Chronography of (former) Yugoslavia

Page last modified 21 November 2023


See also Eastern Europe

See also Greece/Turkey

See also Russia/USSR


Demography of Bosnia Hercegovina

Demography of Croatia

Demography of Kosovo

Demography of Monenegro

Demography of North Macedonia

Demography of Serbia

Demography of Slovenia


Bosnia pre-1909, see below

Croatia pre-1919, see below

Montenegro pre-1922, see below


Box index:-

10.0, Milosevic died whilst being tried at The Hague, 2000-02

10.0(a) End of Milosevic Presidency 2000

9.0, President Milosevic loses popularity; refuses to recognise election winner, 1999-2000

8.0, NATO troops begin operations on the ground in Serbia, 1995-99

8.0(a), Serbian offensive to prevent secession of Kosovo, 1998-99

7.0, Ceasefire and end of the Yugoslav/Bosnian War, 1995-96

6.0, NATO begins attacks on Serbs, 1994-95

5.0, Macedonia secedes from former Yugoslavia, 1991-2004

4.0, UN /US/EUinvolvement in Yugoslavia begins, 1991-94

3.0, Start of the Yugoslav/Bosnian War.Slovenia and Croatia move towards independence, 1991

2.0, Ethnic tensions within Yugoslavia rise after Tito�s death, 1988-81

1.0, Yugoslavia under Tito, 1945-1980

0.0, World War Two, 1941-45

-1.0, Efforts to forge political unity in Yugoslavia, 1921-29

-2.0, Creation of Yugoslavia, 1917-18

-3.0, World War One, 1915

-4.0, Second Balkan War, 1913

-5.0, King Alexander Obrenovic, 1889-1903

-6.0, Michael III Obrenovich, 1856-1868

-7.0, Initial Serbian attempts for independence from Ottoman Turkey, 1780-1823

-8.0, Conflict between Serbia and Turkey, 1156-1389


26 May 2011, Former Bosnian Serb army commander Ratko Mladic was arrested in Serbia, for crimes of genocide.

28 February 2009, Former Serbian President Milan Milosevic was acquitted of war crimes by the International Criminal Tribune for the Former Yugoslavia.

21 July 2008, Radovan Karadic, Serbian leader during the break-up of Yugoslavia, wanted for war crimes against the Bosnians, was captured and sent to The Hague for trial.

17 February 2008, Kosovo declared independence from Serbia.The EU and NATO backed Kosovo, but Russia opposed it.

3 June 2006, Montenegro declared independence from Serbia.

11 March 2006, Former President Slobodan Milosevic died, see 13 February 2002.

23 July 2004, The historic Mostar Bridge, destroyed on 9 November 1993, and subsequently restored, was reopened by Charles, Prince of Wales.

12 March 2003, Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Djindjic was assassinated in Belgrade. He was replaced by Deputy Prime Minister Nebojsa Covic as interim. Serb Nationalists, angered by the breakup of Yugoslavia, were blamed.

4 February 2003, The State of Yugoslavia formally ceased to exist, replaced by a loose union between Serbia and Montenegro. Ethnic Albanians in Kosovo objected to being included in the new State.


10.0, Milosevic died whilst being tried at The Hague, 2000-02

13 February 2002, The trial of former President Milosevic (born 20 August 1941) began in The Hague, under a UN war crimes tribunal. He was accused of presiding over the deaths of 250,000 non-Serbs in Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo. He died on 11 March 2006, with the trial still underway.

7 May 2001, In Banja Luka, the second largest city in Bosnia, Muslims attempted to reconstruct the Ferhadja Mosque.However a mass riot by Serb Nationalists ensued, and 300 elderly Bosnian Muslims were beaten and stoned to death.

30 April 2001, In the Macedonian town of Bitola, ethnic violence between Macedonians and Alnbanoans broke out, also in Skopje.

1 April 2001, Former President Milosevic surrendered to police special forces, to be tried at The Hague for war crimes.

23 January 2001, The UN War Crimes prosecutor Del Ponte demanded that Serbia hand over ex-President Milosovic.

1 November 2000, Yugoslavia�s new democratic government joined the UN, after 8 years of the country being ostracised from the UN under President Milosevic.

10.0(a) End of Milosevic Presidency 2000 (from 7/1997)

5 October 2000, President Slobodan Milosevic of Yugoslavia resigned after widespread demonstrations across Serbia and the withdrawal of Russian support. He had lost the elections of 24 September 2000 but failed to acknowledge defeat; crowds stormed the parliament building and TV station in Belgrade in protest. Finally the election winner, Vojislav Kostunica, was able to take office.


9.0, President Milosevic loses popularity; refuses to recognise election winner, 1999-2000

24 September 2000, Presidential elections in Serbia. Slobodan Milosevic refused to recognise Vojislav Kostunica, leader of the Democratic Party of Serbia, as the winner.

15 January 2000, In Serbia, mobster and wanted war criminal Zeljko Raznatovic (Arkan), a supporter of Slobodan Milosevic, was assassinated.

10 December 1999, Franjo Tudjman, President of Croatia, died.

19 August 1999, In Belgrade, thousands of demonstrators demanded the resignation of President Slobodan Milosevic. Demonstrations in Serbia against him had begun on 29 June 1999.

20 June 1999, Ethnic Albanians started to return to Kosovo. They began their own ethnic cleansing against Serbians.

12 June 1999, The UN and NATO peacekeeping force KFOR entered Kosovo.

11 June 1999, Serbia completed its withdrawal from Kosovo.

10 June 1999, NATO suspended air strikes against the Serbs after Slobodan Milosevic agreed to withdraw his forces from Kosovo.

9 June 1999, In the Kosovo War, Yugoslavia and NATO signed a peace treaty.

3 June 1999, Yugoslav President Milosevic agreed to evacuate Kosovo, in favour of ethnic Albanians.


8.0, NATO troops begin operations on the ground in Serbia, 1995-99

7 May 1999, In Yugoslavia, three Chinese Embassy workers were killed and twenty wounded when a NATO aircraft mistakenly bombed the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

4/1999, Morale was low in the Serbian Army, with conscripts deserting, suggesting that the NATO campoaign in Serbia would soon end. This was good news for Albania, which was severely strained by the presence of 250,000 refugees from Kosovo.

24 March 1999. NATO launched air strikes against Yugoslavia.This was the first attack by NATO on a sovereign country. In Kosovo, there was escalating violence between Serbs and ethnic Albanians, and President Slobodan Milosevic was accused of ethnic cleansing, driving thousands of Albanians from their homes. NATO�s Operation Allied Force was to curb Serbian military activities.


