26/5/2011, Former Bosnian Serb army commander Ratko Mladic
was arrested in Serbia, for crimes of genocide.
Serbian President Milan Milosevic was acquitted of war crimes by
the International Criminal Tribune for the Former Yugoslavia.
21/7/2008, Radovan Karadic, Serbian leader during the
break-up of Yugoslavia, wanted for war crimes against the Bosnians, was
captured and sent to The Hague for trial.
declared independence from Serbia.� The EU
and NATO backed Kosovo, but Russia opposed it.
3/6/2006, Montenegro declared independence from Serbia.
11/3/2006, Former President Slobodan
Milosevic died, see 13/2/2002.
2004, Macedonia granted more
autonomy to its Albanian-ethnic areas, and applied to join the EU.
23/7/2004, The historic Mostar Bridge, destroyed on
9/11/1993, and subsequently restored, was reopened by Charles, Prince of Wales.
12/3/2003, Serbian Prime Minister Zoran
Djindjic was assassinated in Belgrade. He was replaced by Deputy
Prime Minister Nebojsa Covic as
interim. Serb Nationalists, angered by the breakup of Yugoslavia, were blamed.
4/2/2003, The State of Yugoslavia formally ceased
to exist, replaced by a loose union between Serbia and Montenegro. Ethnic
Albanians in Kosovo objected to being included in the new State.
1/8/2001, Albanian was recognised as one of
Macedonia�s official languages; Albanians then comprised 25% of the Macedonian
10.0, Milosevic died whilst being tried at
The Hague, 2000-02
The trial of former President Milosevic (born 20 August 1941) began in
The Hague, under a UN war crimes tribunal. He was accused of presiding over
the deaths of 250,000 non-Serbs in Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo. He died on 11 March 2006, with the trial
In Banja Luka, the second largest
city in Bosnia, Muslims attempted to reconstruct the Ferhadja Mosque.� However a mass riot by Serb Nationalists
ensued, and 300 elderly Bosnian Muslims were beaten and stoned to death.
30/4/2001, In the Macedonian town of
Bitola, ethnic violence between Macedonians and Alnbanoans broke out, also in
Former President Milosevic surrendered to police special forces, to be tried
at The Hague for war crimes.
The UN War Crimes prosecutor Del Ponte demanded that Serbia hand over
Yugoslavia�s new democratic government joined the UN, after 8 years of the
country being ostracised from the UN under President Milosevic.
10.0(a) End of Milosevic Presidency 2000 (from
5/10/2000, President Slobodan Milosevic of Yugoslavia resigned after widespread demonstrations across Serbia and the withdrawal of Russian support. He had
lost the elections of 24/9/2000 but failed to acknowledge defeat; crowds
stormed the parliament building and TV station in Belgrade in protest. Finally
the election winner, Vojislav Kostunica, was
able to take office.
9.0, President Milosevic loses popularity;
refuses to recognise election winner, 1999-2000
24/9/2000, Presidential elections in Serbia. Slobodan
Milosevic refused to recognise Vojislav
Kostunica, leader of the Democratic
Party of Serbia, as the winner.
15/1/2000, In Serbia, mobster and wanted war criminal Zeljko
Raznatovic (Arkan), a
supporter of Slobodan Milosevic, was assassinated.
10/12/1999, Franjo Tudjman, President of Croatia,
19/8/1999, In Belgrade,
thousands of demonstrators demanded the resignation of President Slobodan Milosevic. Demonstrations in Serbia against him had begun
20/6/1999, Ethnic Albanians started to return to Kosovo. They began their own
ethnic cleansing against Serbians.
12/6/1999, The UN and NATO
peacekeeping force KFOR entered Kosovo.
11/6/1999, Serbia completed its withdrawal from Kosovo.
10/6/1999, NATO suspended air
strikes against the Serbs after Slobodan Milosevic agreed to withdraw his forces from
9/6/1999, In the Kosovo War,
Yugoslavia and NATO signed a peace treaty.
3/6/1999, Yugoslav President Milosevic agreed to evacuate Kosovo, in favour of
8.0, NATO troops begin operations on the
ground in Serbia, 1995-99
7/5/1999, In Yugoslavia,
three Chinese Embassy workers were killed and twenty wounded when a NATO
aircraft mistakenly bombed the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.
4/1999, Morale was low in the Serbian Army, with
conscripts deserting, suggesting that the NATO campoaign in Serbia would soon
end. This was good news for Albania, which was severely strained by the
presence of 250,000 refugees from Kosovo.
24/3/1999. NATO launched air
strikes against Yugoslavia.� This was the
first attack by NATO on a sovereign country. In Kosovo, there was escalating violence between Serbs and ethnic
Albanians, and President Slobodan Milosevic was accused of ethnic cleansing,
driving thousands of Albanians from their homes. NATO�s Operation Allied
Force was to curb Serbian military activities.
8.0(a), Serbian offensive to prevent secession
of Kosovo, 1998-99
20/3/1999, Serbs launched an
offensive in Kosovo.
15/1/1999, Massacre at Racak,
Kosovo, during the Yugoslav civil war.
31/7/1998, Serbian forces now occupied the whole of Kosovo, displacing some
100,000 ethnic Albanians.
25/5/1998, Serbia launched a major offensive against the secessionist Kosovo
Liberation Army (KLA), which then held some 40% of Kosovo.
29/4/1998, Yugoslav Government foreign assets were frozen by the West.
31/3/1998, The UN Security Council imposed an arms embargo on Yugoslavia to force
President Milosevic to negotiate a a
peaceful settlement with the Kosovan Albanians.
