Chronography of Scotland pre Act of Union 1707

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1/5/1707. Act of Union between England and Scotland. The Union of the English and Scottish crowns was on 24/3/1603, when James VI of Scotland also became King of England. Scotland failed economically, and England put pressure for Union on the Scottish Parliament. Scottish aristocrats were offered compensation and voted for Union. Coinage, taxation, sovereignty, and parliament became one, but Scotland retained its own legal and religious system. The Union Jack was adopted as the National Flag.

1696-8, Major famine in Scotland.

4/10/1694, Lord George Murray, Scottish Jacobite, was born (died 11/10/1760).

11/1/1688, James Gardiner, Scottish soldier, was born (fell at Prestonpans 21/9/1745).

10/11/1685, Duncan Forbes, Scottish statesman, was born (died 10/12/1747).

18/3/1685, Ralph Erskine, Scottish divine, was born (died 6/11/1752).

27/7/1681, Donald Cargill, Scottish Covenanter, born 1610, was executed.

17/3/1676, Thomas Boston, Scottish cleric, was born in Duns (died 20/5/1732).

5/8/1662, James Anderson, Scottish historian, was born in Edinburgh (died 3/4/1728).

11/2/1649, William Carstairs, Scottish statesman, was born (died 28/12/1715).

3/10/1637, George Aberdeen, Scottish lawyer and statesman (died 20/4/1720) was born.

14/12/1634, John Erskine, 7th Earl of Mar, Scotland, died.

16/7/1631, Francis Erroll, Scottish nobleman, died.

23/3/1618, James Hamilton Abercorn, Sheriff of Linlithgow (born ca. 1575), died.

12/12/1600, John Craig, Scottish reformer, died.

1/1/1600, Scotland adopted 1st January as New Year�s Day.

10/12/1599, The Assembly of the Convention of States at Edinburgh.

3/1/1590, Robert Boyd, Scottish statesman, died.

26/1/1583, John Herries, Scottish politician, died.

2/6/1581, James Douglas 4th Earl of Morton, Scottish statesman, was executed.


Mary Queen of Scots; rivalry with James VI for throne of Scotland; James VI wins, becomes James I of Eng;land also. Union of Scotland and England

12/4/1606, The Union Jack was adopted as the flag of England, Wales, and Scotland.

27/3/1603, King James VI of Scotland halted in Berwick, on his way to also become King James I of England. He attended a church service at Berwick to �give thanks for his peaceful entry into his new dominions. He attempted, unsuccessfully, to ban the use of the word �borders� and replace it by �middle shires�. However frontier fortresses in both England and Scotland were dismantled and their garrisons reduced to nominal strength. James Ileft Berwick on 5/4/1603, and entered London on 7/5/1603.

31/5/1571, Thomas Crawford, acting for the young King James VI, captured Dumbarton Castle.

16/5/1568, Mary Queen of Scots escaped from Loch Leven Castle. She had been imprisoned there on 16/6/1567. She sailed from Point Mary, crossing the Firth of Forth to begin her exile in England.

29/7/1567, James VI, then 12 months old, was crowned King at Stirling.

24/7/1567, Mary Queen of Scots abdicated, after being defeated by Protestants at Carberry Hill.

15/5/1567, Mary Queen of Scots was married to the Earl of Bothwell.

9/2/1567, Lord Darnley, second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and father of James IV of Scotland and I of England, was murdered at his house near Edinburgh.

19/6/1566. James VI of Scotland, later James I of England, the first Stuart King, was born in Edinburgh Castle.He was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Lord Darnley.

9/3/1566, Lord Darnley killed the secretary of Mary Queen of Scots, David Riccio (born 1531?). Mary I, six months pregnant with the future James VI of Scotland, witnessed the murder. Mary had romantic feelings for Riccio, and the nobility feared the rising influence of Riccio upon the royal court.

29/7/1565. Mary Queen of Scots married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, in the Old Abbey Chapel at Holyrood, Edinburgh.

19/8/1561, Mary Queen of Scots returned from France. She arrived at Leith, near Edinburgh, in thick fog; this may have saved her life, because her half-brother, James Stuart Earl of Moray, wanted to rule Scotland and was waiting for her in English ships.

