Chronography of London

See also Great Britain

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See also canal/sea for development of London�s canals and docks.

See also Medical for London hospitals

See also London Underground and Railways GB for development of London�s railways

See also Prisons for London prisons

See also road transport for road development in London, and road bridges, tunnels.

See also Education for London schools

See also Railways GB for railways and stations

See also Sports and Games (follow sport-specific sports links from here) for sporting events

See also Theatres

See also Universities UK for London�s universities


See below for,

Art Galleries

Cinemas Exhibitions and Halls


Commercial Buildings


Environment & Health

Festivals (outdoor) and Statues

Governance & Parliament

Housing, residential




Parks / Cemeteries / Green Belt

Policing and crime

Poverty, deprivation

Protests and riots

Public Transport

Religion and religious buildings

Retailing, markets

Tower of London


Click here for population of selected districts, various years


19 April 2001, Berkeley Square, London, was bought by the Saudi Royal Family for �335 million.

9 January 1955, 400 Jamaicans arrived in London to seek work. Much post-war reconstruction needed to be done in Britain.

London, World War Two

28 June 1947, The statue of Eros returned to Piccadilly Circus.

5 June 1946, King George V took the salute at the Victory Parade in The Mall, London.

30 April 1945. The face of Big Ben, London, was lit once more for the first time in 5 years 123 days, an important sign that the War was nearly over.

28 March 1945,. Last air raid warning siren sounded in London.

27 March 1945. The last German V-2 rocket fell on Britain, at Orpington. (see 8 September 1944).The Allies then overran the last V-2 launching site. In all, 1,050 rockets fell on England, each carrying a ton of explosive with a range of 200 miles.The V-2s were designed by Werner von Braun, who surrendered to the Americans in 1945.Von Braun was given US citizenship and helped design the rockets for the US space programme, including the Saturn rockets and the Apollo missions.

3 December 1944, The Home Guard was formally disbanded in London as King George VI witnessed its final parade. Britons were jubilant that this symbolised imminent victory in the War. The Black-Out was replaced by the Dim-Out as the Luftwaffe was no longer a credible threat. However British strikes rose, particularly in the coal mines. Coal miners pay was relatively low compared to other occupations, and conditions were poor.

20 November 1944, After five years of black-out, the lights were switched on again in Piccadilly, Strand, and Fleet Street.

8 September 1944, The first V-2 fell in on Chiswick in the London area, killing three people. By the end of the war, 1,100 V-2s fell in England an a further 1,675 on the continent, mainly on Antwerp.V-2 stood for Vergeltungswaffe, or �reprisal weapon�. The V-2 rocket weighed 12 tons and travelled at 3,600 mph, faster than sound, so there was no warning of its imminent arrival. It had a range of 200 miles and carried a one ton bomb. The Germans fired them from launchers in The Netherlands, but the explosions in London were attributed, by the authorities, to gas explosions to mislead the German intelligence. The earlier V-1 rocket was slower and had a shorter range; V-1 strikes on London ceased as the Allies captured the launch sites in France.

3 July 1944, Evacuation of children from London because of the V-1 bombings.

15 May 1944. In St Pauls School, London, the D-Day landings of 6 June 1944 were planned using a huge map of the area. 8 divisions, 5 seaborne and 3 airborne, were to be landed in the first 48 hours. The Germans had 60 divisions defending the coast of the Netherlands, Belgium and France. An elaborate deception was mounted to make Germany think Calais was the landing point with fake radio traffic, misleading reports from Nazi agents who had been �turned� to serve the Allies,and a phantom army with wooden tanks stationed in south-east England. In May 1944 Montgomery received a decode of a message from Field Marshall Rommel to Hitler saying that Allied bombing of railways in northern France was disrupting his efforts to defend the Calais area from an Allied invasion.

14 March 1944, Heavy German air raid on London, with 100 Luftwaffe bombers.

21 January 1944, The Luftwaffe resumed bombing raids on London, after a lull of over two years. 268 tons of bombs were dropped, followed by a similar raid a week later.

29 October 1943, London dock workers went on strike. Soldiers moved in to do the work.

3 March 1943, 173 people were crushed to death whilst descending the stairs into Bethnal Green tube station to shelter during an air raid. A woman at the top of the stairs, carrying a child, slipped and fell on those immediately in front of her, causing those below to lose their balance too.

17 January 1943, The Luftwaffe conducted the first night raid on London since May 1941.

See France/Germany for main events of World War Two

10 May 1941. The House of Commons was almost destroyed by incendiary bombs. It was rebuilt, and reopened by George VI on 26 October 1950. This was the worst night of the Blitz; 550 German bombers dropped 100,000 incendiaries, and over 1,400 people were killed. The House of Commons had to meet in the Lords.

16 April 1941, The last remaining tower of Crystal Palace, south London, was demolished, as it made a clear landmark for Luftwaffe bombers.

19 March 1941. The Luftwaffe resumed raids on London, following its failure in the Battle of Britain.

11 January 1941, Bank Underground station, London, received a direct bomb hit during the Blitz. 51 died.

5 January 1941. A bomb hit Wormwood Scrubs prison, west London.

29 December 1940, 136 German bombers dropped 22,000 incendiary bombs and 127 tons of high explosive on London on one of the worst nights of the Blitz. Eight Wren churches and Guildhall were destroyed, but St Paul�s survived.. Overall one third of the City of London was razed.

10 December 1940, In London, two Germans were hanged after being convicted as spies.

12 November 1940, Sloane Square London Underground Station received a direct bomb hit just as a train was leaving in the evening. 35 people were known killed and 2 hospitalised(some estimate a death toll of 79) with three missing. Train services were running again 2 weeks after the event.

2 November 1940, The only air-raid free night in London during the period 7 September to 13 November, due to bad weather that night. Over this period, 27,500 high explosive bombs had fallen on London, along with incendiaries, parachute mines and oil explosive bombs.

17 October 1940, A bomb knocked out all the automatic railway signalling within two and half miles of Waterloo Station, London.

15 October 1940, Over London, a full Moon coincided with clear weather, leading to heavy German bombing raids. 410 German aircraft dropped 538 tons of high explosive bombs, killing 400 people.

14 October 1940, At 8.02pm, a German World War Two bomb made a direct hit on Balham underground station, where hundreds of people were sheltering from the air raid. Water rushed in as water mains and sewage pipes burst. 68 people were killed.

13 October 1940, Bounds Green Underground station was hit by a German bomb; 17 died and 20 were injured.

9 October 1940.St Paul�s Cathedral was bombed as the Luftwaffe made heavy raids on London. A German bomb went through the dome of the cathedral, destroying the high altar. An unexploded bomb had to be removed from the cathedral roof. German air raids continued throughout the rest of 1940 but the cathedral suffered little more damage. Surrounding buildings were destroyed, but the image of the dome standing intact amidst smoke and rubble became a national image symbolising the fighting spirit of Britain against Nazi Germany.

17 September 1940. Marble Arch became the first tube station to be hit by German bombs. 20 died and over 40 were injured.

13 September 1940, Buckingham Palace hit by German bombs. The King and Queen would have been seriously injured by flying glass had the windows been closed. The incident was a PR blunder for the Germans, as now the monarch could claim to have shared the privations of London�s east enders.

11 September 1940. The Lord Mayor of London launched the Mansion House Fund to relieve the suffering of those made homeless by bombing.

8 September 1940, A heavy German air raid on the London Docks area; 400 died. The following day, 200 bombers came in the daytime and another 170 after darkness. A further 370 east enders died on 9 September 1940.

23 August 1940. The Blitz on London began. Bombs initially fell on the Docks and the East End, but then hit targets further west, including Buckingham Palace.

18 August 1940. The first German plane was shot down over London.

16 August 1940, Wimbledon, south west London, was bombed.

15 August 1940, Croydon aerodrome was bombed

12 June 1940, At a by-election in Bow and Bromley, east London, the anti-War candidate won just 6% of votes cast.

8 June 1940, The first German bombs fell in the London area, in open country near Addington. The only casualty was a goat.

25 March 1940, Despite the blackout, London West End restaurants, bars and theatres wree crowded with people carrying torches. Stations were busy with crowds seeing off troops returning after Easter leave.

20 November 1939, The first German aircraft to approach London ventured up the Thames estuary. It was repelled with heavy ant-aircraft fire and retreated without causing any damage.

6 November 1939, In London, a tramp was found dead inside a wall of sandbags.

25 August 1939, Moveable treasures from London�s art galleries and museums were taken away for safety.

25 February 1939. The first Anderson bomb shelter was erected in Britain, in a garden in Islington.

27 July 1933, In London, the World Economic Conference broke up without agreement.

12 June 1933, The World Economic Conference opened in London, to seek a co-ordinated response to the Depression.


London, World War One

17 June 1918, The last German air raid of World War One on London.

14 June 1917. Air raid on London, the first by German fixed-wing aircraft. In a daylight raid, 162 Londoners died and 432 were injured. 16 children died in a Poplar school.

19 January 1917, An explosion at a munitions factory in Silvertown, east London, killed 73 and injured over 400.

24 August 1916. Eight people were killed in a Zeppelin raid on London.

25 April 1916, Anzac Day was first celebrated in London.

23 January 1916, London�s Natural History Museum and British Museum were closed for the duration of the War.

See France-Germany for main events of World War One

31 May 1915, German airship bombing raid on London; Stoke Newington was badly damaged and 7 Londoners died.

10 August 1914, Olympia was used as a detention centre for 300 German-born citizens under the wide emergency powers of the Defence of the Realm Act.