1/3/1998, Serbia sent paramilitary forces into its southern province of Kosovo
to seek out ethnic Albanian guerrillas. Serb forces attacked Albanian villages,
killing men, women and children. On 2/3/1998 there was a 50,000-strong
anti-Serb demonstration in the Kosovan capital, Pristina.
23/7/1997, Slobodan Milosevic became president of �Yugoslavia� (by then
consisting of just Serbia and Montenegro).
Start of Milosevic Presidency (to
7/5/1997, The International war Crimes Tribunal in The Hague� convicted Dusan Tadic, a Bosnian Serb reserve policeman, of war
crimes committed during the Bosnian War. This was the first such conviction
since World War Two.
4/2/1997, President Milosevic of Serbia
ordered his Government to recognise Opposition gains in the local elections held
29/11/1996, Drazen Erdemovic, Bosnian
Croat who had participated in the massacre of Muslims at Srebrenica in 1995,
was sentenced at The Hague to 10 years prison.
17/11/1996, Protests in Belgrade after President Slobodan Milosevic refused to recognise Opposition victories in
22/3/1996. The War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague made
its first indictment; three Muslims and a Croat were charged with torture,
rape, and murder of Serbs.
19/3/1996, Sarajevo was
reunited when Bosniak authorities took control of the last district occupied by
29/2/1996, The siege of Sarajevo ended.
2/1/1996, UN troops
entered Bosnia on a peacekeeping mission.
14/12/1995, The Dayton Peace Accord was
signed in Paris,
ending the Yugoslav conflict.
4/12/1995, NATO troops
landed in the Balkans.
7.0, Ceasefire and end of the
Yugoslav/Bosnian War, 1995-96
14/9/1996, In Bosnia-Hercegovina a Muslim, President Izetbegovic, was elected as Chairman of the thre-man
collective Presidency. He was joined by a Bosnian Serb and a Bosnia Croat.
11/7/1996, The War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague issued arrest warrants for
Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic and Bosnian Serb military commander General Ratko Mladic.
30/6/1996, Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic resigned.
29/4/1996, In The Hague, Netherlands, the War crimes Tribunal opened, to try
cases relating to the war in former Yugoslavia.
22/1/1996, Near� Brcko, Bosnia, a mass
grave containing the bodies of some 3,000 Muslims and Croats killed in �ethnic
cleansing� by Bosnian Serbs in 1992 was discovered.
25/11/1995, A ceasefire was declared in the Republics
of former Yugoslavia, following a peace agreement signed at Dayton, Ohio.
Bosnia would be a united Republic comprising the Muslim-Croat areas and the
Serb Republic, unifying the city of Sarajevo. Individuals charged with war
crimes were banned from holding public office.
16/11/1995, The UN tribunal
charged Radovan Karadic and Ratko Mladic with genocide during the Bosnian War.
1/11/1995, Participants in
the Yugoslav War began negotiations at the Wright� -Patterson air force base, Ohio, USA.
8/10/1995, US President Bill Clinton announced the start of a 60-day ceasefire in Bosnia-Hercegovina.
8/9/1995, In Geneva, the framework for a peace agreement in Bosnia Hercegovina
was worked out between the warring factions and Britain, France, Germany,
Russia and the USA.
6.0, NATO begins attacks on Serbs, 1994-95
30/8/1995. UN forces
attacked key Serb positions in Bosnia.�
The NATO campaign continued into October.
mortar bomb near Sarajevo market killed 37 civilians.
forces had now overrun the Serb-held areas of Croatia; Krajina and West
Slavonia. 150,000 Croatian Serbs had fled to Serbia and Serb-held areas of
Bosnia-Hercegovina. Croatian forces also held off a Serb attack on the �safe
haven� of Bihac, in eastern Bosnia.
forces captured the town of Knin.
launched Operation Storm, against Serbian forces in Krajina, compelling them to
retreat to Bosnia.
Serbs marched into Srebrenica as Dutch UN
peacekeepers left. Later; large numbers of Bosniak men and boys were massacred.
rapid intervention force sent to Bosnia.
forces attacked the safe haven of Tuzla, killing 67 civilians. On 16/5/1995 the
Serbs had resumed shelling Sarajevo, after a major anti-Serb offensive by
took UN peacekeepers hostage, to deter further NATO airstrikes.
ceasefire in Bosnia-Hercegovina, from 31/12/1994, broke down. Bosnian troops
attacked Serb positions.
four-month ceasefire was agreed by the combatants in Bosnia-Hercegovina.
launched airstrikes against Serb forces near Bihac.
Bosnia-Hercegovina, Serbian forces captured the Muslim-dominated city of Bihac.
air strike on Bosnian Serb positions near Sarajevo.
NATO action, Gorazde fell to the Serbs. Allegations of massacres by Serb forces
10/4/1994. NATO air
strikes against the Serbs around Gorazde. This was in accordance with earlier
warnings to Serbia over its attacks on UN �safe havens� in March 1994.
4.0, UN /US/EU�
involvement in Yugoslavia begins, 1991-94; break-up
from Serbia encouraged
Bosnia, Serb artillery bpmbarded the UN �safe havens� of Gorazde and
Srebrenica. See 10/4/1994.
13/3/1994, In former
Yugoslavia, Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Muslims formed an anti-Serb alliance.
28/2/1994. Four Serbian
planes shot down by US F-16 pilots over Bosnia, for violating the US-imposed
no-fly zone there.