6/7/1560, The Treaty of Edinburgh was signed. This ended French interference in Scottish affairs. French troops in Scotland had tried to support Mary Queen of Scots claim to the throne.

9/9/1543, Mary Queen of Scots was crowned at age 9 months. Her father James V had died when she was 1 week old. She was beheaded at age 44.

14/12/1542, James V, King of Scotland, died, aged 30. He was succeeded by his baby daughter, Mary Queen of Scots.

7/12/1542, Mary Queen of Scots, cousin of Queen Elizabeth I, was born in Llinlithgow Palace, daughter of King James V of Scotland.


11/6/1560, Mary of Lorraine, Regent of Scotland, died (born 22/11/1515).

10/9/1547. The English won a major victory over the Scots at Pinkie.

1/8/1545, Andrew Melville, Scottish religious reformer, was born.

25/2/1545, The English were defeated by the Scots at Ancrum Moor. See 24/11/1542. In September 1545 the English again invaded Scotland.

24/11/1542. The English defeated the Scots at Solway Moss as Henry VIII fought to gain control of Scotland. On 1/7/1543 England and Scotland signed the Peace of Greenwich, but this was repudiated by the Scottish Parliament on 11/12/1543. England invaded Scotland again in 1544, pillaging Edinburgh, but failed to gain a surrender from Scotland. See 25/2/1545.

18/10/1541, Margaret, Queen of Scotland, died.

29/2/1528, Patrick Hamilton, Scottish martyr, was burnt at the stake.

11/3/1521, Andrew Forman, Scottish ecclesiastic, died.

22/11/1515, Mary of Lorraine, Regent of Scotland, was born (died 11/6/1560).

9/9/1513. Battle of Flodden Field, at Branxton, Northumberland. The Scots were defeated by the English, under Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, and James IV of Scotland was killed. James IV had abandoned his alliance with Henry VIII and attempted an invasion of England. Margaret, the sister of King Henry VIII, became regent for her one year old son, James V.

10/4/1512, James V, King of Scotland, born.

8/8/1503, The marriage of King James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII, took place at Holyrod Palace, Edinburgh.

28/5/1503, The Treaty of Everlasting Peace between Scotland and England was signed; peace actually lasted ten years.

21/12/1491, A five-year truce between England and Scotland was declared at Coldstream.

29/11/1489, Margaret Queen of Scotland was born (died 18/10/1541).

11/6/1488, James III, King of Scotland, was assassinated.He was succeeded by his son, James IV.

21/9/1484, Treaty of Nottingham: Three-year truce between the kingdoms of England and Scotland signed.

17/3/1473, James IV, King of Scotland, was born.

20/2/1472, Orkney and Shetland were returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment. King Christiaan of Norway and Denmark wanted to form an alliance with Scotland by marrying his daughter Margaret to James III. However Christiaan lacked money for a dowry, so Orkney and Shetland were temporarily handed over in lieu. The dowry was never paid so these islands became part of Scotland.

22/11/1469, Sir Alexander Boyd, Scottish statesman, was beheaded.

3/8/1460, James II, King of Scotland, killed during the siege of Roxburgh Castle by the English.

10/7/1451, James III, King of Scotland, was born (died 11/6/1488).

20/2/1437, James I, King of Scotland, aged 42, was assassinated by a group of dissident nobles led by Sir Robert Graham, who wanted a rival on the Scottish throne. James had become King in 1424, executing many of the nobility to establish control. James was staying at the Dominican Friary at Perth when murdered.

16/10/1430, James II, King of Scotland, was born.

13/5/1390, Scotland�s first Stuart King, Robert II, died aged 74. His legitimised 50-year-old son succeeded him as King Robert III, and ruled until 1424.

19/4/1390, Robert II, King of Scotland 1371-90, died at Dundonald, Ayrshire.

10/12/1394, King James I of Scotland was born.

10/8/1388, The Battle of Otterburn. A Scottish raiding party led by the Earls of Douglas, March and Moray was confronted by the English at Redesdale, Northumberland. The Scots won, and the English leader, Hotspur, was captured.


King David II

22/2/1371, King David II of Scotland died; Robert II succeeded him, as the first Stuart King of Scotland.

