29/5/2017, Manuel Noriega, former ruler of Panama, died
23/10/2006, A referendum in Panama
endorsed widening the Canal to allow the largest ships to pass.
2005, Martin Torrijos
began his social security reforms by raising pension contributions and
increasing the retirement age. There were street protests.
2004, Martin Tirrijos,
Democratic Revolutionary Party, became President, He promised to fight
corruption and unemployment and improve the bsocial security system.
1999, Mireya Moscoso
was elected the first woman President of Panama. She wanted to redistribute
money to the poor, but was hampered by her lack of a legislative majority.
1999, All US troops
left Panana as the Canal Zone was handed back (see 1977).
1994, The Democratic
Revolutionary Party, once led by Noriega but now pro-USA, won Presidential and
Rule of President Noreiga 1987-1990
surrendered to US forces (he had taken refuge in The Vatican diplomatic
mission) and was arrested and taken tio the USA o drugs charges.
20/12/1989, The US invaded
Panama (Operation Just Cause) with 23,000 troops and
installed the apparent winner of the 1989 elections, Guillermo Endara, as President, Noreiga
was accused of drug-related activities.
Panama, a military coup against Noriega failed.
1/9/1989, The US broke off diplomatic relations with Panama.
1989, New Presidential elections
were held; however three days later Manuel Noriega annulled the results. He
remained as President,
1987, Panama declared a State of
Emergency after proetsts following alleged rigging of the 1984 elections,
ostensiobly won by General Manuel Noriega.
11/2/1938, Manuel Noriega was born.
31/7/1981, Panamanian dictator General Omar
Torrijos Herrera was killed in a plane crash. Colonel Manuel Antonio Noriega,
a CIA operative in Panama, began to develop his own power base.
1977, Torrijos and the USA (President
Carter) signed a treaty transferring control of the Canal to Panama
1968, Brigadier General Omar Torrijos
Herrera came to power in a coup.
9/1/1964, Rioting in the Panama Canal Zone over the issue of
whether the Panamanian Flag could� be
flown alongside the US Flag. 22 Panamanians and 4 US citizens died. The event
is now commemorated as Martyr�s Day.
26/4/1959, A small band of rebels planning a coup against
Panamanian President Ernesto de la Guarda were arrested.
2/1/1955, President Jose Remon of Panama was
9/10/1941, Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango became President
2/1/1931, President of Panama Florencio Harmodio Arosemena was
overthrown and imprisoned by a military junta.
breaks away from Colombia; Panama Canal built
40-mile long Panama
Canal opened; construction work had begun on 4/7/1914. The first ship
to pass through the canal, this day, was the SS Ancon. Ships passed
through three locks 30 metres wide and 300 metres long, rising to 85 feet above
sea level at Lake Gatun, which had been created by damming a river, before
descending through more locks. Since 1914 over one million ships have used the
Canal, saving 3,000 miles and eight days of travel around Cape Horn. In 2013
12,036 vessels, carrying 319 million tonnes of cargo, transitted the Canal,
paying US$ 1,800 million in tolls. 86.7 million tons of this cargo originated
from the USA, and 49.8 million tons was destined for the USA. In 2013 some 3%
of world maritime cargo, worth US$ 270 billion (UK� 160 million at 2014
exchange rates). However many 21st century cargo ships are too big
for the Canal, and in 2006 the Panama Canal Authority announced expansion
plans, costed at US$ 3,200 million, due for completion in 2016.
23/4/1904, The US
acquired the assets of the French Panama Canal Company.
granted the canal strip to US, by treaty ratified on 26/2/1904.
6/11/1903, The USA
recognised Panamanian independence from Colombia, see 3/11/1903.
3/11/1903, Panama revolted (with US backing) �and declared itself independent from Colombia.
At precisely 6pm the rebels bribed the Colombian garrison to surrender, the USS
Nashville steamed into Panama
harbour, and Panama proclaimed its independence. On 6/11/1903 the US recognised
Panamanian independence. On 12/8/1903 the Colombian Senate had rejected US
plans for a canal at Panama. On
18/11/1903 the US and Panama signed a treaty to build the Canal. See
22/1/1903.� On 2/11/1903 the US sent
three warships to Panama.
revolutionaries in New York purchased fabric from Macey�s to create the new
Panamanian flag. Mr Bunau-Varilla, a French
engineer who had worked on the now-bankrupt French Panama canal construction
company, was named as the first Panamanian ambassador to the US,
despite not being a resident of Panama.
15/9/1900, Arbitration by the French president settled a boundary
dispute between Costa Rica and Panama (then a province of Colombia).
1889, The French attempted to dig a canal
at Panama, but the venture failed with 22,000 workers dead.
1830, Gran Colombia broke up, but
retained sovereignty over Panama.
1821, Panama became independent from
Spain as part of Gran Colombia.
14/7/1698, The first settlers left Scotland for an ill-fated
scheme to colonise Panama; the Darien scheme. 1,200 Scottish colonists
set out to create the city of New Edinburgh, in mosquito-infested rainforest.
Within a year all but 300 had died, and the project had cost a quarter of
Dcotland�s national wealth. This loss allegedly persuaded Scotland to agree to the Act of
Union with England in 1707.
28/1/1671, Panama City was sacked by
Welsh pirate, Henry
26/7/1527, The (Spanish)
Council of the Indies granted Francisco Pizarro, 54, the right to conquer
and take riches from the Panama area. The Panamian indigenous inhabitants were
2/11/1503, Columbus discovered Panama. He also observed the
inhabitants playing with a heavy black bouncing ball, made of a substance new
to him, rubber.
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