8.0(a), Serbian offensive to prevent secession of Kosovo, 1998-99

20 March 1999, Serbs launched an offensive in Kosovo.

15 January 1999, Massacre at Racak, Kosovo, during the Yugoslav civil war.

31 July 1998, Serbian forces now occupied the whole of Kosovo, displacing some 100,000 ethnic Albanians.

25 May 1998, Serbia launched a major offensive against the secessionist Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), which then held some 40% of Kosovo.

29 April 1998, Yugoslav Government foreign assets were frozen by the West.

31 March 1998, The UN Security Council imposed an arms embargo on Yugoslavia to force President Milosevic to negotiate a a peaceful settlement with the Kosovan Albanians.

1 March 1998, Serbia sent paramilitary forces into its southern province of Kosovo to seek out ethnic Albanian guerrillas. Serb forces attacked Albanian villages, killing men, women and children. On 2 March 1998 there was a 50,000-strong anti-Serb demonstration in the Kosovan capital, Pristina.

23 July 1997, Slobodan Milosevic became president of �Yugoslavia� (by then consisting of just Serbia and Montenegro).

Start of Milosevic Presidency (to 10/2000)

7 May 1997, The International war Crimes Tribunal in The Hagueconvicted Dusan Tadic, a Bosnian Serb reserve policeman, of war crimes committed during the Bosnian War. This was the first such conviction since World War Two.

4 February 1997, President Milosevic of Serbia ordered his Government to recognise Opposition gains in the local elections held 11/1996.

29 November 1996, Drazen Erdemovic, Bosnian Croat who had participated in the massacre of Muslims at Srebrenica in 1995, was sentenced at The Hague to 10 years prison.

17 November 1996, Protests in Belgrade after President Slobodan Milosevic refused to recognise Opposition victories in municipal elections.

22 March 1996. The War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague made its first indictment; three Muslims and a Croat were charged with torture, rape, and murder of Serbs.

19 March 1996, Sarajevo was reunited when Bosniak authorities took control of the last district occupied by Sertbs.

29 February 1996, The siege of Sarajevo ended.

2 January 1996, UN troops entered Bosnia on a peacekeeping mission.

14 December 1995, The Dayton Peace Accord was signed in Paris, ending the Yugoslav conflict.

4 December 1995, NATO troops landed in the Balkans.


7.0, Ceasefire and end of the Yugoslav/Bosnian War, 1995-96

14 September 1996, In Bosnia-Hercegovina a Muslim, President Izetbegovic, was elected as Chairman of the thre-man collective Presidency. He was joined by a Bosnian Serb and a Bosnia Croat.

11 July 1996, The War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague issued arrest warrants for Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic and Bosnian Serb military commander General Ratko Mladic.

30 June 1996, Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic resigned.

29 April 1996, In The Hague, Netherlands, the War crimes Tribunal opened, to try cases relating to the war in former Yugoslavia.

22 January 1996, NearBrcko, Bosnia, a mass grave containing the bodies of some 3,000 Muslims and Croats killed in �ethnic cleansing� by Bosnian Serbs in 1992 was discovered.

25 November 1995, A ceasefire was declared in the Republics of former Yugoslavia, following a peace agreement signed at Dayton, Ohio. Bosnia would be a united Republic comprising the Muslim-Croat areas and the Serb Republic, unifying the city of Sarajevo. Individuals charged with war crimes were banned from holding public office.

16 November 1995, The UN tribunal charged Radovan Karadic and Ratko Mladic with genocide during the Bosnian War.

1 November 1995, Participants in the Yugoslav War began negotiations at the Wright-Patterson air force base, Ohio, USA.

8 October 1995, US President Bill Clinton announced the start of a 60-day ceasefire in Bosnia-Hercegovina.

8 September 1995, In Geneva, the framework for a peace agreement in Bosnia Hercegovina was worked out between the warring factions and Britain, France, Germany, Russia and the USA.


6.0, NATO begins attacks on Serbs, 1994-95

30 August 1995. UN forces attacked key Serb positions in Bosnia.The NATO campaign continued into October.

28 August 1995, Serbian mortar bomb near Sarajevo market killed 37 civilians.

9 August 1995, Croat forces had now overrun the Serb-held areas of Croatia; Krajina and West Slavonia. 150,000 Croatian Serbs had fled to Serbia and Serb-held areas of Bosnia-Hercegovina. Croatian forces also held off a Serb attack on the �safe haven� of Bihac, in eastern Bosnia.

5 August 1995, Croatian forces captured the town of Knin.

4 August 1995, Croatians launched Operation Storm, against Serbian forces in Krajina, compelling them to retreat to Bosnia.

11 July 1995. Bosnian Serbs marched into Srebrenica as Dutch UN peacekeepers left. Later; large numbers of Bosniak men and boys were massacred.

3 June 1995. UN rapid intervention force sent to Bosnia.

25 May 1995, Serbian forces attacked the safe haven of Tuzla, killing 67 civilians. On 16 May 1995 the Serbs had resumed shelling Sarajevo, after a major anti-Serb offensive by Bosnians.

28 March 1995, Serbians took UN peacekeepers hostage, to deter further NATO airstrikes.

20 March 1995. A ceasefire in Bosnia-Hercegovina, from 31 December 1994, broke down. Bosnian troops attacked Serb positions.

31 December 1994, A four-month ceasefire was agreed by the combatants in Bosnia-Hercegovina.

21 November 1994, NATO launched airstrikes against Serb forces near Bihac.

21 August 1994, In Bosnia-Hercegovina, Serbian forces captured the Muslim-dominated city of Bihac.

5 August 1994. NATO air strike on Bosnian Serb positions near Sarajevo.

17 April 1994, Despite NATO action, Gorazde fell to the Serbs. Allegations of massacres by Serb forces followed.

10 April 1994. NATO air strikes against the Serbs around Gorazde. This was in accordance with earlier warnings to Serbia over its attacks on UN �safe havens� in March 1994.


5.0, Macedonia secedes from former Yugoslavia, 1991-2004

2004, Macedonia granted more autonomy to its Albanian-ethnic areas, and applied to join the EU.

1 August 2001, Albanian was recognised as one of Macedonia�s official languages; Albanians then comprised 25% of the Macedonian population.

December 1993, Macedonian inflation was 70% - 80% a month, industrial production was down 35% on end-1992, and a severe drought had reduced agricultural output by one third.

7 April 1993. The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia joined the United Nations.

8 September 1991, Macedonia became independent from Yugoslavia.


4.0, UN /US/EUinvolvement in Yugoslavia begins, 1991-94; break-up from Serbia encouraged

31 March 1994, In Bosnia, Serb artillery bpmbarded the UN �safe havens� of Gorazde and Srebrenica. See 10 April 1994.

13 March 1994, In former Yugoslavia, Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Muslims formed an anti-Serb alliance.

