Chronography of events from I January 1200 to 31 December 1499

Page last modified 23/6/2022

 

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(-9999) = Day count to end of World War Two in Europe (day zero = Tuesday). Easter Sundays derived from https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/easter/easter_text2b.htm

 

For dates from 1/1/1500 click here

 

1/1/1500, Wednesday (-162,651)

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31/12/1499, Tuesday (-162,652)

23/11/1499, Saturday (-162,690) Perkin Warbeck was executed at the Tower of London.He was a Flemish impostor, the son of a boatman from Tournai, claiming to be Richard of York, son of Edward II, whom he closely resembled. Initially treated leniently after his attempt on the throne (see 31/7/1495), he then attempted to escape the Royal Palace and team up with another usurper, Edward Earl of Warwick.

22/9/1499, Sunday (-162,752) Under the Treaty of Basel, Maximilian granted the Swiss independence. Formal independence was not achieved for another century.

11/9/1499, Wednesday (-162,763)

8/9/1499, Sunday (-162,766)

29/8/1499, Thursday (-162,776) Alessio Baldovinetti, Florentine painter, died (born 14/10/1427).

25/8/1499, Sunday (-162,780) (Italy, Turkey) The Venetian fleet was defeated at the Battle of Zonchia by the Ottomans. This was the first time cannon had been used in a naval battle. The Venetian-Ottoman War, 1499-1503, started. Venetian sea-power in the Mediterranean was an obstacle to Ottoman expansion. Ottoman Turkey gained the upper hand, and by 1503 Ottoman cavalry raids were reaching into Venetian territory. Venice was forced to recognise Turkish gains.

8/8/1499, Thursday (-162,797)

22/7/1499, Monday (-162,814) The Battle of Dornach. Swiss Confederation forces defeated the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian. This was the last battle between Switzerland and the Holy Roman Empire.

8/7/1499, Monday (-162,828)

24/6/1499, Monday (-162,842) Johann Brenz, scholarly writer, was born (died 11/9/1570).

8/6/1499, Saturday (-162,858)

23/5/1499, Thursday (-162,874)

8/5/1499, Wednesday (-162,889)

8/4/1499, Monday (-162,919)

31/3/1499, Sunday (-162,927) Easter Sunday. Pope Pius IV was born.

13/2/1499, Wednesday (-163,973) Justius Menius, German religious writer, was born (died 11/8/1558).

1/1/1499, Tuesday (-163,016)

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31/12/1498, Monday (-163,017)

19/12/1498, Wednesday (-163,029) Andreas Osiander, religious reformer, was born.

17/10/1498, Wednesday (-163,092)

16/9/1498, Sunday (-163,123) Tomas de Torquemada, Inquisitor-General, died.

11/9/1498, Tuesday (-163,128)

16/8/1498, Thursday (-163,154)

31/7/1498, Tuesday (-163,170) Christopher Columbus arrived at an island he called Trinidad.

7/6/1498. Thursday (-163,224) Christopher Columbus left on his third journey of exploration.

23/5/1498, Wednesday (-153,239) Italian religious reformer Girolamo Savonarola was executed for heresy.

20/5/1498. Sunday (-163,242) Vasco da Gama (Food, India) arrived at Calicut, southern India, after discovering a route via the tip of southern Africa. , proving the feasibility of a sea route from Portugal to India and the Spice Islands. This meant Europe could buy spices independent from Venetian and Muslim middlemen.

15/5/1498, Tuesday (-163,247)

15/4/1498, Sunday (-163,277) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1498, Saturday (-163,278) Vasco da Gama arrived at the trading city of Malindi, east Africa, after putting in at Kilwa and Monbasa.

8/4/1498, Sunday (-163,284) Charles VIII of France died suddenly, aged 27. He was succeeded by his cousin, the Duc d�Orleans, as Louis XII

31/3/1498, Saturday (-163, 292)

25/1/1498, Thursday (-163,357) Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama visited Quelimane and Mozambique in south-eastern Africa.

1/1/1498, Monday (-163,381)

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31/12/1497, Sunday (-163,382)

25/12/1497, Monday (-163,388) The Portuguese explorer Vasco Da Gama reached the part of South Africa which he called Natal.

5/12/1497, Tuesday (-163,408) King Manuel I of Portugal proclaimed an edict in which he demanded that Jews convert to Christianity or leave the country.

22/11/1497. Wednesday (-163,421) The Portuguese explorer Vasco Da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope in his search for a route to India. His fleet comprised the St Gabriel, the St Raphael, the Berrio, and a store ship. See 24/12/1524. He had set sail from Lisbon on 8/7/1497.

20/9/1497, Wednesday (-163,484)

11/9/1497, Monday (-163,493)

11/8/1497, Friday (-163,524)

6/8/1497. Sunday (-163,529) Genoese navigator John Cabot returned from an expedition across the Atlantic. King Henry VII of England financed his travels. Though he was Genoese and had Venetian citizenship, Cabot came to England in 1487 to raise support for a transatlantic voyage and settled in Bristol. He sailed from Bristol on 2/5/1497 and landed on 24/6/1497 on the coast of Labrador. There he planted the Tudor banner, in defiance of the Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided up the western world between Spain and Portugal (see 6/12/1492, Papal backing for gold to finance a war against the Moslems). Under this treaty, signed on 7/6/1494, all land west of a line in the western Atlantic would belong to Spain; any land east of it would be Portuguese. He explored the coastline from Labrador to Cape Breton.

1/8/1497, Tuesday (-163,534)

25/7/1497, Tuesday (-163,541)

18/7/1497, Tuesday (-163,548)

8/7/1497, Saturday (-163,558) Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama set sail from Lisbon to attempt to find a sea passage to India.

1/7/1497, Saturday (-163,565)

24/6/1497, Saturday (-163,572) John Cabot, in his exploration of north America, arrived at Cape Breton Island. He believed had landed in eastern Asia.

17/6/1497, Saturday (-163,579) (London) Cornish rebels against King Henry VII, having marched to Guildford on 13/6/1497, and skirmished with the Army on Hounslow Heath, now ,marched on London. They failed to gain the support of Kentish men, and therefore marched through Banstead, and this day faced the King�s men at the Battle of Deptford where the rebels were finally crushed.

6/6/1497, Tuesday (-163,590)

3/6/1497, Saturday (-163,593)

1/6/1497, Thursday (-163,595)

30/5/1497, Tuesday (-163,597)

16/5/1497, Tuesday (-163,611)

8/5/1497, Monday (-163,619)

2/5/1497, Tuesday (-163,625) John Cabot set sail from Bristol.

2/4/1497, Sunday (-163,655)

26/3/1497, Sunday (-163,662) Easter Sunday.

26/2/1497, Sunday (-163,690)

26/1/1497, Thursday (-163,721)

1/1/1497, Sunday (-163,746)

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31/12/1496, Saturday (-163,747)

25/12/1496, Sunday (-163,753)

11/12/1496, Sunday (-163,767)

7/12/1496, Wednesday (-163,771)

30/11/1496, Wednesday (-163,778)

17/11/1496, Thursday (-163,791)

25/9/1496, Sunday (-163,844) (Italy) Piero Capponi, Florentine statesman, died.

11/9/1496, Sunday (-163,858)

7/9/1496, Wednesday (-163,862) Ferdinand II, King of Naples, died.

7/8/1496, Sunday (-163,893)

7/7/1496, Thursday (-163,924)

7/6/1496, Tuesday (-163,954)

12/5/1496, Thursday (-163,980) Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden, was born.

3/4/1496, Sunday (-164,019) Easter Sunday.

5/3/1496, Saturday (-164,048) King Henry VII of England granted John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) a commission to explore for new lands.

3/3/1496, Thursday (-164,050)

25/2/1496, Thursday (-164,057) Eberhard, Duke of Wurttemberg, died (born 1445).

3/1/1496, Sunday (-164,110) Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tested a flying machine.

1/1/1496, Friday (-164,112)

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25/12/1495, Friday (-164,119) At the Second Battle of Acentejo, Spanish forces crushed the natives of the island of Tenerife, destroying the last bastion of resistance on the Canary Islands.

18/12/1495, Friday (-164,126) Alfonso II, King of Naples, died.

5/12/1495, Saturday (-164,139) Nicolas Cleynaerts, Belgian writer, was born (died 1542).

21/11/1495, Saturday (-164,153) John Bale, English author, was born in Cove, near Dunwich (died 11/1563).

30/10/1495, Friday (-164,175) An explosion at Vyborg castle deterred Russian forces who were invading Sweden through Karelia.

25/10/1495, Sunday (-164,180) King Manuel I became rule of Portugal, on the death of King Joao II, aged 40.

25/9/1495, Friday (-164,210)

11/9/1495, Friday (-164,224)

6/7/1495, Monday (-164,291) (France, Italy, Spain) At the Battle of Fornovo, near Parma, the French Army secured its retreat from Italy by defeating a combined Milanese-Venetian force under Giobvanni Francesco Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua. France had contested with Spain over who would control Italy. Charles VIII of France expected support from his one-time allies, the Milanese, but when he arrived in Italy he found they had joined with Venice, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire to oppose his plans for Italy.

3/7/1495, Friday (-164,294) The Pretender to the English throne, Perkin Warbeck, landed at Deal, Kent, with 150 men. He hoped to gather enough supporters to overthrow King Henry VII. However his force was routed and he went on to Ireland, where he was again unsuccessful at besieging the pro-Henry town of Waterford. Warbeck then fled to Scotland. See 23/11/1499.

28/6/1495, Sunday (-164,299) At the Battle of Seminara, Cordoba and Ferrante were defeated by a French army under Bernard Stewart, Lord of Aubigny.

1/6/1495, Monday (-164,326) Friar John Cor recorded the first known batch of Scotch whisky.

26/5/1495, Tuesday (-164,332) A Spanish army under Gonzalo de Cordoba landed in Calabria, to oust the French and restore Ferrante II to the throne of Naples.

8/5/1495, Friday (-164,350)

19/4/1495, Sunday (-164,369) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1495, Friday (-164,399)

22/2/1495, Sunday (-164,425) King Charles VIII of France entered Naples to claim the city�s throne.A few months later he returned to France with most of his army, leaving a force under his cousin, Gilbert Count of Montpensier as viceroy.

11/1/1495, Sunday (-164,467) Pedro Mendoza, Spanish statesman, died (born 3/5/1428).

1/1/1495, Thursday (-164.477)

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12/12/1494, Friday (-164,497)

6/11/1494, Thursday (-164,533) Suleiman the Magnificant, Ottoman Sultan, was born

5/11/1494, Wednesday (-164,534) Hans Sachs, poet and dramatist, was born.

12/9/1494, Friday (-164,588) Francis I, King of France, was born.

11/9/1494, Thursday (-164,589)

7/6/1494, Saturday (-164,685) (Portugal, Brazil, Race Equality, Food) The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed. On 4/5/1493, Pope Alexander VI had set a line at 100 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands from north to south Pole; Spain had the rights to colonise west of this line, Portugal to the east. The 1494 Treaty moved this line a further 270 leagues to the west. This resulted in Portugal having possession of both Brazil and Africa; in turn this greatly facilitated the expansion of the slave trade, providing cheap labour for the sugar plantations.

8/5/1494, Thursday (-164,715)

4/5/1494, Sunday (-164,719) Christopher Columbus landed on an island he called Santa Gloria, now known as Jamaica.

20/4/1494, Sunday (-164,733) Johannes Agricola, German Protestant reformer (died 22/9/1566) was born.

30/3/1494, Sunday (-164,754) Easter Sunday

28/2/1494, Friday (-164,784)

11/1/1494, Saturday (-164,832) Domenico Ghirlandajo, Florentine painter, died (born 1449).

3/1/1494, Friday (-164,840) (South America) Christopher Columbus established the first European colony in the Americas. It was called Isabella, in Hispaniola.

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17/12/1493, Tuesday (-164,857) Paracelsus, scientist and occultist, was born. He died on 24/9/1541.

19/11/1493, Tuesday (-164,885) Christopher Columbus discovered Puerto Rico, and claimed it for Spain.

3/11/1493, Sunday (-164,901) Christopher Columbus, on his second expedition, sighted the island now known as Dominica.

28/9/1493, Saturday (-164,937) Agnolo Firenzuola, Italian poet, was born.

25/9/1493, Wednesday (-164,940) Christopher Columbus left Spain on a second voyage of exploration with a fleet of 20 ships.

11/9/1493, Wednesday (-164,954)

14/6/1493, Friday (-165,043) (Italy) Ermolao Barbaro, Italian scholar, died in Rome (born in Venice 21/5/1454).

5/6/1493, Wednesday (-165,052) (Christian) Justius Jonas, german Protestant Reformer, was born (died 1555).

8/5/1493, Wednesday (-165,080)

8/4/1493, Monday (-165,110)

7/4/1493, Sunday (-165,111) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1493. Monday (-165,145) Christopher Columbus arrived back in Lisbon, then travelled to Spain.

6/2/1493, Wednesday (-165,171) Maximilian I of Germany became Holy Roman Emperor.

19/1/1493, Saturday (-165,189) (France, Spain) King Charles VIII of France returned Cardagne and Roussillon in the eastern Pyrenees to Spain under the Treaty of Barcelona.

4/1/1493. Friday (-165,204) Christopher Columbus left America on the return voyage to Spain in the Nina.

1/1/1493, Tuesday (-165,207)

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31/12/1492, Monday (-165,208) About 100,000 Jews were expelled from Sicily.

6/12/1492. Thursday (-165,233) Christopher Columbus landed on an island he called Hispaniola, now Haiti, in search of gold. He had won backing from Spain for his expedition on condition he found gold to finance another war by Christian Spain against the Moors. Many Christians also believed that Christ�s second coming would not occur until all pagans had been converted to Christianity or at least defeated by Christendom.

5/12/1492, Wednesday (-165,234) Christopher Columbus discovered the island of Santo Domingo.

5/11/1492, Monday (-165,264)

28/10/1492. Sunday (-165,272) Christopher Columbus arrived in Cuba, believing it to be Japan.

12/10/1492. Friday (-165,288) Christopher Columbus first saw land; it was not Asia but the continent of America. He called it San Salvador.Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas.

12/9/1492, Wednesday (-165,318)

11/9/1492, Tuesday (-165,319)

10/8/1492. Friday (-165,351) Pope Innocent VIII was succeeded by Rodrigo de Borgia. He took the name Pope Alexander VI. Rodrigo Borgia had bribed enough cardinals to ensure his election as Pope. See 18/8/1503.

3/8/1492. Friday (-165,358) Christopher Columbus left Palos de la Frontera, Andalusia, south-west Spain, on his first voyage to search for a passage to the Far East via the Atlantic. He actually found the Americas.He sailed in the Santa Maria, accompanied by the Nina and the Pinta. Columbus had delayed his sailing until after 2/8/1492 as that was the deadline for Jews to leave Spain; therefore Columbus was now departing from a �cleansed� Spain.

24/7/1492, Tuesday (-165,368) Pope Innocent VIII died.

28/6/1492, Thursday (-165,394)

8/5/1492, Tuesday (-165,445)

22/4/1492, Sunday (-165,461) Easter Sunday.

11/4/1492, Wednesday (-165,472) Marguerite d�Angoulmeme, Queen of Navarre, was born.

8/4/1492. Sunday (-165,475) Lorenzo de Medici, patron of learning and the arts, died aged 43, after a 23 year reign of cultural enlightenment.

30/3/1492. Friday (-165,484) The Jews were expelled from Spain by edict of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella unless they agreed to convert to Roman Catholicism. Under the Moslem rule, the Jews had benefited from tolerant Arab rulers. But the last Moslem state was conquered by Christian Spain on 2/1/1492 when Granada fell. On 30/3/1492 the 150,000 strong Jewish community was ordered out by Queen Isabella and her husband Ferdinand. Urban anti-Semitism in Spain had been growing for years, and the Spanish Inquisition, founded in 1487, made things worse. See 12/2/1502.

14/3/1492, Wednesday (-165,500)

14/2/1492, Tuesday (-165,529)

30/1/1492, Monday (-165,544)

12/1/1492, Thursday (-165,562) (Italy) Andrea Alcati, Italian jurist, was born in Alzano, near Milan.

2/1/1492. Monday (-165,572) The Spanish Army under Queen Isabella recaptured Granada from the Moors.This had been the last remaining Moslem territory in Spain.See 30/3/1492.

1/1/1492, Sunday (-165,573)

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31/12/1491, Saturday (-165,574) Jacques Cartier, French explorer of the St Lawrence area of north America, was born in St Malo, northern France.

24/12/1491, Saturday (-165,581) Ignatius Loyola, Spanish priest who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), was born in Azpeitia.

21/12/1491, Wednesday (-165,584) A five-year truce between England and Scotland was declared at Coldstream.

25/11/1491, Friday (-165,610) The siege of Granada, last stronghold of the Moors in Spain, began.

25/9/1491, Sunday (-165,671)

11/9/1491, Sunday (-165,685)

17/8/1491, Wednesday (-165,710)

17/7/1491, Sunday (-165,741)

28/6/1491, Tuesday (165,760) Henry VIII, best known for his six wives and religious split from Rome, was born at Greenwich. He was the son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.

8/5/1491, Sunday (-165,811)

3/5/1491, Tuesday (-165,816) The ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo, Nkuwu Nzinga, was baptised by Portuguese missionaries, adopting the baptismal name of Jo�o I.

3/4/1491, Sunday (-165,846) Easter Sunday.

3/3/1491, Thursday (-165,877)

3/2/1491, Thursday (-165,905)

1/1/1491, Saturday (-165,938)

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26/12/1490, Sunday (-165,944) Friedrich Myconius, religious writer, was born (died 7/4/1546).

19/12/1490, Sunday (-165,951) Anne of Brittany married Maximillian I, Holy Roman Emperor, by proxy.

8/11/1491, Monday (-165,992) Teofilo Folengo, Italian poet, was born (died 9/12/1544).

19/10/1490, Tuesday (-166,012)

19/9/1490, Sunday (-166,042) Vladislas II, King of Bohemia, became King of Hungary.

11/9/1490, Saturday (-166,050)

17/8/1490, Tuesday (-166,075)

17/7/1490, Saturday (-166,106) Lightning struck an old Greek church in Constantinople in which the Ottoman Turks were storing gunpowder; the ensuing explosion killed 5,000.

28/6/1490, Monday (-166,125) Albert, Archbishop of Mainz (died 24/9/1545) was born.

16/5/1490, Sunday (-166,168) (Germany) Albert, 1st Duke of Prussia, was born in Ansbach (died 20/3/1568 in Tapiau).

11/4/1490, Sunday (-166,203) Easter Sunday.

6/4/1490, Tuesday (-166,208) Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, died suddenly, aged 50. He was succeeded by Ladislas II of Bohemia.

3/4/1490, Saturday (-166,211)

3/3/1490, Wednesday (-166,242)

17/2/1490, Wednesday (-166,256) Charles Bourbon, Constable of France, was born (died 6/5/1527).

3/1/1490, Sunday (-166,301)

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4/12/1489, Friday (-166,331) The fall of Baza, in southern Spain. The Catholic Spanish army had besieged this town, held by the Muslims; both siege and defence were financed by the sale of the jewels of the ladies on both sides. Baza had been a bishopric since before 302, when its bishop was recorded as attending the Council of Elvira.

29/11/1489, Sunday (-166,336) Margaret Queen of Scotland was born (died 18/10/1541).

10/11/1489, Tuesday (-166,355) Henry II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, was born (died 1568).

2/10/1489, Friday (-166,394)

11/9/1489, Friday (-166,415)

2/7/1489, Thursday (-166,486) Thomas Cranmer, Henry VIII�s first reformed Archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Aslockton, Nottinghamshire. He produced the Book of Common Prayer in 1549.

8/6/1489, Monday (-166,510)

8/5/1489, Friday (-166,541)

19/4/1489, Sunday (-166,560) Easter Sunday.

14/4/1489, Tuesday (-166,565) (Italy, Cyprus) The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sold her kingdom to Venice.

1/1/1489, Thursday (-166,668)

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11/9/1488, Thursday (-166,780)

9/9/1488, Tuesday (-166,782) Anne of Brittany became Duchess of Brittany at the age of 11.Her marriage to King Charles VIII in 1491 effectively ended Breton independence from France.

7/8/1488, Thursday (-166,815) (Christian) Caspar Aquila, German religious reformer, was born in Augsburg (died 12/11/1560).

28/7/1488, Monday (-166,825) At the Battle of Saint Aubin du Cornier, troops loyal to King Charles VIII of France defeated forces led by the rebel Duke of Orleans and Duke of Brittanyin the main engagement of the Mad War.

30/6/1488, Monday (-166,853)

11/6/1488, Wednesday (-166,872) James III, King of Scotland, was assassinated.He was succeeded by his son, James IV.

11/5/1488, Sunday (-166,903)

21/4/1448, Monday (-166,923) Ulrich von Hutten, German religious writer, was born (died 1523).

6/4/1488, Sunday (-166.938) Easter Sunday

6/3/1488, Thursday (-166,969)

14/2/1488, Thursday (-166,990) The Great Swabian league was formed.

3/2/1488, Sunday (-167,001) Bartholomew Diaz of Portugal landed in Mossel Bay, after rounding the Cape of Good Hope.He was the first known European to travel this far south.

8/1/1488, Tuesday (-167,027) The present Netherlands Royal Navy was founded, by decree of Maximillian I of Austria.

6/1/1488, Sunday (-167,029) Helius Hessus, German poet, was born (died 5/10/1540).

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6/11/1487, Tuesday (-167,090)

6/10/1487, Saturday (-167,121)

30/9/1497, Sunday (-167,127)

10/9/1487, Monday (-167,147) Pope Julius III was born.

10/8/1487, Friday (-167,178)

10/7/1487, Tuesday (-167,209)

16/6/1487, Saturday (-167,233) The Battle of Stoke Field.The rebellion of the Pretender Lambert Simnel to the English throne, led by John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln, and Francis Lovell, 1st Viscount Lovell, was crushed by troops loyal to Henry VII.

24/5/1487, Thursday (-167,256) Lambert Simnel was crowned �King Edward VI of England� in Christchurch cathedral.He claimed to be Edward, Earl of Warwick, and challenged Henry VII for the throne of England. He was actually the son of a carpenter from Oxford who went to France and won the backing of one of Warwick�s aunts, who had never actually met the real Warwick. He then went to Ireland where he was welcomed, and from where he planned to invade England.

16/5/1487, Wednesday (-167,264)

15/4/1487, Sunday (-167,295) Easter Sunday.

29/1/1487, Monday (-167,371) Richard Foxe became Bishop of Exeter.

1/1/1487, Monday (-167,399)

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13/11/1486, Monday (-167,448) (Christian) Johann Maier Eck, opponent of the reforms of Martin Luther, was born (died 10/2/1543).

19/10/1486, Thursday (-167,473)

19/9/1486, Tuesday (-167,503) King Henry VII�s son Arthur was born.

14/9/1486, Thursday (-167,508) Henry Agrippa von Nettesheim, German writer, (died 18/2/1535 in Grenoble) was born in Cologne.

11/9/1486, Monday (-167,511)

31/8/1486, Thursday (-167,522) The Portuguese explorer Bartholomew Diaz set sail for India.

11/7/1486, Tuesday (-167,573)

9/5/1486, Tuesday (-167,636)

1/5/1486. Monday (-167,644) Christopher Columbus persuaded Queen Isabella of Spain to grant him funds to find a western sea passage to the Indies.

1/4/1486, Saturday (-167,674)

26/3/1486, Sunday (-167,680) Easter Sunday.

14/3/1486, Tuesday (-167,692) Queen Isabella of Castile decreed that the 150,000 Jews within Spain must convert to Christianity or be expelled.

11/3/1486, Saturday (-167,695) (Germany) Albert III, Elector of Brandenburg, died 11/3/1486 in Frankfort (born 9/11/1414 in Tangermunde).

18/2/1486, Saturday (-167,716)

18/1/1486, Wednesday (-167,747) In England, the houses of York and Lancaster were united by the marriage of King Henry VII to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward IV.

1/1/1486, Sunday (-167,764)

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16/12/1485, Friday (-167,780) Catherine of Aragon, first wife of King Henry VIII, was born, the fourth daughter of Ferdinand Isabella.

16/11/1485, Wednesday (-167,810)

30/10/1485. Sunday (-167,827) (1) Coronation of King Henry VII, aged 28

(2) King Henry VII established the Yeoman of the Guard.

28/10/1485, Friday (-167,829) Rodolphus Agricola, Dutch scholar (born 23/8/1443) died.

