I of France died aged 52.

20 February 1547, Sunday (-145,434) King Edward VI, aged 9, crowned as King at Westminster Abbey.

16 February 1547, Wednesday (-145,438) King Henry VIII was buried at Windsor.

28 January 1547. Friday (-145,457) King Henry VIII, born 28 June 1491, died aged 56, probably of kidney and liver failure. King Edward VI, the only son of Henry VIII, by Jane Seymour, born 12 October 1537 and now aged 9, ascended the throne on 20 February 1547. However he died on 9 July 1553 at the age of 15. He was succeeded by Lady Jane Grey, see 19 July 1553.

19 January 1547, Wednesday (-145,466) Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was beheaded at the Tower of London for treason.

18 January 1547, Tuesday (-145,467) Pietro Bembo, Italian writer, died (born in Venice 20 May 1470).

16 January 1547. Sunday (-145,469) Ivan the Terrible, first Russian to assume the title of Tsar, was crowned.


31 December 1546, Friday (-145,485)

19 December 1546, Sunday (-145,497) Trinity College, Cambridge, founded.

14 December 1546, Tuesday (-145,502) Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer and mathematician, was born in Knudstrup.

23 November 1546, Tuesday (-145,523) Peter Flotner, German artist, died in Nuremberg.

4 November 1546, Thursday (-145,542) Christ Church College, Oxford, founded by Thomas Wolsey.

1 November 1546, Monday (-145,545) Romano Giulio, Italian painter, died in Mantua.

4 October 1546, Monday (-145,573)

3 August 1546, Tuesday (-145,635) In Paris the printer Etienne Dolet was hanged and burned for heresy, after printing the works of humanists such as Erasmus.

16 July 1546, Friday (-145,653) (Britain) Protestant martyr Anne Askew was burnt at the stake.

10 July 1546, Saturday (-145,659) (Germany) The Schmalkaldic War began between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League.

4 July 1546, Sunday (-145,665) (Turkey) Death of Ottoman Admiral Khair el Din, better known as Barbarossa (born ca. 1478).

24 June 1546, Thursday (-145,675) Robert Parsons, English political religious writer, was born in Somerset (died 18 April 1610 in Rome)

7 June 1546, Monday (-145,692) (France) England and France concluded the Peace of Ardres. England retained control over Boulogne for the next 8 years.

25 April 1546, Sunday (-145,735) Easter Sunday.

8 April 1546, Thursday (-145,752) At the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic Church declared the Apocrypha to be part of the Bible.

7 April 1546, Wednesday (-145,753) Friedrich Myconius, religious writer, died (born 26 December 1490).

26 March 1546, Friday (-145,765) Sir Thomas Elyot, English scholarly writer, died.

21 March 1546, Sunday (-145,770) Bartholomeus Spranger, Dutch painter, was born in Antwerp (died 1611 in Prague)

20 March 1546, Saturday (-145,771) Sheihk Bahai, theologian and wscientist, was born.

18 February 1546. Thursday (-145,801) Martin Luther, Augustinian friar and instigator of the Reformation, died (see 31 October 1517), at his birthplace of Eisleben, Germany, at the age of 63, apparently of overwork.

3 January 1546, Sunday (-145,847) Gaudenzio Ferrari, Italian artist, died in Milan.

1 January 1546, Friday (-145,849)


31 December 1545, Thursday (-145,850)

13 December 1545, Sunday (-145,868) The Council of Trent began.

7 December 1545, Monday (-145,874) Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was born.

6 December 1545, Sunday (-145,875) Janus Dousa, Dutch writer, was born (died 8 October 1604).

18 October 1545, Sunday (-145,924) John Taverner, English composer, died.

13 October 1545, Tuesday (-145,929)

24 September 1545, Thursday (-145,948) (Germany) Albert, Archbishop of Mainz, died.

27 August 1545, Thursday (-145,976) (Netherlands) Alexander Farnese, Governor-General of The Netherlands under King Philip II of Spain, was born (died 3 December 1592)

22 August 1545, Saturday (-145,981) In Guildford, Surrey, Charles Brandon, close friend and old jousting partner of King Henry VIII, died after a short illness.

1 August 1545, Saturday (-146,002) (Scotland) Andrew Melville, Scottish religious reformer, was born.

19 July 1545, Sunday (-146,015) The Mary Rose, pride of Henry VIII�s battle fleet, keeled over and sank in the Solent with the loss of 700 lives. It was raised on 11 October 1982 and taken to Portsmouth Dockyard.

8 July 1545, Wednesday (-146,026) (Spain) Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias, was born (died 24 July 1568).

26 June 1545, Friday (-146,038) A botanical garden was established in Padua. This, or the garden in Pisa, is the oldest such garden in Europe.

1 May 1545, Friday (-149,094) Franz Junius, Hugenot French religious writer, was born (died 1`3 October 1602).

20 April 1545, Monday (-146,105) The Waldensians were massacred in Provence.

5 April 1545, Sunday (-146,120) Easter Sunday.

2 March 1545, Monday (-146,154) (Britain) Sir Thomas Bodley, founder of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, was born in Exeter (died in London 28 January 1613).

25 February 1545, Wednesday (-146,159) The English were defeated by the Scots at Ancrum Moor. See 24 November 1542. In September 1545 the English again invaded Scotland.

24 February 1545, Tuesday (-146,160) Don John of Austria was born (died 1 October 1578)

16 January 1545, Friday (-146,199) George Spalatin (Burckhardt), Church reformer, died in Altenburg (born 17 January 1484 in Spalt)

1 January 1545, Thursday (-146,214)


31 December 1544, Wednesday (-146,215)

9 December 1544, Tuesday (-146,237) Teofilo Folengo, Italian poet, died (born 8 November 1491).

25 October 1544, Saturday (-146,282)

9 October 1544, Thursday (-146,298) French forces almost recaptured Boulogne, but the English raliied and drove them back.

18 September 1544, Thursday (-146,319) (Italy) France and Spain concluded the Peace of Crepy. Spain was growing weary of fighting. The Treaty preserved the status quo, with France retaining north west Italy. England was suddenly without allies against France. King Henry VIII returned to England, leaving a garrison in Boulogne.

14 September 1544, Sunday (-146,323) Henry VIII of England captured Boulogne. On 7 June 1546 the English and French signed the Peace of Ardres. This said Boulogne was to remain in English hands for another eight years.

19 July 1544, Saturday (-146,380) Henry VIII laid siege to the French town of Boulogne, in revenge for French military assistance to Scotland.

11 June 1544, Wednesday (-146,418) King Henry VIII ordered English, not Latin, to be used in the English Chiurch litany.

24 May 1544, Saturday (-146,437) (Britain) William Gilbert, physician to Queen Elizabeth I, was born (died 30 November 1603).

14 April 1544, Monday (-146,477) Battle of Ceresole. France defeated the Spanish south of Turin.

13 April 1544, Sunday (-146,478) Easter Sunday

30 March 1544, Sunday (-146,492) Bartolome de las Casas, Spanish campaigner against the abuse of indigenous peoples, was consecrated as Bishop of Chiapas, Mexico.

11 March 1544, Tuesday (-146,511) Torquato Tasso, Italian poet, was born in Sorrento (died 25 April 1595 in St Onofrio)

24 January 1544, Thursday (-146,557) Gillis van Coninxloo, painter, was born in Antwerp (died 1607 in Amsterdam)

19 January 1544, Saturday (-146,562) Francis II, King of France, was born.

1 January 1544, Tuesday (-146,580)


14 December 1543, Friday (-146,598)

11 December 1543, Tuesday (-146,601) The Scottish Parliament denounced the peace treaty made 1 July 1543 between Scotland and England. Parliament preferred to continue te alliance with France.

30 November 1543, Friday (-146,612) Francesco Granacci, Florentoine painter, died in Florence.

29 November 1543, Thursday (-146,613) German painter Hans Holbein the Younger died in London.

22 September 1543, Saturday (-146,681) Josse Clichtove, Belgian religious writer, died.

9 September 1543, Sunday (-146,694) Mary Queen of Scots was crowned at age 9 months. Her father James V had died when she was 1 week old. She was beheaded at age 44.

12 July 1543. Thursday (-146,753) King Henry VIII married his sixth wife, Katherine Parr.

1 July 1543, Sunday (-146,764) (Scotland) An Anglo-Scots peace treaty was signed. The infant Mary Queen of Scots will marry King Henry VIII�s son and heir Edward as soon as she is 10 years old.

24 May 1543. Thursday (-146,802) Polish astronomer, Nicolas Copernicus died of apoplexy.Born on 19 February 1473, in Torun, Poland, Copernicus is regarded as the founder of modern astronomy.When his father died, Copernicus� uncle Lucas Waczenrode became his guardian.In 1491 Copernicus went to the University of Krakow to study Latin, mathematics, astronomy, geography, and philosophy.He returned home after 4 years without a degree, and studied Canon Law at the University of Bologna so as to have a church career. From a turret on the walls of Bologna Cathedral, Copernicus studied the stars, and in 1530 produced a 400 page treatise, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the revolutions of the celestial spheres). This put forward the idea that the earth rotated on its own axis daily and annually around the Sun. It was published in the year of his death, 1543, and greeted with a hostile reception as it challenged the ancient teaching that the earth was the centre of the Universe.

24 April 1543, Tuesday (-146,832)

19 April 1543, Thursday (-146,837) (Ireland) Henry VIII appointed George Dowdall as Archbishop of Armagh, succeeding George Cromer.

1 April 1543, Sunday (-146,855) Francois Lesdiguieres, Constable of France, was born (died 21 September 1626).

25 March 1543, Sunday (-146,862) Easter Sunday.

16 March 1453, Friday (-146,871) Gonzalo Cordoba, Spanish statesman, was born (died 2 December 1515).

10 February 1543, Saturday (-146,905) (Christian) Johann Maier Eck, opponent of the reforms of Martin Luther, died (born 13 November 1486).

3 January 1543, Wednesday (-149,943) Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, Spanish explorer of what is now the Californian coast, died (born ca. 1499)

1 January 1543, Monday (-146,945)


31 December 1542, Sunday (-146,946)

21 December 1542, Thursday (-146,956) (Mathematics) Thomas Allen, English mathematician, was born in Uttoxeter, Staffordshire (died 30 September 1632 at Gloucester Hall).

14 December 1542, Thursday (-146,963) James V, King of Scotland, died, aged 30. He was succeeded by his baby daughter, Mary Queen of Scots.

7 December 1542, Thursday (-146,970) Mary Queen of Scots, cousin of Queen Elizabeth I, was born in Llinlithgow Palace, daughter of King James V of Scotland. See 9 September 1543.

24 November 1542. Friday (-146,983) The English defeated the Scots at Solway Moss as Henry VIII fought to gain control of Scotland. On 1 July 1543 England and Scotland signed the Peace of Greenwich, but this was repudiated by the Scottish Parliament on 11 December 1543. England invaded Scotland again in 1544, pillaging Edinburgh, but failed to gain a surrender from Scotland. See 25 February 1545.

10 November 1542, Friday (-146,997) Felipe Vigarny, Burgundian-born sculptor, died in Toldeo, Spain.

4 October 1542, Wednesday (-147,034) (Christian) Roberto Bellarmine, Italian Cardinal, was born in Tuscany (died in Rome 17 September 1621).

