Chronography of Vietnam
For events of World War Two in Pacific,
S E Asia, see China-Japan-Korea
For other South East Asian countries click here
2007, Vietnam joined the World
1997, Tran Duc Luong was elected
Van Kai was elected Prime Minister.
11/7/1995. The USA resumed
full diplomatic relations with Vietnam;
Vietnam joined ASEAN. In 2000 Bill Clinton became the first US President to
visit Vietnam since the Vietnam War.
1992, Vietnam began to allow foreign investment, but remained
under Communist rule.
Vietnamese �boat people� crisis
8/11/1991. Hong Kong
began to repatriate its Vietnamese boat
29/12/1989, Riots in
Hong Kong after forcible repatriation of Vietnamese boat people began.
13/12/1989� Hong Kong began to forcibly
repatriate Vietnamese boat people by plane.
�boat people� were arriving in Hong Kong, hoping to reach California.
26/7/1982. The West German
rescue ship, Cape Anamur, entered its home port of Hamburg with 285 Vietnamese
boat people who were fleeing the
Communist regime which took over South Vietnam after the withdrawal of the
USA. Boat people faced a perilous journey even before they tried to find
asylum, facing dangers such as rape, robbery, murder, and abduction on the seas
28/2/1981, In the
first 8 weeks of 1981, 451 Vietnamese
boat people arrived in Hong Kong,
twice as many as in the same period in 1980.�
In nearby Macao, 240
Vietnamese refugees were arriving every day.�
Many were moving on from China,
which had taken 250,000 Vietnamese since 1979.�
The Hong Kong government asked the Chinese to step up naval surveillance
along the Chinese coast.
said its troops would withdraw from Kampuchea, formerly Cambodia.
14/3/1988, Three days of conflict between China and Vietnam
began over the disputed Spratly Islands.
1986, Death of Le Duan. The Doi
Moi policy reforms began in Vietnam, instigated by Nguyen Van Linh.
1979, Vietnam fought a brief nine-day war with China.
launched a major offensive against the Khmer Rouge of Cambodia.
1/10/1978 �Vietnam attacked Cambodia.
31/12/1977, Cambodia broke off diplomatic relations
with Vietnam, and suspended air services between them. Fighting between the
two countries had erupted in the Parrot�s Beak area, where Cambodia juts out
into (South) Vietnam. The Chinese-backed
Cambodian regime accused Vietnam of not being sufficiently �revolutionary�.
Troubles began when many Cambodians moved across the border into the Mekong
Delta area, after Saigon fell and before North Vietnam had fully established
control of the area.
2/7/1976. North and South Vietnam were reunited to
form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
24/6/1976, At a government conference in Hanoi, the
unification of North and South Vietnam was approved, as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, see 30/4/1975.
Final surrender of South Vietnam to the North.
29/4/1975. A US helicopter evacuated Americans and a few lucky
Vietnamese from the roof of the US Embassy in Saigon to a nearby US warship a day before Saigon fell to the
Vietcong. The picture of the helicopter evacuation became an iconic symbol of US humiliation in
the US Embassy, some Vietnamese women quickly �married� Americans in order to
gain a place in the evacuation; the marriage ceremony was rather brief, �Do
you? I do�. Conditions in the embassy corridors quickly deteriorated as the air
conditioning broke down. In all, 1,373 Americans, 5,595 South Vietnamese and 85
other nationals were evacuated in the last days of the war.
Australian Embassy in Saigon, South Vietnam, shut as North Vietnamese forces
23/4/1975, US President Ford
announced that US involvement in Vietnam was to end. US forces began the final
evacuation of personnel from Saigon by aeroplane, see 28 and 29/4/1973.
21/4/1975, President Thieu of South Vietnam, aware that the
North would never negotiate with him, resigned in a last ditch attempt to find
an agreement by appointing a new leader in his place. Thieu escaped to Taipei with 3.5
tons of gold. General
Duong Van Minh became leader in his place.
Vietnamese forces were now driven back to Long Binh and Bien Hoa airbases, just
12 miles from Saigon. Saigon was now surrounded by 15 divisions, and defended
by just four.
overruns the South
plane carrying 99 Vietnamese orphans landed at Heathrow Airport, London.
