Chronography of Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar
modified 17 January 2023
See also South-Central America for Spanish
colonial history in South America
Andorra � see Appendix 1
Gibraltar � see Appendix 2
Catalonia Independence Campaign,
End of ETA bombing campaign, 1980-2011
Spain liberalises post-Franco, 1975-80
Death of General Franco, 1975
Development of the Spanish
ETA activity 1959-75
Spain in World War Two, 1939-45
Spanish Civil War 1936-39
Civil conflict in Spain 1930-34
Civil conflict in Spain 1917-23
Civil conflict in Spain 1909-13
Civil conflict in Spain 1900-03
Second Carlist War 1870-76
First Carlist War 1833-1839
King Ferdinand VII 1814-33
French occupation of Spain � evicted by
Wellington, Peninsular War, 1808-13
King Charles� IV
� deposed by the French 1808; 1796-1806
King Charles III, 1759-1788
King Ferdinand IV, 1746-59
War of the Spanish Succession, 1700-15
King Philip III, 1598-1621
24 October 2019, Settling a long-standing controversy, the remains
Franco were exhumed from the mausoleum of the Valley of the Fallen
and reinterred in the family crypt at the Mingorrubio-El Pardo cemetery near
24 September 2019, Spain�s Supreme
Court ruled that Franco�s remains could be exhumed from the Valley of the
Fallen to a municipal cemetery.
13 September 2018, The Spanish
Parliament voted to exhume Franco�s remains from the Valley of te Fallen.
6.0, Catalonia Independence Campaign, 2010-17
21 December 2017, In a referendum sanctioned by Madrid, the two
pro-independence parties of Catalonia won a small total majority in the
135-seat Catalan Parliament; however the biggest single party was for union
27 October 2017, Catalonia
formally declared independence from Spain, just as Spain invoked Article 155 of its Constitution, never before
used, to enable it to take direct control of Catalonia and suspend its regional
1 October 2017, Catalonia
held a referendum, which was strongly opposed by the Spanish Government, on
independence. Madrid took down
web-based polling sites, and 4,000 police occupied and closed down over half
the polling stations. Pro-independence Catalans occupied, from Friday night,
the schools which were to be used as polling stations. There were riots in
Barcelona, with over 800 injured as police fired rubber bullets, which are
illegal in Catalonia but not in the rest of Spain. In the event 2.26 million
managed to vote, out of an electorate of just over 5 million. Of this turnout
of 43.6%, 92% voted
Yes to independence. Catalonia reasserted on 2 October 2017 that it would
declare independence: Spain said it would invoke Article 155 of its Constitution
to suspend and take over the regional government of Catalonia.
20 September 2017, Police in Catalonia arrested 14 Catalan government
officials suspected of organising the referendum, and seized 10 million ballot
papers. 40,000 people protested in Barcelona against the police actions.
6 September 2017, The Catalan Parliament approved the independence
referendum legislation after a heated 11-hour session in which 52 opposition
MPs walked out. The legislation was declared illegal by Madrid the following
day, but Catalonia vowed to go ahead with the poll.
9 June 2017, Carles
Puigdemont, recent successor to Mas
as regional President of Catalonia, announced he would hold an independence
referendum on 1 October 2017. Madrid denounced the referendum as illegal and
said it would block the poll by any means it could, legal and political.
9 November 2014, In Catalonia a poll was held by the regional
government on independence from Spain. The national government had already
declared it would not consider the poll result binding, and anti-separatists
boycotted the poll. 2.3 million voted out of an electorate of 5.4 million. Of
these, 1.6 million answered �yes� to both questions, �Do you think Catalonia
should be a State�, and �If so, should it be independent from Spain�. Artur Mas,
leader of the independence campaign, claimed a success. Catalonia complained
that as Spain�s wealthiest region, it contributed more to the State than it
received in return. The Spanish Prime Minister, Mr Mariano Rajoy of the Popular
Party, replied that money was short and Catalonia must wait until the general
11 September 2012, Over a million people peacefully protested on the
streets of Barcelona on Catalonia�s National Day, demanding independence from
Spain. This demonstration was to become an annual event.
28 October 2010, The Spanish Constitutional Court struck out parts of
a 2006 Charter on Catalan autonomy which increased the territory�s fiscal and
judicial powers, and described it as a �nation�. The Court ruled that the word
�nation� had no meaning and rejected the preferential use of Catalan over
Spanish in municipal services. Two weeks later hundreds of thousands protested
on the streets of Barcelona, chanting �We are a nation; we decide�.
17 August 2017, An Islamist terror attack killed 13 and injured over
100 in Barcelona. A vehicle was driven into pedestrians in Las Ramblas. In a
related incident, a car was intercepted by police in the resort of Cambrils;
several injuries occurred and the car occupants were killed.
27 October 2012, Large protests in Madrid against austerity cuts.
18 September 2012, Santiago Jos�
Carrillo Solares, Spanish Communist Party politician, died.
2007, Spain received
over 22,000 migrants from north Africa, and sought international aid to cope
11/3/2004 Terrorist bombs
killed 191 and injured 1200 more at Madrid�s main Atocha railway station and on trains outside the station
in the morning rush hour. Ten bombs in all exploded on four separate trains.
ETA, the Basque independence group, was blamed at
first but later blame shifted to a Moroccan group with links to Al Quaeda.
2002, Spain adopted
abolished conscription into the army.
5.0, End of ETA bombing campaign, 1980-2011
20 October 2011, Basque separatist militant organisation ETA declared an
end to its 43-year campaign of political violence, which had killed
over 800 people since 1968.
30 December 2006, The Basque
Nationalist group ETA detonated a bomb at Madrid-Barajas Airport, ending a 9-month ceasefire.
22/3/2006, The Basque terrorist group ETA announced a
permanent ceasefire in Spain.
16 September 1998, The
Basque guerrilla group ETA announced a �total and indefinite ceasefire� to take
effect from 18 September 1998.
19 February 1996, In Madrid, Spain, one million people
demonstrated against violence by the Basque separatist group ETA.
21 June 1993. Basque
separatists set off a car bomb in Madrid, killing 5 senior military officers in
a minibus. Two others were also killed, and 24 injured.
6 February 1992. The Basque separatist group ETA set off a
bomb in the centre of Madrid.
June 1987. 21 died and 45 were
injured in a Basque separatist car bomb in an underground car park in
Barcelona. Amongst the dead were several young children. The atrocity alienated
all but the most militant ETA supporters; with Franco gone, the organisation now lacked any real purpose.
25 June 1980, Basque terrorists exploded bombs on the Costa
Blanca, to disrupt the tourist trade.
3/1996, In Spanish general
elections, the ruling Socialist Party lost its overall majority, ending 13
years of power. The conservative Popular Party (PP) won, led by Jose Maria
Aznar, who formed a minority Government.
14 January 1990, 43 died in a fire in a disco in Saragosa,
14 December 1988, In Spain, 8 million workers went on strike
against government economic policies.
1986, Spain joined the EU.
28 October 1982, The Socialist Party won Spanish elections,
Gonzalez was elected Prime Minister.
30/5/1982. Spain joined NATO.�
She became the 16th member and the first to join NATO since West Germany
was admitted in 1955.
23 February 1981, In
Spain, Fascist army officers loyal to the memory of dictator Francisco Franco
stormed the Cortes (Parliament) ands held hundreds hostage. The rebel
Tejero de Molina, took the podium, gun in hand, to announce a coup.
Meanwhile the Francoist
General Jaime del Bosch, the man behind the coup, declared a state
of emergency in eastern Spain and mobilised his troops. King Juan Carlos, that evening,
made a TV broadcast saying he had ordered the army to suppress the revolt. King Carlos
was counting on the support of the people and most of the army. The return of
the Spanish monarchy after Franco�s
death in 1975 had brought the first free elections in Spain for 40 years. The Fascist rebels hesitated, and Spanish
democracy was saved.
29 January 1981, Adolfo Suarez resigned as Spanish Prime
Minister; succeeded 10 February 1980 by Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo.
4.0, Spain liberalises post-Franco, 1975-80
Spain a devolved Basque Parliament opened at Guernica.
25 October 1979, Referendums in
Spain approved devolution of power to Catalonia and Euzkadi (Basque region).
27 December 1978. Spain became a democracy as a new Constitution was approved, after
40 years of dictatorship. See 8 January 1982.
20 November 1978. An attempted military coup
in Spain failed.
28 July 1977, Spain formally applied to
15 June 1977, Spain held its first democratic elections, after 41 years of
dictatorship under Franco.
29 April 1977, Trades Unions were legalised in Spain for the first time since
9 April 1977. Spain legalised the Communist Party
after a 38-year ban.
22 November 1975. The Spanish monarchy was
restored following the death of General Franco. King Juan Carlos II became King of
Spain on 27 November 1975. See 30 October 1975.
3.0, Death of General Franco, 1975
20 November 1975. General
Franco, Spanish Head of State from 1936, died aged 82. He became
leader of Spain following the Spanish Civil War (1935-39), due to lack of
intervention by other European countries and the backing of Fascist Italy and
Germany. Franco stayed out of World War Two because Adolf Hitler would not agree to
cede France�s North African territories to Spain. In 1949 Franco
declared Spain to be a monarchy, although there was no monarch until, in 1954, he
declared that his heir would be Juan Carlos, grandson of the last Spanish
took Spain in a different political direction from Franco, adopting a democratic
constitution in 1978 after� referendum
showed 90% of Spaniards in favour of this.
30 October 1975. Prince Juan Carlos became acting
Head of State in Spain after dictator Franco
became ill. See 20 November 1975.
21 October 1975. Spain�s 82 year old General Franco suffered his third heart attack in
five days. He died on 20 November 1975. See 22 November 1975.
2.0, Development of the Spanish economy 1957-73
1973, Tourist arrivals in Spain numbered nearly 35 million, against just
over 4 million in 1959. Tourist income in 1973 wsas US$ 3,1 billion, against
US$ 125 million in 1959. The 1959 toursists came to see Spain�s culture and
history, the Prado and Alhambra. The 1973 tourists came for the sun, sand and
1970, 90% of Spanish homes had a TV set,
up from just 1% in 1960.
7 June 1957. A travel report published in London said a small fishing village called
Benidorm was the
place for summer holidays, with guaranteed sun and low prices. Tourist development in
Benidorm had just begun, with a German company building bed and breakfast
accommodation there. There were warnings that the bathrooms may be spartan,
with some taps only giving salt water.
1957, After two decades of
failed autarky, Franco brought in
technocrats who reformed the Spanish economy, creating a new middle class.
