Chronography of Jewish history and the State of Israel
Also events relating to the Palestinian State
Page last modified 29 January 2023
Jewish Virtual Library, useful links here, https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jewish-population-of-the-world#history
3.8, Suez Crisis 1956-57,
-1.0, Anne Frank
-9.0. Prussian/German anti-Semitism 1880-83
-10.0. Reform Judaism Movement, 1817-1901
10 May 2021, As Israel commemorated Israel Day, a national holiday marking Israeli victory in the Six Day War, Hamas began firing rockets from Gaza into Israel. Hamas rockets killed 12 Israelis, and Israeli retaliation into Gaza killed 227. The violence continued for 11 days.
13 August 2020, Israel and the United Arab Emirates created diplomatic links; Israel undertook not to �annex more� of the West Bank. Palestinians were disappointed. Israel and the Sunni Arab world have been united by a mutual fear of Shia Iran.
9 April 2019, Benjamin Netanyahu won a record fifth term as President. He intended to take a hard line on the issue of Israeli settlements on the West Bank.
19 February 2019, 80 Jewish graves in eastern France were desecrated, in a rising tide of anti-Semitism that had seen a rise of 74% in such attacks in 2018 over 2017.
27 October 2018, Robert Bowers, a white-supremacist, entered a synagogue in Pittsburgh, USA, and shot dead 11 worshippers.
6 December� 2017, President Donald Trump of the USA officially recognised Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, and announced that he would move the US Embassy there, from Tel Aviv. There were protests from Palestinians.
14 July 2017, Two Israeli policemen were shot by Palestinians near the Temple Mount, Jerusalem. Israel imposed security measures including metal detectors on Muslim worshippers at the Haram al Sharif Mosque. These measures were seen as part of the Israeli occupation and sparked further protests and riots in Jerusalem.
6 February 2017, The coalition Israeli Government, led by Binyamin Netanyahu, passed a Bill that legalised certain Israeli settlements built on privately-owned Palestinian land.
28 September 2016, Shimon Peres, Labour leader of Israel from 1977, died aged 93.
22 July 2014, A Palestinian rocket landed within 2 kilometres of Israel�s Ben Gurion Airport (see 8 July 2014), causing many airlines to cancel flights to Israel.
8 July 2014, Israel launched a major attack on the Gaza Strip, firing in rockets, followed by a ground invasion, following a series of rockets launched into Israel from Gaza.
2 July 2014, In revenge for the killing of three Israeli teenagers on 30/6/2014, a Palestinian youth was murdered by Israeli settlers.
11 January 2014, Former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon died, aged 85, after eight years in a coma. See 4 January 2006.
6 September 2007, Israeli warplanes struck a suspected nuclear site in Syria.
26 January 2006, Hamas won elections in Palestine.
25 July 1993. Israeli air strikes on pro-Iranian Hizbullah positions in southern Lebanon.
24/6/1993. Israel announced plans to build a US$ 13 million fence around the Occupied Territories.
17 February 1993. Heavy fighting in Lebanon between Israeli forces and pro-Iranian guerrillas.
16 December� 1992. Israel ordered the deportation of 415 Palestinians to Lebanon. The intifada, or Palestinian uprising, was now in its sixth year. However Lebanon refused to accept the deportees and they remained stranded in a no-mans-land between Lebanon and the barbed wire border of Israel�s self-declared security zone.
7 December� 1992. Three Israeli soldiers were shot by Islamic militants on the Gaza Strip.
25 October 1992. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin confirmed that Israel did not intend to withdraw from the Golan Heights.
18 October 1992. More violence on the West Bank, as a Palestinian killed an Israeli woman and injured nine other Israelis.
17/3/1992. A suicide bomber with a 200lb bomb destroyed the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility, saying the attack was in revenge for the killing of Sheikh Abbas Mussawi in an Israeli helicopter ambush last month. 29 were killed and 242 injured.
9/3/1992, Menachem Begin, Israeli politician, died.
22 September 1991, The Dead Sea Scrolls, the only surviving Biblical documents from before 100 CE, were made publically available for the first time by Huntington Library, California.
25 May 1991, 15,000 Black Ethiopian Jews (Falashas) were transported to Israel because of unrest in Ethiopia.
4 January 1991, The UN unanimously voted to condemn Israeli treatment of Palestinians.
8 October 1990. 21 Arabs killed in rioting on the Temple Mount, Jerusalem.
7 October 1990, Israel began handing out gas masks to all its citizens.
20 May 1990 , Intifada rioting in the Palestinian Territories.
14 May 1990, Anti-Semitism resurfaced in France, with the desecration of a Jewish grave in Carpentras.
13 April 1989, Israeli soldiers attacked Arab villagers in the West Bank, killing 6 Palestinians. The soldiers claimed they were attacked by rioting youths, but an investigation in 5/1989 found the soldiers had acted without provocation.