28 September 1542, Thursday (-147,040) Spanish explorer Francisco de Orellana landed at what is now Diego on the Californian coast.

16 September 1542, Saturday (-147,052) The French King, Francois I, was prescribed a new food by his Ottoman Turkish doctor. This food was yoghurt.

24 August 1542, Thursday (-147,075) Spanish explorers from Quito, Peru, pushed on over the Andes and explored the river they called the Amazon, after the women warriors they met there. However this territory was claimed by Portugal under the Treaty of Tordesillas.

30 July 1542, Sunday (-147,100)

21 July 1542, Friday (-147,109) Pope Paul III established the Universal Inquisition in order to halt the Reformation by repression.

24 June 1542, Saturday (-147,136) St John of the Cross, Spanish mystic and poet, was born (died 1591).

19 June 1542, Monday (-147,141) Leo Jud, Swiss Bible writer, died.

21 May 1542, Sunday (-147,170) Hernando de Soto, the first European to cross the Mississippi, died on the return journey.

6 May 1542, Saturday (-147,185) (Christian, India) Francis Xavier arrived at the Portuguese colony of Goa, India, to begin his work of converting the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity.

15 April 1542, Monday (-147,206) Leonardo da Vinci was born.His father, Piero da Vinci, was a notary and his mother, Caterina da Vinci, was a peasant.

9 April 1542, Sunday (-147,212) Easter Sunday.

28 March 1542, Tuesday (-147,224) In England, Margaret Davy was boiled to death. This rare punishment was inflicted for her committing murder by poisoning.

13 February 1542. Monday (-147,267) Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII, was beheaded. She stood accused of adultery. Her last words were �I die a queen but I would rather have died the wife of Culpepper�.

1 February 1542, Wednesday (-147,279) (Italy) Girolamo Aleandro, Italian Cardinal, died in Rome (born 13 February 1480 in Motta, near Venice).

6 January 1542, Friday (-147,305) Bernard van Orley, Dutch painter, died in Brussels.

1 January 1542, Sunday (-147,310)


31 December 1541, Saturday (-147,311)

29 December 1541, Thursday (-147,313) By the Treaty of Gyalu, against the wishes of the Hungarian nobility, Isabella, widow of John Zapolya and mother of the infant King John Sigismund Zapolya, ceded Hungary to Frederick I, Archduke of Austria.

24 December 1541, Saturday (-147,318) (Christian) Carlstadt, German religious reformer, died (born 1480)

9 November 1541, Wednesday (-147,363) Catherine Howard, 5th wife of King Henry VIII, was confined to the Tower of London

18 October 1541, Tuesday (-147,385) Margaret, Queen of Scotland, died.

11 October 1541, Tuesday (-147,392)

24 September 1541, Saturday (-147,409) Paracelsus, scientist and occultist, died..

18 August 1541, Thursday (-147,446)

1 August 1541, Monday (-147,463) Simon Grynaeus, German scholarly writer, died (born 1493)

22 July 1541, Friday (-147,473) A proclamation was made across England, on orders of King Henry VIII, banning the import of unlicensed religious books.

26 June 1541, Sunday (-147,499) Francisco Pizarro, Conquistador, was assassinated in Lima, by followers of a rival explorer, Almagro. The two had disputed over the area each was to control.

18 June 1541, Saturday (-147,507) The Irish Parliament selected King Henry VIII as King of Ireland

21 May 1541, Saturday (-147,535) Johann Faber, German religious writer, died (born 1478).

8 May 1541, Sunday (-147,548) The River Mississippi was first seen by Europeans. The Spanish Conquistador, Hernando de Soto, reached the River in the area where Arkansas City is now sited.

22 April 1541, Friday (-147,564)

17 April 1541, Sunday (-147,569) Easter Sunday.

7 April 1541, Thursday (-147,579) Francis Xavier and three Jesuit companions sailed from Lisbon to do conversion work in the West Indies.

12 February 1541, Saturday (-147,633) The Spaniards founded Santiago, Chile.

26 January 1541, Wednesday (-147, 650) Florent Chrestien, French poet, was born (died 3 October 1596).


31 December 1540, Friday (-147,676)

22 December 1540, Wednesday (-147,685) Damian Forment, Spanish sculptor, died in Domingo de la Calzada.

14 November 1540, Sunday (-147,723) Florentino Rosso, ita;lian painter, died near Paris (born 8 March 1494 in Florence)

5 October 1540, Tuesday (-147,763) Helius Hessus, German poet, died (born 6 January 1488).

1 October 1540, Friday (-147,767) Johann Grynaeus, Swiss religious writer, was born (died 13 August 1617).

2 September 1540, Thursday (-147,796) Dawit II, Emperor of Ethiopia, died.

24 August 1540, Tuesday (-147,805) Francesco Parmigiano, Italian painter, died.

23 August 1540, Monday (-147,806) Guillaume Bude, French scholarly writer, died.

5 August 1540,Thursday (-147,824) Joseph Justus Scaligier was born in Lot et Garonne, France. In 1583 he devised the Julian Day Count, which set 1 january 4713 BCE as day 1. This makes, for example, 1 January 1990 as Day 2,447,527.

30 July 1540, Friday (-147,830) (Britain) Thomas Abel, English priest, was executed for denying the Royal supremacy in the Church.

28 July 1540. Wednesday (-147,832) Thomas Cromwell, Chancellor to Henry VIII, was beheaded on Tower Hill for promoting the King�s failed marriage to Anne of Cleves. (See 6 January 1540). On the same day Henry VIII married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard. She was beheaded on 13 February 1542.

23 July 1540, Friday (-147,837) Following the death of John Zapolya, the infant John Sigismund Zapolya succeeded as King of Hungary, in violation of the Treaty of Nagyvarad. Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria, King of Bohemia and Germany, invaded to claim the whole of Hungary.

9 July 1540. Friday (147,851) Henry VIII divorced his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves. She was his fourth wife; nicknamed �The Flanders Mare�, she at least kept her head.

24 June 1540, Thursday (-147,866) Henry VIII ordered Anne of Cleves to leave the Royal Court

11 June 1540, Friday (-147,879) Barmabe Googe, English poet, was born (died 2/1594)

3 June 1540, Thursday (-147,887) Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto became the first European to cross the Appalachian mountains.

22 May 1540, Saturday (-147,899) In Scotland, Queen Mary gave birth to a son, James.

9 May 1540, Sunday (-147,912)

6 May 1540, Thursday (-147,915) Luis Juan Vives, Spanish schoilarly writer, died in Bruges (born 6 March 1492 in Valencia)

30 March 1540, Tuesday (-147,952) Matthaus Lang von Wellenburg, German statesman, died.

28 March 1540, Sunday (-147,954) Easter Sunday

23 March 1540. Tuesday (-147,959) The Crown seized Waltham Abbey. It was the last of the great monasteries to be seized by Henry VIII, bringing to an end a four-year campaign that had seen some 550 church properties, with their gold and jewels, pass to the King. The total income from these properties was around �132,000 a year and Henry VIII gave some of this to his supporters.

22 February 1540, Sunday (-147,989) Coronation of Queen Mary, second wife of King James V of Scotland.

9 February 1540. Monday (-148,002) The first recorded horse-racing meeting in Britain took place on Roodeye Field (now Roodee), Chester.

24 January 1540, Saturday (-148,018) Edmund Campion, Jesuit, was born.

6 January 1540. Tuesday (-148,036) King Henry VIII�s ill-fated marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves (see 28 July 1540). Anne was born on 22 September 1515; her father was leader of the German Protestants and so Anne was regarded as a suitable wife for Henry VIII by Cromwell. However she had no looks, spoke only her own language, and had no dowry. Her only recommendations were her proficiency in needlework and her meek and mild temper. The marriage contract was signed on 24 September 1539; she landed at Deal on 27 December 1539, and Henry VIII met her at Rochester on 1 January 1540. On 2 January 1540 Henry VIII openly said about her looks, �She is no better than a Flanders mare�. On the wedding morning, 6 January 1540, he said nothing would have persuaded him to marry her but the fear of driving the Duke of Cleves into the arms of the Holy Roman Emperor. Soon after Henry regretted identifying so closely with the German Protestants. Henry then declared the marriage non-consummated and so null and void, on 9 July 1540. Anne lived the rest of her life happily in retirement in England, dying on 28 July 1557; she was buried at Westminster Abbey.


31 December 1539, Wednesday (-148,042)

6 November 1539, Thursday (-148,097)

1 November 1539, Saturday (-148,102) Pierre Pithou, French scholarly writer, was born in Troyes (died 1 November 1596 in Nogent sur Seine)

7 September 1539, Sunday (-148,157) Guru Angad Dev became the second Guru of the Sikhs.

4 September 1539, Thursday (-148,160) King Henry VIII contracted to marry Anne of Cleves.

10 August 1539. Sunday (-148,185) King Francis of France orders that all legal documents are henceforth to be drawn up in French, not Latin. He also ordered all priests to keep records of baptisms and deaths.

10 June 1539, Tuesday (-148,246)

30 May 1539, Friday (-148,257) Hernando de Soto landed in Florida, with 600 soldiers, in search of gold.He also introduced pigs into North America.

17 April 1539, Thursday (-143,300) Tobias Stimmer, Swiss painter, was born in Schaffhausem (died 14 January 1584 in Strasbourg)

7 April 1539, Monday (-148,310) In Ireland, a Royal Commission organised the surrendering and redistribution of monastic lands.

6 April 1539, Sunday (-148,311) Easter Sunday

30 March 1539, Sunday (-148,318)

14 February 1539, Monday (-148,366) James Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews, died. His nephew, Cardinal David Beaton, succeded him.

12 January 1539, Sunday (-148,395) The Treaty of Toledo was signed by Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor, and King of Spain), and Francis I (King of France).Each agreed to make no further alliances with England.The origin of this Treaty was the dispute between King Henry VIII of England and Pope Paul III.

1 January 1539, Wednesday (-148,406)


31 December 1538, Tuesday (-148,407)

28 December 1538, Saturday (-148,410) Andrea Gritti, Doge of Venice, died.

27 December 1538, Friday (-148,411) (England) Cardinal Reginald Pole, exilded cpusin of henry VIII of England, set out to rally support in France and Spain foir an invasion of England.

17 December 1538, Tuesday (-148,421) Pope Paul III finally excommunicated King Henry VIII of England.

30 November 1538, Saturday (-148,438) (1) In England, Byland Abbey was dissolved.

(2) Sucre, Bolivia, was founded under the name of Ciudad de la Plata de la Nueva Toledo.

28 October 1538, Monday (-148,471) The first University in the Americas, the Universidad Santo Tomas de Aquino, was founded.

28 September 1538, Saturday (-148,501) At the Battle of Preveza, the Turkish fleet under Suleiman the Magnificent, commanded by Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, defeated the Holy League forces of Charles V, commanded by Andrea Doria.

5 September 1538, Thursday (-148,524) In England, Thomas Cromwell ordered every parish to keep a record ofmbaptisms, marriages and funerals.

