Chronography of Morocco

Page last modified 10/8/2022


See also Africa

For events in North Africa relating to the Islamic World and Arab Spring see also Islam & Middle East


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16/5/2003, In Casablanca, Morocco, 5 simultaneous suicide bombings struck at US and Israeli targets, killing 45.

20/7/1999, The death of King Hassan II of Morocco prompted widespread mourning across the Arab world.

1993, Morocco made a peace accord with Israel.

1989, Morocco restored diplomatic relations with Syria.

1988, Morocco restored diplomatic relations with Algeria.

10/1969, Ahmed Laraki became Prime Minister, succeeding Mohamed Benhima.

30/6/1969, Spain returned the enclave of Ifni to Morocco; however the towns of Ceuta and Melilla were retained.

27/3/1965, 14 people who had been convicting of plotting to overthrow King Hassan II were executed in Rabat, Morocco.

20/2/1964, Ceasfire in the border war between Algeria and Morocco. The French, former colonial power in both countries, had drawn the border without local consultation, and in 10/1963 a border war began. The two countires had a further border conflict in 1967, and clashed again in 1976 over the fate of Spanish Sahara.

6/2/1963, Mohammed ibn al-Chattabi Abd el-Krim, Morocco opposition leader, died.

31/8/1961, Last Spanish troops withdrew from Morocco.

26/2/1961, King Hassan II became ruler of Morocco on the death of his father, King Mohammad V.

14/6/1958, France announce it was withdrawing its troops from Morocco.

23/10/1957, Morocco began invading Ifni.

7/4/1956, Spain relinquished its protectorate over Morocco.

2/3/1956, The Treaty of Fez was terminated. France officially recognised the independence of Morocco.

20/2/1952. NATO agreed to recruit Morocco.


French and Spanish domination of Morocco now ending

21/8/1955, Morocco and France reached agreement, and anti-French rioting ended there.

16/7/1955, France declared martial law in Morocco after rioting.

7/8/1954, Anti-French riots in Morocco.

20/8/1953, The French forced Sultan Mohammad to abdicate over his support for independence.

30/3/1952, Anti-French riots in Tangier, French Morocco.

11/1/1944, The Moroccan Nationalist Movement released the Proclamation of Independence, a manifesto demanding full independence from France, Spain, and the international legislative body governing Tangier; national reunification; and a democratic constitution.

16/3/1934, French campaign against Berbers in Morocco concluded.

1927, Sidi Mohammad Yousif became Sultam Mohammad V of Morocco.

23/5/1926, In Morocco, the French seized Rif, and the rebel leader Abd El Krim surrendered.

11/7/1925, France and Spain agreed to coordinate their efforts in the Rif War.

11/4/1925, Abd el-Krim defeated the French army in Morocco.

18/12/1923, The International Zone of Tangier (Morocco) was set up.

21/7/1921, The Spanish army was defeated by Moroccan nationalists at Annual.The Spanish sustained over 12,000 casualties.Adb-E-Krim, nationalist leader, was eventually defeated by a Franco-Spanish force in 1926. Abd E Krim was held on the island of Reunion till 1947 but was then given permission to live in France.However he succeeded in escaping to Egypt where he became an inspiration to Arab nationalism generally.

1/9/1912, French troops quelled an uprising in Morocco.

Anti-colonial agitation begins in Morocco


11/8/1912, In Morocco, Sultan Mulai Hafid abdicated.

30/3/1912. By the Treaty ofFez, Morocco became a French protectorate. This Treaty was terminated on 2/3/1956.

1/7/1911, Germany sent the gunboat Panther to Agadir, Morocco, to protect German commercial interests there from French expansion in Morocco.Britain was concerned about Germany�s ambitions in Africa so close to Gibraltar.

16/6/1911. The French army occupied Fez, in Morocco.

3/12/1910. France occupied the Moroccan port of Agadir.

23/8/1908, The Battle of Marrakesh. Abd-al-Aziz IV, Sultan of Morocco, was defeated by his elder brother, Mulay Hafid, who had been proclaimed Sultan in May.

4/8/1907, The French navy bombarded the Moroccan port of Casablanca, after anti-Western demonstrations there.

7/4/1906. The Conference of Algecieras ended.

16/1/1906. The Algecieras Conference � see 28/8/1904.