15 December� 1988, The USA resumed contacts with the PLO, after a 13-year boycott.
14 December� 1988, Yasser Arafat, PLO leader, renounced terrorism and accepted Israel�s right to exist within secure borders.
7 December� 1988. Yasser Arafat recognised the existence of Israel.
14 November 1988, In Algiers, the Palestine National Council declared a Palestinian State on the West Bank and Gaza.
31 July 1988, King Hussein of Jordan announced that he is ceding the Israeli-controlled West Bank to the PLO.
25 April 1988, In Israel, John Demanjuk, known as Ivan the Terrible, was sentenced to death for war crimes relating to the gas chambers at Treblinka concentration camp.
16 April 1988, The Palestine Liberation Organisation�s chief military commander, Khalil al Wazir, was assassinated at his Tunis home; the PLO blamed an Israeli hit squad. Mr Wazir had organised many attacks from Lebanon into Israel, and orchestrated the Palestinian intifada in the Occupied Territories.
2 April 1988. Israeli troops killed six Palestinians, the highest total in a single day so far. On 6 April 1988 the first Israeli civilian victim of the fighting died, a 15-year old girl.
24/3/1988, In Israel, Mordecai Vanunu was found guilty of revealing Israeli nuclear secrets to the Sunday Times.
4/3/1988. Israel banned all foreign journalists as the Arab unrest continued.
1 February 1988. Two Arab youths were shot dead by Israeli settlers as the violence in Israel continued, from January 1988.
20 January 1988. The Israeli Prime Minister, Yitzhak Rabin, cracked down hard on the Palestinians. Beatings were routine and charity aid to the strike-hit West Bank and Gaza Strip was banned by Israel.
15 January 1988. Arab uprising in Israel began. Sporadic violence had occurred on 8 January 1988.
8 January 1988. Violence in Gaza and Jerusalem as young Palestinians protested after Friday prayers. See 15 January 1988.
3 January 1988. An Israeli air strike in southern Lebanon killed 21 people.
25 December� 1987, Israeli security forces cracked down on Arab rioters.
9 December� 1987, The Intifada, the popular Palestinian uprising against Israeli authority, began. The protests were soarked when an Israeli truck was deliberately driven into a passenger vehicle in Gaza, killing 4 Palestinians. The incident was a revenge attack for the fatal stabbing of n an Israeli a few days earlier. However Arab tensions wree already high� after over 20 years Israeli occupation of Palestinian lands. The Intifada continued until the Peace Process of 1993.
6 December� 1987, A P\alestinian stabbed and killed an Israeli shopper in Gaza. This provoked a revenge attack, which started the Intifada, see 9 December� 1987.
16 February 1987, John Demanjuk, also known as Ivan the Terrible, a former car worker who had lived in the US for 40 years, went on trial in Israel accused of murdering hundreds of Jews at Treblinka� He was the second war criminal to be tried in Israel after Adolph Eichmann.
9 November 1986, Israel announced that Mordechai Vanunu, 31, was in �lawful detention� in Haifa but denied he was kidnapped from Britain. On 5 October 1986 the Sunday Times had printed Vanunu�s revelations about Israel�s nuclear arsenal at Dimona, backed up with his photographs. He never collected his money, and was probably lured into a honeytrap by a female Mossad agent, then sent in diplomatic baggage to Jerusalem.
20 October 1986, Yitzhak Shamir succeeded Shimon Peres as Israeli Prime Minister.
6 September 1986. Arab terrorists killed 21 at an Istanbul synagogue.
1 October 1985, The Israeli Air Force bombed the PLO HQ in Tunis.
10/6/1985, Israel withdrew from most of southern Lebanon, except for a security zone in the far south which it still occupied.
20 May 1985, Israel freed 1,150 Palestinians in exchange for three Israelis.
3 January 1985, Ethiopian Jews settled in Israel.
20 September 1984, 40 died when a suicide bomber attacked the US Embassy in Beirut.
14 September 1984. After Israeli elections on 23 July 1984 produced no overall winner, with Shimon Peres� :Labour Party taking 44 seats and Yitzhak Shamir�s Right Wing Likud Party taking 41 seats, no party had a clear majority. This day a coalition arrangement was made, with each leader alternating for 25 months. Shimon Peres started the first 25 month leadership period this day.