22/9/1485, Thursday (-167,865)

22/8/1485. Monday (-167,896) Battle of Bosworth Field, 12 miles west of Leicester. The two sides met at White Moor, on the slopes of Ambien Hill, some two miles from the market town of Market Bosworth. Richard had a force twice the size of Henry�s, but the Stanleys, the Earl of Derby and his brother, defected to Henry�s side. King Richard III, (White Rose, Yorkist) the last Plantagenet king, born 2/10/1452 at Fotheringay, was killed as he tried to reach the usurper to the English throne, Henry Tudor, (Red Rose, Lancastrian) now Henry VII. Henry, exiled to France, had landed at Milford Haven on 7/8/1485 and reached Shrewsbury on 15/8/1485, gathering only moderate support along the way. He then passed through Newport (Shropshire), Stafford, Lichfield, Tamworth, and reached Atherstone on the borders of Leicestershire on 20/8/1485. Here he linked up with the Stanley brothers, both anti-Yorkist. The night of the 21st, Henry encamped at White Moors, south west of what was to be the battlefield. Richard and his army halted three miles away on high ground at Sutton Cheney. Both sides attempted to occupy Ambien Hill, midway between the two armies. The Stanleys moved against the Yorkist flanks , and the Yorkist Duke of Northumberland, at the rear, failed to intervene. Richard was unhorsed and killed, and the Yorkist army melted away, unpursued.

7/8/1485, Sunday (-167,911) Henry Tudor (Henry VII) landed at Milford Haven, Wales.

1/8/1485, Monday (-167,917) Henry Tudor (Henry VII) set sail from France for Wales. He had been advised by Rhys ap Thomas (a powerful Welsh landowner), wrongly as it turned out, that the whole of Wales would rise up in his favour.

1/7/1485, Friday (-167,948)

24/6/1485, Friday (-167,055) (Germany) Johann Bugenhagen, German Protestant reformer, was born (died 20/4/1558).

21/6/1485, Tuesday (-167,958) King Richard III, anticipating a challenge for his rulership, issued a proclamation against �Henry Tydder� and other rebels.

8/6 1485, Wednesday (-167,971)

8/5/1485, Sunday (-168,002)

3/4/1485, Sunday (-168,037) Easter Sunday.

3/3/1485, Thursday (-168,068)

18/2/1485, Friday (-168,081)

3/2/1485, Thursday (-168,096)

1/1/1485, Saturday (-168,129) The English Parliament set aside �14,000 for the King�s Household Expenses. This eventually became the Civil List, which the present British Royal Family still live on.

====================================================================================

25/12/1485, Saturday (-168,136)

5/12/1484, Sunday (-168,156) Pope Innocent VIII issued the Papal bull Summis desiderantes affectibus giving the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and witches in Germany, led by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger.

5/11/1484, Friday (-168,186)

5/10/1484, Tuesday (-168,217)

21/9/1484, Tuesday (-168,231) Treaty of Nottingham: Three-year truce between the kingdoms of England and Scotland signed.

29/8/1484, Sunday (-168,254) Pope Innocent VIII (213rd Pope) acceded (died 1492)/

12/8/1484, Thursday (-168,271) Pope Sixtus V died, and was succeeded by Pope Innocent Innocent VIII.

12/7/1484, Monday (-168,302)

12/6/1484, Saturday (-168,332)

12/5/1484, Wednesday (-168,363)

18/4/1484, Sunday (-168,387) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1484, Thursday (-168, 418)

21/2/1484, Saturday (-168,444) Joachim I, Elector of Brandenburg, was born (died 11/7/1535).

1/1/1484, Thursday (-168,495) Church reformer Huldrych Zwingli was born in Switzerland (died 11/10/1513).

===================================================================================

3/12/1483, Wednesday (-168,524) (Christian) Nicolaus von Amsdorf, German Protestant reformer, was born in Torgau (died 14/5/1565 in Eisenach).

10/11/1483, Monday (-168,547) Martin Luther, German religious reformer, leader of the Protestant Reformation, was born in Eisleben, the son of a miner.

16/10/1483, Thursday (-168,572) Gasparo Contarini, Italiun diplomat ad Cardinal, was born.

30/8/1483, Saturday (-168,619) Louis XI, King of France, died, aged 60. He unified France after the Hundred Years War. He was succeeded by his 13-year old son, Charles VIII.

17/8/1483. Sunday (-168,632) The date on which the two young princes, the uncrowned Edward V and his brother Richard, Duke of York, are believed to have been murdered by their uncle and successor, Richard III, in the Tower of London. See 9/4/1483.

9/8/1483. Saturday (-168,640) Pope Sixtus IV celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel, which was named after him.

6/7/1483. Sunday (-168,674) The coronation of King Richard III.

28/6/1483, Saturday (-168,682) The Dukedom of Norfolk was created.

26/6/1483, Thursday (-168,684) Richard III became King of England.

8/5/1483, Thursday (-168,733)

29/4/1483, Tuesday (-168,742) Gran Canaria, the main of the Canary Islands was conquered by the Kingdom of Castile, an important step in the expansion of Spain.

19/4/1483, Saturday (-166,752) Paulus Jovius, Italian historical writer, was born.

9/4/1483. Wednesday (-168,762) King Edward IV died at Windsor. During his second reign he re-established peace after the Wars of the Roses, but his heir, Edward V, was only aged 12. See 17/8/1483.

30/3/1483, Sunday (-168,772) Easter Sunday

28/3/1483, Friday (-168,774) Raphael, Italian painter, was born in Urbino as Raffaello Sanzio or Santi.

14/2/1483, Friday (-168,816) Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Florentine painter, was born (died 1560).

28/1/1483, Tuesday (-168,833)

1/1/1483, Wednesday (-168,860) Jews were expelled from Andalusia.

==================================================================================

23/12/1482. Monday (-168,869) (France, Netherlands) Burgundy and Picardy were absorbed into France by the Treaty of Arras. Meanwhile other Burgundian lands in the Low Countries passed to the Hapsburgs due to the marriage of Charles� only child, Margaret, to the future Holy Roman Empire, Maximilian I.

21/10/1482, Monday (-168,932)

25/8/1482, Sunday (-168,989) Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England, died.

19/8/1482, Monday (-168,995)

1/7/1482, Monday (-169,044) Ferdinand V was defeated at the Battle of Loja (see 14/5/1482). However the Spanish fleet continued to block Moorish supplies from North Africa, ultimately leading to the fall of Granada and the complete expulsion of the Moors from Spain (1492).

8/6/1482, Saturday (-169,067)

14/5/1482, Tuesday (-169,092) In retaliation for the attack of 26/12/1481, the Marquis of Cadiz seized the Moorish town of Alhama, near Granada. Abdul Hassan then laid siege to Alhama, but raised the siege when Christian forces under King Ferdinand V of Castile and Aragon (1452-1516) approached. Ferdinand entered Alhama this day, and Queen Isabella I of Castile and Aragon helped Ferdinand prepare to lay siege to Moorish-held Loja, assembling a fleet to block Moorish reinforcements by sea.

7/4/1482, Sunday (-169,129) Easter Sunday.

7/2/1482, Thursday (-169,188)

2/1/1482, Wednesday (-169,224)

1/1/1482, Tuesday (-169,225)

=================================================================================

26/12/1481, Wednesday (-169,231) (1) At the Battle of Westbroek, Holland defeated the troops of Utrecht.

(2) In southern Spain, a period of peace between Christians and Muslims suddenly ended when Muslim ruler King Muley Abdul Hassan attacked and captured the Zahara fortress, near Ronda, enslaving the Chrstians there.

24/10/1481, Wednesday (-169,294)

10/9/1481, Monday (-169,338) Alphonso II of Naples recaptured the city of Otranto.

29/8/1481, Wednesday (-169,350) John II of Portugal began to rule in his own right.

27/6/1481, Wednesday (-169,413)

21/5/1481, Monday (-169,450) Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway, died aged 49. He was succeeded by his son John (1481-1513).

8/5/1481, Tuesday (-169,463)

3/5/1481, Thursday (-179,468) Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, died and was succeeded by his 34-year old son Bayezid II.

22/4/1481, Sunday (-169,479)

27/3/1481, Tuesday (-169,505) Mary, Duchess of Burgundy, died (born 13/2/1457).

1/1/1481, Monday (-169,590)

================================================================================

28/8/1480, Monday (-169,778)

28/7/1480, Friday (-169,747) (1) An Ottoman Army landed near Otranto, Italy.Pope Sixtus IV called for a crusade to drive them out.

(2) Mohammed II failed in an attempt to take Rhodes from the Knights of Rhodes.

10/7/1480, Monday (-169,765) Rene, Count of Anjou, died without an heir. Louis XI annexed his territory.

8/5/1480, Monday (-169,828)

18/4/1480, Tuesday (-169,848) Lucrezia Borgia, Italian noblewoman, illegitimate daughter of Rodrigo Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI) was born in Rome.

2/4/1480, Sunday (-169,864) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1480, Monday (-169,891) The Treaty of Toledo: Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognised the African conquests of Alphonso of Portugal, and he ceded the Canary Islands to Spain.

13/2/1480, Sunday (-169,913) (Italy) Girolamo Aleandro, Italian Cardinal, was born in Motta, near Venice (died 1/2/1542 in Rome).

13/1/1480, Thursday (-169,944)

10/1/1480, Monday (-169,947) Margaret of Austria, Regent of The Netherlands 1507-30, was born.

1/1/1480, Saturday (-169,956)

=================================================================================

15/12/1479, Wednesday (-169,973)

6/11/1479, Saturday (-170,012) Joanna,Queen of Castille, was born (died 11/4/1555).

13/10/1479, Wednesday (-170,036) The Battle of Kenyermezo.The Hungarian army under Pal Kinizsi and Istvan Bathori defeated the Ottoman army in Transylvania, Hungary.

4/9/1479, Saturday (-170,075) (Africa, Portugal, Spain) The Treaty of Alcovas between Portugal and Spain confirmed Castile�s claim on the Canary Islands, and Portugal�s claim on the Azores and Madeira, also Portuguese rights in west Africa.

7/8/1479, Saturday (-170,103) The Battle of Guinegatte. A French army attempting to invade The Netherlands was defeated by Maximilian of Austria, with Flemish foot soldiers.

14/6/1479, Monday (-170,157) Giglio Giraldi, Italian poet, was born (died 2/1552).

8/5/1479, Saturday (-170,194)

11/4/1479, Sunday (-170,221) Easter Sunday.

11/2/1479, Thursday (-170.280)

24/1/1479, Sunday (-170,298) The Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire signed a peace treaty.Venice ceded Argo, Negroponte, Lemnos, and Scutari, and agreed to pay an annual tribute of 10,000 golden ducats.

20/1/1479, Wednesday (-170,302) Ferdinand II took the throne of Aragon and ruled with his wife Isabella, Queen of Castile over most of the Iberian Peninsula.In 1492 they conquered Granada, ending 700 years of Moorish rule.

1/1/1479, Friday (-170,321)

===================================================================================

28/12/1478, Monday (-170,325) Swiss infantrymen defeated a larger Milanese force at the Battle of Giornico. Ths was essentially a border dispute between Switzerland and Milan. Although the Swiss generally were not in favour of territorial conquests into Milanese territory, the Canton of Uri did manage to capture the Milanese border town of Bellinzona in 1500.

18/11/1478, Wednesday (-170,365)

16/9/1478, Wednesday (-170,428)

22/7/1478, Wednesday (-170,484) Philip II, King of Spain, was born. Son of Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy, he married Joanna the Mad; she inherited the throne of Castile in 1504 but due to her insanity Philip assumed full control in 1506.

15/7/1478, Wednesday (-170,491)

8/6/1478, Monday (-170,528)

8/5/1478, Friday (-170,559)

21/4/1478, Tuesday (-170,576)

22/3/1478, Sunday (-170,606) Easter Sunday

7/3/1478, Saturday (-170,621)

7/2/1478, Saturday (-170,649) Sir Thomas Moore, Lord Chancellor to King Henry VIII, was born in London, the son of a judge. He was executed for refusing to deny the authority of the Pope.

6/1/1478, Tuesday (-170,681) Novgorod was taken by Ivan III.

1/1/1478, Thursday (-170,686)

===================================================================================

14/11/1477, Friday (-170,734) (Arts, Education-Schools) William Caxton issued the first dated, printed, book from his printing press in Westminster. It was Dictes or Sayengis of The Philosophres.

4/11/1477, Tuesday (-170,744)

2/9/1477, Tuesday (-170, 807)

18/8/1477, Monday (-170,822) The Hapsburgs gained possession of the Netherlands through the marriage of the son of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III, Maximillian, with Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold.

2/7/1477,Wednesday (-170,869)

8/5/1477, Thursday (-170,924)

6/4/1477, Sunday (-170,956) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1477, Thursday (-170,973) (Christian) Jerome Emser, opponent of Martin Luther�s reforms, was born (died 8/11/1527)

27/2/1477, Thursday (-170,994) The Swedish University of Uppsala was founded, becoming the first university in Sweden and all of Scandinavia.

14/2/1477. Friday (-171,007) A man in Norfolk received the world�s first known Valentine. Margery Brews sent her fianc�e John Poston a letter saying �To my right welbelovyd Voluntyne�. She explained that she had asked her mother to put pressure on her father to increase her dowry but also said that if he loved her, she would marry him anyway. The Romans, around 600 BC, celebrated a February festival with romantic games and dancing. When the Roman Empire was converted to Christianity, the festival was linked to the martyrdom of St Valentine on 14 February, ca. 270 AD, by the Roman Emperor Claudius. Another possible origin is the medieval belief that birds traditionally pair off on 14 February. Oliver Cromwell�s government banned St Valentine�s day but it was restored when Charles II came to the throne in 1660. See 14/2/1822.

14/1/1477, Tuesday (-171,038) Hermann, Elector of Cologne, was born (died 15/8/1552).

5/1/1477, Sunday (-171,047) Battle of Nancy. Swiss pikemen defeated the Duke of Burgundy�s cavalry. The 43-year old Duke was killed in the battle, and his body was found later, half-eaten by wolves.

===================================================================================

3/11/1476, Sunday (-171,110)

1/9/1476, Sunday (-171,173)

1/7/1476, Monday (-171,235)

28/6/1476, Friday (-171,238) Pope Paul IV born.

22/6/1476, Saturday (-171,244) The Battle of Morat/Murten. The Swiss again defeated the Burgundians.

8/6/1476, Saturday (-171,258) George Neville, Chancellor of England, died.

8/5/1476, Wednesday (-171,289)

14/4/1476, Sunday (-171,313) Easter Sunday

2/3/1476, Saturday (-171,356) (Switzerland) The Swiss defeated a Burgundian Army at Granson, Switzerland.

2/1/1476, Tuesday (-171,416)

1/1/1476, Monday (-171,417)

================================================================================

24/12/1475, Sunday (-171,425) Thomas Murner, satirical writer, was born.

11/12/1475, Monday (-171,438) Pope Leo X was born.

9/10/1475, Monday (-171,501)

7/8/1475, Monday (-171,564)

7/7/1475, Friday (-171,595)

8/5/1475, Monday (-171,655)

18/4/1475,Tuesday (-171,675)

4/4/1475, Tuesday (-171,689)

26/3/1475, Sunday (-171,698) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1475, Monday (-171,718) Michelangelo, Italian painter and sculptor, was born in Capresse, Tiuscany, as Michelagniolo di Lodovico Buonarroti.

6/1/1475, Friday (-171,777)

1/1/1475, Sunday (-171,782)

==============================================================================

4/11/1474, Friday (-171,840)

8/9/1474, Thursday (-177,897) Ludovic Ariosto, poet, was born.

2/9/1474, Friday (-171,903)

2/7/1474, Saturday (-171,965)

9/5/1474, Monday (-172,019) (France) Peter von Hagenbach was tried, found guilty and executed the same day for alleged atrocities committed during his tyrannical rule of Alsace. He had been appointed to this position by Charles, Duke of Burgundy, who had acquired Alsace in 1469.

10/4/1474, Sunday (-172,048) Easter Sunday.

6/2/1474, Sunday (-172,111)

1/1/1474, Saturday (-172,147)

=============================================================================

5/12/1473, Sunday (-172,174)

3/10/1473, Sunday (-172,237)

24/9/1473, Friday (-172,246) Georg von Frundsberg, German soldier, was born (died 20/8/1528).

11/8/1473, Wednesday (-172,290) (Turkey) Ottoman Turkey defeated the Turkomans at the Battle of Otlukbeli. The �White Sheep Turkomans�, under Uzun Hasan, had comprised the most significant threat to the Ottomans since the Mongols under Timur in the early 1400s. However at Otlukbeli the overwhelming firepower of the Ottoman Army comprehensively defeated the Turkomans.

1/8/1473, Sunday (-172,300)

10/7/1473, Saturday (-172,322)

8/5/1473, Saturday (-172,385)

18/4/1473, Sunday (-172,405) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1473, Thursday (-172,415)

17/3/1473, Wednesday (-172,437) James IV, King of Scotland, was born.

19/2/1473, Friday (-172,463) Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer, was born in Torun, Poland.

1/1/1473, Friday (-172,512)

===============================================================================

8/6/1472, Monday (-172,719)

8/5/1472, Friday (-172,750)

8/4/1472, Wednesday (-172,780)

29/3/1472, Sunday (-172,790) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1472, Thursday (-172,828) Orkney and Shetland were given by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment. King Christiaan of Norway and Denmark wanted to form an alliance with Scotland by marrying his daughter Margaret to James III. However Christiaan lacked money for a dowry, so Orkney and Shetland were temporarily handed over in lieu. The dowry was never paid so these islands became part of Scotland.

1/1/1472, Wednesday (-172,878)

====================================================================================

15/10/1471, Tuesday (-172,956) Konrad Mutian, German Humanist writer, was born (died 30/3/1526).

26/9/1471, Thursday (-172,975)

25/7/1471, Thursday(-173,038) Pope Paul II died, aged 54. He was succeeded by Pope Sixtus IV.

21/5/1471, Tuesday (-173,103) (1) King Henry VI died, in the Tower of London.He was probably murdered, and was succeeded by Edward IV.

(2) Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, was born in Nuremberg. He was the son of a goldsmith.

4/5/1471. Saturday (-173,120) The Yorkists under Edward IV defeated the Lancastrians under Margaret of Anjou at the Battle of Tewkesbury. The Lancastrians were attempting to cross the River Severn to joinwith Welsh troops under Jasper Tudor. The death of Margaret�s son, Prince Edward, as he fled the battlefield extinguished the House of Lancaster.

14/4/1471, Sunday (-173,140) Easter Sunday. Yorkists under King Edward IV defeated the Earl of Warwick�s Lancastrians at the Battle of Barnet.

14/3/1471, Thursday (-173,171) Thomas Malory., writer.died.

20/2/1471, Wednesday (-173,193)

1/1/1471, Tuesday (-173,243)

===================================================================================

2/11/1470, Thursday (-173,304) Edward V, King of England, was born.

9/10/1470. Monday (-173,328) Lancastrian King Henry VI was restored to the English throne after having been deposed nine years earlier. The power behind the throne here was held by Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, a former Yorkist who abandoned the cause when his prot�g�, Edward IV, strong-willed, secretly married the woman he wanted to, the young widow Elizabeth Woodville, rather than undertake an arranged marriage to a French Princess. Henry VI, a weak character, was accustomed to abdication of political responsibilities so an alliance with power-hungry Warwick suited them both. However Henry VI�s weak reign was blamed for the wars that had split England for the previous 15 years, and the loss of English lands in France, and Henry�s days seemed numbered.

30/9/1470, Saturday (-173,337)

30/7/1470, Monday (-173,398) Hongzhi, Emperor of China, was born.

24/6/1470, Sunday (-173,434)

20/5/1470, Sunday (-173,369) Pietro Bembo, Italian writer, was born in Venice (died 18/1/1547).

15/5/1470, Tuesday (-173,474) Charles VIII, King of Sweden, died

22/4/1470, Sunday (-173,497) Easter Sunday

20/2/1470, Tuesday (-173,558)

1/1/1470, Monday (-173,608)

=====================================================================================

22/11/1469, Tuesday (-173,649) Sir Alexander Boyd, Scottish statesman, was beheaded.

20/10/1469, Thursday (-173,682) Guru Nanak Dev, Sikh leader, was born.

19/10/1469, Wednesday (-173,683) (Spain) The Crowns of Castile and Aragon were joined with the marriage of Prince Ferdinand of Aragon and the Infanta Isabella of Castile. This nominally united almost all of what is now Spain, except for the Kingdom of Navarre in the north and Granada in the south (although the two kingdoms remained politically separate entities). Spain was now the most powerful State in Europe.

8/10/1469, Saturday (-173,694) Fra Filippo Lippi, painter, died.

28/9/1469, Wednesday (-173,704)

26/7/1469, Wednesday (-173,767) Battle of Edgecote, Northamptonshire, Wars of the Roses

10/7/1469, Monday (-173,783)

3/5/1469. Wednesday (-173,851) Niccolo Machiavelli, Italian statesman and historian, was born in Florence.

2/4/1469, Sunday (-173,882) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1469, Monday (-173,923)

1/1/1469, Sunday (-173,973)

==================================================================================

24/11/1468, Thursday (174,011) Jean Dunois, French commander who achieved many victories against the English during the Hundred Years War, died (born 1403).

7/11/1468, Monday (-174,028)

7/10/1468, Friday (-174,059) Sigismondo Malatesta, tyrant and soldier, died.

11/9/1468, Sunday (-174,085)

10/7/1468, Sunday (-174,148)

30/6/1468, Thursday (-174,158) John the Steadfast, Elector of Saxony,was born (died 16/8/1532).

16/6/1468, Thursday (-174,172) Jean le Fevre, Burgundian historical writer, died.

8/5/1468, Sunday (-174,211)

17/4/1468, Sunday (-174,232) Easter Sunday.

28/2/1468, Sunday (-174,281) Pope Paul III was born.

20/2/1468, Saturday (-174,289)

3/2/1468, Wednesday (-174,306) Johann Gutenberg, German inventor of printing from moveable type, died.

1/1/1468, Friday (-174,339)

==================================================================================

15/6/1467, Monday (-174,539) Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, died, aged 71, after a 48-year reign. He was succeeded by his son, Charles the Bold, who began a 10-year power struggle with Louis XI of France.

8/5/1467, Friday (-174,577)

29/3/1467, Sunday (-174,617) Easter Sunday.

1/3/1467, Sunday (-174,645)

1/2/1467, Sunday (-174,673)

1/1/1467, Thursday (-174,704)

=================================================================================

13/12/1466, Saturday (-174,723) Donatello, sculptor, died.

1/12/1466, Monday (-174,735)

1/11/1466, Saturday (-174,765)

19/10/1466, Friday(-174,768) (Poland, Germany) King Casimir IV signed the Second Peace of Thorn, ending thewarfare which began in 1454 when Casimir IV agreed to help the Prussian Confederation against the Teutonic Knights.

6/4/1466, Sunday (-174,976) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1466, Thursday (-175,019)

1/1/1466, Wednesday (-175,069)

=================================================================================

1/11/1465, Friday (-175,130)

1/9/1465, Sunday (-175,191)

13/7/1465, Saturday (-175,241) Louis XI defeated by the League of the Common Weal at the Battle of Montlhery

8/5/1465, Wednesday (-175,307)

14/4/1465, Sunday (-175,331) Easter Sunday

8/1/1465, Tuesday (-175,427) (Italy) Lorenzo Giustiniani, Bishop of Venice, died (born 1380).

=================================================================================

14/8/1464, Tuesday (-175,574) Pope Pius II died.

12/8/1464, Sunday (-175,576) John Capgrave, English historian, born 21/4/1393, died.

1/8/1464, Wednesday (-175,587) Cosimo de Medici died aged 75 in Florence. He was succeeded as head of the banking family by his son, Piero.

8/7/1464, Sunday (-175,611)

16/6/1464, Saturday (-175,633) Roger van der Weyden, painter, died.

15/5/1464, Tuesday (-175,665) Battle of Hexham. Lancastrians defeated by Montague.

8/5/1464, Tuesday (-175,672)

25/4/1464, Wednesday (-175,885) At Hedgeley Moor, near Alnwick, Northumberland, the Lancastrians in northern England were defeated.

8/4/1464, Sunday (-175,702)

1/4/1464, Sunday (-175,709) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1464, Sunday (-175,800)

=====================================================================================

1/12/1463, Thursday (-175,831)

1/11/1463, Tuesday (-175,861)

29/10/1463, Saturday (-175,864) (Medical) Alessandro Achillini, Italian anatomist, (died 2/8/1512 in Bologna) was born in Bologna.

10/4/1463, Sunday (-176,066) Easter Sunday.

10/3/1463, Thursday (-176,097)

10/2/1463, Thursday (-176,125)

17/1/1463, Monday (-176,149) Antoine du Prat, Chancellor of France, was born (died 9/7/1535).

1/1/1463, Saturday (-176,165)

=====================================================================================

17/9/1462, Friday (-176,271) (Poland, Germany) The Poles decisively defeated the Teutoinic Knights at the Battle of Pluck, a fortress on the Vistula River south of Tczew.

