Chronography of Sudan and South Sudan
Page last modified 21 August 2023
For events in North Africa relating to the Islamic World and Arab Spring see also Islam & Middle East
See also Africa
15 April 2023, Civil war erupted in Sudan between two rival army factions. The SAF (Sudanese Armed Forces), loyal to General Burhan, de facto Sudanese leader� since a coup in 2019, was fighting the RSF (Rapid Support Forces), a paramilitary group originating with the Janjaweed forces in Darfur, led by Muhammad Hamdan Daglo (Hemedti).
20 February 2017, The UN declared a famine in South Sudan; the first famine it had declared for six years.
9 July 2011, The new country of South Sudan officially seceded from Sudan, following a pro-independence referendum in January 2011.
9 January 2011, A referendum in Sudan resulted in a mandate for the independence of Southern Sudan.
31 July 2007, The UN passed Resolution 1769, authorising more UN peacekeepers to be deployed in Darfur, Sudan.
10 January 2005, A peace deal was signed between the Sudanese government and the South Sudan rebels led by John Garang. This deal ended the Sudanese Civil War. The South gained autonomy for 6 years, after which a referendum would be held to decide secession or not. However Garang was killed in a helicopter crash in August 2005 and in subsequent rioting 130 died. Garang�s successor, Salva Kir, pledged to abide by the peace deal but tensions over sharing oil revenues remained high.
9 September 2004, US Secretary of State Colin Powell accused the Sudanese Government and the Janjaweed militia of pursuing a policy of genocide against non-Muslim Africans in Darfur, Sudan.
6 August 2004, The UN published a report accusing� the Sudanese Government of crimes against humanity in the western province of Darfur. By now the fighting had displaced over one million people and 70,000 were reported to have died from famine and disease.
2005, South Sudan was granted limited autonomy.
8 April 2004, The Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement was signed between the Sudanese Government and two rebel groups, the Justice and Equality Movement and the Sudanese Liberation Army. However the Darfur insurrection continued as rebel attacks continued.
2003, Pro-Government Janjaweed militias systematically slaughtered African villagers in the Darfur region, a policy amounting to genocide.
2001, Bashir expelled fundamentalist al-Turabi from the government. He also attempted to make peace with rebels in southern Sudan.
14 August 1994. Carlos the Jackal was arrested in Sudan.
20 January 1991, Sudan instituted Sharia Law across the whole country. This exacerbated tensions between the Muslim North and the Christian South.
1989, In Sudan, the National Islamic Front seized power in Khartoum. General Omar Bashir became leader. This further antagonised the rebel Christian/Animist South.
16 November 1988, A peace pact signed between the Khartoum Government and southern Sudan rebels this day soon fell apart.
1988, The war and a crop failure in southern Sudan caused a major famine.
6 April 1985, Coup in Sudan, led by General Swar al Dahab.
1984, Severe drought hit Sudan.
1983, Southern rebellion resumed; �the Khartoum Government rescinded the autonomy of southern Sudan, and imposed Sharia Law across the entire country. Rebel army units in the south formed the SPLA (Sudan People�s Liberation Movement). The SPLA and Anyanya rebels joined forces.
1981, The Anyanya insurgency restarted in southern Sudan; known as the Anyanya 2 Rebellion.
1973, The Sudanese Socialist Union became the only legitimate Party.
6 March 1972, Peace agreed in Sudan between southern Anyanya rebels and the government. Limited autonomy for the South. Ethiopia acted as peace broker.
5/1969, After a series of unpopular governments, Colonel Jafar al-Nimeire staged a coup and became Prime Minister. His regime abolished both Parliament and political Parties.
1959, Military rule began in Sudan. Lasting until 1964.
19 January 1956, Sudan joined the Arab league.
1 January 1956. Sudan became independent, having been administered jointly by Britain and Egypt.
18 August 1955, The Anyanya I Rebellion in Sudan, by southern Anyanyas against the northern Muslims, began.
Anyanya Rebellions of south began
1954, Sudan became self-governing.
13 October 1952, Egypt signed an agreement with Sudan on use of the water from the Nile.
25 June 1924, Britain said it would not relinquish control over the Sudan, despite Egyptian demands for it to do so.
14 May 1916, The Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition. Anglo-Egyptian forces sent to quell rebellion in the Sultanate of Darfur left Abiad to march on the main stronghold in El Fasher.
24 November 1899, Last Madhi resistance in Sudan was crushed.
19 January 1899. Britain and Egypt established a condominium over Sudan.
9 March 1889, King Yohannes IV was killed in the Battle of Metemma; Sudanese forces, almost routed, rallied and destroyed the Ethiopian Army.
20 December 1888, The Battle of Suakin, Sudan.
27 June 1857, Sir Rudolf Slatin, Anglo-Austrian soldier and explorer in Sudan, was born near Vienna (died 1907)
1821, Northern Sudan was conquered by the viceroy of Egypt, Muhammad Ali. Much of the southern population died as a result of the slave trade. The city of Khartoum was established this year as a military camp.
641, Islamic armies conquered the lands south of Egypt. At that time the �Bilad al Sudan�, the Arabic term meaning �Country of Black Men�, encompassed all the Sahel, anywhere south of the Sahara.