Chronography of Scotland pre Act of Union 1707

Click here for History of Great Britain pre-1901

Click here for History of Great Britain 1 February 1901 - present

Page last modified 21 September 2023

Home Page


See also Ireland

See also Economy & Prices

See also Royal Family Britain from 1760


1 May 1707. Act of Union between England and Scotland. The Union of the English and Scottish crowns was on 24 March 1603, when James VI of Scotland also became King of England. Scotland failed economically, and England put pressure for Union on the Scottish Parliament. Scottish aristocrats were offered compensation and voted for Union. Coinage, taxation, sovereignty, and parliament became one, but Scotland retained its own legal and religious system. The Union Jack was adopted as the National Flag.

1696-8, Major famine in Scotland.

11 August 1697, John Hay, Marquess of Tweeddale, died (born 1626)

29 November 1695, James Dalyrymple Stair, Scottish statesman, died in Edinburgh (born 1619 in Ayrshire)

9 May 1695, The Scottish Parliament met to discuss the Glencoe Massacre.

4 October 1694, Lord George Murray, Scottish Jacobite, was born (died 11 October 1760).

21 August 1689, In Scotland, Covenanter Forces of the National Covenant (Proetstant) defeated Jacobite supporters of the former King James II at Dunkeld.

11 January 1688, James Gardiner, Scottish soldier, was born (fell at Prestonpans 21 September 1745).

10 November 1685, Duncan Forbes, Scottish statesman, was born (died 10 December 1747).

18 March 1685, Ralph Erskine, Scottish divine, was born (died 6 November 1752).

27 July 1681, Donald Cargill, Scottish Covenanter, born 1610, was executed.

17 March 1676, Thomas Boston, Scottish cleric, was born in Duns (died 20 May 1732).

15 September 1662, James Renwick, Scottish Covenanter, was born in Dumfriesshire (executed 17 February 1688).

5 August 1662, James Anderson, Scottish historian, was born in Edinburgh (died 3 April 1728).

1 January 1651, King Charles II was crowned in Scotland, at Scone Abbey.

11 February 1649, William Carstairs, Scottish statesman, was born (died 28 December 1715)

12 February 1640, William Alexander Stirling, Scottish statesman, died in Covent Garden, London)

3 October 1637, George Aberdeen, Scottish lawyer and statesman (died 20 April 1720) was born.

14 December 1634, John Erskine, 7th Earl of Mar, Scotland, died.

18 June 1633, King Charles I of England finally visited Scotland and was crowned King there, at Holyrood Abbey.

16 July 1631, Francis Erroll, Scottish nobleman, died.

27 August 1618, The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland accepted Episcopalianism with the approval of the Five Articles of Religion.

23 March 1618, James Hamilton Abercorn, Sheriff of Linlithgow (born ca. 1575), died.

12 December 1600, John Craig, Scottish reformer, died.

1 January 1600, Scotland adopted 1st January as New Year�s Day.

10 December 1599, The Assembly of the Convention of States at Edinburgh.

17 May 1590, Coronation of Anne, wife of King James VI of Scotland, at Holyrood Abbey.

3 January 1590, Robert Boyd, Scottish statesman, died.

26 January 1583, John Herries, Scottish politician, died.

2 June 1581, James Douglas 4th Earl of Morton, Scottish statesman, was executed.


Mary Queen of Scots; rivalry with James VI for throne of Scotland; James VI wins, becomes James I of Eng;land also. Union of Scotland and England

12 April 1606, The Union Jack was adopted as the flag of England, Wales, and Scotland.

27 March 1603, King James VI of Scotland halted in Berwick, on his way to also become King James I of England. He attended a church service at Berwick to �give thanks for his peaceful entry into his new dominions. He attempted, unsuccessfully, to ban the use of the word �borders� and replace it by �middle shires�. However frontier fortresses in both England and Scotland were dismantled and their garrisons reduced to nominal strength. James Ileft Berwick on 5 April 1603, and entered London on 7 May 1603.

31 May 1571, Thomas Crawford, acting for the young King James VI, captured Dumbarton Castle.

16 May 1568, Mary Queen of Scots escaped from Loch Leven Castle. She had been imprisoned there on 16 June 1567. She sailed from Point Mary, crossing the Firth of Forth to begin her exile in England.