Start of alternating Peres � Shamir leadership
30 January 1984, West German chancellor Helmut Kohl concluded a 5-day visit to |Israel. His visit had been disrupted by demonstrations.
23 October 1983 A suicide truck bomber destroyed the US Marine Corps barracks at Beirut International Airport, killing 241 US servicemen.
10 October 1983. Shamir became Prime Minister in Israel.
2 September 1983. Israel�s Prime Minister Menachem Begin resigned, and was replaced by Yitzhak Shamir.
26/6/1983. Yasser Arafat was expelled from Syria.
9 October 1982, In an attack on a synagogue in Rome, 1 died.
3/6/1982, Israeli Ambassador, Argov, was shot by Palestinians.
14 December� 1981, Israel formally annexed the Golan Heights, a strategic area formerly part of Syria but occupied by Israel since 1967.
16 October 1981, Moshe Dayan, Israeli military leader, died in Tel Aviv.
30/6/1981, Menachem Begin�s Likud Party did well in Israeli elections. The Israeli air strike at Osirak, Iraq, had helped him.
7/6/1981. Israeli planes bombed an Iraqi nuclear reactor then under construction at Osirak, Iraq.
1980, Israel replaced the Pound with a new currency, the Shekel.
3 October 1980. Terrorists bombed a Paris synagogue.
30 July 1980. Israel declared that the undivided city of Jerusalem was its capital.
8 October 1979, In Israel, the new Tehiya (Renaissance) Party was launched, to resist any further territorial concessions by Israel for peace.
9 May 1979, Israeli forces pursued into Lebanon some Palestinian guerrillas who had attacked a Jewish settlement. Conflict in the area looked likely to escalate again.
18 January 1979, A Palestinian bomb explo0ded in Jerusalem. In retaliation, Israeli forces� oved into south Lebanon. A truce was agreed on 24 January 1979.
20 August 1978. Gunmen opened fire on an El Al airline bus in London.
20 May 1978. 5 terrorists and 2 policemen were killed at Orly Airport, Paris, after terrorists fired at passengers boarding an Israeli plane.
11/3/1978, A PLO unit sailed from the south coast of Lebanon, landed in northern Israel, and hijacked a bus. 39 of the passengers were killed near Tel Aviv.
26 July 1977, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin defied a plea from US President Jimmy Carter and ordered more settlements to be built on the West Bank.
18 May 1977. Menachem Begin became President of Israel after his centre-right Likud party coalition won elections, ending 29 years of Labour rule in Israel.
8 May 1977, Dutch art dealer Peter Menten went on trial, charged with murdering Polish Jews in 1941 for financial gain.
27 January 1976, A UN Resolution calling for Israel to withdraw from all territories occupied since 1967and for a Palestinian State was vetoed by the US delegate.
10 November 1975, The UN General Assembly passed by 72 votes to 35 a resolution defining Zionism as �a form of racism and racial discrimination�. Some 32 nations abstained.
4 July 1975, A Palestinian bomb in Jerusalem killed 14.
5/3/1975. Palestinian guerrillas raided a hotel at Tel Aviv, taking 30 hostages. Israeli troops stormed the hotel, killing 7 of the 8 terrorists, and 11 other lives were lost.
2 December� 1974, Israel announced that it possessed the capability of manufacturing nuclear weapons.
19 November 1974, Three Arab terrorist attacked the Israeli town of Beth Shean, killing 4 and wounding 38 before being shot themselves.
30 October 1974, All Arab States recognised the Palestinian Liberation organisation (PLO) as the �sole representative of the Palestinian people�.
9 October 1974, Oskar Schindler, German businessman who saved the lives of many Jews in World War Two, died.
20/6/1974, Israeli aircraft attacked a Palestinian refugee camp in southern Lebanon, killing 16.
13/6/1974, Palestinian terrorists killed three Israeli women in Kibbutz Shamir.
11 April 1974, Palestinian terrorists killed 18 Israelis, mainly women and children, in a raid on Kiryat Shemona.
31 May 1974, Israel signed a truce with Syria. Israel returned the city of Kuneitra, occupied since the Yom Kippur War of October 1973, to Syria.
12 April 1974. Israeli soldiers destroyed several houses in Lebanon in retaliation for an Arab guerrilla attack on the Israeli town of Kiryat Shemona in which 18 people died.
30 December� 1973, In London, Joseph Seiff, Jewish head of Marks and Spencer, was shot and injured by an Arab terrorist.
1 December� 1973. Death of Israeli statesman David Ben Gurion. Born in 1886 he was one of the founders of the State of Israel and its first President from 1948 to 1963.