8/5/1462, Saturday (-176,403)

18/4/1462, Sunday (-176,423) Easter Sunday.

23/2/1462, Tuesday (-176,477) Gilbert Lafayette, Marshal of France, died.

20/2/1462, Saturday (-176,480)

1/1/1462, Friday (-176,530)

====================================================================================

15/8/1461, Saturday (-176,669) The Ottomans took Trebizond.

22/7/1461, Wednesday (-176,693) Charles VII of France died aged 58. He was succeeded by his son, Louis XI.

28/6/1461, Sunday (-176,717) Coronation of Yorkist King Edward IV.

17/6/1461, Wednesday (-176,728) Vlad the Impaler, or Dracula, massacred an Ottoman army, killing 15,000, near Targoviste, capital of Wallachia.

8/5/1461, Friday (-176,768)

5/4/1461, Sunday (-176,801) Easter Sunday.

29/3/1461, Sunday (-176,808) The Battle of Towton (North Yorkshire) took place, during the Wars of the Roses, in a snowstorm. It was the bloodiest battle ever on British soil; over 28,000 died. The Lancastrians were heavily defeated and the position of King Edward IV was secured. The Yorkists were exhausted after a long march, and were fighting up-slope. However the Yorkists had an advantage as the wind was behind them, causing their arrows to fly further, whilst the Lancastrians were blinded by snow blowing into their faces, spoiling their aim and causing their arrows to fall short.

5/3/1461, Thursday (-176,832) Henry VI was deposed as King of England. Edward IV (Duke of York) succeeded him.

17/2/1461, Tuesday (-176,848) The Second Battle of Barnet. Margaret of Anjou�s Lancastrian forces defeated the Yorkist Earl of Warwick. Warwick, defending the Yorkists in London, was taken by surprise and fled in disarray, failing to take King Henry VI with him.

3/2/1461, Tuesday (-176,862) At Mortimer�s Cross, Richard�s son, Edward, Earl of March, defeated the Lancastrian forces.

17/1/1461, Saturday (-176,879)

3/1/1461, Saturday (-176,893)

1/1/1461, Thursday (-176,895)

====================================================================================

30/12/1460, Tuesday (-176,897)The Battle of Wakefield. A superior Lancastrian force caught Yorkists, foraging, by surprise, and the Duke of York was killed. This would have ended the Yorkist cause but for the Battle of Mortimer�s Cross, 3/2/1461.

13/11/1460, Thursday (-176,944) Prince Henry the Navigator died, aged 66.

13/10/1460, Monday (-176,975)

13/9/1460, Saturday (-177,005)

3/8/1460. Sunday (-177,046) James II, King of Scotland, killed during the siege of Roxburgh Castle by the English.

10/7/1460. Thursday (-177,070) The Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians in the Wars of the Roses and captured King Henry VI at the Battle of Northampton.

10/6/1460, Tuesday (-177,100)

8/5/1460, Thursday (-177,133)

13/4/1460, Sunday (-177,138) Easter Sunday

4/4/1460, Friday (-177,147) The University of Basle opened.

20/2/1460, Wednesday (-177,211)

1/1/1460, Tuesday (-177,261)

====================================================================================

23/9/1459, Sunday (-177,361) The Battle of Blore Heath, during the Wars of the Roses. The Yorkists under Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, defeated the Lancastrians under Lord Audley. Salisbury was now able to join forces with the Yorkists at Ludlow.

10/7/1459, Tuesday (-177,436)

8/5/1459, Tuesday (-177,499)

25/3/1459, Sunday (-177,543) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1459, Thursday (-177,546) Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian was born.

20/2/1459, Tuesday (-177,576)

1/1/1459, Monday (-177,626)

===================================================================================

14/8/1458, Monday (-177,766)

6/8/1458, Sunday (-177,774) Pope Calistus III died.

12/6/1458. Monday (-177,829) Magdalen College, Oxford, was founded.

8/5/1458, Monday (-177,864)

2/4/1458, Sunday (-177,900) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1458, Monday (-177,941)

20/1/1458, Friday (-177,972) Mathew Corvinas, second son of Janos Hunyadi (the ruler who had successfully defended Belgrade against the Ottomans under Mehmed II in 1456) was elected King of Hungary. He took territory for Hungary from Bohemia, having obtained papal consent for a Crusade against its Hussite ruler, George of Podebrady (ruled 1458-71). However Hungary eventually came under Ottoman rule in 1526.

1/1/1458, Sunday (-177,991)

================================================================================

25/11/1457, Friday (-178,028)

23/11/1457, Wednesday (-17,030) Ladislaus V, King of Hungary and Bohemia, died )born 22/2/1440)

8/5/1457, Sunday (-178,229)

17/4/1457, Sunday (-178,250) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1457, Sunday (-178,292) King James II of Scotland banned golf, because it distracted men from archery training. There was a constant threat of invasion from England, The ban was reiterated in 1471 and 1491, and was not formally lifted until 1744.

28/2/1457, Monday (-178,298)

13/2/1457, Sunday (-178,313) Mary, Duchess of Burgundy, was born (died 27/3/1481).

28/1/1457, Friday (-178,329) Henry VII born at Pembroke Castle. The start of the Tudor dynasty. He was the son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, and of Margaret Beaufort.

1/1/1457, Saturday (-178,356)

==============================================================================

17/12/1456, Friday (-178,371)

25/11/1456, Thursday (-178,393) Jacques Couer, French trader, died.

9/11/1456, Tuesday (-178,409) (Hungary) Ulrich Cilli, Hungarian governor, was assassinated hy Laszlo Hunyadi.

23/10/1456, Saturday (-178,426) (Christian) Giovanni di Capistrano, Italian theologian, died (born 1386).

17/10/1456, Sunday (-178,432) The University of Greifswald was established.

22/9/1456, Wednesday (-178,457)

20/8/1456, Friday (-178,490) Vlad III �The Impaler� became King of Romania. His cruelty gave rise to the legend of Dracula.

22/7/1456, Thursday (-178,519) John Hunyadi, King of the Hungarians, defeated an invading Ottoman Turkish army at Belgrade. This halted the ambitions of Sultan Mahomet II to occupy Vienna and then Rome, which Mahomet regarded as still the �capital of Europe�.

14/7/1456, Wednesday (-178,527) Hunyadi defeated a Turkish fleet on the Danube in the Naval Battle of Belgrade.

8/7/1456, Thursday (-178,533)

8/5/1456, Saturday (-178,594)

8/4/1456, Thursday (-178,624)

28/3/1456, Sunday (-178,635) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1456, Thursday (-178,722)

==================================================================================

22/5/1455. Thursday (-178,946) The First Battle of Barnet.In the Wars of the Roses, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, Yorkist, fought his way into the Lancastrian camp because Henry VI had refused Richard of York�s demand that Simon Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, be imprisoned. The Yorkists won, killing their principal enemies, Somerset, Northumberland and Clifford.

8/4/1455, Tuesday (-178,990) Pope Callixtus III (born 1378) acceded (died 1458).

6/4/1455, Sunday (-178,992) Easter Sunday

24/3/1455, Monday (-179,005) Pope Nicholas V died.

18/3/1455, Tuesday (-179,011)

23/2/1455, Sunday (-179,034) Traditional date for the publication of Gutenberg�s Bible, the first book printed from moveable metal type.

18/2/1455, Tuesday (-179,039) Fra Angelico, Florentine painter, died.

1/1/1455, Wednesday (-179,087)

================================================================================

21/7/1454, Sunday (-179,251) Juan II of Castile died and was succeeded by his son, Enrique.

21/5/1454, Tuesday (-179,312) (Italy) Ermolao Barbaro, Italian scholar, was born in Venice (died in Rome 14/6/1493).

8/5/1454,Wednesday (-179,325)

21/4/1454, Sunday (-179,342) Easter Sunday.

9/4/1454. Tuesday (-179,354) Three rival Italian powers � Venice, Milan, and Florence � agreed to unite in an �Italian league�. Rome and Milan also seemed likely to join.

27/3/1454, Wednesday (-179,367) Richard was elected Protector by the English Parliament, during King Henry VI�s first bout of insanity.

9/3/1454, Saturday (-179,385) Amerigo Vespucci, Italian explorer who discovered the mouth of the Amazon and gave his name to America, was born.

20/2/1454, Wednesday (-179,402)

1/1/1454, Tuesday (-179,452)

=================================================================================

1/12/1453, Saturday (-179,483)

1/11/1453, Thursday (-179,513)

19/10/1453, Friday (-179,526) (France) France recaptured Bordeaux from the English. Bordeaux had fallen to France in 1451, but the English retook it.

20/7/1453, Friday (-179,617) Enguerrand de Monstrelet, French historical writer, died.

17/7/1453. Tuesday (--179,620) (France, Britain) The end of the Hundred Years War, when the French defeated the English at Chatillon/Castillon. Now only Calais remained in English hands; in 1449 England had occupied nearly a third of France. By now England was pre-occpied with the Wars of the Roses.

2/6/1453, Saturday (-179,665) Alvaro de Luna, Constable of Castile, was executed after a show trial. The Spanish King, Juan II�s, second wife was distiurbed at Alvaro�s influence over him.

29/5/1453.Tuesday (-179,669) (Roman Empire, Turkey) The Turks conquered Constantinople, following a siege of over a year. The end of the Byzantine Empire.

12/5/1453, Saturday (-179,686) The Ottoman Sultan ordered the walls of Constantinople be bombarded with huge cannon balls fired from an 8 metre long, 1.05 metre calibre, cannon.

6/4/1453, Friday (-179,722) The Turkish attack on Constantinople began..

1/4/1453, Sunday (-179,727) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1453, Tuesday (-179,767)

1/1/1453, Monday (-179,817)

=================================================================================

2/10/1452, Monday (-179,908) Richard III, King of England, was born.

21/9/1452, Thursday (-179,919) Girolamo Savonarola, Church reformer, was born.

17/7/1452, Monday (-179,985)

8/5/1452, Monday (-180,055)

19/4/1452, Wednesday (-180,074) Ferdinand II, King of Aragon, was born.

9/4/1452, Sunday (-180,084) Easter Sunday.

26/4/1452. Wednesday (-180,067) Leonardo Da Vinci, Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, scientist, and inventor, was born into the Renaissance.

19/3/1452, Sunday (-180,105) Frederick, King of Germany, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Nicholas.

16/3/1452, Thursday (-180,108) Ferdinand V, King of Castile and Leon, was born (died 23/1/1516).

3/2/1452, Thursday (-180,150) The Duke of York accused the Beaufort family, who backed the Lancastrian King Henry VI, of incompetence and ineptitude and of thereby losing the English territories in France.

1/1/1452, Saturday (-180,183)

==================================================================================

20/8/1451, Friday (-180,317) The French captured Bayonne, the last English stronghold in Guyenne.

10/7/1451, Saturday (-180,358) James III, King of Scotland, was born (died 11/6/1488).

30/6/1451, Wednesday (-180,368) French troops under the Comte de Dunois invaded Guyenne and captured Bordeaux.

25/4/1451, Sunday (-180,434) Easter Sunday.

22/4/1451, Thursday (-180,437) Isabella, Queen of Castile and Leon was born.

20/2/1451, Saturday (-180,498)

7/1/1451, Thursday (-180,542) Glasgow University was founded.

1/1/1451, Friday (-180,548)

================================================================================

3/11/1450, Tuesday (-180,607)

5/10/1450, Monday (-180,636)Jews were expelled from Lower Bavaria by order of Ludwig IX.

16/9/1450, Wednesday (-180,655) (France) Louis Aleman, French Cardinal, died in Arles.

12/8/1450, Wednesday (-180,690) Cherbourg, the last English territory in Normandy, surrendered to the French.

17/7/1450, Friday (-180,716)

12/7/1450, Sunday (-180,721) Cade had been promised a free pardon and had disbanded his army. However he was then hunted down by Government forces and killed this day.

6/7/1450, Monday (-180,727) Caen surrendered to the French.

4/7/1450, Saturday (-180,729) JackCade entered London. Henry VI had left London for Kenilworth, allowing Cade�s men to enter the capital and execute unpopular courtiers. However Cade proved unable to maintain discipline amongst his followers and Londoners turned against him.

27/6/1450. Saturday (-180,736) Jack Cade, an Irish born physician, led an insurrection march of 40,000 through Kent to London to protest against the high taxes of King Henry VI. The English Government was unpopular after its defeat in the Hundred Years War. Meanwhile Henry VI�s courtiers blamed the Men of Kent for the murder of William de la Pole in May 1450 and wanted reprisals, sparking the Kentish rebellion. Pole had been involved in the disastrous English military campaign in France that culminated with the loss of Normandy to the French; Parliament had him sent to The Tower on charges of treason. King Henry VI, to save Pole from a trial with a foregone conclusion, declared him innocent but banished him from England for five years. As Pole left Dover, his ship was intercepted, and Pole was forcibly dragged into a small boat and beheaded.

18/6/1450, Thursday (-180,745) Jack Cade�s men ambushed and defeated the King�s soldiers in an ambush nbear Sevenoaks.

28/5/1450, Thursday (-180,766)

15/4/1450, Wednesday (-180,809) The Battle of Formigny. Fought near Caen, the French defeated an English force sent to halt King Charles VII�s reconquest of Normandy.

5/4/1450, Sunday (-180,819) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1450, Friday (-180,863)

1/1/1450, Thursday (-180,913)

===================================================================================

1/12/1449, Monday (-180,944)

1/11/1449, Saturday (-180,974)

29/10/1449, Wednesday(-180,977) The French recaptured Rouen from the English.

13/4/1449, Sunday (-181,176) Easter Sunday

20/2/1449, Thursday (-181,228)

6/1/1449, Monday (-181,273) Constantine XI was crowned Byzantine Emperor at Mistra. He was the last in a line of rulers that can be traced to the founding of Rome.

1/1/1449, Wednesday (-181,278) Lorenzo de Medici, statesman, was born.

==================================================================================

4/11/1448, Monday (-181,336)

17/10/1448, Thursday (-181,354) Battle of Kosovo: Hungarian forces under John Hunyadi were defeated by the Turks.

28/8/1448, Wednesday (-181,404) (France) France�s first regular infantry, the Francs-Archers, was formed. By ordinance of Montils les Tours, each parish was to selecte its best archer, who was to practice on Sundays and feast days, and was exempt from the taille. They had to be ready to mobilise instantly when required.

8/5/1448, Wednesday (-181,516)

8/4/1448, Monday (-181,546)

24/3/1448, Sunday (-181,561) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1448, Tuesday (-181,594)

1/1/1448, Monday (-181,644)

================================================================================

15/6/1447, Monday (-181,875) The Inquisition was revived in Spain.

8/5/1447, Monday (-181,882)

15/4/1447, Saturday (-181,905)

9/4/1447, Sunday (-181,911) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1447, Monday (-181,945) St Colette, founder of the Colettine Poor Clares, died at Ghent (born 13/1/1381). She founded 18 convents.

23/2/1447, Thursday (-181,956) Pope Eugene IV (207th Pope) died.

20/2/1447, Monday (-181,959)

1/1/1447, Sunday (-182,009)

================================================================================

24/5/1446, Tuesday (-182,231) Ambrose de Lore, French military commander, died.

8/5/1446, Sunday (-182,247)

17/4/1446, Sunday (-182,268) Easter Sunday.

16/4/1446, Saturday (-182,269) Filippo Brunelleschi, the Florentine architect and sculptor who designed the city�s cathedral, died.

20/2/1446, Sunday (-182,324)

1/1/1446, Saturday (-182,374)

================================================================================

8/5/1445, Saturday (-182,612)

23/4/1445, Friday (-182,627) King Henry VI of England married Margaret of Anjou at Titchfield Abbey, near Southampton.

28/3/1445, Sunday (-182,653) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1445, Tuesday (-183,665) Johann Geiler, German religious writer, was born (died 10/3/1510)

20/2/1445, Saturday (-182,689)

20/1/1445, Wednesday (-182,720)

1/1/1445, Friday (-182,739)

==================================================================================

11/12/1444, Friday (-182,760) The earliest mention of the Welsh town of Bridgend, in a legal document, as Bruggen Eynde. The older market town of Kenfig had been abandoned due to coastal flooding and encroachment by sand dunes, and a bridge over the River Ogmore was constructed to the new town site.

10/11/1444, Tuesday (-182,791) (1) (Turkey) Christian forces were heavily defeated at Varna by Ottoman Turks.

(2) Ladislas VI, King of Poland, died.

24/8/1444, Monday (-182,869) Battle of St Jakob, near Basle. Frederick III, seeking to regain Hapsburg control of Switzerland, allied with Charles VII of France who was seeking employment for troops de,mobilised after the Hunderd Years War. The French veterans, 30,00 strong, were met by some 1,500 Swiss. The Swiss force was annihilated but not before they had killed some 3,000 French. The determination of the Swiss deterred any further French attacks, who instead turned to harassing Frederick�s domains in Alsace.

10/7/1444, Friday (-182,914)

8/5/1444, Friday (-182,977)

16/4/1444, Thursday (-182,999) The Truce of Tours, England and France signed a 5-year peace.

12/4/1444, Sunday (-183,003) Easter Sunday

20/2/1444, Thursday (-183,055)

1/1/1444, Wednesday (-183,105)

=================================================================================

23/8/1443, Friday (-183,236) Rodolphus Agricola, Dutch scholar (died 28/10/1485) was born.

10/7/1443, Wednesday (-183,280)

8/5/1443, Wednesday (-183,343)

21/4/1443, Sunday (-183,360) Easter Sunday.

27/3/1443, Wednesday (-183,385) Matthius Corvinus, King of Hungary, second son of John Hunyadi, was born.

20/2/1443, Wednesday (-183,420)

28/1/1443, Monday (-183,443) Robert le Macon, Chancellor of France, died.

27/1/1443, Sunday (-183,444) (Germany) Albert III, Duke of Saxony, was born (died 12/9/1500 in Emden).

1/1/1443, Tuesday (-183,470)

===================================================================================

18/12/1442, Tuesday (-183,484) (France) Pierre Cauchon, French Bishop, died.

27/11/1442, Tuesday (-183,505)

30/9/1442, Sunday (-183,563) Johannes Gutenberg�s Bible became the first book to be printed using moveable metal type.

30/7/1442, Monday (-183,625)

17/6/1442, Sunday (-183,668) Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, was crowned King of Germany at Aix la Chapelle.

8/5/1442, Tuesday (-183,708)

28/4/1442, Saturday (-183,718) King Edward IV was born in Rouen, son of Richard, Duke of York.

8/4/1442, Sunday (-183,738)

1/4/1442, Sunday (-183,745) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1442, Monday (-183,835)

=================================================================================

9/6/1441, Friday (-184,073) Dutch painter Jan van Eyck, equerry to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, died.

16/4/1441, Sunday (-184,095) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1441, Monday (-184,150)

1/1/1441, Sunday (-184,200)

==================================================================================

26/10/1440, Wednesday (-184,267) Gilles de Rais, Marshal of France, was hanged.

20/9/1440. Tuesday (-184,303) Eton School was founded by Henry VI for poor and needy scholars. Prefects were warned to watch out for ill-kempt beards, unwashed faces, and foul clothes.

10/7/1440, Sunday (-184,375)

8/5/1440, Sunday (-184,438)

10/4/1440, Sunday (-184,466)

27/3/1440, Sunday (-184,480) Easter Sunday.

22/2/1440, Monday (-184,514) Ladislaus V, King of Hungary and Bohemia, was born (died 23/11/1457)

21/2/1440, Sunday (-184,515) The Prussian Confederation was formed.

1/1/1440, Friday (-184,566)

=================================================================================

27/10/1439. Tuesday (-184,632) (Hungary) Death of King Albert II of Hungary at Langendorf, from dysentery, whilst fighting the Turks. Born in 1397, he reigned less than two years and spent this in the defence of Hungary against the Turks.

7/9/1439, Monday (-184,682)

6/7/1439, Monday (-184,745) (Roman Empire, Turkey, Christian) Emperor John III of Constantinople (by then he ruled very little outside Constantinople, Salonika and Morea, and was known in western Europe as �Emperor of the Greeks�, not as he was officially, Roman Emperor) travelled to an Ecumenical Council in Florence and accepted papal primacy and union with Rome. The Decree of Union (Laetentur Caeli) formally uniting the Latin and Greek churches was issued. This was a last-ditch attempt to save his dominions from the Ottoman Turkish advance. However the Greek clergy rejected this union; there were too many fundamental differences of doctrine between the two Churches. Those who had formally accepted the union recanted upon return home. They preferred, in the words of a Byzantine dignitary, �the power [in Constantinople] of the Turkish turban rather than the Latin tiara.

29/6/1439, Monday (-184,752)

29/5/1439, Friday (-184,783) Pope Pius III died.

8/5/1439, Friday (-184,804)

5/4/1439, Sunday (-184,837) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1439, Friday (-184,881)

1/1/1439, Thursday (-184,931)

===================================================================================

8/5/1438, Thursday (-185,169)

13/4/1438, Sunday (-185,194) Easter Sunday

28/3/1438, Friday (-185,210) Santi Raphael, painter, died.

1/1/1438, Wednesday (-185,296)

=====================================================================================

9/12/1437, Monday (-185,319) (Germany) Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund died.

8/5/1437, Wednesday (-185,534)

8/4/1437, Monday (-185,564)

31/3/1437, Sunday (-185,572) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1437, Wednesday (-185,583)

20/2/1437. Wednesday (-185,611) James I, King of Scotland, aged 42, was assassinated by a group of dissident nobles led by Sir Robert Graham, who wanted a rival on the Scottish throne. James had become King in 1424, executing many of the nobility to establish control. James was staying at the Dominican Friary at Perth when murdered.

20/1/1437, Sunday (-185,642)

3/1/1437, Thursday (-184,659) (Britain) Catherine of Valois, Queen of King Henry V of England, died (born 27/10/1401).

1/1/1437, Tuesday (-185,661)

=================================================================================

8/5/1436, Tuesday (-185,899)

13/4/1436, Friday (-185,924) The English lost Paris to the French.

8/4/1436, Sunday (-185,929) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1436, Monday (-185,977)

1/1/1436, Sunday (-186,027)

===============================================================================

1/12/1435, Thursday (-186,058)

1/11/1435, Tuesday (-186,088) week 26,854

1/10/1435, Saturday (-186,119)

20/9/1435, Tuesday (-186,130) (France) Charles VII concluded the Treaty of Arras with the Duke of Burgundy. This deprived England of an ally, further isolating it.

8/5/1435, Sunday (-186,265)

17/4/1435, Sunday (-186,286) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1435, Sunday (-186,342)

11/2/1435, Friday (-186,351) Joanna II, Queen of Naples, died.

1/1/1435, Saturday (-186,392)

=================================================================================

10/12/1434, Friday (-186,414)

15/11/1434, Monday (-186,439) Louis III, Duke of Anjou, died (born 25/9/1403).

10/11/1434, Wednesday (-186,444)

19/10/1434, Wednesday (-185,465) The University of Catania was founded in Italy.

1/6/1434, Tuesday (-186,606) Ladislas V Jagiello, (born ca. 1362), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, died aged 84 after a 38-year reign. He was succeeded by his 10-year-old son who ruled as Ladislas VI until his death in 1444.

8/5/1434, Saturday (-186,630)

8/4/1434, Thursday (-186,660)

28/3/1434, Sunday (-186,671) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1434, Saturday (-186,707)

1/1/1434, Friday (-186,757)

================================================================================

10/11/1433, Tuesday (-186,809) Charles, Duke of Burgundy was born.

13/10/1433, Tuesday (-186,837)

11/8/1433, Tuesday (-186,900) John I, King of Portugal, died.

10/7/1433, Friday (-186,932)

8/5/1433, Friday (-186,995)

12/4/1433, Sunday (-187,021) Easter Sunday

20/2/1433, Friday (-187,072)

1/1/1433, Thursday (-187,122)

===============================================================================

5/5/1432, Monday (-187,363) (Italy) Francesco Carmagnola, Italian soldier of fortune, was executed in Venice (born 1390).

20/4/1432, Sunday (-187,378) Easter Sunday.

5/3/1432, Wednesday (-187,424) (France) Charles VII concluded the Treaty of Rennes.

20/2/1432, Wednesday (-187,438)

20/1/1432, Sunday (-187,469)

1/1/1432, Tuesday (-187,488)

=================================================================================

16/12/1431. Sunday (-187,504) The Bishop of Winchester, Henry Beaufort, crowned King Henry VI King of France.

30/5/1431. Wednesday (-187,704) Jeanne D�Arc, a peasant girl from Donremy, was burned at the stake in Rouen for heresy. She had been taken prisoner by the Burgundians in May 1430 and handed over to Pierre Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais. She endured a year of inquisition and torture. She was canonised in 1920 on the anniversary of her death.