11 May 1915, German-owned businesses, shops and restaurants, in the London suburbs of Bethnal Green, Camden Town, Limehouse, Poplar, Stepney and Walthamstow were attacked, burnt and destroyed. Traders at Smithfield Market refused to trade with ethnic Germans, even if they had been naturalised as Britons. An American trader at Smithfield who was inclined to trade with the foreigners was also beaten up. The unrest was in response to the sinking of the Lusitania four days earlier.


9 April 1906, The Labour leader Hugh Gaitskell was born in London.

2 October 1903, A section of the old Roman Wall of London was discovered during the demolition of other buildings.

2 July 1903, Sir Alec Douglas Home, Conservative Prime Minister, was born in London.

4 August 1902, The Greenwich foot tunnel under the Thames opened. It replaced a ferry that had existed here since 1676.

24 February 1902, London�s first telephone service began operating.

10 February 1894, Harold Macmillan, Lord Stockton, British Conservative Prime Minister, was born in London.

3 January 1888, Herbert Morison, Labour politician, was born in Lambeth, London.

3 January 1883. Clement Richard Attlee, Labour Prime Minister from 1945 to 1951, was born in Putney, London.

2 July 1850, Sir Robert Peel, British Conservative Prime Minister and founder of the police force in 1829, died in London due to a riding accident.

22 July 1844, The Reverend William Spooner, educationalist and originator of �spoonerisms�, was born in London.

27 April 1840, Edward Whymper, mountaineer and the first person to climb the Matterhorn, was born in London.

8 July 1836. Joseph Chamberlain, British Liberal politician, was born in London.

1816, Finchley Common, a large uninhabited area just east of Finchley Village, crossed by the Great North Road and an infamous haunt of highwaymen, was enclosed. A plan to create a feeder reservoir for the Grand Union Canal here was dropped in 1820, the reservoir being built at Brent instead.

21 February 1804. Benjamin Disraeli, British Tory Prime Minister, was born at 22 Theobald�s Road, London.

2 March 1797, Horatio Walpole, British politician, died in London.He never married.

20 October 1784, Lord Palmerston was born at 20, Queen Anne�s Gate, Westminster as Henry John Temple.

11 May 1778, William Pitt the Elder, British Prime Minister, Earl of Chatham, died at Hayes, Middlesex.

28 May 1759, William Pitt the Younger, British Tory Prime Minister, was born at Hayes, near Bromley, Kent. He became Britain�s youngest Prime Minister at age 24.

18 March 1745, Sir Robert Walpole, British Whig Prime Minister from 1721 to 1742 died in London. He had been created the Earl of Orford.

17 October 1727, John Wilkes, British political reformist who called for a free press, was born in Clerkenwell, London, the son of a distiller.

20 March 1727. Sir Isaac Newton, born 5 January 1642, died in London aged 84. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

24 September 1717, Horatio Walpole, British politician, was born in London.

15 November 1708. Birth of William Pitt the Elder, at Westminster.

11 March 1682. King Charles II founded the Chelsea Hospital for old soldiers (Chelsea Pensioners).It was designed by Wren, and opened in 1692.


Great Fire of London

19 September 1666, Several plans for the reconstruction of London were drawn up or in progress. The first was by Christopher Wren (11/9); John Evelyn�s was complete on 13/9, and Robert Hooke�s was finished on 19/9. Plans, according to a Royal proclamation of 13/9, must include wider streets, replacement of wooden buildings by brick and stone, and a quayside along the Thames. However questions of accurate compensation precluded many of the concepts for wide boulevards. Instead, the Rebuilding Act of 1667 set standards and heights for new buildings according to the width of the street they were in.

6 September 1666, The Great Fire of London ended � see 2 September 1666.

2 September 1666. The Great Fire of London began on a Sunday morning at the house and shop of Thomas Farynor (Farriner), baker to King Charles II, in Pudding Lane. Farynor allegedly forgot to put out the fire in his oven, which spread to nearby stacked firewood. Farynor and his family escaped their burning house by climbing out of a window and along roof tops. Their maid was too scared to climb along the rooftops, and became the fire�s first victim. The fire rapidly spread. It burns for 4 days. In all, 436 acres were burned, destroying 87 churches and over 13,000 houses. However only nine lives were lost. The fire also helped end the Great Plague.


1 December 1655, Samuel Pepys married Elizabeth St Michael in St Margarets, Westminster.

22 January 1561, Francis Bacon, author, philosopher, and statesman, was born at York House in The Strand, London.

842, London sacked by the Vikings, many residents slaughtered.

410, Roman protection of London ended.

125, Londinium destroyed by fire.

60, Londinium was sacked by Boudicca. It was rebuilt in 61.

43 AD, The Romans invaded Britain and established London as a military garrison town. There was no local stone available for the Romans to build the walls of London, so they imported stone by barge from Kent.

400 BCE, The start of the settlement of London, under the Celtic King Belin. Belin built a defensive earthwork surrounding a few dozen wooden huts, also constructing a small harbour and landing place. The name of this landing place was gradually corrupted from Belin�s Gate to Billingsgate.


Art Galleries see also Arts

10 July 1991, The Queen opened the new Sainsbury wing at the National Gallery.

4 May 1889, The National Portrait Gallery, London, was presented to the nation.

2I July 1897, London�s Tate Gallery opened. Founded by sugar magnate Sir Henry Tate, it was on the site of the old Millbank prison

1838, The National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, opened.

1814, Dulwich Art Gallery opened; the first public art gallery.


Cinemas and Halls

31 December 2000. The Dome in Greenwich closed after a year of financial problems, insufficient visitor numbers, and general ridicule.

22 June 1998, Tony Blair praised the �758 million London Millennium Dome, erected on a former gasworks site, as a �symbol of Britain�s creativity.

29 August 1997, In London, work began on the Millennium Dome.

30 July 1991, Pavarotti gave a free concert in Hyde Park.

10 July 1980. The 105 year old Grand Exhibition Hall at Alexandra Palace, north London, was destroyed by a fire.

25 October 1976, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the National Theatre on London�s South Bank.

13 June 1951, Elizabeth, heir to the British throne, laid the foundation stone of the National Theatre, on London�s South Bank.

20 May 1867, The foundation stone of the Royal Albert Hall was laid by Queen Victoria. It opened in 1871, with seating for 6,036.

4 January 1698, The Palace of Whitehall, London, was destroyed by fire.

Festival of Britain 1951

30 September 1951, The Festival of Britain closed, see 3 May 1951.

3 May 1951. King George V opened the Festival of Britain, on 11 hectares (27 acres) of a former bombsite near London�s Waterloo Station. The Festival closed on 30 September 1951. The Festival was intended to make people optimistic about the future after years of wartime gloom and rationing. In December 1947 Labour Minister Herbert Morrison told Parliament that the centenary of the Great Exhibition 1851 would be marked by a �World Fair�. Economic constraints led it to be rebranded as a national event, financed by a grant of over �11,300,000.There were regional exhibits across the UK but the main venue was on a huge bomb site on London�s South Bank, including the Festival Hall.


Development of Wembley 1924 - 2007

2007, The new Wembley Stadium opened.

2003, The old Wembley Stadium (built from 1923) was demolished. The new Stadium opened in 2007.

1 November 1924, The British Empire Exhibition at Wembley, London, closed (opened 23 April 1924). The Empire Pool (now Wembley Arena) was added in 1934. Later, the 1948 Olympic Games were held there. Wembley Conference Centre opened in 1977.

23 April 1924. King George V opened the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley Stadium, London. It closed on 1 November 1924.

20 May 1913. The first Chelsea Flower Show opened in London.

1912, London now had around 400 cinemas, up from 90- in 1909.

Development of White City 1908

27 July 1908, The 4th Olympic Games opened in London, see 14 May 1908.

14 May 1908, The Franco-British exhibition opened on 200 acres of land at Wood Lane, north of Shepherd�s Bush, London. The site, called White City, was served by an extension of the Central Line from Shepherds Bush. The Prince of Wales opened the exhibition, which was also used for the 1908 Olympic Games, see 27 July 1908. Greyhound racing was held there from 1927. White City was demolished in the 1980s.

1900, A large music hall, called The Grand, opened in Battersea, which could seat 3,000. It was iften full. Although the West End remained the prime theatre locaton in London, other suburbs were also keen to capture some of the entertainment industry too.

Development of Olympia 1884 - 86

27 December 1886, The Olympia Exhibition Hall in west London opened.

7/1885, Construction work on the Olympia exhibition hall began.

1884, The National Agricultural Company was established to construct a hall capable of hosting agricultural shows in London. This hall is now known as Olympia.

29 March 1871. Queen Victoria opened the Royal Albert Hall in London; named in memory of Prince Albert. The Hall was intended as a cultural centre following on from the success of the Great Exhibition of 1851. The original plan was to have an auditorium seating 30,000 but due to financial difficulties they ended up with an oval hall with a glass and iron dome with 7,000 seats. The foundation stone was laid on 20 May 1867.