1.0, ETA activity 1959-75
28 September 1975, Spanish
dictator General Franco executed five
20 December 1973, The Spanish Prime Minister,
Blanca, was killed in Madrid by a Basque ETA bomb which blew his car
up. Every day Blanca
attended Mass at the same church at the same time then took the same route beck
to his office. This predictability enabled a group of five young ETA men,
pretending to be arts students, to rent a ground floor flat on his route then
dig a tunnel out under the road and detonate 80 kg of explosives as his car
passed overhead. The car seemed to have completely disappeared; it had in fact
been blasted over a four-storey building to land in the internal courtyard. Luis Blanca
had been chosen by General Franco
as his successor, and had promised to continue Franco�s
policies. Many Spaniards disliked this, not just the Basques, and after the
event jokes circulated about �Spain�s first astronaut� and a folk song went
�Whoops, there he goes�.
was set up to secure the independence of the Basque Country, by violence if
3 July 1974, In Spain, 15 were killed at an explosion at a munitions
works in Bilbao.
7 December 1971, Fernando Quiroga y Palacios, Archbishop of
Santiago de Compostela, died aged 71.
22 July 1969, Spanish dictator General
Franco named Juan Carlos, grandson of King Alfonso XIII, as his heir
24 January 1969, General Franco
imposed martial law in Spain.
20 December 1968. Franco
Carlos from Spain.
24 July 1968, A conference of Spanish bishops asserted the right
of Spanish workers right to strike and form independent trades unions.
17 January 1966, A US bomber aircraft on exercises was attempting
to refuel mid-air over Spain when an error resulted in the fuel boom from the
other aircraft clipping the bomber�s wing. The bomber crashed in flames; its
crew parachuted to safety. However the bomber was carrying four Hydrogen Bombs.
The Bombs were not armed so the electrical sequence necessary to detonate the
fission bomb that would have set off the Hydrogen bomb never initiated. In
other fortunate events, the parachutes on the bombs failed so they buried
themselves deep in the soil, limiting radiation dispersal, and a breeze carried
much of the radiation out to see as flaming bits of aircraft rained down in the
15 July 1957, General Franco
announced that the Spanish monarchy would be restored on his death or
1955, Spain joined the United
27 December 1950. US and Spain resumed diplomatic relations.
1949, Alejandro Lerroux, Populist
leader of Barcelona,
died (born 1864). He founded the Radical Republican Party in 1908.
6 July 1947. Spain voted to have a King when Franco
29/5/1946, Fernando Buesa, Spanish
politician, was born.
4/3/1946, The USA, Britain and France appealed to the
Spanish to depose General Franco.
0.0, Spain in World War Two, 1939-45
8 December 1945,
At the Nuremberg Trials it emerged that Hitler had expected the Spanish General Franco to seize Gibraltar from
9/5/1943, Franco, Fascist
dictator of Spain, which remained neutral during World War II, spoke in favour
of world peace, declaring that �neither the Axis nor the Allies could destroy
the other�. Franco, who had won the Spanish Civil War with assistance from both
Germany and Italy, spoke in the city of Almer�a as the Axis powers were
surrendering to the Allies in North Africa.
King of Spain, who had been forced into exile when Spain became a
Republic in 1931, died in Rome.
February 1941. Hitler made one
last appeal to Franco to enter the War. Franco declined, as Spain had not fully recovered from the Civil War. Franco therefore remained neutral and did not attack Gibraltar, but he did send
volunteers, the Spanish Blue Division, to the eastern front.
February 1941, General Franco
travelled to Bordighera, Italy, to meet Mussolini.�
Again Franco avoided any significant commitment to the Axis cause.
For main events of World War Two in
Europe see France-Germany
23 October 1940, General Franco travelled to Hendaye, France, to meet with
Franco avoided making a serious
commitment to the Axis cause.
8/5/1939. Spain left the League of
-1.0, Spanish Civil War 1936-39
1 April 1939. The US recognised Franco�s government in Spain.
29/3/1939, Franco was
named �Caudillo�, or �Leader of the Nation�.
Civil War ended. Franco entered
Madrid, after a siege of almost three years.
26/3/1939, The Nationalists
launched the Final offensive of the Spanish Civil War.
Cartagena Uprising (Spanish Civil War) began.
28 February 1939. Britain and France recognised Franco�s regime in Spain.
26 February 1939, 1,000 demonstrators marched from Trafalgar Square to Downing Street to
protest at the British government's imminent recognition of Franco�s regime
27 February 1939, British Prime Minister Neville
Chamberlain recognised the Franco Government in Spain.
22 February 1939, The Netherlands recognised
Government in Spain.
13 February 1939, France closed its border with Spain.
9 February 1939, In Spain, Franco�s
army, pursuing the fleeing Republicans north from Barcelona, reached the French
border. France had given refuge to the Republican forces, having confiscated
their vehicles and weapons.
5 February 1939, Large numbers of Spanish
Republican refugees started crossing the border into France.
30 January 1939, France opened
refugee camps for Republican women and children fleeing Barcelona after the defeat
of the Republicans there on 26 January 1939. By March 1939, these camps at
Argeles and other locations in SE France housed 250,000 refugees. This
population movement was known as the Retirada (withdrawal).
26 January 1939. Barcelona fell without resistance to the Nationalists under Franco, with
help from Italy. This doomed the Republican cause, which finally surrendered
on 28/3/1939. Barcelona had been the seat of an autonomous Catalan
government, established on 2 August 1936.
25 January 1939, The Juan Negr�n government fled
Barcelona. Another capital was set up in Figueres the following day.
13 January 1939, The Belgian Prime Minister
signed a trade deal with Franco�s Spain (Burgos Treaty).
3 January 1939, The Battle of the Segre ended in Nationalist victory in the Spanish
23 December 1938, Spanish Nationalist forces launched the Catalonia
5 July 1938, Spanish Republican supporters agreed to the
non-intervention plan and withdrew their forces from Spain; however the
Nationalist supports did not agree or withdraw. Defeat for the Republicans was now only a matter of time.
was bombed by General Franco�s aircraft in the Spanish Civil War.
3/5/1938, The Vatican recognised Franco�s
Government in Spain.
15 April 1938, In Spain, Nationalist
forces took the Mediterranean coastal town of Vinaroz, splitting the Republican
forces in Catalonia from those in south east Spain. See 22 February 1938.
3 April 1938. Franco took Lerida, a key town
Aviazione Legionaria began bombing Barcelona.
Click here for Spanish Civil War map, war situation 1938, just
before capture of Vinaroz.
22 February 1938, In Spain, Nationalist
forces recaptured Teruel. From here they drove to the sea, cutting Republican territory
in half, see 15 April 1938.
21 December 1937. Republicans captured Franco�s stronghold
5 December 1937, Spanish Republican forces
launched a major attack on Aragon.
1 December 1937, Japan recognised Franco�s
government in Spain.
28 November 1937. Franco
ordered the Spanish Republican
government forces to surrender by 12 December 1937 or face a massive offensive.
28 October 1937. The Spanish Government moved
from Valencia to Barcelona.
21 October 1937. Gijon, the last Republican stronghold in northern Spain, fell
to Franco�s forces.
28 August 1937, The Vatican declared
support for the Franco regime in Spain
25 August 1937, Franco�s
forces captured Santander.
10 August 1937, In the Spanish Civil War, the Regional Defence Council of Aragon was
6 August 1937, In Spain, Madrid came
under fire from Franco�s artillery.
5 July 1937, Spanish
Civil War, the Battle of Albarrac�n began.
1 July 1937, Spanish Bishops declared support for
29 June 1937, Italy and Germany opposed Anglo-French
patrols around the coast of Spain.
19 June 1937. Franco�s
forces captured Bilbao.
13 June 1937, The Nationalists came within two miles of Bilbao, capturing a range of
hills east of the city.
31/5/1937. The German fleet bombarded the Spanish port
26 April 1937. The German
air force destroyed the Basque city and cultural centre of Guernica, Spain. Thousands of
civilians died. It was market day in Guernica when the Germans raided, in support
of Franco�s Nationalists. The town was a communications centre with a munitions
factory, but the bombing with incendiaries was random; aircraft also raked the
town with machine gun fire. 1,000, mainly civilians, died.� 43 aircraft from the German Condor Legion,
Wolfgang von Richtofen, carried out the raid.� This became the scene of one of Picasso�s most famous paintings.
Franco�s forces began an offensive at Guadalajara.
April 1937, Major European powers agreed again in principle to a
non-intervention policy in Spain, with all foreign troops supposed to be
withdrawn from there. However Germany and Italy were determined not to withdraw
their troops until Franco�s
victory was certain.
forces defeated the Italians at Brihuega.
8/3/1937, Battle of Guadalajara, Spanish Civil
War. The Republicans
defeated the Nationalists under Franco and the
Italian Fascists under General Roatta.
8 February 1937. Malaga fell
to Franco�s forces,
helped by 15,000 Italians.
17 January 1937. The USSR refused to stop helping the Republican forces in Spain.
1 December 1936. German forces
landed at Cadiz to help Franco�s nationalist rebels.
18 November 1936, Hitler and Mussolini recognised Franco�s provisional government in Burgos.
7 November 1936. The Spanish
Government fled to Valencia.
6 November 1936, Franco�s forces
were besieging Madrid.
4 November 1936, In the
Spanish Civil War, the Nationalists
captured Getafe, near Madrid.
29 October 1936. Republican troops south of Madrid were
holding back Franco�s Nationalist forces.
28 October 1936, In the Republican-controlled areas of
Spain, agriculture was nationalised and Christian worship banned.
23 October 1936, Germany sent the �Condor� legion to Spain
to assist Franco�s
September 1936. General
44, was made head of the rebel Nationalist forces in Spain.
27 September 1936, In Spain, General
Franco�s troops captured Toledo.
September 1936. Franco�s troops
took Maqueda, between Madrid and Toledo.
9 September 1936, In London the first meeting
of a non-Intervention Committee, regarding the Spanish Civil War, was held.
Germany, Italy and Portugal agreed in principle to Anglo-French proposals for
non-intervention. However in fact German and Italy continued to supply the
4 September 1936, In Spain, General
Franco�s troops captured Irun and Talavera de
15 August 1936, Britain instituted an
embargo on arms exports to Spain.
4 August 1936. Badajoz was captured by the Spanish Nationalists
as they fought northwards. This cut off
the Republicans from the route to Portugal, and prepared the way for a nationalist advance on Madrid from the
north and west.
2 August 1936. An autonomous Catalan government was established in Barcelona. See 26
30 July 1936, In Spain, General Franco and General
Emilio Mola formed a Junta of National Defence, in effect a
28 July 1936, German aircraft arrived in
Morocco to airlift General Franco�s
army back to Spain. Two days later Italian aircraft also arrived to help in
26 July 1936, Comintern agreed to send
volunteers and money to support the Spanish Republicans.
24 July 1936. The Spanish government appealed
for foreign help in the Civil War.
18 July 1936. The Spanish Civil War began when the army, under Generals
Francisco Franco and Emilio Mola, revolted
against the Republican Government. The
army wanted to preserve traditional values and religion. Other mutinies began
across Spain. The conflict lasted three years.
17 June 1936, Army garrisons in Spanish
Morocco rebelled against the Spanish Government.
Spanish Civil War 1936
5 January 1938. King Juan Carlos I of Spain, who succeeded General Franco
as Head of State, was born.