8/5/1431, Tuesday (-187,726)

8/4/1431, Sunday (-187,756)

3/4/1431, Tuesday (-187,761) Pope Eugene IV (207th Pope) acceded (died 23/2/1447). Opposed by antipope Felix V (Amadeus of Savoy)

1/4/1431, Sunday (-187,763) Easter Sunday.

21/2/1431, Wednesday (-187,802) The trial of Joan of Arc began.

20/2/1431, Tuesday (-187,803) Pope Martin V died.

26/1/1431, Friday (-187,828) (Christian) Richard Fleming, Bishop of Lincoln, died.

9/1/1431, Tuesday (-187,845) Judicial enquiries preliminary to the trial of Joan of Arc began in Rouen.

1/1/1431, Monday (-187,853)

====================================================================================

16/10/1430, Monday (-187,930) James II, King of Scotland, was born.

11/9/1430,Monday (-187,965)

10/7/1430, Monday (-188,028)

23/5/1430, Tuesday (-188,076) Joan of Arc was captured by the Burgundians, who were allied to the English. This was as part of a French force attempting to relieve the English siege of Compeigne.

8/5/1430, Monday (-188,091)

16/4/1430, Sunday (-188,113) Easter Sunday.

8/4/1430, Saturday (-188,121)

23/3/1430, Thursday (-188,137) Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England, was born.

20/2/1430, Monday (-188,168)

22/1/1430, Sunday (-188,197)

1/1/1430, Sunday (-188,218)

==================================================================================

23/12/1429, Friday (-188,227)

23/11/1429, Wednesday (-188,257)

6/11/1429, Sunday (-188,274) The coronation of King Henry VI of England.

7/10/1429, Friday (-188,304)

7/9/1429, Wednesday (-188,334)

26/8/1429. Friday (-188,346) Jeanne D�Arc made a triumphal entry into Paris.

17/7/1429, Sunday (-188,386) Charles VII was crowned King in Reims.

16/7/1429, Saturday (-188,387) The French Army reached Reims, which surrendered to Charles VII without a fight.

12/7/1429, Tuesday (-188,391) John Gerson, Chancellor of the University of Paris, died (born 14/12/1363).

18/6/1429. Saturday (-188,415) Jeanne D�Arc, 17 years old, defeated the British at the Battle of Patay. Historians are still in dispute over Jeanne D�Arc�s role in the Hundred Years War between Britain and France. Born a peasant�s daughter on 7/1/1412, she believed she was led by divine guidance and her mission was to make sure that Charles VII became King of France and not the English Henry V. The French and the English came face to face at Patay on 18/6/1429 and Jeanne D�Arc had promised the French a greater victory than ever they had seen so far. The English army was indeed routed and also its reputation for invincibility, as the Earl of Salisbury�s 5,000 men were forced back across the River Loire.She was captured by the English a year later, 24/5/1430, with the help of French collaborators, and burnt as a witch on 30/5/1431, She was canonised in 1920.

10/5/1429, Tuesday (-188,454)

8/5/1429, Sunday (-188,456)

7/5/1429, Saturday (-188,457) The French captured the English fort of Les Tourelles, inspired by Joan of Arc. This was one of several strongholds around Orleans lost by the English. The following day, 8/5/1429, the English began retreating, but Joan of Arc forbade the French to pursue because it was a Sunday.

29/4/1429, Friday (-188,465) Joan of Arc arrived to relieve the Siege of Orl�ans.

27/4/1429, Wednesday (-188,467) French troops mustered at Blois and set off for Orleans. Orleans had been almost surrounded by English troops since 12/10/1428, although it was possible for the French to enter and leave.

27/3/1429, Sunday (-188,498) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1429, Sunday (-188,533)

13/2/1429, Sunday (-188,540) Joan of Arc left Vancouleurs, a town loyal to the French Dauphin, and travelled across English-held territory to Chinon to meet the Dauphin. The French nobility were unsure if she was mad or a heretic, but then decided to use her to raise French morale so as to defeat the English at Orleans.

13/1/1429, Thursday (-188,571)

1/1/1429, Saturday (-188,583)

==================================================================================

13/12/1428, Monday (-188,602)

22/11/1428, Monday (-188,623) Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, was born.

24/10/1428, Sunday (-188,652) The Earl of Salisbury was fatally wounded by a cannon shot across the Loire from Orleans. He was succeeded by the Earl of Suffolk.

12/10/1428, Tuesday (-188,664) The Earl of Salisbury commenced operations to take Orleans by siege, first attacking and eliminating the fortified French bridgehead south of the River Loire. The English were too weak numerically to complete the siege, and some supplies got into Orleans, mainly by river, however French morale was low and they did not attmpt to break out.

11/5/1428, Tuesday (-188,818)

8/5/1428, Saturday (-188,821)

3/5/1428, Monday (-188,826) Pedro Mendoza, Spanish statesman, was born (died 11/1/1495).

4/4/1428, Sunday (-188,855) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1428, Friday (-188,899)

1/1/1428, Thursday (-188,949)

=================================================================================

30/11/1427, Sunday (-188,981) King Casimir IV of Poland was born.

14/10/1427, Tuesday (-189,028) Alessio Baldovinetti, Florentine painter, was born (died 29/8/1499).

11/9/1427, Thursday (-189,061)

10/7/1427, Thursday (-189,124)

8/5/1427, Thursday (-189,187)

20/4/1427, Sunday (-189,205) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1427, Thursday (-189,264)

1/1/1427, Wednesday (-189,314)

=================================================================================

8/5/1426, Wednesday (-189,552)

8/4/1426, Monday (-189,582)

31/3/1426, Sunday (-189,590) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1426, Wednesday (-180,615) Battle of St James, near Avrancjhes. The English under Bedford defeated the French under Arthur de Richemont, Constable of France. De Richemomnt�s brother, the Duke of Britaany, was forced to submit to the English.

20/2/1426, Wednesday (-187,629)

1/1/1426, Tuesday (-189,679)

===============================================================================

8/5/1425, Tuesday (-189,917)

8/4/1425, Sunday (-189,947) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1425, Tuesday (-189,994)

1/1/1425, Monday (-190,044)

=================================================================================

17/8/1424, Thursday (-190,181) Battle of Verneuil. John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, defeated a French force, consolidating English conquest of Normandy.

5/8/1424, Saturday (-190,193) Emperor Chu Ti, also known as Yung Lo or Ch�eng Tsu, died (born 2/5/1360). Under his rule China sent out exploration fleets, between 1403 and 1433, under the command of the Muslim eunuch Cheng Ho (Zheng He). These expeditions reached Java, southern India, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and eastern Africa as far south as Zanzibar. He also maintained peaceable relations with the Mongols and other peoples, as far as the Amur River and west to Herat and Samarkand.

10/7/1424, Monday (-190,219)

7/6/1424, Wednesday (-190,252) (Czech) Ziska defeated the Ulytraquists at the Battle of Malesov.

8/5/1424, Monday (-190,282)

23/4/1524, Sunday (-190,297) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1424, Sunday (-190,360)

6/1/1424, Thursday (-190,405) (Czech) Ziska defeated the Ultraquists at the Battle of Skalic.

1/1/1424, Saturday (-190,410)

====================================================================================

4/8/1423, Wednesday (-190,560) (Czech) Ziska (Taborite) defeated the Ultraquists at the Battle of Strachov.

21/7/1423, Wednesday (-190,574) Battle of Cravant. An English-Burgundian force defeated French and Scottish troops

10/7/1423, Saturday (-190,585)

3/7/1423, Saturday (-190,592) Louis XI, King of France, was born.

8/5/1423, Saturday (-190,648)

27/4/1423, Tuesday (-190,659) (Czech)Ziska (Taborite) defeated the Ultraquists at the Battle of Horid)

4/4/1423, Sunday (-190,682) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1423, Saturday (-190,725)

1/1/1423, Friday (-190,775)

====================================================================================

21/10/1422, Wednesday (-190,847) King Charles VI of France died (born 3/12/1368). Henry VI was declared King of France, with John Duke of Bedford as Regent.

6/9/1422. Sunday (-190,892) Sultan Murat gave up besieging Constantinople.

31/8/1422. Monday (-190,898) King Henry V died in Vincennes, France, struck down by dysentery.. Aged 35, he was just about to take the crown of both France and England; his son, Henry VI, was just 9 months old, and English power in France looked uncertain again.

13/8/1422, Thursday (-190,916) William Caxton, England�s first printer, was born.

10/7/1422, Friday (-190,950)

8/5/1422, Friday (-191,013)

12/4/1422, Sunday (-191,039) Easter Sunday

20/2/1422, Friday (-191,090)

20/1/1422, Tuesday (-191,121)

10/1/1422, Saturday (-191,131) Ziska defeated Sigismund at the Battle of Nemeclysbrod.

6/1/1422, Tuesday (-191,135) Sigismund again attempted to claim the throne of Bohemia and was again defeated by Ziska at the Battle of Nevobid.

===================================================================================

6/12/1421, Saturday (-191,166) Henry VI was born in Windsor Castle, the only child of Henry V and Catherine Valois. Catherine Valois, daughter of Charles IV and Isabella of France, had married Henry V on 2/6/1420.

18/11/1421. Tuesday (-191,184) 73 villages were flooded and up to 100,000 people killed when a dyke gave way just south east of Dordrecht, Holland. This polder was never reclaimed; today its marshes and lakes make up the Biesbosch national park.

20/8/1421, Wednesday (-191,274) Richard Clifford, Bishop of Worcester, died.

10/7/1421, Thursday (-191,315)

8/5/1421, Thursday (-191,378)

8/4/1421, Tuesday (-191,408)

23/3/1421, Sunday (-191,424) Easter Sunday.

21/3/1421, Friday (-191,426) Battle of Bauge. A French raiding force surprised the English under Thomas Duke of Clarence (King Henry V�s brother); Clarence was killed in the battle.

20/2/1421, Thursday (-191,455)

20/1/1421, Monday (-191,486)

=====================================================================================

1/12/1420, Sunday (-191,536) Henry V made a triumphal entry into Paris, see 25/10/1415 and 21/5/1420.

21/5/1420, Tuesday (-191,730) Under the Treaty of Troyes, King Henry V of England became ruler of France also, following his victory at Agincourt. Henry V married Catherine de Valois and when Charles de Valois died Henry would inherit the throne, so long as Henry and Catherine produced a male heir. Under French Salic Law, a woman could not rule France.

8/5/1420, Wednesday (-191,743)

7/4/1420, Sunday (-191, 774)

20/2/1420, Tuesday (-191,821)

1/1/1420, Monday (-191,871)

===================================================================================

22/12/1419, Friday (-191,881) Pope John XXIII, Baldassare Cossa, antipope, died.

20/10/1419, Friday (-191,944)

10/9/1419, Sunday (-191,984) John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, died (born 28/5/1371).

30/7/1419, Sunday (-192,026) Battle of Prague. Ziska, Hussite (Protestant), took his army to Prague where he defeated Sigismund (Catholic), who was compelled to withdraw.

30/6/1419, Friday (-192,056) Sigismund, asserting his claim to the throne of Bohemia, besieged Prague. Prague appealed to the Hussites for assistance.

8/5/1419, Monday (-192,109)

16/4/1419, Sunday (-192,131) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1419, Monday (-192,186)

19/1/1419, Thursday (-192,218) In the Hundred Years' War, Rouen surrendered to Henry V of England, which took Normandy under the control of England.

1/1/1419, Sunday (-192,236)

=================================================================================

8/5/1418, Sunday (-192,474)

8/4/1418, Friday (-192,504)

27/3/1418, Sunday (-192,516) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1418, Sunday (-192,551)

1/1/1418, Saturday (-192,601)

================================================================================

14/12/1417, Tuesday (-192,619) Sir John Oldcastle, prototype of Shakespeare�s Falstaff, was hanged.

18/10/1417, Monday (-199,676) Pope Gregory XII was killed.

24/6/1417, Thursday (-192,792) The Isle of Man held its first known Tynwald Day; the annual meeting of its parliament (Tynwald) which has continued every year until the present.

8/5/1417, Saturday (-192,839)

29/4/1417, Thursday (-192,848) Louis II Duke of Anjou died (born 7/10/1377).

11/4/1417, Sunday (-192,866) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1417, Saturday (-192,916)

1/1/1417, Friday (-192,966)

================================================================================

8/5/1416, Friday (-193,204)

19/4/1416, Sunday (-193,223) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1416, Thursday (-193,240) Ferdinand I, King of Aragon, died.

2/3/1416, Monday (-193,271)

20/2/1416, Thursday (-193,282)

3/2/1416, Monday (-193,299)

27/1/1416, Monday (-193,306) The Republic of Ragusa became the first state in Europe to outlaw slavery.

1/1/1416, Wednesday (-193,332)

================================================================================

27/12/1415, Friday (-193,337)

25/10/1415, Friday (-193,400) Battle of Agincourt, 20 miles inland from Boulogne. The English forces, after the capture by the French of Harfleur, had set out to march to Calais through Picardy. Henry V could have simply garrisoned Harfleur and returned the way he had come, by sea, but he decided to march through enemy French territory to the English enclave of Calais to make a political point. Their crossing of the River Somme was delayed by torrential rains and the French set out to block their passage. The French troops set up at the northern end of a defile of open ground between the woods of Agincourt and Tramercourt. The English were short of food and supplies and hunger might have eventually forced their surrender. The French outnumbered the English three to one. However King Henry V was able to use his archers, in the restricted space of the battlefield, to mow down the French cavalry and so win the battle. Thick mud, from the rains, restricted the movement of the French cavalry. The English victory gave Henry the finances and reputation to continue the war. Four years later the whole of Normandy was under British control, and in 1420 the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry as heir to the French throne, see 1/12/1420.

21/9/1415, Saturday (-193,434) (1) Owain Glyndwr, Welsh independence fighter, died this day.

(2) Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, was born.

14/8/1415, Wednesday (-193,472) Henry V�s fleet arrived at Chef de Caux, 10 miles west of Harfleur. Harfleur was a port from which the French had made many raids on the English south coast.

10/8/1415, Saturday (-193,476) Henry V of England set sail for Normandy with an army of 12,000 men; two-thirds archers. Harfleur was captured in September 1415 and Henry V set out for Paris. However illness began to thin his military ranks. On 5/10/1415 military advisers told Henry to return to England via Calais.

6/7/1415. Saturday (-193,511) Jan Hus, preacher and religious reformer, arrested on 28/11/1414, was burnt at the stake in Constance, Germany.

7/6/1415, Friday (-193,540)

8/5/1415, Wednesday (-193,570)

7/5/1415, Tuesday (-193,571)

9/4/1415, Tuesday (-193,599)

8/4/1415, Monday (-193,600)

31/3/1415, Sunday (-193,608) Easter Sunday.

28/2/1415, Thursday (-139,639)

20/2/1415, Wednesday (-193,647)

31/1/1415, Thursday (-139,667)

1/1/1415, Tuesday (-93,697)

==================================================================================

31/12/1414, Monday (-139,698)

9/11/1414, Friday (-193,750) (Germany) Albert III, Elector of Brandenburg, was born in Tangermunde (died 11/3/1486 in Frankfort).

8/5/1414, Tuesday (-193,935)

8/4/1414, Sunday (-193,965)

8/3/1414, Thursday (-193, 996)

19/2/1414, Monday (-193,013) (Britain) Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, died (born 1353).

1/1/1414, Monday (-194,062)

====================================================================================

8/5/1413, Monday (-194,300)

23/4/1413, Sunday (-194,315) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1413, Monday (-194,349) (Britain) England�s King Henry IV died, after suffering a stroke in the Jerusalem Chamber at Westminster Abbey. He had earlier prophesied that he would die in Jerusalem. He was succeeded by his eldest son Henry V. See 30/3/1399.

20/2/1413, Monday (-194,377)

1/1/1413, Sunday (-194,427)

====================================================================================

18/12/1412, Monday (-194,440)

18/11/1412, Saturday (-194,470)

28/10/1412, Saturday (-194,491) Margaret, Queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, died.

1/7/1412, Friday (-194,611) In southern England the standard rate of pay for a building craftsman was 6d (2.5p) a day; a general labourer earned 4d (1.7p) a day. These rates of pay remained unchanged until the 1530s.

8/6/1412, Wednesday (-194,634)

8/5/1412, Sunday (-194,665)

3/4/1412, Sunday (-194,700) Easter Sunday.

3/3/1412, Thursday (-194,731)

20/2/1412, Saturday (-194,743)

3/2/1412, Wednesday (-194,760)

6/1/1412, Wednesday (-194,788) Joan of Arc was born.

1/1/1412, Friday (-194,793)

=================================================================================

8/5/1411, Friday (-195,031)

12/4/1411, Sunday (-195,057) Easter Sunday

20/2/1411, Friday (-195,108)

17/1/1411, Saturday (-195,142) Jobst, Margrave of Moravia, died.

=================================================================================

20/7/1410, Sunday (-195,323)

15/7/1410. Tuesday (-195,328) (Germany, Poland) The Poles and Lithuanians defeated the Teutonic Knights at the First Battle of Tannenberg / Battle of Grunwald). The Order of the Teutonic Knights had established a State in Prussia, from where they launched Crusades against their non-Christian neighbours to the east, including the Duchy of Lithuania. In 1386 the ruler of Lithuania converted to Christianity and married the Queen of Poland; on her deathhe became ruler of Poland, as King Ladislav II Jagiellon. The Teutonic Knights contested the sincerity if his conversion, and in 1409 their Grand Master, the volatile Ulrich von Jungingen, declared war on Poland and Lithuania. He had underestimated the power and unity of the joint Polish-Lithuanian State. In Summer 1410 a joint Polish-Lithuanian army, led by King Jagiellon and Grand Duke Witold of Lithuania, marched upon the Teutonic Knights capital at Marienberg. The Knights confronted the invaders at a point between the villages of Grunwald and Tannenberg; they enjoyed initial success but were outflanked by Lithuanian cavalry and mostly slaughtered. However the Poles did not press on and take Marienberg, and peace terms were mild. In Soviet Russia, some credit was claimed for this battle because troops from Smolensk also supported the Poles. In an early German victory over Russia in World War One, the Germans called this battle �Tannenberg� to avenge defeat 5 centuries earlier.

18/5/1410, Sunday (-195,386) (Germany) Rupert, King of Germany, died.

8/5/1410, Thursday (-195,396)

4/5/1410, Sunday (-195,400) (Papal Succession) anti-Pope Alexander V died at Bologna, possibly poisoned. He was succeeded by the Neapolitan Cardinal Baldassare Cossa, elected Pope on 17/5/.1410 at Bologna, who ruled until 1415 as anti-Pope John XXIII.

23/3/1410, Sunday (-195,442) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1410, Thursday (-195.473)

1/1/1410, Wednesday (-195,523)

==================================================================================

7/8/1409, Wednesday (-195,670) The Council of Pisa was dissolved.

10/7/1409, Wednesday (-195,698)

8/5/1409, Wednesday (-195,761)

7/4/1409, Sunday (-195,792) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1409, Wednesday (-195,838)

20/1/1409, Sunday (-195,869)

1/1/1409, Tuesday (-195,888) The Welsh surrendered Harlech Castle to the English.

===================================================================================

1/11/1408, Thursday (-195,949)

1/10/1408, Monday (-195,980)

16/9/1408, Sunday (-195,995) (Greenland) The last recorded event in Norse history in Greenland; a wedding at Old Hvalsey church.

8/5/1408, Tuesday (-196,126)

20/2/1408, Monday (-196,204)

19/2/1408, Sunday (-196,205) The Battle of Bramham Moor. Near Tadcaster, Yorkshire, forces loyal to King Henry IV defeated rebels under Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland. This ended the Percy Rebellion.

1/1/1408, Sunday (-196,254)

==================================================================================

8/5/1407, Sunday (-196,492)

23/4/1407, Saturday (-196,507) Olivier de Clisson, French soldier, died (born 1336).

27/3/1407, Sunday (-196,534) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1407, Sunday (-196,569)

1/1/1407, Saturday (-196,619)

===================================================================================

25/12/1406, Saturday (-196,626) King Henry III of Castille died (born 1390).

30/11/1406, Monday (-196,652) Pope Gregory XII (205th Pope) acceded.

6/11/1406, Friday (-196,676) Pope Innocent VII died.

9/10/1406, Friday (-196,704) Florence had long coveted Pisa for an outlet to the sea. In 1362-4 Pisa had defended its independence with the help of a band under Sir John Hawkwood (died 1392), and later secured French protection under French King Charles VI (13680-1422). However in 1405 Florence persuaded France to hand over Pisa in return fpor supporting the AntiPope Benedict XIII (Pedro de Luna). Pisa rebelled against Florentine rule and Florence imposed a six-month siege by land and sea. Pisa fell to Florence this day, giving it its desired seaport.

8/5/1406, Saturday (-196,857)

11/4/1406, Sunday (-196,884) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1406, Saturday (-196,934)

1/1/1406, Friday (-196,984)

===================================================================================

20/12/1405, Sunday (-196,996)

18/10/1405, Sunday (-197,059) Pope Pius II was born.

29/5/1405, Friday (-197,201) Philippe de Mezieres, French author, died.

8/5/1405, Friday (-197,222)

19/4/1405, Sunday (-197,241) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1405, Friday (-197,285) Juan II,King of Castile, was born (died 21/7/1454).

20/2/1405, Friday (-197,299)

17/2/1405, Tuesday (-197,302) Death of the Mongol leader Tamerlane (Timur-i-Leng) atOtrar, east of the Syr Darya River, whilst en-route to conquer China. He became leader in 1369, and went on to conquer Persia, the Caucasus, and the Tartars (in 1390). In 1398 he subdued northern India.

1/1/1405, Thursday (-197,349)

==================================================================================

17/10/1404, Friday (-197,425) Pope Innocent VII (204th Pope) acceded (died 1406).

1/10/1404, Wednesday (-197,441) Pope Boniface IX died.

27/9/1404, Saturday (-197,445) William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, died.

12/9/1404, Friday (-197,460) Francis I, King of France, was born.

14/7/1404, Monday (-197,520) Rebel leader Owain Glyndwr, having declared himself Prince of Wales, allied with the French against the English. He later began holding parliamentary assemblies.

10/7/1404, Thursday (-197,524)

8/5/1404, Thursday (-197,587)

27/4/1404, Sunday (-197,598) Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, died.

8/4/1404, Tuesday (-197,617)

30/3/1404, Sunday (-197,626) Easter Sunday

20/2/1404, Wednesday (-197,665)

14/2/1404, Thursday (-197,671) Leone Alberti, Italian artist, was born (died 1472).

1/1/1404, Tuesday (-197,715)

=================================================================================

25/9/1403, Tuesday (-197,813) Louis III, Duke of Anjou, was born (died 15/11/1434).

23/9/1403, Sunday (-197,815)

22/7/1403, Sunday (-197,878) The Battle of Shrewsbury. Sir Henry Percy, known as Harry Hotspur, was killed trying to overthrow King Henry IV.

10/7/1493, Tuesday (-197,890)

8/5/1403, Tuesday (-197,953)

15/4/1403, Sunday (-197,976) Easter Sunday.

22/2/1403, Thursday (-198,028) Charles VII of France was born (died 22/7/1461).

20/2/1403, Tuesday (-198,030)

1/1/1403, Monday (-198,080)

====================================================================================

14/9/1402, Wednesday (-198,190) Battle of Homildon Hill. A Scottish raiding party under the Earl of Douglas was routhed by the English Northern Nobles under Lord Henry Percy.

8/9/1402, Friday (-198,195) King Henry IV took a large force into Wales to suppress the Glendower rebellion. However as soon as he left Shrewsbury it began raining incessantly, with hail and even snow. His troops were cold, drenched, and half-starved. On this day a tornado struck Henry IV�s tent, collapsing it. Fortunately for him he was wearing his armour at the time and so survived. Henry�s forces retreated back to England, having never fought the Welsh.

21/7/1402, Friday (-198,244) The Ottoman Turks were decisively defeated by Timur at the Battle of Ankara. The Ottomans lost control of Anatolia. However they had expanded territorially into Europe, and were able to recover Anatolia after Timur departed.

10/7/1402, Monday (-198,255)

22/6/1402, Thursday (-198,273) English forces heavily defeated by the Welsh at Bryn Glas, even though the Welsh were outnumbered. King Henry IV now assembled an even larger army, but see 8/9/1402.

8/5/1402, Monday (-198,318)

26/3/1402, Sunday (-198,361) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1402, Monday (-198,395)

1/1/1402, Sunday (-198,445)

====================================================================================

20/12/1401, Tuesday (-198,457)

27/10/1401, Thursday (-198,511) (Britain) Catherine of Valois, Queen of King Henry V of England, was born (died 3/1/1437).