29 July 1567, James VI, then 12 months old, was crowned King at Stirling.

24 July 1567, Mary Queen of Scots abdicated, after being defeated by Protestants at Carberry Hill.

15 May 1567, Mary Queen of Scots was married to the Earl of Bothwell.

9 February 1567, Lord Darnley, second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and father of James IV of Scotland and I of England, was murdered at his house near Edinburgh.

19 June 1566. James VI of Scotland, later James I of England, the first Stuart King, was born in Edinburgh Castle.He was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Lord Darnley.

9 March 1566, Lord Darnley killed the secretary of Mary Queen of Scots, David Riccio (born 1531?). Mary I, six months pregnant with the future James VI of Scotland, witnessed the murder. Mary had romantic feelings for Riccio, and the nobility feared the rising influence of Riccio upon the royal court.

29 July 1565. Mary Queen of Scots married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, in the Old Abbey Chapel at Holyrood, Edinburgh.

19 August 1561, Mary Queen of Scots returned from France. She arrived at Leith, near Edinburgh, in thick fog; this may have saved her life, because her half-brother, James Stuart Earl of Moray, wanted to rule Scotland and was waiting for her in English ships.

6 July 1560, The Treaty of Edinburgh was signed. This ended French interference in Scottish affairs. French troops in Scotland had tried to support Mary Queen of Scots claim to the throne.

9 September 1543, Mary Queen of Scots was crowned at age 9 months. Her father James V had died when she was 1 week old. She was beheaded at age 44.

14 December 1542, James V, King of Scotland, died, aged 30. He was succeeded by his baby daughter, Mary Queen of Scots.

7 December 1542, Mary Queen of Scots, cousin of Queen Elizabeth I, was born in Llinlithgow Palace, daughter of King James V of Scotland.


11 June 1560, Mary of Lorraine, Regent of Scotland, died (born 22 November 1515).

10 September 1547. The English won a major victory over the Scots at Pinkie.

1 August 1545, Andrew Melville, Scottish religious reformer, was born.

25 February 1545, The English were defeated by the Scots at Ancrum Moor. See 24 November 1542. In September 1545 the English again invaded Scotland.

24 November 1542. The English defeated the Scots at Solway Moss as Henry VIII fought to gain control of Scotland. On 1 July 1543 England and Scotland signed the Peace of Greenwich, but this was repudiated by the Scottish Parliament on 11 December 1543. England invaded Scotland again in 1544, pillaging Edinburgh, but failed to gain a surrender from Scotland. See 25 February 1545.

18 October 1541, Margaret, Queen of Scotland, died.

22 February 1540, Coronation of Queen Mary, second wife of King James V of Scotland.

29 February 1528, Patrick Hamilton, Scottish martyr, was burnt at the stake.

11 March 1521, Andrew Forman, Scottish ecclesiastic, died.

22 November 1515, Mary of Lorraine, Regent of Scotland, was born (died 11 June 1560).

21 September 1513, Coronation of King James V of Scotland. He was then less than 18 months old.

9 September 1513. Battle of Flodden Field, at Branxton, Northumberland. The Scots were defeated by the English, under Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, and James IV of Scotland was killed. James IV had abandoned his alliance with Henry VIII and attempted an invasion of England. Margaret, the sister of King Henry VIII, became regent for her one year old son, James V.

10 April 1512, James V, King of Scotland, born.

8 August 1503, The marriage of King James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII, took place at Holyrod Palace, Edinburgh.

28 May 1503, The Treaty of Everlasting Peace between Scotland and England was signed; peace actually lasted ten years.

21 December 1491, A five-year truce between England and Scotland was declared at Coldstream.

29 November 1489, Margaret Queen of Scotland was born (died 18 October 1541).

26 June 1488, Coronation of King James IV of Scotland, at Scone Abbey.

11 June 1488, James III, King of Scotland, was assassinated.He was succeeded by his son, James IV.

21 September 1484, Treaty of Nottingham: Three-year truce between the kingdoms of England and Scotland signed.

14 April 1480, Thomas de Spens, Scottish statesman, died in Edinburgh.

17 March 1473, James IV, King of Scotland, was born.

20 February 1472, Orkney and Shetland were returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment. King Christiaan of Norway and Denmark wanted to form an alliance with Scotland by marrying his daughter Margaret to James III. However Christiaan lacked money for a dowry, so Orkney and Shetland were temporarily handed over in lieu. The dowry was never paid so these islands became part of Scotland.