20 November 1868, The foundation stone of the Albert Hall, London, was laid by Queen Victoria.

The Great Exhibition � Crystal Palace 1849 -1936

30 November 1936. Crystal Palace, south London, was destroyed by fire. The blaze was seen as far away as Brighton. Wooden floorboards had been dried to tinder by the heating system, and 20,000 wooden chairs were stored under the (wooden) orchestra pit. Flames reached 500 feet, and drove swarms of rats out of the building. 438 firemen from all over London could do nothing to put out the fire.

18 December 1913, Lord Plymouth gave money to enable the Crystal Palace to be bought for the nation.

12 May 1911. The Festival of Empire opened at Crystal Palace.

5 August 1852, The re-erection of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, south London.

15 October 1851, The Great Exhibition at Hyde Park, London, closed.It had opened on 1 May 1851. A total of 6 million visitors had attended. The Exhibition made a profit of �186,000 which was used to buy land in South Kensington where the Victoria and Albert Museum now stands.

1 May 1851. The Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace was opened by Queen Victoria, in Hyde Park, London. There were 13,000 exhibits from around the world in an 1,840 foot long, 408 foot wide, 108 foot high steel and glass hall, designed by Joseph Paxton in only 10 days and prefabricated before being brought to Hyde Park by rail. The hall took 17 weeks to erect. 6 million people, 17% of the UK population, visited, also mainly on the new railways across the nation. The exhibition ended on 15 October 1851. After the Great Exhibition, the Crystal palace was re-erected at Sydenham where it stood till destroyed by fire in 1936.

Prince Albert conceived the idea of the Great Exhibition to promote trade between nations and worldwide peace. The Exhibition was open for 6 months and in that time Queen Victoria visited 41 times. Profits from the event funded the opening of the Royal Albert Hall, the Science Museum, the Natural History Museum, and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

12 February 1851, Exhibits from overseas began arriving for the Great Exhibition, due to open in less than three months.

9/1850, Work began in Hyde Park on erecting the venue of the Great Exhibition (see 1 May 1851). 2,000 workmen erected the �giant greenhouse�, and fears that �mobs of slum dwellers� would invade the park and pillage the homes of the wealthy nearby proved unfounded. Large numbers of police were recruited to oversee the crowds, and a register of cheap hotels set up. This included a �Mechanics� Home�, with 1,000 beds at 1s 3d (6p) a night.

3 January 1850, Work began in Hyde Park, London, on the glass and iron Crystal Palace, built for the Great Exhibition.

17 October 1849, Plans for a Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations were announced at a banquet at Mansion House, London. In January 1850 a Royal Commission, headed by Prince Albert, was formed to organise the event. The Commission had just over a year to complete its task before the Exhibition was due to open on 1 May 1851.

25 May 1833, The first flower show in Britain was held by the Royal Horticultural Society, in Chiswick, West London.

9 January 1768, Soldier and equestrian Philip Astley staged the first modern circus in London.



16 February 1824, The Athenaeum Club, London, was founded.

24 June 1717. The Grand Lodge of the English Freemasons, London�s first Freemason Lodge, was formed.


Commercial (office) buildings (see below for Hotels, Museums, Theatres)

5 July 2012, The Shard in London was opened. The tallest building in Europe, it is 309.6 metres, 1,016 feet, high.

10 October 1999, The London Eye was erected.

22 March 1992. The developers of Canary Wharf, London Docklands, Olympia and York, were on the verge on bankruptcy. The UK recession, and poor transport links to Docklands, meant 40% of its offices stood empty. However a rescue package was put in place by the Government and by 1995 75% of the office space was let. The cost to the taxpayer, in development grants and tax breaks, was estimated at �3 billion. Canary Wharf had been completed in 1991,

29 March 1988. Plans were unveiled by Canadian developers for an 888-foot tower block, costing �3 billion, at Canary Wharf, London Docklands, to be completed by 1992.

27 October 1986. It was the �Big Bang� day on the London Stock Exchange, the day the money market was deregulated. But a computer failed and a shambles ensued.

16 February 1986, Clashes between police and 5,000 pickets at Rupert Murdoch�s Wapping newspaper plant. Murdoch had moved production of The Sunday Times and News of the World to Wapping to outflank striking print workers; the papers were being produced by managers and journalists.

3 March 1982, The Queen formally opened the Barbican Centre, London.

1979, The National Westminister Tower, City of London was complk,eted, at a cost of �72 million. At 183 metres high, with 49 storeys, it was London�s tallest building.

14 September 1979, The UK Government announced plans to redevelop London Docklands.

31 January 1977. Wembley Conference Centre opened by the Duke of Kent.

1 March 1967, The Queen Elizabeth Hall, London (conference centre) opened.

16 May 1966. Post Office Tower, London, opened to the public.

5 March 1965, The new Hornsey Central Library, London, was opened by Princess Alexandra.

29 June 1960, The new BBC Television Centre at White City opened.

1937, Battersea Power Station opened.

24 March 1928, Lloyds Building, Leadenhall Street, London, was opened by King George V.

1922, County Hall, London (LCC), was completed.

8 March 1912, The foundation stone of London�s County Hall was laid.

4 January 1919, Major fire at Bethnal Green, London, food warehouses; �1,000,000 damage done.

11 February 1907, Explosion at the chemical research department, Woolwich Arsenal, caused much damage.

1882, The London Hydraulic Power Company began operations. Hydraulic lifts became commonplace in London office buildings, meaning they could be erected with more floors. See also Built Environment.

22 June 1861, The largest fire in London since 1666. Five wharves and 12 warehouses burnt down in Tooley Street, destroying property worth �2 million. This event precipitated the formation of the London Fire Brigade.

28 October 1844, London�s third Royal Exchange Building opened.

17 October 1814, Nine people died in the Great London beer flood. A huge rooftop vat of beer on top of the Meaux Brewery, Tottenham Court Road, containing 135,000 gallons of beer, ruptured, taking out neighbouring vats also.In all, 300,000 gallons of beer flooded out, drowning people in nearby cellars.

24 October 1739, Mansion House, London, was founded.

28 September 1669, London�s Royal Exchange Building was completed.

23 October 1667, The foundation stone of London�s Royal Exchange was laid by King Charles II.

23 January 1571. The Royal Exchange, founded by financier Sir Thomas Gresham, was opened by Queen Elizabeth I as a bankers meeting house. Its foundation stone was laid on 7 June 1566.

1937, Earls Court Exhibition Hall opened. It stood on the site of an entertainment ground going back to 1887.


Docks and Thames, see also Harbours, docks. For docklands office development see commercial buiuldings above

20 August 1989. The Thames pleasure cruiser Marchioness was hit by a dredger; 51 young persons attending a party on board were killed. She was hit by the sand dredger Bowbelle under Southwark Bridge in the early hours of the morning. Survivors said the dredger loomed up in the night without lights.

31 October 1982. The Thames Flood Barrier was raised for the first time.

14 March 1960, Plans were announced for a Thames Flood Barrier at London.

22 July 1949, The London docks strike ended.

29 June 1949, A docks strike began in London.

21 August 1923, In London, a 7-week dockworkers strike ended.

2 July 1923, London dock workers went on strike (until 21 August 1923).

16 March 1909, The first meeting of the Port of London Authority.

21 December 1908, The Port of London Authority was constituted.

16 September 1889, The Great London Docks Strike ended (began 15 August 1889).

15 November 1875, In London the River Thames rose 28 feet (8.5 metres) above normal, causing severe flooding.

13 July 1870, Victoria Embankment, London, constructed by Sir J W Bazalgette, was opened by the Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII.

5/1847, Chelsea Embankment was opened.

23 July 1794, The village of Ratcliff, just east of London, was badly damaged by a fire. 455 of the 1,150 houses were burnt, along with 36 warehouses, when a pitch kettle at a boat builders boiled over. Ships were also burnt; they could not be moved as the tide was out; saltpetre in abarge blew up, raining fire on other boats.

23 May 1701, William Kidd, pirate, was hanged, aged 56, see 8 May 1701.

8 May 1701. Scottish pirate Captain William Kidd went on trial at the Old Bailey for piracy. He was hanged on 23 May 1701, at Execution Dock, London. He had to be hanged three times because the rope broke twice.

949, Earliest mention by name of Billingsgate Wharf.


Environment & Health see also Environment, Hygiene, Medical

7 December 2006, A tornado lasting under a minute ripped through Kensal Green, NW London, damaging 150 homes and injuring 6 people.

27 July 1955, The Clean Air Bill was presented to Parliament, to prevent the reappearance of the 1952Smog that killed 4,000, see 4 December 1952.

4 December 1952. Smog enveloped London and killed over 4,000 people in less than a week.

10 December 1946, Heavy smog in London caused bus conductors to have to walk in front of their buses, carrying lighted newspapers.

27 January 1906. The River Thames caught fire as oil on the surface ignited.

4 April 1865, London�s Southern Outfall Sewer, at Plumstead Marshes, was opened by King Edward VII (as Prince of Wales).

10 December 1631, Sir Hugh Myddelton,contractor for London�s New River scheme, died.

29 September 1613, The New River water supply for London opened.

1285, Smog problems began to appear in London as soft coal was being burnt for heating and cooking. In 1306 a Londoner was executed for buring coal in the city.


Festivals (outdoor) and Statues

1 November 1973. The new bronze statue of Sir Winston Churchill was unveiled in Parliament Square by the Queen, the Queen Mother, and five Prime Ministers. These were Heath, Wilson, Douglas � Home, MacMillan, and Eden.