22 August 1538, Thursday (-148,538) (Britain) John Lambert, English Protestant martyr, died.

6 August 1538, Tuesday (-148,554) Bogota, Colombia, was founded by Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada.

25 July 1539, Thursday (-148,566) (Christian) Lorenzo Campeggio, Italian Cardinal, died (born 1464).

18 June 1538, Tuesday (-148,603) The Truce of Nice; peace was declared between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King Francis I of France.

10 June 1538, Monday (-148,611) GermanCatholic Princes formed the League of Nuremberg, in opposition to the Protestant Schmalkaldic Leagie.

8 May 1538, Thursday (-148,643) (Britain) Edward Fox, Bishop of Hereford, died.

5 May 1538, Monday (-148,646) (Ireland) The clergy in Dublin resisted reforms introduced by Archbishop George \Browne.

26 April 1538, Friday (-148,656) At the Battle of Los Salinas, Almagro was defeated by Francisco Pizarro, who then seized Cuzco.

21 April 1538, Sunday (-148,661) Easter Sunday.

24 February 1538, Sunday (-148,717) The Treaty of Nagyvarad; peace was declared between King Ferdinand and the Turks.John Zapolya was recognised as King of Hungary, whilst Ferdinand retained northern and western Hungary and was recognised as heir to the Hungarian throne.

12 February 1538, Tuesday (-148,729) Abrecht Altdorfer, painter, died.

1 January 1538, Tuesday (-148,771) German and Swiss states introduced the Gregorian Calendar.


24 December 1537, Monday (-148,779)

10 December 1537, Monday (-148,793) Giovanni Guarini, Italian poet, was born (died 1612).

24 October 1537.Wednesday (-148,840) Jane Seymour, third wife of Henry VIII, died, of the all-too-common childbed fever.

18 October 1537, Thursday (-148,846) Edward Seymour, brother of Jane Seymour, 3rd wife of Henry VIII, was made earl of Hertford.

12 October 1537. Friday (-148,852) Edward VI, son of Henry VIII and his third wife Jane Seymour, was born at Hampton Court Palace, London. He succeeded his father at the age of 9 but died aged 15. Henry intended him to marry Mary, daughter of King James V of Scotland. In 1543 the Treaty of Greenwich provided for this marriage when Edward reached the age of 10; however the Scottish Parliament rejected this Treaty.

4 October 1537, Thursday (-148,860) The Matthew Bible, ptinted under the pseudonym Thomas Matthew, was produced.

6 September 1537, Thursday (-148,888) As Venetian reinforcements approached corfu, and with Holy Roman Empire atatcks on the Ottomans in Hungary, Suleiman abandoned the siege of Corfu.

2 September 1537, Sunday (-148,892) Protestant �superintendents� were appointed in Denmark to replace the former Catholic Bishops (see 27 September 1536).

25 August 1537, Saturday (-148,900) The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army and the second most senior, was founded.

18 August 1537, Saturday (-148,907) Suleiman began a siege of Corfu. He was assisted by the French navy, against Holy Roman Empire and Venetian forces defending Corfu.

15 August 1537, Wednesday (-148,910) Asunci�n was founded by Juan de Salazar y Espinoza.

25 July 1537. Wednesday (-148,931)

7 July 1537, Saturday (-148,949) In Scotland, Queen Madelaine died, just 2 months after arriving in the country. She was 16, and had been married to King James V for just 7 months.

5 July 1537, Thursday (-148,951) (Ireland) On the death of Aodh Dudh O�Donnell, Lord of Tyrconnell, he was succeeded by his son Manus.

30 June 1537, Saturday (-148,956) Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland and the most powerful of the Northern nobles, died. He bequeathed all his lands to The Crown.

20 June 1537, Wednesday (-148,966) Thomas Darcy, English soldier died (born 1467).

2 June 1537, Saturday (-148,984) (Christian, Race Equality) A Papal Bull issued by Pope Paul III prohibited enslavement of American Indians, contrary to King Charles V�s policies. Paul excommunicated Catholic slave traders.

25 May 1537, Friday (-148,992)

20 May 1537, Sunday (-148,997) Hieronymous Fabricius, physician, was born in Italy. In 1604 he published a major work on embryology.

1 April 1537, Sunday (-149,046) Easter Sunday.

12 March 1537, Monday (-149,066) The Portuguese founded the city of Recife, Brazil

10 March 1537, Saturday (-149,068) In Lancaster, Abbot John Paslew of Whalley was one churchman of several executed for the Pilgramage of Grace in 1536..

6 February 1537, Tuesday (-149,100) Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japanese statesman, was born (see 18 August 1598)

12 January 1537, Friday (-149,125) Lorenzo di Credi, Italian painter, died in Florence.

6 January 1537, Saturday (-149,131) Alessandro de Medici was assassinated.

1 January 1537, Monday (-149,136) (Scotland) James V of Scotland, in Paris, married Princess Madelaine, daughter of King Francis of France. She was then in poor health.


31 December 1536, Sunday (-149,137)

6 December 1536, Wednesday (-149,162)

6 November 1536, Monday (-149,192)

16 October 1536, Monday (-149,213) (Britain, Christian) York was occupied by rebels against the takeover of the Church by King Henry VIII. This was the Pilgrimage of Grace. Much of northern England, from Lincolnshire to north Yorkshire, was in uproar at this takeover, the valuation of Church property, the suppression of smaller monasteries, and the cancellation of some Saints day holidays. Led by Robert Aske, rebels seized northern towns. Henry VIII made peace with the rebels and issued a pardon, only to go back on this on a pretext in January 1537 and execute the leaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace, including Aske.

14 October 1536, Saturday (-149,215) Garcilaso de la Vega, Spanish poet, died in Nice (born 6 February 1503 in Toledo)

13 October 1536, Friday (-149,216) The Pilgrimage of Grace began in northern England, protesting at King Henry VIII�s break from Rome.

8 October 1536, Sunday (-149,221) Johannes Secundus, poet, died of fever (born in The Hague 15 November 1511)

6 October 1536, Friday (-149,223) William Tyndale, English religious reformer and translator of the Bible, was burned at the stake as a heretic in Vilvarde, Brussels, on the orders of King Henry VIII.

10 September 1536, Sunday (-149,249) (Scotland) James V of Scotland arrived in Dieppe to marry the daughter of the Duke of Vendome.

6 September 1536, Wednesday (-149,253)

6 August 1536, Sunday (-149,284)

29 July 1536, Saturday (-149,292) End of the Count�s War in Denmark (began 1534). CountChristopher of Oldenburg, great nephew of King Christian I, Catholic, contested with Frederick�s son, Christian III. The poorer people supported the Catholics. Forces loyal to Protestant Christian III, backed by the Holstein Dukes and Gustavus Vasa of Sweden, captured Copenhagen this day, This ensured the primacy of Lutheranism over Roman Catholicism in Denmark. The property of the Catholic Bishops was now confiscated by the Danish State.

22 July 1536, Saturday (-149,299) Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, illegitmate son of Henry VIII, died of consumption at St James Palace, London.

12 July 1536, Wednesday (-149,309) Desiderus Erasmus, Renaissance philosopher, died.

11 July 1536, Tuesday (-149,310) The Convocation of the Clergy. English clergy subscribed to the Ten Articles, beliefs of the English Church under King Henry VIII.

16 June 1536, Friday (-149,335) The St Lawrence River was named by explorer Jacques Cartier.

30 May 1536. Tuesday (-149,352) King Henry VIII married Jane Seymour, his third wife, in the Queen�s Chapel, Whitehall, eleven days after the execution of Anne Boleyn.

19 May 1536. Friday (-149,363) Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII, mother of Queen Elizabeth I, was beheaded at Tower Green, in the Tower of London, aged 29.She was accused of adultery � Henry VIII was already flirting with his third wife Jane. Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and lost her right of succession to the English throne.

10 May 1536, Wednesday (-149,372) A Grand Jury at Westminister indicted Anne Boleyn for high treason.

6 May 1536, Saturday (-149,376) King Henry VIII ordered a copy of The Bible to be placed in every English church.

30 April 1536, Sunday (-149,382) The Inquisition was implemented in Portugal.

18 April 1536, Tuesday (-149,394) King Henry VIII of Engtland began expropriating the minor monasteries

16 April 1536, Sunday (-149,396) Easter Sunday.

14 April 1536, Friday (-149,398) Governance of Wales was reorganised. The English shire system was introduced, and nobody unable to speak English could hold office in law or administration in Wales. The powers of the old Marcher Lords were abolished, and their lands, a wide swathe west of the modern boundary of Wales, was organised into shires based on Brecon, Dennbigh, Radnor, Monmouth and Montgomery. .

10 March 1536, Friday (-149,433) Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norflolk, was born (beheaded 2 June 1572).

2 March 1536, Thursday (-149,441)

25 February 1536, Friday (-149,447) (Christian) Berthold Haller, Swiss religious reformer, died (born 1492)

23 February 1536, Wednesday (-149,449) Lord Leonard Grey was appointed Deputy of Ireland.

5 February 1536, Saturday (-149,467) Anne Boleyn was arrested and taken to the Tower of London.

29 January 1536, Saturday (-149,474) Queen Anne miscarried a male child.

7 January 1536, Friday (-149,496) Catharine of Aragon died at Kimbolton Palace, Huntingdonshire. She was the first of Henry VIII�s six wives, and the mother of Queen Mary I.

6 January 1536, Thursday (-149,497) Baldassare Peruzzi, Italian artist, died in Rome (born 15 January 1581 near Siena)

1 January 1536, Saturday (-149,502)


31 December 1535, Friday (-149,503) Sir William Skeffington, Lord Deputy of Ireland, died.

7 November 1535, Friday (-149,559)

24 October 1535, Sunday (-149,571) Francesco Sforza II, Duke of Milan, died aged 45 without a successor. Milan became a suzerainty of Charles V.

16 October 1535, Saturday (-149,579) Niwa Nagahide, Japanese warlord, was born.

4 October 1535, Monday (-149,591) The first English Bible was printed, translated and published by Miles Coverdale.

4 August 1535, Wednesday (-149,652)

11 July 1535, Sunday (-149,676) Joachim I, Elector of Brandenburg, died (born 21 February 1484).

9 July 1535, Friday (-149,678) Antoine du Prat, Chancellor of France, died (born 17 January 1463).

6 July 1535, Tuesday (-149,681) (UK, Russia) Sir Thomas Moore was beheaded in London, for refusing to accept Henry VIII as head of the Church of England. Thomas More was born in 1477 in London. He published Utopia in 1515 which described a pagan, communist, city state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. His ideas contrasted with the self-interest and greed for power seen in Europe�s Christian states.

22 June 1535, Monday (-149,696) Cardinal John Fisher was beheaded on Tower Hill, London, for refusing to acknowledge King Henry VIII as head of the Church of England.

11 June 1535, Thursday (-149,707) (Denmark) A Danish-Swedish army led by King Christian III of Denmark and Norway defeated the army and navy of the Hanseatic port of Lubeck. The era of Hanseatic naval power ended. Christian III was able to conquer the island of Fyn and all of Zeeland except for Copenhagen.