7 October 1936, Aguirre was elected President of the Basque
Republic (Euskadi), honouring a promise for autonomy within Spain.
10/5/1936, Manuel Azana was elected President of Spain.
10 April 1936, The Spanish Parliament dismissed President
19 February 1936, The Spanish
Republic announced an amnesty for the rebels in the 1934 Asturian revolt.
16 February 1936. Victory for
the Left in Spanish elections. The Left won 256 seats against 165
for the Right and 52 for the Centre Parties. Manuel Azana became Prime
Minister; he restored the 1931 Spanish Constitution. Churches in Spain were
attacked and their land seized.
-2.0, Civil conflict in Spain 1930-34
8 October 1934. Despite
martial law, there was fierce fighting in Spain and Catalonia was trying to set up its own
government, with Barcelona as the capital.
October 1934, Catalonia attempted to declare independence from
Fighting broke out at the University of Madrid between socialists and fascists
shortly after a 48-hour general strike by students went into effect. Riot
police moved in to break up the clashes.
25 April 1934. Martial law was declared
in Spain as the government resigned.
14 January 1934, In Spain, the Left won in the Barcelona area but the Right won in all other regions
10 January 1933. Civil
disorder broke out in Spain and the army declared martial law.
2 January 1933, Anarchist
uprising in Barcelona.
10 August 1932, In Spain,
a revolt by General
Jose Sanjurjo in Seville was suppressed.
January 1932. A Communist uprising in northern
Spain was crushed.
11 June 1931. Martial law was imposed on 7 Spanish cities.
16 December 1930, A General
Strike began in Spain..
12 December 1930. The Spanish revolution began.
19 November 1933, In Spain, the CEDA (Spanish Confederation
of Right-Wing Groups) won the largest number of seats, 115, in the general
election. The Radicals won 102, Centre parties won 167, and the Left won 99.
CEDA and the Radicals formed a Government, led by Alejandro Lerroux.
29 October 1933, The
Falange Party, a Spanish version of fascism, advocating violence to gain its ends,
was launched by Jose
Antonio Primo de Rivera. The Party won just 0.7% of the vote in the
general elections of 16 February 1936; however the Falange then grew rapidly as Spanish middle-class youth, disillusioned
with the mainstream parties, joined it en
masse. Falange activists played
a key role in organising the street fighting that was a prelude to the Civil
war that broke out in July 1936; during the early stages of the Civil war
itself, the Falange controlled the
press and propaganda in the Natioinalist-controlled areas. However its leader, Jose Antonio,
was executed in Alicante jail in November 1936. In April 1937 General Franco
forcibly united the Falange with his
own Carlist Nationalist organisation.
17/5/1933, In Spain the Association
Law nationalised Church property, and closed Church schools.
25.9/1932, Catalonia in Spain became autonomous, with its own
Parliament, language and flag.
15 September 1932, In Spain, the Agrarian Law was passed, allowing for expropriation of private
estates, to be administered by a Bureau
of Agrarian Reform.
28 June 1931. Socialists won the Spanish general elections.
10/5/1931, Rioting in Spanish cities.
14 April 1931 King Alfonso XIII of Spain abdicated and left
Spain to settle in Rome, when the Republicans gained overwhelming success in
Spain�s municipal elections. He never formally abdicated the throne. Alfonso
(1886 �1941) had ruled Spain since 1902. Alfonso had supported the dictator Primo de Rivera,
who overthrew the Spanish Parliament in 1923; Rivera was ousted in 1930 and
the army also opposed Alfonso.
12 April 1931. In
Spain, elections showed a big majority for the Republicans.
XIII abdicated on 14
April 1931, and left for exile in Rome.
15 September 1930. The removal of press censorship in Spain brought
out demands for a Republic.
17 August 1930, In Spain, the Pact of San Sebastian was made
and Catalans. Catalonia was to have autonomy
if the Republicans
Spanish dictator Primo de Rivera died, aged 59, having fallen ill on 28
28 January 1930, In Spain
the dictator Primo
de Rivera resigned, after the Army withdrew support for him. General Damaso
Berenguer formed a Government.
17/3/1929, The Spanish
Government closed Madrid University because of student political agitation.
7 September 1926. Spain
left the League of Nations after being denied a permanent seat on the
25 February 1926, Franco became Spain�s youngest General, at age
16 October 1923, General Francisco Franco of Spain, aged 30,
del Carmen Polo y Martinez Valdez, aged 23, in Oviedo.
-3.0, Civil conflict in Spain 1917-23
14 September 1923, In Spain, Miguel Primo de Rivera became dictator, ruling under King Alfonso
12 September 1923, The garrison at Barcelona mutinied. In response, General Primo,
with the approval of King Alfonso XIII, suspended the constitution
and instituted a military government.
13 April 1921, The
Spanish Worker�s Communist Party was formed.
Prime Minister Eduardo
Iradier was assassinated by an anarchist.
1917, In Spain, the
Conferedacion Nacional Catolica-Agrario (CNCA) was set up by large
landowners, to combat the rising power of the rural and urban working classes.
The middle-c;lass, Conservative, religious, CNCA attracted the support of
smaller landowners particularly in northern and central Spain and by 1919
boasted 500,000 members. It supported the Right wing during the Spanish Civil
War. In 1942 it became the National Union of Rural Co-operatives (UNCC).
13 August 1917, In Spain,
revolted over demands for home rule.
1915, Franco, born 1892, became the
youngest Captain in the Spanish Army.
1914-1918, Spain remained neutral
27 November 1912. France and Spain agreed on their respective
spheres of influence in Morocco.
-4.0, Civil conflict in Spain 1909-13
1911, In Spain the Comferedacion
Nacional de Trabajo (CNT), a leftist-anarchist movement, was founded. It
became the largest trade union in Spain, drawing support from the Barcelona,
Madrid and Saragossa regions. However the CNT�s�
anarchist tendencies caused differences with the Republicans, and these
splits undermined the Leftist war effort against the Nationalists in the Civil
18 September 1911, A
General Strike began in Valencia, Spain.
13 October 1909, Yerren,
leader of the anti-clerical party in Spain, was executed.
1 August 1909, End of the �Tragic Week� in Barcelona; from 26 July 1909 over 100 civilians
had been killed and many buildings destroyed in rioting in Barcelona.
28 July 1909, Martial
Law was declared in Spain.
26 July 1909, A general strike began in Barcelona, lasting until
26 September 1909. There was rioting across Catalonia.
18 July 1909, Don Carlos,
claimant to the Spanish throne, died (born 30/3/1848).
3 April 1909, Pascual Cervera,
Spanish Admiral, died (born 18 February 1839).
signed the Cartagena Pact with Britain
to counter a perceived German threat to
annex the Balearic and Canary Islands.
19/5/1906, Joao Franco
became Prime Minister of Spain, with dictatorial powers.
10 April 1904, Isabella II,
Queen of Spain, died (born 10 October 1830).
-5.0, Civil conflict in Spain
2 April 1903, Violent
clashes between students and police in Spain.
Coronation of King
Alfonso XIII of Spain in Madrid as the young monarch came of age at
20 February 1902, Strikes
Spain; fighting left 500 dead.
17 February 1902, A
general strike in Barcelona and nearby towns led to military
reprisals that left 40 dead.
14/5/1901, End of
a General Strike in Barcelona, Spain, that had begun on 7/5/1901.
11/5/1900, Civil disorder in many Spanish cities, in
protest at new taxes.
25/5/1899, Emilio Castelar, Spanish politician, died
(born 8 September 1832).
24 June 1898, Jose de Elduayen, Spanish politician, died
(born 22 June 1823).
23 January 1896, Juan Camacho, Spanish statesman, died (born
31 July 1895, The Basque
Nationalist Party was founded by Sabino de Arana Goiri (1865-1903). He did much
to revive the Basque language, publishing newspapers, magazines, and books on
subjects ranging from grammar to history in this language. He also coined the
word Euzkadi for the Basque national
people, and designed the first Basque
national flag, the Ikurrrina.
4 December 1892, General Franco,
Spanish dictator, was born in El Ferrol.
17 April 1892, Easter Sunday; Joaquin Jovellar y Soler,
Captain-General of Spain, died (born 28 December 1819).
adopted universal (male) suffrage.
18 January 1890, Death of King Amadeus I of Spain (born
24 November 1885, Alphonso XII
of Spain died of tuberculosis, aged 27. He was later succeeded by his
posthumous son, Alphonso
XIII. Born in 1857, son of the exiled Queen Isabella, he was chosen as
monarch to succeed Amadeus of Aosta in 1874. He successfully
suppressed the Carlist Rebellion of 1876.
1881, Trades Unions were legalised.
8 January 1879, Baldomero
Espartero, Spanish soldier, died (born 27 February 1792).
24/5/1877, Ramon Cabrera,
Spanish General, died (born 27 December 1806).
-6.0, Second Carlist War 1870-76
2/1876, After a long siege of the Carlist-held Basque city
of Pamplona, it surrendered. Don Carlos III now fled to France. The Basque
region lost autonomy in taxation and military systems.
1875, The Carlists in Catalonia and aragon were subdued.
1 December 1874, The
XII of Spain issued a proclamation from Sandhurst announcing himself
as sole heir to the Spanish throne, and formally beginning his reign.
1/1874, The Spanish Republic (see 1873) collapsed and a
military dictatorship under General Francisco Serrano y Dominguez (1805-1885)
took power. The military now lifted the Carlist siege of Bilbao, and installed Isabella�s
XII (1857-85) as constitutiomnal King.
1873, As Spain proclaimed itself a Republic, Don Carlos III
(1848-1909), grandson of Don Carlos I and the 3rd Carlist Pretender
to the Spanish throne, revived the Carlist claims on the monarchy. The Basques
backed Don Carlos III in the north of Spain, whilst in the south the army was
split, with the Carlists captturing Alcoy, Seville, Cadiz and Valencia. They
also took Cartagena after a 4-month siege. See 1/1874.
12 February 1873, Amadeus I
of Spain abdicated and a Republic was
proclaimed. Foreign Minister Emilio Cistelar y Ripoli became Prime
5/1872, The Pretender to the Spanish throne, Don Carlos,
entered Navarre. However his forces were routed and he was forced to retreat
back into the Pyrenees.
26 April 1872, Don Carlos,
Duke of Madrid, was proclaimed King by Conservative supporters of the Carlist
branch of the Spanish Royal Family. He entered Spain in May 1872 but his frces
were repulsed by the ruling King, Amadeus I.
16 November 1870, Amadeus I
(1845-90), Duke of Aosta and son of King Victor Emmanuel of Italy, was elected
King of Spain. He attempted to govern
constitutionally but was thwarted by the existing undemocratic institutions of
the country. He abdicated in 1873 and retired to Italy as Duke of Aosta.
25 June 1870, Queen Isabella
of Spain abdicated. This precipitated the Franco-Prussian War. One possible candidate
for the vacant Spanish throne was the German Prince Leopold of
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. He was a Catholic, but France was alarmed at the thought
of a German monarch to its south as well as to the north. Her abdication also precipitated te Second Carlist War in 1873.