20 July 1973. A Japanese Boeing 747 with 123 passengers and 22 crew was hijacked over Holland and forced to fly to Dubai. Later, at Benghazi, the aircraft was blown up by the hijackers. A girl hijacker was killed by a grenade explosion, but all passengers and crew escaped.
7/6/1973, The West German Chancellor Willy Brandt visited Israel.
3/6/1973, Israel freed 96 Arab prisoners in exchange for 3 pilots.
9 April 1973. Arab terrorists attempted to hijack an Israeli plane at Nicosia. One Arab was killed and 7 captured.
14 February 1973, An Israeli fighter jet shot down a Libyan passenger plane over the Sinai Desert, killing 74 passengers and crew.
2/3/1973, Palestinian terrorists murdered the US ambassador to the Sudan, citing �US collusion with Israel� as their motive.
12 January 1973. Yasser Arafat was re-elected leader of the PLO.
8 September 1972. In retaliation for Munich, Israeli jets attacked 10 guerrilla bases in Lebanon.
5 September 1972. Arab terrorists from the Black September terrorist group massacred 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics. Initially 2 athletes were killed and 9 taken hostage as the terrorists broke into dormitory, and after negotiations with the German Chancellor, Willy Brandt, the kidnappers and their hostages were flown to Furstenfeld military airfield, 25 miles from Munich. Later the terrorists were stormed by German police, and all 9 hostages were killed plus a German policeman and 5 terrorists. 3 terrorists were captured; one terrorist escaped. Police had stormed the kidnappers as they attempted to board a waiting aircraft. The Munich Olympic Games continued.
30 May 1972, Terrorists opened fire on passengers at Lod Airport, Israel, killing 26 and injuring hundreds. Two of the terrorists were shot dead by security guards, and the third was arrested. 116 passengers had just arrived on the Air France plane and filed into the airport baggage area; amongst them were three Japanese belonging to the �Red Army�, a terrorist organisation with links to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). They opened their luggage which contained submachine guns, ammunition and grenades and proceeded to sweep the airport with gunfire, throwing grenades into huddled groups of passengers, as security guards struggled to respond. The massacre lasted four minutes. Two terrorists died in the baggage hall, one killed by his own grenade. The third ran out onto the runway, discarding his weapon, but was caught by an El-Al mechanic.
9 May 1972, Israeli troops stormed a hijacked jet at Jerusalem, freeing 92 passengers held hostage by Black September Palestinian terrorists.
17 January 1972, 350 Soviet Jews arrived in Israel.
7 October 1971, Israel refused entry to 21 Jewish Black Americans.
1 February 1971. Israeli troops made a raid into Lebanon.
5 October 1970. Anwar Sadat became president of Egypt, succeeding Abdel Nasser.
30 September 1970, Britain swapped hijack hostages seized by the PLO for the Palestinian terrorist Leila Khaled.
28 September 1970. President Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt since 1954, died of a heart attack aged 52, after mediating in the Jordan civil war.
27 September 1970, PLO leader Yasser Arafat signed a truce with King Hussein of Jordan after the PLO had been ejected from Jordan in a 10-day fight known to the PLO as Black September.
12 September 1970. Palestinians blew up three hijacked planes. The hijacked British, Swiss, and American planes were taken by the PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine) and flown to Dawson�s Field, a remote desert airstrip outside Amman, Jordan. After days of negotiation, the 300 passengers were released in exchange for 7 Arab detainees. In response King Hussein of Jordan declared martial law and ordered the Palestinian Liberation Organisation to be ejected from his country.
6 September 1970. In one day, 4 aircraft were hijacked in Europe by Arabs. A Swissair DC-8 and a Trans-World 707 were forced to fly to Jordan; a Pan-Am jumbo was blown up in Cairo; and am El-Al 707 hijacking failed after a terrorist was shot dead. On 9 September 1970 a BOAC VC-10 was hijacked en route from Bombay to London. It was forced to land and refuel at Beirut and then fly to Jordan to join the other 2 planes held hostage there.
7 August 1970, Egypt and Israel, both exhausted by their War of Attrition throughout 1970, agreed a ceasefire. Israel remained in occupation of Sinai up to the east bank of the Suez Canal. Egypt retained the west bank of the Canal, and agreed not to site any missiles within 20 miles of it. After a few months Egypt reneged o the missile agreement and sited missiles close to the Canal. Israel protested but took no further action. The strategic depth of the Sinai itself made Israel feel secure.