28 February 1994. Four Serbian planes shot down by US F-16 pilots over Bosnia, for violating the US-imposed no-fly zone there.

9 February 1994, The Vance-Owen peace plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina was announced.��

5 February 1994. 70 killed and 200 injured in a Serb mortar attack on Sarajevo marketplace.

17 December 1993. Warring parties in Bosnia agreed to a ceasefire from the 23rd December to the 3rd January. However despite the ceasefire, on 25 December 1993, Serb gunmen fired over 1,300 rounds into Sarajevo, killing 6 civilians.

9 November 1993. The historic 16th century Mostar Bridge was demolished by a barrage of shells from Croat forces fighting Muslims.

13 June 1993. Serb shells hit a hospital in the Muslim town of Gorazde, killing 50 people.

18 April 1993. The Muslim town of Srebrenica surrendered to Serb forces.

1 April 1993. Britain agreed to send aircraft to enforce the no-fly zone over Bosnia.

19 March 1993. UN relief convoy reached Srebrenica, Yugoslavia.

25 February 1993. The USA announced it was to drop food and medicine to Muslims besieged by Serbs in Bosnia.

22 February 1993, The UN Security Council voted to establish a War Crimes tribunal, to try cases arising from the Yiugoslav civil war.

14 January 1993. The UK aircraft carrier Ark Royal set sail for the Adriatic as part of British reinforcements for peacekeeping troops in Bosnia. Also today the first British soldier was killed, shot by a sniper, in Bosnia, whilst escorting an ambulance.

20 December 1992, Slobodan Milosevic, widely seen as the instigator of Serb �ethnic cleansing� in Croatia and Bosnia, was re-elected as President of Serbia.

29 October 1992. The Muslim town of Jajce fell to the Serbs.

22 September 1992, The United Nations expelled Yugoslavia, leaving its seat vacant, after a vote of 127 to 6 in favour of the move, with 26 abstentions. The UN suspended Yugoslavia�s membership bevcause of Serbia�s support for Bosnian Serbs who were committing atrocities against Muslims and Croats. Bosnian Serbs now controlled about two-thirds of the territory of Bosnia-Hercegovina, and had declared this area as a Serb State. Thew Croat-dominated west of Bosnia was declared a Croat State, with the region�s Muslims attempting to remain in isolated enclaves.

3 August 1992. Reports from Bosnia told of Nazi-style concentration camps and ethnic cleansing.

5/1992, In Kosovo the ,majority-Albanian population held an election to choose a Kosovan president and Parliament. Serbia regarded these elections a sillegal.

5/1992, Bosnia-Hercegovina was accepted as a full member of the United Nations.

30 May 1992. The UN agreed wide-ranging sanctions against what was left of Yugoslavia as the Belgrade �Serbian government suppressed other races and attempted to establish a �greater Serbia� by force. When in January 1992 the EC recognised Croatian and Slovenian independence, a third of Croatia was occupied by Serb forces. A new phrase entered the language � �ethnic cleansing�, as Bosnian Muslims and other non-Serbs were forcibly expelled from villages overrun by Serb forces. Images of concentration camps reminded people, of the horrors of World War Two as pictures of skeletal Bosnian detainees behind barbed wire reached the West. By mid-July 1992 the Bosnian capital Sarajevo had been under siege for over 100 days, shelled by Serb gunners in the hills above the city, and snipers roamed freely in the streets. Civilian casualties were appalling, and by the end of September 1992 relief efforts stalled. Winter loomed, and with it the spectre of mass starvation in the heart of Europe.

4/1992, UN peacekeeping forces entered Krajina; the local Serb leader in the area, Milan Babic, refused to recognise this peacekeeping initiative.

7 April 1992. The EC and USA recognised Bosnia-Hercegovina�s independence.

6 April 1992, Serbian troops began the siege of Sarajevo, after Serbs in Bosnia objected to Bosniaks and Croats seeking independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina from Serbia.

3 April 1992, Attacks by Serbian irregular forces and by units of the Serbian-dominated Yugoslav Army attacked Muslim Slavs and Roma Catholic Croats in Bosnia-Hercegovina, which had voted in February 1992 to seceded from Yugoslavia. A Serbian intention to dominate all of Bosnia-Hercegovina became clear.

2 March 1992, Violent clashes in Sarajevo between Serbs, Croats and Muslims.

1 March 1992, A referendum in Bosnia-Hercegovina, boycotted by Serbs, produced a majority of 63% in favour of independence from Yugoslavia.

21 February 1992, The UN Security Council approved Resolution 743 and decided to send peacekeeping troops to Yugoslavia.

2 February 1992, Serbia accepted the UN Peace Plan. This provided for a ceasefire, the withdrawal of the Yugoslav Federal Army from Croatia, and the deployment of 10,000 UN peacekeeping troops in Krajina and eastern and western Slavonia, whilst a permanent political arragment could be worked out.

15 January 1992. As the old Yugoslavia broke up, the EC recognised Slovenian and Croatian independence.

8 January 1992, Bosnian Serbs declared their own Republic within Bosnia and Hercegovina in protest at Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats decision to seek recognition from the EU.

7 December 1991, After a 67-day siege, Serbian forces bombarded the centre of Dubrovnik.

11/1991, The US passed the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act 1991. Under this Act, US financial support would be withdrawn from those Yugoslav states that failed to declare independence from Serbia/Yugoslavia within 6 months.


3.0, Start of the Yugoslav/Bosnian War.Slovenia and Croatia move towards independence, 1991, but Serb forces strongly resist their secession, attempting to retain these territories by force

23 November 1991. Croats in Vukovar surrendered to Serb forces. Serbs now planned to attack the 150,000 Croats in Osijek region. Capture of Osijek would give the Serbs control of the fertile eastern plains of Croatia.

26 October 1991. The Yugoslav army was besieging Dubrovnik and shelling its historic centre.

25 October 1991, The last Yugoslav soldier left Slovenia, 3months after its 10-day war of secession. The success of Slovenia in becoming a succesful and prosperous member of the EU was to encourage further secessions from Yugoslavia.

15 October 1991, The Parliament of Bosnia-Hercegovina voted to secede from Yugoslavia. Bosnian Serbs, who wanted to remain within the Yugoslav federation, rejected the vote.