22 November 1469, Sir Alexander Boyd, Scottish statesman, was beheaded.

10 August 1460, King James III of Scotland, then aged just 9, was crowned King at Kelso Abbey. This was at the siege of Roxburgh Castle, which was subsequently captured by the Scots.

3 August 1460, James II, King of Scotland, killed during the siege of Roxburgh Castle by the English.

10 July 1451, James III, King of Scotland, was born (died 11 June 1488).

3 July 1449, Coronation of Mary, wife of King James II of Scotland, at Holyrood Abbey.

7 May 1449, Alexander II, Lord of the Isles, died.

25 March 1437, Coronation of King James II of Scotland at Holyrood Abbey.

20 February 1437, James I, King of Scotland, aged 42, was assassinated by a group of dissident nobles led by Sir Robert Graham, who wanted a rival on the Scottish throne. James had become King in 1424, executing many of the nobility to establish control. James was staying at the Dominican Friary at Perth when murdered.

16 October 1430, James II, King of Scotland, was born.

21 May 1424, Coronation of King James I of Scotland and Queen Joan at Scone Abbey. James I had been held captive in England since he was declared King of Scotland 18 years earlier.

14 August 1390, Coronation of King Robert III of Scotland, and Queen Annabella, at Scone.

13 May 1390, Scotland�s first Stuart King, Robert II, died aged 74. His legitimised 50-year-old son succeeded him as King Robert III, and ruled until 1424.

19 April 1390, Robert II, King of Scotland 1371-90, died at Dundonald, Ayrshire.

10 December 1394, King James I of Scotland was born.

10 August 1388, The Battle of Otterburn. A Scottish raiding party led by the Earls of Douglas, March and Moray was confronted by the English at Redesdale, Northumberland. The Scots won, and the English leader, Hotspur, was captured.

26 March 1371, Robert II was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey.


King David II

22 February 1371, King David II of Scotland died; Robert II succeeded him, as the first Stuart King of Scotland.

31 March 1342, Easter Sunday. The Scottish captured Roxburgh, decisively expelling the English from Scotland.

6 June 1341, The English were expelled from Edinburgh, Scotland. Scottish King David II returned from France.

19 July 1333, The Battle of Halidon Hill. Edward III defeated Sir Archibald Douglas, during the last of the Wars of Scottish Independence. The English victory secured for England the strategic town of Berwick on Tweed, and the English also learnt valuable lessons in the use of infantry, which would prove useful in later European wars.

12 June 1333, Edward Balliol recognised King Edward III of England as overlord and ceded Berwick on Tweed and 8 southern counties of Scotland to him.

8 June 1333, King Edward III seized the Isle of Man from Scotland.

May 1333, King David II of Scotland fled to France as a guest of King Philip VI.

12 December 1332, Balliol fled to England after his defeat at Annan by the Earl of Moray.

24 September 1332, Edward Balliol was crowned King of Scotland at Scone.

12 August 1332, Edward Balliol (1283-1364, the elder son of John Balliol), having landed at Kinghorn, Fife, made a surprise attack on the Scottish Army at Duplin Moor. Balliol was leading an army of 3,400 soldiers fighting for the �disniherited Barons�. Balliol routed the Scots under the Regent, the Earl of Mar, and was crowned King of Scotland on 24 September 1332 at Scone. However in December 1332 Balliol himself fell victim to a surprise counter attack at Annan and fled across into England on an unsaddled horse. Further attempts by Balliol to gain the Scottish throne in 1334 and 1335 were unsuccessful and in 1356 he formally renounced his claim in favour of King Edward III. Balliol died without heirs.

24 November 1331, King David II of Scotland was crowned at Scone, with Joan as Queen.

7 June 1329. Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland from 1306, died aged 54 of leprosy at Cardross Castle on the Firth of Clyde. He was buried at Dunfermline Abbey under the High Altar. He was succeeded by his 5-year-old son who ruled as David II until 1371 (see also 12 August 1332).