8 April 1970, Israeli bombs fell on a primary school in the Nile delta, killing 30 children. The bombs were intended for a military base but fell off-target; it was a further reprisal for the sinking on 3 February 1970 of an Israeli ship near Eilat.
2/3/1970. Israel and Syria in the heaviest fighting since the 6-Day War.
12 February 1970, Israeli raid on factories near Cairo; 70 civilians died. This was a further Israeli reprisal for the sinking on 3 February 1970 of an Israeli ship near Eilat.
9 February 1970, The PLO leader Yasser Arafat visited Moscow for talks.
3 February 1970, Egyptian frogmen sank an Israeli supply ship off the Israeli port of Eilat. In reprisal Israeli aircraft sank several Egyptian minesweepers in the Gulf of Suez.
1969, Gadddafi, President of Libya expelled the country�s Jewish population.
29 August 1969. Arab guerrillas hijacked a TWA aircraft en route from Rome to Tel Aviv and force it to land in Damascus.
8 April 1969, Arab guerrillas attacked Eilat. In retaliation, Israeli jets attacked Aqaba, Jordan.
11/3/1969. Golda Meir, aged 70, became Prime Minister of Israel after the death of Levi Eshkol. Mrs Meir remained Prime Minister until her resignation in 1974.
26 February 1969, Levi Eshkol, Prime Minister of Israel, died.
18 February 1969. At Zurich an Israeli aircraft was attacked by four Arabs, injuring 6 passengers; one Arab was killed.
3 February 1969. In Cairo, Yasser Arafat became leader of the Palestine Liberation Organisation, the PLO.
28 December� 1968. Israeli commandos in helicopters raided Beirut Airport, destroying 13 Lebanese aircraft.� This was in retaliation for alleged Lebanese toleration of guerrilla raids into northern Israel.
26 December� 1968. Two Arab gunmen attacked an Israeli Boeing 707 in Athens, killing one passenger
29 November 1968, Arab guerrillas attacked a potash plant on the Dead Sea. Israeli jets retaliated by blowing up two bridges in Jordan.
23 July 1968. An Israeli Boeing 707, flying from Rome to Tel Aviv, was hijacked and flown to Algeria.
13/6/1965, Martin Buber, Austrian-born Israeli Jewish philosopher, died aged 87.
12 May 1965. West Germany established diplomatic relations with Israel.
14/3/1965, The Israeli Cabinet formally approved the setting up of diplomatic relations with West Germany.
20 January 1965, General Franco of Spain met with Jewish representatives to discuss legitimisiung Jewish communities in Spain,
2/6/1964. The PLO was created in Jerusalem.
16 January 1964, Arab leaders announced a plan to divert the headwaters of the River Jordan away from Israel. Israel had previously announced its National Water Carrier Plan to make greater use of the Jordan waters. The issue threatened another Arab-Israeli war., until the Arabs dropped their diversion plan in May 1964.
4 January 1964, Michael Brenner, German-Jewish historian, was born.
28/6/1963, Ahmed Hilmi Pasha, Palestinian leader and one time Prime Minister of the All-Palestine Government, died aged 84.
16/6/1963, Ben Gurion, Israeli Prime Minister, resigned aged 76. He was replaced by Levi Eshkol.
1961, The authoriries closed Moscow�s synagogues.
7 February 1960, Israeli archaeologists announced the discovery of scrolls from the Dead Sea area.
24 December� 1959, Anti-Semitic riots in Cologne.
26 July 1959. President Nasser of Egypt announced in a speech in Alexandria �I announce from here, on behalf of the United Arab Republic people, that this time we will exterminate Israel�.
25 February 1959, Norway and Israel signed an agreement providing Israel with heavy water, crucial to Israel's atomic program.
8 May 1958, The Supreme Religious Centre for World Jewry was established in Jerusalem.
22 July 1957. Shell and BP announced they would pull out of Israel to pacify some Arab nations, who refused to accept the very existence of Israel.
20 April 1957, The US resumed aid to Israel, which had been suspended on October 1956.
10 October 1956, Two Israeli regiments bombarded a Jordanian police barracks for three hours.
11 September 1956. After sporadic attacks by Jordan along the Israeli frontier, Israel retaliated. A battalion of Israeli troops attacked a Jordanian police post at Rahwa, killing 5 policeman and ten soldiers and destroying the building.
14 January 1956, Truce agreed between Israel and Jordan.
2 November 1955, Ben Gurion formed the new government in Israel.
28/3/1955. Israeli made raids on the Gaza Strip.