8 October 1991, The Croatian Parliament cut all remaining ties with Yugoslavia.

2 October 1991, The Yugoslav Army bombarded Dubrovnik.

26 August 1991. Yugoslav Federal forces and Serb guerrillas launched a fierce attack on Vukovar in eastern Croatia. The city of 50,000 people was roughly half Serb and half Croat. Yugoslav planes bombed Vinkovici, 20 miles from Vukovar.

29 July 1991, Yugoslavia edged further into civil war. The country�s ethnic mix in 1991 was 36% Serb, 20% Croatian, 9% Moslem, 8% Slovene, 8% Albanian, 6% Macedonian, 3% Montenegrin, 2% Hungarian. The two richest republics, Slovenia and Croatia, seceded, against the wishes of the militarily strongest republic, Serbia. Two helicopters were shot down over the Slovenian capital, Llubljana, where Federal tanks were on the streets. Airports and borders were closed. An EC delegation went to Belgrade to warn that all EC aid will be cut off if the Federal, Yugoslav, army did not return to barracks in Slovenia and elsewhere.

27 July 1991. A week of violence in Yugoslavia left 50 dead.

11 July 1991. Violence between Serbs and Croats continued to escalate, especially in eastern Croatia where Serb and Croat villages and even houses were mixed together.

25 June 1991, Slovenia and Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia. The European Community and the USA said they would not recognise this move.

12 May 1991. Serbs in Croatia voted for union with Serbia. On 20 May 1991 Croatia voted overwhelmingly for independence from Serbia. Croatia formally declared independence on 30 May 1991. This was the beginning of a bloody conflict that ended with the disintegration of Yugoslavia.


2.0, Ethnic tensions within Yugoslavia rise after Tito�s death, 1988-81

2 May 1991. Clashes between Serbs and Croats left 35 dead.

31 March 1991, In Yugoslavia, troops moved to control fighting between Serbs and Croats.

23 December 1990. Slovenia voted in a referendum to secede from Yugoslavia.

10 December 1990, In the Serbian Republic, the Communist Party won free elections.

9 December 1990, Slobodan Milosevic became President of Serbia.

3 September 1990, Ethnic Albanians in Kosovo staged a 24-hour strike, following the imprisonment of trades union leader Hajrullah Gorani.

17 August 1990. Armed Serb Nationalists seized Croatian territory near the town of Knin.

8 May 1989, Slobodan Milosevic became President of Serbia.

1 March 1989, A curfew was imposed in Kosovo; protests continued at alleged intimidation of the Serb minority.

27 February 1989, Belgrade imposed emergency powers in Kosovo as Yugoslavia�s Serbs attempted to resist secession by ethnic Albanians.

15 September 1988. The Federation of Yugoslavia looked increasingly fragile as 200,000 Serbs protested in Belgrade against persecution of them in the province of Kosovo by ethnic Albanians. Kosovo was the home of Serbian culture, and had a Serbian king for two centuries. By 1988 it was populated by 1.7 million ethnic Albanians and only 200,000 Serbs. Serbs make up 40% of Yugoslavia�s 23 million population. Serbians organised more mass anti-Albanian demonstrations on 25 September 1988.


1.0, Yugoslavia under Tito, 1945-1980

4 May 1980. Joseph Tito, President of Yugoslavia since 1953, died, aged 87, after a long illness. He was born in Kumrovec, near Zagreb, Croatia, on 7 May 1892; one of 15 children in a peasant family. He became a metal worker and an active trade unionist. In World War One he fought on the Carpathian and Bukovinan fronts before being seriously wounded, in 1916, by a howitzer, captured, with his entire brigade, and incarcerated in the Urals. After 1917 he joined the Bolshevik Revolution and fought in the Red Guard during the Russian Civil War. On returning to Croatia he joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY), for which he was imprisoned for 5 years. In August 1936 he was nominated General Secretary of the CPY Politburo, escaping the Stalinist purges that saw off most of his contemporaries. Yugoslavia was initially neutral in World War Two, but Hitler invaded it after the overthrow of the pro-Axis Prince Paul. Tito led a successful guerrilla campaign against the Nazis and by 1943 was able to form a provisional government with himself as President, also as Secretary of Defence and Marshall of the Armed Forces. His rule was generally popular; he was seen as a patriot and war hero, and he gave Yugoslavia prosperity and stability until his death in 1980. His funeral was attended by 140 state delegations; only the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005 had more delegations and news coverage.

23 June 1978, Josip Broz Tito was nominated Yugoslav President for life.

29 July 1971. Tito was re-elected president of Yugoslavia.

3 November 1970. Peter II, King of Yugoslavia, died.

2 June 1956, President Tito of Yugoslavia visited Moscow, USSR, as relations improved between the two countries.

5 September 1954, Italy and Yugoslavia reached agreement on the division of Trieste.

15 October 1953 , Italy and Yugoslavia were in dispute over a piece of territory around Trieste. UK and USA forces as well as the UN were dragged in to the argument.

15 March 1953, Tito visited Britain.

14 January 1953. Marshall Tito was elected President of Yugoslavia. He had been leader of Yugoslavia since 1945.

23 October 1951, Fatmir Sejdiu, President of Kosovo, was born.

30 May 1950. Yugoslavia and Albania severed relations.


Yugoslavia pulls away from the Warsaw Pact

14 November 1951, The US signed a security pact with Yugoslavia.

8 September 1949, The USA gave further aid to Yugoslavia.

30 August 1949, Stalin ordered troops to close to the Yugoslav border, but they did not invade.

19 April 1949, The USA made a US$ 420 million loan to Yugoslavia as an anti-Soviet measure.

4 July 1948, The Yugoslav Communist Party was expelled from Cominform.

28 June 1948. Yugoslavia ceased to be a Soviet satellite. Yugoslavia strengthened its ties with the West, and with Turkey and Greece. On 14 November 1951 a US-Yugoslav military agreement was reached providing for supply of tanks and heavy artillery to the Yugoslav Army. On 28 February 1953 a Turkish-Greek-Yugoslav treaty of friendship and co-operation was signed in Ankara, and on 9 August 1954 the three governments strengthened this treaty into a military and defensive alliance.


19 April 1946, The USSR recognised the Republic of Yugoslavia.

13 March 1946, Former Chetnik leader Mihailovich was captured in Yugoslavia.

31 January 1946, Yugoslavia introduced a new Constitution, creating six constituent Republics; Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Hercegovina and Macedonia. However these were subordinated to the centre, on the model of the USSR.