1/1959, Notting Hill Carnival was inaugurated, in reponse to the poor state of race relations in London at the time. It was first held indoors in St Pancras Town Hall. In 1966 it was shifted to August and now held outdoors. Then, attendance was around 1,000 but this had grown to one million by 2000 and the event now spanned 3 days.

12 April 1948. The Roosevelt Memorial was unveiled in Grosvenor Square, London.

16 May 1911, The Victoria Memorial in London was unveiled.

1893, The statue of Eros in Picadilly Circus, London�s first aluminium statue, was unveiled.

23 April 1893, Billy Smart, British circus proprietor, was born in London, the son of a fairground owner.

1888, Temple Bar, designed by Sir Christopher Wren and originally erected at the junction of Fleet Street and Strand at a cost of �1,398 in 1669-70, was re-erected at Theobalds Park, Cheshunt

12 September 1878. Cleopatra�s Needle, an ancient red granite Egyptian obelisk 68.5 feet high, originally made for Thothmes III in 1460 BC, was presented to Britain and re-erected on the Thames Embankment.

15 January 1867, 40 people died when ice gave way in a lake in Regents Park, London. The depth of the lake was subsequently reduced to four feet.

25 December 1864, The tradition of a Christmas Day swim in the Serpentine, Hyde Park, London, began.

1 July 1872, The Albert Memorial in Hyde Park, London, was unveiled by Queen Victoria.

29 March 1851, Marble Arch, London, was moved from Buckingham Palace to its present position on Oxford Street.

Nelson�s Column

3 November 1843, The 17-foot, 16 ton, statue of Lord Nelson was hauled in two pieces to the top of the column in Trafalgar Square.The second piece was hauled up on 4 November 1843. The column was 184 foot high, and the statue a further 17 feet. The cost was �50,000, half met by Parliament, the other half raised by public subscription.

30 September 1840. The foundation stone of Nelson�s Column was laid in London�s Trafalgar Square. The area had formerly been occupied by squalid slums and cheap cookshops, known as �Porrige Island



Governance & Parliament

4 May 2000. Ken Livingstone was elected Mayor of London.

31 March 1986, The Greater London Council was abolished, along with other Metropolitan Councils in large UK cities; municipal responsibilities passed to the individual Boroughs. Mrs Thatcher saw the GLC, led by Ken Livingstone, as too Left wing. Mrs Thatcher especially objected to the GLC�s Fares Fare policy, involving subsidy of transport fares.

7 October 1983, Plans to abolish the Greater London Council were announced.

1 April 1965, Greater London was created, from the City of London and 32 boroughs.

26 October 1950. The rebuilt chamber of the House of Commons was opened by George VI, it having been destroyed by bombing on 10 May 1941.

13 July 1920, The LCC banned the employment of foreigners in council jobs.

1899, London Borough Councils were established.

1888, The London Council Council was established, incorporating poarts of Kent, Sussex and Middlesex into London. From 1964 it was supplanted by the Greater London Coucil (lasted until 1986).

28 July 1875, Lewisham Town Hall, South London, officially opened. It was replaced by a new building in 1959.

11 July 1859, Big Ben, Westminster, first starting chiming the hours.

31 May 1859. Big Ben on the Houses of Parliament started telling the time.

10 April 1858, Big Ben, the bell inside the famous Westminster clock, was cast in Whitechapel, London. The bell, weighing 13 � tons, was named after Sir Benjamin Hall, Commissioner for Works, who was a large tall man nicknamed �Big Ben�.

4 November 1852, The building of the new House of Commons, following the fire of 1834, was completed, to the designs of Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin.

15 April 1845, The new House of Lords buildings were completed, after a fire in 1834, to the designs of Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin.

16 October 1834. Houses of Parliament almost totally destroyed by fire. Firemen managed to save Westminster Hall and St Stephens Chapel.

22 September 1735. Sir Robert Walpole became the first Prime Minister to move into 10 Downing Street. The office of �Prime Minister� was not officially recognised, and some considered it unconstitutional. However Walpole had widespread support of both the King and Parliament. Walpole was educated at Eton and Cambridge, and at age 24 inherited a country estate, which gave him the means of self-sufficiency to enter politics. In 1701 he became the Whig member for castle rising in Norfolk. An excellent speaker, he rose rapidly within the party. In 1717 he resigned amid in-party fighting, returning as Paymaster General in 1720.

25 January 1733, Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Lord Mayor of London, died.

2 September 1688, Sir Robert Viner, Lord Mayor of London, died in Windsor (born 1631 in Warwick)

4 October 1683, The City of London forfeited its Charter as the English Crown tried to remove centres pf Whig influence.

13 November 1295, King Edward I of England summoned the Model Parliament to Westminster, the composition of which serves as a model for later parliaments.



6 August 1889 The Savoy Hotel in London was opened.

5 May 1873, The Midland Hotel, adjacent to St Pancras Station, London, opened. It closed in 1935 due to lack of custom and became railway offices.

1855, Claridges Hotel, London, was opened by William Claridge, a former butler for the nobility. It was bought by the Savoy Company in 1895 and rebuilt.


Housing, residential vsee also Built Environment

14 June 2017, Grenfell Tower, a 24-storey, 120 flat, residential tower block in the deprived north of Kensington and Chelsea Borough, caught fire just after midnight. The block could have housed as many as 600 people. Around 100 were believed to have been killed, with 64 taken to hospital, 20 in critical care. The cladding panels that had been added to the outside of the block caught fire, setting the entire tower ablaze; cheaper flammable cladding had been used instead of fire-retardant panels.

1 March 1991. Wandsworth set the lowest Poll Tax in Britain, �136. Other councils were �400 or more.

1968, The first homes were completed in the new Thames-side development of Thamesmead, SE London.

16,5/1968, The Ronan Point block of flats collapsed in London�s East End.Three died when the 22-storey flats in Butcher�s Road, Plaistow, were brought down by a gas explosion in a flat on the 18th floor. The pre-fabricated �system building� technique used to construct the flats meant that every flat on that corner then collapsed.

1935, The development of New Addington began, with houses to be let �at reasonable rents�.

1934, The Becontree housing development, east London, was completed; construction had begun in 1921. It covered 2,770 acres (4 square miles), with over 25,000 dwellings accommodating 112,000 people.

1932, Click Here for image of 1932 newbuild 3-bed house, Harrow area, �850, also map of NW London 1928.

6 September 1921, Five female councillors in Poplar faced jail for refusing to set a domestic rate (property tax). Labour-controlled Poplar, led by George Lansbury, objected to a central rate equalisation scheme which, it said, meant poor areas like Poplar paid more than wealthier areas.

1907, Hampstead Garden Suburb was founded by Dame Henrietta Barnett.

29 February 1864, The Peabody Trust opened the Commercial Street flats in Spitalfields. It boasted previously unheard-of luxuries such as separate laundry rooms and a play area for children.

29 January 1850, Sir Ebenezer Howard, who started the Garden City movement, was born in London.

1845, Harley Street, formerly an upmarket residential road, became a centre for medical practitioners.

1826, Cumberland Terrace, overlooking Regents Park, was completed by John Nash.

1825, Buckingham Palace was cteated out of former Buckingham House by architect John Nash. It became the residence of the British Royal Family from 1837.

1825, Belgrave Square, London, was laid out.

1812, Captain Henry Penton died in Italy. He developed the land east of Kings Cross, London, known as Pentonville; built 1780-1820. It was then a green hillside location offering views of St Pauls and the Surrey Hills beyomd.

1800, Russell Square was laid out.

1720, Development of Mayfair began, and was completed by the 1770s. Belgravia was developed in the 1820s, followed by Pimlico in the 1850s.


Military in London, see also UK history, military technology

12 October 1982,, A Falklands Victory Parade was held in the City of London.

20 September 1959, The last fly-past of Hurricane aircraft over London to commemorate the Battle of Britain.

17 October 1953, Queen Elizabeth II unveiled a monument to members of the Commonwealth air forces who lost their lives in WW2 and had no known grave, at Coopers Hill, Runnymede.

2 April 1946. The Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst was founded.The Woolwich Academy was merged with Sandhurst.

20 November 1935, Lord Jellicoe, Admiral of the Fleet in WW I and naval commander at the Battle of Jutland, died in London.Created an Earl in 1925, he was buried in St Paul�s Cathedral, next to Lord Nelson.

19 August 1928, Lord Haldane, who founded the Territorial Army in 1908, died in London.

Erection of the Cenotaph

11 November 1920, The 35-foot Cenotaph war memorial (Greek cenos taphos = empty tomb) in Whitehall, London, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, was unveiled by King George V. Londoners doffed their hats when passing it.

10 November 1920, The body of an unknown British soldier was brought to London for burial at Westminster Abbey.

18 July 1919, The first Cenotaph, a temporary structure of wood and plaster, was erected in Whitehall, London, for a parade celebrating the Treaty of Versailles. It was so popular the Government decided to erect a permanent version.

29 October 1900, In London, huge crowds greeted returning Boer War soldiers.

17 November 1887, Viscount Montgomery, World War Two army commander who defeated Rommel in Africa in World War Two, was born in Kensington, London, the son of a vicar.

25 November 1859, The London Irish Volunteer Rifles was formed.

26 June 1857, The first investiture ceremony of Victoria Crosses took place, in Hyde Park. 67 servicemen were awarded.

22 February 1857, Robert Baden-Powell, British army officer and founder of the Boy Scouts movement in 1908, was born in London, the son of an Oxford Professor.

