Chronography of Madagascar
Page last modified 22 August 2023
See also Africa
2006, Ravalomana won elections. In 2007 the electorate approved plans to increase Presidential powers.
2003, Ratsiraka retired; he was given a 10 year sentence of hard labour in absentia for corruption. His former Prime Minister received a 12-year sentence.
2002, Madagascar was divided as opposition leader Marc Ravalomana claimed victory in the 2001 Presidential elections. Mediation by the Organisation of African Unity failed to break the deadlock, as the incumbent President Didier Ratsiraka set up a rival government oin the port city of Tamatave. The High Court ruled in favour of Ravalomana and Ratsiraka went into exile.
1997, Ratsiraka was elected President.
1996, Zafy was impeached.
1993, Zafy�s CFV Party defeated Ratsiraka�s coalition government in free elections.
1991, Opposition Forces Vives (CFV), a coalition of opposition parties, was set up by Albert Zafy.
1977, A �Democratic Republic� was set up, with only one political Party permitted.
1975, Didier Ratsikira, a radical socialist, took power.
26 June 1960, Madagascar became an independent republic.� It had been a French colony since 1896.
14 October 1958, Madagascar gained autonomy.
29 March� 1947. Nationalist uprising in Madagascar against the French. Thousands were killed in riots.
World War Two
19 October 1942, In Madagascar, East African Allied troops advanced southwards from Tananarive. 800 Vichy French troopsa were taken prisoner near Ivato.
7 May 1942, Madagascar was occupied by British troops to forestall any Japanese invasion.
1898, Viiolent anti-French protests began, lasting until 1906. They were brutally suppressed.
1897, End of the reign of the last monarch of Madagascar, Queen Ranavalona (reigned 1883-97). She was Queen of Imerina; the Merina were the dominant indigenous ethnic group at the time of French colonisation. However there was internal conflict between the Merina and other indigenous peoples who resented Merina hegemony.
Start of French colonisation
6 August 1896. Madagascar was proclaimed a French colony.
1895, Half of the 15,000 French invasion force had succumbed to disease. Nevertheless in September 1895 French troops triumphantly entered the capital, Antananarivo, to enforce full control.
12/1894, Differences had arisen between the French and the indigenous Malagasy administration. By a vote of 377 to 143 the French Chamber of Deputies approved sending an expeditionary force to enhance French control of the island. The French also had concerns about a Black American, John Lewis Waller, who was negotiating directly with the Malagasy administration regarding resources sich as minerals and rubber, bypsassing the French �foreign affairs control�.
12/1885, A Treaty of Peace and Friendship between France and Madagascar was signed at Tamatave. Ranavaolona continued as monarch and controlled domestic affairs but France was in charge of foreign affairs. The Malagasy Government was required to pay France ten million Francs, plus interest on a loan, to cover the costs of the French invasion.
30 September 1895. The capital of Madagascar, Tananarive, surrendered to the French.
5 August 1890.� Britain agreed to recognise Madagascar as a French colony and France recognised Zanzibar as a British protectorate. France gave up claims to the lower Niger and retained the desert territories of the Sahara.
1883, Accession of Queen Ranavalona, see 1897.
13 June 1883, The French continued fighting in Madagascar.� Tamatave was bombarded and French subjects expelled from the capital.
16 May 1883, The French commenced hostilities in Madagascar, bombarding Majunga.
1827, King Radama I, Hova King of Madagascar, died after an 18-year reign during which British influence had been encouraged. He was succeeded by Queen Ranavaloana I, who reigned foir 33 years and was hostile to both British and French influence and missionaries
1686, France formally annexed Madagascar.
10 June 1660, Etienne de Flacourt, French colonial Governor of Madagascar, died (born 1607).
1500, Portuguese explorer Diego Dias visited Madagascar.