1 June 1535, Monday (-149,717) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, captured Tunis.

31 May 1535, Sunday (-149,718) Alessandro Allori, Italian painter, was born in Florence (died 22 September 1607 in Florence)

20 May 1535, Thursday (-149,728) The Pope made John Fisher, now imprisoned in The Tower, a Cardinal.

6 May 1535, Thursday (-149,742)

28 April 1535, Wednesday (-149,750)

28 March 1535, Sunday (-149,781) Easter Sunday

5 March 1535, Friday (-149,804) Lorenzo Costa, Italian painter, died in Mantua.

18 February 1535, Thursday (-149,819) Henry Agrippa von Nettesheim, German writer, died in Grenoble (born in Cologne, 14 September 1486)

11 February 1535, Thursday (-149, 826) Pope Gregory XIV was born.

21 January 1535, Thursday (-149,847) Henry VIII appointed Cromwell as vice-regent in spiritual or vicar-general. Cromwell now set about assessing the value of England�s monasteries.

18 January 1535, Monday (-149,850) Lima, Peru, was founded by Francisco Pizarro.

15 January 1535, Friday (-149,853) The Act of Supremacy was passed in England. This made King Henry VIII head of the Church.

1 January 1535, Friday (-149,867) (Iran) Taking advantage of Suleiman being preoccupied with fighting in Mesopotamia, the Persians recaptured Tabriz (taken by Suleiman on 13 July 1534). However in May 1535 the Ottomans returned and retook Tabriz. Suleiman then pursued Tahmasp deeper into Persia, but Tahmasp avoided battle. Logistical reasons then compelled Suleiman to retire, and in Augsut 1535 he destroyed Tabriz.


31 December 1534, Thursday (-149,868) The Ottoman army captured Baghdad. By 1546 they controlled Yemen, gateway to the Red Sea.

6 November 1534, Friday (-149,923) (Biology) Joachim Camerarius, botanist, was born (died 11 October 1598).

18 October 1534, Friday (-149,944) Jean Passerat, French poet, was born in Troyes (died 14 September 1602 in Paris)

13 October 1534, Tuesday (-149,947) Pope Paul III (220th Pope), formerly Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (1468-1549) acceded.

25 September 1534, Friday (-149,965) Pope Clement VII (219th Pope) died after eating poisonous mushrooms (born 1475).

15 August 1534, Saturday (-150,006) (Christian) The Jesuits (Society of Jesus) was founded by Ignatius Loyola. They became the main counter-Reformation movement in the Catholic Church.

9 August 1534, Sunday (-150,012) (Christian) Cardinal Cajetan (Tommaso de Vio) died (born 1470). He was a staunch defender of papal privilege, in the face of Protestant reform.

24 July 1534, Friday (-150,028) Jacques Cartier landed in Canada, claiming the territory for France.

13 July 1534, Monday (-150,039) Ottoman armies captured Tabriz in north western Persia.

1 July 1534, Wednesday (-150,051) Frederick II, King of Denmark, was born.

9 June 1534, Tuesday (-150,073) Jacques Cartier discovered the estuary of the St Lawrence River in Canada.

10 May 1534, Sunday (-150,103) Jacques Cartier explored Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage.

4 May 1534, Monday (-150,109) Five Carthusian momks from London Chartehouse were hung drawn and quartered at Tyburn, London, for refusing to acknowledge Henry VIII as head of the Church of England

21 April 1534, Tuesday (-150,122) Thomas More, former Lord Chancellor, was arrested and sent to the Tower of London, along with John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, Both men had refused to swear to uphold the Act of Succession,, which provided that King Henry�s children by Quenn Anne should inherit the throne.

20 April 1534, Monday (-150,123) Jacques Cartier sailed from St Malo, to explore the Canadian coast.

18 April 1534, Saturday (-150,125) William Harrison, English writer, was born (died 24 April 1593).

15 April 1534, Wednesday (-150,128) Thomas Cromwell was appointed Chief Secretary to King Henry VIII of England

5 April 1534, Sunday (-150,138) Easter Sunday.

30 March 1534, Monday (-150,144) A new law in England, promulgated by Chancellor Thomas Cromwell, forbade anyone from owning more than 2,000 sheep. This was to halt rural depopulation. Sheep farming was very profitable, and large areas of arable land had been converted to sheep grazing, but this required much less rural labour. Some East Anglain farms had 20,000 sheep, and the Spencer Family in Northamptonshire had some 30,000.

23 March 1534, Monday (-150,151) The Pope officially decalred that Henry VIII�s marriage to Catherine was valid.

5 March 1534, Thursday (-150,169) Antonio Allegri Correggio, Italian painer, died in Correggio.

1 March 1534, Sunday (-150,173)

2 February 1534, Monday (-150,200) The Great Swabian League was dissolved.

2 January 1534, Friday (-150,231)


31 December 1533, Wednesday (-150,233)

4 December 1533, Thursday (-150,260) Ivan IV, aged 3, became ruler of Russia. He was to be known as Ivan the Terrible.

21 November 1533, Friday (-150,273) Basil III, Grand Duke of Muscovy, died aged 54 He was succeeded by his 3-year-old son who ruled until 1584 as Ivan IV (the Terrible).

15 November 1533, Saturday (-150,279) Pizarro entered Cuzco.

15 October 1533, Wednesday (-150,310)

2 October 1533, Thursday (-150,323)

7 September 1533, Sunday (-150,348) Queen Elizabeth I was born at Greenwich Palace in London, the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn (married 25 January 1533). Elizabeth was recognised as heir to the English throne ahead of her half sister Mary, daughter of Henry VIII�s first wife Catherine of Aragon. See 19 May 1536.

29 August 1533, Friday (-150,357) The end of the Inca Empire. Francisco Pizarro arranged for Atahualpa to be tried on charges of murder, sedition and idolatry. Found guilty this day, Atahualpa was executed by strangulation.

7 August 1533, Thursday (-150,379) Alonso de Ercilla y Zuniga, Spanish poet, was born (died 1595).

29 July 1533, Tuesday (-150,388)

11 July 1533, Friday (-150,406) Henry VIII was given a deadline of September to take Catherine back by Pope Clement VII, or face excommunication.

6 July 1533, Sunday (-150,411) Italian poet Ludovico Ariosto died.

4 July 1533, Friday (-150,413) John Frith, English religious writer ad reformer, was executed.

24 June 1533, Tuesday (-150,423) Mary Queen of France, daughter of Henry VII of England, died (born 21 December 1507).

22 June 1533, Sunday (-150,425) (Hungary) Peace treaty arranged between Suleiman I, Ottoman Sultan, and Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria, ruler of Germany and King of Bohemia. Ferdinand retained the parts of Hungary he still controlled, whilst voivoide (military viceroy) John Zapolya, ruler of Transylvania and ally of Suleiman, retained the rest of Hungary.

23 May 1533, Friday (-150,455) The marriage of Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon was annulled.

11 May 1533, Sunday (-150,467)

24 April 1533, Thursday (-150,484) William the Silent, Prince of Orange, was born at Dillenburg Castle, Nassau, Germany.

13 April 1533, Sunday (-150,495) Easter Sunday

10 April 1533, Thursday (-150,498) (Denmark) King Frederick I of Denmark died aged 62 (acceded 1523). Civil war ensured in Denmark, the Counts War, because the Diet refused to acknowledge the succession of his son, Christian, because he was a Lutheran. The Diet supported the accession of Frederick�s younger infant son, Hans. He was succeeded as King of Denmark and Norway by his 30-tear-old son, who ruled as King Christian III until 1559.

9 April 1533, Wednesday (-150,499) Catherine of Aragon was forbidden from using the title of Queen. She will be known as the Dowager Princess of Wales, as the widow of Henry�s older brother, Arthur.

24 March 1533, Monday (-150,515)

28 February 1533, Friday (-150,539) Michel de Montaigne, French essayist, was born.

30 January 1533, Thursday (-150,568) Protestant reformer Thomas Cranmer was consecrated as Archboishop of Canterbury.

25 January 1533, Saturday (-150,573) King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn were officially married by the Bishop of Lichfield, and became the future parents of Queen Elizabeth I on 7 September 1533. Anne Boleyn was crowned at Westminster on 1 June 1533, shortly after Thomas Cranmer (who was appointed as Archbishop of Canterbury on 30 March 1533) had declared Henry VIII�s marriage to Catherine of Aragon null and void. On 23 May 1533 Henry VIII actually divorced Catherine of Aragon, resulting in a break between England and the Church of Rome.

1 January 1533, Wednesday (-150,597)


31 December 1532, Tuesday (-150,598)

17 December 1532, Tuesday (-150,612)

25 November 1532, Monday (-150,634)

16 November 1532, Saturday (-150,643) (Peru) Atuahalpa met Pizarro at his mountain fortress of Cajamarca. The Spanish handed Atahualpa a Bible and demanded that he convert to Christianity. Atahualpa refused, and was taken hostage by the Spanish. The Inca offered the Spanish a �roomful of gold� to release Atahualpa; the ransom was paid, but Pizarro did not keep his side of the bargain. Instead he had Atahualpa garrotted in the main square in July 1533.

14 November 1532, Thursday (-150,645) King Henry VIII of England seceretly married Anne Boleyn.

20 October 1532, Sunday (-150,670) Henry VIII met King Francis of France at Calais in an attempt to secure his support for the divorce of Catherine.

16 October 1532, Wednesday (-150,674)

1 October 1532, Tuesday (-150,689) Jan Gossaert, Dutch painter, died in Antwerp.

1 September 1532, Sunday (-150,719) Lady Anne Boleyn was created Marquess of Pembroke by her fianc�, King Henry VIII.

22 August 1532, Thursday (-150,729) William Warham, Arhcbishop of Canterbury who was opposed to secular control of the Church by King Henry VIII, died.

16 August 1532, Friday (-150,735) John the Steadfast, Elector of Saxony, died (born 30 June 1468).

13 August 1532, Tuesday (-150,738) Union of Brittany and France: The Duchy of Brittany was absorbed into the Kingdom of France.

13 July 1532, Saturday (-150,769)

8 July 1532, Monday (-150,774) Andrea Brisco Riccio, Italian sculptor, died in Padua (born April 1470 in Trento)

5 July 1532, Friday (-150,777) The Earl of Kildare was appointed Deputy of Ireland, aftetr the dismissal of Thomas Skeffington.

25 June 1532, Tuesday (-150,787) Suleiman I attempted another invasion of Hungary, but failed.

1 June 1533, Saturday (-150,811) Coronation as Queen of Anne Boleyn, second wife of King Henry VIII of England, at Westminster Abbey.

28 May 1533, Tuesday (-150,815) The Archbishop of Canterbury declared the marriage of King Henry VII and Anne Bolryn to be void.

26 May 1532, Sunday (-150,817) King Francis I of France co-ordinated an anti-Habsburg alliance of German Princes opposed to the election of Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria and King of Bohemia, as King of Germany. This alliance included both Protestants and Catholics.

16 May 1532, Thursday (-150,827) Sir Thomas More resigned as Lord Chancellor of England. This was in protest at King Henry VIII�s break with Rome.

13 May 1532, Monday (-150,830) Francisco Pizarro landed on the northern coast of Peru.

24 April 1532, Wednesday (-150,849) Sir Thomas Lucy, acquaintance of Shakespear and Justice of the Peace at Stratford on Avon, was born (died 7 July 1600).