3/4/1401, Sunday (-198,669) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1401, Sunday (-198,683)

20/2/1401, Sunday (-198,760)

1/1/1401, Saturday (-198,810)

====================================================================================

20/12/1400, Monday (-198,822)

25/10/1400. Monday -198,878) Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet and storyteller, who wrote the unfinished Canterbury Tales, died at his home in Westminster.

16/9/1400, Thursday (-198,917) The Owen Glendower revolt in Wales; Welsh landowners proclaimed Owen King of Wales, and attacked the English in Flint and Denbigh.

8/5/1400, Saturday (-199,048)

18/4/1400, Sunday (-199,068) Easter Sunday.

14/2/1400, Saturday (-199,132) Richard II was killed whilst being held at Pontefract Castle, to prevent further rebellions by his followers.

1/1/1400, Thursday (-199,176)

=================================================================================

14/12/1399, Sunday (-199,194)

13/10/1399, Monday (-199,256) Coronation of Henry IV, first Lancastrian King of England.

11/10/1399. Saturday (-199,258) The Order of the Bath was instituted.

30/9/1399. Tuesday (-199,269) King Richard II, born 6/1/1367, was deposed. Unpopular, he had dispossessed many of the nobility.He was crowned, aged 10, on 22/6/1377. He surrendered to Bolingbroke without a fight; Bolingbroke became King Henry IV. Henry IV was born at Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, on 3/4/1366. He reigned from 1399 to 1413. See 20/3/1413.

4/7/1399, Friday (-199,357) Henry of Lancaster, Henry IV, landed at Ravenspur, Yorkshire.

30/6/1399, Monday (-199,361) Henry IV, exiled to France by King Richard II for treason, landed at Ravenspur, Humberside, to retake the English throne.

8/5/1399, Thursday (-199,414)

8/4/1399, Tuesday (-199,444)

30/3/1399, Sunday (-199,453) Easter Sunday

3/3/1399, Monday (-199,480)

20/2/1399, Thursday (-199,491)

3/2/1399, Monday (-199,508) John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III and father of Henry IV, died (born 24/6/1340).

13/1/1399, Monday (-199,529) Delhi was captured and sacked by Tamerlane.

1/1/1399, Wednesday (-199,541)

=================================================================================

8/5/1398, Wednesday (-199,779)

8/4/1398, Monday (-199,809)

7/4/1398, Sunday (-199,810) Easter Sunday.

8/3/1398, Friday (-199,840)

20/2/1398, Wednesday (-199,856)

6/2/1398, Wednesday (-199,870)

7/1/1398, Monday (-199,900)

1/1/1398, Tuesday (-199,906)

==============================================================================

15/12/1397, Saturday (-199,923)

15/11/1397, Thursday (-199,953) Pope Nicholas V was born.

18/9/1397, Tuesday (-200,011)

15/9/1397, Saturday (-200,014)

10/8/1397, Friday (-200,050) Albert II, King of Bohemia and Hungary (died 27/10/1439) was born.

15/7/1397, Sunday (-200,076)

29/6/1397, Friday (-200,092) John II, King of Aragon, was born (died 20/1/1479).

20/6/1397. Wednesday (-200,101) The Union of Kalmar united Denmark, Norway, and Sweden under one monarch.

8/5/1397, Tuesday (-200,144)

22/4/1397, Sunday (-200,160) Easter Sunday.

17/4/1397, Tuesday (-200,165) Geoffrey Chaucer told The Canterbury Tales for the first time.

8/4/1397, Sunday (-200,174)

20/2/1397, Tuesday (-200,221)

19/3/1397, Monday (-200,194) (France) Pierre D�Ailly became Bishop of Cambrai.

1/1/1397, Monday (-200,271)

================================================================================

25/9/1396, Monday (-200,369) (Bulgaria) Battle of Nicopolis. Alarmed by Ottoman expansion into Europe, an army composed of contingents from France, Germany and Hungary marched on the Ottoman-held fortress of Nicopolis, Bulgaria. They were led by King Sigismund of Hungary. However the Christian army was ill equipped for the venture, divided by national factionalism, and only reached the fortress in late summer, then had to enforce a long siege. Hearing that an Ottoman relief army under Bayezid was only hours away, the French knights insisted on a frontal charge, despite not knowing the size of the force they were up against. Bayezid arrived and counterattacked, and outflanked the Christian force. Sigismund himself escaped but most of his army was taken prisoner and slaughtered.

15/8/1396, Tuesday (-200,410)

26/6/1396, Monday (-200,460) (Britain, France) King Richard II of England married Isabella of France, daughter of King Charles VI of France. This was intended to effect a reconciliation between the two countires in the Hundred Years War. However Richard was later dethroned by Henry of Lancaster (Henry IV), and Anglo-French hsotilities resumed.

13/6/1396, Tuesday (-200,473) Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, was born.

8/5/1396, Monday (-200,509)

2/4/1396, Sunday (-200,545) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1396, Sunday (-200,587)

1/1/1396, Saturday (-200,637)

==================================================================================

1/7/1395, Thursday (-200,821) Ale cost 0.8d a gallon. Bordeaux wine was 3.5d per gallon. Chickens were 2d each. Apples cost 7d per 100. Eggs were 33d for 425. A labourer was paid 3.25d a day, a carpenter made 4.25d a day. A mason earned 6d a day, and the Kings Physician was paid �40 a year.

10/6/1395, Thursday (-200,842)

8/5/1395, Saturday (-200,875)

11/4/1395, Sunday (-200,902) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1395, Saturday (-200,952)

1/1/1395, Friday (-201,002)

=====================================================================================

10/12/1394, Thursday (-201,024)) King James I of Scotland was born.

29/11/1394, Sunday (-201,035) The capital city of the Joseon Dynasty in present-day Korea was moved from Gaegyeong (now Gaeseong) to Hanseong (now Seoul).

27/9/1394, Sunday (-201,098)

17/9/1394, Thursday (-201,108) King Charles VI of France ordered the expulsion of all Jews from France.

16/9/1394, Wednesday (-201,109) Pope Clement VII, antipope, died.

17/7/1394, Friday (-201,170) Turkish troops took Trnovo, a town in Bulgaria 124 miles ENE of Sofia.

8/5/1394, Friday (-201,240)

19/4/1394, Sunday (-201,259) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1394, Wednesday (-201,305) Prince Henry the Navigator, Portuguese Prince, was born, son of King John I.

20/2/1394, Friday (201,317)

1/1/1394, Thursday (-201,367)

=====================================================================================

20/12/1393, Saturday (-201,379)

18/10/1393, Saturday (-201,442)

6/10/1393, Monday (-201,454) Osbern Bokenham, English chronicler, was born.

8/5/1393, Thursday (-201,605)

21/4/1393, Monday (-201,622) John Capgrave, English historical writer, was born (died12/8/1464).

6/4/1393, Sunday (-201,637) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1393, Thursday (-201,682)

1/1/1393, Wednesday (-201,732)

====================================================================================

8/5/1392, Wednesday (-201,970)

14/4/1392, Sunday (-201,994) Easter Sunday

20/2/1392, Tuesday (-202,048)

1/1/1392, Monday (-202,098)

===================================================================================

5/8/1391, Saturday (-202,247) Anti-Jewish riots spread to Toledo, Spain and Barcelona. Many Jews left Barcelona after the following massacres, though many remained in the city.

6/7/1391, Thursday (-202,277)

6/6/1391, Tuesday (-202,307) Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Seville, Spain. Many thousands of Jews were massacred and the violence spread throughout Spain and Portugal.

8/5/1391, Monday (-202,336)

8/4/1391, Saturday (-202,366)

26/3/1391, Sunday (-202,379) Easter Sunday.

4/3/1391, Saturday (-202,401) Ferrara University was founded.

20/2/1391, Monday (-202,413)

1/1/1391, Sunday (-202,463)

================================================================================

13/5/1390, Friday (-202,696) (Scotland) Scotland�s first Stuart King, Robert II, died aged 74. His legitimised 50-year-old son succeeded him as King Robert III, and ruled until 1424.

8/5/1390, Sunday (-202,701)

19/4/1390, Tuesday (-202,720) Robert II, King of Scotland 1371-90, died at Dundonald, Ayrshire.

20/2/1390, Sunday (-202,778)

1/1/1390, Saturday (-202,828)

===============================================================================

15/6/1389, Sunday (-203,059) Serbia was crushed by the Ottoman Turks (see 20/12/1355). At a battle in Kosovo, at the �field of the blackbirds�, the entire Serbian nobility was wiped out. Hrebeljanovic Lazar, Prince of Serbia from 1371 (born 1329) was executed by the Turks. The Ottomans had already invaded Bulgaria.

8/5/1389, Saturday (-203,066)

18/4/1389, Sunday (-203,086) Easter Sunday.

10/4/1389, Saturday (-203,094) Cosimo de Medici, Italian ruler, was born.

20/2/1389, Saturday (-203,143)

1/1/1389, Friday (-203,193)

===================================================================================

10/8/1388, Saturday (-203,339) The Battle of Otterburn. A Scottish raiding party led by the Earls of Douglas, March and Moray was confronted by the English at Redesdale, Northumberland. The Scots won, and the English leader, Hotspur, was captured.

10/6/1388, Monday (-203,400)

8/5/1388, Friday (-203,431)

8/4/1388, Wednesday (-203,461)

31/1/1388, Tuesday (-203,469)

29/3/1388, Sunday (-203,471) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1388, Thursday (-203,509)

1/1/1388, Wednesday (-203,559)

=====================================================================================

20/12/1387, Friday (-203,571) The Battle of Radcot Bridge.An army raised by Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, to assist Richard II, was attacked as it crossed the Thames. De Vere escaped and fled the country.

16/9/1387, Monday (-203,666) King Henry V was born at Monmouth Castle, the eldest of six children of Henry IV. He defeated the French at Agincourt.

22/7/1387, Monday (-203,722) (Netherlands) Francis Ackerman, Flemish diplomat, was murdered in Ghent.

8/5/1387, Wednesday (-203,797)

7/4/1387, Sunday (-203,828) Easter Sunday.

24/3/1387, Sunday (-203,842) In the Hundred Years War, at the Battle of Margate: The English defeated an invading French and Castilian naval force.

20/2/1387, Wednesday (-203,874)

1/1/1387, Tuesday (-203,924)

====================================================================================

20/12/1386, Thursday (-203,936)

18/10/1386, Thursday (-203,999) Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, the oldest university in Germany, was founded.

9/7/1386, Monday (-204,100) (Switzerland) The Battle of Sempach. Hapsburg Duke Leopold III of Austria, alarmed at the growth of the Swiss Confederation, marched to attack the Swiss town of Lucerne. Swiss victory ensured the continuation of the Swiss Confederation.

9/5/1386, Wednesday (-204,161) The Treaty of Windsor cemented the alliance between England and Portugal.

22/4/1386, Sunday (-204,178) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1386, Tuesday (-204,239)

1/1/1386, Monday (-204,289)

===============================================================================

20/12/1385, Wednesday (-204,301)

18/10/1385, Wednesday (-204,364)

16/8/1385, Wednesday (-204,427)

14/8/1385, Monday (-204,429) (Portugal) The Battle of Aljubarrota. Portugal secured its independence against Spain.

8/5/1385, Monday (-204,527)

2/4/1385, Sunday (-204,563) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1385, Monday (-204,604)

1/1/1385, Sunday (-204,654)

=================================================================================

31/12/1384, Saturday (-204,655) John Wycliffe, religious reformer, died.

19/12/1384, Monday (-204,667)

20/9/1384, Tuesday (-204,757) Louis I Duke of Anjou died (born 23/7/1339).

11/9/1384, Sunday (-204,766)

8/5/1384, Sunday (-204,892)

10/4/1384, Sunday (-204,920) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1384, Saturday (-204,970)

1/1/1384, Friday (-205,020)

==================================================================================

4/12/1383, Friday (-205,048) (Christian) Anti-Pope Felix V (Amadeus, Duke of Savoy) was born (died 7/1/1451).

22/11/1383, Sunday (-205,060)

22/10/1383, Thursday (-205,091) (Portugal) Ferdinand I, King of Portugal, died.

11/9/1383, Friday (-205,132)

10/7/1383, Friday (205,195)

8/5/1383, Friday (-205,258)

1/4/1383, Wednesday (-205,295)

==================================================================================

22/3/1383, Sunday (-205,305) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1383, Friday (-205,335)

1/1/1383, Thursday (-205,385)

1/11/1382, Saturday (-205,446)

1/10/1382, Wednesday (-205,477)

10/9/1382, Wednesday (-205,498) Louis The Great of Hungary died suddenly at Nagyszombat after a 56-year reign, having also been King of Poland for 12 years. In Hungary he was succeeded by his daughter Maria of Anjou, whose husband Sigismund of Luxembourg now ruled Hungary for 50 years from 1387.

22/5/1382, Thursday (-205,609) Joanna I Queen of Naples was executed.

6/4/1382, Sunday (-205,655) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1382, Tuesday (-205,660)

==================================================================================

20/2/1382, Thursday (-205,700)

1/1/1382, Wednesday (-205,750)

15/7/1381, Monday (-205,920) John Ball, one of the leaders of the Peasantt�s Revolt, was hung drawn and quartered at St Albans.

24/6/1381, Monday (-205,941) Peasants revolt ended in Cambridge, UK, (began 12/6/1381).

15/6/1381. Saturday (-205,950) Richard II summoned Wat Tyler, the first poll tax rebel, and his band, to Smithfield.Tyler met the King, grew insolent and abusive, and was killed by Mayor Walworth.

14/6/1381, Friday (-205,951) Richard II rode to Mile End to negotiate with the rebels. They demanded an end to serfdom and limits on rents, and the execution of Chancellor Sudbury, Treasurer Hales, John of Gaunt, and others. Richard II agreed to all but the executions. However at this time Kentishmen were breaking into the Tower and beheading Sudbury and Hales. The deaths of the Chancellor and the Treasurer (who was also the Archbishop of Canterbury) were followed by a general massacre of Flemings in the City of London. The rebels attempted to break into all places where records might be stored, such as church buildings and lawyer�s houses, and to massacre all clerks.

13/6/1381, Thursday (-205,952) The rebels entered London and the King withdrew to the safety of The Tower. The rebels ransacked and burnt John of Gaunt�s Palace.

12/6/1381, Wednesday (-205,953) Kentish rebels reached Blackheath, and Essex rebels reached Mile End.

10/6/1381, Monday (-205,955) Wat Tyler led his rebels into Canterbury.

7/6/1381, Friday (-205,958) Rebels entered Maidstone and chose Wat Tyler as their leader.

6/6/1381, Thursday (-205,959) Rebels in the Peasant�s Revolt besieged Rochester.

4/6/1381, Tuesday (-205,961) The Peasants Revolt began. Rebels attacked Dartford. The poor were protesting over the imposition of a Poll Tax, whilst the peasants wages were held down by the Statute of Labourers Act, 1351. Peasant�s pay had been rising since the Black Death killed many workers.

20/5/1381. Monday (-205,976) A council was held in Paris to find a way of ending the scandal of two Popes existing at once; Pope Urban VI at Rome and Pope Clement VII at Avignon.

8/5/1381, Wednesday (-205,988)

14/4/1381, Sunday (-206,012) Easter Sunday

20/2/1381, Wednesday (-206,065)

13/1/1381, Sunday (-206,103) Birth of St Colette, founded of the Colettine Poor Clares, in Corbie, France. See 6/3/1447.

1/1/1381, Tuesday (-206,115)

==================================================================================

12/11/1380, Sunday (-206,166)

12.10/1380, Thursday (-206,197)

16/9/1380, Saturday (-206,223) King Charles V of France, aged 43, died at Vincennes after eating poisonous mushrooms. He had ruled since 1356, and was succeeded by his 12-year-old son, King Charles VI, who ruled until 1422 (despite bouts of insanity from 1392 onwards).

8/9/1380,Friday (-206,231) The Russians under Prince Dmitri Donskoi won a major victory over the Mongols at the Battle of Kulikovo. This prevented the Mongols from reaching Moscow, although they made several further attempts in future years.

13/7/1380, Friday (-206,287) Bertrand du Guesclin, Constable of France, died.

14/6/1380, Thursday (-206,316) (Italy) Venice gained victory over Genoa, which had to surrender its fleet. In May 1379, one Venetian fleet had been destroyed by the Genoese; the rest of the Venetian fleet, under Carlo Zeno, was far away in the eastern Mediterranean, and Venice seemed open to a Genoese attack. The Genoese fleet entered the venetian lagoon, and with its allies Hungary and Padua, blockaded Venice by land and sea. However Venice struck back and trapped the Genoese fleet; Carlo Zeno�s fleet arrived back, and routed the Genoese. Genoa never recovered, allowing Venice to dominate the eastern Mediterranean.

10/6/1380, Sunday (-206,320)

10/5/1380, Thursday (-206,351)

29/4/1380, Sunday (-206,362) (Christian, Italy) Death of Catherine of Siena, who became the patron saint of Italy. She was born in 1347 in Siena as Caterina Beninasca and became an ascetic. She campaigned against the Papal split (Avignon) and corruption, and was canonised by Pope Pius II in 1471, and is a noted Mediaeval writer.

25/3/1380, Sunday (-206,397) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1380, Monday (-206,431)

1/1/1380, Sunday (-206,481)

==============================================================================

26/11/1379, Friday (-206,518) New College, Oxford, was founded.

12/11/1379, Friday (-206,532)

15/7/1379, Friday (-206,651)

8/5/1379, Sunday (-206,719)

10/4/1379, Sunday (-206,747) Easter Sunday.

5/3/1379, Saturday (-206,783) Foundation stone of New College, Oxford, founded by William of Wykeham, was laid.

20/2/1379, Sunday (-206,796)

1/1/1379, Saturday (-206,846)

=================================================================================

31/12/1378, Friday (-206,847) Pope Callixtus III was born.

1/12/1378, Wednesday (-206,877)

29/11/1378, Monday (-206,879) Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV died at 62. His lands were divided amongst his 3 sons.

18/4/1378, Sunday (-207,104) Easter Sunday.

27/3/1378, Saturday (-207,126) Pope Gregory XI died.

2/3/1378, Tuesday (-207,151)

20/2/1378, Saturday (-207,161)

1/1/1378. Friday (-207,211)

=================================================================================

12/11/1377, Wednesday (-207,262)

7/10/1377, Tuesday (-207,298) Louis II Duke of Anjou was born (died 29/4/1417).

20/91377, Saturday (-207,315) Pope Clement VII, antipope, Robert of Geneva, acceded. Ruled until 1394.

16/7/1377, Thursday (-207,380) Coronation of Richard II, King of England.

15/7/1377, Wednesday (-207,381)

22/6/1377. Monday (-207,404) The 10 year old King Richard II inherited the English throne from his grandfather, Edward III. Effective power was with the Royal Council. He was deposed 22 years later on 30/9/1399.

21/6/1377, Sunday (-207,405) (1) King Edward III of England died.

(2) Charles V of France recommenced hostilities in Artois and Guienne, and attempted to unite Brittany and France.

15/5/1377, Friday (-207,442)

15/4/1377, Wednesday (-207,472)

29/3/1377, Sunday (-207,489) Easter Sunday.

15/3/1377, Sunday (-207,503) The Sultan of Egypt was murdered by the Mamelukes over a large unpaid debt.

20/2/1377, Friday (-207,526)

17/1/1377, Saturday (-207,560) The Papal See was transferred back to Rome from Avignon.

1/1/1377, Thursday (-207,576)

==================================================================================

17/12/1376, Wednesday (-207,591)

12/11/1376, Tuesday (-207,627)

15/7/1376, Tuesday (207,746)

15/6/1376, Sunday (-207,776)

8/6/1376, Sunday (-207,783) Edward, the Black Prince, son of Edward III of England, died.

8/5/1376, Thursday (-207,814)

29/4/1376, Tuesday (-207,823) Sir Peter de la Mare took office as first Speaker of the House of Commons.

13/4/1376, Sunday (-207,839) Easter Sunday

20/2/1376, Wednesday (-207,892)

1/1/1376, Tuesday (-207,942)

=================================================================================

21/12/1375, Friday (207,953) Giovanni Boccaccio, writer, died.

24/10/1375, Wednesday (-208,011) End of the reign of King Valdemar IV of Denmark (acceded 26/6/1340).

27/6/1375, Wednesday (-208,130) (France) The English under King Edward III, having lost territory in the Loire, Gironde, region, concluded the Treaty of Bruges.

22/4/1375, Sunday (-208,196) Easter Sunday.

13/4/1375, Friday (-208,205)

20/2/1375, Tuesday (-208,257)

1/1/1375, Monday (-208,307)

=================================================================================

19/7/1374, Wednesday (-208,473) Francesco Petrarch, poet, died.

27/6/1734, Tuesday (-208.495)

7/4/1374, Friday (-208,576) King Edward III appointed the Church reformer, John Wycliffe, to the rectory of Lutterworth.

2/4/1374, Sunday (-208,581) Easter Sunday.

20/2/1374, Monday (-208,622)

1/1/1374, Sunday (-08,672)

================================================================================

17/4/1373, Sunday (-208,931) Easter Sunday.

17/3/1373, Thursday (-208,962)

20/2/1373, Sunday (-208,987)

1/1/1373, Saturday (-209,037)

===============================================================================

25/12/1372, Saturday (-209,044)

17/11/1372, Wednesday (-209,082) Jehan de Mamndeville, early French travel writer, died.

28/3/1372, Sunday (-209,316) Easter Sunday

1/1/1372, Thursday (-209,403)

===============================================================================

28/5/1371, Wednesday (-209,621) John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, was born (died 10/9/1419).

6/4/1371, Sunday (-209,673) Easter Sunday.

6/3/1371, Thursday (-209,704)

22/2/1371, Saturday (-209,716) King David II of Scotland died; Robert II succeeded him, as the first Stuart King of Scotland.

20/2/1371, Thursday (-209,718)

1/1/1371, Wednesday (-209,768)

================================================================================

30/12/1370, Monday (-209,770) Pope Gregory XI (201st Pope) acceded (died 1378)

4/12/1370, Wednesday (-209,796) (Britain, France) Battle of Pontvallain, Hundred Years War. The French won by avoiding a set-piece battle where English archers would have the advantage, instead harrying the English raiding parties as they headed back south, unprepared for battle.

17/11/1370, Sunday (-299,813) (Poland, Hungary)King Louis I of Hungary, having been nominated by the childless Casimir III as his successor, was crowned King of Poland, formally uniting the two countries. However the Poles never fully submitted to his rule.

5/11/1370, Tuesday (-209,825) King Casimir III of Poland died in a hunting accident, aged 60, after a 30 year reign. He had repulsed a Mongol invasion, annexed Galicia, and encouraged the immigration of Jews to serve as bankers and tax collectors. He founded the University of Cracow, and codified the law and administration.

14/4/1370, Sunday (-210,030) Easter Sunday

1/1/1370, Tuesday (-210,133) Sir John Chandos, English military commander, died.

====================================================================================

25/12/1369, Tuesday (-210,140)

23/10/1369, Tuesday (-210,203)

3/10/1369, Wednesday (-210,223) (Austria) Margaret Maultasch, Countess of Tirol, died.

1/4/1369, Sunday (-210,408) Easter Sunday.

23/3/1369, Friday (-210,417) Pedro the Cruel, King of Castile and Leon, was murdered by his brother, Henry.

1/1/1369, Monday (-210,498)

===================================================================================

3/12/1368, Sunday (-210,527) King Charles VI of France was born (died 21/10/1422).

9/4/1368, Sunday (-210,765) Easter Sunday.

15/2/1368, Tuesday (-210,819) Emperor Sigismund was born.

1/1/1368, Saturday (-210,864)

====================================================================================

18/4/1367, Sunday (-211,122) Easter Sunday.

3/4/1367, Saturday (-211,137) (Britain, Spain, France) In the Hundred Years War, the English under the Black Prince defeated a Spanish and French army at the Battle of Navarrete. The Spanish Kingdom of Castile was in civil war, between rival claimants for the throne, Pedro and his brother Enrique. The French under Bertrand du Guesclin and the English under Edward the Black Prince intervened, backing Enrique and Pedro respectively. The French and English met at Najera (Navarrete), where English longbowmen massacred the French cavalry. Pedro gained the throne but never repaid the English for the expense of their army. The heavy French footsoldier casualties brought some relief to the countryside,with fewer unemployed soldiers roaming and plundering it.

2/4/1367, Friday (-211,138) Henry IV, the first Lancastrian King of England, was born in Bolingbroke castle, Lincolnshire, the son of John O�Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and Duchess Blanche.

6/1/1367, Wednesday (-211,224) King Richard II was born at Bordeaux, France. He was the son of Edward the Black Prince and the grandson of King Edward III.

1/1/1367, Friday (-211,229)

=====================================================================================

11/12/1366, Friday (-211,250) Yelbogha of Egypt was attacked and killed by the Sultan.