18 November 1852, Funeral of Lord Wellington in St Paul�s Cathedral.

28 January 1833, General Gordon, British Army Commander, was born in Woolwich, London.

4 June 1805. First Trooping The Colour ceremony in Horse Guards Parade, London.

1573, Naval docks and a resupply depot were established at Deptford.


Monarchy in London, see also Royal Great Britain from 1760 onwards

4 June 2002. On the final day of the extended Bank Holiday to mark the Golden Jubilee, the Queen rode through London in the State gold coach.

2 June 2002. In the middle of preparations for a concert at Buckingham Palace, London, to mark the Queen Elizabeth�s Golden Jubilee celebrations, fire broke out at the Palace.

6 September 1997, Funeral of Diana Princess of Wales in Westminster Abbey.It was watched on television worldwide by over one billion people.

1 October 1993. Buckingham Palace closed after being open to the public for 8 weeks. 400,000 people visited, raising some �2.2 million.

7 August 1993, Buckingham Palace, London, opened to the public for the first time ever. 4,314 visited on the first day, paying an �8 entrance fee.

29 April 1993, Queen Elizabeth II announced she would open Buckingham Palace to tourists. The �8 entrance fee was to raise money for the rebuilding of Windsor Castle, damaged by fire in 1992.

21 February 1988. The grave of the warrior queen Boadicea discovered under platform 8 of Kings Cross railway station, London.

23 July 1986, Prince Andrew married Miss Sarah Ferguson in Westminster Abbey, and was created Duke of York.

9 July 1982. An intruder entered the Queen�s bedroom at Buckingham Palace.Michael Fagan, 35, asked the Queen for a cigarette whilst sitting on the end of her bed in Buckingham Palace.

21 June 1982, Prince William (Arthur Philip Louis) was born in London to Prince Charles (Prince of Wales) and Princess Diana.

14 September 1981, Marcus Serjeant, who had fired blank shots at the Queen on 30 June 1981, was jailed for 5 years.

29 July 1981. Marriage of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (born 14 November 1948), to Lady Diana Spencer. The wedding was at St Paul�s Cathedral, London, and was watched on TV by 700 million viewers worldwide. The design of Diana�s wedding dress had been kept a close secret until she emerged from Clarence House on the wedding day; thenEllis Bridals made a copy that went on sale in Debenhams, Oxford Street, just 5 hours later, for �450. 750 million people watched the ceremony.

13 June 1981, Marcus Serjeant fired blank shots at Queen Elizabeth II during the Trooping the Colour ceremony in London.He was later charged with treason.

20 March 1974, A kidnap attempt was made on Princess Anne, in The Mall, London. The perpetrator, Ian Ball, was making a bizarre attempt to draw attention to the decline in medical services for mental patients in Britain.

24 March 1953, Queen Mary, widow of King George V, died at her London home, Marlborough House in Pall Mall, aged 85. Her funeral was on 31 March 1953.

15 August 1950, Princess Anne (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise) was born in Clarence House, London. She was the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II.

14 November 1948. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, was born in Buckingham Palace, as Charles Philip Arthur George.

26 April 1923, King George V, then the Duke of York, married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in Westminster Abbey.

9 August 1902. King Edward VII, born 9 November 1841, was crowned in Westminster Abbey. The coronation had been delayed from June because the King had appendicitis.

23 June 1894, King Edward VIII was born at White Lodge, Richmond, Surrey, the eldest son of George V and. Queen Mary

28 June 1838, The coronation of the nineteen-year-old Queen Victoria took place in Westminster Abbey.

13 July 1837. Queen Victoria moved into Buckingham Palace, the first monarch to live there.

19 July 1821, Coronation of King George IV in Westminster Abbey.

24 May 1819, Queen (Alexandrine) Victoria was born at Kensington Palace, daughter of Edward Duke of Kent and Mary, daughter of Francis, Duke of Saxe � Coburg - Saalfeld. She was the granddaughter of King George III, and niece of King William IV.

15 May 1800. King George III survived two assassination attempts in one day. James Hatfield tried to assassinate the King at a theatre in Drury Lane.

4 June 1738, King George III, grandson of George II, was born in lodgings in St James Square, London.

17 July 1717. George I, Hanoverian King of England, held a public concert on the Thames for Handel to conduct his hour-long Water Music.The King liked it so much he asked for two complete encores.

2 February 1650, Nell Gwynne, mistress of King Charles II, was born Eleanor Gwynne, the daughter of a fishwife. Originally an orange-seller, she became an actress at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.

6 July 1553, King Edward VI died in Greenwich of tuberculosis.

1515, Hampton Court Palace was begun for King Henry VIII by Cardinal Wolsey.

17 June 1239, King Edward I was born at Westminster.He was the eldest son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence.



2 December 1976, The Museum of London opened, by the Queen, as part of the Barbican redevelopment.

1973, The Museum of London set up a department of urban archeology, to try and rescue what was left of pre-industrial London from the office building boom of the 60s and 70s.

30 December 1972, The Tutankhamun exhibition closed in London; 1.6 million had visitoed since it opened on 29 March 1972.

27 April 1937, The National Maritime Museum, beside the Thames at Greenwich, was opened by King George VI.

26 April 1928, Madame Tussauds waxworks museum re-opened on Marylebone Road, after its previous address in Baker Street burnt down.

16 April 1850. Swiss waxworks show proprietor Madame Marie Tussaud died. She was born on 1 December 1761 in Strasbourg. She learnt the art of wax modelling from her uncle, Philippe Curtius. Before the French Revolution Mme Tussaud was art tutor at Versailles to Louis XVI�s sister, Elizabeth. After a period in prison she was tasked with making death masks from the heads of those guillotined, some of whom she recognised as friends. She left Paris in 1802, along with her waxwork models, and two sons from a failed marriage to a French engineer, Francois Tussaud. She spent 33 years touring Britain before opening a permanent display in London.

9 June 1920, In London, the Imperial War Museum was opened by King George V.

21 March 1912, The London Museum was opened, in Kensington Palace, by King George V.

26 June 1909. King Edward VII opened the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

17 May 1899. Queen Victoria laid the foundation stone of the Victoria and Albert Museum.

18 April 1881, The Natural History Museum in Kensington, London, opened.

24 June 1872, The Museum of Childhood (toys, games, dolls etc.) was opened in Bethnal Green, London, originally as an extension of the Victoria and Albert Museum. It became a dedicated mueum in its own right in 1972.

16 January 1759. British Museum, London, opened to the public, in premises formerly known as Montague House. Funded by a lottery that raised UK� 300,000, the museum contained a collection of books, manuscripts and natural objects amassed by Sir Hans Sloane, also collections by Edward and Robert Harley and Sir Robert Bruce Cotton.

5 April 1753, The Founding Charter of the British Museum was enacted. It was built to accommodate the collection of Hans Sloane, physician and naturalist. It was moved to Bloomsbury in 1823.


Parks / Cemeteries / Green Belt

31 March 1986, Fire badly damaged Hampton Court Palace, London.

1936, The site of Lesnes Abbey (founded 1178), Bexley, was acquired by the LCC and opened as Lesnes Park.

1 April 1935, The Green Belt Scheme for the environs of London came into force.

29 January 1935, The London County Council approved the Green Belt scheme.

4 February 1929, The first Green Belt area was approved, a five-mile wide strip near Hendon.

1 January 1923, 100 acres of Ken Wood Estate were bought for the nation to extend Hampstead Heath. See also Great Britain (1866) Metropolitan Commons Act.

12 April 1913, Grovelands Park, Enfleid, was opened to the public.

29 March 1904. Richmond Park in south-west London was opened to the public.

1903, Broomfield Park, Palmers Green, 60 acres, was purchased for the public.

12 November 1889, Waterlow Park, Highgate, London, 29 acres, was given as a free gift to London by Sir Sidney Waterlow.

21 May 1898, Kew Palace Gardens was opened to the public

1890, Dulwich Park was opened to the public.

1887, Ravenscourt Park, 32 acres, was purchased for public use for �58,000.

1885, Highbury Fields Park was acquired for the public, cost �60,000.

6 May 1882, Queen Victoria opened Epping Park to the public. See also 1777.

1878, The Epping Forest Act appointed the Corporation of London as conservators of 6,000 acres of Epping Forest, to �preserve the natural landscape�.

July 1874, West Ham Park, 77 acres, former home of the Gurney family, opened as a public park.

24 May 1873, In north London, Alexandra Palace opened. See also 1863.

1869, Finsbury Park, north London, 115 acres, opened. It was one of the first municipal parks in London, and cost �95,000.

26 June 1869, Southwark Park was opened to the public; it cost �55,000.

1866, Blackheath Common was secured for public use under the Metropolitan Commons Act.

1863, Alexandra Park, north London, opened to the public. It was rebuilt in 1873.

1858, Battersea Park, 185 acres, was opened to the public. It was laid out 1852-5, at a cost of �318,000.

11/1854, The first train left the new station of Waterloo Necropolis for the large cenentery at Brookwood, Woking. The creation of this cemetery and its innovative rail link was spurred on by the London cholera epidemic of 1848-49.

10 June 1854, Queen Victoria opened the Crystal Palace on its new site in Sydenham, south London.

1853, Primrose Hill was opened as a public park. This was due to the efforts of Mr Hume, who persuaded Eton College to swap the land for land near Windsor.