13 April 1532, Saturday (-150,860)

31 March 1532, Sunday (-150,873) Easter Sunday.

13 March 1532, Wednesday (-150,891)

13 February 1532, Tuesday (-150,920)

18 January 1532, Monday (-150,956) English Parliament banned payment by English churches to Rome.

15 January 1532, Friday (-150,959) The Pope threatened King henry VIII with excommunication.

1 January 1532, Monday (-150,963)


31 December 1531, Sunday (-150,964)

17 December 1531. Sunday (-150,978)

18 November 1531, Saturday (-151,007) Britain) Roberto di Ridolfi, who planned to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary Queen of scots, was born in Florence, Italy.This scheme was discovered by Elizabeth�s government in 1571. Ridolfi was then in Paris. He died in Florence 18 February 1612,

24 October 1531, Tuesday (-151,032) Hans Leu the Younger, Swiss painter, died near Zurich.

11 October 1531, Wednesday (-151,045) Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Church reformer, was killed in a fight with soldiers from the Catholic-supporting Forest Cantons at Kappel, near Zurich. Zwingli was Chaplain to the Protestant troops from Zurich.

11 September 1531, Monday (-151,075)

11 August 1531, Friday (-151,106)

14 July 1531, Friday (-151,134) King Henry VIII gave up all pretence of marriage with Catherine of Aragoin, and moved to Woodstock with his mistress, Anne Boleyn.

7 July 1531, Friday (-151,141) Tilman Riemenschneider, German sculptor, died in Wurzburg

25 June 1531, Sunday (-151,153)

25 May 1531, Thursday (-151,184)

25 April 1531, Tuesday (-151,214)

9 April 1531, Sunday (-151,230) Easter Sunday.

13 March 1531, Monday (-151,257)

25 February 1531. Saturday (-151,273) A severe earthquake killed an estimated 20,000 people in Lisbon.

11 February 1531, Saturday (-151,287) King Henry VIII was recognised as official head of the Church of England.

22 January 1531, Sunday (-151,307) Death of Florentine painter Andrea del Sarto.

5 January 1531, Thursday (-151,324) Pope Clement VII forbade King Henry VIII ofEngland from remarrying.

1 January 1531, Sunday (-151,328)


31 December 1530, Saturday (-151,329) At Schmalkaldin, in Thiuringia, Germany, Protestant Princes, including the Elector of Saxony and the Lamdgrave of Hesse, formed the Schmalkaldic League, against Emperor Charles V.

27 December 1530, Tuesday (-151,333) Spanish ships under Pizarro set sail from Panama into the Pacific to capture the gold and silver of the Inca Empire.

26 December 1530, Monday (-151,334) (India) Death of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire (born 1483).

23 December 1530, Friday (-151,337)

11 December 1530, Sunday (-151,349)

29 November 1530. Tuesday (-151,361) Cardinal Wolsey died after being arrested as a traitor. He died at Market Harborough whilst being taken from York to London.

4 November 1530, Friday (-151,386) Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was arrested as a traitor, after it was discovered that he had corresponded secretly with Pope Clement VII.

26 October 1530, Wednesday (-151,395) The Knights of Malta were formed when the Knights Hospitaller were given Malta by Charles V.

29 September 1530, Thursday (-151,422)

23 September 1530, Friday (-151,428)

25 August 1530, Thursday (-151,457) Ivan the Terrible of Russia was born. As Ivan IV, he killed over 3,000, including the royal heir.

12 August 1530, Friday (-151,470) Florence surrendered to the Holy Roman Empire.

2 August 1530, Tuesday (-151,480) (Italy) Battle of Gavinana; Florence was fighting to keep out the Holy Roman Empire.

3 July 1530, Sunday (-151,510) Claude Fauchet, French historical writer, was born (died 1601).

25 June 1530, Saturday (-151,518) The Confession of Augsburg was read to the Diet.

22 May 1530, Sunday (-151,552)

28 April 1530, Thursday (-151,576) Niklaus Mamuel Deutsch, Swiss painter, died in Berne.

27 April 1530, Wednesday (-151,577) Jacopo Sannazaro, Italian poet, died in Naples (born 1458 in Naples)

23 April 1530, Saturday (-151,581)

18 April 1530, Monday (-151,586) (Christian) Francis Lambert, Protestant reformer, died.

17 April 1530, Sunday (-151,587) Easter Sunday. Vicenzo Danti, Italian artist, was born in Perugia (died 26 May 1576 in Perugia)

22 March 1530, Tuesday (-151,613)

23 February 1530, Wednesday (-151,640) (Spain, Italy, Germany) Carlos I of Spain was crowned Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Italy by Pope Clement V.

19 January 1530, Wednesday (-151,675) Francisco Pizarro sailed from Spain, with a commission to conquer Peru. He sailed to Panama, and from there to Peru in 12/1530.

1 January 1530, Saturday (-151,693)


31 December 1529, Friday (-151,694)

23 December 1529, Thursday (-151,702)

23 November 1529, Tuesday (-151,732)

25 October 1529, Monday (-151,761) Sir Thomas More, lawyer and avocate of mild Church reform, was appointed Lord Chancellor in place of Wolsey.

17 October 1529, Sunday (-151,769) Henry VIII of England dismissed Cardinal Wolsey as Lord Chancellor, replacing him with Thomas Moore. The main cause of his dismissal was his failure to curb Habsburg expsansion, and Henry�s wish for a divorce from Catherine of Aragon due to the lack of a healthy male heir.

15 October 1529. Friday (-151,771) The Ottoman Turks withdrew from their siege of Vienna, as winter approached.

23 September 1529, Thursday (-151,793) Turkish forces began a siege of Vienna.

8 September 1529, Wednesday (-151,808) (1) The city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, was founded by Ambrosius Ehinger.

(2) Invading Turkish forces captured the city of Buda.

3 September 1529, Friday (-151,805) Turkish forces, allied with John Zapolya, began a siege of Buda.

25 August 1529, Wednesday (-151,822)

5 August 1529, Thursday (-151,842) The Treaty of Cambrai was signed, between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King Francis I of France.France abandoned its claims in Italy, but kept Burgundy.

21 July 1529, Wednesday (-151,857)

29 June 1529, Tuesday (-151,879) (Italy) The Treaty of Barcelona was agreed. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V will be formally crowned king of Naples by Pope Clement VII.

22 June 1529, Tuesday (-151,886) Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Rixhmond, illegitimate son of King Henry VIII, was made Lieutenant of Ireland.

21 June 1529, Monday (-151,887) John Skelton, tutor to the King Henry VIII as a boy, died.

7 June 1529, Monday (-151,901) Etienne Pasquier, French writer, was born (died 1 September 1615)

27 May 1529, Thursday (-151,912) Ad-Din Barbarossa completed his conquest of Algeria, bringing the Ottoman Empire to its peak.

10 May 1529, Monday (-151,929) The Turkish Army under Suleiman I left Constantinople to invade Hungary.

5 May 1529, Wednesday (-150,934) (Italy) Paulus Aemilius, Italian historian, died in Paris (born in Verona).

22 April 1529, Thursday (-151,947) The Treaty of Saragossa divided the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, along a north-south line 17 degrees 9297.5 leagues) east of the Moluccas.

19 April 1529, Monday (-151,950) At the Diet of Speyer, an alliance of German principalities and city states protested against the reinstatement of the Diet of Worms, so beginning the Protestant movement.

28 March 1529, Sunday (-151,972) Easter Sunday.

7 March 1529, Sunday (-151,993) At the Battle of Shimbra Kure, Imam Ahmad Ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi defeated the forces of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia.

8 January 1529, Friday (-152,051) John Frederick, Duke of Saxony, was born (died 6 May 1595)

7 January 1529, Thursday (-152,052) Peter Vischer, German sculptor, died.

1 January 1529, Friday (-152,058)


31 December 1528, Thursday (-152,059)

5 October 1528, Monday (-155,146) Richard Fox, Emglish statesman, died.

29 August 1528, Saturday (-152,183)

20 August 1528, Thursday (-153,192) Georg von Frundsberg, German soldier, died (born 24 September 1473).

15 August 1528, Saturday (-152,197) (France) Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, French military leader (born 1485) died.

30 July 1528, Thiursday (-152,213) Vecchio Palma, Italian painter, died in Venice.

8 July 1528, Wednesday (-152,235) Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, was born (died 30 August 1580).

26 June 1529, Friday (-152,247) the Treaty of Kapp[el ended the Swiss Civil war between the Catholic Forest Cantons and the Protestant Civic League. The Catholics agreed to end their alliance with the Habsburgs, and both sides agreed to more freedom of religion.

10 May 1529, Sunday (-152,296) (Hungary) Suleiman I, Ottoman Sultan, left Constantinople to attack Habsburg Austria. He was in league with John Zapolya, claimant to the Hungarian throne, who had been elected by anti-Habsburg factions of the Hungarian nobility.

12 April 1528, Sunday (-152,322) Easter Sunday

6 April 1528. Monday (-152,328) Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, died in Nuremberg, aged 57.

29 February 1528, Saturday (-152,365) Patrick Hamilton, Scottish martyr, was burnt at the stake.

22 January 1528, Wednesday (-152,403) (Britain) King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France declared war on the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. This led to a suspension of trade between England and its most important trading partner, The Netherlands. Resultant economic problems in England caused widespread civil unrest, and forced England to declare a truce with Charles V in June 1528.

1 January 1528, Wednesday (-152,424)


31 December 1527, Tuesday (-152,425)

8 November 1527, Friday (-152,478) (Christian) Jerome Emser, opponent of Martin Luther�s reforms, died (born 20 March 1477)

5 November 1527, Tuesday (-152,481) Ferdinand I of Austria and Bohemia, brother of Emperor Charles V, was recognised as King of Hungary by the Diet in Buda. John Zapolya continued to press his rival claim to the throne until 1528.

1 November 1527, Friday (-152,485) Pedro Ribdeneira, religious writer, was born in Toledo (died 10 September 1611 in Madrid)

29 October 1527, Tuesday (-152,488)

18 October 1527, Friday (-152,499) Luca Cambiaso, Italian painter, was bon near Genoa (died 6 September 1585 ib Escorial)

29 August 1527, Thursday (-152,549)

31 July 1527, Wednesday (-152,578) Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II was born.

26 July 1527, Friday (152,583) The (Spanish) Council of the Indies granted Francisco Pizarro, 54, the right to conquer and take riches from the Panama area.

13 July 1527, Saturday (152,596) John Dee, English mathematician, was born (died 1608).

22 June 1527. Saturday (-152,617) Nicolo Macchiavelli died in Florence, Italy, aged 58.

17 June 1527, Monday (-152,622) The Protestant Reformation began in Sweden.

21 May 1527, Tuesday (-152,649) King Philip II was born in Valladolid, Spain. He was the son of Emperor Charles V, and ruled over Spain at the peak of its power. In 1588 he sent an Armada against England but was defeated.

6 May 1527, Monday (-152,664) German mercenaries sacked the city of Rome, an event considered by many to mark the end of the Renaissance. This occurred during warfare between the Holy League and the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.

