Chronography of Morocco

Page last modified 25 March 2023


See also Africa

For events in North Africa relating to the Islamic World and Arab Spring see also Islam & Middle East


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16 May 2003, In Casablanca, Morocco, 5 simultaneous suicide bombings struck at US and Israeli targets, killing 45.

20 July 1999, The death of King Hassan II of Morocco prompted widespread mourning across the Arab world.

1993, Morocco made a peace accord with Israel.

1989, Morocco restored diplomatic relations with Syria.

1988, Morocco restored diplomatic relations with Algeria.

27 January 1975, Morocco requested that the UN Decolonisation Committee put the Ceuta case on its agenda. Morocco also said it would raise the question of the Spanish enclaves, if Gibraltar were ever returned to Spanish control.

October 1969, Ahmed Laraki became Prime Minister, succeeding Mohamed Benhima.

30 June 1969, Spain returned the enclave of Ifni to Morocco; however the towns of Ceuta and Melilla were retained.

27 March 1965, 14 people who had been convicting of plotting to overthrow King Hassan II were executed in Rabat, Morocco.

20 February 1964, Ceasfire in the border war between Algeria and Morocco. The French, former colonial power in both countries, had drawn the border without local consultation, and in 10/1963 a border war began. The two countires had a further border conflict in 1967, and clashed again in 1976 over the fate of Spanish Sahara.

29 March 1963, The US assured King Hassan of Morocco that it would close its military bases in his country by end-1963.

6 February 1963, Mohammed ibn al-Chattabi Abd el-Krim, Morocco opposition leader, died.

30 June 1962, Morocco extended its territorial waters from 6 to 10 nautical miles; it also reasserted its claims to the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Mellila. Spain reinforced the enclave borders.

31 August 1961, Last Spanish troops withdrew from Morocco.

26 February 1961, King Hassan II became ruler of Morocco on the death of his father, King Mohammad V.

14 June 1958, France announce it was withdrawing its troops from Morocco.

23 October 1957, Morocco began invading Ifni.

7 April 1956, Spain relinquished its protectorate over Morocco.

2 March 1956, The Treaty of Fez was terminated. France officially recognised the independence of Morocco.

20 February 1952. NATO agreed to recruit Morocco.


French and Spanish domination of Morocco now ending

21 August 1955, Morocco and France reached agreement, and anti-French rioting ended there.

16 July 1955, France declared martial law in Morocco after rioting.

7 August 1954, Anti-French riots in Morocco.

20 August 1953, The French forced Sultan Mohammad to abdicate over his support for independence.

30 March 1952, Anti-French riots in Tangier, French Morocco.

11 January 1944, The Moroccan Nationalist Movement released the Proclamation of Independence, a manifesto demanding full independence from France, Spain, and the international legislative body governing Tangier; national reunification; and a democratic constitution.

16 March 1934, French campaign against Berbers in Morocco concluded.

1927, Sidi Mohammad Yousif became Sultam Mohammad V of Morocco.

23 May 1926, In Morocco, the French seized Rif, and the rebel leader Abd El Krim surrendered.

11 July 1925, France and Spain agreed to coordinate their efforts in the Rif War.

11 April 1925, Abd el-Krim defeated the French army in Morocco.

18 December 1923, The International Zone of Tangier (Morocco) was set up.

21 July 1921, The Spanish army was defeated by Moroccan nationalists at Annual.The Spanish sustained over 12,000 casualties.Adb-E-Krim, nationalist leader, was eventually defeated by a Franco-Spanish force in 1926. Abd E Krim was held on the island of Reunion till 1947 but was then given permission to live in France.However he succeeded in escaping to Egypt where he became an inspiration to Arab nationalism generally.

1 September 1912, French troops quelled an uprising in Morocco.

Anti-colonial agitation begins in Morocco


11 August 1912, In Morocco, Sultan Mulai Hafid abdicated.

30 March 1912. By the Treaty ofFez, Morocco became a French protectorate. This Treaty was terminated on 2 March 1956.

1 July 1911, Germany sent the gunboat Panther to Agadir, Morocco, to protect German commercial interests there from French expansion in Morocco.Britain was concerned about Germany�s ambitions in Africa so close to Gibraltar.

16 June 1911. The French army occupied Fez, in Morocco.

3 December 1910. France occupied the Moroccan port of Agadir.

23 August 1908, The Battle of Marrakesh. Abd-al-Aziz IV, Sultan of Morocco, was defeated by his elder brother, Mulay Hafid, who had been proclaimed Sultan in May.

4 August 1907, The French navy bombarded the Moroccan port of Casablanca, after anti-Western demonstrations there.

7 April 1906. The Conference of Algecieras ended.

16 January 1906. The Algecieras Conference � see 28 August 1904.

31 March 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany arrived in Tangier, Morocco, to give a speech in favour of Moroccan independence. This was intended to humiliate France, who saw Morocco as their own protectorate, and to test the closeness of the Franco-British entente. Germany intended to subsequently �grant France limited control in Morocco�, a move supposed to bring France closer to Germany and away from Britain. However Germany was surprised by the forcefulness with which British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey backed France; Germany was further isolated from France, Britain and hence Russia too. This event paved the way for the Agadir crisis of 1911.