5/4/1366, Sunday (-211,500) Easter Sunday.

18/2/1366, Wednesday (-211,546) The Staute of Kilkenny was enacted by the Normans, covering the �four obedient shires� of Dublin, Kildare, Louth and Meath. Anglo-Norman rule did not extend much beyond this in practice, even 200 years after the first invasion of Ireland. Anbglo-Irish marriages were forbidden, as was use of Irish language, dress or music. Traditional irish sports such as hurling and quoits were forbidden in favour of �gentle games which appertain to arms� such as archery.

1/1/1366, Thursday (-211,594)

=====================================================================================

1/11/1365, Thursday (-211,657)

8/10/1365, Monday (-211,681) A Frankish fleet under Peter I of Cyprus landed at Alexandria, Egypt and raided it but was forced to leave again.

13/4/1365, Sunday (-211,857) Easter Sunday

12/4/1365, Saturday (-211,858) Treaty of Guerande. The French House of Blois ceded its rights to Brittany.

1/1/1365, Wednesday (-211,959)

================================================================================

30/10.1364, Wednesday (-212,022)

29/9/1364, Sunday (-212,053) (Britain, France) Battle of Auray. Although officially at peace after the Treaty of Bretigny, England and France continued to fight over control of Brittany. French military commander Bertrand du Guesclin faced English commander John Chandos. The English-backed claimant Jean de Montfort was contending with Charles du Blois for the Dukedom of Brittany. In the fighting for the city of Auray, Charles du Blois was killed; however after de Montfort was installed as Duke of Brittany he changed allegiance and swore fealty to the King of France. The English gained nothing.

16/5/1364, Thursday (-242,189) Du Guesclin victory at the Battle of Cocherel.

8/4/1364, Monday (-242,227) (France) John II, The Good, King of France, died (born 1319).

24/3/1364, Sunday (-212,242) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1364, Monday (-212.325)

==================================================================================

14/12/1363, Thursday (212,343) John Gerson, Chancellor of the University of Paris, was born (died 12/7/1429).

29/5/1363, Monday (-212,542) Sultan Malik al Mansur of Egypt was dethroned on the grounds of incompetence and replaced by Shaban, son of Hosain.

2/4/1363, Sunday (-212,599) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1363, Sunday (-215,690)

================================================================================

12/9/1362, Sunday (-212,802) Pope Innocent VI died.

26/5/1362, Thursday (-212,910) Louis, King of naples, died.

17/4/1362, Sunday (-212,949) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1362, Saturday (-213,055)

================================================================================

28/3/1361, Sunday (-213,334) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1361, Tuesday (-213,346) Hasan of Egypt was deposed and assassinated by Amir Yelbogha.

26/2/1361, Friday (-213,364) Wenceslas, King of Bohemia, was born.

26/1/1361, Tuesday (-213,395)

1/1/1361, Friday (-213,420)

=================================================================================

30/10/1360, Friday (-213,483)

24/10/1360, (Britain, France) Saturday (-213,489) The Treaty of Br�tigny was ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War. Under its terms, King John II of France, who had been captured at Poitiers, would be released for a ransom of 3 million Ecus. Calais, Guines, Ponthieu and all of Aquitaine would be ceded to Edward III of England. In return Edward, who had besieged Rheims (December 1359 � January 1360) but failed to capture it, promised to renounce claims to the French Crown when John renounced sovereignty over Aquitaine. In fact these renunciations never took place and the Hundred Years War resumed 1369.

2/5/1360, Saturday (-213,664) Emperor Chu Ti, also known as Yung Lo or Ch�eng Tsu, was born. See 5/8/1424.

13/4/1360, Monday (-213,683) An exceptionally cold day in Britain, recorded as �Black Monday�. Dark mist, hail, and cold so bitter that people died of cold whilst riding their horses.

5/4/1360, Sunday (-213,691) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1360, Wednesday (-213,786)

===================================================================================

21/4/1359, Sunday (-214,041) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1359, Tuesday (-214,151)

===================================================================================

24/7/1358, Tuesday (-214,312) This day a �Great Company� of roving German mercenaries was defeated at Scalella Pass by the Florentines. These mercenaries had originally bene hired by Italian princes fighting Milan, but when their pay ceased they took to roving and plundering anywhere in the Italian Peninsula. This day Florence was saved from lootoing and destruction by them.

10/6/1358, Sunday (-214,356) End of the Jacquerie peasant rebellion in France (began 30/5/1358).

1/4/1358, Sunday (-214,426) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1358, Monday (-214,516)

====================================================================================

22/4/1357, Saturday (-214,770) John I,King of Portugal, was born (died 11/8/1433).

9/4/1357, Sunday (-214,783) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1357, Sunday (-214,881)

====================================================================================

30/10/1356, Sunday (-214,944)

18/10/1356, Tuesday (-214,956) Basel, Switzerland, was badly damaged by an earthquake.

19/9/1356. Monday (-214,985) (Britain, France) The English, led by Edward the Black Prince, defeated the French under King John II, at the Battle of Poitiers, western France, in the Hundred Years War. Edward III had been raiding in northern France and was making his way back south when he learnt that the French were making to intercept him. Laden with baggage, the English moved more slowly and the French met them 5 km east of Poitiers. The English found a site with restricted access for the French knights, and English archers took down many French knights. King John himself was captured, and only released when a huge ransom was paid in 1360.

24/4/1356, Sunday (-215,133) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1356, Friday (-215,247)

===================================================================================

20/12/1355, Sunday (-215,259) Stephen Urosh of Serbia died whilst on route to attack Constantinople. Under his reign Serbia had expanded greatly, conquering Macedonia, Epirus, and Thessaly, as well as maintaining his father�s conquest of Bulgaria. However, see 15/6/1389.

17/4/1355, Friday (-215,506) Marino Falieri, born 1279, was executed for plotting to overthrow the government of Venice.

5/4/1355, Sunday (-215,518) Easter Sunday.

10/2/1355, Tuesday (-215,572) The St Scholastica Day riot in Oxford. Opposing members of �town� and �gown� fought for three days.

7/1/1355, Wednesday (-215,606) Thomas Gloucester was born (died 1397).

1/1/1355, Thursday (-215,612)

==================================================================================

20/10/1354, Monday (-215,685) Sultan Salih of Egypt was deposed and his brother Hasan reinstated.

8/10/1354, Wednesday (-215,697) Cola di Rienzi, reformer, was murdered.

13/4/1354, Sunday (-215,875) Easter Sunday

1/3/1354, Wednesday, (215,977)

==================================================================================

24/3/1353, Sunday (-216,260) Easter Sunday.

3/3/1353, Sunday (-216,281) Bern signed an alliance with the Swiss Confederation.

1/1/1353, Tuesday (-216,342)

==================================================================================

18/12/1352, Tuesday (-216,356) Pope Innocent VI (199th Pope) acceded (died 1362)

6/12/1352, Thursday (-216,368) Pope Clement VI (198th Pope) died.

27/6/1352, Wednesday (-216,530) Zug joined the Swiss Confederation.

4/6/1352, Monday (-216,553) Glarus joined the Swiss Confederation.

5/5/1352, Saturday (-216,583) Rupert, King of Germany, was born.

1/1/1352, Sunday (-216,708)

=================================================================================

1/5/1351, Sunday (-216,953) Zurich joined the Swiss Confederation.

17/4/1351, Sunday (-216,967) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1351, Saturday (-217,073)

================================================================================

26/12/1350, Sunday (-217,079) Jean de Marigny, who successfully defended Beauvais for France against the English in 1346, died.

30/10.1350, Saturday (-217,136)

29/8/1350, Sunday (-217,198) The English under King Edward III defeated a Spanish fleet off Winchelsea. The Spanish had been fighting as allies of the French in the Hundred Years War.

28/8/1350, Saturday (-217,199)

22/8/1350. Sunday (-217,205) King John II, (the Good) succeeded Philip VI as King of France.

12/8/1350, Thursday (-217,215) (France) Philip IV, King of France, died.

28/3/1350, Sunday (-217,352) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1350, Friday (-217, 438)

==================================================================================

30/10/1349, Friday (-217,501)

20/10/1349, Tuesday (-217,511) Pope Clement VI outlawed the flagellants.

26/8/1349, Wednesday (-217,566) (Britain) Thomas Bradwardine, English Archbishop, died in Lambeth.

24/8/1349, Monday (-217,568) The Black Death broke out in Elbing (Poland).

18/8/1349, Tuesday (-217,574)

16/6/1349, Tuesday (-217,637) week 31091

31/5/1349, Sunday (-217,653) The mortality rate from the Black Death in London finally began to ease.

12/4/1349, Sunday (-217,702) Easter Sunday

21/3/1349, Saturday (-217,724) Many of the 900 strong Jewish community of Erfurt (Germany) weremurdered by the rest of the population which accused themof causing of the Black Death.

14/2/1349, Saturday (-217,759) 2,000 Jews were burned to death in Strasbourg.

9/2/1349, Monday (-217,764)

9/1/1349, Friday (-217,795) The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland was rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing Black Death.

1/1/1349, Thursday (-217.803)

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30/10/1348, Thursday (-217,866)

1/10/1348, Wednesday (-217,895)

29/9/1348, Monday (-217,897) The Black Death reached London.

29/8/1348, Friday (-217,928)

10/8/1348, Sunday (-217,947) The first investiture ceremony of the Order of the Garter, at St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle. King Edward III revived the notion of King Arthur�s Round Table, and had the Round Tower at Windsor built to house a replica version of the Table. In 1344 Edward III began holding knightly tournaments and feasts around this Table. Following British successes in the Hundred Years War against France, Edward III instituted the Order of the Garter, with Windsor as the new Camelot.

21/7/1348, Monday (-217,967) Battle of Epila. Loyalists to King Pedro IV of Aragon, defending his intention to have one of his daughters as heir to the kingdom, whereas the nobles wanted a male heir of their choice, defeated these nobles. Pedro IV then woithdrew the Charter that had been granted by earlier monarchs Pedro III and his son Alfonso III, by whoch the nobles had tried to nominate theor own candidate as heir.

24/6/1348, Tuesday (-217,994) The Black Death outbreak hit Melcombe Regis (Weymouth, Dorset in England).

20/4/1348, Sunday (-218,059) Easter Sunday.

19/1/1348. Saturday (-218,151) Edward III established the Order of the Garter.

1/1/1348, Tuesday (-218,169)

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1347, 1348. The Black Death arrived in Europe. It appeared in the Crimea (probably originating in China in 1333) and spread west to the Mediterranean. It reached Greece in September 1347, and also appeared in Sicily and southern Italy. By January 1348 Pisa, Venice, Avignon, and Arles were stricken, and by April 1348 Toulouse, Spain, and Lyons had the disease. June 1348 saw the Black Death arrive in England, and by 1349 Germany and Brittany were suffering.

25/12/1347, Tuesday (-218,176) First cases of the plague recorded in the city of Split in Croatia.

1/11/1347, Thursday (-218,230) Black Death spreads to Aix-en-Provence in France.

30/10/1347, Tuesday (-218,232)

1/10/1347, Monday (-218,261)

1/9/1347, Saturday (-218,291) The Black Death reached the French city of Marseilles.

4/8/1347, Saturday (-218,319) (France) Calais surrendered to the English. The city remained in English hands until 1588.

1/4/1347, Sunday (-218,444) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1347, Monday (-218,534)

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30/10.1346, Monday (-218,597)

17/10/1346, Tuesday (-218,610) The Battle of Neville�s Cross. An attempted Scottish invasion of England was routed, west of Durham. Whilst the English King Edward III was occupied with the siege of Calais, King David II of Scotland invaded England in support of his French ally. However his army was heavily defeated by English archers, and David was wounded and captured. Held for 11 years, Scotland had to raise taxes to pay a heavy ransom for his release.

20/9/1346, Wednesday (-218,637)

26/8/1346. Saturday (-218,662) (1) The Battle of Crecy took place, 32 miles south of Boulogne.The outnumbered army of Edward III, aided by his son Edward the Black Prince, defeated the French under Philip IV, who fled,, leaving over 1,500 French dead. On 3/8/1347 the English captured Calais after nearly a year�s siege, which began on 3/9/1346.This battle, during the Hundred Years War, was the first time the English had used longbows in continental warfare. The crossbow assault at Crecy decimated the French-Genoese archers and the French knights behind, attempting an attack through the Genoese, caused a troops jam into which the English longbowmen continued to fire. The French retreated; Edward decided against pursuing the survivors but marched on north to attack Calais.

(2) John the Blind, King of Bohemia, was killed at Crecy whilst assisting the French. Born on 10/8/1296, son of Count Henry III of Luxembourg (later Emperor Henry III), he married (1310) the heiress of the Kingdom of Bohemia, thereby becoming its King in 1311. He acquired Silesia from Poland. In 1334 he married Beatrix of the House of Bourbon, thereby allying with France. He had been blind from 1340.

12/7/1346, Wednesday (-218,707) An English invasion force landed unopposed at St Vaast, western Normandy, with the aim of capturing Paris. This force was defeated by a superior French army and the English attempted a retreat back to England, marching west 60 miles in four days. However the French followed their march just to the south, denying the Seine Valley to the English. The English needed a port to evacuate their forces. The English now had to cross the lower Somme between Amiens and the sea, but this tract was tidal, full of treacherous marches, passable only along narrow causeways for a few hours a day at low tide. Crossing points to the north of the Somme were guarded by the French. The English attempted to force a crossing of the Somme at Crecy.

11/7/1346. Tuesday (-218,708) Charles V of Luxembourg was elected Holy Roman Emperor at the instigation of Pope Clement VI.

1/7/1346, Saturday (-281,718) (Venice, Hungary).King Louis I of Hungary, attempting to secure a seaboard on the Adriatic, against the wishes of the Venetian Republic who wishes toi control the entire Adriatic, tried to defend the city of Zara. Zara had declared itself part of Hungary, but was then besieged by Venice. The Venetians won and took Zara.

16/4/1346, Sunday (-218,794) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1336, Sunday (-218,899)

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24/7/1345, Sunday (-219,060) (Netherlands) Jacob van Artevelde, Flemish statesman, was murdered in Ghent.

16/6/1345, Thursday (-219,098)

14/4/1345, Thursday (-219,161) Richard Aungervyle, English writer and bibliophile, died (born 24/1/1287 near Bury St Edmunds).

27/3/1345, Sunday (-219,179) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1345, Saturday (-219,264)

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4/4/1344, Sunday (-219,536) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1344, Thursday (-219,630)

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23/4/1343, Wednesday (-219,883) Estonian peasants rose up this day, St Georges Day,against an oppressive and exploitative Danish and German nobility. The revolt began in Harjumaa County and spread to Oesel island. Over 1,800 nobles were killed by the peasants, who besieged revel (now, talinn) and asked for help from Swedish military posts in Finland. Meanwhile the Teutonic Knights of Prussia came in ti settle metters, and killed the peasant leader at a �peace confetrence�. The Teutonic Knights then roiuted the peasant forces near Revel before Swedish help could arrive. Denmark�s King Waldemar then sold northern Estonia for 19,000 silver marks to the Tutonic Knights, in 8/1346, because controlling the region was a drain on his resources. The Teutonic Knights then gave the area to a fellow order, the Livonian Knights.

13/4/1343, Sunday (-219,893) Easter Sunday

12/3/1343, Wednesday (-219,925)

1/1/1343, Wednesday (-219,995)

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21/7/1342, Sunday (-220,159) King Louis I of Hungary was crowned. Born 1326, he died in 1382.

9/7/1342, Tuesday (-220,171)

7/5/1342, Tuesday (-220,234) Pope Clement VI (198th Pope) acceded (died 1352).

30/4/1342, Tuesday (-220,241)

31/3/1342, Sunday (-220,271) Easter Sunday.

15/1/1342, Tuesday (-220,346) Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, was born.

1/1/1342, Tuesday (-220,360)

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15/6/1341, Friday (-220,553) (Byzantium) Following the death of Byzantine Emperor Andronicus III, aged 45, this day his 9-year-old son was challenged by his guardian, John Cantacuzene, for the rulership.

10/6/1341, Sunday (-220,558)

7/6/1341, Thursday (-220,561) Malik al Nasir, Sultan of Egypt, died.

8/4/1341, Sunday (-220,628) Easter Sunday.

12/3/1341, Monday (-220,655)

1/1/1341, Monday (-220,725)

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25/10/1340. Wednesday (-220,793) Geoffrey Chaucer was born. He died on his birthday in 1400.

13/10/1340. Friday (-220,805) (Spain) In alliance with Portugal, Alfonso XI of Castile conquered the Moors at the River Salado. This was the last attempt by the Moors to reverse the Reconquista.

11/8/1340, Friday (-220,868)

26/6/1340, Monday (-220,914) Accession of King Valdemar IV of Denmark.

24/6/1340, Saturday (-220,916) (France) The English fleet, under Edward III (see 21/9/1327) defeated the French fleet at the Battle of Sluys. The French fleet was virtually destroyed, giving Edward III control of the sea. However both the French and English rulers were short of money and unable to pay their troops; so Edward III, and Philip VI of France, settled at the Treaty of Esplechin.

The dispute between England and France had links to the Flemish weavers who rebelled but were defeated on 24/8/1328 by the new Philip VI of France. Also Philip VI supported the Scots under David Bruce against the English, see 21/9/1327. In 1336 Edward III renewed his claim to the French throne. In 1338 Edward III cut wool exports to Flanders, forcing up wool prices and causing economic hardship to the weavers there. Edward then lifted the wool embargo, and encouraged the weavers to rebel again against Philip VI, to secure the unification and independence of Flanders.

7/6/1340, Wednesday (-220,933) Rotterdam was officially declared a city.

16/4/1340, Sunday (-220,985) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1340, Saturday (-221,000)

1/3/1340, Wednesday (-221,031)

1/2/1340, Tuesday (-221,060)

26/1/1340, Wednesday (-221,066) English monarch King Edward III formally proclaimed himself King of France.

1/1/1340, Saturday (-221,091)

===================================================================================

1/11/1339, Monday (-221,152) Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, was born.

23/7/1339, Friday (-221,253) Louis I Duke of Anjou was born (died 20/9/1384).

26/6/1339, Saturday (-221,280)

21/6/1339, Monday (-221,285) Bern had acquired a protectorate over the town of Laupen, which Burgundy now tried to reclaim, besieging it. This day a Swiss force of pikemen and archers., although outnumbered 3 to 1, repoulsed Burgundian forces and lifted the siege of Laupen, establishing |Bern as a dominant force in the region.

28/3/1339, Sunday (-221,370) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1339, Friday (-221,456)

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12/4/1338, Sunday (-221,720) Easter Sunday

1/1/1338, Thursday (-221,821)

=================================================================================

24/5/1337, Saturday (-222,043) Philip VI of France took Gascony from English control.

20/4/1337, Sunday (-222,077) Easter Sunday.

20/3/1337, Thursday (-222,108)

17/3/1337, Monday (-222,111) Edward, the Black Prince, was made the first Duke of Cornwall, by his father King Edward III.

21/2/1337, Friday (-222,135)

21/1/1337, Tuesday (-222,166) King Charles V of France was born (died 16/9/1380).

8/1/1337. Wednesday (-222,179) Painter Giotto died, aged 70.

1/1/1337, Wednesday (-222,186)

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31/3/1336, Sunday (-222,462) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1336, Monday (-222,552)

=================================================================================

23/10/1335, Monday (-222,622)

11/10/1335, Wednesday (-222,634) Yi Seong-gye, founder of the Joseon Dynasty, was born in Korea.

16/4/1335, Sunday (-222,812) Easter Sunday

1/1/1335, Sunday (-222,917)

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4/12/1334, Sunday (-222,945) Pope John XXII died at Avignon, aged 85. He was succeeded by Jacques Fournier, who became Pope Benedict XII.

23/10/1334, Sunday (-222,987)

30/8/1334, Tuesday (-223,041) Pedro the Cruel, King of Castile and Leon, was born.

21/8/1334, Sunday (223,050)

27/3/1334, Sunday (-223,197) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1334, Saturday (-223,282)

==================================================================================

19/7/1333, Monday (-223,448) (Scotland) The Battle of Halidon Hill. Edward III defeated Sir Archibald Douglas, during the last of the Wars of Scottish Independence. The English victory secured for England the strategic town of Berwick on Tweed, and the English also learnt valuable lessons in the use of infantry, which would prove useful in later European wars.

4/4/1333, Sunday (-223,554) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1333, Friday (-223,647)

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7/11/1332, Saturday (-223,702) Lucerne joined the Swiss Confederation with Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden.

27/8/1332, Thursday (-223,774)

12/8/1332, Wednesday (-223,789) Edward Balliol (1283-1364, the elder son of John Balliol), having landed at Kinghorn, Fife, made a surprise attack on the Scottish Army at Duplin Moor. Balliol was leading an army of 3,400 soldiers fighting for the �disniherited Barons�. Balliol routed the Scots under the Regent, the Earl of Mar, and was crowned King of Scotland on 24/9/1332 at Scone. However in December 1332 Balliol himself fell victim to a surprise counter attack at Annan and fled across into England on an unsaddled horse. Further attempts by Balliol to gain the Scottish throne in 1334 and 1335 were unsuccessful and in 1356 he formally renounced his claim in favour of King Edward III. Balliol died without heirs.

19/4/1332, Sunday (-223,904) Easter Sunday.

18/2/1332, Tuesday (-223,965) Amda Seyon I, Emperor of Ethiopia began his campaigns in the southern Muslim provinces.

1/1/1332, Wednesday (-224,013)

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27/9/1331, Friday (-224,109) (Poland) Battle of Plowce. The Teutonic Knights were defeated by a Polish army under Ladislas IV Lokietek.

31/3/1331, Sunday (-224,289) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1331, Tuesday (-224,378) week 32,054

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15/6/1330, Friday (224,578) Edward, the Black Prince, was born.

10/6/1330, Sunday (-224,583)

8/4/1330, Sunday (-224,646) Easter Sunday

13/1/1330, Saturday (-224,731) Frederick III of Germany died at Gutenstein.

1/1/1330, Monday (-224,743)

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11/6/1329, Sunday (-224,947) Ottoman Turks defeated the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Maltepe (Pelekanon).

7/6/1329. Wednesday (-224,951) Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland from 1306, died of leprosy at Cardross Castle on the Firth of Clyde. He was buried at Dunfermline Abbey under the High Altar.

23/5/1329, Tuesday (-224,966)

23/4/1329, Sunday (-224,996) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1329, Sunday (-225,108)

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23/10/1328, Sunday (-225,178)

24/8/1328. Wednesday (-225,238) Flemish weavers rebelled against the French but were defeated at Mount Cassel by Philip VI, the new King of France. See 24/6/1340.

21/8/1328, Sunday (225,241)

12/7/1328, Tuesday (-225,281) Marriage of Bruce�s son David to Joanna, daughter of Edward II of England

3/4/1328, Sunday (-225,381) Easter Sunday.

1/2/1328, Monday (-225,443) King Charles IV of France died aged 33, without an heir, ending the Capetian line. Under the Salic Law (succession through the male line only) he was succeeded by his 35-year-old cousin who ruled as Philip IV until 1350. He established the Valois Dynasty, which endured until 1589.

17/1/1328, Sunday (-225,458) Louis of Bavaria was crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

1/1/1328, Friday (-225,474)

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23/10/1327, Friday (-225,544)

21/9/1327. Monday (-225,576) Edward II was murdered with a red-hot poker at Berkeley castle in Gloucestershire, to ensure his son Edward III, aged 15, could ascend the English throne under Isabella�s Regency.. Edward II�s fate was sealed in 1326 when his wife Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer landed with a band of foreign mercenaries and marched on London. Isabella found widespread support amongst the barons, among whom Edward had caused dissension by granting some lands and lordships, but not others. Edward was also resented after his defeat by Robert the Bruce in Scotland. See 21/6/1314, and 24/6/1340. In 1330 Edward III took real power, sending his mother Isabella into a monastery. He executed her lover, Roger Mortimer. See 24/6 1340.

12/4/1327, Sunday (-225,738) Easter Sunday

25/1/1327, Sunday (-225,815) Edward III became King of England.

7/1/1327, Wednesday (-225,833) King Edward II of England was deposed.

1/1/1327, Thursday (-225,839)

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6/4/1326. Sunday (-226,109) Orkhan, son of Osman, the founder of the Ottoman Empire, captured Brusa from the Byzantines and made it his capital. By 1341 Orkhan had reinforced his influence in the Byzantine Empire by marrying twice into it; first to Theodora, daughter of Byzantium�s new joint Emperor John Cantacuzene, whom he had lent 6,000 troops for his coup. Secondly, Orkhan�s new sister in law, Helen, married the other joint Emperor and coup victim, John Paleologus.