9/2/1994, The Vance-Owen
peace plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina was announced.��
5/2/1994. 70 killed
and 200 injured in a Serb mortar attack on Sarajevo
parties in Bosnia agreed to a ceasefire from the 23rd December to
the 3rd January. However despite the ceasefire, on 25/12/1993, Serb
gunmen fired over 1,300 rounds into Sarajevo,
killing 6 civilians.
historic 16th century Mostar
Bridge was demolished by a barrage of shells from Croat forces fighting
shells hit a hospital in the Muslim town of Gorazde, killing 50 people.
18/4/1993. The Muslim town
of Srebrenica surrendered to Serb
agreed to send aircraft to enforce the no-fly zone over Bosnia.
19/3/1993. UN relief
convoy reached Srebrenica, Yugoslavia.
25/2/1993. The USA
announced it was to drop food and medicine to Muslims besieged by Serbs in
22/2/1993, The UN
Security Council voted to establish a War Crimes tribunal, to try cases arising
from the Yiugoslav civil war.
14/1/1993. The UK
aircraft carrier Ark Royal set sail for the Adriatic as part of British
reinforcements for peacekeeping troops in Bosnia. Also today the
first British soldier was killed, shot by a sniper, in Bosnia, whilst escorting
Milosevic, widely seen as the instigator of Serb
�ethnic cleansing� in Croatia and Bosnia, was re-elected as
President of Serbia.
29/10/1992. The Muslim
town of Jajce fell to the Serbs.
9/1992, The UN suspended
Yugoslavia�s membership bevcause of Serbia�s support for Bosnian
Serbs who were committing atrocities against Muslims and Croats. Bosnian Serbs
now controlled about two-thirds of the territory of Bosnia-Hercegovina, and had
declared this area as a Serb State. Thew Croat-dominated west of Bosnia was
declared a Croat State, with the region�s Muslims attempting to remain in
3/8/1992. Reports from Bosnia
told of Nazi-style concentration camps and ethnic cleansing.
5/1992, In Kosovo the ,majority-Albanian population held an
election to choose a Kosovan president and Parliament. Serbia regarded these
elections a sillegal.
5/1992, Bosnia-Hercegovina was accepted as a full member of the
30/5/1992. The UN agreed wide-ranging sanctions
against what was left of Yugoslavia as the Belgrade
�Serbian government suppressed other races and attempted to establish a
�greater Serbia� by force. When in January 1992 the EC recognised
Croatian and Slovenian independence, a third of Croatia was occupied by Serb
forces. A new phrase entered the language � �ethnic cleansing�, as Bosnian
Muslims and other non-Serbs were forcibly expelled from villages overrun by
Serb forces. Images of concentration camps reminded people, of the horrors of
World War Two as pictures of skeletal Bosnian detainees behind barbed wire reached
the West. By mid-July 1992 the Bosnian capital Sarajevo had been under siege for over 100 days, shelled by Serb
gunners in the hills above the city, and snipers roamed freely in the streets. Civilian casualties
were appalling, and by the end of September 1992 relief efforts
stalled. Winter loomed, and with it the spectre of mass starvation in the heart
4/1992, UN peacekeeping forces entered Krajina; the local
Serb leader in the area, Milan Babic, refused to recognise this
7/4/1992. The EC and USA recognised Bosnia-Hercegovina�s
troops began the siege of Sarajevo,
after Serbs in Bosnia objected to Bosniaks and Croats seeking independence of
Bosnia-Herzegovina from Serbia.
clashes in Sarajevo between Serbs, Croats and Muslims.
referendum in Bosnia-Hercegovina, boycotted by Serbs, produced a majority in
favour of independence from Yugoslavia.
21/2/1992, The UN Security Council approved Resolution
743 and decided to send peacekeeping troops to Yugoslavia.
accepted the UN Peace Plan. This provided for a ceasefire, the withdrawal of
the Yugoslav Federal Army from Croatia, and the deployment of 10,000 UN
peacekeeping troops in Krajina and eastern and western Slavonia, whilst a
permanent political arragment could be worked out.
15/1/1992. As the old
Yugoslavia broke up, the EC recognised Slovenian and Croatian independence.
8/1/1992, Bosnian Serbs
declared their own Republic within Bosnia and Hercegovina in protest
at Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats decision to seek recognition from the EU.
7/12/1991, After a
67-day siege, Serbian forces bombarded the centre of Dubrovnik.
11/1991, The US passed the Foreign Operations Appropriations
Act 1991. Under this Act, US financial support would be withdrawn from those
Yugoslav states that failed to declare independence from Serbia/Yugoslavia within
3.0, Start of the Yugoslav/Bosnian
War.Slovenia and Croatia move towards independence, 1991, but Serb
forces strongly resist their secession, attempting to retain these territories
23/11/1991. Croats in Vukovar surrendered to Serb forces.
Serbs now planned to attack the 150,000 Croats in Osijek region. Capture of Osijek would give the Serbs
control of the fertile eastern plains of Croatia.
Yugoslav army was besieging Dubrovnik
and shelling its historic centre.
25/10/1991, The last
Yugoslav soldier left Slovenia, 3� months
after its 10-day war of secession. The success of Slovenia in becoming a
succesful and prosperous member of the EU was to encourage further secessions
Parliament of Bosnia-Hercegovina voted to secede from Yugoslavia. Bosnian
Serbs, who wanted to remain within the Yugoslav federation, rejected the vote.
Croatian Parliament cut all remaining ties with Yugoslavia.
Yugoslav Army bombarded Dubrovnik.
26/8/1991. Yugoslav Federal
forces and Serb guerrillas launched a fierce attack on Vukovar in eastern Croatia. The city of 50,000 people was roughly
half Serb and half Croat. Yugoslav planes bombed Vinkovici, 20 miles from
29/7/1991, Yugoslavia edged further into civil war.
