Chronography of Sudan and South Sudan

Page last modified 21 August 2023


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Demography of South Sudan

Demography of Sudan


15 April 2023, Civil war erupted in Sudan between two rival army factions. The SAF (Sudanese Armed Forces), loyal to General Burhan, de facto Sudanese leadersince a coup in 2019, was fighting the RSF (Rapid Support Forces), a paramilitary group originating with the Janjaweed forces in Darfur, led by Muhammad Hamdan Daglo (Hemedti).

20 February 2017, The UN declared a famine in South Sudan; the first famine it had declared for six years.

9 July 2011, The new country of South Sudan officially seceded from Sudan, following a pro-independence referendum in January 2011.

9 January 2011, A referendum in Sudan resulted in a mandate for the independence of Southern Sudan.

31 July 2007, The UN passed Resolution 1769, authorising more UN peacekeepers to be deployed in Darfur, Sudan.

10 January 2005, A peace deal was signed between the Sudanese government and the South Sudan rebels led by John Garang. This deal ended the Sudanese Civil War. The South gained autonomy for 6 years, after which a referendum would be held to decide secession or not. However Garang was killed in a helicopter crash in August 2005 and in subsequent rioting 130 died. Garang�s successor, Salva Kir, pledged to abide by the peace deal but tensions over sharing oil revenues remained high.

9 September 2004, US Secretary of State Colin Powell accused the Sudanese Government and the Janjaweed militia of pursuing a policy of genocide against non-Muslim Africans in Darfur, Sudan.

6 August 2004, The UN published a report accusingthe Sudanese Government of crimes against humanity in the western province of Darfur. By now the fighting had displaced over one million people and 70,000 were reported to have died from famine and disease.

2005, South Sudan was granted limited autonomy.

8 April 2004, The Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement was signed between the Sudanese Government and two rebel groups, the Justice and Equality Movement and the Sudanese Liberation Army. However the Darfur insurrection continued as rebel attacks continued.

2003, Pro-Government Janjaweed militias systematically slaughtered African villagers in the Darfur region, a policy amounting to genocide.

2001, Bashir expelled fundamentalist al-Turabi from the government. He also attempted to make peace with rebels in southern Sudan.

14 August 1994. Carlos the Jackal was arrested in Sudan.

20 January 1991, Sudan instituted Sharia Law across the whole country. This exacerbated tensions between the Muslim North and the Christian South.

1989, In Sudan, the National Islamic Front seized power in Khartoum. General Omar Bashir became leader. This further antagonised the rebel Christian/Animist South.

16 November 1988, A peace pact signed between the Khartoum Government and southern Sudan rebels this day soon fell apart.

1988, The war and a crop failure in southern Sudan caused a major famine.

6 April 1985, Coup in Sudan, led by General Swar al Dahab.

1984, Severe drought hit Sudan.

1983, Southern rebellion resumed; the Khartoum Government rescinded the autonomy of southern Sudan, and imposed Sharia Law across the entire country. Rebel army units in the south formed the SPLA (Sudan People�s Liberation Movement). The SPLA and Anyanya rebels joined forces.

1981, The Anyanya insurgency restarted in southern Sudan; known as the Anyanya 2 Rebellion.

1973, The Sudanese Socialist Union became the only legitimate Party.

6 March 1972, Peace agreed in Sudan between southern Anyanya rebels and the government. Limited autonomy for the South. Ethiopia acted as peace broker.

5/1969, After a series of unpopular governments, Colonel Jafar al-Nimeire staged a coup and became Prime Minister. His regime abolished both Parliament and political Parties.

1959, Military rule began in Sudan. Lasting until 1964.

19 January 1956, Sudan joined the Arab league.

1 January 1956. Sudan became independent, having been administered jointly by Britain and Egypt.

18 August 1955, The Anyanya I Rebellion in Sudan, by southern Anyanyas against the northern Muslims, began.

Anyanya Rebellions of south began


1954, Sudan became self-governing.

13 October 1952, Egypt signed an agreement with Sudan on use of the water from the Nile.

25 June 1924, Britain said it would not relinquish control over the Sudan, despite Egyptian demands for it to do so.

14 May 1916, The Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition. Anglo-Egyptian forces sent to quell rebellion in the Sultanate of Darfur left Abiad to march on the main stronghold in El Fasher.

24 November 1899, Last Madhi resistance in Sudan was crushed.

19 January 1899. Britain and Egypt established a condominium over Sudan.


Sudan retaken by Europeans from the Madhi.

2 September 1898. Sir Herbert Kitchener led the 25,000-strong British forces to victory over the Mahdists at Omdurman, Sudan, killing 10,000 of the Dervish force, for 500 British deaths, and took Khartoum. This ended 14 years of Dervish rule after the Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad, had massacred General Charles Gordon and his entire garrison at Khartoum in 1885.

8 April 1898, The Battle of Atbara, Sudan. Madhists defeated by the British

7 August 1897, The town of Abu Hamid was captured by the British from the Mahdists, Sudan.

21 September 1896. Herbert Kitchener, who took control of the Anglo-Egyptian army in March 1896, with the aim of re-conquering the Sudan, took the town of Dongola.

17 July 1894. Italians took Kassala on the Eritrea/Sudan border from the Mahdists.


9 March 1889, King Yohannes IV was killed in the Battle of Metemma; Sudanese forces, almost routed, rallied and destroyed the Ethiopian Army.

20 December 1888, The Battle of Suakin, Sudan.


Mahdi victory in Sudan, Europeans expelled.

21 June 1885, In Sudan, the Mahdi died and was succeeded by the Khalifa Abdullah el Tasshi, who managed to conquer the entire country.

26 January 1885. General Gordon, British commander and Governor of the Sudan, was killed by a spear whilst besieged by the Mahdis at Khartoum. Two days after the city fell, a relief force under General Wolseley arrived.

17 January 1885. British forces marching to relieve General C G Gordon at Khartoum were attacked by the Mahdists, at Abu Klea, but repelled them.Khartoum fell to the Mahdis on 26 January 1885.

16 April 1884, The siege of Khartoum by the Mahdi began, see 26 January 1885.

29 March 1884, At the Battle of El Teb, or Trinkitat, British forces defeated the Mahdi in Sudan.

13 March 1884, At the Battle of Tamai, British forces defeated the Mahdi in Sudan.

18 February 1884. General Gordon, sent by the British to evacuate Khartoum, decided to stay there.

3 November 1883 Anglo-Egyptian forces under General Hicks were heavily defeated by Mahdist forces, causing a British withdrawal from the Sudan.

17 January 1883, In Sudan the city of El Obeid, under seige from the Mahdists, surrendered.

12 August 1881, In Sudan., the Madhi defeated British forces at the Battle of Aba.

1881, Muhammed Ahmed al Mahdi declared a Holy War against the British administration in Egypt.


27 June 1857, Sir Rudolf Slatin, Anglo-Austrian soldier and explorer in Sudan, was born near Vienna (died 1907)

1821, Northern Sudan was conquered by the viceroy of Egypt, Muhammad Ali. Much of the southern population died as a result of the slave trade. The city of Khartoum was established this year as a military camp.

641, Islamic armies conquered the lands south of Egypt. At that time the �Bilad al Sudan�, the Arabic term meaning �Country of Black Men�, encompassed all the Sahel, anywhere south of the Sahara.


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