Galaxy transport plane carrying 243 Vietnamese orphans from Saigon to the US
crashed shortly after take-off, killing over 200 children and 44 adults.
Vietnamese forces captured the port of Da
Nang. Ships attempted to rescue over 1 million refugees.
25/3/1975. In South Vietnam, Hue fell to the North.
Vietnam, Communist forces overran Da Nang,
South Vietnam, Quang Tri Province
fell to the North, leaving the provincial capital of Hue exposed.
7/1/1975, North Vietnamese forces captured the southern
province of Phuoc Long (see 29/3/1973) and were now just 75 miles from
Saigon. There was no reaction from the US. On 10/3/1975 North Vietnam captured
the strategic town of Ban Me Thuot in the Central Highlands. Within four days South Vietnam decided to abandon the entire
Central Highlands to concentrate on the defence of Saigon. This strategic
withdrawal became a rout, with hundreds of thousands of civilians, and fleeing
soldiers, clogging the roads as the Communists advanced. By 1/4/1975 half of
South Vietnam was occupied by the North and the South Vietnamese army was
disintegrating. US Congress had no intention of further aid to the South; they
did not even intend to organise an evacuation of US citizens and pro-US
Vietnamese, instead hoping to persuade the North to stop short of total
conquest and accept a coalition government in Saigon.� President Thieu of South Vietnam resigned on
28/4/1975 and was replaced by the neutralist General Duong Van Minh. By then
North Vietnamese forces were in the suburbs of Saigon. A few fortunate
personnel were evacuated from the roof of the US Embassy by helicopter (see
29/4/1975).� However in the last-minute
chaos nobody thought to destroy the records of South Vietnamese who had
supported the US. On 30/4/1975 a North Vietnamese tank crashed through the
gates of the Presidential Palace in Saigon and a soldier raised the North
Vietnamese flag. Then the event was repeated for the benefit of TV cameras who
had missed the original. Meanwhile in Cambodia the Khmer Rouge had entered
Phnom Penh and begub deporting hundreds of thousands of its population to the
killing fields. The defeat of the US was
total and complete.
more events of Vietnam War see USA
North Vietnamese General Van Tra, to prove that the South Vietnamese Army
was on the point of collapse, made a ferocious attack on Don Luan. The town fell within four days, enabling the North to
push on southwards towards Phuoc Long province.
withdrawal from South Vietnam
29/3/1973, US pulled its last troops out of
South Vietnam. The quadrupling of oil prices by OPEC
worsened the finances of the USA. Nixon was
in trouble with Watergate and Congress reasserted its power over US foreign
policy. The War Powers Resolution of November 1973 removed the President�s
power to make war without prior Congressional approval, nullifying Nixon�s
promise to send troops to support South Vietnam if the Communists threatened
again. In 1974 Congress slashed the budget for the war in Vietnam. US influence
also declined in Cambodia, where extensive bombing had disrupted society and
promoted the growth of the Communist Khmer
Rouge, backed by Prince Sihanouk. Many Cambodians regarded Sihanouk
as their legitimate leader, and by 1974 Sihanouk�s US-backed replacement, General Lon Nol,
controlled just one third of Cambodia. In Laos an extensive bombing campaign to
destroy the Ho Chi Minh trail, a network of routes used to supply the Communist
Vietcong, simply resulted in the strengthening of the Pathet Lao, the Laotian
Communists. Throughout 1974 the North Vietnamese quietly built up strength in
the border regions of South Vietnam, and on 7/1/1975 they captured the South
Vietnamese province of Phuoc Long.
PoWs from the Vietnam War were released by the North Vietnamese.
27/1/1973. The war in Vietnam ended, as President Nixon signed the ceasefire agreement in Paris. One
million combatants had been killed. The last US troops left Vietnam on
29/3/1972. However fighting later
continued between North and South Vietnam, see 30/4/1975.
7/9/1972, South Korea withdrew the 37,000 troops it
had in South Vietnam.
15/6/1972, Soviet President Podgorny began a 4-day visit to
8/5/1972, President Nixon ordered a blockade and mining
of North Vietnamese ports.
1/5/1972, Quang Tri fell to the North Vietnamese
(retaken by South Vietnam, 15/9/1972).