12 July 1328, Marriage of Bruce�s son David to Joanna, daughter of Edward II of England (see 1323).

5 March 1324, King David II of Scotland was born, son of Robert the Bruce.(died 22 February 1371).


Scottish fight for independence from England, 1286-1323

17 March 1328, King Edward III of England recognised Robert I (The Bruce) as King of Scotland, ending the Scottish War of Independence.

1323, The Treaty of Northampton confirmed Robert the Bruce as King of Scotland, and provided for the marriage of Bruce�s son David to Joanna, daughter of King Edward II of England.

6 April 1320, The Scots reaffirmed their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. The Pope did not recognise Robert The Bruce as legitimate King of Scotland, and Pope John XXII had demanded that Scotland make peace with England, However the Scottish barons, with the support of the Church in Scotland, asserted under this Declaration the identity of Scotland as a separate nation with its �uninterrupted succession of 113 Kings, all our native and royal stock�. The Declaration also noted the injuries caused by English incursions into Scotland. Since then this has been a key document for those campaigning for Scottish independence.

20 September 1319, King Edward II of England abandoned his siege of Scottish-held Berwick on Tweed. This move was in response to a Scottish diversionary incursion into Yorkshire (where English forces were depleted due to the siege of Berwick), in which many English townsfolk and clerics were killed at Myton on Swale, 22 km NW of York.

1 April 1318, Berwick-upon-Tweed was retaken by the Scottish from the English.

24 June 1314. English forces under Edward II suffered a major defeat at Bannockburn by the Scots. Robert The Bruce was confirmed in power in Scotland. See 21 September 1327. By the time the Battle of Bannockburn was fought, Scotland had been almost cleared of English troops, with the exception of Stirling Castle. Here the governor, Alexander Mowbray, had promised to surrender if not relieved by St John the Baptist�s Day.Edward II collected a huge army for the relief of Stirling, and Robert the Bruce assembled his smaller force at Torwood, 4 miles north-west of Falkirk. At the Battle, on the Bannock Burn, the superior numbers of the English cavalry were hampered by the cramped site of the battle; the rear ranks of the English could not reach the fighting, but hampered the retreat of those in front under Robert�s attacks. Robert then led his reserves in to complete the rout of the English. Many English, uninjured in the battle, perished in the Bannock Burn and the marshes beyond. Edward II, seeking refuge in Stirling Castle, was refused on account of its imminent surrender; he escaped by a roundabout route via Dunbar back to England.

13 January 1313, The Scots expelled the English garrison from Perth.

8 November 1308, Duns Scotus, Scottish theologian, born ca. 1266, died in Cologne, Germany.

10 May 1307, Battle of Loudon Hill, War of Scottish Independence.Robert the Bruce and his spearmen defeated the cavalry of the Earl of Pembroke.

25 December 1306, Robert the Bruce reconsolidated his power in Scotland and defeated his rival, John Comyn Earl of Buchanan, this day.

25 March 1306. Robert The Bruce, Eight Earl of Carrick, was crowned King of Scotland (Robert I) at Scone. See 21 June 1314.

23 August 1305, William Wallace, Scottish patriot, was hanged in London, see 5 August 1305.

5 August 1305. Sir William Wallace, leader of the Scots, campaigner for their independence from the English, was captured by the English and later executed.

20 July 1304, Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England took the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence.

24 July 1298. The English under King Edward I used longbows for the first time when they defeated the Scots under William Wallace at the battle of Falkirk.

11 September 1297. Scottish hero William Wallace defeated an English army of over 50,000 men under Edward I at Stirling Bridge. William Wallace was a minor noble from Elderslie and one of the few to take on Edward when he assumed the overlordship of Scotland. He realised that the neck of land between the rivers Forth and Clyde at Stirling was narrow enough to create a tactical advantage for the Scottish defenders. Wallace�s men stood at the slopes of the Abbey Craig, in front of a narrow bridge across the Forth, wide enough for only two horsemen abreast. As the English drew up, Wallace�s men charged them before they could get into battle position. The narrow bridge then collapsed, drowning many English.

27 April 1296. English defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar.

30 March 1296, Capture of Berwick: King Edward I of England captured Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking what was at this time a Scottish border town with much bloodshed. He slaughtered most residents, including those who fled to the churches.