5 October 1868, In Spain, Marshal Juan Prim formed a provisional
Government. Universal suffrage and a free press were established, and the
Jesuits were banned.
29 September 1868, Queen
Isabella fled Spain into France.
18 September 1868, Admiral
Juan Batista Topete y Carballo proclaimed
the end of absolutist rule in Spain.
17 September 1868, In Spain, the Liberal military staged a coup against Queen Isabella.
23 April 1868, Ramon
Maria Narvaez, reactionary Prime Minister of
Spain, Duke of Valencia, died.
November 1861, Pedro
V of Portugal died of cholera aged 24. He was succeeded by his
23-year-old brother, Luiz I.
21 July 1858, Maria Christina, Queen-Regent
of Spain, widow of Alphonso XII and mother of Alphonso XIII, was born.
10/3/1855, Don Carlos, claimant to the
Spanish throne, died (born 29/3/1788).
Godoy, Spanish statesman, died (born 12/5/1767).
Carlos relinquished his right to the Spanish Crown in favour
of his son.
13/5/1844, Spain set up a military peacekeeping force, the Guardia Civil.
25 October 1839. Spain passed a law removing all
independence from the Basque provinces. This law was applied to Navarre in
1841, and to Alava, Guipuzcoa, and Vizcaya in 1876, and converted these into
provinces of Spain.
-7.0, First Carlist War 1833-1839
31 August 1839, The Carlist commander, Maroto
(1785-1847), withoiut authority from Don Carlos, signed the Convention of Vergara,
effectively surrendering to the Cristinists
in return for an amnesty and autonomy for the Basque and Navarre provinces. Don Carlos
and some Carlists then fled to Bourges, France. Some carlist fighters remained
in Catalonia, under Father Ramon Cabrera (1806-77), until finally
routed by Espartero
in July 1840.
18 February 1839, Pascual Cervera, Spanish
Admiral, was born (died 3 April 1909).
24 December 1836, Francisco Mina, Spanish soldier
who resisted the French invasion in 1808, died (born 17 June 1781).
10 August 1836, The Carlist War spread
with insurrections in Catalonia, Aragon and Madrid. Queen Maria Cristina, wife of
the late King
Ferdinand VII and Rehgent for her daughter Isabella, was forced to restore
the Liberal Constitution of 1812 in order to muster support against the
Conservative claimant to the throne, Don Carlos.
1835, The Carlist leader, General Tomas
Zumalacarregui (1788-1835), gained several victories until he was
wounded in the leg at an unsccesful siege of Bilbao and died of incompetent
medical treatment. The Cristinists now gained victory mnder General Baldomero Espartero
(1792-1879), assisted by Britain�s �Spanish legion� and the French Foreign
Carlos was forced to withdraw from Madrid in 1837. See 31 August 1839.
1835, Anti-clerical riots in Barcelona.
Doiscontent at the result of a bullfight sparked disturbances in which 7,000
male clergy (but only a small number of nuns) were massacred and many churches
were destroued, and in others, images were broken.
15 July 1834, The Spanish Inquisition, founded
in 1478, was disbanded.
7 July 1834, Don Carlos,
second son of Charles
IV of Spain, formally laid claim to the Spanish throne against his
infant neice Queen
1833, The First
Carlist War began. On the death of King Ferdinand VII (1784-1833), the Spanish
throne has passed to his daiughter, Queen Isabella II (1830-1904). However Ferdinand;s brother., Don Carlos (1788-1855) opposed this succession on
the grounds of the Salic Law proscriboing female succession, The
conservative clergy supported the Carlists against Isabella, as did much of
northern Spain, including the Basques, Catalonia Aragoin and Navarre. The Spanish
Govermnment, now ruled by Isabella�s mother Maria Cristina (1806-78)� as Regent. The liberal Cristinists, gained the support
of Portugal, France and Britain in a Quadruple alliance against the Carlists.
-8.0, King Ferdinand VII 1814-33
29 September 1833, Ferdinand VII,
King of Spain, died, aged 48. He was succeeded by his 2-year old daughter, Isabella II.
Ferdinand�s brother, Don Carlos,
claimed the throne, threatening civil war.
8 September 1832, Emilio Castelar,
Spanish politician, was born (died 25/5/1899).
14 December 1831, Arsenio Campos,
Spanish statesman (died 1900) was born.
October 1830, Isabella II, Queen of Spain, was born.
24 February 1829, Cadiz was
made a free port.
Deposition of Ferdinand VII, 1822-23. French military action
to restore him.
23 September 1823, French troops,
suppressing a rebellion in Spain, took Cadiz. The rebels surrendered Ferdinand VII, who was
restored to the Spanish throne.
31 August 1823, At the Battle
of the Trocadero, French troops defeated Spanish rebels under Colonel Rafael
del Riego y Nunez (1785-1823).
22 June 1823, Jose de
Elduayen, Spanish politician, was born (died
24 June 1898).
17 April 1823, The rest of Europe was alarmed
at the rise of counter-monarchist forces in Spain, and authorised France to
invade to restore King Ferdinand VII. This day French forces under Louis Antpoine de Bourbon, Duke of Angoulmeme (1775-1844) crossed
the Pyrenees into Spain, welcomed by the Basques and Catalans. He then sent
some forces to besiege San Sebastian whilst directing his main attack on
30 June 1822, In Spain,
rebels took King Ferdinand VII prisoner.
7/3/1820, King Ferdinand
VII of Spain was forced to restore the Loiberal constitution of� 1812 after a rebellion led by Colonel Farael
28 December 1819, Joaquin
Jovellar y Soler, Captain-General of Spain, was born (died 17 April 1892).
20 January 1819, Charles IV
of Spain died (born 11 November 1748).
1814, By decree, Spain exiled the �Afrencesados�, some
10,000 in number, the Spanish politicians and intellectuals who had supported Napoleon
and the reforms he introduced to Spain during his occupation of the country. King
Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne, which he held until 1833.
occupation of Spain � evicted by Wellington, Peninsular War, 1808-13
31 October 1813, Spanish forces took
Pamplona in Navarre.
21 June 1813. The victory of Wellington
at Vitoria in the Peninsular War. Spain was lost by the French. Napoleon had deposed the Spanish monarch and replaced him with
his own brother, Joseph. However this act provoked major Spanish popular
resistance against France and led to Napoleon�s defeat there.
10 June 1813, The Duke of
Wellington made a second attack on the French in Burgos, this time
taking the city in two days.
Liberalisation of Spanish politics
Spanish Cortes (Parliament) promulgatred a Liberal Constitution with universal
4 December 1808. Napoleon abolished the Spanish Inquision.
22 October 1812, First attempt by the Duke of
Wellington to capture Burgos, Spain (Pensinsular War) went badly. He
began the siege on 19 September 1812, but 2,000 of his troops were killed,
against 600 French. The siege was lifted this day.
16/5/1811, The Battle
of Albuera in Spain, at which a combined English (under Sir Arthur Wellesley), Portuguese, and Spanish force
defeated the French under Marshal Soult. This was part of the Peninsular War.
5/5/1811, French defeated by the British at the Battle of Fuentes d�Omoro, Portugal.
10/3/1811. During the Peninsular War, Badajoz
was surrendered to the French after its Spanish Commander had been
bribed into the capitulation. The French had unsuccessfully attacked Badajoz in
1808 and 1809.
19 February 1811, Battle of Gebora
(Peninsular War). The French under Marshal Soult roiuted the Spanish under Mendizabal.
January 1809, The British won a rearguard action against the French, under Nicolas Soult, at Corunna in the
Peninsular War. Britain had
invaded Spain in the hope of raising anti-Napoleonic support but found this
lacking. Corunna enabled the British forces to be successfully evacuated. However
the British commander, Sir John Moore, was killed in this battle
12/5/1809, The Duke of Wellington crossed the
Douro River (Pensinsular War) �and drove
the French under Marshal Soult out of Oporto.
28/3/1809, Battle of Medellin
(Peninsular War). The French under Marshal Victor heavily defeated the Spanish
For more events of Peninsular
War, see France-Germany
21 December 1808, Battle of Molinos del Rey, Peninsular War. The French under General St Cyr defeated the Spanish under Reding.
20 November 1808, Don Jose Floridablanca, Spanish statesman,
died (born 1728).
21 August 1808, British troops under Wellington
defeated the French under General Junot.� This was at the Battle of Vimiero, during the Peninsular War.� The Peninsular War absorbed some 300,000 of Napoleon�s
best troops, and� was ended when Napoleon
heard reports that Austria, backed by Britain, was arming against him.
August 1808, A British Army under Sir Arthur Wellesley, future
Duke of Wellington, arrived in Portugal to support Spanish fighters against
July 1808, Spanish fighters defeated French General Dupont
de l�Etang, whose army was poorly equipped, at Bailen in southern
2/5/1808. The people of Madrid
rebelled against Napoleon�s rule. The French had replaced the Spanish monarch, �with Napoleon�s
elder brother, Joseph. Moreover, Marshal Joachim
Murat proposed removing the children of the Royal Family to France.
This precipitated a riot with a crowd assembled at the Royal Palace to prevent
this removal. The French dealty with the protest harshly, killing many, which
merely inflamed matters further.
23/3/1808, French forces
-10.0, King Charles� IV � deposed by the French 1808;
27 December 1806, Ramon Cabrera,
Spanish General, was born (died 24/5/1877).
21 October 1805. Battle of Trafalgar.
Death of Nelson. Nelson blockaded the combined
fleets of France and Spain in Cadiz. The French Admiral, Villeneuve,
attempted to break out, but British ships sank or captured most of the French
and Spanish ships. The French had planned to link up with the Spanish fleet
in the West Indies and so lure the British into giving chase across the
Atlantic. However Nelson guessed at the French tactics and the
Admiralty was warned. A British fleet under Calder found the French fleet
off Cape Finistere and they put into Spanish harbours. The French fleet later
emerged to sail, not for Britain, but to return to the Mediterranean. The
French were intercepted off Cape Trafalgar, and destroyed in the Battle of
3 February 1802, Arsenio Campos, Spanish
statesman (born 1 July 1723) died.
12 July 1801, British Admiral James
Saumarez defeated a larger French-Spanish fleet off the coast of
Morocco in the Second Battle of Algecieras.
6 July 1801, The English
and Spanish fleets fought an inconclusive battle off Algeciras.
August 1800, Ramon Narvaez, Spanish statesman, was born
(died 23 April 1868).
1798, The British again seized Majorca, holding it until
1803 when it
was ceded to Spain by the Peace of
9 January 1798, Pedro Aranda,
Spanish politician, died in Epila (born 1 August 1719 in Sietamo).
For more events of the Napoleonic Wars see
14 February 1797. Horatio Nelson and Admiral Jervis
defeated the Spanish fleet off Cape St Vincent, south west Portugal.
allies with Napoleonic France; a move opposed by many Spanish citizens
5 October 1796. Spain declared war on
Britain by signing the Treaty of San Il Defonso, allying it with Revolutionary France. The
Treaty was engineered by Spanish Prime Minister Manuel de Godoy, lover of King Charles IV�s wife Maria Luisa.
was opposed to monarchist Britain.