31/3/1905, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany arrived in Tangier, Morocco, to give a speech in favour of Moroccan independence. This was intended to humiliate France, who saw Morocco as their own protectorate, and to test the closeness of the Franco-British entente. Germany intended to subsequently �grant France limited control in Morocco�, a move supposed to bring France closer to Germany and away from Britain. However Germany was surprised by the forcefulness with which British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey backed France; Germany was further isolated from France, Britain and hence Russia too. This event paved the way for the Agadir crisis of 1911.

3/10/1904. France and Spain agreed that northern Morocco was recognised as a Spanish zone of influence.

28/8/1904. A treaty was concluded in London whereby France would allow the British freedom of action in Egypt in return for the British allowing the French a free hand in Morocco. For many years the nominally independent Sultanate of Morocco had been losing power as it became increasingly dependent on French, Spanish, and German business and subsidies for financial security. In October 1904 the French also concluded a secret treaty with the Spanish. This disturbed Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany who saw his country being squeezed out of North Africa. Wilhelm II therefore landed at Tangier on 31 March 1905. The sultan sided with the Germans and serious friction with the French resulted. On 161/1906 the Algecieras Conference was held. German claims were backed by Austria whilst French claims were backed by Britain. Germany failed to curb France�s privileged position in Morocco. See 8/4/1904.

30/12/1902, Spain sent warships to Tangiers, Morocco.

20/7/1901, Morocco ceded control of its frontier police to France.

1894, Treaty of Fez. The Sultan of Morocco agreed to pay Spain a war indemnity of 20 million pesetas, and to punish the Berbers (seer 11/1893).

11/1893, Rif Berber tribes were attacking Spanish possession in northern Morocco, unchecked by the Sultan of Morocco. When the Governor-General of Melilla was killed, Spain then counterattacked with a 25,000 strong army, driving the Berbers back. See 1894.

France re-establishes control of Morocco; Spain controls northern Morocco


3/7/1880, Morocco�s independence was recognised by the European powers and by Russia.

26/4/1860, Under pressure from Britain, Spain and Morocco made peace/ Spain received an indemnity from Morocco, and the size of its Ceuta enclave was increased.

1860, Spain occupied the port of Ifni.

1/1/1860, Spanish General Juan Prim y Prats (1814-70) scored a major victory over Morocco, and captured Tetuan a month later.

22/10/1859, Spain declared war on Morocco, after Muslim attacks on the Spanish enclave of Ceuta. The Spanish Prime Minister, Leopoldo O�Donnell (1809-67) used the pretext of damages suffered by Spanish citizens in Ceuta, which he alleged that the Moroccan Sultan had failed to offer compensation for. O�Donnell took charge of the war, adssembling a large 40,000-strong army, but his battleplans were flawed. He landed his army at disadvantageous locations, became bogged down by the use of poor roads, and suffered losses from cholera. However see 1/1/1860.

10/9/1844. France and Morocco signed the Treaty of Tangiers, ending their conflict. France withdrew from Morocco.

1/7/1844. A French squadron under the Duke of Joinville bombarded Tangiers.

1728, Meknes ceased to be the capital of Morocco.

4/8/1578, Portuguese King Sebastian (1554-78), against the advice of Pope Gregory XIII (1502-85) and of King Philip II of Spain (1527-98), decided to fight in Morocco in support of a Pretender to the throne,Portugal had even wider ambitions, of a great crusade against the Muslim �infidels� of Morocco. Portuguese forces marched overland to Ksar el Kebir (then Alcazarquivir), where, at the Battle of the Three Kings this day, having been debilitated by the heat and short of provisions, they were heavily defeated by the King o0f Fez. All three Kings, Sebastian, the Pretender and the King pf Fez, died on the battlefield. Of the 25,000 strong Portuguese army, some 8,000 were died and 15,000 captured; a small number managed to escape. The captured nobles were ransomed by Morocco, for a sum that nearly bankrupted Portugal.

1497, Melilla became a Spanish colony.

1415, Ceuta became a Portuguese colony.

1290, The Marinid rulers of Morocco, whose dynasty endured until 1470, captured the nation;s capital from the Berber Almohads.

1147, The Almohads replaced the Almoravids.

1062, The city of Marrakesh was founded by Youssef ben Tachfine, founder of the Almoravid Dynasty in 1053.

711, Invading Arab armies brought Islam to Morocco. They founded the Idrissid Kingdom, which ruled from 744 to 788.

618, The Goths invaded Morocco,

429, Vandal invaders crossed from Spain into Morocco, ending Roman rule there.

See also Roman Empire.


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