30/3/1972, North Vietnam launched a major attack on the South. On 15/4/1972 the US made heavy bombing raids on
North Vietnam abandoned guerrilla tactics and launched a major conventional
invasion, with tanks and heavy artillery. The South Vietnamese city of Quang
Tri fell on 1/5/1972 and South Vietnam seemed to have lost the war. However the US
responded with massive air power and smart bombs. North Vietnamese forces were driven back to the dividing line and Hanoi
proposed peace talks in October 1972. Under domestic pressure to end US
involvement in Vietnam, Nixon could not
refuse this offer.
29/2/1972, South Korea withdrew 11,000 of its 48,000
troops from Vietnam.
26/1/1972, Henry Kissinger, attempting to mediate a peace deal in Vietnam,
complained that the North Vietnamese were only pretending to negotiate whilst
in fact holding out until the US tired of the War and allowed the North to take
over South Vietnam by force. This was indeed the North�s strategy, and Kissinger�s
complaint did not alter its effectiveness. US President Nixon was concerned about the
image of the USA and its power should it fail in Vietnam.
12/11/1971, US President Nixon announced an end to America�s �offensive� role in
Vietnam, and the withdrawal of a further 45,000 troops. After this only 182,000 US troops would remain.
11/10/1971, Switzerland officially recognized North
3/10/1971, President Thieu of South Vietnam retained
office after all other contenders withdrew in protest at rigged elections.
20/4/1970. President Nixon announced that a further 150,000 troops would be
withdrawn from Vietnam.
1/4/1970, After a 6-month lull, the Vietcong launched
major assaults across South Vietnam.
arrests were made as police clashed with anti � Vietnam War protesters at the entrance to Downing
anti Vietnam War demonstration in Washington.
3/9/1969. Ho Chi Minh, President of
North Vietnam during the Vietnam War, died of a heart attack aged 79. He
was succeeded by Le Duan.
8/7/1969, The first US army units were withdrawn from
5/1969, The US now had 543,000 troops
10/1/1969, Sweden became the first European country to recognise North
USA (and other
nations) begin withdrawal from South Vietnam
8/1968, The US now had 541,000
troops in Vietnam.
20/6/1968, Total US war
deaths in Vietnam now exceeded 25,000.
13/5/1968, US and North Vietnamese negotiators began peace talks in Paris.
11/5/1969, The Vietcong launched ground and rocket attacks
throughout South Vietnam.
6/5/1968, The Vietnam War continued with house to
house fighting in Saigon.
The Home Secretary James Callaghan told
the Ministry of Public Building and Works that he had no power to deport Tariq Ali back to his native Pakistan.
Mr Ali was a member of the Vietnam Solidarity campaign in Britain.
19/4/1968, The USA began Operation
Delaware to oust the North Vietnamese from the A Shau Valley, 50 km SW of
Hue, which they had occupied in March 1968 and made into a logistics base to
support the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The US succeeded in taking the Valley, but with
heavy casualties. However they could not hold it whilst large forces were tied
up defending the Vietnamese Lowlands against the North.
3/4/1968, The US and North Vietnam agreed to establish
direct contact as a first step towards peace.
17/3/1968, Violent anti-Vietnam War demonstrations outside
the US Embassy in London. 25,000 Vietnam Solidarity Campaign (VSC) marchers
fought with police. The VSC, which wanted a victory for North Vietnam, had been
organised by the Trotskyist International Marxist Group, whose members included
16/3/1968. The My Lai massacre; US soldiers massacred 700
Vietnamese civilians in a raid on hamlets in Son My district, where Communist
Vietcong rebels were suspected to be hiding out. US forces believed that 250
Vietcong guerrillas were hiding in My Lai and that all civilians would have
left for market. As the 30 US troops went in under the command of Lieutenant
William Calley they threw grenades and deployed flamethrowers on the
thatched roof huts; it was soon clear that only women, children and the elderly
were present. There was no counter fire. However a �contagion of slaughter� had
set in and the rape and murder continued. Senior US army officials turned a
blind eye to the event; only five people were ever court-martialled, with just
Calley, found guilty. He was sentenced to life imprisonment but
served 3 � years before release on parole. This event turned many civilians within the US against the Vietnam War.