29 November 1945. King Peter of Yugoslavia was ousted from power and a Communist Republic declared.

12 November 1945. Marshall Tito�s National Front Party secured an overwhelming majority in general elections.


0.0, World War Two, 1941-45

15 May 1945, The last Nazi fighters in Yugoslavia ceased resistance.

For more events of World War Two in Europe see France-Germany

2 December 1944, Ibrahim Rugova, president of Kosovo, was born.

29 November 1943, The Jacje Congress began (ended 30 November 1943). Delegates from various regions of Yugoslavia met in the Bosnian town of Jacje, which had been taken by Tito�s partisans from the Nazis in September 1942. The Congress was organised by the AVNOJ (Anti-Fascist National Liberation Committee), and decided on various aspects of Yugoslavia�s post war governance and leadership.

6 April 1941. Axis troops invaded Yugoslavia. Belgrade fell on 13 April 1941. Yugoslavia fell on 16 April 1941. The Croats, who had been irritated by Belgrade�s treatment of non-Serb minorities within Yugoslavia, often welcomed the German invaders. Belgrade was recaptured by the Soviets and Tito�s forces on 20 October 1944. The Axis in Yugoslavia soon found themselves engaged in a guerrilla war against the Royalist Chetniks. However the Chetniks adopted a policy of restraint until by mid-1943 Germany was losing the war elsewhere in Europe. Tito�s guerrillas also fought the Axis in Yugoslavia, and these did not wait until Germany was on the retreat. Tito wanted to take pressure off the Soviet forces, and also to ensure a Coimmunist political apparatus was in place ready for when the Nazis were finally evicted from Yugoslavia. Tito�s organisation of a peasant guerrilla army was inspired by the ideals of Mao Tse Tung, who had adopted a similar approach in China.

For more events of World War Two in Europe see France-Germany

25 March 1941. Prince Paul, the Yugoslav Regent, signed a pact with the Nazis; in return for neutrality and the demilitarisation of the Adriatic coast, Germany would respect Yugoslav neutrality. However the Yugoslav Army, with popular backing, then deposed Prince Paul on 27 March 1941, and 17-year-old King Peter II took the throne. The move angered Hitler and he prepared Operation Strafgericht (Punishment), the invasion of Yugoslavia. See 6 April 1941.

25 March 1937, Italy signed a pact with Yugoslavia guaranteeing existing national borders in the Adriatic.

6 March 1936, Yugoslavian Prime Minister Milan Stojadinović survived an assassination attempt when a Macedonian deputy shot at him on the floor of the Chamber. Stojadinović was unhurt as another deputy struck the assailant's arm and caused the shots to go wild.

9 October 1934, Alexander (1888 � 1934), King of Yugoslavia since 1921, was assassinated by Croatian terrorists from the Ustase Movement in Marseilles. The French Foreign Minister, Louis Barthou, was also killed. Alexander I was succeeded by his 11-year old son Peter II (1923-1970). Alexander�s cousin, Paul (1893-1976) acted as Regent until 27 March 1941; however just a fortnight after this, Peter II was forced into exile by invading German forces.

16 February 1933, Fearing German aggression, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia formed the Little Entente, with a Permanent Council,

1930, The Balkan Entente was set up. It included Greece, Romania, Turkey and Yugoslavia; it was essentially a defensive alliance against the expansionist aims of Bulgaria, which was seeking to regain territories lost to Greece and Yugoslavia under the Treaty of Neuilly (1919). In the 1930, as authoritarian regimes gained power in all members of the Balkan Entente, the entire region moved politically closer to Germany and Italy.


-1.0, Efforts to forge political unity in Yugoslavia, 1921-29

3 October 1929. The name of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was changed to Yugoslavia. The name change was an attempt to eradicate longstanding historical divisions within the country.

21 May 1929, King Alexander I of Yugoslavia used his dictatorial powers to ban the Croat Party and other political factions.

6 January 1929, King Alexander I of Yugoslavia (born 1888, ruled 1921-34) became dictator.

29 August 1928, Yugoslavia signed the Kellogg�Briand Pact.

20 June 1928, During a heated debate in the Yugoslav Parliament, a Serb deputy pulled a gun and shot dead three Croat members, including the opposition leader. Shortly afterwards, the King of Yugoslavia declared a �royal dictatorship�, superseding Parliament.

11 November 1927, France and Yugoslavia made a friendship treaty.

6 September 1923, King Peter of Yugoslavia was born.

16 August 1922, Peter I of Yugoslavia died, aged 77, and was succeeded by his 33-year old son, Alexander I.

16 August 1921. King Peter of Yugoslavia died at Belgrade. Peter�s son, Alexander I (1888-19340, for whom Peter had been Regent from 4 December 1918, became King, ruling until his death in 1934. Alexander I faced the impossible task of reconciling the Catholic and westernised Croats and Slovenes with the majority Balkan Orthodox Serbs, and continued outrages in Parliament led him to assume dictatorial powers in 1929.


5 June 1921, Italy and Yugoslavia signed an agreement over control of Fiume.

12 November 1920, The first Treaty of Rapallo was signed, between Italy and Yugoslavia, settling territorial disputes in the Adriatic and pledging collaboration to prevent a Hapsburg restoration. The town of Fiume, seized by Italian Nationalists in September 1919, was to return to Free City status. However, although the Nationalists were ejected from Fiume by the Italian Navy, Fiume did not regain this status and in 1924, when Mussolini came to power, Italy abrogated these terms and retained control of Fiume (although Yugoslavia controlled the adjacent port of Susak). After World War Two, Fiume became part of the Republic of Croatia, itself a part of Yugoslavia.

20 August 1920, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia agreed a mutual defence pact, �The Little Entente� at Belgrade.

For main European events of World War One see France-Germany


-2.0, Creation of Yugoslavia, 1917-18

4 December 1918. The proclamation of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, or Yugoslavia.

29 November 1918. King Nicholas of Montenegro was deposed and his country was united with Serbia under King Peter.

24 November 1918, Serbia took control of the Backsa, Baranya and western Banat regions from Hungary.

17 October 1918. Yugoslavia became independent from Austro-Hungary.

20 July 1917, The Pact of Corfu proclaimed the Union of South Slavs, or Yugoslavia.When Serbia was invaded in World War One, the Serbs established a government in exile on Corfu.The Serbian Prime Minister Paslic agreed with the leader of the south Serbs, Ante Trumbic, that the Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, and Montenegrins, should unite to form a single state; Yugoslavia.In the 1920s, Serbia came to dominate this union, and other national groups claimed Paslic had tricked Trumbic at Corfu.


-3.0, World War One, 1915

15 December 1915, Serbian troops retook Belgrade from the Austrians.

14 October 1915. Bulgaria and Serbia each declared war on the other.

22/ September 1915. Bulgaria mobilised its army and declared war on Serbia.