30 April 1527, Tuesday (-152,670) (Britain) King Henry VIII of England signed a treaty at Wedstminster providing that his daughter, the future Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary), then aged 11, would marry either King Francis I of France or to his 2nd son Henry Duke of Orleans.

21 April 1527, Sunday (-152,679) Easter Sunday.

21 March 1527, Thursday (-152,710) Hermann Finck, German composer, was born (died 1558).

16 March 1527, Saturday (-152,715) The Battle of Khanwa. Babur, Moghul Emperor, continued his conquest of northern India.

1 January 1527, Tuesday (-152,789)


31 December 1526, Monday (-152,790)

10 November 1526, Saturday (-152,841) John Zapolya, Voivode (Military Viceroy) of Trasylvania, was elected King of Hungary, by Hungarian nobles eager to avoid Habsburg domination.

23 October 1526, Tuesday (-152,859) Following the death of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia, Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria and brother of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was elected King of Bohemia.

18 October 1526, Thursday (-152,864) (Spain) Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, Spanish adventurer, died.

10 September 1526, Monday (-152,902) The Otoman Turks occupied Buda, unopposed. Suleiman decided to make it a tributary kingdom under John Zapolya of Transylvania.

29 August 1526, Wednesday (-152,914) (Turkey, East Europe) The Battle of Mohacs.The Turkish army under Suleiman I defeated the Hungarians under King Louis II, who was killed whilst retreating.Suleiman took Buda, whilst Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and John Zapolya, Prince of Transylvania, disputed over the succession.As a result of this dispute, Dubrovnik achieved independence, although it recognised Turkish overlordship. The Hapsburgs now ruled Bohemia and Hungary.

4 August 1526, Saturday (-152,939) (Spain) Juan Sebastian del Cano, Spanish explorer, died on his second voyage to the Pacific.

31 July 1526, Tuesday (-152,943) (Germany) Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, was born in Freiberg (died 21 January 1586 in Dresden).

24 July 1526, Tuesday (-152,950) The Spanish captured Milan.

24 June 1526, Sunday (-152,980) Religious reform began in Sweden, under King Gustavus I Vasa. The Swedish Diet accepted the King�s demand for Royal control of the Swedish Church and all its assets.

9 June 1526, Saturday (-152,995) Emperor No-Gara became ruler of Japan.

22 May 1526, Tuesday (-153,013) France repudiated the Treaty of Madrid, and formed the League of Cognac, against Charles V.This League included the Pope, Milan, Venice, and Florence.

16 May 1526, Wednesday (-153,019) Florence became a Republic again, as the Medici rulers, nephews of Pope Clement VII, were exiled.

2 May 1526, Wednesday (-153,033) The Leagie of Gotha was joined by the Princes of Mecklenburg, Brunswick-Luneberg, Anholt, Brandenburg-Ansbach and Mansfeld.

27 April 1526, Friday (-153,038) Babur occupied Delhi.

21 April 1526, Saturday (-153,044) The First Battle of Panipat.Barbur became first Moghul (Mughal) Emperor of India.He captured Delhi, and northern India, beginning the Moghul Empire, which lasted until 1857.

1 April 1526, Sunday (-153,064) Easter Sunday.

30 March 1526, Friday (-153,066) Konrad Mutian, German Humanist writer, died (born 15 October 1471).

27 February 1526, Tuesday (153,097) The League of Gotha, a group of German Protestant Pri nces, was formed. John Frederick, Elector of Saxony, and Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, were the founding members.

14 January 1526, Sunday (-153,141) The Peace of Madrid; Francis I of France agreed to cede Burgundy to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.France also abandoned all claims to Flanders, Artois, Naples, and Milan.

1 January 1526, Monday (-153,154)


30 December 1525, Saturday (-153,156) Jakob II Fugger, German banker and merchant, died in Augsburg, Bavaria.

29 October 1525, Sunday (-153,218)

25 September 1525, Monday (-153,252) Steven Borough, English navigator, was born in Northam, Devon (died 12 July 1584).

14 August 1525, Monday (-153,294) (Britain, France) Cardinal Wolsey agreed peace terms between England and France, as he sought to recreate a balance of power within Europe.

13 July 1525, Thursday (-153,326)

18 June 1525, Sunday (-153,351) Henry Fitzroy, illegitimate son of King Henry VIII, was created Duke of Richmond.

27 May 1525, Saturday (-153,373) Thomas Muntzer, most radical of the leaders of the Peasants Rebellion in Germany, was executed.

18 May 1525, Thursday (-153,382) Pietro Pomponazzi, Italian philosopher, died in Bologna (born `6 September 1492 in Mantua)

15 May 1525, Monday (-153,385) The Battle of Frankenhausen. Final defeat of the Peasant�s Revolt in Germany

11 May 1525, Thursday (-153,389) Protests against the Amicable Grant, a heavy tax imposed by King Henry VIII to pay for his foreign adventures. It taxed the laity at one sixth of their goods, and one third for the clergy.

7 May 1525. Sunday (-153,393) The Peasant�s Revolt in Germany was defeated. It had begun in 1524 when the peasants demanded abolition of feudal dues, serfdom, and tithes.

16 April 1525, Sunday (-153,414) Easter Sunday.

10 April 1525, Monday (-153,420) The new Protestant Duchy of Prussia was formed when Albert von Hohenzollern , Grand Master of the Order of Teutonic Knights, surrendered his lands to King Sigismund I of Poland. Albert became Duke under Polish suzerainty.

7 March 1525, Tuesday (-153,454)

28 February 1525, Tuesday (-153, 461) (Mexico) Aztec Emperor Cuahtemoc was executed by Hernando Cortez.

24 February 1525. Friday (-153,465) (France-Germany, Italy, Spain, Science-Tech) The Battle of Pavia. Pavia, held by the French, had been under siege by Spanish forces since October 1524. Italy itself was a territory being fought over by the rival powers of France, Germany, Turkey and Spain. The French under King Charles VIII defended Pavia with cavalry and cannon, but the Spanish had adopted the arquebus or hackenbushe, an early version of the handgun; this weapon replaced the Spanish crossbow. The arquebus meant an unskilled infantryman could kill a skilled knight and Pavia was the start of the dominance of the handgun as a military weapon.

25 January 1525, Wednesday (-153,495) (Italy) Italian troops approached Pavia from the east and dug in across an unfordable river from the French besieging Pavia.

14 January 1525, Saturday (-153,506) Francisco di Cristofano, Florentine painter, died in Florence 9born 30 January 1484 in Florence)

1 January 1525, Sunday (-153,519)


31 December 1524, Saturday (-153,520)

24 December 1524. Saturday (-153,527) Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama, who discovered the sea route from Europe to the East, died on his second voyage after landing in Cochin, on the Malabar coast of India. See 22 November 1497.

19 November 1524, Saturday (-153,562)

28 October 1524, Friday (-153,584) (Italy) France began a siege of Pavia (to 24 February 1525) but the French commender recklessly split his forces, sending some to attack Naples, which they failed to take, and leaving just 25,000 men at Pavia.

26 October 1524, Wednesday (-153,586) In Italy, France took Milaan from the Spanish.

20 October 1524, Thursday (-153,592) Thomas Linacre, physician to King Henry VII and VIII and founder of the Royal College of Physicians in 1518, died.

11 September 1524, Sunday (-153,631) Pierre de Ronsard, French poet, was born in Vendomois (died 1585)

7 September 1524, Wednesday (-153,635) Thomas Erastus, religious writer, was born (died 31 December 1583).

23 August 1524, Tuesday (-153,650) Francois Hotman, French writer, was born (died 12 February 1590).

19 August 1524, Friday (-153,654) French rebel Duke Charles laid siege to Marseilles.

8 August 1524, Monday (-153,665) French rebel Duke Charles occupied Aix en Provence.

8 July 1524, Friday (-153,696) Verrazzano's expedition returned to Dieppe.

25 May 1524, Wednesday (-153,740) (France) Henry VIII, King of England and Emperor Charles V formed a new anti-French league in support of the rebel Charles, Duke of Bourbon and Constable of France.

23 May 1524, Monday (-153,742) Shah Ismail of Persia died aged 38. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Tahmasp, aged 10.

30 April 1524, Saturday (-153,765) (Italy) France defeated at the Battle of the Sesia, and retreated back across the Alps.

17 April 1524, Sunday (-153,778) Verrazzano's expedition makes the first European entry into New York Bay and sighted the island of Manhattan.

27 March 1524, Sunday (-153,799) Easter Sunday.

21 January 1524, Thursday (-153,865) Cardinal Wolsey was made Papal Legate for life, Previously, his appointment had been for just a year at a time.

1 January 1524, Friday (-153,885)


31 December 1523, Thursday (-153,886)

19 November 1523, Thursday (-153,928) Pope Clement VII succeeded Pope Adrian VI as the 219th Pope.

11 October 1523, Sunday (-153,967) Bartolomeo Montagna, Italian painter, died in Vicenza.

2 October 1523, Friday (-153,976) (Italy) Alessandro Alessandri, Italian jurist, died in Rome.

14 September 1523, Monday (-153,994), Pope Adrian VI, Adrian Dedel, Dutch, (218th Pope) died, aged 64. The last non-Italian Pope until John Paul II (acceded 1978), he allied with the Holy Roman Emperor, Venice and England against France. This split the forces of Christendom, resulting in the loss of Rhodes to the Ottoman Turks.

15 August 1523, Saturday (-154,024) Gerard David, Dutch painter, died in Bruges.

27 July 1523, Monday (-154,043) Cesare da Sesto, Italian painter, died in Milan.

14 July 1523, Tuesday (-154,056)

6 June 1523, Saturday (-154,094) Gustav Vasa, aged 27, was elected King of Sweden, finally established full independence from Denmark.

5 June 1523, Friday (-154,095) Marguerite, daughter of King Francis I of France, was born.

1 June 1523, Monday (-154,099) Two followers of Martin Luther were burnt alive in Brussels.

21 May 1523, Thursday (-154,107) Ambrogio Bergognone, Italian painter, died in Milan.

12 May 1523, Tuesday (-154,119) (France) Imbert de Batarnay, French statesman, died.

7 May 1523, Thursday (-154,124) Franz von Sickingen, German Knight, died.

23 April 1523, Thursday (-154,138) Henry Clifford, supporter of King Henry VII of England, died.

5 April 1523, Sunday (-154,156) Easter Sunday.

19 March 1523, Thursday (-154,173)

19 January 1523, Monday (-154,232) Huldreich Zwingli published his 67 Articles in Zurich. They attacked the authority of the Pope, and the concept of Transubstantiation.

1 January 1523, Thursday (-154,250)


31 December 1522, Wednesday (-154,251)

21 December 1522. Sunday (-154,261) Rhodes, formerly the base of the Knights of St John, was conquered by the Ottoman Turks, led by Suleiman, after a six-month siege.The Knights of St John, driven out of Rhodes, were given permission by Emperor Charles V in 1530 to settle in Malta.See 18 May 1565.

20 December 1522, Saturday (-154,262) Honourable surrender at Rhodes. Both sides had suffered heavy losses. Just 150 Knights, plus 1,500 other troops, were left as defenders, and most of these were wounded. The Turks had suffered 50 � 1000,000 dead out of total attacking force of 200,000. Suleiman pulled 1 mile back form the walls, and fighting ceased. Had Christian Venice or Spain provided assistance, Rhodes might have held out indefinitely.