30/1/1968. The Vietcong launched the great Tet
Offensive against South Vietnam, named after the Tet holiday of January 31, when south
Vietnamese soldiers would be off-guard. Militarily the Tet offensive was
disastrous for the North; they held none of the towns they captured. The last
town, Hue, was recaptured by US Marines three weeks after the Tet Offensive
began. However the North won the propaganda war, with massive damage inflicted
on the South during the Offensive, much of by US forces whilst evicting the Communists.
Martial law was proclaimed in Vietnam. US casualties now amounted to 1,000 per
day. Questions were asked why the US and South were suffering so many losses
without obvious success in the war.
4/1/1968, The US now had 486,000 troops in Vietnam.
3/9/1967, General Nguyen Van Thieu was
elected President of South Vietnam.
29/6/1967. The American child
Benjamin Spock led a march of nearly 5,000 people in London in protest against
the Vietnam War. Eighteen people
were arrested as the march headed towards the US Embassy in Grosvenor Square.
14/2/1967. 100 Labour MPs in Westminster condemned
the US bombing of Vietnam. On 26/2/1967 the US stepped up the war by attacking
the Vietcong's HQ.
23/9/1966. USA planes dropped tons of herbicides on Vietnam
turning the demilitarised zone between North and South Vietnam into a barren
2/4/1966, Protests in Saigon as
demonstrators demanded an end to military rule.
8/3/1966, Australia tripled its
force in Vietnam to 4,500 troops.
18/2/1966, Dean Rusk stated that the USA
had exhausted all possibilities for bringing peace to Vietnam.
8/1/1966. US launched biggest offensive to date in Vietnam.
For more events of Vietnam War see USA
29/12/1965. North Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh rejected US peace talks.
29/9/1965, The USSR admitted
supplying weapons to North Vietnam.
12/8/1965, 19 days after the US learned that North Vietnam had bases around its
capital from which to fire surface-to-air missiles, the North Vietnamese
revealed that they had mobile missile units that could be taken to any
location, shooting down a U.S. Navy A-4 Skyhawk attack jet flying 50 miles
southwest of Hanoi. Lieutenant Donald H. Brown of the USS Coral
Sea was killed in the crash, becoming the first U.S. Navy flier to be downed by
a SAM missile.
24/6/1965, South Vietnam
severed relations with France.
23/6/1965, The USSR rejected a
Vietnam peace initiative proposed by Harold Wilson.
31/5/1965. Major US air strikes in Vietnam saved the South Vietnamese forces from
annihilation, reported The Guardian.
escalation of US involvement in Vietnam
8/3/1965, The US stepped up military action in
Vietnam. 3,500 American Marines,
the first combat troops to arrive in Vietnam, landed, welcomed by an
enthusiastic crowd. By July 1965 there
were 75,000 US troops in Vietnam, by end-1965 184,000, and by early 1968,
510,000. A majority of the
British public were opposed to the US escalation, and believed that Britain�s
role should be to act as peacemaker.
response to the 6/2/1965 attack at Pleiku, and to another attack a few days
later on US soldiers at Qui Nhon, the US launched Operation Rolling Thunder, a
saturation bombing campaign against North Vietnam combined with the first
deployment of US ground forces against the North Vietnamese.
7/2/1965. US aircraft bombed North Vietnam. The US hoped that by relying on a sustained air
bombing campaign, US casualties would be minimised.
6/2/1965, The Vietcong
attacked a US barracks at Pleiku, killing 9 US soldiers. In retaliation, President
Johnson authorised Operation Flaming Dart, bombing raids on North
23/1/1965, Saturday (+7,200) Rioters in Hue, South
Vietnam, burned down the U.S. Information Agency after South Vietnam's Prime
Minister Tran Van Hương increased the Army draft to fight the Viet
offensive by South Vietnam against the North began.
1/11/1964, North Vietnamese attack on the airfield at
Bien Hoa. Four US servicemen were killed and a large number of US aircraft
prompted the US to escalate its involvement in Vietnam. The airfield
was expanded into a large US military base.
30/10/1964, Tran Van Huong became Prime Minister of South
7/8/1964, In South Vietnam, General Nguyen Khanh proclaimed
a State of Emergency and ousted President Duong Vanh Minh.
Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked the US destroyer Maddox.
Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked the US destroyer Maddox, which was patrolling 16 km off the North Vietnamese coast.