1845, Victoria Park, N E London, opened to the public. Designed by James Pennethorne, with planned spaces for promenading and sports undert the watchful gaze of park keepers, in 1892 it had 303,515 visitors on a single day. The UK Government had promised �90,000 to create this park in 1841, in response to rising ill-health, �moral decline� and overcrowding in the East End of London.

5/1839, The famous Highgate Cemetery was consecrated by the Bishop of London.

1833, The Select Committee on Public Walks argued for more open spaces for poorer Londoners. This would distract them from less desirable leisure activities siuch as drinking, boxing and dog-fighting, and make them fitter for industry.

1832, Kensal Green cemetery opened.

Regents Park, 464 acres in North London, was opened. The area was formerly pastureland known as Marylebone Park Fields.

1777, Epping Forest, which once covered most of Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk, had shrunk to 20 square miles (12,000 acres) through encolsures. By 1851 it covered just 10 square miles (6,000 acres), and by 1871 was down to 5 square miles (3,000 acres). The Corporation of London obtained a legal ruling in 1874 that all enclosures since 1851 were illegal, and in 1878 an Act of Parliament handed over 6,000 acres of the Forest to the Corporation of London. On 6 May 1882 the Forest was opened to the public by Queen Victoria.

1762, Syon House was built.

1762, The Chinese Pagoda Tower in Kew Gardens was designed and erected by Sir William Chambers. It was originally adorned with Chinese dragons at each stage, but these being made of cheap pine, had rotted by 1784 and had to be removed that year. In 2018 they were restored, now made of machine 3-d printed plastic.

1759, Kew Gardens began to be laid out.

1730, The Serpentine, Hyde Park, was created by Queen Caroline, by converting the bed of the Westbourne River.

1660, Green Park was opened to the public.

1660, Vauxhall Gardens opened to the public. Opened as the Spring Gardens, they were the venue for music recitals.

1637, Hyde Park was opened to the public.

1514, Large numbers of Londoners went out into land near the city that had once been common land where they had enjoyed games and recreation, but had recently been enclosed by farmers. The Londoners took shovels and spades, and demolished the hedges and filled in the ditches, reclaiming it as common land.


Policing and crime, see also Protests and Riots below See also Crime

11 April 2019, Julian Assange, 47, was seized by UK police from the Ecuadorian Embassy, where he had been residing for nearly seven years to avoid extradition to Sweden on a rape charge, which could lead to onward extradition to the USA on more serious espionage charges.

Terrorist attacks 1999 - 2019

29 November 2019, A terrorist stabbed 5 people, 2 fatally, at London Bridge. He was shot dead by police.

15 September 2017, A terrorist bomb exploded on a tube carriage at Parsons Green, SW London. 29 people were injured. The bomb only partially exploded.

19 June 2017, Shortly after midnight a White man drove a van into a crowd of Muslims eating a communal meal in a street in Finsbury Park, London, after the Ramadan fast had ended. One man died and 10 were injured; the driver was arrested.

3 June 2017, Three Islamist terrorists killed 7 and injured 48 in three simultaneous attacks in London, at London Bridge, and Borough Market. The three terrorists were killed by security forces.

22 March 2017, In an Islamist terrorist attack on the Houses of Parliament, London, four people died (including the attacker) and 40 were injured. One of the dead was a policeman who was stabbed. A 4x4 was driven across Westminster Bridge, killing and injuring pedestrians, before crashing a barrier at Parliament. One of the injured, a tourist, died later in hospital.

22 May 2013, A soldier wearing a �Help for Heroes� T shirt, near Woolwich Barracks, SE London, was hacked to death in the street by two Africans who had converted to Islam. The perpetrators then waited for police to arrive and were shot but not fatally. Hate crimes in the UK against Islamic targets over the next two days amounted to 160, ten times the usual level.

22 July 2005, A Brazilian electrician, Charles de Menezes, was shot dead by police at a London Underground station; they mistook him for a suicide bomber.

21 July 2005, A second terrorist attack on London Transport, similar to the one on 7 July 2005.There were 4 attempted bomb attacks on 3 underground trains and a London bus.However the bombs all failed to explode properly and there was only one injury.

7 July 2005, Four Islamist suicide bombers struck London in the morning rush hour. Three separate Underground trains and a bus were hit, killing 50 and injuring over 200 commuters. Al Quaeda gave British military involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq as justification for the attacks.

30 April 1999, Another nail bomb exploded, (see 17 April 1999), in the Admiral Duncan pub in Old Compton Street, Soho, London.A pregnant woman and two friends were killed, and seventy injured.This was part of a hate campaign against gay people and ethnic minorities by David Copeland.

17 April 1999, A nail bomb exploded in a busy market in Brixton, south London.See 30 April 1999.

26 April 1999, BBC TV presenter Jill Dando was shot dead on the doorstep of her Fulham house in London. Barry George, a loner obsessed with guns and celebrities, was convicted of the murder in 2001.

22 April 1993, A Black teenager, Stephen Lawrence, 18, was stabbed to death in Eltham, south east London, in a racist attack.

3 October 1991, Sir Allen Green QC, 56, the British Director of Public Prosecutions, resigned after having been stopped by the police for kerb-crawling in the Kings Cross area of London.

30 December 1990, Patrick Harward-Duffy, a 36-year-old Glaswegian, attacked the 70-foot Christmas Tree in London�s Trafalgar Square with a chainsaw, cutting a third of the way through the trunk before police stopped him. He was protesting against �the unfairness of the Norwegian legal system�. Ever since 1947 the people of Oslo have donated a Christmas Tree to London in gratitude for liberation from the Nazis.

17 April 1984. In London, the Libyans opened fire from their People�s Bureau, killing 25 year-old policewoman, Yvonne Fletcher. A police siege of the Libyan Embassy began and on 22 April 1984 the UK Government broke off diplomatic relations with Libya. The siege ended on 27 April 1984 and 30 Libyans from the Bureau were deported. The British Ambassador and other diplomats returned from Tripoli.

26 November 1983. 6,800 gold bars worth �25 million were stolen from the Brinks-Mat security warehouse at Heathrow Airport. Only a fraction of the gold was ever recovered, and only 2 men were ever convicted of the crime.

9 February 1983. Dennis Nilsen, mass murderer, was arrested after human remains were found at his house in Muswell Hill, north London.Nilsen, 37 years old, confessed to police to the murders of 15 men over 4 years.

7 September 1978. Bulgarian defector Georgi Markov, a broadcaster on the BBC�s foreign service, was stabbed in the thigh with a poisoned umbrella in London. He soon collapsed into a coma, and died on 11 September 1979.

30 August 1976, Over 100 police officers were taken to hospital after clashes at London�s Notting Hill Carnival.

25 March 1953, Police hunted for John Christie after the remains of three women were found at his former house in Notting Hill, London. See 15 July 1953.

9 May 1938, Scotland Yard announced they were to use police dogs.

10 May 1934, The Police Training College in Hendon, London, was opened by the Prince of Wales.

8 August 1929, Ronald Biggs, great train robber, was born in Lambeth, south London.

22 September 1920, The Metropolitan Police �Flying Squad� was formed.

17 February 1920, London Metropolitan Police became the first police force in Britain to announce it was to replace its horses with cars.

London police strike 1918

31 August 1918, After a London police strike, and a meeting with the UK Government at Downing Street,, the pensionable pay of a top constable rose to �2.65 / week, also a60p War Bonus was granted. Yet the UK Government, fearful of the example of the 1917 Soviet Revolution, was extremely reluctant to recognise any police trades union. On 14 July 1919 a Police Federation of England and Wales was created, so avoiding the use of the term �trades union�. On 14 July 1919, The Desborough Commission recommended a rise in police constable�s pay to �3.50 on joining, to �4.50 after 10 years� service, and �4.70 after 22 years.

30 August 1918. London police went on strike. Prisoners had to be taken to court in taxis, but a major crime wave did not materialise. Bus drivers did traffic duty at major junctions. 2,000 police officers marched to a rally at Tower Hill, demanding wage rises and the reinstatement of a colleague dismissed for political activities. The key issue, however, was trade union recognition. Trade Unions had grown significantly during the War, from 4,145,000 members in 1914 to 6,533,000 members in 1918. Now working-class policemen, who kept union disputes in check, wanted their own union representation.

27 August 1918, London police prepared to strike. Their wages had been eroded by inflation (see prices and wages, 1 July 1917 for more details), and they were forbidden from leaving the force to take up better-paid jobs at munitions factories. The UK Government was strongly against the formation of a police trades union, and threatened that any police officer who joined one would be dismissed, and sent as a soldier to fight in the trenches of World War One.

3 January 1911. The siege of Sydney Street took place when 1,000 police and soldiers besieged three anarchists suspected of killing three policemen at a house in London�s East End. 2 Anarchists were killed as the house caught fire; the ringleader, �Peter the Painter�, escaped.

19 May 1910, Westminster Court, London, banned cabbies from asking for tips.

27 February 1907, London�s Central Criminal Court (The Old Bailey) was opened on the site of Newgate Prison, by King Edward VII.

Jack the Ripper

16 March 1903. Trial of Jack the Ripper.

9 November 1888, Mary Kelly, fifth and last of The Ripper�s victims, was found dead in her room at 13 Millers Court, London.

30 September 1888. Jack the Ripper butchered 2 more women. They were Liz Stride found behind 40 Berber

Street, and Kate Eddowes, in Miter Square, both in London�s East End.