The country�s ethnic mix in 1991 was 36% Serb, 20% Croatian, 9% Moslem, 8%
Slovene, 8% Albanian, 6% Macedonian, 3% Montenegrin, 2% Hungarian. The two
richest republics, Slovenia and Croatia, seceded, against the wishes of the
militarily strongest republic, Serbia. Two helicopters were shot down over the
Slovenian capital, Llubljana, where Federal tanks were on the streets. Airports
and borders were closed. An EC delegation went to Belgrade to warn that all EC
aid will be cut off if the Federal, Yugoslav, army did not return to barracks
in Slovenia and elsewhere.
27/7/1991. A week of
violence in Yugoslavia left 50 dead.
11/7/1991. Violence between Serbs and Croats continued
to escalate, especially in eastern Croatia where Serb and Croat villages
and even houses were mixed together.
25/6/1991, Slovenia and
Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia. The European Community and the
USA said they would not recognise this move.
in Croatia voted for union with Serbia. On 20/5/1991 Croatia voted
overwhelmingly for independence from Serbia. Croatia formally declared
independence on 30/5/1991. This was the beginning of a bloody conflict that ended
with the disintegration of Yugoslavia.
2.0, Ethnic tensions within Yugoslavia rise
after Tito�s death, 1988-81
between Serbs and Croats left 35 dead.
31/3/1991, In Yugoslavia,
troops moved to control fighting between Serbs and Croats.
voted in a referendum to secede from Yugoslavia.
10/12/1990, In the
Serbian Republic, the Communist Party won free elections.
9/12/1990, Slobodan Milosevic became President of Serbia.
Albanians in Kosovo staged a 24-hour strike, following the imprisonment of
trades union leader Hajrullah Gorani.
17/8/1990. Armed Serb
Nationalists seized Croatian territory near the town of Knin.
Milosevic became President of Serbia.
1/3/1989, A curfew
was imposed in Kosovo; protests continued at alleged intimidation of the Serb
27/2/1989, Belgrade imposed emergency powers in Kosovo
as Yugoslavia�s Serbs attempted to resist secession by ethnic Albanians.
15/9/1988. The Federation of Yugoslavia looked
increasingly fragile as 200,000 Serbs protested in Belgrade against persecution
of them in the province of Kosovo by ethnic Albanians. Kosovo was the home
of Serbian culture, and had a Serbian king for two centuries. By 1988 it was
populated by 1.7 million ethnic Albanians and only 200,000 Serbs. Serbs make up
40% of Yugoslavia�s 23 million population. Serbians organised more mass
anti-Albanian demonstrations on 25/9/1988.
under Tito, 1945-1980
4/5/1980. Joseph Tito, President of Yugoslavia since 1953, died,
aged 87, after a long illness. He was born in Kumrovec, near Zagreb, Croatia,
on 7/5/1892; one of 15 children in a peasant family. He became a metal worker
and an active trade unionist. In World War One he fought on the Carpathian and
Bukovinan fronts before being seriously wounded, in 1916, by a howitzer,
captured, with his entire brigade, and incarcerated in the Urals. After 1917 he
joined the Bolshevik Revolution and fought in the Red Guard during the Russian
Civil War. On returning to Croatia he joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia
(CPY), for which he was imprisoned for 5 years. In August 1936 he was nominated
General Secretary of the CPY Politburo, escaping the Stalinist purges that saw
off most of his contemporaries. Yugoslavia was initially neutral in World War
Two, but Hitler
invaded it after the overthrow of the pro-Axis Prince Paul. Tito
led a successful guerrilla campaign against the Nazis and by 1943 was able to
form a provisional government with himself as President, also as Secretary of
Defence and Marshall of the Armed Forces. His rule was generally popular; he
was seen as a patriot and war hero, and he gave Yugoslavia prosperity and
stability until his death in 1980. His funeral was attended by 140 state
delegations; only the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005 had more delegations
and news coverage.
23/6/1978, Josip Broz Tito
was nominated Yugoslav President for life.
Tito was re-elected president of Yugoslavia.
3/11/1970. Peter II, King of Yugoslavia,
2/6/1956, President Tito
of Yugoslavia visited Moscow, USSR, as relations improved between the two
was admitted to the United Nations.
15/10/1953 , Italy and Yugoslavia
were in dispute over a piece of territory around Trieste.
UK and USA forces as
well as the UN were dragged in to the argument.
14/1/1953. Marshall Tito
was elected President of Yugoslavia. He had been leader of Yugoslavia since
Raznatovik, Serb Nationalist, was born.
23/10/1951, Fatmir Sejdiu, President of Kosovo, was born.
19/4/1949, The USA
made a US$ 420 million loan to Yugoslavia as an anti-Soviet measure.
Yugoslavia ceased to be a Soviet satellite. Yugoslavia
strengthened its ties with the West, and with Turkey
On 14/11/1951 a US-Yugoslav military agreement was reached providing for supply
of tanks and heavy artillery to the Yugoslav Army. On 28/2/1953 a
Turkish-Greek-Yugoslav treaty of friendship and co-operation was signed in Ankara, and on 9/8/1954
the three governments strengthened this treaty into a military and defensive
19/4/1946, The USSR
recognised the Republic of Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia introduced a new Constitution, creating six constituent Republics;
Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Hercegovina and Macedonia.
However these were subordinated to the centre, on the model of the USSR.
29/11/1945. King Peter of
Yugoslavia was ousted from power and a Communist Republic
12/11/1945. Marshall Tito�s
National Front Party secured an overwhelming majority in general elections.