For main European events of World War One see France-Germany

16 August 1915, The Allies promised the Kingdom of Serbia, should victory be achieved over Austria-Hungary and its allied Central Powers, the territories of Baranja, Srem and Slavonia from the Cisleithanian part of the Dual Monarchy, along with Bosnia and Herzegovina, and eastern Dalmatia from the Krka River to Bar.


-4.0, Second Balkan War, 1913

10 August 1913. The Third Treaty of Bucharest ended the Second Balkan War.Rumania gained the fertile area of Southern Dobruja, which had been Bulgarian since 1878, whilst Serbia and Greece divided Macedonia between them; againterritory that Bulgaria wanted.Greece received Salonika, a major port.Bulgaria merely received the mountainous areas of Pirin and Dospat, and two small Mediterranean ports called Dedeagach and Lagos; Bulgaria was left resentful.Turkey�s possession in Europe were limited to the area around Constantinople and Adrianople.Albania was created.See 6 September 1915.In the First World War, the losers by this Treaty (Turkey and Bulgaria) fought on the German side; the gainers (Greece, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro) fought on the Allied side.

29 June 1913. Bulgaria launched a surprise attack on Serbia and Greece, thereby starting the Second Balkan War.Bulgaria was then invaded by Romania and Turkey.See 10 August 1913.

22 June 1913, Serbia's Prime Minister Nikola Pa�ic and his cabinet resigned due to lack of progress in negotiating with Bulgaria,


30 May 1913. Turkey signed a peace treaty with the Balkan League (the Treaty of London), ending their war.Under this Treaty Salonika was formally assigned to Greece. The Great Powers formally recognised Albanian sovereignty.

18 October 1912. The Ottoman Turks agreed to cede Tripoli and Cyrenaica (now Libya) to Italy, at the Peace of Lausanne.Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia declared war on Turkey. The Greek Army had been well-equipped under Venizelos, and the Turks were pushed back, to the point where Istanbul itself was threatened; the city was only saved by bad weather making the roads impassable and a cholera outbreak, halting military operations.

13 March 1912, Under Russian influence (wanting to undermine Austro-Hungary), Serbia and Bulgaria buried their territorial rivalries for the time being (but see 29 June 1913), and, along with Greece and Montenegro, formed the Balkan League. Originally directed against the large multi-ethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire (which contained many ethnic Serbs within its borders), the League redirected its efforts against Ottoman Turkey, ultimately aiming to oust the Turks entirely from all its European territories. Serbia and Bulgaria signed a mutual defence pact. Balkan nationalism was on the rise. The pact also divided northern Macedonia between them. It was assumed that southern Macedonia would be divided between Bulgaria and Greece. On 30 May 1913 the Treaty of London divided up the Balkans amongst the members of the Balkan League, leaving Ottoman Turkey with only a sliver of European territory immediately west of Istanbul.

13 February 1912, Bulgaria and Serbia signed an agreement forming the Balkan League.

For more on Balkan Wars, see Greece-Turkey

5 November 1912, The Serbs and Greeks routed the Turkish Army at Monastir. Turkey lost some 20,000 men.

1911, The secret organisation �Ujedinjenje ili Smrt� (Unification of Death), commonly known as the �Black Hand� was formed by Serbian nationalist Army officers. Its objective was the political unificastion of all Serbian peoples in the Balkans; this organisation was behind the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in 1914, the event that precipitated World War One.

31 March 1909, Serbia formally recognised Austria�s annexation of Bosnia-Hercegovina.

10 December 1904, A nationalist anti-Austrian ministry took office in Serbia, led by Nicola Pasic.

1 September 1903, Macedonian rebels blew up a Hungarian steamer, killing 29.

31 August 1903, Unrest continued in the Balkans, with atrocities committed by all sides.

17 June 1903, Serbia restored its more liberal constitution of 1889.

15 June 1903, The Serbian Assembly elected Prince Peter, 59, to succeed Alexander I, who had been assassinated on 11 June 1903 along with his wife and several courtiers.

7 April 1903, King Alexander of Serbia suspended the constitution to deal with pro-Russian agitators.

5 April 1901, Under pressure from Turkey, Bulgaria arrested the leader of the Macedonian Committee. Macedonia had been agitating for independence from Turkey.


-5.0, King Alexander Obrenovic, 1889-1903

11 June 1903, King Alexander Obrenovic of Serbia and Queen Draga were assassinated in Belgrade by army officers. King Alexander had been pro-Austrian and this outraged Serbs who, under the Black Hand organisation, wanted to take control of �Serb� lands from Austria (including those such lands inhabited by Bosnian, Macedonians and Croats). The Black Hand were strong in the Serbian military and the Serbian Government had been reluctant to remove them, despite pressure from other European countries to do so, for fear of provoking their own assassination.

11 February 1901, Death of Milan, father of King Alexander I of Serbia.

1898, The Dalmatian Language became extinct when its last known speaker, Anthony Udina, died in a mine explosion.

7 May 1892, Josip Broz (Marshal Tito), Yugoslav Communist President, was born in Kumrovec, near Klanjec, on the border of Croatia and Slovenia.

4 September 1899, Jovan Ristich, Serbian statesman, died in Belgrade (born 1831)

6 March 1889, King Milan Obrenovic IV of Serbia abdicated aged 34 and went to live in Paris. He was succeeded by his 13-year-old son Alexander I.


3 January 1889, King Milan Obrenovich IV promulgated a new more liberal Constitution for Serbica.

15 November 1885, The Union of Rumelia and Bulgaria caused anxiety for Serbia, and Serbia declared war on Bulgaria. The Serbians were heavily defeated at the Battles of Slivinksa and Pirot, and Austria had to intervene to help Serbia.

1882, Milan Obrenovich IV became King of Serbia.

28 June 1881, Serbia concluded a secret treaty with the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

6 March 1878, Serbia was formally constituted an independent kingdom.

14 August 1876, Alexander Obrenovich, King of Serbia, was born.


-6.0, Michael III Obrenovich, 1856-1868

10 June 1868, Serbian Prince Michael III Obrenovic was assassinated whilst walking in Koshutynak Park, near Belgrade, aged 44. He was succeeded by his 13-year-old cousin Milan, who became King in 1882, and ruled until 1889.

1867, Michael III Obrenovic began planning a divorce from Julia (see 1856),who had borne him no children, and a marriage to the daughter of his cousin, Madame Anka Constanitinovich. This alarmed supporters of Karageorgevic who feared that Michael III might produce an heir after all, and now began plotitng the assassination of Michael III.

26 April 1867, Under influential pressure from Russia, France and Austria, Turkey withdrew its troops from the fortress at Belgrade.