One Vietnamese boat was sunk, another badly damaged; the Maddox was undamaged and continued her patrol. On the stormy night
of 4-5/8/1964 the radar allegedly spotted five Vietnamese boats in �attack
formation�; in fact these boats almost certainly did not exist. Either the
radar image was misinterpreted, or were fabricated to justify further US
actions in Vietnam. US President Johnson got the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution passed through
Congress; authorising �any necessary measures� to repel attacks on US forces or
US allies, including South Vietnam. This resolution justified a large escalation in US activity
in Vietnam from 1965 onwards.
30/1/1964, Coup in South Vietnam; General Duong Van Minh was replaced by General Nguyen
Kanh. However Minh remained as nominal head of state.
2/11/1963, The first
President of Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem, was
assassinated, along with his brother, in a military coup encouraged by the CIA.
South Vietnam, a coup organised by General Duong Van Minh overthrew President Ngo
21/8/1963,Martial law was declared in South Vietnam.
of the Battle of Ap Bac. This was a
turning point in the Vietnam War. In late December 1962 a contingent of 2,000
South Vietnamese soldiers (ARVN, Army of the Republic of Vietnam) encountered
300-400 People�s Liberation Armed Force (PLAF) fighters near a canal close to
Ap Bac. Despite US assistance, advice, and the presence of US planes,
helicopters and armoured personnel carriers, the ARVN suffered 165 casualties
and lost 5 helicopters, whilst the PLAF�
lost less than a dozen fighters. This battle forced the USA to reconsider whether advice and
material assistance alone was enough to help South Vietnam win against the
21/1/1960, What became
known as the Vietcong was formed in Vietnam. Communists in South Vietnam,
opposed to the USA-backed rule of Ngo Dinh Diem, at first
received little support from the Communist North Vietnamese government, but
this changed after January 1960. The Southern Communistsk, in co-operation with
the North, met outside Saigon to found the National
Liberation Front (NLF).� They called
for the removal of Diem as a
�colonial Western puppet� and the removal of all foreign bases from South
Vietnam. Diem and the USA labelled the NLF disparagingly as the �Vietcong�, a
derogatory abbreviation of the Vietnamese words for Viuetnamese Communists. The
name stuck, but lost its negative connotations.
US servicemen and 5 civilians were injured in Saigon, South Vietnam, by a bomb
planted by Communist guerrillas. This was the worst incident since 1954 when
the French admitted defeat in the fight against North Vietnam�s Viet Minh army
and split Vietnam into North and South, two independent states.
23/10/1955. South Vietnam became a republic under Ngo Dinh Diem. Emperor Bao Dai was deposed.
7/12/1954, Bui Van Luong was replaced as the head of COMIGAL, Vietnam's
government resettlement agency, by Pham Van Huyen.
10/10/1954, Ho Chi Minh returned to Hanoi
as the French pulled out.
21/7/1954. An armistice divided Vietnam into
North (Communist) and South (French).
7/5/1954. Communist Vietminh forces under General Giap
captured Dien Ben Phu in Vietnam, a
key French garrison, after a siege. Almost
all the 16,000 French soldiers were killed. The Americans had considered
using three atomic bombs, but Eisenhower
was reluctant to start a new war after Korea, and did not wish to support
colonialism.� This effectively marked the end of French rule in Indo-China.� Dien Ben Phu
was a village in Vietnam, 75 miles south of the Chinese border and commanding a
valley into Laos, which lay 20 miles further west, so occupied a strategic position.
2/5/1954, British Prime Minister Anthony Eden made it clear at Geneva
that Britain could not support the US in a war in Vietnam when the course and
scope of the war was unknown.
21/4/1954. The US Air Force flew a French battalion to northern
Vietnam to defend against the Vietminh at Dien Bien Phu.
Dien Bien Phu fell to the Communists on
6/4/1954. France informed
the US that French public opinion would not support the war in Vietnam anymore
and that France�s aim was now a negotiated settlement. The US wanted to carry
on the fight against the Communists. The UK too was wary, in case a Soviet
nuclear strike on US bases in England was carried out.
13/3/1954, The Vietminh
assault on Dien Ben Phu began; see
20/1/1954, The French military Commander in Chief, General Henri
Navarre, launched an attack on Vietminh positions in Annam, the
narrow �waist� of the country between North and South. Annam had been abandoned
by the French in the face of superior Vietminh numbers; the French hoped to
control Annam as a buffer zone, �contain� the North, and pacify the South.