13 February 1955, Israel obtained four of the seven Dead Sea Scrolls.
20 July 1953, The USSR and Israel restored diplomatic relations.
2 February 1953. The USSR broke off relations with Israel.
8 December� 1952, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi became the new President of Israel, succeeding Chaim Weitzmann.
9 November 1952, Chaim Weitzmann, first President of Israel, died aged 77.
10 September 1952, West Germany offered Israel US$ 540 million in compensation for Nazi atrocities.
21 July 1952, The Chief Rabbi of France, Isaie Schwartz, died aged 76.
13 September 1951. UN peace talks between Israel and the Arabs failed.
13/3/1951, Israel demanded 6.2 billion Deutsche marks (1.47 billion US$) compensation from Germany.
14 February 1951. In Israel, Ben Gurion dissolved Parliament after an election defeat.
5 July 1950, Israel passed the Law of return, stating that all Jews have the right to settle in Israel.
27 April 1950. Britain recognised the State of Israel
24 April 1950. King Abdullah of Jordan annexed Arab Palestine, the West Bank.
12/1949, Ben Gurion created a new agency for intelligence operations outside Israeli borders. He called it The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations; it is commonly known just as �the Institute�, or Mossad.
13 December� 1949, Israel officially moved its capital from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
5 December� 1949, David Ben Gurion, Israel�s first prime minister, proclaimed Jerusalem as Israel�s capital.
23 February 1949, Jews in Berlin protested at the portrayal of Jewish character Fagin in Alec Guinness�s film Oliver Twist.
14 July 1946, Jews who had survived World War Two were massacred in a pogrom at Kielce, Poland.
26 September 1940, Walter Benjamin, 48, German Jewish philosopher and social critic, committed suicide.
13 May 1939, �A ship with 937 Jews left Hamburg, many of them former concentration camp inmates, to seek asylum in Cuba. However the Cuban Government declined to take them as did the USA and Dominica. Eventually the ship was ordered back to Germany, and arrived at Antwerp on 17/6/1939. Belgium took 214 of the refugees, France 224, The Netherlands 1821 and the UK 288. The British and French contingents left aboard the cargo ship Rhakotis for Boulogne and Southampton. Only the British bound Jews survived the war.
2 December� 1938, 206 German-Jewish schoolchildren arrived in Britain as refugees. This was the so-called Kindertransport: by the end of August 1939 9,354 such children had arrived by boat-train at Harwich from Germany and Austria. For many, their adult families remained.probably to die in the concentration camps. A few adults did manage to obtain visas for England or the USA.
Nazi German anti-Semitism from 1933
16 August 1923, Shimon Peres, Prime Minister of Israel 1984-86, was born in Poland.
16 August 1921. The Times exposed as a fake the �Protocols of the Elders of Zion�, which purported to be a manifesto for a Jewish conspiracy for world domination.
25 August 1918. The Hungarian government expelled the Jews and confiscated their assets.
20 May 1915, Moshe Dayan, Israeli military commander and politician, was born in Deganya.
1914, Jews had achieved a significant position iu� Vienna. From 1848, many had come here fleeing persecution in eastern Europe, and between 1848 and 1914 their population in Vienna rose from 5,000, 1% of the population then, to 175,000, or 9% of the population at that time. By the 1880s they accounted for 33% of Vienna�s university students. By 19154 they accounted for 26% of Law students and 41% of Medical students. By 1910 they accounted for 41% of the Viennese university teaching faculty. By 1936 some 62% of Viennese lawyers, and 62% of its doctors, were jewish.
1913, the Anti-Defamation League was foundedby Chicago lawyer Sigmund Livingston, with sponsorship by the B;nai B�rith, to combat anti-Semitism in the USA. This was spreading, culminating in the lynching in 1915 in Georgia of Leo Frank, a Jew falsely accused of murder.
16 August 1913, Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel 1977-83, was born in Russia.
�4 August 1912, Raoul Wallenberg, Swedish diplomat, was born to a wealthy family in Stockholm.� He is famed for saving Jews scheduled for Nazi death camps by giving them Swedish documentation, enabling them to flee to that neutral country. In 1945 he was taken from Budapest as the Soviets occupied the city; he was suspected of espionage and his fate has never been determined.
7 November 1911, Walter Schlomo Gross, Jewish journalist, was born.
18 July 1911, Hermann Adler, British chief rabbi (born 30 May 1839) died.
1910, Jews acquired civil rights in Portugal.
31 December� 1908, Simon Weisenthal, noted hunter of Nazi war criminals, was born; he died in 2005.
28 April 1908, Oskar Schindler, Austrian-German industrialist who saved many Jews from death, was born.
3 July 1904. Hungarian-born Zionist Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) died in Vienna.� He was a journalist, and the founder of Zionism.� He rejected territories such as Uganda for a Jewish homeland, insisting on Palestine.