War Two, 1941-45
15/5/1945, The last
Nazi fighters in Yugoslavia ceased resistance.
For more events of World War Two in Europe see France-Germany
2/12/1944, Ibrahim Rugova,
president of Kosovo, was born.
29/11/1943, The Jacje Congress began (ended 30/11/1943).
Delegates from various regions of Yugoslavia met in the Bosnian town of Jacje,
which had been taken by Tito�s partisans from the Nazis in September
1942. The Congress was organised by the AVNOJ (Anti-Fascist National Liberation
Committee), and decided on various aspects of Yugoslavia�s post war governance
troops invaded Yugoslavia. Belgrade fell on 13/4/1941. Yugoslavia fell on
16/4/1941. The Croats, who had been irritated by Belgrade�s treatment of
non-Serb minorities within Yugoslavia, often welcomed the German invaders.
Belgrade was recaptured by the Soviets and Tito�s forces on 20/10/1944. The Axis in
Yugoslavia soon found themselves engaged in a guerrilla war against the
Royalist Chetniks. However the Chetniks adopted a policy of restraint until by
mid-1943 Germany was losing the war elsewhere in Europe. Tito�s guerrillas also fought
the Axis in Yugoslavia, and these did not wait until Germany was on the
wanted to take pressure off the Soviet forces, and also to ensure a Coimmunist
political apparatus was in place ready for when the Nazis were finally evicted
from Yugoslavia. Tito�s organisation of a peasant guerrilla army was
inspired by the ideals of Mao Tse Tung, who had adopted a similar
approach in China.
For more events of World War Two in Europe see France-Germany
25/3/1941. Prince Paul,
the Yugoslav Regent, signed a pact with the Nazis; in return for neutrality and
the demilitarisation of the Adriatic coast, Germany would respect Yugoslav
neutrality. However the Yugoslav Army, with popular backing, then deposed Prince Paul
on 27/3/1941, and 17-year-old King Peter II took the throne. The move
and he prepared Operation Strafgericht (Punishment), the invasion of
Yugoslavia. See 6/4/1941.
25/3/1937, Italy signed a pact with Yugoslavia guaranteeing existing national
borders in the Adriatic.
6/3/1936, Yugoslavian Prime Minister
Stojadinović survived an assassination attempt when a
Macedonian deputy shot at him on the floor of the Chamber. Stojadinović was unhurt as
another deputy struck the assailant's arm and caused the shots to go wild.
(1888 � 1934), King of Yugoslavia since 1921, was assassinated by Croatian
terrorists from the Ustase Movement in Marseilles.
The French Foreign Minister, Louis Barthou, was also killed. Alexander I
was succeeded by his 11-year old son Peter II (1923-1970). Alexander�s cousin, Paul
(1893-1976) acted as Regent until 27/3/1941; however just a fortnight after
II was forced into exile by invading German forces.
German aggression, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia formed the Little
Entente, with a Permanent Council,
The Balkan Entente was set up. It
included Greece, Romania, Turkey and Yugoslavia; it was essentially a defensive
alliance against the expansionist aims of Bulgaria, which was seeking to regain
territories lost to Greece and Yugoslavia under the Treaty of Neuilly (1919).
In the 1930, as authoritarian regimes gained power in all members of the Balkan
Entente, the entire region moved politically closer to Germany and Italy.
-1.0, Efforts to forge political unity in
3/10/1929. The name
of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and
Slovenes was changed to Yugoslavia.
The name change was an attempt to eradicate longstanding historical divisions
within the country.
21/5/1929, King Alexander I of Yugoslavia used his
dictatorial powers to ban the Croat Party and other political factions.
King Alexander I of Yugoslavia (born
1888, ruled 1921-34) became dictator.
During a heated debate in the Yugoslav Parliament, a Serb
deputy pulled a gun and shot dead three Croat members, including the opposition
leader. Shortly afterwards, the King of Yugoslavia declared a �royal
dictatorship�, superseding Parliament.
made a friendship treaty.
6/9/1923, King Peter of
Yugoslavia was born.
Peter I of
Yugoslavia died, aged 77, and was succeeded by his 33-year old son, Alexander I.
16/8/1921. King Peter of
Yugoslavia died at Belgrade.
I (1888-19340, for whom Peter had been Regent from 4/12/1918, became
King, ruling until his death in 1934. Alexander I faced the impossible task of
reconciling the Catholic and westernised Croats and Slovenes with the majority
Balkan Orthodox Serbs, and continued outrages in Parliament led him to assume
dictatorial powers in 1929.
5/6/1921, Italy and
Yugoslavia signed an agreement over control of Fiume.
12/11/1920, The first Treaty of Rapallo was signed,
between Italy and Yugoslavia, settling territorial disputes in the
Adriatic and pledging collaboration to prevent
a Hapsburg restoration. The town of Fiume, seized by Italian Nationalists
in September 1919, was to return to Free City status. However, although the
Nationalists were ejected from Fiume by the Italian Navy, Fiume did not regain this status and in 1924, when Mussolini came to
power, Italy abrogated these terms and retained control of Fiume (although Yugoslavia controlled the adjacent port of Susak).
After World War Two, Fiume became
part of the Republic of Croatia, itself a part of Yugoslavia.
Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia agreed a mutual defence pact, �The Little
Entente� at Belgrade.
For main European events of World War One see France-Germany
-2.0, Creation of Yugoslavia, 1917-18
4/12/1918. The proclamation of the Kingdom
of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, or Yugoslavia.