Many ordinary Spanish opposed the Treaty, which diminished Spain as an imperial
power and weakened her influence in The Americas.
19 August 1796, France and Spain signed an
alliance against Britain at Ildefonso, Spain. This was effectively a renewal of
the 1761 Family Compact between the Bourbon rulers of the two countries.
-11.0, King Charles
14 December 1788, King Charles III of Spain died
aged 72 after an enlightened reign of 29 years during which he had encouraged
industrial growth, constructed new roads and canals, improved sanitation and
suppressed lawlessaness. His firstborn son was epileptic and therefore was
passed over for the succession in favour of his lazy 40-year-old second son,
who ruled until 1808 as King Charles IV.
14 October 1784, Ferdinand VII, King of Spain,
29 June 1784, Alexandre Aguado, Spanish
soldier and politician, was born in Seville (died 14 April 1842 in Gijon).
5 February 1782, Spain captured Minorca
17 June 1781, Francisco Mina, Spanish soldier
who resisted the French invasion in 1808, was born (died 24 December 1836).
2 December 1781, Cenon Ensenada, Spanish
statesman, died (born 2 June 1702).
12/5/1767, Alvarez Godoy, Spanish statesman, was born
(died 4 October 1851).
1763, Britain recovered Majorca from the French, holding it until
the Spanish took control.
2 January 1762, Britain
declared war on Spain, three months after William Pitt resigned
10 August 1759, Ferdinand VI, King of Spain,
died aged 45 after a 13-year reign. He was succeeded by his half-brother aged
43, who ruled until 1788 as Charles III.
Ferdinand IV, 1746-59
10 August 1759, Ferdinand VI, King of Spain,
died aged 45 after a 13-year reign. He was succeeded by his half-brother aged
43, who ruled until 1788 as Charles III.
14/3/1757, Admiral John Byng was executed by firing squad
on the Monarque at Portsmouth, for his failure to relieve the island of Minorca, under attack by the French, at the start of the Seven Years War. In fact his fleet
was probably inadequate for the task; having failed to prevent a French landing
on Minorca, he took advice to leave the British garrison to its fate.
20 May 1756, During
the Seven Year�s War, Britain lost Minorca to the French.
1756, A force of 12,000 French invaded Majorca, ousting
11 November 1748, Charles IV
of Spain was born (died 20 January 1819).
9 July 1746, Philip V, King of Spain, died, insane, aged 62. He reigned for 46 years. He was
succeeded by his son, Ferdinand VI, who reigned until 1759.
11 April 1743, Jose del
Campillo, Spanish statesman, died (born 1695).
12 June 1727, Spain lifted the siege of Gibraltar (imposed 11
17 January 1724, King Philip V of Spain abdicated.
17 February 1720, By the
Treaty of the Hague, the Allies forced King Philip V of Spain to renounce his claim
on Sicily; also Victor
Amadeus II of Savoy gave up Sicily to Austria in exchange for
Sardinia (see 2 August 1718).
1 August 1719,� Pedro Aranda, Spanish politician, was born in
Sietamo (died 9 January 1798 in Epila).
11 August 1718, Admiral Byng
destroyed the Spanish fleet off Cape Passaro.
2 August 1718, A Quadruple Alliance was formed between Britain,
against Spain, after Spain seized
Sardinia and Sicily, threatening another European war. Under the Treaty of
Utrecht (11 April 1713) Sardinia had been assigned to Austria and Sicily to Savoy
(see also 17 February 1720). �However King Philip V
of Spain, influenced by his wife Elizabeth Farnese of Parma and
her advisor Giulio
Alberoni, seized these islands. Admiral Byng was sent to defend Sicily, with
Austrian troops. In a sea battle off Cape Passaro, he totally destroyed the
Spanish fleet. Meanwhile French troops occupied northern Spain. The purpose of the Quadruple Alliance were, to maintain
the terms of the Peace of Utrecht, for Spain to renounce any claim to the
French throne, and to guarantee the Protestant succession in Britain. The four
powers would also assist each other if any were attacked. Spain initially
backed a Jacobite invasion of Britain, but after the dismissal of Cardinal
Alberoni in December 1719 Spain changed policy and joined the
Alliance, which provided a forum to discuss territorial disputes in Europe.
of the Spanish Succession, 1700-15
its independence to Spain, Madrid declared the Catalan language illegal.
11 September 1714, Spanish troops under King Felipe V
The Catalans had been abandoned by their allies, the Germans and English,
during the War of the Spanish Succession and were forced to defend
themselves or surrender. Tye 11th September is now the National Day of
Majorca came under British rule by the Peace of Utrecht.
23 September 1713, Ferdinand VI, King of Spain, was
10 December 1710, The Battle of Villaviciosa.
French victory over Imperial forces.
11 September 1709, At the Battle of
Malplaquet in northern France, near Mons, The Duke of
Marlborough and Prince Eugene won a costly victory over the
French in the War of the Spanish Succession.
31 August 1709, Battle of Malplaquet began.
18 August 1708, The British occupied
12 July 1708. The French were defeated
at Oudenarde in western Belgium, by Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy. Marlborough
also captured Lille after a four-month siege.�
This was during the War of the Spanish Succession.
30 June 1708, Battle of Oudenarde began.
25 April 1707, The Battle of Alamanza, fought during the War
of the Spanish Succession. The British and the Dutch together defeated the
more events of the War of Spanish
Succession, see France-Germany
29 June 1706, Battle of Alicante, War of the Spanish Succession. British Admiral Sir Geoirge
Byng, commanding a fleet of 5 ships, attacked the city walls,
causing severe damage.
23/5/1706, The Battle
of Ramillies, between Louvain and Namur in Belgium.� Allied British and Dutch armies under Marlborough
intercepted a French offensive. 15,000 French and 5,000 Allied soldiers died.
The result of Ramillies was that
Brussels, Antwerp and most of the Spanish Netherlands surrendered. By the end
of 1706 the French held only Namur and Mons in The Netherlands.
4 October 1705, Lord Peterborough captured Barcelona.
12/ September 1703, Hapsburg Archduke Ferdinand was proclaimed King of Spain, War of the Spanish
Succession began. France had already, in 1701, begun to occupy key
fortresses in the Spanish Netherlands, following the death of the Spanish
II on 2/10./1700, with no heir.
12/ September 1703, The Hapsburg Archduke Ferdinand was
proclaimed King of Spain, War of the Spanish Succession
2 June 1702, Cenon Ensenada, Spanish statesman, was born
(died 2 December 1781).
End of the Spanish Hapsburg line: War
of the Spanish Succession
2 October 1700, The Spanish monarch, Charles II,
died, aged 39, with no heir. England,
Austria and Holland were alarmed that Charles had named Philip, Duke of Anjou,
as his successor; these nations had agreed that Joseph
Ferdinand, Prince of Bavaria, should get the Spanish Crown. Spanish
territory would be ceded to buy off the rival French� and Austrian claimants to the throne, Philip
the second grandson of King Louis XIV and Archduke Charles, second son of
Emperor Leopold I. However Ferdinand predeceased the Spanish King,
who was physically and mentally handicapped, was susceptible to the
influences of the French Court. War
seemed inevitable, see 12 September 1703, 17 September 1665.
25 October 1692, Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, was born
15 August 1684, The Truce of Ratisbon (or,
Truce of Regensburg) ended the War of the Reunions between Spain and the Holy
Roman Empire on one side and France on the other. The War of the Reunions (1683�84) was a conflict between France, Spain
and the Holy Roman Empire, with limited involvement by Genoa. It can be seen as
a continuation of the 1667�1668 War of Devolution and the 1672�1678
Franco�Dutch War, which were driven by Louis
XIV's determination to establish defensible
boundaries along France's northern and eastern borders.
19 December 1683, Philip V, King of Spain, was born.
2/5/1668, Treaty of
Aix la Chapelle ended the War of Devolution between France ans Spain.
France returned most of the gains it had made from Spain in The Spanish
13 February 1668, Spain recognised Portugal as an independent
17 September 1665, Philip IV, King of Spain, died, aged 60. He was succeeded by his 4-year-old son,
was crippled by rickets; he ruled for 35 years, the last of the Spanish Hapsburgs.
6 November 1661, King Charles II
of Spain was born.
7 November 1659. The war between France and Spain ended. France gained northern Catalonia, under the
Treaty of the Pyrenees. Spain�s treasury was empty and England had joined
on the side of the French.
4 June 1658, The Battle of the Dunes was fought near Dunkirk. Marshal Turenne
commanded the French and English armies, against the Spanish under Don Juan of
Austria and the Prince of Conde. The Spanish were attempting
to relieve Dunkirk, which Turenne was besieging. The Spanish were defeated, and
Dunkirk surrendered to the French.
14 January 1659, The
Battle of Elvas practically ensured Portuguese independence from Spain.
30 January 1648. To free
his forces for the war against France, Philip IV of Spain made peace in the United
Provinces at Munster. Spain therefore made major concessions. The United
Provinces (Netherlands) were recognised as independent by Spain, all Dutch
conquests were recognised, and freedom of trade in the East and West Indies was
Spain prepares for further war against France by making concessions to
the United Provinces (Netherlands)
in Palermo against the salt tax.
22 July 1645, In Spain,
Guzman, Count of Olivares and Chief Minister of Spain 1623-43, died.
24 January 1643, Gaspar de
Guzman, Count Olivares, Chief Minister to King Philip IV of Spain, was
removed from office following revolts in Catalonia and Portugal.
18 January 1641, Pau Claris proclaimed the Catalan Republic.
12/5/1640, Catalonia began a 19-year revolt against
Spain, in protest at high taxes and suppression of Catalan
21 October 1639, Battle of
the Downs. A Dutch fleet under Maarten Tromp defeated the Spanish in The
Channel, effectively ending Spain�s role as a major naval power.� Spain was weakened by the breakaway of
Portugal, and the rise of France.�
Spain�s colonial quarrels with the Dutch, in Brazil and the Portuguese
spice islands, were now superseded by these areas now being under Portuguese
15 August 1636, The Spanish besieged Corbie, France.
19/5/1635, France declared war on Spain.� Spain initially had success, capturing
Corbie, near Amiens.� However the
Spaniards did not follow up their successes and faced with revolts in Portugal
and Catalonia, lost Artois and Roussillion.
7/1624, The Count-Duke of Olivares
proposed that a Spanish force of 140,000 men be raised from each State of
Spain, in proportion to its wealth. The plan was intended to ease the burden on
Castile, which until then had born most of the burden of defence. There was trong
reistance from Aragon, especially Catalonia, this leading to the Revolt of
Catalonia in 1640.
30 August 1623, Charles, Prince of Wales, and the Duke of
Buckingham left� Madrid after
the breakdown of negotiations for the Prince�s marriage to the Infanta. In
December 1623 King
James I of Englmnd broke off the marriage treaty and in March 1624
England was at war with Spain.