7 October 1900. Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler was born in Munich. He controlled the concentration camps in which millions of Jews, communists, trade unionists, Jehovah�s Witnesses, and others, died.
13 August 1900, The Fourth Zionist Congress was held in London. Concerns included a rise in antisemitism in Europe in the 1890s, and financing the settlement of Jews in Palestine, an aim for which money was short.
1 April 1899, Maurice de Hirsch, German Jewish philanthropist, died (born 9 December� 1831).
3 May 1898, Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel 1969-74, was born.
31 August 1897. World Jewish leaders met in Basle, Switzerland to discuss their hopes for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. 200 delegates from all branches of Judaism came, mainly from east and Central Europe.
1896, Theodor Herzl published �Der Judenstaat�, the start of the Zionist movement.
1893, The Jewish Historical Society of Britain was founded; in part to defend British Jews from prejudice through research that emphsasised their role in British history and society.
3 May 1893, Golda Meir, Israeli Prime Minister, was born in Kiev, Russia, as Golda Mabovitch, daughter of a carpenter.
1890, The Catholic Church in Italy distributed to� every parish in the country a booklet asserting that Jews were the sworn enemies of all other nations and did not merit equal treatment with other citizens.
21 January 1890, Nathan Marcus Adler, British chief rabbi (born 15 January 1803) died.
16 October 1886, David Ben Gurion, the first Prime Minister of Israeli in 1948, was born in Plonsk, Poland, as David Green.� He changed his name to Ben Gurion because of its Biblical connotations.
28 July 1885, Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, Jewish philanthropist, died (born 24 October 1784).
1882, The first Aliyah (migration) of Jews to Palestine began. This laid the foundations of the modern State of Israel. The second Aliyah (1904-14) was focussed on �redemption of the soil� and personal labour; the co-operatove movement which developed into the Kibbutz began here. The third Aliyah was aimed at establishing a �national home� for the Jews, and the fourth Aliyah (1925) was aimed at escaping Jewish persecution in eastern Europe, especially Poland. The fifth Aliyah (1932) was� the flight from Nazi persecution in Germany.
15 May 1877, Jews in Switzerland were granted full citizenship by the Emancipation Law enacted this day.
1875, Extremely traditional Orthodox Jews founded the Mea Sharim (�Hundred Gates�) district just outside Jerusalem. They do not recognise the State of Israel as it is secular rather than religious, so refuse to pay taxes or do military service, and have their own schools rather than State schools. Rules on dress are strict and only Yiddish is spoken as Hebrew, the language of prayer, is deemed too sacred to use in ordinary speech.
1870, The last Jewish ghetto in Europe, in Rome,� was removed (until the ghetto system was revived by Nazi Germany in the 1940s). Jews were forbidden to leave the ghetto between sunset and sunrise, and on Sundays and Christian Holy Days. Within the ghetto, the Jews were self-governing. Where necessary for their trades, the Jews could hold a market just outside the ghetto, e.g. the Tandelmarkt of Prague. The ghetto was generally very densely built up, and highly destructive fires were common. For fear of plunder, the Jews often refused outside assistance to extinguish the fire on these occasions. Most ghettos had disappeared from European cities by the 1850s.
1867, Jews were granted full citizenship in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, under a new constitution.
1860, Norway allowed Jews to settle there.
2 May 1860, Theodor Herzl, Hungarian Jew who was the founder of Zionism and first President of the World Zionist Organisation in 1897, was born in Budapest.
9 October 1859, Alfred Dreyfus, French army office noted for the �Dreyfus Treason Affair�, was born in Alsace to Jewish parents.
1858, Lionel de Rothschild, aged 41, became the first Jewish MP in British Parliament.
23 July 1858, In Britain, the Oath of Allegiance was modified so as to allow Jews to sit in Parliament.
1854, The Oxford University Reform Act allowed Jews to take a degree, a process that had only been open to chapel-attending Christians until then. A similar Act was passed relating to Cambridge University in 1856. However individual Colleges at these universities remained averse to the admittance of Jews as students.
1848, Jews acquired civil rights in Italy,
1845, Britain passed the Jewish Municipal Relief Act, allowing Jews to take up all municipal offices without taking a Christian oath.
12 October 1843, Twelve Jewish men met in a New York cafe to establish the B�Nai� Brith, or �Sons of the Covenant�, to provide assistance to Jewish widows, the elderly, orphans, and victims of persecution. In 1908 the B�Nai Brith had 35,870 membersacross the USA, Germany, Austro-Hungary, Romania, Egypt and Palestine. A UK branch was established in 1910.