23/3/1326, Sunday (-226,123) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1326, Wednesday (-226,204)

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7/4/1325, Sunday (-226,473) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1325, Saturday (-226,495) Charles Count of Valois died (born 12/3/1270).

13/3/1325, Wednesday (-226,498) (1) The founding of Tenochtitlan on a small island in Lake Texcoco by the Mexica empire at the dawn of the day. The Aztec capital became Mexico City in 1521.

(2) The Treaty of Trausnitz was signed. Frederick III, I return for his freedom, acknowledged Louis IV as King of Germany. Frederick also undertook to return to captivity if he could not persuade his brother Leopold to similarly acknowledge Louis IV.

1/1/1325, Tuesday (-226,569)

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15/4/1324, Sunday (-226,830) Easter Sunday.

5/3/1324, Monday (-226,871) King David II of Scotland was born, son of Robert the Bruce.(died 22/2/1371).

1/1/1324, Sunday (-226,935)

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27/3/1323, Sunday (-227,215) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1323, Saturday (-227,300)

==================================================================================

28/9/1322, Tuesday (-227,395) In a decisive battle for the German kingship, Frederick III was deefated and sent as a prisoner to Trausnitz, where he remained for three years. See 13/3/1325.

27/7/1322, Tuesday (-227,458)

24/6/1322, Thursday (-227,491) Jews were expelled from France for the third time.

11/4/1322, Sunday (-227,565) Easter Sunday.

16/3/1322, Tuesday (-227,591) The Battle of Boroughbridge.Forces loyal to the rebel, Thomas of Lancaster, were defeated at the crossing of the River Ure by an army loyal to King Edward II, led by Andrew Barclay. Edward then ordered the execution of more than 20 of the rebel leaders, an act that shocked contemporaries by its severity.

13/2/1322, Saturday (-227,622) The central tower of Ely Cathedral in England fell.

2/1/1322, Saturday (-227,664) Philip V, King of France, died.

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14/9/1321. Tuesday (-227,773) Poet Dante Alighieri died aged 56 at Ravenna, in the 20th year of exile from his native Florence.

19/4/1321, Sunday (-227,922) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1321, Thursday (-228,030)

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6/4/1320, Sunday (-228,300) The Scots reaffirmed their independence from England by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. The Pope did not recognise Robert The Bruce as legitimate King of Scotland, and Pope John XXII had demanded that Scotland make peace with England, However the Scottish barons, with the support of the Church in Scotland, asserted under this Declaration the identity of Scotland as a separate nation with its �uninterrupted succession of 113 Kings, all our native and royal stock�. The Declaration also noted the injuries caused by English incursions into Scotland. Since then this has been a key document for those campaigning for Scottish independence.

30/3/1320, Sunday (-228,307) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1320, Tuesday (-228,396)

====================================================================================

8/7/1319, Sunday (-228,573) Three-year-old Magnus Eriksson was elected king of Sweden, thus uniting it with Norway. His mother Ingeborg of Norway was given a place in the regency in both Sweden and Norway.

8/4/1319, Sunday (-228,664) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1319, Monday (-228,761)

===================================================================================

14/10/1318, Monday (-228,838) Edward Bruce was killed at Dundalk, Ireland, 3 years after being proclaimed King of Ireland. He was the younger brother of Scotland�s Robert the Bruce. Edward had failed to subdue the country south of Ulster.

23/4/1318, Sunday (-229,014) Easter Sunday.

1/4/1318, Saturday (-229,036) Berwick-upon-Tweed was retaken by the Scottish from the English.

1/1/1318, Sunday (-229,126)

=================================================================================

25/12/1317, Sunday (-229,133)

24/12/1317, Saturday (-229,134) Jean de Joinville, Crusader and historian, died.

3/4/1317, Sunday (-229,399) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1317, Saturday (-229,491)

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10/8/1316, Tuesday (-229,635) Second Battle of Athenry ended with over 5,000 dead, and Norman rule retained in Ireland.

7/8/1316, Saturday (-229,638)

5/6/1316, Saturday (-229,701) King Louis X of France died.

14/5/1316, Friday (-229,723) Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV was born.

11/4/1316, Sunday (-229,756) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1316, Thursday (-229,857)

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15/11/1315. Saturday (-229,904) A small army of Swiss foot soldiers routed a Hapsburg army sent to bring the valleys of central Switzerland under Hapsburg rule at the Battle of Morgarten. The Hapsburgs had for long had manorial rights in these valleys but not political control. The Swiss had begun to assert their political independence, fortifying the entrances of the valleys. This conflict was precipitated by a dispute over grazing rights; the men of Schwyz attacked an abbey and took some of the monks hostage.

1/7/1315, Tuesday (-230,041) Food prices rose sharply as a famine hit England. A quarter of wheat cost 20 shillings, compared to five shillings in 1313.

30/4/1315, Wednesday (-230,103) Enguerrand de Marigny, French minister to King Philip IV, was executed on trumped up charges of sorcery, having raised taxes for a war against Flanders then disappointed the French nobility by negotiating a peace.

23/3/1315, Sunday (-230,141) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1315, Wednesday (-230,222)

===================================================================================

29/11/1314, Friday (-230,255) Philip IV, King of France, died.

13/11/1314, Wednesday (-230,271) (Germany) Albert, Landgrave of Thuringia, died.

25/10/1314, Friday (-230,290) Frederick III was crowned King of Germany by the Archbishop of Cologns, and war started between him and Louis.

19/10/1314, Saturday (-230,296) Frederick III was chosen as King by a minority of electors; the majority chose Louis of Bavaria.

30/9/1314, Monday, (-230,315)

31/8/1314, Saturday (-230,345) King Hakon V Magnusson moved the capital of Norway from Bergen to Oslo, where he built Akershus Fortress. Norway was ruled from this fortress the next 500 years.

31/7/1314, Wednesday (-230,376)

30/6/1314, Monday (-230,406)

24/6/1314. Tuesday (-230,412) English forces under Edward II suffered a major defeat at Bannockburn by the Scots. Robert The Bruce was confirmed in power in Scotland. See 21/9/1327. By the time the Battle of Bannockburn was fought, Scotland had been almost cleared of English troops, with the exception of Stirling Castle. Here the governor, Alexander Mowbray, had promised to surrender if not relieved by St John the Baptist�s Day.Edward II collected a huge army for the relief of Stirling, and Robert the Bruce assembled his smaller force at Torwood, 4 miles north-west of Falkirk. At the Battle, on the Bannock Burn, the superior numbers of the English cavalry were hampered by the cramped site of the battle; the rear ranks of the English could not reach the fighting, but hampered the retreat of those in front under Robert�s attacks. Robert then led his reserves in to complete the rout of the English. Many English, uninjured in the battle, perished in the Bannock Burn and the marshes beyond. Edward II, seeking refuge in Stirling Castle, was refused on account of its imminent surrender; he escaped by a roundabout route via Dunbar back to England.

13/4/1314, Saturday (-230,485) The Lord Mayor of London banned �hustling over large balls� within the city because of the noise and riots it caused.

7/4/1314, Sunday (-230,491) Easter Sunday.

18/3/1314, Monday (-230,511) Jacques de Molay, the 23rd and the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, was burned at the stake.

1/1/1314, Tuesday (-230,587) week 32,941

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9/11/1313, Friday (-230,640) Louis IV, Duke of Bavaria, defeated Frederick III, King of Germany, at the Battle of Gamelsdorf.

23/10/1313, Tuesday (-230,657)

23/9/1313, Sunday (-230,687)

24/8/1313, Friday (-230,717) King Henry VII of Germany was poisoned.

16/6/1313, Saturday (-230,786) Giovanni Boccacio, writer, was born.

5/5/1313, Saturday (-230,828) (Christian) Pope Celestine V was canonised.

15/4/1313, Sunday (-230,848) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1313, Monday (-230,952)

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13/11/1312. Monday (-231,001) Edward III, King of England from 1327, was born in Windsor Castle, son of Edward II.

23/10/1312, Monday (-231,022)

23/9/1312, Saturday (-231,052)

7/9/1312, Thursday (-231,068) Ferdinand IV, King of Castile and Leon, died.

19/6/1312, Monday (-231,148) Piers Gaveston (see 19/5/1312) was beheaded at Deddington by order of the Duke of Warwick.

19/5/1312, Friday (-23,179) After a 2-week siege of Scarborough Castle, Piers Gaveston, close associate of King Edward II, was taken prisoner, See 19/6/1312.

26/4/1312, Wednesday (-231,202)

26/3/1312, Sunday (-231,233) Easter Sunday.

22/3/1312, Wednesday (-231,237) The Pope abolished the Order of the Templars.

1/1/1312, Saturday (-231,318)

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11/4/1311, Sunday (-231,583) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1311, Friday (-231,683)

===================================================================================

1/10/1310, Thursday (-231,775) Beatrice of Burgiundy died.

15/6/1310, Monday (-231,883) By 1300 the Governing Council of Venice had become an autocratic oligarchy. In 1300 a popular rebellion against the Council failed, its leader being hanged. In 1310 Bajamonte Tiepolo (died 1328) was preparing a further rebellion, conspiring with the patrician Querini family to take over the administration of Venice. However the plot was leaked out compelling the conspirators to act before they were ready, and this day they seized the public square of Venice. Forces loyal to the Venetian Doge (Chief Magistrate), Pietro Gradenigo (1249-1311) soon arrested the rebels, although Tiepolo himself managed to escape. The Venetian oligarchy then established a secret tribunal, the Council of Ten, ostensibly to �protect� Venice from further insurrections by tracking down rebels. By 1335 this body had become entrenched and took over many Governmental functions, especially in finance and the military.

11/5/1310, Monday (-231,918) In France, 54 members of the Knights Templar were burned at the stake for heresy.

8/5/1310, Friday (-231,921)

30/4/1310, Thursday (-231,929) King Casimir III of Poland was born.

19/4/1310, Sunday (-231,940) Easter Sunday.

5/3/1310, Friday (-231,885) Malik al Nasir was reinstated as Sultan of Cairo.

1/1/1310, Thursday (-231,048)

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23/10/1309, Thursday (-231,118)

21/8/1309, Thursday (-231,018)

15/8/1309, Friday (-232,187) The city of Rhodes surrendered to the forces of the Knights of St. John, completing their conquest of Rhodes. The knights established their headquarters on the island, and renamed themselves as the Knights of Rhodes.

5/4/1309, Saturday (-232,319) Bibars Jashengir was proclaimed Sultan of Egypt.

30/3/1309, Sunday (-232,325) Easter Sunday.

9/3/1309. Sunday (-232,346) Pope Clement arrived at Avignon to set up court there.

1/1/1309, Wednesday (-232,413)

=================================================================================

8/11/1308, Friday (-232,467) Duns Scotus, Scottish theologian, born ca. 1266, died in Cologne, Germany.

2/11/1308, Saturday (-232,473) Castellar, last of the Templar�s strongholds, fell.

23/10/1308, Wednesday (-232,483)

1/5/1308, Wednesday (-232,658) (Germany) Albert I of Habsburg, King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor, was murdered by his nephew, John (Parricida). This followed a humiliating defeat of Albert�s forces whilst attempting an invasion of Thuringia.

14/4/1308, Sunday (-232,675) Easter Sunday

25/2/1308, Sunday (-232,724) Coronation of Edward II of England.

10/1/1308, Wednesday (-232,770) The Templars were suppressed in England.

1/1/1308, Monday (-232,779)

================================================================================

17/11/1307. Friday (-232,824) William Tell is reputed to have shot an apple off his son�s head this day.

23/10/1307, Monday (-232,849)

13/10/1307, Friday (-232,859) The Knights Templars in Paris were arrested.

5/9/1307, Tuesday (-232,897) Pope Clement V confirmed the Knights Hospitaller possession of Rhodes, although only Feracle had fallen to their attacks.

15/8/1307, Tuesday (-232,918)

15/7/1307, Saturday (-232,949)

7/7/1307. Friday (-232,957) King Edward I of England died in his way north to invade Scotland and was succeeded by his son Edward II.

28/6/1307, Wednesday (-232,966)

28/5/1307, Sunday (-232,997)

26/3/1307, Sunday (-233,060) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1307, Sunday (-233,144)

================================================================================

3/4/1306, Sunday (-233,417) Easter Sunday.

25/3/1306. Friday (-233,426) Robert The Bruce, Eight Earl of Carrick, was crowned King of Scotland (Robert I) at Scone. See 21/6/1314.

1/1/1306, Saturday (-233,509)

============================================================================

23/10/1305, Saturday (-233,579)

23/8/1305, Monday (-233,640) William Wallace, Scottish patriot, was hanged in London, see 5/8/1305.

5/8/1305. Thursday (-233,658) Sir William Wallace, leader of the Scots, campaigner for their independence from the English, was captured by the English and later executed.

5/6/1305, Saturday (-233,719) Bertrand de Got, Archbishop of Bordeaux, was elected Pope Clement V (French, 195th Pope) acceded (died 20/4/1314).

18/5/1305, Tuesday (-233,737)

18/4/1305, Sunday (-233,767) Easter Sunday.

2/4/1305, Friday (-233,783) Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, died.

1/1/1305, Friday (-233,874)

===============================================================================

23/10/1304, Friday (-233,944)

21/8/1304, Friday (-234,007)

20/7/1304, Monday (-234,039) (1) Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England took the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence.

(2) Francesco Petrarch, poet, was born.

29/3/1304, Sunday (-234,152) Easter Sunday.

24/2/1304, Monday (-234,186) Ibn Battutah, Arab explorer, was born in Tangier Morocco.

1/2/1304, Saturday (-234,209)

1/1/1304, Wednesday (-234,240)

==================================================================================

11/11/1303, Monday (-234,291) Pope Boniface VIII died.

23/10/1303, Wednesday (-234,310)

8/8/1303, Thursday (-234,386) An earthquake destroyed the Lighthouse of Alexandria in Egypt, one of the seven wonders of the world.

31/7/1303, Wednesday (-234,394)

29/5/1303, Wednesday (-234,457) Treaty of Paris restored Gascony to the English.

7/5/1303, Tuesday (-234,479)

7/4/1303, Sunday (-234,509) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1303, Tuesday (-234.605) week 33,515

==================================================================================

27/7/1302, Friday (-234,763)The Ottoman Turks defeated the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Bapheus, heralding the Turkish conquest of Bithynia.

11/7/1302, Wednesday (-234,779) A French army invading Flanders (see 19/5/1302) was heavily defeated at Courtrai (Battle of the Spurs).

18/6/1302, Monday (-234,802)

18/5/1302, Friday (-234,833) The Matins of Bruges. The Dutch rebelled against the French and massacred the French garrison in Bruges.

22/4/1302, Sunday (-234,859) Easter Sunday.

27/1/1302, Saturday (-234,944) Dante was exiled from Florence. His allies had been overthrown by Charles of Valois.

26/1/1302, Friday (-234,945) (Britain) Godfrey Giffard, Bishop of Worcester, died.

1/1/1302, Monday (-234,970)

===================================================================================

2/4/1301, Sunday (-235,244) Easter Sunday.

7/2/1301, Tuesday (-235,298) The first Prince of Wales was created, Edward of Caernarfon, who later became King Edward II.

1/1/1301, Sunday (-235,335)

===================================================================================

15/6/1300, Tuesday (-235,536) The city of Bilbao received its royal foundation charter.

10/3/1300, Wednesday (-235,633) An early reference to Creag� as played by Prince Edward, the futire King Edward II. The apostrophe after Creag signifies the dinoimutive �et�. An early sport was played in The Weald, England, where a man with a shepherd�s crook stood in front ofa gate to try and bat away a stone thrown at the crosspiece, or �bail�, of the gate. The word �bail� itself derived from Old French �bailler�, to enclose, itself from the Latin ��baculum� meaning stick. The name �cricket derives from �crok�, the old word for a shepherd�s crook. In 1300 the English Royal household paid out 100 shillings for Prince Edward to play at �creag�.

1/1/1300, Friday (-235,701)

==================================================================================

1/4/1299, Wednesday (-235,976) Kings Towne on the River Hull (Kingston upon Hull) was granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England.

7/2/1299, Saturday (-236,029) Malik al Nasir was reinstated as Sultan of Cairo.

1/1/1299, Thursday (-236,066)

===================================================================================

11/9/1298, Thursday (-236,178) The Governing Body of Venice, the Great Council, accepted a further amendment (see 5/10/1286) that entrenched the position of the existing ruling families.

24/8/1298, Saturday (-236,197) (Germany) Albert I was elected King of Germany

24/7/1298. Wednesday (-236,228) The English under King Edward I used longbows for the first time when they defeated the Scots under William Wallace at the battle of Falkirk.

2/7/1298, Tuesday (-236,250) (Germany) Adolph of Nassau was killed in battle with his successor, Albert of Austria.

23/6/1298, Sunday (-236,259)

23/5/1298, Friday (-236,289) Adolf of Nassau was deposed as King of Germany.

20/4/1298, Sunday (-236,322) Beginning of the Rintfleisch-Pogrom, the Jews of R�ttingen were burned en masse, other Jewish communities were destroyed later in the year.

12/3/1298, Wednesday (-236,361)

1/1/1298, Wednesday (-236,431)

==================================================================================

23/10/1297, Wednesday (-236,501)

12/9/1297, Thursday (-236,542) King Denis of Portugal and King Ferdinand IV of Castile sign the Treaty of Alcanizes. The geographic limits of Portugal were fixed permanently, with the exception of S�o F�lix de Galegos, lost in 1640 and Olivenza, lost in 1801.

11/9/1297. Wednesday (-236,543) Scottish hero William Wallace defeated the English under Edward I at Stirling Bridge. William Wallace was a minor noble from Elderslie and one of the few to take on Edward when he assumed the overlordship of Scotland. He realised that the neck of land between the rivers Forth and Clyde at Stirling was narrow enough to create a tactical advantage for the Scottish defenders. Wallace�s men stood at the slopes of the Abbey Craig, in front of a narrow bridge across the Forth, wide enough for only two horsemen abreast. As the English drew up, Wallace�s men charged them before they could get into battle position. The narrow bridge then collapsed, drowning many English.

28/8/1297, Wednesday (-236,557) Edward I of England unsuccessfully invaded Flanders.

14/4/1297, Sunday (-236,693) Easter Sunday

1/1/1297, Tuesday (-236,796) week 33,828

==================================================================================

23/10/1296, Tuesday (-236,866)

21/8/1296, Tuesday (-236,929)

10/8/1296, Friday (-236,940) John the Blind, King of Bohemia, was born, see 26/8/1346.

19/5/1296, Saturday (-237,023) (Papal succession) Death of ex-Pope Celestine V, who abdicated as Pope on 13/12/1294 and thereafter lived, under house arrest but in luxury, at a castle near Ferentino.

27/4/1296. Friday (-237,045) English defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar.

30/3/1296, Friday (-237,073) Capture of Berwick: King Edward I of England captured Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking what is at this time a Scottish border town with much bloodshed. He slaughtered most residents, including those who fled to the churches.

25/3/1296, Sunday (-237,078) Easter Sunday.

10/2/1296, Friday (-237,122) King Edward I of England forced John Balliol (1250-1313), King of Scotland (see 17/11/1792) to surrender his Crown. Although John had started out his reign as a vassal and ally of Edward, by 1295 a council of Scottish Lords had taken power from John and started making alliances with France, which was then at war with England. John was imprisoned for three years, first in Hertford and then in the Tower of London. In 1302 John was permitted to retire to his estates in Normandy.

1/1/1296, Sunday (-237,162)

================================================================================

31/12/1295, Saturday (-237,163) Margaret of Provence, Queen of France, died (born 27/5/1234).

7/12/1295, Wednesday (-237,187) Gilbert Gloucester, supporter of King Edward I, died (born 2/9/1243).

13/11/1295, Sunday (-237,211) King Edward I of England summoned the Model Parliament to Westminster, the composition of which serves as a model for later parliaments.

23/10/1295, Sunday (-237,232) The first treaty forming the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France against England was signed in Paris.

3/4/1295, Sunday (-237,435) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1295, Saturday (-237,527)

================================================================================

23/12/1294. Thursday (-237,536) Boniface VIII was made Pope in succession to Celestine V, who had abdicated after 5 months on 13/12/1294.

23/10/1295, Saturday (-237,597)

21/8/1295, Saturday (-237,660)

5/7/1294, Monday (-237,707) Pope Celestine V, 192nd Pope acceded.

18/4/1294, Sunday (-237,785) Easter Sunday

12/2/1294, Friday (-237,850) Kublai Khan died, aged 80.

1/1/1294, Friday (-237,892)

=================================================================================

26/5/1293, Tuesday (-238,112) An earthquake in Kamakura, Japan killed an estimated 30,000.

29/4/1293, Wednesday (-238,139)

29/3/1293, Sunday (-238,170) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1293, Thursday (-238,257)

=================================================================================

17/11/1292, Monday (-238,302) John Balliol was selected by King Edward I of England as King of Scotland from among 13 candidates; Edward then treated John as a puppet ruler and Scotland as a vassal state, eventually provoking the Wars of Scottish Independence, commencing in 1296.

11/6/1292, Wednesday (-238,461) (Britain) Roger Bacon, scholar, died at Oxford.

5/5/1292, Monday (-238,498) Adolf of Nassau (born 1250) was elected as King of Germany, principally as a means of blocking Hapsburg claims to the German throne through Albert of Austria. However he became too ambitious for the comfort of the Electors of Germany and he was deposed in 1298. He died in battle against Albert I of Austria in 1298.

6/4/1292, Sunday (-238,527) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1292, Tuesday (-238,623) week 34,089

==================================================================================

1/8/1291, Wednesday (-238,776) According to tradition, the Swiss Confederation was formed by Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden, the "three forest cantons", at R�tli by the Federal Charter.

15/7/1291, Sunday (-238,793) (Germany) Rudolf I, King of Germany, died at Spires, aged 73, after an 18-year reign.

18/6/1291, Monday (-238,820)

18/5/1291, Friday (-238,851) Al-Ashraf Khalil of Egypt captured Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. Christians in Acre, who had broken a truce by massacring all Muslims in the town, scrambled for places on boats to Cyprus. Most Christians in Acre were captured, and sent to the slave market in Damascus.

22/4/1291, Sunday (-238,877) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1291, Monday (-238,988)

=================================================================================

28/11/1290, Tuesday (-239,022) Eleanor of Castile, Queen of England, died at Harby, near Clipstone.

23/10/1290, Monday (-239,058)

27/9/1290, Wednesday (-239,084) Earthquake in the Gulf of Chili, Hebei, China, killed an estimated 100,000.

26/7/1290, Wednesday (-239,147)

18/7/1290, Tuesday (-239,155) King Edward I of England ordered all Jews (then numbering around 16,000) to leave England by November 1 (All Saints Day). This enabled him to seize their assets, and not repay debts owed to them.

10/7/1290, Monday (-239,163) Ladislaus IV, King of Hungary, was murdered, aged 28, by Cuman rebels. He was succeeded by his senior kinsman who ruled as Andras II until his death in 1391. Andras II was the last king of the Arpad Dynasty.

2/4/1290, Sunday (-239,262) Easter Sunday.

1/3/1290, Wednesday (-239,294) The University of Coimbra was founded in Lisbon, Portugal by King Denis of Portugal; it moved to Coimbra in 1308.

1/1/1290, Sunday (-239,353)

=================================================================================

6/10/1289, Thursday (-249,440) King Wenceslaus III, Bohemian King, was born

4/10/1289, Tuesday (-239,442) Louis XI, King of France, was born.

27/4/1289, Wednesday (-239,602) Fall of Tripoli: Mamluk Sultan Qalawun captured the County of Tripoli (in present-day Lebanon) after a month-long siege, thus extinguishing the Crusader state.

10/4/1289, Sunday (-239,619) Easter Sunday.

22/2/1289, Tuesday (-239,666) Pope Nicholas IV, 191st Pope, took office. Ruled until 1292.

1/1/1289, Saturday (-239,718)

=================================================================================

26/11/1288, Friday (-239,754) Go-Daigo, Emperor of Japan, was born.

23/10/1288, Saturday (-239,788)

22/8/1288, Saturday (-239,851)

8/8/1288, Saturday (-239,865) Pope Nicholas I proclaimed a Crusade against Ladislaus IV of Hungary. who had lost credibility by favouring his semi-pagan Cuman subjects and in general refusing to conform to the social standards of western Europe.

28/3/1288, Sunday (-239,997) Easter Sunday.

29/2/1288, Sunday (-240,025|) It became legal in Scotland for women to propose to men, but only on 29th February leap days.

20/2/1288, Friday (-240,034)

20/1/1288, Tuesday (-240,065) Newcastle Emlyn Castle in Wales was recaptured by English forces, bringing Rhys ap Maredudd's revolt to an end.

1/1/1288, Thursday (-240,084)

===============================================================================

14/12/1287, Sunday (-240,102) The sea broke through the dike at Stavoren, Netherlands, forming the Zuyder Zee.