18 December 1522, Thursday (-154,264) The Turks finally broke into Rhodes, but the Knights continued fierce resistance in the streets.

15 December 1522, Monday (-154,267) Negotiations over surrender at Rhodes broke down.

1 December 1522, Monday (-154,281) Suleiman, confident of victory in the siege of Rhodes but facing heavy losses of his own men, began negotiating for surrender of Rhode on honourable termns. The defenders could stay or leave, and their religion would be respected.

9 November 1522, Sunday (-154,303) Martin Chemnitz, German religious writer, was born (died 8 April 1586)

3 November 1523, Monday (-154,309) Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, relieved the siege of Wark Castle, Northumberland. The Franco-Scottish army under John Duke of Albany was forced to retreat north.

25 October 1522, Saturday (-154,318) The Scottish Regent, John Duke of Albany, left Dumbarton for France to try and raise military support from the French against England.

15 October 1522, Wednesday (-154,328) (1) Spanish Emperor Charles V promoted Herman Cortes to Governor-General of the new colony of Mexico, founded in 1521.

(2) An unsuccessful expedition into Picardy, led by Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, returned to Calais.

17 September 1522, Wednesday (-154,356) An Anglo-Scottish truce was agreed.

11 September 1522, Thursday (-154,362) (Biology) Ulissi Aldrovandi, Italian naturalist, was born in Bologna (died 10 May 1605 in Bologna).

6 September 1522, Saturday (-154,367) Ferdinand Magellan�s ship, the Vittoria, under the command of Juan Sebastian Del Cano, arrived in San Lucar, Spain, after completing the first circumnavigation of the world.Magellan himself was killed on the Philippine island of Mactan.

24 August 1522, Sunday (-154,380) Gustavus Vasa was appointed administrator of Sweden and promised to free the whole country from Danish rule. In November 1522 the Danish nobility also rebelled against King Christian II.

13 August 1522, Wednesday (-154,391) Emperor Cuauhtemotzin surrendered Mexico City to the Spanish under Cortezs.

28 July 1522, Monday (-154,407) Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I began a siege of the Knights of St. John in Rhodes.

19 July 1522, Saturday (-154,416)

30 June 1522, Monday (-154,435) Johann Reuchlin, German scholarly religious writer, died in Bad Loebenzell.

25 June 1522, Wednesday (-154,440) Ottoman Turks established a beachhead on Rhodes Island.

19 June 1522, Thursday (-154,446) (France) Emperor Charles V visited England and signed the Treaty of Windsor with King Henry VIII. They both agreed to invade France in May 2024.

13 June 1522, Friday (-154,452) (Scotland) King Francis of France ratified the 1517 Treaty of Rouen with Scotland.

30 May 1522, Friday (-154,466) The French were evicted from Genoa.

24 May 1522, Saturday (-154,472) John Jewel, English religious writer, was born (died 23 September 1571).

27 April 1522, Sunday (-154,499) (Italy) Battle of Bicocca. Swiss forces attacked the Spanish too early, before French artillery support was in position. 3,000 Swiss cavalry were killed by Spanish arquebus as they were held up at Spanish entrenchments.French haev6y cavalry attempted a diversionary attack but were driven off, and the French commander Lautrec retreated east into Venetian territory.

20 April 1522, Sunday (-154,506) Easter Sunday.

28 March 1522, Friday (-154,529) (Germany) Albert, Prince of Bayreuth, was born in Ansbach (died 8 January 1557 in Pforzheim)

24 March 1522, Monday (-154,533) Christopher Urswick, English diplomatist, died (born 1448 in Furness, Lancashire)

19 March 1522, Wednesday (-154,538)

25 February 1522, Tuesday (-154,560) William Lilye, English scholarly writer, died.

19 February 1522, Wednesday (-154,566)

30 January 1522, Thursday (-154,586) (Sweden) The powerful German port of Lubeck allied with Gustavus Vasa of Sweden, against Danish King Christian II.

9 January 1522, Thursday (-154,607) Pope Adrian VI (218th Pope) acceded (died 1523).

1 January 1522, Wednesday (-154,615)


21 December 1521, Saturday (-154,626) The Earl of Surrey was recalled from post as Lieutenant of Ireland, as he had earlier requested.On arrival 21 months earlier he had found the country in a state of anarchy, and requested more troops from King Henry VIII to deal with the situation, Henry, however, preferred a more conciliatory approach, and Surrey left Ireland with a reputation for equity and fairness.

13 December 1521, Friday (-154,634) (1) Manuel I, 14th King of Portugal, died aged 52 (born 3 May 1469). He was succeeded by his son, Joao III.

(2) Pope Sixtus V (Felice Peretti) was born in Ancona.

1 December 1521, Sunday (-154,646) Pope Leo X died.

23 November 1521, Saturday (-154,654) (Italy) The Italians under General Prosper Colonna, with their Spanish and Papal allies, made a surprise attack on the French in Milan under Marshal Odet de Lautrec and ousted tehm from the city. Then in April 1522 Lautrec, having obtained Swiss, Venetian and French reinforcements, and prepared to retake the city. The Swiss troops threatened to depart unless paid, then agreed tp fight one more time.

1 November 1521, Friday (-154,676)

11 October 1521, Friday (-154,697) Pope Leo X conferred the title of Defender of the faith on King Henry VIII.Twelve years later Henry VIII broke with Rome to marry Anne Boleyn.

25 September 1521, Wednesday (-154,713) (France) Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Cardinal Wolsey, Lord Chancellor of Engfland, agreed secretly at Bruges that war would be declared on France in March 1523.

16 September 1521, Monday (-154,722) The Earl of Surrey requested his recall as Lieutenant of Ireland, after just 18 months in the post.

13 September 1521, Friday (-154,725) (Britain) William Burghley, English statesman, was born (died 4 August 1598).

31 August 1521, Saturday (-154,738) The major city of Tenochtitlan in Central America was conquered by Cortez after an 85-day battle.

29 August 1521, Thursday (-154,740) The Ottoman Turks under Suleiman captured Belgrade.

27 August 1521, Tuesday (-154,742) Josquin des Pres, French composer, died.

15 August 1521, Thursday (-154,754) King Henry VIII of England and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V signed the Treaty of Bruges against France, in contrast to the Anglo-French friendship at the Field of the Cloth of Gold (6 June 1520). This Treaty involved English forces in long campaigns in northern Europe.

4 August 1521, Sunday (-154,765) Pope Urban VII was born.

30 July 1521, Tuesday (-154,770)

19 July 1521, Friday (-154,781)

8 July 1521, Monday (-145,792) The Ottoman Turks under Suleiman captured Shabotz, Hungary.

30 June 1521, Sunday (-154,800) The French had invaded Navarre, Spain, and placed Henri d�Albret on the throne, but this day they were caught unprepared by a Spanish force at the Battle of Esquiroz, near Pamplona, and evicted from Spain.

19 June 1521, Wednesday (-154,811)

28 May 1521, Tuesday (-154,833) Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Pope Leo X agreed a secret treaty to expel the French from Milan.

25 May 1521, Saturday (-154,836) The Holy Roman Empire ordered the destruction of all of Martin Luther�s writings within its territory.

17 May 1521, Friday (-154,844) Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, was executed for fear he might try to claim the English throne.

16 May 1521, Thursday (-154,845) The Edict of Worms imposed the Ban of Empire on Martin Luther.

30 April 1521, Tuesday (-154,861)

28 April 1521, Sunday (-154,863) Holy Roman Emperor Charles V granted his brother Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria the Habsburg possessions in Lower Austria, Carinthia, Styria and Carniola.

27 April 1521. Saturday (-154,864) Inhabitants of the island of Mactan, Philippines, killed the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan. He was on a voyage around the world.

25 April 1521, Thursday (-154,866)

24 April 1521, Wednesday (-154,867) In Spain, the Communeros rebel leaders were executed.

23 April 1521, Tuesday (-154,868) Comuneros uprising in Spain, against the autocratic rule of King Charles I (1500-58). On this day the Comuneros were defeated at Villalar; the movement�s leaders were subsequently captured and arrested. Charles�s autocratic powers were increased.

20 April 1521, Saturday (-154,871)

18 April 1521, Thursday (-154,873) Martin Luther ended his defence at the Imperial Diet of Worms with the words �I cannot and will not recant anything.God help me.Amen�.

16 April 1521, Tuesday (-154,875) Martin Luther arrived at the Diet of Worms.

7 April 1521, Sunday (-154,884) Ferdinand Magellan arrived at Cebu.

31 March 1521, Sunday (-154,891) Easter Sunday

21 March 1521, Thursday (-154,901) Maurice, Elector of Saxony, was born (died 11 July 1553).

16 March 1521, Saturday (-154,906) Ferdinand Magellan sighted the Philippine Islands.

11 March 1521, Monday (-154,911) (Britain) Andrew Forman, Scottish ecclesiastic, died.

15 February 1521, Friday (-154,935)

28 January 1521, Monday (-154,953) The Diet of Worms began.

3 January 1521, Thursday (-154,978) Pope Leo X again issued a Papal Bull, Decet Romanum Pontificem,re-excommunicating Martin Luther, after a deadline by which Luther had been ordered to recant his �heretical� views expired. Martin Luther had condemned the sale of Indulgences (Papal forgiveness for sins) to raise funds for the Papacy, promoted by the Archbishop of Mainz as away of raising money for rebuilding St Peters in Rome.

1 January 1521, Tuesday (-154,980)


28 December 1520, Friday (-154,984) (Mexico) Cortes returned to attack Tenochtitlan with a Tlaxacalan army, who were sworn enemies of the Aztecs. He laid siege to the city, and destroyed the aqueduct that brought in fresh water.

10 December 1520, Monday (-1545,002) Martin Luther publicly burnt the papal Bull, Exurge, that had excommunicated him.

28 November 1520, Wednesday (-155,014) After navigating through the South American strait, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific (the strait was later named the Strait of Magellan).

8 November 1520, Thursday (-155,034) The Stockholm Bloodbath. King Christian II killed leading Swedish nobles and churchmen, starting a national revolt under the future leader Gustavus Vasa.

4 November 1520, Sunday (-155,038) Christian was crowned King of Sweden.

23 October 1520, Tuesday (-155,050) Charles I of Spain was crowned Holy Roman EmperorCharles V at Aachen, Germany, He promised to live in Germany, to preserve the rights of the Estates, and to restore the Council of the Regency.

21 October 1520, Sunday (-155,052) The islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon were discovered by Portuguese explorer Jo�o �lvares Fagundes off Newfoundland. He named them "Islands of the 11,000 Virgins" in honour of Saint Ursula.

1 October 1520, Monday (-155,072) (Ireland) the Earl of Surrrey gained the submission of MacCarthy of Desmond and MacCarthy Reagh.

21 September 1520, Friday (-155,082) Ottoman Sultan Selim died, aged 53. He was succeeded by his 24-year old son, Suleiman I (The Magnificent).

13 September 1520, Thursday (-155,090) William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, Lord High Treasurer to Queen Elizabeth 1st, was born in Bourne Lincolnshire.