However the Vietminh fought back strongly and forced the French to withdraw
into the major towns.
26/11/1953, French airborne troops captured the Vietnamese village of Dien Ben Phu from the Vietminh, thereby
gaining control of the Hanoi to Laos road.
25/5/1950, French troops
fought the Vietcong guerrillas in
7/2/1950, The Soviet Union officially
recognised the Marxist regime of Ho Chi Minh in North Vietnam; the USA
endorsed the French-backed regime of Emperor Bao Dai in South Vietnam. The two regimes had been at war since 1947.
30/12/1949. Vietnam gained sovereignty from France.
8/3/1949, Vietnam became independent within the
19/12/1946, An uneasy
post-War period of tactical co-operation between the French and the Vietcong
Communist forces ended. The French had wanted to regain their colony of
Vietnam; the Vietcong also wanted Nationalist factions in the country
eliminated. But on this day the Vietcong attacked French troops at Hanoi,
starting the First Indo-China War. The Vietcong began a campaign of guerrilla
troops bombarded Haiphong in NE Vietnam. This was the start of the French
Indo-China War, which lasted until 1954.
2/3/1946. In North Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh was elected President.
10/3/1945. Tran Kim
1941, Vietminh resistance to Japan founded in
exile in China.
invaded Vietnam. For more
details of World War Two in the Pacific, see Japan-China.
1930, Ho Chi Minh founded the Vietnamese Communist Party.
8/11/1927, Nguyen Khanh,
Prime Minister of South Vietnam, was born.
6/11/1925, Khai Dinh,
Emperor of Vietnam, died.
1920, Viertnam adopted the Roman script (Quoc Agu) in place of
19/5/1890, Birth of Ho Chi
Minh, President of North Vietnam (died 1969).
25/2/1861, The French relieved a siege of Saigon by 20,000
Vietnamese, and consolidated their hold over Cochin China.
22/2/1860, In the
face of Vietnamese attacks, French colonists evacuated Tourane.
forces under Admiral
Rigault de Genouilly attacked the Vietnamese city of Tourane, to use
it as a military base. The city fell to the French on 2/9/1858.
1847, The French began to interfere in the political affairs of
Annam (Vietnam), on the pretext of protecting the |Christians there.
1820, Death of Nguyen Phuoc Anh (also known as Long Gia),
emperor of Vietnam and founder of the Nguyen
Dynasty. He fought to extend the influence of the Nguyen Clan, as the
existing Tay Son order
disintegrated. In 1802 he succeeded in unifying Vietnam for the first time,
from the Chinese border down to the Mekong Delta.
forces took Saigon, Vietnam.
1516, A group of Portuguese explorers became the first Europeans
to reach Vietnam.
1428, Annam (Vietnam) regained its independence from China.
1407, China regained control of Annam. See 1428.
1010, King Ly Thai To moved the capital of Vietnam
from Ninh Binh to Hanoi, calling it
Thang Long, meaning �soaring dragon�.
1009, The Ly Dynasty,
the first independent dynasty in Vietnam, was proclaimed.
939, The Vietnamese expelled their Chinese rulers from Annam,
meaning �pacified south� in Chinese.
938, Battle of Bach Dang.
The Chinese, under Liu Yan, were attempting to invade Vietnam, Liu sent an army led by his son, Liu Hongcao,
to invade Giao by sea. The Vietnamese leader, Ngo Quyen anticipated this
invasion, and fixed a line of iron spikes across the mouth of the Red River,
their tips a little underwater at high tide. Ngo then sent small boats out to
taunt the Chinese fleet, and when these boats retreated upriver the Chinese, in
much larger boats. gave chase. As the tide went out, the large Chinese vessels
became impaled on the spikes and were attacked by Vietnamese soldiers. Half the
Chinese army died, many by drowning, and China
abandoned its attempt to conquer Vietnam.
150 AD, The Champa State existed
on the east coast of Vietnam. It was a threat to the power of the Khmer and
214 BC, Annam (now Vietnam) was conquered by China.
257 BCE,The State of Au Lac was
established un the Red River area of Vietnam.
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