29/11/1918. King Nicholas
of Montenegro was deposed and his country was united with Serbia under King Peter.
took control of the Backsa, Baranya and western Banat regions from Hungary.
became independent from Austro-Hungary.
20/7/1917, The Pact of Corfu proclaimed the Union of
South Slavs, or Yugoslavia.� When Serbia
was invaded in World War One, the Serbs established a government in exile on Corfu.� The Serbian Prime
Minister Paslic agreed with the leader of the south Serbs, Ante Trumbic,
that the Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, and Montenegrins, should unite to form a
single state; Yugoslavia.� In the 1920s, Serbia came to dominate this
union, and other national groups claimed Paslic
had tricked Trumbic at Corfu.
War One, 1915
troops retook Belgrade from the Austrians.
14/10/1915. Bulgaria and Serbia each declared war on
mobilised its army and declared war on Serbia.
For main European events of
World War One see France-Germany
Allies promised the Kingdom of Serbia, should victory be achieved over
Austria-Hungary and its allied Central Powers, the territories of Baranja, Srem
and Slavonia from the Cisleithanian part of the Dual Monarchy, along with
Bosnia and Herzegovina, and eastern Dalmatia from the Krka River to Bar.
-4.0, Second Balkan War, 1913
10/8/1913. The Third
Treaty of Bucharest ended the Second Balkan War.� Rumania gained the fertile area of Southern
Dobruja, which had been Bulgarian since 1878, whilst Serbia and Greece divided
Macedonia between them; again� territory
that Bulgaria wanted.� Greece received
Salonika, a major port.� Bulgaria merely
received the mountainous areas of Pirin and Dospat, and two small Mediterranean
ports called Dedeagach and Lagos; Bulgaria was left resentful.� Turkey�s possession in Europe were limited to
the area around Constantinople and Adrianople.�
Albania was created.� See
6/9/1915.� In the First World War, the
losers by this Treaty (Turkey and Bulgaria) fought on the German side; the
gainers (Greece, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro) fought on the Allied side.
launched a surprise attack on Serbia and Greece, thereby starting the Second Balkan
War.� Bulgaria was then
invaded by Romania and Turkey.� See
signed a peace treaty with the Balkan
League (the Treaty of London), ending their war.� Under this Treaty Salonika was formally
assigned to Greece. The Great Powers formally recognised Albanian sovereignty.
Ottoman Turks agreed to cede Tripoli and Cyrenaica (now Libya) to Italy, at the
Peace of Lausanne.� Greece, Bulgaria and
Serbia declared war on Turkey. The Greek Army had been well-equipped under
Venizelos, and the Turks were pushed back, to the point where Istanbul itself
was threatened; the city was only saved by bad weather making the roads
impassable and a cholera outbreak, halting military operations.
Russian influence (wanting to undermine Austro-Hungary), Serbia and Bulgaria
buried their territorial rivalries for the time being (but see 29/6/1913), and,
along with Greece and Montenegro, formed the Balkan League. Originally directed against the large multi-ethnic
Austro-Hungarian Empire (which contained many ethnic Serbs within its borders),
the League redirected its efforts against Ottoman Turkey, ultimately aiming to oust the
Turks entirely from all its European territories. Serbia and Bulgaria signed a
mutual defence pact. Balkan nationalism
was on the rise. The pact also divided northern Macedonia between them. It
was assumed that southern Macedonia would be divided between Bulgaria and
Greece. On 30/5/1913 the Treaty of London divided up the Balkans amongst the
members of the Balkan League, leaving Ottoman Turkey with only a sliver of
European territory immediately west of Istanbul.
and Serbia signed an agreement forming the Balkan
For more on Balkan Wars, see Greece-Turkey
5/11/1912, The Serbs
and Greelks routed the Turkish Army at Monastir. Turkey lost some 20,000 men.
1911, The secret organisation �Ujedinjenje ili Smrt� (Unification of Death), commonly known as the
�Black Hand� was formed
by Serbian nationalist Army officers. Its objective was the political
unificastion of all Serbian peoples in the Balkans; this organisation was
behind the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in 1914, the event that precipitated World War One.
made demands on Austria
rebels blew up a Hungarian steamer, killing 29.
continued in the Balkans, with atrocities committed by all sides.
Serbian Assembly elected Prince Peter, 59, to succeed Alexander I,
who had been assassinated on 11/6/1903 along with his wife and several
-5.0, King Alexander Obrenovic, 1889-1903
11/6/1903, King Alexander Obrenovic of Serbia
Draga were assassinated in Belgrade by army officers. King Alexander
had been pro-Austrian and this
outraged Serbs who, under the Black
Hand organisation, wanted to take control of �Serb� lands from
Austria (including those such lands inhabited by Bosnian, Macedonians and
Croats). The Black
Hand were strong in the Serbian military and the Serbian
Government had been reluctant to remove them, despite pressure from other
European countries to do so, for fear of provoking their own assassination.
11/2/1901, Death of Milan,
father of King
Alexander I of Serbia.
1898, The Dalmatian Language became extinct when its last
known speaker, Anthony
Udina, died in a mine explosion.
7/5/1892, Josip Broz
(Marshal Tito), Yugoslav Communist President, was born in Kumrovec,
near Klanjec, on the border of Croatia and Slovenia.
6/3/1889, King Milan Obrenovic IV of Serbia abdicated aged 34
and went to live in Paris. He was succeeded by his 13-year-old son Alexander I.
3/1/1889, King Milan Obrenovich IV promulgated a new more
liberal Constitution for Serbica.