27 September 1888. The Central London News Agency received a letter which began �Dear Boss, I keep on hearing the police have caught me but they won�t fix me just yet..�. It was signed �Jack the Ripper�the first time the name had been used.

8 September 1888, Jack the Ripper claimed his 2nd victim, Annie Chapman, who was found disembowelled at 29 Hanbury Street, London.

31 August 1888, Mary Ann �Polly� Nichols, the first victim of Jack the Ripper, was found mutilated in Bucks Row in the early hours of the morning.


Irish Republican attacks 1883 - 85

2 January 1885, A further terrorist attack on the London Underground, by Irish Republicans. James Canningham set a bomb off in the tunnel between Kings Cross and Gower Street (now Euston) stations; only slight damage to a train was caused. Later that month, he was seen detonating a bomb which seriously injured four people at the Tower of London, and was sentenced to life imprisonment with hard labour. Bomb attacks by these so called �dyamitards� tailed off after others were caught or blew themselves up.

30 October 1883, The first terrorist attack on the London Underground. Two bombs were set off by Fenian fighters for Irish independence, one at Praed Street Station (now Paddington) on a Metropolitan Line train going towards Edgware Road, and one on a District Line train between Westminster and Charing Cross (now Embankment). Nobody was killed and there were only slight injuries from flying glass. The perpetrators were never found. In February 1884 more serious bomb attacks were attempted, with devices planted at Victoria, Charing Cross,, Ludgate Hill and Paddington. Fortunately only the Victoria bomb exploded and as the station was nearly empty at the time nobody was killed. Again the bombers were never discovered. Other terrorist plans of the time included an attempt to blow up Scotland Yard., by Clan na Gael. Some damage was done, with records on Irish Republicans destroyed, but had all the dymanite detonated the building would have been totally destroyed.

11 January 1883, London�s Royal Courts of Justice opened.

15 August 1842. The first regular British detective force was formed as a division of the Metropolitan Police, later assuming the name C.I.D.

19 June 1829. The London Metropolitan Police was founded, set up by the Home Secretary, Sir Robert Peel. The policemen were known as �Peelers�, or �Bobbies�. 3,314 professional police now guarded London.

30 November 1824, Henry Faultleroy, convicted of forgery, was executed in London (born 1785).

1 May 1820. The militant radicals involved in the Cato Street conspiracy (just off the Edgware Road) to kill the Prime Minister were executed. Their leader, Arthur Thistlewood, was suspected of being a police informer.

23 February 1820, The Cato Street conspiracy was discovered. This was a plot to blow up the entire Cabinet with explosives and set up a provisional government. The conspiracy was led by Arthur Thistlewood. This led to renewed fears of radicalism and set back the cause of moderate reformists.

1783, Tyburn Gallows, at what is now Marble Arch, were taken down. Erected in 1196, over 50,000 people had been executed on them, Executions had become too rowdy, and were transferred to Newgate Prison (but remained a public spectacle).

8 October 1754. Henry Fielding died, aged 47. He is famous as the author of the novel Tom Jones but he also, as a Justice of the Peace, organised the detective force that became Scotland Yard.

1697, The refuge priveliges of �Alsatia� were revoked. Alsatia was a district of London between Fleet Street and the Thames, adjoining the Temple, formally known as Whitefriars, where rights of refuge existed. It therefore became a haunt of criminals, and was named after Alsace, a border district between France and Germany whetre similarly criminals could hide. The last such sanctuary in London, Southwark Mint, was abolished as such in 1723. However London still retained areas of dense courts and alleyways where villains could operate in relative safety.

21 January 1670, Claude Duval, highwayman, was hanged at Tyburn (born 1643).

Guy Fawkes

31 January 1606, Guy Fawkes and co-conspirators were executed.

5 November 1605. Guy Fawkes attempted to blow up King James I and the Houses of Parliament with 36 barrels of gunpowder (see 11 December 1604). His trial was at Westminster Hall on 27 January 1606. This was part of a Catholic plot to overthrow the Protestant English monarchy BUT see 11 December 1604.However the gunpowder barrels were discovered in the cellars of Parliament before they were detonated.Lord Monteagle, a Catholic peer, had received a letter warning him to stay away from the State Opening of Parliament and hinting at an explosion. Monteagle and the Lord Chamberlain investigated the cellars below the House of Lords and discovered a man piling wood, who gave his name as Guy Fawkes, and claimed that the wood belonged to his master, Lord Percy. They let him go but after further investigating the wood pile they found 36 barrels of gunpowder underneath. Guy Fawkes, a 36-year-old Yorkshireman, was arrested when he returned at midnight to make final preparations for the explosion. Guy Fawkes was hung, drawn, and quartered on 31 January 1606.Sir Everard Digby, Thomas Winter, John Grant, and Thomas Bates, other conspirators, were hung, drawn, and quartered on 30 January 1606.

11 December 1604, Guy Fawkes began digging a tunnel from a house he had rented near the Houses of Parliament (see 5 November 1605). His plan was to reach the cellars under the House and fill it with gunpowder to blow it up. They reached the foundations of the House by Christmas 1604, but then the opening of Parliament was unexpectedly postponed, from 7 February 1605, first to 3 October 1605 and then to 5 November 1605. This was lucky for Guy Fawkes because the foundations, 12 foot thick, were difficult to dig through, and then the coal merchant who had been renting the House cellars gave up his lease. Allegedly a roaring noise above the tunnelers first alarmed them, then alerted them to the vacated rent, the noise being due to the removal of the coal stored there. The conspirators quickly took up the rent themselves. However some historians have doubted elements of this story, such as the tunnel being dug under a busy part of London; it is possible that the entire episode was in fact a Protestant scheme to discredit English Catholics.

1196, Tyburn Gallows were erected at what is now Marble Arch. They were dismantled in 1783.


Poverty, deprivation

27 October 1932, Hunger Marchers protested in Hyde Park, London. See also Washington urban sprawl, USA, 1959.

11 October 1931. Large march in London in protest at pay cuts.

1894, A survey of children in Bethnal Green, a poor district of London�s East End, found that 83% of them received no solid food apart from bread at average 17 of the 21 meals a week. Scurvy, rickets and tuberculosis were widespread.

13 November 1887, Bloody Sunday in Trafalgar Square, London, when police clashed with Socialist demonstrators. The protestors were calling for the end of a ban on open air meetings and the release of an Irish MP who had been jailed for supporting a rent strike. Two protestors were killed.

8 January 1800, The first soup kitchens for the poor opened in London, UK.


Public Transport See also Railways GB, London Underground

9 December 2005, London�s iconic Routemaster buses were withdrawn this day, replaced by updated models, although one heritage bus route in London still operates them.

26 February 1968, London�s first bus lane, across Vauxhall Bridge, opened.

26 October 1929, All London buses to be painted red. Earlier trials with yellow and red proved unpopular.

3 February 1919, London tube workers went on strike for shorter hours.

4 August 1914. London�s last horse bus service closed. It ran from Peckham to Honor Oak.

2 November 1911, London cab drivers went on strike.


Protests and riots, see also Policing above

28 February 2012, Occupy Wall Street protestors were evicted from the front of St Pauls, London.

1 May 2001, In London, protests on a worldwide day of demonstrations against capitalism turned violent.

1 March 1998, 250,000 pro-foxhunting demonstrators marched through the centre of London.

Anti Poll tax demonstrations

31 March 1990. Anti-Poll Tax demonstrations in Trafalgar Square, London. 300,000 protested, led by MP Tony Benn.

21 March 1990, A large demonstration in London�s Trafalgar Square against the Poll Tax turned into a riot. 417 people were injured and 341 arrested.

9 March 1990. Poll tax riots in Brixton, London. There were also riots in Lewisham, Hackney, Haringey, Maidenhead, Reading, Bristol, Plymouth, Gillingham, Norwich, Birmingham, Stockport, Leeds, Bradford, and many other places. Both Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister, and the Labour leader, Neil Kinnock, condemned the riots.

5 February 1987, SOGAT called off its picket of Rupert Murdoch�s Wapping plant.

3 May 1986, Violent protests at Wapping between pickets and police.

Riots, linked to racism 1977 - 95

13 December 1995, The death of a Black man in police custody led to rioting in Brixton, London. This was 3rd riot in 15 ytears in the area ;linked to racial tensions.

19 March 1987, Three men were sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of PC Blakelock on Broadwater Farm Estate, Tottenham, north London.

7 October 1985. Riots erupted in Broadwater Farm Estate, Tottenham, London, after a Black woman, Cynthia Jarrett, collapsed and died whilst police searched her home. Within hours, police were lured to the estate by fake 999 calls and then came under attack from bricks, stones, petrol bombs, and were even shot at. From 6.30 pm until well after midnight both Black and White youths fought 500 police in riot gear. PC Blakelock, 40, was hacked to death.

29 September 1985, 209 people were arrested in rioting in Brixton.

28 September 1985, Riots erupted in Brixton after a Black woman, Cherry Groce, was shot during a police raid.

15 July 1981, Rioting in Brixton, London.

10 July 1981. Following the riots in Toxteth, riots broke out in other British cities. Riots in Moss Side (Manchester) and Wood Green (London). Brixton saw riots on 15 July 1981. Hull, Wolverhampton, Birmingham, Reading, Preston and Chester also saw riots.