8/6/1287, Sunday (-240,291) Rhys ap Maredudd revolted in Wales; the revolt was not suppressed until 1288.

6/4/1287, Sunday (-240,354) Easter Sunday.

4/4/1287, Friday (-240,356) Wareru created the Hanthawaddy Kingdom in modern-day Lower Burma

3/4/1287, Thursday (-240,357) Pope Honorius IV died.

24/1/1287, Friday (-240,426) Richard Aungervyle, English writer and bibliophile, was born near Bury St Edmunds (died14/4/1345).

17/1/1287, Friday (-240,433) King Alfonso III of Aragon conquered the island of Minorca from the Moors.

1/1/1287, Wednesday (-240,449)

==================================================================================

1/12/1286, Sunday (-240,480)

8/11/1286, Friday (-240,503) Pedro the Great, King of Aragon, died aged 50. He was succeeded by his weak son, who ruled until 1291 as Alfonso III. He allowed the nobility to rebel, and anarchy became permanent in Aragon.

5/10/1286, Saturday (-240,537) The Governing Body of Venice, the Great Council, accepted an amendment that effectively confirmed membership amongst the families of existing families (an earlier proposed amendment on 3/10/1286 had failed). The governance of Venice began to become more exclusive and autocratic, see 11/9/1298.

14/4/1286, Sunday (-240,711) Easter Sunday

16/3/1286. Saturday (-240,740) Death of King Alexander III of Scotland, killed by a fall from his horse whilst riding in the dark to visit the Queen at Kinghorn, with only Yolande of Dreux, Queen of Scotland's unborn child and 3-year-old Margaret, Maid of Norway as heirs; this sets the stage for the First War of Scottish Independence and increased influence of England over Scotland.. Alexander III was born in 1241 and became king in 1249 aged eight. See 8/7/1249. He laid a formal claim against King Haakon of Norway for sovereignty of the Hebrides, settled by Scandinavians since the ninth century. King Haakon responded by sending a large naval fleet in 1263. Haakon�s fleet halted off Arran, where Alexander III stalled negotiations until the autumn storms should begin. Haakon finally attacked only to encounter a severe storm; the Battle of Largs on 12/10/1263 was indecisive but left Haakon in a hopeless position. He turned back to Norway but died on the way.

1/1/1286, Tuesday (-240,814) week 34,402

==================================================================================

2/11/1285, Friday (-240,874) Peter III, King of Aragon, died.

5/10/1285, Friday (-240,902) (France) Philip III, King of France, died of the Plague whilst retreating from Gerona, after a 15-year reign. He was succeeded by his 17-year-old son who rued until 1314 as King Philip IV.

19/6/1285. Tuesday (-241,010) Westminster Abbey completed.

25/5/1285, Friday (-241,035)

25/4/1285, Wednesday (-241,065) Mamluk Sultan Qalawun began a siege of the Crusader fortress of Margat (in present-day Syria), a major stronghold of the Knights Hospitaller thought to be impregnable; he captured the fortress a month later.

2/4/1285, Monday (-241,088) Pope Honorius IV (190th Pope) acceded (died 1287).

28/3/1285, Wednesday (-241,093) Pope Martin IV died.

25/3/1285, Sunday (-241,096) Easter Sunday.

6/1/1285, Saturday (-241,174) Archbishop Jakub Swinka ordered all priests subject to his bishopry in Poland to deliver sermons in Polish rather than German, thus further unifying the Catholic Church in Poland and fostering a national identity.

1/1/1285, Monday (-241,179)

==================================================================================

28/11/1284, Tuesday (-241,213) Florence began to extend its city walls. First stone of the new walls was blessed this day.

26/9/1284, Tuesday (-241,276)

6/8/1284, Sunday (-241,327) Second Battle of Meloria (island off Leghorn). Genoese ships attacked a Pisan force, over their rival claims to the islands of Corsoica and Sardinia. Pisa was defeated.

25/4/1284, Tuesday (-241,430) (Britain) Edward II was born at Caernarfon Castle, third son of Edward I.

24/4/1284, Monday (-241,431) (Spain) King Alfonso X of Leon and Castile died in Seville. Born 1226, he succeeded his father Ferdinand III as king in 1252. He was deposed by his second son, Sancho, as king in 1282.

9/4/1284, Sunday (-241,446) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1284, Saturday (-241,545)

==================================================================================

18/4/1283, Sunday (-241,803) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1283, Friday (-214,910)

==================================================================================

11/12/1282, Friday (-241,931) At the Battle of Orewin Bridge in mid-Wales, Llewellyn the Last was killed and the Welsh suffered their final decisive defeat at the hands of the English. King Edward I took Llewellyn�s head to London on a stake as proof of English triumph in Wales. Wales had held out against the Norman English for over 200 years thanks to its remote terrain, enabling the Welsh to simply vanish whenever the English armies went in, and its atrocious weather, deterring these armies. The Welsh also made alliances with England�s natural enemies, the Scots and French. From this time on, the Prince of Wales has always been the eldest son of the ruling monarch of England.

5/5/1282, Tuesday (-242,151) Don Manuel Juan, Infante of Castile, was born.

30/4/1282, Thursday (-242,156)

31/3/1282, Tuesday (-242,186) (Sicily) French massacred in Sicily (Sicilian Vespers). The Sicilians resented Angevin rule, and especially the heavy taxes levied by the French King Charles of Anjou to pay for a war against Constantinople.

30/3/1282. Monday (-242,187) Peter III of Aragon opened hostilities against Charles of Anjou for possession of Naples and Sicily.This war was ended by the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302.

29/3/1282, Sunday (-242,188) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1282, Thursday (-242,275)

=================================================================================

29/10/1281, Wednesday (-242,339) Second Battle of Homs: Mamluk sultan Qalawun defeated an invasion of Syria by Mongol Ilkhan Abaqa Khan.

23/10/1281, Thursday (-242,345)

21/8/1281, Thursday (-242,408)

12/8/1281, Tuesday (-242,417) Battle of Kōan (Hakata Bay): The second Mongol invasion of Japan was foiled, as a large typhoon � famously called a kamikaze, or divine wind � destroyed much of the combined Chinese and Korean fleet and forces, numbering over 140,000 men and 4,000 ships.

13/4/1281, Sunday (-242,538) Easter Sunday

22/21281, Saturday (-242,588) Pope Martin IV (189th Pope) acceded (died 1285)

1/2/1281, Saturday (-242,609)

1/1/1281, Wednesday (-242,640)

==================================================================================

15/11/1280, Friday (-242,687) (Germany) Albertus Magnus, German scholar, died in Cologne.

20/7/1280, Saturday (-242,805) Neath, Wales, held its first fair (St Margaret�s Day), granted by Charter.The local abbey had extensive sheep pasturage so there was a large trade in wool.

1/7/1280, Monday (-242,824) The two Chief Justices of England were each paid �40 a year.

28/6/1280, Friday (-242,827)

26/4/1280, Friday (-242,890) (Islam) Battle of Jazurah.

21/4/1280, Sunday (-242,895) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1280, Monday (-243,006)

==================================================================================

2/4/1279, Sunday (-243,280) Easter Sunday.

19/3/1279, Sunday (-243,294) (China) The last Song child-Emperor was defeated by the Mongols at the Battle of Yamen, a naval battle off the coast of southern China.

1/1/1279, Sunday (-243,371)

==================================================================================

1/12/1278, Thursday (-243,402)

17/11/1278, Thursday (-243,416) (Jewish) In England, 680 Jewish people were imprisoned in the Tower of London for coin-clipping, out of a total Jewish population in England at that time of around 3,000. 293 of them were executed a year later. Christians accused of coin-clipping were treated much more leniently, with often just a fine imposed.

23/10/1278, Sunday (-243,441)

25/8/1278, Thursday (-243,500) Ottokar II, King of Bohemia, was killed in the Battle of Durnkrut. Ottokar II had previously lost a battle with Rudolf I of Hapsburg (Habichtsburg, or Hawk�s castle, a town now in Switzerland) in 1276; refusing to accept this defeat, he prepared to attack again. However Rudolf launched a pre-emptive strike, with 2,000 horsemen, and the support of Ladislav of Hungary. This battle paved the way for the rise of the Hapsburg Dynasty.

21/8/1278, Sunday (-243,504)

17/4/1278, Sunday (-243,630) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1278, Saturday (-243,736)

=================================================================================

1/7/1277, Thursday (-243,920) (Egypt) Bibars, tuler of Egypt, died.

20/5/1277, Thursday (-243,962) Pope John XXI died.

28/3/1277, Sunday (-244,015) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1277, Friday (-244,101)

=================================================================================

12/11/1276, Thursday (-244,151) King Edward II began a decisive campaign to subdue the Welsh. He marched into Wales with 15,000 troops and nearly 1,000 cavalry. Most Welsh Lords, suspecting he would win, offered little resistance.

8/9/1276, Tuesday (-244,216) Accession of Pope John XX1.

22/6/1276, Monday (-244,294) Pope Innocent V died.

7/6/1276, Sunday (-244,309)

5/4/1276, Sunday (-244,372) Easter Sunday.

10/1/1276, Friday (-244,458) Pope Gregory X died.

1/1/1276, Wednesday (-244,467)

=================================================================================

23/10/1275, Wednesday (-244,537)

8/10/1275, Tuesday (-244,552) Battle of Ronaldsway: Scottish forces defeated the Manx of the Isle of Man in a decisive battle, firmly establishing Scottish rule of the island.

22/4/1275, Monday (-244,721) The first Statute of Westminster was passed by the English Parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses.

14/4/1275, Sunday (-244,729) Easter Sunday

1/1/1275, Tuesday (-244,832) week 34,976

==================================================================================

20/11/1274, Tuesday (-244,874) Kublai Khan's Yuan Dynasty attempted the first of several invasions of Japan (30,000 soldiers and support personnel sailed from Korea); after the Mongols captured outlying islands, they were repulsed on the main island at the Battle of Bun'ei by amassed Japanese warriors and a strong storm which battered their forces and fleet. Credit for the storm � called a kamikaze, or divine wind � was given by the Japanese to the god Raiden.

23/10/1274, Tuesday (-244,902)

21/8/1274, Tuesday 244,965)

19/8/1274, Sunday (-244,967) Coronation of King Edward I.

17/7/1274, Tuedsday (-245,000) (Christian) the Second Council of Lyons ended. It had commenced 7/5/1274, to 1) end the Greek Schsim, 2) call a new Crusade, and 3) counte moral corruption within the clergy.

11/7/1274. Wednesday (-245,006) Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, who defeated the English at Bannockburn, was born at Turnberry, Ayrshire. He was raised at Turnberry Castle amid the political upheavals of the 13th century; he was created Earl of Carrick in 1296. He supported the Scots against the English, hoping to secure the kingship of Scotland. However he saw Edward I proclaim himself king of Scotland, and defeat William Wallace. Initially Bruce joined with John Comyn against the English but later sided with the English to obtain the Scottish throne. He murdered Comyn, and there was a price on his head for doing this. However Bruce now used force, not politics, to obtain his goals; this paid off and he was crowned King at Scone in 1306, having been granted absolution by Bishop Wishart. Bruce managed to unite the Scottish clans to defeat the English at Bannockburn in 1314.

1/4/1274, Sunday, (-245,107) Easter Sunday

7/3/1274. Wednesday (-245,132) Thomas Aquinas died. He was born into a Lombard-Norman family in 1225. A controversial figure, he became a notable philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church. He died at Fossanuova Abbey in the Roman Campagna whilst on the way to the Council of Lyons.

1/1/1274, Monday (-245,197)

================================================================================

9/4/1273, Sunday (-245,464) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1273, Sunday (-245,562)

1/12/1273, Thursday (-245,593)

====================================================================================

16/11/1272, Sunday (-245,639) Henry III died at Westminster, succeeded by his eldest son Edward I. Edward I was in Sicily at the time.

23/10/1272, Thursday(-245,663)

1/9/1272, Thursday (-246,684)

6/8/1272, Saturday (-245,710) Stephen V, King of Hungary, died.

26/7/1272, Tuesday (-245,721)

26/6/1272, Sunday (-245,751)

24/4/1272, Sunday (-245,814) Easter Sunday.

14/3/1272, Monday (-245,855) Enzio, former King of Sardinia, died in captivity by the Bolognese.

1/1/1272, Friday (-245,928)

=================================================================================

1/9/1271, Pope Gregory X (184th Pope) acceded.

8/4/1271, Wednesday (-246,196) Mamluk Sultan Baibars continued his territorial expansion, capturing the strategically important castle Krak des Chevaliers from the Knights Hospitaller in present-day Syria.

5/4/1271, Sunday (-246,199) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1271, Thursday (-246,293)

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25/8/1270, Monday (-246,422) Louis IX of France died at Carthage of the Plague whilst leading an 8th Crusade. He was succeeded after a reign of nearly 44 years by his 25-year-old son, who reigned until 1285 as Philip III.

17/8/1270, Sunday (-246,430)

15/6/1270, Sunday (-246,493)

13/4/1270, Sunday (-246,556) Easter Sunday

12/3/1270, Wednesday (-246,588) Charles Count of Valois was born (died 16/12/1325).

1/1/1270, Wednesday (-246,658)

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19/6/1269, Wednesday (-246,854) King Louis IX of France ordered all Jews found in public without an identifying yellow badge to be fined ten livres of silver.

26/5/1269, Sunday (-246,878)

24/3/1269,Sunday (-246,941) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1269, Tuesday (-247,023) week 35,289

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29/12/1268, Saturday (-247,026)

29/11/1268, Thursday (-247,056) Pope Clement IV (183rd Pope) died; the Papacy lay vacant for three years, until 1271.

25/8/1268, Saturday (-247,152) (Italy) Battle of Tagliacozzo. Charles defeated Conradin, who was captured and executed.

20/7/1268, Friday (-247,188)

18/5/1268, Friday (-247,251) The Principality of Antioch, a crusader state, fell to the Mamluk Sultan Baibars in the Battle of Antioch.

8/4/1268, Sunday (-247,291) Easter Sunday

1/1/1268, Sunday (-247,389)

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17/4/1267, Sunday, (-247,648) Easter Sunday

24/3/1267, Thursday (-247,672) King Louis of France called his knights to Paris in preparation for his Crusade.

1/1/1267, Saturday (-247,754)

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21/10/1266, Thursday (-247,826) Binger Jarl, who founded the city of Stockholm, died.

2/7/1266, Friday (-247,937) The Treaty of Perth was signed, between King Magnus �the lawmaker� of Norway and King Alexander III of Scotland. Norway sold to Scotland the ownership of the Isle of Man (Sodor, or Southern Island) and the Western Isles, although Norway retained the Orkney and Shetland Islands. This treaty was a result of the Battle of Largs (2/10/.1263).

1/5/1266, Saturday (247,999)

28/3/1266, Sunday (-248,033) Easter Sunday.

26/2/1266, Friday (-248,063) (Italy) Manfred, King of Sicily, killed in the Battle of Benevento. This was during the long-running power struggle in Italy between the Guelfs, who supported the Papacy, and the Ghibelines, who supported the Holy Roman Empire. The death of Manfred, son of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, was a severe blow to the Germans.

1/1/1266, Friday (-248,119)

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4/8/1265. Tuesday (-248,269) Simon De Montfort, who had promoted the power of the barons against the King, Henry III, was defeated and killed at the Battle of Evesham. Royalist forces won, led by the future King Edward I.This was during the Second Barons War. The last Montfortian resistance ceased in 1268.

12/7/1265, Sunday (-248,292)

8/7/1265, Wednesday (-248,296) Battle of Newport. Simon de Montfort had retreated into Wales; his effrots vto return to central England were thwarted by Edward�s defence of the River Severn.

9/6/1265, Tuesday (-248,325)

9/5/1265, Saturday (-248,356) Dante Alighieri, poet, was born.

5/4/1265, Sunday (-248,390) Easter Sunday.

5/2/1265, Thursday (-248,449) Pope Clement IV (183rd Pope) acceded (died 1268)

20/1/1265. Tuesday (-248,465) England�s first Parliament met in Westminster Hall, summoned by Simon De Montfort, Earl of Leicester. De Montfort was the brother-in-law of King Henry III.

1/1/1265, Thursday (-248,484)

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14/5/1264, Wednesday (-248,716) The Battle of Lewes of the Second Barons' War was fought between Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and King Henry III of England in Sussex. By the end of the battle, de Montfort's forces had captured both King Henry and his son, future King Edward I, making de Montfort the �uncrowned king of England� for 15 months before Edward escaped captivity and regained the throne.

11/5/1264, Sunday (-248,719) Henry III marched through Kent, captured Tunbridge Castle, forcing the Cinque Port rebels to submit.He rested at Lewes.

24/4/1264, Thursday (-248,736) After his victory at Northampton, Henry III moved south to deal with De Montfort in London.De Montfort had been besieging Rochester Castle, a southern Royalist stronghold, bit now abandoned the siege to return to protect London.

20/4/1264, Sunday (-248,740) Easter Sunday.

5/4/1264, Saturday (-248,755) Henry III attacked Simon de Montfort�s forces at Northampton Castle and defeated them, forcing all De Montfort�s forces in the east Midlands to surrender.De Montfort himself was in London, his other main base of support. The dispute between Henry and de Montfort had been arbitrated in January 1264 by King Louis IX at Amiens, the Mise of Amiens (Mise = settlement); however de Montfort refused to accept this result.

23/1/1264, Wednesday (-248,828) The Mise of Amiens. An arbitration between Henry III of England and the Barons, with Louis IX of France as arbiter. The decision was in henry�s favour, although he was to respect established Baronial freedoms. De Montfort rejected the decision.

1/1/1264, Tuesday (-248,850) week 35,550

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15/12/1263, Saturday (-248,867) Haakon IV, King of Norway, died.

14/11/1263, Wednesday (-248,898) Alexander Nevsky, Russian leader, died; on his death Russia fragmented.

23/10/1263, Tuesday (-248,920)

2/10/1263, Tuesday (-248,941) (Scotland, Norway) The Battle of Largs. Fought at Largs on the Clyde between Norwegian forces under King Haakon and Scottish levies under King Alexander III. Haakon wanted to put on a show of strength to demonstrate continued Norwegian power over the Western Isles (see 2/7/1266). However Alexander III�s 1500 Scots defeated the Norwegians. A barefoot Norwegian footsoldier attempting a surprise attack on the Scottish camp by night trod on a thistle and cried out in pain, alerting the Scottish camp. In memory of this event the Scots adopted the thistle as their national emblem.

1/4/1263, Sunday (-249,125) Easter Sunday

1/1/1263, Monday (-240,215)

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15/7/1262, Saturday (-249,385) Richard Earl of Gloucester died (born 4/8/1222).

11/6/1262, Sunday (-249,419)

9/4/1262, Sunday (-249,482) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1262, Sunday (-249,580)

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29/8/1261, Monday (-249,705) Pope Urban IV succeeded Pope Alexander IV as the 182nd pope, the last man to do so without being a cardinal first.

15/8/1261, Monday (-249,719) (Roman Empire) Michael VIII Paleologus seized Constantinople, ending the Latin empire and restoring the Byzantine empire.

12/6/1261, Sunday (-249,783) King Henry III of England obtained a papal bull releasing him from his oath to maintain the Provisions of Oxford (1258), setting the stage for the Second Barons' War (1263�1268).

25/5/1261. Wednesday (-249,801) Death of Pope Alexander IV. Rinaldo Conti was elected Pope Alexander IV at Naples, after the death of Pope Innocent IV, on 12/12/1254. He attempted to unite the Greek and Latin churches, and established the Inquisition in northern France.

24/4/1261, Sunday (-249,832) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1261, Saturday (-249,945)

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24/10/1260, Sunday (-250,014) Chartres Cathedral, France, was dedicated in the presence of King Louis IX. It had been under construction for 66 years.

23/9/1260, Thursday (-250,045)

4/9/1260, Saturday (-250,064) (Italy) The Battle of Montaperti. Manfred, King of Sicily, allied to the Ghibbelines, defeated the Guelphs. He now became Protetcor of Tuscany.

3/9/1260, Friday (-250,065) (Islam, Mongolia) The Mamluks defeated the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut (Goliath�s Spring) in Galilee, marking their first decisive defeat and the point of maximum expansion of the Mongol Empire. Damascus had fallen to the Mongols in 1259 and Hulegu, Mongol leader, now turned on Egypt, the major military power in the region. The Mongols now ruled an area from the Pacific to the Mediterranean, The Mameluke rulers of Egypt responded to Hulegu�s demands for capitulation by killing Hulegu�s envoys and marching into Palestine to fight. Mameluke cavalry was crucial in the Mongol defeat.

4/4/1260, Sunday (-250,217) Easter Sunday

1/1/1260, Thursday (-250,311)

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4/12/1259, Thursday (-250,339) Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agreed to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounced his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.

23/10/1259, Thursday (-250,381)

7/10/1259, Tuesday (-250,397) (Italy) Eccelino da Romano, Ghibelline leader and supporter of Frederick II, died (born 25/4/1194).

17/6/1259, Tuesday (-250,509) Edward I, King of England, was born.

20/5/1259, Tuesday (-250,537) Britain and France signed the Treaty of Abbeville, whereby England relinquished claims to French territories.

13/4/1259, Sunday (-250,574) Easter Sunday

1/1/1259, Wednseday (-250,676)

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23/10/1258, Wednesday (-250,746)

20/9/1258. Friday (-250,779) Salisbury Cathedral was consecrated.

24/3/1258,Sunday (-250,959) Easter Sunday.

10/2/1258. Sunday 251,001) The Siege of Baghdad ended with a battle in which the Hulagu Khan's (grandson of Ghangiz Khan) Mongol forces overran Baghdad, then the leading centre of Islamic culture and learning and capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. They burned the imperial city to the ground in a looting spree lasting seven days, killing as many as 1,000,000 citizens. The attack was in revenge for the murder of three diplomatic envoys sent by the Mongols to the court of Khwarazm-Shah, ruler of Baghdad.

1/1/1258, Tuesday (-251,041) week 35,863

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8/4/1257, Sunday (-251,309) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1257, Monday (-251,406)

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14/10/1256, Monday (-251,483) Kujo Yoritsugu, Shogun of Japan, died.

16/4/1256, Sunday (-251,666) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1256, Saturday (-251,772)

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28/3/1255, Sunday (-252,051) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1255, Friday (-252,137)

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7/12/1254, Monday (-252,162) Pope Innocent IV died.

2/12/1254, Wednesday (-252,167) The Battle of Foggia.

15/9/1254, Tuesday (-252,245) Venetian explorer Marco Polo was born.

21/5/1254, Thursday (-252,362) Conrad IV, King of Germany, died.

12/4/1254, Sunday (-252,401) Easter Sunday

1/1/1254, Thursday (-252,502)

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23/10/1253, Thursday (-252,572)

9/10/1253, Thursday (-252,586) Robert Grosseteste, theologian, died.

20/4/1253, Sunday (-252,758) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1253, Wednesday (-252,867)

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31/3/1252, Sunday (-253,143) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1252, Monday (-253,233)

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14/12/1251, Thursday (-253,251) King Henry III of England granted Bolton, Lancashire, a charter to hold a fair.

1/7/1251, Saturday (-253,417) In Mongolia, Mangu, eldest son of Tule and nephew of Ogodei, was elected Khan.

18/6/1251, Sunday (-253,430)

16/4/1251, Sunday (-253,493) Easter Sunday.

1/1/1251, Sunday (-253,598)

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12/12/1250, Monday (-253,618) Death of Frederick II of Germany, from dysentery (born 1194).

6/4/1250, Wednesday (-253,868) (Christian, Egypt) Battle of Fariskur. Louis IX surrendered to the Mamluks, after a failed breakout and thwarted retreat to Damietta. The Crusaders were weakened by scurvy. Louis IX and his forces were allowed to depart on payment of a ransom of 800,000 gold livres.Louis� surviving soldiers returned to France. Louis himself sailed for Acre, but his further negotiations, including an attempted alliance with the Mongols,came to nothing.

27/3/1250, Sunday (-253,878) Easter Sunday.

11/2/1250, Friday (-254,922) (Christian, Egypt) The Muslims counterattacked the exhausted Crusaders, who only just hung on by their use of Greek Fire.

8/2/1250, Tuesday (-253,925) (Christian, Egypt) Louis IX�s invading forces dosvovered a ford across the Ashmoun Canal 4 miles from the main battlefield and surprised the Muslim forces with an attack on Damietta on the way to Cairo. However Louis IX�s brother, Robert of Artois, disobeyed orders, he was supposed to hold the opposite bank of the Canal until further French reinforcements joined him, but he rashly attacked into the town of Mansura prematurely. In the streets, Robert�s cavalry were of limited effectiveness; the Miuslims rallied and halted his advance.

1/1/1250, Saturday (-253,963)