15/11/1885, The Union
of Rumelia and Bulgaria caused anxiety for Serbia, and Serbia declared war on
Bulgaria. The Serbians were heavily defeated at the Battles of Slivinksa and
Pirot, and Austria had to intervene to help Serbia.
1882, Milan Obrenovich IV became King of Serbia.
6/3/1878, Serbia was formally
constituted an independent kingdom.
14/8/1876, Alexander Obrenovich,
King of Serbia, was born.
-6.0, Michael III Obrenovich, 1856-1868
10/6/1868, Serbian Prince Michael
III Obrenovic was assassinated whilst walking in Koshutynak Park, near
Belgrade, aged 44. He was succeeded by his 13-year-old cousin Milan,
who became King in 1882, and ruled until 1889.
1867, Michael III Obrenovic began planning a divorce from Julia
(see 1856),� who had borne him no
children, and a marriage to the daughter of his cousin, Madame Anka Constanitinovich.
This alarmed supporters of Karageorgevic who feared
that Michael III might produce an heir after
all, and now began plotitng the assassination of Michael III.
influential pressure from Russia, France and Austria, Turkey withdrew its
troops from the fortress at Belgrade.
1867, Michael III Obrenovic openly demanded that Turkey
withdraw its troops from the fortress of Belgrade.
1862, Ottoman Turkish forces bombarded the civilians of
Belgrade from the citadel stronghold at the centre of town. Michael III Obrenovic protested
and with the assistance of western European powers succeeded in obtaining the
evacuation of Turkish troops from some of the smaller forts within Serbia.
However Turkish forces remained in possession of the Belgrade fort. Michael III Obrenovic now made
secret links with other leaders in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Albania withy the aim
of forging an anti-Ottoman alliance and forcing them out of the Balkans.
27/9/1860, Milosh I Obrenovic, King of
Serbia, died aged 80. He was succeeded by his son, Michael III Obrenovic, who had
been monarch 1839 � 8/42,and who now ruled until his death in 1868. He declared
the absolute rule of law above all else in Serbia, and continued his aims of
Serbian independence from foreign influence (=Turkey and Austria). Ottoman
Turkish troops remained, however, in occupation of the citadel at the centre of
23/12/1858, Serbian Prince Alesandr
Karageorgevic was deposed, aged 52, after a weak 16-year reign. He was succeeded by the recalled 79-year-old
Milosh Obrenovic, who had abdicated
in 1839, amd he now ruled until his death in 1860.
1856, Michael III
married the beautiful Julia, Countess Hunyadi. See 1867.
22/10/1854, Milan Obrenovich IV, King of Serbia, was born.
8/1842, A revolt against the rule of Michael
III, inspired by those men suspicious of Russian support for Serbian
independence (see 1839) who had previously forced Prince Milosh, his father, to
abdicate. Prince Michael left Serbia, and his equerry, Prince Alesandr Karageorgevic , was
elected King of Serbia. See 23/12/1858. Prince Michael took up residence in
Vienna, visiting England and advancing his education. He spurned any initiative
to restore him to the Serbian throne by force, preferring to bide his time
until circumstances were more favourable.
1839, Prince Milosh abdicated, and his
eldest son Milan
II Obrenovic became King of Serbia. However Milan
II died in 1840 and his younger brother Michael III Obrenovic
became King of Serbia. Michael III
intended to continue his father�s work in securing independence for Serbia, and if possible other Balkan nations too,
from Ottoman Turkey.However not only
Turkey but also Austria was hostile to
this independence. Russia stepped in to express support for Serbian
independence. See 8/1842.
-7.0, Initial Serbian attempts for
independence from Ottoman Turkey, 1780-1823
1823, Michael III Obrenovich
was born (died 1868).
1817, Milsoh I Obrenovich
was elected Prince of Serbia
5/11/1817. Serbia was
granted partial autonomy by the Ottoman Turks.
1815, A second Serbian rebellion against Turkish rule.
troops occupied Ragusa (Dubrovnik).
1804, A Serbian rebellion
against Turkish rule under Karageorgevic (Black George,
Petrovitch) regained the district of Belgrade. However the Ottoman
Turks soon regained control of the region.
1780, Milosh I,
Prince of Serbia and founder of the Obrenovich
dynasty, was born.
-8.0, Conflict between Serbia and Turkey,
15/6/1389. Serbia was crushed by the
Ottoman Turks (see 20/12/1355). At a battle in Kosovo, at the �field
of the blackbirds�, the entire Serbian nobility was wiped out. Hrebeljanovic
Lazar, Prince of Serbia from 1371 (born 1329) was executed by the Turks. The
Ottomans had already invaded Bulgaria.
Serbia died whilst on route to attack Constantinople. Under his reign Serbia had
expanded greatly, conquering Macedonia, Epirus, and Thessaly, as well as
maintaining his father�s conquest of Bulgaria. However, after his death his
empire started to disintegrate..
1386, Sultan Murad I of the Ottoman Turks
was defeated by Serbia at the Battle of Plocnik.
1356, Serbian Tsar Dushan died.
conquests in Bulgaria, see Bulgaria
1235, Death of St Sava (1175-1235), youngest
son of Stefan
I Nemanya, a monk of Athos, who had emancipated the Serbian Church
from the Greek Archbishop
1200, End of the reign of Stefan I
Nemanya (1114-1200), who first united Serbia. He secured recognition
of its independence from Byzantium.
1156, Founding of the Serbian Nemanya
Dynasty, which endured until 1356.