1867, Michael III Obrenovic openly demanded that Turkey withdraw its troops from the fortress of Belgrade.

1862, Ottoman Turkish forces bombarded the civilians of Belgrade from the citadel stronghold at the centre of town. Michael III Obrenovic protested and with the assistance of western European powers succeeded in obtaining the evacuation of Turkish troops from some of the smaller forts within Serbia. However Turkish forces remained in possession of the Belgrade fort. Michael III Obrenovic now made secret links with other leaders in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Albania withy the aim of forging an anti-Ottoman alliance and forcing them out of the Balkans.

27 September 1860, Milosh I Obrenovic, King of Serbia, died aged 80. He was succeeded by his son, Michael III Obrenovic, who had been monarch 1839 � 8/42,and who now ruled until his death in 1868. He declared the absolute rule of law above all else in Serbia, and continued his aims of Serbian independence from foreign influence (=Turkey and Austria). Ottoman Turkish troops remained, however, in occupation of the citadel at the centre of Belgrade.

23 December 1858, Serbian Prince Alesandr Karageorgevic was deposed, aged 52, after a weak 16-year reign. He was succeeded by the recalled 79-year-old Milosh Obrenovic, who had abdicated in 1839, amd he now ruled until his death in 1860.

1856, Michael III married the beautiful Julia, Countess Hunyadi. See 1867.

22 October 1854, Milan Obrenovich IV, King of Serbia, was born.

August 1842, A revolt against the rule of Michael III, inspired by those men suspicious of Russian support for Serbian independence (see 1839) who had previously forced Prince Milosh, his father, to abdicate. Prince Michael left Serbia, and his equerry, Prince Alesandr Karageorgevic , was elected King of Serbia. See 23 December 1858. Prince Michael took up residence in Vienna, visiting England and advancing his education. He spurned any initiative to restore him to the Serbian throne by force, preferring to bide his time until circumstances were more favourable.

13 June 1839, Prince Milosh abdicated, and his eldest son Milan II Obrenovic became King of Serbia. However Milan II died 9 July 1839 and his younger brother Michael III Obrenovic became King of Serbia. Michael III intended to continue his father�s work in securing independence for Serbia, and if possible other Balkan nations too, from Ottoman Turkey.However not only Turkey but also Austria was hostile to this independence. Russia stepped in to express support for Serbian independence. See 8/1842.


-7.0, Initial Serbian attempts for independence from Ottoman Turkey, 1780-1823

1823, Michael III Obrenovich was born (died 1868).

1817, Milsoh I Obrenovich was elected Prince of Serbia

5 November 1817. Serbia was granted partial autonomy by the Ottoman Turks.

23 April 1815, A second Serbian rebellion against Turkish rule began.

28 October 1813. British troops occupied Ragusa (Dubrovnik).

10 February 1811, Russian forces took Belgrade from the Ottomans

14 February 1804, A Serbian rebellion against Turkish rule under Karageorgevic (Black George, or George Petrovitch) regained the district of Belgrade. However the Ottoman Turks soon regained control of the region.

1780, Milosh I, Prince of Serbia and founder of the Obrenovich dynasty, was born.


1 June 1594, Sinan invaded northern Hungaryt and forced the Austrians to raise their siege of Gran. Sinan then captured Raab, but was repulsed after a long siege of Komarno, an important fortification on the Danube.

13 October 1593, Sinan, leading an Ottoman army sent by Sultan Murad III, captured Beszprem (Vesprism) from Austria. Sinan had planned to continue towards Vienna but the Janissaries refused to fight over the winter and Sinan had to retire to Belgrade.

20 June 1593, Battle of Sissek, An Austrian army annihilated the army of Hassan, Ottoman Governor of Bosnia. Sultan Murad III now prepared for a revenge invasion of Austria.

29 August 1521, The Ottoman Turks under Suleiman captured Belgrade.


-8.0, Conflict between Serbia and Turkey, 1156-1389

22 July 1456,John Hunyadi, King of the Hungarians, defeated an invading Ottoman Turkish army at Belgrade. This halted the ambitions of Sultan Mahomet II to occupy Vienna and then Rome, which Mahomet regarded as still the �capital of Europe�.

14 July 1456, Hunyadi defeated a Turkish fleet on the Danube in the Naval Battle of Belgrade.

15 June 1389. Serbia was crushed by the Ottoman Turks (see 20 December 1355). At a battle in Kosovo, at the �field of the blackbirds�, the entire Serbian nobility was wiped out. Hrebeljanovic Lazar, Prince of Serbia from 1371 (born 1329) was executed by the Turks. The Ottomans had already invaded Bulgaria.

20 December 1355. Stephen Dushan of Serbia died whilst on route to attack Constantinople. Under his reign Serbia had expanded greatly, conquering Macedonia, Epirus, and Thessaly, as well as maintaining his father�s conquest of Bulgaria. However, after his death his empire started to disintegrate..

1386, Sultan Murad I of the Ottoman Turks was defeated by Serbia at the Battle of Plocnik.

1356, Serbian Tsar Dushan died.

16 April 1346, Easter Sunday. Stephen Durosh, King oif Serbia, proclaimed himself Emperor of the Greeks, Serbs, Albanians and Bulgars at Skopje. He now prepared for a campaign to conquer Byzantium.

For Serbian conquests in Bulgaria, see Bulgaria

28 June 1330, Stephen Uros II, King of Serbia, defeated and killed Bulgarian Tsar Michael Sisman near Velbuzd. Ths established Serbain rule in Macedonia.

1235, Death of St Sava (1175-1235), youngest son of Stefan I Nemanya, a monk of Athos, who had emancipated the Serbian Church from the Greek Archbishop of Okhrid.

1200, End of the reign of Stefan I Nemanya (1114-1200), who first united Serbia. He secured recognition of its independence from Byzantium.

1156, Founding of the Serbian Nemanya Dynasty, which endured until 1356.


1358, The Republic of Dubrovnik was founded when the territory ceased to recognise Venetian sovereignty. It suffered a major earthquake in 1667. In 1806 it was occupied by Napoleon I, and became part of the Illyrian Provinces (1809-1813). The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) awarded the territory to Austria; it remained under the rule of Vienna as part of Dalmatia until 1918, whenh it became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia).

3,500 BCE, Earliest copper mines sunk, in Yugoslavia and Bulgaria.


Bosnia pre-1909

Bosnia-Hercegovina transferred from Turkey to Austria, 1908-09

2 March 1909, The major European powers intervened to prevent Serbia going to war with Austria over Austria�s annexation of Bosnia-Hercegovina, which Serbia also desired.