10 February 1296, King Edward I of England forced John Balliol (1250-1313), King of Scotland (see 17 November 1792) to surrender his Crown. Although John had started out his reign as a vassal and ally of Edward, by 1295 a council of Scottish Lords had taken power from John and started making alliances with France, which was then at war with England. John was imprisoned for three years, first on Hertford and then in the Tower of London. In 1302 John was permitted to retire to his estates in Normandy.

30 November 1292, Coronation of John Balliol as King of Scotland at Scone Abbey.

23 October 1295, The first treaty forming the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France against England was signed in Paris.

17 November 1292, John Balliol, aged 43, was selected by King Edward I of England as King of Scotland from among 13 candidates; Edward then treated John as a puppet ruler and Scotland as a vassal state, eventually provoking the Wars of Scottish Independence, commencing in 1296.

26 September 1290, Queen Margaret of Scotland, aged 7, reached the Orkneys where she died under mysterious circumstances. She had been betrothed to the English Edward, aged 6, and her death now left Scotland without a monarch.

19 March 1286, Accession of Margaret, Maid of Norway, as Queen of Scotland.

29 February 1288, It became legal in Scotland for women to propose to men, but only on 29th February leap days.

16 March 1286. Death of King Alexander III of Scotland, killed by a fall from his horse whilst riding in the dark to visit the Queen at Kinghorn, with only Yolande of Dreux, Queen of Scotland's unborn child and 3-year-old Margaret, Maid of Norway as heirs; this sets the stage for the First War of Scottish Independence and increased influence of England over Scotland.. Alexander III was born in 1241 and became king in 1249 aged eight. See 8 July 1249. He laid a formal claim against King Haakon of Norway for sovereignty of the Hebrides, settled by Scandinavians since the ninth century. King Haakon responded by sending a large naval fleet in 1263. Haakon�s fleet halted off Arran, where Alexander III stalled negotiations until the autumn storms should begin. Haakon finally attacked only to encounter a severe storm; the Battle of Largs on 12 October 1263 was indecisive but left Haakon in a hopeless position. He turned back to Norway but died on the way.

1 November 1285, Marriage of Yolande, daughter of Robert Count of Dreux to King Alexander III of Scotland.

Scottish fight for independence from England, 1286-1320


Norwegians ousted from Scotland

8 October 1275, Battle of Ronaldsway: Scottish forces defeated the Manx of the Isle of Man in a decisive battle, firmly establishing Scottish rule of the island.

11 July 1274. Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, who defeated the English at Bannockburn, was born at Turnberry, Ayrshire. He was raised at Turnberry Castle amid the political upheavals of the 13th century; he was created Earl of Carrick in 1296. He supported the Scots against the English, hoping to secure the kingship of Scotland. However he saw Edward I proclaim himself king of Scotland, and defeat William Wallace. Initially Bruce joined with John Comyn against the English but later sided with the English to obtain the Scottish throne. He murdered Comyn, and there was a price on his head for doing this. However Bruce now used force, not politics, to obtain his goals; this paid off and he was crowned King at Scone in 1306, having been granted absolution by Bishop Wishart. Bruce managed to unite the Scottish clans to defeat the English at Bannockburn in 1314.

2 July 1266, The Treaty of Perth was signed, between King Magnus �the lawmaker� of Norway and King Alexander III of Scotland. Norway sold to Scotland the ownership of the Isle of Man (Sodor, or Southern Island) and the Western Isles, although Norway retained the Orkney and Shetland Islands. This treaty was a result of the Battle of Largs (2 October .1263).

2 October 1263, The Battle of Largs. Fought at Largs on the Clyde between Norwegian forces under King Haakon and Scottish levies under King Alexander III. Haakon wanted to put on a show of strength to demonstrate continued Norwegian power over the Western Isles (see 2 July 1266). However Alexander III�s 1500 Scots defeated the Norwegians. A barefoot Norwegian footsoldier attempting a surprise attack on the Scottish camp by night trod on a thistle and cried out in pain, alerting the Scottish camp. In memory of this event the Scots adopted the thistle as their national emblem.