1358, The Republic of Dubrovnik was founded when the territory ceased to
recognise Venetian sovereignty. It suffered a major earthquake in 1667. In 1806
it was occupied by Napoleon I, and became part of the Illyrian
Provinces (1809-1813). The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) awarded the territory
to Austria; it remained under the rule of Vienna as part of Dalmatia until
1918, whenh it became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Earliest copper mines sunk, in Yugoslavia and Bulgaria.
peasants of the two mountain provinces of Bosnia and Hercegovina put up
resistance to the Ottoman Turks.� The
Bosnians wanted to join Serbia but the Hercegovinians wanted to join
Montenegro. See 16/9/1875.
The last Bosnian King, Stefan Tomasevic, was beheaded by the Ottoman
1463, The Ottomans
took Bosnia. They took Hercegovina in 1476.
Ottoman Turkey attacked Bosnia.
1101, Bosnia was annexed from Byzantium
29/10/1918, Croatia declared its independence.
1840, Hungary attempted to
impose Hungarian as the official language in Croatia; this provoked the
formation of a Croatian Nationalisy (Illyrian) Party under Count Draskovic.
Jellachich, Croatian statesman, was born (died 20/5/1859).
Widespread peasant revolts across Croatia and Slovenia were crushed by the
1091, Ladislaus I, King of Hungary,
took control of Croatia. His death in 1095 sparked a Croatian nationalist
uprising, which was crushed in 1097 by Coloman,
1076, End if the reign of Slaviza of
Croatia. Succeeded by Zvonimir Demetrius, who was crowned by the
legate of Pope
Gregory II, and who was virtually a vassal of The Papacy.
1073, End of the reign oif Kresemir Peter
of Croatia (1058-73)
1058, End of the reign of King Stephen I
of Croatia (1035-58).
1035, End of the reign of Kresimir II
(The Great) of Croatia (1000-1035). He pushed back the Bulgarians, and expanded
Croatia into Dalmatia, gaining control of some Italian cities. For a brief period at
the end of the 10th� century,
even Venice was forced to pay tribute to Croatia.
946, End of the regn of Kresimir I
of Croatia (940-946).
910, An independent Croatian Kingdom was established. In 877 the Croats
had been temporarily brought under the control of the Byzantine Empire, but now regained
their autonomy. Tomislav
was the first leader of this Kingdom, He was succeeded by Trpimir, and then Drzislav
(ca. 978-1000), who was the first to assume officially the title of King.
635, The Croats entered what is now
Croatia; They had originated in the western Carpathians, and been driven
southwards by the Czechs. Byzantine Emperor Heraclius encouraged the Croats
to attack and displace the Avars. See
Montenegro pre-1922 4-21
For more events of 1990s Yugoslav breakup and war see main Yugoslavia
Montenegro Map, 1910 and 2020
6/2017, Montenegro joiu ned NATO, a move that alienated a former
close ally, Russia.
1/2013, The European Union acknowledged Montenegro�s progress
towards membership, but called for more protection of media freedom, and better
r-ghts for women
12/2008, Montenegro applied to join the European Union.
11/2008, Montenegro officially recognised Kosovo�s declaration of
independence; Serbia protested.
1/2007, Montenegro became a member of the IMF and the World Bank.
6/2006, Montenegro became the 192nd member of the United
5/2006, A referendum in Montenegro voted just over the required 55%
for independence from Serbia.
2/2005, Montenegro suggested an end to the union with Serbia.
Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica refused this independence.
12/2004, Montenegro applied to join the WTO.
2002, Montenegro and Serbia agreed on a political union. However
in October 2002 elections Parties that were pro-Montenegrin independence did
1/2002, Montenegro adopted the Euro currency.
5/10/2000, President Slobodan
Milosevic of Yugoslavia resigned after widespread demonstrations
across Serbia and the withdrawal of
1999, Djukanovic asserted Montenegrin independence
from Serbia by declaring neutrality in the Serbia-Kosovo conflict (Kosovo was
seeking independence from Serbia), and by adopting the Deutschmark as currency
in place of the Dinar. Milosevic mounted air strikes against Kosovo, prompting
NATO air strikes on Serbia.
1997, In Montenegrin elections, the pro-Milosevic (leader of Serbia)
candidate was defeated by Milo Djukanovic.
1992, Montenegro became part of Serbia, as former Yigoslavia
Montenegro joined Yugoslavia.
Montenegro rejected demands from several European nations (Austria-Hungary,
Germany, Italy, Russia)
to withdraw its troops from Albania.
Montenegro declared independence from Turkey under King Nicholas I, 69, who ruled
for 9 years.
12/8/1860, King Danilo I
of Montenegro was assassinated. With no male children, he was succeeded by his
19-year-old nephew, Nicholas I.
1798, The principality of Montenegro now enjoyed some autonomy
from the Ottoman
1600s, Ottoman Turkey sought to establish control over Montenegro.
However the mountainous terrain was favourable to guerrilla war by the
defenders, and the Turks often raided the area but could not keep full control
for long. The monastery at Cettinje was raided and sacked by the Turks several
1516, Prince Durad V Crnojevic of
Montenegro handed over power to a Christian Orthodox Bishop and retired to
Venice. This conversion of Montenegro to a Christian theocracy was intended to
preserve its autonomy in the face of Ottoman expansion into SE Europe. As
bishops were supposed to be celibate, the hereditary inheritance of
Montenegro�s rule passed from uncle to nephew. This arrangement lasted until
1816 when princes began ruling again.
650, The Serbians conquered the
region. They ruled until the 1300s, when Ottoman Turkey overran the area.
493, The region was conquered
by the Ostrogoths.
Roman Empire, What is now Montenegro was part of the district of
Praevalitana, in Illyria. It was a border region between the Eastern and
Western Roman empires.
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