21 October 1621, Rodrigo Calderon, Spanish adventurer, died.
-14.0, King Philip III, 1598-1621
31/3/1621, Philip III, King of Spain, died aged 42 after a 23-year reign. He was succeeded
by his 15-year old son, who ruled as Philip IV until 1665.
9 October 1617, The Treaty of Pavia was
signed, between Spain and Savoy.� Savoy
returned Monferrato to Mantua.
27/3/1615, Marguerite de Valois, Queen of Navarre, died.
22 September 1609, In Spain the Duke of Lerma,
Chief Minister of King Philip III, expelled the Moors and
Moriscos. Some 300,000 fled to the Maghreb over the next 5 years.
19 November 1607, King Philip III of Spain declared
the Spanish Crown bankrupt. This endangered the Banco san Giorgio of Genoa.
8 April 1605, Philip IV, King of Spain, born.
18 August 1604, The Treaty of London was
signed ending the Anglo-Spanish War.
13 September 1598, King Philip II of Spain died
after a reign of over 40 years, aged 71. Spain
had acquired great wealth from its conquest of South America, but had squandered it in a series of wars, and had
suffered the defeat of the Great Armada. He was succeeded by his fourth
wife�s fourth son, Philip III.
2/5/1598, The Treaty of Vervins ended the Franco-Spanish
troops withdrew from Picardy.
29 November 1596, Spain admitted that the Royal Treasury
was bankrupt, drained by a series of wars and especially the attempt to
invade England. Revolts
against Spanish rule in the Americas were also costly.
30 June 1596, Lord Howard of Effingham and Robert Devereux,
Earl of Essex, led an expedition to sack Cadiz and attack other Spanish coastal
13 April 1589, Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norrys sailed form
Plymouth with 150 ships and 18,000 men to attack Spain and invade Portugal.
They destroyed the Spanish port of Corunna, but were repulsed at Lisbon. The
expedition was a failure.
10 August 1585, Elizabeth I of England signed the Treaty of
Nonsuch, promising 64,000 foot soldiers, 1,000 cavalry, and 600,000 florins a
year to support Protestant rebels in The Netherlands against Spain. Although Elizabeth
disliked involvement in foreign European wars, the Spanish presence in The
Netherlands was too close to England to ignore. King Philip II of Spain, who had laid
siege to Antwerp in 1584, saw this Treaty as a declaration of war.
See Great Britain
for events of 1588 Spanish Armada
1584, The Escorial Palace was completed (construction began 1559), near Madrid,
14 April 1578, Philip III, King of Spain, was born.
31/3/1578, Juan de Escovedo, Spanish politician, was
17 September 1574, Pedro Aviles, Spanish naval adventurer, died
(born 15 February 1519 in Aviles, Asturia).
15 June 1572, Jeanne III, Queen of Navarre, died.
25 December 1568, Revolt by the
Moriscos in Andalusia, Spain. The Moriscos were Muslims who had been forced
to convert to Christianity; however they continued to speak, write, and dress
as Muslims, and therefore came under heavy persecution., King Philip II of Spain
(1527-98) forbade their language amnd traditions in 1566. The Moriscxos
inflicted heavy damage at Granada; in retaliation Spanish troops slaughtered
many of them at the Alfajarali Pass in 1569. By 1`571 the Morisco rebellion was
totally suppressed. However the Moriscos, scattered across Spain, continued
their Muslim culture until 1609, when they were expelled to North Africa.
24 July 1568, Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias, died (born 8
23 April 1563, King Philip II of Spain began construction of
1561, Madrid was established as the
2 April 1559, The Peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending the wars of Holy Roman
Emperor Charles V in Europe. Italy was recognised as a
Spanish sphere of influence, and Franche Comte was to be part of the Spanish
monarchy. French possession of Metz, Toul and Verdun was confirmed. A strategic
marriage was arranged between King Philip II of Spain and Elizabeth
Valois, daughter of King Henry II of France.
10 August 1557, The Battle of St Quentin. Spanish forces under the Duke of Savoy
defeated the French under the Constable of Montmorency. The French were
driven out of Italy.
25 October 1556, Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman
Emperor, retired to a Spanish monastery, dividing his possessions between his
son and his brother.
16 January 1556, Emperor Charles V handed over government of
Spain to his son Philip, who ruled as Philip II of Spain.
25/5/1555, King Henry II of Navarre died (born 1503).
11 April 1555, Joanna, Queen of Castille, died (born 6
14/5/1553, Marguerite de Valois, Queen of Navarre, was
10 September 1550, Medina Sidonia,
commander of the Spanish Armada, was born (died 1615).
21 September 1549, Marguerite d�Angoulmeme, Queen of Navarre,
8 July 1545, Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias, was born (died
24 July 1568).
12 January 1539, The Treaty of Toledo was signed by Charles V
(Holy Roman Emperor, and King of Spain), and Francis I (King of France).� Each agreed to make no further alliances with
England.� The origin of this Treaty was
the dispute between King Henry VIII of England and Pope Paul III.
23 February 1530, Carlos I of Spain was crowned Charles V
of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Italy by Pope Clement V.
22 April 1529, The Treaty
of Saragossa divided the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, along a north-south line 17 degrees
9297.5 leagues) east of the Moluccas.
14 April 1527, King Philip of Spain was born; in 1588 he sent
an Armada against England but was
18 October 1526, Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, Spanish adventurer,
21/5/1526, King Philip II was born in Valladolid, Spain.
He was the son of Emperor Charles V, and ruled over Spain at the
peak of its power.
24 February 1525. The Battle of Pavia.
Pavia, held by the French, had been under siege by Spanish forces
since October 1524. Italy itself was a territory being fought over by the rival
powers of France, Germany, Turkey and Spain. The French under King Charles
VIII defended Pavia with cavalry and cannon, but the Spanish had adopted
the arquebus or hackenbushe, an early version of the handgun; this weapon
replaced the Spanish crossbow. The
arquebus meant an unskilled infantryman could kill a skilled knight and Pavia
was the start of the dominance of the handgun as a military weapon.
24 April 1521, In Spain, the Communeros rebel leaders were executed.
23 April 1521, Comuneros uprising in Spain, against the autocratic rule of
King Charles I (1500-58). On this day the Comuneros were defeated at Villalar;
the movement�s leaders were subsequently captured and arrested. Charles�s
autocratic powers were increased.
14 July 1520, The Communeros Revolt in Spain began, against abolition of
ancient rights by the Habsburgs.
15 February 1519, Pedro Aviles, Spanish naval adventurer, was
born in Aviles, Asturia (died 17 September 1574).
1517, Aragon became part of a united Spain.
8 November 1517, Cardinal Jimenez de Cisneros, recently
appointed Regent of Spain, died. The Habsburgs now ruled Spain; Charles I,
grandson of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, made a triumphal entry into
13 August 1516, The Treaty of Noyon. Charles I, newly crowned King of Spain (later Emperor Charles
V), made peace with France, recognising French control of Milan in
return for French renunciation of its claims over Naples.
23 January 1516, Ferdinand V, King of Castile and Leon, also Ferdinand II of Aragon,
died aged 63. He was succeeded by his 16-year old grandson, Carlos I, then a
student in Flanders.
2 December 1515, Gonzalo Cordoba., Spanish military commander,
died (born 16/3/1453).
4 August 1511, The Portuguese explorer, Alfonso de Aberquerque, captured
Malacca, now in Malaysia.
This gave Portugal control over the strategic Strait of Malacca, through which
all trade between China and India passed.
12/3/1507, Cesare Borgia died at the siege of Viana in
25 September 1506, Philip the Handsome, King of Spain, died suddenly aged 28, at Burgos. His
wife went mad after his death. Her father Ferdinand II of Aragon ruled as Regent of Castile, as Ferdinand V.
Columbus, Italian navigator who discovered the New World in 1492, died
aged 55 in Valladolid, Spain. See 3 August 1492. He was virtually penniless.
However his discovery of favourable winds in both directions across the
Atlantic opened up the way for European exploration of the New World.
24 November 1504, Isabella, Queen of Castille and Leon, died
aged 53. She was succeeded by her daughter Juana and Juana�s husband, Philip. However they remained in
Flanders, and Ferdinand
21 April 1503, The Battle of Cerignola, Italy.�
The Spanish under Gonzalo
Fernandez de Cordoba defeated the French under the Duc de Nemoura, who was
killed.� This was the first battle
considered to have been won by gunpowder and small arms.
23 February 1503, At the
Battle of Ruvo, the Spanish defeated the French.
20 January 1503, Seville,
in Castille, was awarded exclusive rights to trade with the New World.
Columbus left on his fourth voyage of exploration, returning
on 7 November 1504.
12 February 1502. Spain
expelled all Moors (Muslims) who had not been baptised as Christians.� See 30/3/1492
5/5/1500, Moorish revolt in Spain, following the forced mass conversions to
Catholicism by Cardinal Cisneros and the Inquisition, was suppressed by King Ferdinand II.
7 June 1498. Christopher Columbus
left on his third journey of exploration.
25 December 1495, At the Second Battle of Acentejo, Spanish
forces crushed the natives of the island of Tenerife, destroying the last
bastion of resistance on the Canary Islands.
6 July 1495, At the Battle of Fornovo, near Parma, the French Army
secured its retreat from Italy by defeating a combined Milanese-Venetian force
Francesco Gonzaga, Marquis of
Mantua. France had contested with Spain over who would control Italy. Charles VIII
of France expected support from his one-time allies, the Milanese, but when he
arrived in Italy he found they had joined with Venice, the Papacy and the Holy
Roman Empire to oppose his plans for Italy.
11 January 1495, Pedro Mendoza, Spanish statesman, died (born
7 June 1494, The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed. In
Alexander VI had set a line at 100 leagues west of the Cape Verde
islands from north to south Pole; Spain had the rights to colonise west of this
line, Portugal to the east. The 1494
Treaty moved this line a further 270 leagues to the west. This resulted in Portugal
having possession of both Brazil and Africa; in turn this greatly facilitated
the expansion of the slave trade, providing cheap labour for the sugar
25 September 1493. Christopher
Columbus left Spain on a second voyage of exploration with a fleet
of 20 ships.
4/3/1493. Christopher Columbus
arrived back in Lisbon,
then travelled to Spain.
19 January 1493, King Charles VIII of France returned Cardagne and
Roussillon in the eastern Pyrenees to Spain under the Treaty of Barcelona.
3 August 1492. Christopher
Columbus left Palos de la Frontera, Andalusia, south-west Spain, on
his first voyage to search for a passage to the Far East via the Atlantic. He
actually found the Americas.� He sailed
in the Santa Maria, accompanied by the Nina and the Pinta. Columbus had delayed his sailing until after 2 August 1492
as that was the deadline for Jews to leave Spain; therefore Columbus was now
departing from a �cleansed� Spain.