26 December 1251, Marriage of Margaret, daughter of King Henry III of England, to King Alexander III of Scotland.

13 July 1249, Coronation of King Alexander III of Scotland at Scone Abbey.


King Alexander II

8 July 1249. Death of King Alexander II of Scotland. He was born in 1198, and succeeded William the Lion to the Scottish throne in 1214. He joined the English barons in their struggle against King John, marched into England, and besieged Norham Castle in 1215. In 1217 he again invaded England but then made peace with King Henry III, marrying his sister Joanna in 1221. Alexander captured Argyll from the Norwegians, and was on an expedition to capture the Western Isles also from Norway when he died at Kerrera. See 16 March 1285.

4 September 1241, King Alexander III (The Glorious) of Scotland was born (acceded 1249, died 1286).

15 May 1239, King Alexander II of Scotland married Mary de Courcy of Picardy; she survived him to act as Regent for her son.

25 September 1237, The Treaty of York fixed the border between England and Scotland. The Treaty confirmed English control over Northumberland, Westmoreland and Cumberland, with the border almost in its current position.

18 June 1221, Marriage of Joan, daughter of King John of England, to King Alexander II of Scotland. They had no children.

6 December 1214, Coronation of King Alexander II of Scotland.

4 December 1214, William the Lion of Scotland died aged 71, after a 49-year reign. He was succeded by his 16-year-old son who reigned until 1249 as Alexander II .

5 December 1189, King William of Scotland succeeded in getting King Richard of England to cancel the Treaty of Falaise (signed between William and Richard�s father, King Henry II). This meant an end to England�s overlordship of Scotland. Richard had other priorities, to wage a Crusade in the Holy Land.

5 September 1186, Marriage of Ermengarde (died 1234) to King William the Lion of Scotland.

24 December 1165, Coronation of William the Lion of Scotland at Scone Abbey.


30 May 1249, Assassination of Ragnald II, King of Man.

6 May 1249, Accession of King Ragnald II of Man. However the kingship was in dispute and he was assassinated soon afterwards.

10 November 1187, Death of King Godred the Black, King of the Scottish Isles and Man.

8 November 1176, The refusal of the Scottish Bishops to submit to the English Church was upheld by Rome, in contravention of the Treaty of Falaise of 1174. Archbishop Roger of York was forbidden by the Pope to exercise any authority over the Scottish Episcopate.

8 December 1174, The Treaty of Falaise was signed between King Henry II of England and King William of Scotland. William was freed to return home as King of Scotland, but accepting Henry II�s overlordship; he also lost all his lands in England, and gave hostages to Henry.Henry was not concerned with territorial expansion but wanted security on his northern border.

14 July 1174, King William of Scotland, captured near Alnwick castle, was brought to Richmond, North Yorkshire, where he was held prisoner in chains.


King Malcolm IV 1153-65

9 December 1165, Malcolm IV, King of Scotland, died aged 24. He was succeeded by his 22-year-old brother, William the Lion, who ruled until 1214.


1164, Death of Somerled, Viking King of the Kingdom of the Isles. His name means �summer traveller�.

20 August 1158, Assassination of Ragnald III, Earl of Orkney.

21 December 1156, Assassination of Erlend III, Earl of Orkney.


King David 1124-53

24 May 1153, King David I (The Saint) of Scotland, died in Carlisle (born ca. 1084, acceded 4/1124). Accession his grandson, King Malcolm IV (The Maiden). who never married, and ruled until late 1165.

12 June 1152, Henry, only son of King David, died and was buried this day at Kelso Abbey. This left David�s 11-year-old grandson, Malcolm, as heir to the Scottish throne.

22 May 1149, King David of Scotland pulled off a major diplomatic coup when he met Henry Plantagenet, his great nephew, also the son of Empress Matilda,and a likely successor to the English throne. David knighted Henry, in exchange for a promise that Henry would recognise Scottish rule as far south as Cumberland and the River Tees.

9 April 1139, Under a treaty signed in Durham, King David of Scotland got to keep the lands he seizedwhen he broke another treaty signed in February 1136 when he invaded England in support of Empress Matilda. King Stephen of England got the security he needed on his northern border to fight Matilda.David�s eldest son, Henry, got the earldom of Northumbria, altho0ugh England retained the castles at Newcastle and Bamburgh, and David recognised Stephen as King of England, and gave hostages to ensure he would not break the treaty again.

1135, King David of Scotland expelled the Norwegians (Vikings) from Arran and Bute.