19/7/1333, The Battle of Halidon Hill. Edward III defeated Sir Archibald Douglas, during the last of the Wars of Scottish Independence. The English victory secured for England the strategic town of Berwick on Tweed, and the English also learnt valuable lessons in the use if infantry, which would prove useful in later European wars.

12/8/1332, Edward Balliol (1283-1364, the elder son of John Balliol), having landed at Kinghorn, Fife, made a surprise attack on the Scottish Army at Duplin Moor. Balliol was leading an army of 3,400 soldiers fighting for the �disniherited Barons�. Balliol routed the Scots under the Regent, the Earl of Mar, and was crowned King of Scotland on 24/9/1332 at Scone. However in December 1332 Balliol himself fell victim to a surprise counter attack at Annan and fled across into England on an unsaddled horse. Further attempts by Balliol to gain the Scottish throne in 1334 and 1335 were unsuccessful and in 1356 he formally renounced his claim in favour of King Edward III. Balliol died without heirs.

11/1331, King David II of Scotland was crowned at Scone.

7/6/1329. Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland from 1306, died aged 54 of leprosy at Cardross Castle on the Firth of Clyde. He was buried at Dunfermline Abbey under the High Altar. He was succeeded by his 5-year-old son who ruled as David II until 1371 (see also 12/8/1332).

12/7/1328, Marriage of Bruce�s son David to Joanna, daughter of Edward II of England (see 1323).

5/3/1324, King David II of Scotland was born, son of Robert the Bruce.(died 22/2/1371).


Scottish fight for independence from England, 1286-1323

1323, The Treaty of Northampton confirmed Robert the Bruce as King of Scotland, and provided for the marriage of Bruce�s son David to Joanna, daughter of King Edward II of England.

6/4/1320, The Scots reaffirmed their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. The Pope did not recognise Robert The Bruce as legitimate King of Scotland, and Pope John XXII had demanded that Scotland make peace with England, However the Scottish barons, with the support of the Church in Scotland, asserted under this Declaration the identity of Scotland as a separate nation with its �uninterrupted succession of 113 Kings, all our native and royal stock�. The Declaration also noted the injuries caused by English incursions into Scotland. Since then this has been a key document for those campaigning for Scottish independence.

1/4/1318, Berwick-upon-Tweed was retaken by the Scottish from the English.

24/6/1314. English forces under Edward II suffered a major defeat at Bannockburn by the Scots. Robert The Bruce was confirmed in power in Scotland. See 21/9/1327. By the time the Battle of Bannockburn was fought, Scotland had been almost cleared of English troops, with the exception of Stirling Castle. Here the governor, Alexander Mowbray, had promised to surrender if not relieved by St John the Baptist�s Day.Edward II collected a huge army for the relief of Stirling, and Robert the Bruce assembled his smaller force at Torwood, 4 miles north-west of Falkirk. At the Battle, on the Bannock Burn, the superior numbers of the English cavalry were hampered by the cramped site of the battle; the rear ranks of the English could not reach the fighting, but hampered the retreat of those in front under Robert�s attacks. Robert then led his reserves in to complete the rout of the English. Many English, uninjured in the battle, perished in the Bannock Burn and the marshes beyond. Edward II, seeking refuge in Stirling Castle, was refused on account of its imminent surrender; he escaped by a roundabout route via Dunbar back to England.

8/11/1308, Duns Scotus, Scottish theologian, born ca. 1266, died in Cologne, Germany.

10/5/1307, Battle of Loudon Hill, War of Scottish Independence.Robert the Bruce and his spearmen defeated the cavalry of the Earl of Pembroke.

25/3/1306. Robert The Bruce, Eight Earl of Carrick, was crowned King of Scotland (Robert I) at Scone. See 21/6/1314.

23/8/1305, William Wallace, Scottish patriot, was hanged in London, see 5/8/1305.

5/8/1305. Sir William Wallace, leader of the Scots, campaigner for their independence from the English, was captured by the English and later executed.

20/7/1304, Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England took the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence.

24/7/1298. The English under King Edward I used longbows for the first time when they defeated the Scots under William Wallace at the battle of Falkirk.