3 October 1904. France and Spain agreed that northern Morocco was recognised as a Spanish zone of influence.

28 August 1904. A treaty was concluded in London whereby France would allow the British freedom of action in Egypt in return for the British allowing the French a free hand in Morocco. For many years the nominally independent Sultanate of Morocco had been losing power as it became increasingly dependent on French, Spanish, and German business and subsidies for financial security. In October 1904 the French also concluded a secret treaty with the Spanish. This disturbed Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany who saw his country being squeezed out of North Africa. Wilhelm II therefore landed at Tangier on 31 March 1905. The sultan sided with the Germans and serious friction with the French resulted. On 16/1/1906 the Algecieras Conference was held. German claims were backed by Austria whilst French claims were backed by Britain. Germany failed to curb France�s privileged position in Morocco. See 8 April 1904.

30 December 1902, Spain sent warships to Tangiers, Morocco.

20 July 1901, Morocco ceded control of its frontier police on its Algerian border to France. France already controlled Algeria as a colony, and this was a step towards France acquiring Morocco also as a further colony, thereby excluding Britain and Spain who also had aspirations for this territory.

1894, Treaty of Fez. The Sultan of Morocco agreed to pay Spain a war indemnity of 20 million pesetas, and to punish the Berbers (see November 1893).

November 1893, Rif Berber tribes were attacking Spanish possession in northern Morocco, unchecked by the Sultan of Morocco. When the Governor-General of Melilla was killed, Spain then counterattacked with a 25,000 strong army, driving the Berbers back. See 1894.

France re-establishes control of Morocco; Spain controls northern Morocco


3 July 1880, Morocco�s independence was recognised by the European powers and by Russia.

26 April 1860, Under pressure from Britain, Spain and Morocco made peace/ Spain received an indemnity from Morocco, and the size of its Ceuta enclave was increased.

1860, Spain occupied the port of Ifni.

1 January 1860, Spanish General Juan Prim y Prats (1814-70) scored a major victory over Morocco, and captured Tetuan a month later.

22 October 1859, Spain declared war on Morocco, after Muslim attacks on the Spanish enclave of Ceuta. The Spanish Prime Minister, Leopoldo O�Donnell (1809-67) used the pretext of damages suffered by Spanish citizens in Ceuta, which he alleged that the Moroccan Sultan had failed to offer compensation for. O�Donnell took charge of the war, adssembling a large 40,000-strong army, but his battleplans were flawed. He landed his army at disadvantageous locations, became bogged down by the use of poor roads, and suffered losses from cholera. However see 1 January 1860.

10 September 1844. France and Morocco signed the Treaty of Tangiers, ending their conflict. France withdrew from Morocco.

1 July 1844. A French squadron under the Duke of Joinville bombarded Tangiers.

1728, Meknes ceased to be the capital of Morocco.

4 August 1578, Portuguese King Sebastian (1554-78), against the advice of Pope Gregory XIII (1502-85) and of King Philip II of Spain (1527-98), decided to fight in Morocco in support of a Pretender to the throne,Portugal had even wider ambitions, of a great crusade against the Muslim �infidels� of Morocco. Portuguese forces marched overland to Ksar el Kebir (then Alcazarquivir), where, at the Battle of the Three Kings this day, having been debilitated by the heat and short of provisions, they were heavily defeated by the King o0f Fez. All three Kings, Sebastian, the Pretender and the King pf Fez, died on the battlefield. Of the 25,000 strong Portuguese army, some 8,000 were died and 15,000 captured; a small number managed to escape. The captured nobles were ransomed by Morocco, for a sum that nearly bankrupted Portugal.

3 September 1503, Ferdinand II of Spain sent an army to Morocco to fight the Moors. Mers el Kebir fell to Spain.

1497, Melilla became a Spanish colony.

1415, Ceuta became a Portuguese colony.

1290, The Marinid rulers of Morocco, whose dynasty endured until 1470, captured the nation;s capital from the Berber Almohads.

1147, The Almohads replaced the Almoravids.

17 December 1129, Almohad Mahdi Muhammad Ibn Tumart died and was succeeded by Abd Al Mu�min.

27 November 1121, Muhammad ibn Tumart, leader of the Almohads of the Atlas Mountains, was recognised as the Mahdi (Guided by God). He began to conquer the Almoravid territories in NW Africa.

1062, The city of Marrakesh was founded by Youssef ben Tachfine, founder of the Almoravid Dynasty in 1053.

711, Invading Arab armies brought Islam to Morocco. They founded the Idrissid Kingdom, which ruled from 744 to 788.

618, The Goths invaded Morocco,

429, Vandal invaders crossed from Spain into Morocco, ending Roman rule there.

See also Roman Empire.


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