11 April 1492, Marguerite d�Angoulmeme, Queen of Navarre, was
of the Moors from Spain 1467-1492
2 January 1492. The Spanish Army under Queen Isabella recaptured Granada from the Moors.� This had been the last remaining Moslem
territory in Spain.�
25 November 1491, The siege of Granada, last
stronghold of the Moors in Spain, began.
4 December 1489. The fall of Baza, in southern Spain. The Catholic Spanish army had besieged
this town, held by the Muslims; both siege and defence were financed by
the sale of the jewels of the ladies on both sides. Baza had been a
bishopric since at least before 302, when its bishop was recorded as attending
the Council of Elvira.
29 April 1483, Gran Canaria, the main of the Canary Islands was conquered by the
Kingdom of Castile, an important step in
the expansion of Spain.
1 July 1482, Ferdinand V was defeated at the Battle of Loja
(see 14/5/1482). However the Spanish fleet continued to block Moorish supplies
from North Africa, ultimately leading to the fall of Granada and the complete
expulsion of the Moors from Spain (1492).
14/5/1482, In retaliation for the attack of 26
December 1481, the Marquis of Cadiz seized the Moorish town of
Alhama, near Granada. Abdul Hassan then laid siege to Alhama, but
raised the siege when Christian forces under King Ferdinand V of Castile and Aragon
(1452-1516) approached. Ferdinand entered Alhama this day, and Queen Isabella
I of Castile and Aragon helped Ferdinand prepare to lay siege to Moorish-held
Loja, assembling a fleet to block Moorish reinforcements by sea.
26 December 1481, In southern Spain, a
period of peace between Christians and Muslims suddenly ended when Muslim ruler
Abdul Hassan attacked and captured the Zahara fortress, near Ronda,
enslaving the Chrstians there.
20 January 1479, Ferdinand II took the throne of
Aragon and ruled together with his wife Isabella, Queen of Castile, over most of the
Iberian Peninsula.� In 1492 they conquered Granada, ending 700 years of Moorish rule.
19 October 1469, The Crowns of Castile and Aragon were joined
with the marriage of Prince Ferdinand of Aragon and the Infanta
Isabella of Castile. This
nominally united almost all of what is now Spain, except for the Kingdom of
Navarre in the north and Granada in the south (although the two
kingdoms remained politically separate entities). Spain was now the most powerful State in Europe.
1467, The sheep population of Castile was
2.7 million, up from 1.5 million in 1300. The recovery of the southern Spajish
winter pastures for sheep was a powerful economic incentive for La Reconquista, the conquest of Spain
from the Moors.
1/5/1486. The navigator Christopher Columbus persuaded Queen Isabella of Spain to grant him funds to find
a western sea passage to the Indies.
6/3/1480, The Treaty
of Toledo: Ferdinand
and Isabella of Spain recognised the African conquests of Alphonso of
Portugal, and he ceded the Canary Islands to Spain.
6 November 1479, Joanna, Queen of Castille, was born (died 11
September 1479, The Treaty of Alcovas between Portugal
and Spain confirmed Castile�s claim on the Canary Islands, and Portugal�s claim
on the Azores and Madeira, also Portuguese rights in west Africa.
22 July 1478, Philip II, King of Spain, was born. Son of Emperor
Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy, he married Joanna the Mad; she inherited the throne of
Castile in 1504 but due to her insanity Philip assumed full control in 1506.
12 December 1474, King Henry IV of Castile died of a urinary
blockage. His younger sister, Isabella, seized power, publically declaring
herself as the new monarch. Her brother, known as Henry the Impotent, has been
married twice but produced just one heir, Joanna, who was rumoured to have been fathered
by a different man. Isabella seized her opportunity before an
official successor to Henry IV could be proclaimed. She proved to be
a capable and popular ruler, conquering Islamic Andalusia along with Ferdinand.
She was the mother of Catharine of Aragon.
13 November 1460, Prince Henry the Navigator died, aged 66.
27 June 1458, King Alfonso V
(also Alfonso I of Sicily and Sardinia), born 1385, died. He succeeded his
the Just in 1416,
for territories of Castile and Leon, and Aragon and
Navarre, within Spain.
21 July 1454, Juan II of Castile died and was succeeded by his son, Enrique.
2 June 1453, Alvaro de Luna, Constable of Castile, was
executed after a show trial. The Spanish King, Juan II�s, second wife was
distiurbed at Alvaro�s
influence over him.
Cordoba, Spanish statesman, was born (died 2 December 1515).
19 April 1452, Ferdinand II, King of Aragon, was born.
V, King of Castile and Leon, was born (died 23 January 1516).
22 April 1451, Isabella, Queen of Castile
and Leon was born.
12 June 1442, Alfonso V, King of Aragon, was crowned King
5 August 1435, King Alfonso V of Aragon was captured by� the Genoese near the island of Ponza, off
western Italy. He was released following a treaty of alliance between Aragon
and Milan, in which Alfonso�s claim to the throne of Sicily was recognised.
3/5/1428, Pedro Mendoza, Spanish statesman, was born
(died 11 January 1495).
2 April 1416, Ferdinand I, King of Aragon, died.
III of Castile
25 December 1406, King Henry III of Castile
died aged 27 after a despotic reign of 16 years (born 1390).
6/3/1405, Juan II, King of Castile, was born (died 21 July 1454).
29 June 1397, John II, King of Aragon,
was born (died 20 January 1479).
9 October 1390, Juan I of Castile died aged 32 after an 11-year reign; his claims on the Portuguese
throne had been thwarted. He was succeeded by his 11 year old son, of frail
health, who ruled until 1406 as Henry III.
1379, Henry II Trastamara of Castile
and Leon died aged 46. He was succeeded by his 12-year-old son who
ruled until 1390 as Juan I.
Cruel of Castile
23/3/1369, Pedro the Cruel, King of Castile and Leon, was
murdered at age 34 by his brother, Henry. He then ruled for ten years as Henry II
3 April 1367, In the Hundred Year�s War, the English under the Black Prince
defeated a Spanish and French army at the Battle
of Navarrete. The Spanish Kingdom of Castile was in civil war, between
rival claimants for the throne, Pedro and his brother Enrique. The French under Bertrand du
Guesclin and the English under Edward the Black Prince intervened, backing Enrique
respectively. The French and English met at Najera (Navarrete), where English
longbowmen massacred the French cavalry. Pedro gained the throne but never repaid the
English for the expense of their army. The heavy French footsoldier casualties
brought some relief to the countryside,�
with fewer unemployed soldiers roaming and plundering it.
5/3/1366, In Spain Henry of Trastamare expelled Pedro I the Cruel
and was crowned Henry
II of Castille.
27//3/1350, Alfonso IV of Castile and Leon died aged
38 of The Plague during the siege of Moorish-held Gibraltar. He was succeeded
by his 16-year-old son whose excesses during his 19-year reign caused him to be
known as Pedro
30 August 1334,
Pedro the Cruel, King of Castile and Leon, was born.
21 July 1348, Battle of
Epila. Loyalists to King Pedro IV of Aragon, defending his
intention to have one of his daughters as heir to the kingdom, whereas the
nobles wanted a male heir of their choice, defeated these nobles. Pedro IV
then woithdrew the Charter that had been granted by earlier monarchs Pedro III
and his son Alfonso
III, by whoch the nobles had tried to nominate theor own candidate
13 October 1340. In alliance
with Portugal, Alfonso
XI of Castile conquered the Moors at the River Salado. This
was the last attempt by the Moors to reverse the Reconquista.
1336, Alfonso IV of Aragon
died aged 37 after a 9-year reign. He was succeeded by his 17-year-old son who
ruled as Pedro
IV until 1387.
25 August 1333, In Moorish southern Spain, Yusuf I
succeeded his murdered brother Muhammed IV as King of Granada.
26 June 1319, A Spanish Castillian invasion of the Moorish
Kingdom of Granada failed.
7 September 1312, Ferdinand IV, King of Castile and Leon, died.
15 June 1300, The city of Bilbao
received its royal foundation charter.
18 June 1291, Alfonso III of Aragon died, leaving his
domains to hisbrother James, who returned to Sicily.
IV of Leon and Casttile
1295, King Sancho IV (el Bravo) of Leon and
Castile died, aged 37 after a reign of 11 years. He was succeeded by
his 9-year-old son, whose period of minority was a time of anarchy. However he
ruled until 1312 as Ferdinand IV.
1292, The town of Tarifa was captured by Sancho IV of Castile from the Muslims (see 710 AD). The Muslims
attempted to retake the town in 1294, besieging it, but were repulsed.
17 January 1287, King Alfonso III of Aragon
conquered the island of Minorca from
8 November 1286, Pedro the Great, King of Aragon,
died aged 50. He was succeeded by his weak son, who ruled until 1291 as Alfonso
III. He allowed the nobility to rebel, and anarchy became permanent in Aragon.
1286, Pedro the Great, King of Aragon,
repelled a French invasion.
2 November 1285, Peter III, King of Aragon, died.
He was succeeded by
his son Alfonso
III in Aragon, and by James, another son, in Sicily.
24 April 1284, King Alfonso X of Leon and Castile died in
Seville. Born 1226, he succeeded his father Ferdinand III as king in 1252.
He was deposed by his second son, Sancho, as king in 1282.
5/5/1282, Don Manuel Juan, Infante of Castile, was born.
1262, Cadiz was taken from the
Ferdinand III of Castile
1252, Ferdinand III of Castille died
aged 53 after a 35-year reign. His death aborted plans to invade north Africa.
He was succeeded by the learned Alfonso X who reigned until 1284.
1248, Seville was taken from the
1 December 1247, A rebellion arose among the Muslim subjects of the Crown of Aragon in the region of Valencia. As a punishment, the
king issued an order of expulsion of the Muslims from his realm leading
numerous people into exile in Andalusia and North Africa in the subsequent year.
22/5/1244, James I of Aragon took the Muslim-held
city of Janita after several months of siege This success was followed by the
capture of Biar later that year
28 September 1238, James I of Aragon
captured the city of Valencia from the Muslims, who retreated to Granada
29 June 1236. Ferdinand III of Leon and Castile (see 24 September
1230) took Cordoba, with little resistance, from the Moors who had held it
since the 8th century.
1232, The Moors were expelled
1232, The Moorish Nasrides Dynasty, which ruled Granada until 1492, began
I, 29, who ruled Granada until 1273. He stiffened resistance to the
24 September 1230. On the
death of Alfonso
IX of Leon, Ferdinand III
of Castile was accepted as King of Leon, unifying
the two kingdoms.
See 29 June 1236.
1229, Aragon conquered the Balearic Islands.
15 September 1227, Almohad ruler, Idris,
became ruler of Spain.
1224, The town of San Felipe Jativa was taken from the Arabs by King James I.
23 November 1221, Alfonso X (The Wise) was born in
Castile (died 1284), son of King Ferdinand III and Beatrice of Swabia. He became
King of Castile and Leon in 1252.
31 August 1217, Ferdinand III of Castile was
declared of age at 18 and ruled for 35 years during which he ended the dynastic
wars that had impoverished the country. As the wars ended, and the Moors were
pushed back, Spanish agriculture revived.