5 July 1981. Youth rioted in Toxteth, Liverpool for a second night running. There were also riots in Brixton and Southall in London.

28 June 1981. Asians rioted in Southall, west London, after racist aggression by skinhead youths.

11 April 1981. Riots in Brixton. Mobs of youths went on the rampage, throwing petrol bombs, looting shops, and attacking police. Over 300 civilians, and 65 police officers, were injured.Over three days of unrest, 779 crimes were reported.The riots were sparked by a controversial initiative to cut street crime, the �stop and search� laws, and were the worst riots in London for a century.

3 April 1981, Riots in Brixton and Southall.

19 January 1981, Thirteen Black people died in a fire at Deptford, south London., during an all-night party.The West Indian community suspected the fire had been started by racists.

23 April 1979, A teacher, Blair Peach, was killed, and 300 were arrested after violent clashes between the National Front and the anti-Nazi League in Southall, west London.

13 August 1977, The police used riot shields on the British mainland for the first time, during an anti-fascist demonstration in Lewisham, London.


Ban the Bomb protests 1958 - 62

23 April 1962, 150,000 people gathered in Hyde Park, London, for the biggest-ever Ban the Bomb demonstration.

17 September 1961, A large �Ban the Bomb� demonstration in London was ended by the police with 830 arrested, including Vanessa Redgrave. 15,000 had attended the demonstration in Trafalgar Square.

6 September 1961, In London, anti-nuclear protestors attempted to march to the US Embassy in protest at the resumption of nuclear tests by the USA. They were stopped and their leaders, including the 89-year-old Bertrand Russell, were arrested by the police.

19 April 1960, A crowd of between 60,000 and 100,000 protested in Trafalgar Square, London, against the atom bomb.

7 April 1958. The first CND march from London arrived at Aldermaston. It had left Hyde Park on 4 April 1958.


Communist-Fascist clashes in London 1927 - 36

11 October 1936. In London, 100,000 people barricaded east London streets to prevent a march of Oswald Moseley�s Fascists. During violent clashes, 80 people were injured. See also Jewish history.

9 September 1934. Fascists and their opponents clashed in London.

8 June 1934, Fierce fighting broke out at a fascist rally staged by Oswald Moseley at London�s Olympia.

20 June 1927, Fighting between Communists and Fascists in Hyde Park, London.

16 November 1896. Birth of British fascist leader Oswald Mosley, in London.

9 July 1905, Large Labour demonstration in Hyde Park, London.

28 February 1837, The London Working Men�s Association presented a petition to the UK Parliament. They wanted universal adult male suffrage, reform of voting districts to make them equal size (i.e. to get rid of �rotten boroughs), voting by secret ballot, annual parliaments, abolition of property qualifications for MPs, and MPs to be paid a salary.

2 December 1816. Rioting broke out at Spa Fields in London during a meeting to promote demands for parliamentary reform. Demands were for the vote for all men aged 18 and over, and for no property qualifications for MPs. The response was a series of Coercion Acts, including a temporary suspension of Habeas Corpus and an extension of the 1978 Act against seditious meetings.

12 June 1595, Large numbers of London apporentices protested against rising food prices by seizing fish and butter from vendors and paying what they considered a ;fair� price for it. On 14 June 1595 a crowd of over 1,000 gathered outside the Lord Mator;s housetore down the pillory in Cheapside. The Crown responded by empowering a provost-martial to arrest and even execute troublemakers.

1514, protest, see Parks above.

17 June 1497, Cornish rebels against King Henry VII, having marched to Guildford on 13 June 1497, and skirmished with the Army on Hounslow Heath, now marched on London. They failed to gain the support of Kentish men, and therefore marched through Banstead, and this day faced the King�s men at the Battle of Deptford where the rebels were finally crushed.


Religion and religious buildings See also Christian Buildings

18 August 1995, The largest traditional stone-built Hindu temple in the world outside India opened in Neasden, N W London.

1962, Britain�s first Hindu Temple opened in London.

1717, Britain�s first Druid revivial ceremony was held, on the Autumn Equinox at Primrose Hill.

21 June 1675. The foundation stone of Sir Christopher Wren�s new St Paul�s Cathedral, London, was laid. The new place of worship faced the old church that burned down in the Great Fire of London, (see 2 September 1666). The first Sunday service there was held on 5 December 1697.

18 March 1612, Bartholomew Legate became the last person in London to be executed for their religious beliefs.A cloth dealer, he became a preacher for a sect called �The Seekers�, who held unorthodox views about the divinity of Jesus..He was jailed in Newgate Prison for heresy in 1611, and burnt to death at Smithfield.

4 June 1561, London�s Mediaeval St Pauls Cathedral, with a lead-lined wooden spire 584 feet high, was struck by lightning, and the entire building burned to the ground. The clergy blamed the destruction on divine displeasure at use of the Cathedral for worldy pursuits such as business deals and entertainment. By the end of the year, with donations of over �1,000 from Queen Elizabeth, also the City, the Cathedral was rebuilt. However the spire was not nrestored, much to Elizabeth�s displeasure. The new Cathedral fell into disrepair and was burnt down again in the Great Fire of London 1666.

1370, Charterhouse built by Carthusian monks.

1290, London�s Jews were expelled; they had lived in the area known as Old Jewry.

1141, The first palace for the Bishops of London was built, in Fulham.

30 April 693, Bishop Eorcenwald of London, who founded monasteries at Barking and Chertsey, died.


Retailing, markets See also Companies

9 April 1987, The UK government launched an inquiry into the Al Fayed takeover of Harrods.

16 March 1987, Mrs Thatcher, UK Prime Minister, opened the new Sainsbury supermarket in her constituency of Finchley, north London.

19 January 1982,London�s new Billingsgate Market opened on the Isle of Dogs, three days after the old Billingsgate in Lower Thames Street, EC3, closed.

13 May 1981. Queen Elizabeth II opened the �Shopping City� in Wood Green, north London. It had taken seven years to build.

2 March 1976, Brent Cross shopping centre, N W London, was opened; it was the first regional shopping centre in Europe.

8 November 1974. Covent Garden Market moved from central London to Nine Elms, after 300 years in the West End. See 1670.

22 January 1972. As the British Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath signed the Treaty of Brussels, he had ink thrown over him by protestors against the redevelopment of Covent Garden Market.

26 March 1965, The Elephant and Castle shopping centre, London, opened. It had 115 shops.

24 August 1959, House of Fraser beat Debenhams in a takeover battle for Harrods.

9 May 1949. Britain�s first launderette opened in Queensway, London.

25 October 1933, Lyons opened its Corner House fast food restaurant in London. It could seat 2,000 people.

15 March 1909. The new Selfridges (American-owned) store opened on a 6 acre site in Oxford Street, London.

6 December 1883, Major fire at Harrods store, London; however the business quickly recovered. Late employees were fined 1.5 d for every 15 minutes they were late.

11 January 1857. Birth of Henry Gordon Selfridge, founder of Britain�s first large department store.

3 September 1855, The last Bartholomews fair was held in London. It was first held on 24 August 1133. It grew to be a huge national market, the maincentre for cloth sales in England. However by the 1850s it had become a magnet for thieves and muggers, and the event was disapproved of by the upper classes in London.

11 June 1855, The last market for live animals was held at Smithfield, London. Thereafter live animals were traded further north, at Copenhagen Fields. Central London Meat Market (Smithfield) was begun in 1862 and opened for meat trading in 1868.

1849, Henry Charles Harrod took over a grocers shop in the village of Knightsbridge. His son, Charles Digby Harrod, took over the store in 1861, aged 20; by 1867the shop was large enough to employ 5 assistants, and had a staff of 16 by 1870. The store burnt down in December 1883 but was rebuilt, and all Christmas orders only delayed by a few days. Customers were impressed, and by 1889 the store was worth �120,000. The first escalator in London was installed at Harrods in 1898. Most of the current building dates from 1901-05. In 1985 Harrods was bought by the Al-Fayed brothers for �615 million.

20 March 1819, The Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London, opened.

1707, Fortnum & Mason department store, London, was established.

1670, The original fruit and vegetable market in Covent Garden opened when King Charles II granted a charter to the Earl of Bedford to hold a market in the area. See 9 November 1974.

1656, Covent Garden fruit and vegetable market began, as a few stalls in tbe garden of the Duke of Bedford. See 1265.

1358, London Bridge had 138 shops on it.

1276, Croydon market was established, making the town the commercial centre for the region.

1265, A fruit and vegetable stall was set up on the north side of the road between the City of London and Westminster by the monks of St Peter�s Abbey, to sell the surplus from their vegetable garden. This stall later became Covent Garden Fruit and Vegetable Market (see 1656)

1150, The earliest mention of the cattle market at Smithfield.

24 August 1133, In London, the first Bartholomew�s Day Fair was held. It was held annually thereafter until 1855.

1123, Smithfield Market for meat began in the �Smooth Field� just north of London�s walls.


Tower of London

30 October 1841, Fire at the Tower of London.

9 May 1671. Irish adventurer Captain James Thomas Blood made an unsuccessful attempt, dressed as a clergyman, to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. See 24 August 1680.

10 January 1645, At Tower Hill, William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury since 1633, was beheaded for treason.He was not replaced until 1660.

1097, The White Tower, Tower of London, was completed. It was built of white stone from the Caen, France, area.

1078, Building work began on the Tower of London.


Population, selected dates and districts, see spreadsheet at London Population


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