24 February 1909. Serbia made demands on Austria for Bosnia-Hercegovina.

12 January 1909. Turkey accepted Austria�s offer of 2.5 million Turkish Pounds for Bosnia-Hercegovina.

1 December 1908, Italy demanded that Austria pay compensation for the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, see 7 October 1908.

7 October 1908. Austria annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina, taking advantage of instability within the Ottoman Empire. Though formally part of the Ottoman Empire, its Serb-Croat population favoured union with Serbia. Other European countries were shocked at Austria�s move. Serbia was especially angry that Serbs in the region had not got autonomy. However Russia agreed with Austria not to oppose this annexation in return for Austria supporting the opening of the Dardanelles to Russian warships. Turkey accepted cash compensation for the loss of Bosnia and Hercegovina on 12 January 1909. See 1 December 1908.

29 July 1875. The peasants of the two mountain provinces of Bosnia and Hercegovina put up resistance to the Ottoman Turks.The Bosnians wanted to join Serbia but the Hercegovinians wanted to join Montenegro. See 16 September 1875.

1481, The last Bosnian King, Stefan Tomasevic, was beheaded by the Ottoman Turks.

1463, The Ottomans took Bosnia. They took Hercegovina in 1476.

1426, Ottoman Turkey attacked Bosnia.

1101, Bosnia was annexed from Byzantium by Hungary.


Croatia pre-1919

29 October 1918, Croatia declared its independence.

10 April 1905, Joseph George Strossmayer, Croatian politician, died (born in Esseg 4 February 1815)

1840, Hungary attempted to impose Hungarian as the official language in Croatia; this provoked the formation of a Croatian Nationalist (Illyrian) Party under Count Draskovic.

4 February 1815, Joseph George Strossmayer, Croatian politician, was born in Esseg (died 10 April 1905)

16 October 1801, Josef Jellachich, Croatian statesman, was born (died 20 May 1859).

1573, Widespread peasant revolts across Croatia and Slovenia were crushed by the nobility.

1091, Ladislaus I, King of Hungary, took control of Croatia. His death in 1095 sparked a Croatian nationalist uprising, which was crushed in 1097 by Coloman,

1076, End if the reign of Slaviza of Croatia. Succeeded by Zvonimir Demetrius, who was crowned by the legate of Pope Gregory II, and who was virtually a vassal of The Papacy.

1073, End of the reign oif Kresemir Peter of Croatia (1058-73)

1058, End of the reign of King Stephen I of Croatia (1035-58).

1035, End of the reign of Kresimir II (The Great) of Croatia (1000-1035). He pushed back the Bulgarians, and expanded Croatia into Dalmatia, gaining control of some Italian cities. For a brief period at the end of the 10thcentury, even Venice was forced to pay tribute to Croatia.

946, End of the regn of Kresimir I of Croatia (940-946).

910, An independent Croatian Kingdom was established. In 877 the Croats had been temporarily brought under the control of the Byzantine Empire, but now regained their autonomy. Tomislav was the first leader of this Kingdom, He was succeeded by Trpimir, and then Drzislav (ca. 978-1000), who was the first to assume officially the title of King.

635, The Croats entered what is now Croatia; They had originated in the western Carpathians, and been driven southwards by the Czechs. Byzantine Emperor Heraclius encouraged the Croats to attack and displace the Avars. See Roman Empire


Montenegro pre-1922

For more events of 1990s Yugoslav breakup and war see main Yugoslavia section above

Montenegro Map, 1910 and 2020

6/2017, Montenegro joiu ned NATO, a move that alienated a former close ally, Russia.

1/2013, The European Union acknowledged Montenegro�s progress towards membership, but called for more protection of media freedom, and better r-ghts for women and gender-minorities.

12/2008, Montenegro applied to join the European Union.

11/2008, Montenegro officially recognised Kosovo�s declaration of independence; Serbia protested.

1/2007, Montenegro became a member of the IMF and the World Bank.

6/2006, Montenegro became the 192nd member of the United Nations.

5/2006, A referendum in Montenegro voted just over the required 55% for independence from Serbia.

2/2005, Montenegro suggested an end to the union with Serbia. Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica refused this independence.

12/2004, Montenegro applied to join the WTO.

2002, Montenegro and Serbia agreed on a political union. However in October 2002 elections Parties that were pro-Montenegrin independence did well.

January 2002, Montenegro adopted the Euro currency.

5 October 2000, President Slobodan Milosevic of Yugoslavia resigned after widespread demonstrations across Serbia and the withdrawal of Russian support.

1999, Djukanovic asserted Montenegrin independence from Serbia by declaring neutrality in the Serbia-Kosovo conflict (Kosovo was seeking independence from Serbia), and by adopting the Deutschmark as currency in place of the Dinar. Milosevic mounted air strikes against Kosovo, prompting NATO air strikes on Serbia.

1997, In Montenegrin elections, the pro-Milosevic (leader of Serbia) candidate was defeated by Milo Djukanovic.

1992, Montenegro became part of Serbia, as former Yigoslavia broke up.

13 July 1922, Montenegro joined Yugoslavia.

28 November 1918, The Kingdom of Montenegro was formally absorbed into the Kingdom of Serbia.

2 April 1913, Montenegro rejected demands from several European nations (Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia) to withdraw its troops from Albania.

28 August 1910. Montenegro declared independence from Turkey under King Nicholas I, 69, who ruled for 9 years.

12 August 1860, King Danilo I of Montenegro was assassinated. With no male children, he was succeeded by his 19-year-old nephew, Nicholas I.

25 September 1841, Nicholas, King of Montenegro, was born in Niegush.

1798, The principality of Montenegro now enjoyed some autonomy from the Ottoman Empire.

1600s, Ottoman Turkey sought to establish control over Montenegro. However the mountainous terrain was favourable to guerrilla war by the defenders, and the Turks often raided the area but could not keep full control for long. The monastery at Cettinje was raided and sacked by the Turks several times.

1516, Prince Durad V Crnojevic of Montenegro handed over power to a Christian Orthodox Bishop and retired to Venice. This conversion of Montenegro to a Christian theocracy was intended to preserve its autonomy in the face of Ottoman expansion into SE Europe. As bishops were supposed to be celibate, the hereditary inheritance of Montenegro�s rule passed from uncle to nephew. This arrangement lasted until 1816 when princes began ruling again.

650, The Serbians conquered the region. They ruled until the 1300s, when Ottoman Turkey overran the area.

493, The region was conquered by the Ostrogoths.

Roman Empire, What is now Montenegro was part of the district of Praevalitana, in Illyria. It was a border region between the Eastern and Western Roman empires.


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