7 April 1234, Sancho VII, last Spanish King of Navarre,
16 July 1212. . Battle of
Navas de Tolosa, near Toledo
�Following the Almohad victory at Alarcos (1195), it seemed possible that
the Reconquista could be reversed and Toledo fall to the Muslims. However the
Almohad leader, Al-Mansur,
was old and in il-health, and wished to retire to North Africa.. In 1211 Al-Mansur�s
al Nasir, brought an Islamic army to Iberia to recapture
Toledo.� Pope Innocent III called for a
Crusade against the Moors, leading to a loose alliance of the rival and
disunited Kingdoms of Castile, Navarre, Aragon and Portugal, with French
knights also joining an army led by Alfonso VIII of Castile. Despite internal
divisions, the Christian army approached Al-Nasir�s camp, which was on a high plateau,
and were shown a local shepherd�s path which enabled them to approach it in
secret and mount a surprise attack. The Christians decisively defeated the Almohads. This victory however left the
Kingdom of Castile in a
difficult financial position as the numerous soldiers had to be paid by the
1203, The Almoravid were evicted from
their last Spanish stronghold, the Balearic Islands.
18 July 1195, The Almohads won a� major victory
over Christian forces at Alarcos.
However they had to deal with internal dissentions and were unable to follow up
29 December 1177, The Order of Alcantara (founded 1156 as the
Order of Saint Julian) received Papal approval. It was a military order of
crusading knights, and played a part in the Reconquista of Spain from the
1170, The Almohad ruler, Yaqub Yusuf,
moved the capital of Morrocco-Spain from Marrakesh to Seville.
1160, The Almohad Muslim dynasty, which had
succeeded the Almoravid dynasty in North Africa ca. 1100, now gained
control of the Arab lands in Spain.
1158, Alfonso VII of Castile died, aged 32, in the
Sierra Moreno, whilst returning form a campaign against the Almohads. Leon
seceded as Alfonso�s
infant became king to rule for 56 years as Alfonso VIII.
1158, The Order of
Caltrava was established, when Spanish monks and knights fought the Almohads for possession of the fortress
town of Caltrava. The order was given official recognition by Pope
Alexander III, who attached it to the Cistercian Order. As the Reconquista
proceeded, the Order became more involved in the politics of Castile and was
attached to the Crown by Ferdcinand and Isabella.
7 October 1147, Almeria, one of
the most important maritime and commercial centres of al-Andalus, fell into
Christian hands after two months of siege
25 July 1139, King Alfonso Henriques
I (1110-85) of Portugal defeated the Muslims at Ourique.
7 September 1134, King Alfonso I
and Navarre (acceeded 1105) died. He
took Saragossa and Tarragona from the Muslims, heavily defeating them
near Valencia in 1126.
17 July 1134, Alfonso, King of Aragon, was
defeated by the Moors at Fraga.
11 December 1118. The
Christians captured Saragossa, Spain, from the Muslims.
1109, Death of King Alfonso I
and Leon. Born 1030, he acceded in 1065.
7/1099, El Cid died aged 59, after being defeated by
at Cuenca. His widow held Valencia against the Moors until 1102.
17 June 1094. Valencia,
Spain, was captured by the Christians under El Cid
from the Arabs; the city
surrendered due to starvation after a 20 month siege. His kingdom now extended
over nearly all of Valencia and Murcia.
1091, The Almoravid Muslim
dynasty gained control of Arab Spain, They were noted for their severe
23 October 1086, The Almoravids from North Africa invaded Spain, defeating Alfonso�s army at Zallaqah
25/5/1085. The Christian, Alfonso VI
of Leon, captured Toledo (the old Visigothic capital) from the Arabs. This
had been an Arab centre of science and learning.
28 October 1069, Death of Abbad-al-Motadid, Arab ruler in
24 June 1065, Ferdinand I, King of Castile and Leon, died.
for territories of Castile and Leon, and Aragon and
Navarre, within Spain.
8/5/1065, In Spain, Ramiro I of Aragon died whilst attacking the
1035, The House of Aragon was founded
by Ramiro I,
illegitimate son of Sancho the Great of Navarre. In 1131 it was
united by marriage with the rulers of Barcelona.
30 November 1031, Hisham III, Umayyad Muslim ruler in Cordoba,
was deposed by the city�s inhabitants.
20 April 1012, Suleiman was re-established as Caliph in
1009, The Balearic Islands
became a separate Moorish Kingdom. This kingdom became notorious for piracy,
and was the target of a Crusade by Pope Paschal II, with Catalan forces
playing the main part.
1 October 976, Al Hakkam II, Caliph of Spain, died and was
succeeded by his son, Hisham II. However from then until around 1002
the real power was with the Regent, Al-Mansour, who won major victories against
Christian forces in 988 and 997.
939, The Arabs
lost Madrid to the Kingdom of Leon.
16 January 929, Abd ar Rahman III, Umayyad Emir of Spain,
declared himself Caliph, independent of Baghdad.
15 October 912, Abd Allah, Emir of Spain, died. He was
succeeded by Abd
ar Rahman III, under whom the Umayyad Dynasty reached the peak of
its power and cultural achievements.
910, Death of Alfonso the
Great, king of Leon, Galicia and Asturias.
866, Alfonso III, the Great (848-910)
succeeded his father, Ordono I, as king of Leon, Galicia and
Asturias. He repulsed Muslim attacks and extended his rule over parts of Portugal.
857, Founding of the Kingdom of
invasion of Spain, and southern France
798, The Moors
took the Balearic Islands.
15/5/756, Abd ar Rahman I was
proclaimed Emir of Cordoba, which became the capital of Islamic Spain.
October 732. The Frankish General, Charles
Martel, won a major victory over the Arabs at Poitiers. In
718 an Arab siege of Constantinople had been defeated. The Arabs had
crossed the Pyrenees, sacked Bordeaux and Poitiers, and were advancing on the
wealthy monastery of St Martin at Tours. Eudo, Duke of Aquitaine, appealed
to Charles who brought the Frankish army south to help. The Arabs, their
leader killed, retreated south, probably to put down a Berber uprising in
north Africa. More
early history of France here.
720, The Arabs
invading Spain crossed the Pyrenees into France, and took Narbonne.
718, At the Battle of Covadonga, the Kingdom of Asturias,
north-western Spain, defeated the Arabs and escaped occupation by them.
However Islamic expansion continued in other regions and by the 720s they
controlled an area from Provence to the borders of China.
713, Barcelona conquered by the Arabs.
712, Seville conquered by the Arabs.
July 711, Battle of Guadalete: Umayyad Moors' victory over the
army. Visigothic king Roderic (Rodrigo in Spanish and
Portuguese) died in the battle.
710, The Spanish town of Tarifa, in the far south, was
conquered by the Moors � the first part
of Spain to be occupied by them. It was retaken by the Spanish in 1292
after a long siege by Sancho IV of Castile.
Visigothic Kingdom of Spain was split by civil war,leaving it open to an Arab
586, Death of Leovigild.
585, Leovigild conquered
the whole of Spain.
Visigoths under King
Leovigild drove the Byzantines from western Spain.
534, Toledo became capital of the Visigoth Kingdom of Spain.
December 484, Alaric II, eighth
king of the Visigoths in Spain, succeeded his father Euric or Evaric. His dominions
included all of Spain, except for the north-west, and also Aquitaine and much
October 456, The Visigoths under King Theodoric II, acting on orders of Avitus, invaded Spain with an army of Burgundians,� Franks and Goths, They
defeated the Suebi; this shattered
the power of the Suebi. During the battle Rechiar was captured and later executed.
Balearic Islands were seized by the Vandals.
Vandal Kingdom in Spain was invaded by the Visigoths.
The Franks invaded Spain.
See also Roman Empire
1 � Andorra
Andorra adopted the Euro.
Andorra became an independent Republic. It had been claimed by the French
Counts of Foix.
The Andosini, a tribe subdued by Hannibal, were the firsr recorded inhabitants
of the area.
2 � Gibraltar
18/3/2002, 24,000 out of 27,000
Gibraltar residents protested at Britain;s plans to share sovereignty with
5 February 1985, The Gibraltar � Spain
border fully reopened.
15 December 1982, The border between
Spain and Gibraltar opened for the first time in 13 years, to pedestrians only.
8 January 1982. Spain
ended its 12-year siege of Gibraltar and reopened the frontier. In return Britain
ended its opposition to Spain joining the EEC and NATO. See 27 December 1978.
10 April 1980, Spain and the UK agreed to reopen the border
with Gibraltar, closed since 1969.
4 July 1969. Franco offered Gibraltarians Spanish
18 December 1968, The UN
passed a Directive requiring the UK to return Gibraltar to Spain by 67 to 18
votes with 34 abstentions. The UK rejected the call, saying that Gibraltarians
had voted to remain with the UK.
6/5/1968, Spain closed
its border with Gibraltar to all but Spaniards.
10 September 1967. Gibraltar voted overwhelmingly to stay British. 12,318
voted for Britain, and 44 for Spanish rule. In 2002 the British government was
considering sharing sovereignty with Spain but the Gibraltarian governor was to
hold an unauthorised referendum, which he believed would show the majority
wished to stay British.
5 October 1966, Spain
closed the frontier with Gibraltar to all but pedestrian traffic.
3 February 1965, Spain began a blockade of Gibraltar.
10 September 1963. The people of Gibraltar
voted overwhelmingly to remain under British rule.
6 February 1783, The siege
of Gibraltar ended.
16 January 1780. British
troops under Admiral
Rodney defeated the Spanish, destroying all but four ships of their fleet, at Cape St Vincent.
This temporarily lifted the siege of Gibraltar.
16 June 1779, The siege
of Gibraltar by Spanish forces began. Spain declared war on Britain after
promises of assistance form France in recovering Gibraltar and Florida.
9 November 1729. Spain
signed the Treaty of Seville,
renouncing its right to Gibraltar in favour of the British.
24 July 1707, Britain captured Gibraltar from Spain.
24 July 1704, Admiral Sir
George Rooke and Sir Cloudesley Shovel captured Gibraltar
from the Spanish, during the War of the Spanish Succession.� Gibraltar was formally ceded to the UK by the
Treaty of Utrecht, 1713.
1462, After a series of failed
attacks and sieges, the Spanish under Alonzo de Arcos again recovered Gibraltar
1333, Vasco Perez de Maya, having
failed to maintain the defences of Gibraltar, was obliged to cedc it to Mahomet IV
after a 5-month siege.
1315, Ismail ben Ferez mounted a
failed attack on Gibraltar.
1309, Alonzo Perez de Guzman
recaptured Gibraltar for King Ferdinand IV.
929, A second great famine struck Spain; an
earlier one had occurred in 919.
Gibraltar, known as Mons Calpe to the
and Alybe to the Greeks, was
fortified by Tariq,
who had invaded Andalusia in 711. The name �Gibraltar� derives from Jebel Tariq
See Roman Empire for conquest of Spain by
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