11/9/1297. Scottish hero William Wallace defeated an English army of over 50,000 men under Edward I at Stirling Bridge. William Wallace was a minor noble from Elderslie and one of the few to take on Edward when he assumed the overlordship of Scotland. He realised that the neck of land between the rivers Forth and Clyde at Stirling was narrow enough to create a tactical advantage for the Scottish defenders. Wallace�s men stood at the slopes of the Abbey Craig, in front of a narrow bridge across the Forth, wide enough for only two horsemen abreast. As the English drew up, Wallace�s men charged them before they could get into battle position. The narrow bridge then collapsed, drowning many English.

27/4/1296. English defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar.

30/3/1296, Capture of Berwick: King Edward I of England captured Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking what was at this time a Scottish border town with much bloodshed. He slaughtered most residents, including those who fled to the churches.

10/2/1296, King Edward I of England forced John Balliol (1250-1313), King of Scotland (see 17/11/1792) to surrender his Crown. Although John had started out his reign as a vassal and ally of Edward, by 1295 a council of Scottish Lords had taken power from John and started making alliances with France, which was then at war with England. John was imprisoned for three years, first on Hertford and then in the Tower of London. In 1302 John was permitted to retire to his estates in Normandy.

23/10/1295, The first treaty forming the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France against England was signed in Paris.

17/11/1292, John Balliol, aged 43, was selected by King Edward I of England as King of Scotland from among 13 candidates; Edward then treated John as a puppet ruler and Scotland as a vassal state, eventually provoking the Wars of Scottish Independence, commencing in 1296.

9/1290, Queen Margaret of Scotland, aged 7, reached the Orkneys where she died under mysterious circumstances. She had been betrothed to the English Edward, aged 6, and her death now left Scotland without a monarch.

29/2/1288, It became legal in Scotland for women to propose to men, but only on 29th February leap days.

16/3/1286. Death of King Alexander III of Scotland, killed by a fall from his horse whilst riding in the dark to visit the Queen at Kinghorn, with only Yolande of Dreux, Queen of Scotland's unborn child and 3-year-old Margaret, Maid of Norway as heirs; this sets the stage for the First War of Scottish Independence and increased influence of England over Scotland.. Alexander III was born in 1241 and became king in 1249 aged eight. See 8/7/1249. He laid a formal claim against King Haakon of Norway for sovereignty of the Hebrides, settled by Scandinavians since the ninth century. King Haakon responded by sending a large naval fleet in 1263. Haakon�s fleet halted off Arran, where Alexander III stalled negotiations until the autumn storms should begin. Haakon finally attacked only to encounter a severe storm; the Battle of Largs on 12/10/1263 was indecisive but left Haakon in a hopeless position. He turned back to Norway but died on the way.

Scottish fight for independence from England, 1286-1320


Norwegians ousted from Scotland

8/10/1275, Battle of Ronaldsway: Scottish forces defeated the Manx of the Isle of Man in a decisive battle, firmly establishing Scottish rule of the island.

11/7/1274. Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, who defeated the English at Bannockburn, was born at Turnberry, Ayrshire. He was raised at Turnberry Castle amid the political upheavals of the 13th century; he was created Earl of Carrick in 1296. He supported the Scots against the English, hoping to secure the kingship of Scotland. However he saw Edward I proclaim himself king of Scotland, and defeat William Wallace. Initially Bruce joined with John Comyn against the English but later sided with the English to obtain the Scottish throne. He murdered Comyn, and there was a price on his head for doing this. However Bruce now used force, not politics, to obtain his goals; this paid off and he was crowned King at Scone in 1306, having been granted absolution by Bishop Wishart. Bruce managed to unite the Scottish clans to defeat the English at Bannockburn in 1314.

2/7/1266, The Treaty of Perth was signed, between King Magnus �the lawmaker� of Norway and King Alexander III of Scotland. Norway sold to Scotland the ownership of the Isle of Man (Sodor, or Southern Island) and the Western Isles, although Norway retained the Orkney and Shetland Islands. This treaty was a result of the Battle of Largs (2/10/.1263).

2/10/1263, The Battle of Largs. Fought at Largs on the Clyde between Norwegian forces under King Haakon and Scottish levies under King Alexander III. Haakon wanted to put on a show of strength to demonstrate continued Norwegian power over the Western Isles (see 2/7/1266). However Alexander III�s 1500 Scots defeated the Norwegians. A barefoot Norwegian footsoldier attempting a surprise attack on the Scottish camp by night trod on a thistle and cried out in pain, alerting the Scottish camp. In memory of this event the Scots adopted the thistle as their national emblem.