30 August 1520 Thursday (-155,104)

14 July 1520, Saturday (-155,151) The Communeros Revolt in Spainbegan, against abolition of ancient rights by the Habsburgs.

10 July 1520, Tuesday (-155,155) In Mexico, Cortez was driven out of Tenochtitlan by the Aztec leader, Cuauhtemoc. Cortez retreated to Tlaxcala.

30 June 1520. Saturday (-155,165) Montezuma II, the last Aztec ruler, was killed by his own people in Mexico City during the Spanish conquest of Mexico under Cortez.

19 June 1520, Tuesday (-155,176) (Scotland) Pope Leo X issued a Bull giving Scotland his complete protection.

15 June 1520, Friday (-155,180) Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther.

6 June 1520. Wednesday (-155,189) Henry VIII and Francis I of France met in a glittering ceremony at The Field Of The Cloth Of Gold near Calais. However see 15 August 1521.

6 May 1520, Sunday (-155,220)

29 April 1520, Monday (-155,226) The tower of St Marys Church, Beverley, collapsed.

11 April 1520, Wednesday (-155,245) Agostini Chigi, Italian arts patron, died in Rome (born 29 November 1466 in Siena)

8 April 1520, Sunday (-155,248) Easter Sunday.

6 April 1520. Friday (-155,250) The painter Raphael died on his 37th birthday.He was born in Urbino, Italy, on 6 April 1483.

10 March 1520, Saturday (-155,277) Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey, newly appointed Lieutenant of Ireland, arrived with 1,000 men to subdiue the rebellious Gaelic lords.

3 March 1520, Saturday (-155,284) Matthius Flacius, religious reformer and writer, was born (died 11 March 1575).

6 February 1520, Monday (-155,310)

18 January 1520, Wednesday (-155,329) (Sweden) Christian II of Denmark defeated the Swedes at Lake Malar. The Swedish regent, Sten Sture the Younger, died of his wounds on 3 February 1520, and Christian Ii could now become King of Sweden also.

1 January 1520, Sunday (-155,346)


31 December 1519, Saturday (-155,347)

6 December 1519, Tuesday (-155,372)

30 November 1519, Wednesday (-155,378) Michael Wolgemut, German painter, died in Nuremberg.

8 November 1519, Tuesday (-155,400) (Mexico) Hern�n Cort�s entered Tenochtitlan and the court of Aztec ruler Montezuma. The Spanish band of about 400 men became alarmed at the obvious signs of human sacrifice and realised they were heavily outnumbered by the 250,000 Aztecs. They feared they were being led into a trap; in order to escape, Cortes ordered his men to seize Montezuma as a hostage. Montezuma, to avert a rebellion amongst his own people, went along and pretended he was accompanying the Spanish voluntarily.

8 October 1519, Saturday (-155,431)

20 September 1519. Tuesday (-155,449) Portuguese-born navigator Ferdinand Magellan started on a voyage to cross the Pacific Ocean and circumnavigate the world. He had a fleet of five small ships; Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepcion, Vittoria, and Santiago. On 28 November 1520 Magellan discovered a strait at the southern tip of South America and entered the Pacific. Magellan was killed on 27 April 1521 by natives of the Philippines. Magellan�s ship, the Vittoria, arrived alone in San Lucar, Spain, on 6 September 1522 under the command of Del Cano, to become the first ship to circumnavigate the world.

16 September 1519, Friday (-155,453) Death of John Colet, who founded the modern St Pauls School.

15 August 1519, Monday (-155,485) Panama City was founded.

11 August 1519, Thursday (-155,489) Johann Tetzel died in Leipzig Priory, aged 54. He defended the Church practice of selling indulgences (forgiveness), promoted by the Archbishop of Mainz as away of raising money for rebuilding St Peters in Rome.

11 July 1519, Monday (-155,520)

4 July 1519, Monday (-155,527) Death of Johann Tetzel, German Dominican whose sale of Indulgences was criticised by Martin Luther.

28 June 1519, Tuesday (-155,533) Charles V was elected as Holy Roman Emperor. He was already the ruler of several territories across Europe,in Italy, Austria, Spain and the Low Countries. He had ambitions to establish a wealthy Catholic pan-European State which would push back the ottoman threat, In practice the varied peoples he ruled were disinclined to surrender power to a remote central authority, or to pay taxes to him, and religious differences between his lands persisted. Other European powers were suspicious of his pan-European aims. This resulted in his reign being one of almost continual warfare.

26 June 1519, Sunday (-155,535) Martin Luther publicly debated with German Catholic theologian Johann Eck at Leipzig, Saxony. Luther went further than before in contesting Papal authority.

24 June 1519, Friday (-155,537) Lucrezia Borgia, Italian noblewoman from a corrupt family, illegitimate daughter of Pope Alexander VII, died.

12 June 1519, Sunday (-155,549) (Italy) Cosimo I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, was born. He was Duke of Florence from 1539 and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1569; he died in 1574.

2 May 1519. Monday (-155,590) (Science) Leonardo Da Vinci died, at the Chateaux Cloux near Amboise, aged 67.

24 April 1519, Sunday (-155,598) Easter Sunday. Montezuma II, the Aztec Emperor, sent envoys to attend the first Easter Mass to be celebrated in the Americas.

21 April 1519, Thursday (-155,601) Domenico Francelli, Florentoine sculptor, died in Safagossa.

13 April 1519, Wednesday (-155,609) (France) Catherine di Medici was born in Florence, Italy. She became the wife of Henry II of France and the mother of three French Kings (Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III of France. She also served as Regent of France, 1560-74.

31 March 1519, Thursday (-155,622) Henry II, King of France, was born in Saint German en Laye, France.

12 March 1519, Saturday (-155,641)

16 February 1519, Wednesday (-155,665) Gaspard II de Coligny, Huguenot leader, was born in Chatillion sur Loing, France.

15 February 1519, Tuesday (-155,666) (Spain) Pedro Aviles, Spanish naval adventurer, was born in Aviles, Asturia (died 17 September 1574).

12 January 1519, Wednesday (-155,700) Holy Roman Emperor, Maximillian I, died aged 59. He had been King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor from 1493. He was succeeded by Spain�s Carlos I, elected Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V.

1 January 1519, Saturday (-155,711)


31 December 1518, Friday (-155,712)

30 November 1518, Tuesday (-155,743) Andrea Palladio, Italian architect, was born.

27 November 1518, Saturday (-155,746) Daniel Bomberg completed the Rabbinical Bible.

12 October 1518, Sunday (-155,794) At the Diet of Augsburg, Germany, Church reformer Martin Luther refused to withdraw his 95 theses against the Church.

2 October 1518, Saturday (-155,802) (Turkey) A major political triumph for Cardinal Wolsey of England. He got all major European powers (England, The Papacy, France, the Holy Roman Empire and Spain) to sign the Treaty of London, uniting them to fight Ottoman Turkey.

29 September 1518, Wednesday (-155,805) Tintoretto, Venetian painter, was born as Jabobi Robusti, the son of a dyer.

23 September 1518, Thursday (-155,811) In London, King Henry VIII granted a Charter to establish the Royal College of Physicians. Its President, Thomas Linacre, could fine or even imprison, charlatans who passed themselves off as doctors.

20 September 1518, Monday (-155,814)

17 May 1518, Monday (-155,940) Cardinal Wolsey was appointed Papal Legate in England.

17 April 1518, Saturday (-155,970)

4 April 1518, Sunday (-155,983) Easter Sunday.

4 March 1518, Thursday (-156,014)

1 January 1518, Friday (-156,076)


31 December 1517, Thursday (-156,077)

7 December 1517, Monday (-156,101) Albert Krantz, German historical writer, died.

8 November 1517, Sunday (-156,130) Cardinal Jimenez de Cisneros, recently appointed Regent of Spain, died. The Habsburgs now ruled Spain; Charles I, grandson of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, made a triumphal entry into Madrid.

31 October 1517. Saturday (-156,138) Martin Luther, born 10 November 1483 in Eisleben, Germany, nailed his 95 Theses to the churchdoor at Wittenburg, so starting the Reformation. He died on 18 February 1546. These theses condemned the sale of indulgences granting forgiveness of sin. On 15 June 1520 Pope Leo X condemned Luther�s theses as �heretical and scandalous�.

5 October 1517, Monday (-156,164)

26 August 1517, Wednesday (-156,204) (Scotland) France and Scotland renewed their �Auld Alliance�.

17 July 1517, Friday (-156,244) The Sherif (Chief magistrate) of Mecca accepted Ottoman suzerainty over Arabia.

3 July 1517, Friday (-156,258)

30 April 1517, Thursday (-156,322) (Race discrimination) This evening the Evil May Day riots began in London; one of the earliest race riots recorded. Riots were directed against foreigners, whom they claimed were protected by their nations�s ambassadors from punishment for crimes that English citizens would be penalised for. In fact, London was suffering an economic downturn after a poor harvest the previous autumn. Prices were rising and wages being cut. Hanseatic merchants and foreign bankers were targeted, also foreign courtiers.

12 April 1517, Sunday (-156,340) Easter Sunday

16 March 1517, Monday (-156,367) The Fifth Lateran Council ended.

20 January 1517, Tuesday (-156,422) The Ottomans conquered Cairo, Egypt.

16 January 1517, Friday (-156,426) Ottoman ruler Selim I crossed the Gaza desert via Salihia, on his way to attack the Malelukes in Cairo.


31 December 1516, Wednesday (-156,442)

13 December 1516, Sunday (-156,459) (Italy) Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I overturned his treaty with England and by the Treaty of Brussels, accepted the Treaty of Noyon, The Emperor�s claims on Italy were withdrawn for a payment of 200,000 ducats, and Verona was transferred to Venice.

29 November 1516, Saturday (-156,474) (Switzerland) King Francis I of Ftrance signed the Treaty of Freiburg, agreeing to peace with Switzerland. This Treaty remained in force until 1789.

24 August 1516, Sunday (-156,571) Selim I, Ottoman Sultan, defeated and killed Mamluk Sultan Kansu al Guari of Egypt, near Aleppo in Syria. Selim I now took control of Syria.

13 August 1516, Wednesday (-156,582) (Spain, France, Italy) The Treaty of Noyon. Charles I, newly crowned King of Spain (later Emperor Charles V), made peace with France, recognising French control of Milan in return for French renunciation of its claims over Naples.

25 July 1516, Friday (-156,601)

15 June 1516, Sunday (-156,649) Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio, Italian painter, died in Milan.

23 May 1516, Friday (-156,664) Georg Fabricius, German poet, was born (died 17 July 1571).

23 April 1516, Wednesday (-156,694) Duke Wilhelm I of Germany passed laws against the adulteration and dilution of beer.

6 April 1516, Sunday (-156,711)

26 March 1516, Wednesday (-156,722) Konrad von Gesner, Swiss scholarly writer, was born (died 13 December 1565).

23 March 1516, Sunday (-156,725) Easter Sunday.

13 March 1516, Thursday (-156,735) Death of King Ladislas II of Hungary and Bohemia. He was succeeded by his son, aged 10, as King Louis II.

18 February 1516, Monday (-156,759)