King Alexander I

23 April 1124, Death of King Alexander I of Scotland. He left no legitimate children, and was succeeded by his brother David, Earl of Huntingdon.

12 June 1122, In Scotland, Queen Sybilla, wife of King Alexander I and illegitimate daughter of King Henry I of England, died suddenly at Loch Tay

16 April 1117, Execution of Magnus I (Saint Magnus), Earl of Orkney.


King Edgar

8 January 1107, King Edgar of Scotland died after a 10-year reign and was succeeded by his brother Alexander I, who ruled for 17 years.

1097, Edgar was proclaimed King of Scotland, ruled until 1107.


12 November 1094, Duncan II, son of Malcolm III Canmore and his first wife Ingibiorg, was murdered by his uncle Donald III Ban. In 1072 Duncan II had been sent as hostage to the court of William I The Conqueror, where he remained until his father�s death in 1093. Then, with the help of an army supplied by William II Rufus, he defeated Donald III in May 1094. However Duncan II was loathed in Scotland for being too pro-Norman/English and so he was assassinated.

17 November 1093, Margaret, Queen of Scotland, died just 4 days after her husband did.

13 November 1093, Malcolm III MacDuncan, King of Scotland, and his eldest son Edward, were killed at a place now called Malcolm�s Cross. Malcolm had been besieging Alnwick. His wife Margaret died 4 days later. He was succeeded by his brother Donald Bane, who ruled until 1097.

1074, Malcolm III began to fortify the city of Edinburgh.

15 August 1072, King Malcolm II of Scotland met with King William the Conqueror of England at Abernethy., Tayside. Malcolm had made an unsuccessful attempt to invade and annex Northumbria. Malcom now agreed to withdraw, and to hand over his son Duncan as a hostage. This ended the potential threat to William posed by Malcolm�s marriage in 1070 to Margaret, sister of Edgar Atheling.

1070, Malcolm III made a link with England by marrying Margaret, sister of Edgar.

25 April 1058, Malcolm III, King of Scotland, was crowned at Scone Abbey.

17 March 1058, Lulach, King of Scots, died and was succeeded by Malcolm III, son of Duncan I.

15 August 1057. The Scottish king Macbeth, who killed King Duncan 1 in 1040, was killed in battle by Duncan�s son, Malcolm.

27 July 1054, Earl Siward of Northumbria defeated Scottish King Macbeth at Dunsinane and installed Malcolm Canmore, son of the murdered Duncan I as King of southern Scotland.

14 August 1040, Macbeth murdered Duncan I, King of Scotland, and became King himself.

1 November 1034, King Duncan I of Scotland was crowned.

14 October 1020, Assassination of Einar II Rangmund, co-Earl of Orkney.

23 April 1014, Accession of Einar II Rangmund as co-Earl of Orkney.

1005, King Kenneth II of Scotland died after an 8-year reign. He was succeeded by King Malcolm II, who ruled until 1034.

945, Scotland took the Lake District area from England.

863, Constantine II, son of Kenneth I, became King of Scotland.

13 April 862, In Scotland, King Donald II, successor to Kenneth mac Alpin, died.

843, Kenneth MacAlpine, King of Dalraida, united Scotland to become Kenneth I, King of Scotland.

831, Kenneth MacAlpine, King of Moray, defeated the Picts.

10 August 756, The Northumbrians had to withdraw south to Kyle, due to unexpected losses, just 9 days after imposing their rule on the Kingdom of Strathclyde. King Oengus, Pictish ally of the Northumbrians, also withdrew.

12 August 729, In Tayside the Pictish civil war, which began in 724 when Nechtan abdicated, ended when one of the claimants to the throne, Oengus, defeated and killed his cousin, Drest.

717, King Nectan of the Picts expelled the Columban Church from what is now Moray.

685, At the Battle of Dunnichan Moss, north of the River Tay in Forfar, King Egfrith of Northumbria (successor to Oswy) was killed after had overrun much of southern Scotland. This secured the independence of Scotland from Anglo-saxon England.

22 August 565, First recorded sighting of the Loch Ness Monster, by St Columba.

573, Battle of Ardderyd; Cumbria was incorporated in the Kingdom of Strathclyde.


See also Christianity for early Church conversion work in Britain

See also Roman Empire


Back to top