King Alexander II

8/7/1249. Death of King Alexander II of Scotland. He was born in 1198, and succeeded William the Lion to the Scottish throne in 1214. He joined the English barons in their struggle against King John, marched into England, and besieged Norham Castle in 1215. In 1217 he again invaded England but then made peace with King Henry III, marrying his sister Joanna in 1221. Alexander captured Argyll from the Norwegians, and was on an expedition to capture the Western Isles also from Norway when he died at Kerrera. See 16/3/1285.

1239, King Alexander II of Scotland married Mary de Courcy of Picardy; she survived him to act as Regent for her son.

25/9/1237, The Treaty of York fixed the border between England and Scotland. The Treaty confirmed English control over Northumberland, Westmoreland and Cumberland, with the border almost in its current position.

1214, William the Lion of Scotland died aged 71, after a 49-year reign. He was succeded by his 16-year-old son who reigned until 1249 as Alexander II .

24/12/1165, Coronation of William the Lion of Scotland at Scone Abbey.



King Malcolm IV

9/12/1165, Malcolm IV, King of Scotland, died aged 24. He was succeeded by his 22-year-old brother, William the Lion, who ruled until 1214.

1164, Death of Somerled, Viking King of the Kingdom of the Isles. His name means �summer traveller�.

1135, King David of Scotland expelled the Norwegians (Vikings) from Arran and Bute.

27/11/1124. Death of King Alexander I of Scotland.. He was born in ca.1078. He founded many abbeys and bishoprics, among them Incholm and Scone.

24/5/1153, David I, King of Scotland 1124-53, died at Carlisle aged 69. He was succeeded by his 12-year-old grandson, who never married, and ruled until late 1165 as King Malcolm IV.


King Edgar

8/1/1107, King Edgar of Scotland died after a 10-year reign and was succeeded by his brother Alexander I, who ruled for 17 years.

1097, Edgar was proclaimed King of Scotland, ruled until 1107.


12/11/1094, Duncan II, son of Malcolm III Canmore and his first wife Ingibiorg, was murdered by his uncle Donald III Ban. In 1072 Duncan II had been sent as hostage to the court of William I The Conqueror, where he remained until his father�s death in 1093. Then, with the help of an army supplied by William II Rufus, he defeated Donald III in May 1094. However Duncan II was loathed in Scotland for being too pro-Norman/English and so he was assassinated.

13/11/1093, Malcolm III MacDuncan, King of Scotland, and his eldest son Edward, were killed at a place now called Malcolm�s Cross. Malcolm had been besieging Alnwick. His wife Margaret died 4 days later. He was succeeded by his brother Donald Bane, who ruled until 1097.

1074, Malcolm III began to fortify the city of Edinburgh.

1070, Malcolm III made a link with England by marrying Margaret, sister of Edgar.

25/4/1058, Malcolm III, King of Scotland, was crowned at Scone Abbey.

17/3/1058, Lulach, King of Scots, died and was succeeded by Malcolm III, son of Duncan I.

15/8/1057. The Scottish king Macbeth, who killed King Duncan 1 in 1040, was killed in battle by Duncan�s son, Malcolm.

14/8/1040, Macbeth murdered Duncan I, King of Scotland, and became King himself.

1/11/1034, King Duncan I of Scotland was crowned.

1005, King Kenneth II of Scotland died after an 8-year reign. He was succeeded by King Malcolm II, who ruled until 1034.

945, Scotland took the Lake District area from England.

863, Constantine II, son of Kenneth I, became King of Scotland.

843, Kenneth MacAlpine, King of Dalraida, united Scotland to become Kenneth I, King of Scotland.

831, Kenneth MacAlpine, King of Moray, defeated the Picts.

717, King Nectan of the Picts expelled the Columban Church from what is now Moray.

685, At the Battle of Dunnichan Moss, north of the River Tay in Forfar, King Egfrith of Northumbria (successor to Oswy) was killed after had overrun much of southern Scotland. This secured the independence of Scotland from Anglo-saxon England.

22/8/565, First recorded sighting of the Loch Ness Monster, by St Columba.

See also Christianity for early Church conversion work in Britain

See also Roman Empire


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