1841, The Jewish Chronicle began publication in London. It was founded by Isaac Valentine (1793-1868).
30 May 1839, Hermann Adler, British chief rabbi, was born (died 18 July 1911).
1837, Spain granted civil rights to the Jews.
1835, The UK Parliament quickly passed the Sheriff�s Declaration Act. This allowed David Salomons (1797-1873), a Jewish banker, who had just been elected as one pf the two Sheriffs of the City of London, to take office without having to take the Christian Oath.
1835, Moses Montefiore became President of the Jewish Board of Deputies in the UK.
1833, In Britain, the barrister profession was opened to Jews. Until this year the requirement for a Christian-based oath at Lincoln�s Inn had debarred this profession to Jews, but in 1833 Francis Henry Goldsmid (1807-78) was allowed to take a modified oath.
9 December� 1831, Maurice de Hirsch, German Jewish philanthropist, was born (died 1 April 1899).
1814, Denmark granted equality of citizenship to Jews.
1812, Jews in Prussia gained civil rights. By 1848 Prussian Jews had gained full civil rights.
17/3/1808, In France, Napoleon imposed economic sanctions on the Jews (The �Infamous Decrees�), ruining many. This followed accusation made in 1806 by Louis Count Mole, Napoleon�s Commissioner, that French Jews were evading conscription and fleecing the population through usurious moneylending.
1806, In France, Emperor Napoleon summoned a Jewish �Sanhedrin�, in order to ascertain the suitability of Jews for full French citizenship.
27 September 1791. France granted citizenship to its Jews. This was as a result of the French Revolution.
12 July 1790, French Jews were granted civil liberties.
24 October 1784, Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, Jewish philanthropist, was born (died 28 July 1885).
1782, Emperor Joseph II of Austria gave civic rights to the Jews. However they could not own land in Austria until 1860, with all restrictions removed by 1868.
1763, Touro Synagogue opened in Newport, Rhode Island, USA, for the local Sephardic Jews. It had a sand floor to commemorate the Exodus from Egypt.
1760, The Board of Deputies of British Jews was established in London.
1760, Israel ben Eliezer, charismatic Polish founder of Hasidism, died aged 60.
7 July 1753, British Parliament passed the Jewish Naturalisation Act to end legal discrimination against Jews in Britain. However the measure was widely opposed and was repealed in 1754.
1746, Sweden allowed Jews to settle there � so long as they were wealthy.
1743, The Jews were expelled from Russia, by Empress Elizabeth. Later readmitted to Russia by Emperor Alexander I, who extended their civil rights in 1805 and 1809 however see 1892.
6 September 1729, Moses Mendelssohn, Jewish philosopher, was born in Dessau, Anhalt, Germany.
14/6/1711, The Jewish quarter of Frankfurt was destroyed in what was one of the largest fires in Germany before the 20th century.�
1701, Bevis Marks Synagogue, the oldest surviving synagogue in Britain, in London EC3, was built for Spanish and Portuguese Sephardi Jews.
4/3/1699, The Jews were expelled from Lubeck, Germany.
21 February 1677, Benedict Spinoza, Jewish philosopher, died.
20 November 1657, Manasseh ben Israel (Manoel Dias Soeiro), founder of the modern Jewish community in England, died in Middelburg, Netherlands.
20 April 1657, Jews in New Amsterdam (now, New York) were granted freedom of worship.
27 July 1656, Jewish religious authorities in Amsterdam excommunicated 24 year student Benedict Spinoza for maintaining that the Bible did not support the idea of an immortal soul, or that God has no body, or that angels exist. The secular authorities also banished Spinoza from Amsterdam for a short period. The Jewish community was concerned as Jews still did not have full citizenship rights in Amsterdam.
24 April 1656, The Jews petitioned Cromwell to be allowed to live and trade in England. This was permitted, although� they were denied legal toleration by the Puritan clergy of England. The first synagogue was built in Creechurch Lane, London, 1657, and the second (which still exists today) was the Spanish/Portuguese synagogiue at Bevis Marks, London, built 1701. Jewish civil rights increased only gradually in England. In 1723 they were able to give evidence in Court, when the words �on the true faith of a Christian� were dropped from the oath. In 1753 they were awarded full rights of naturalisation but under popular protest this was speedily revoked.� Until 1828 the maximum number of Jewish brokers in the City of London was limited to 12, and these were heavily taxed. From 1833 an English Jew could become a barrister, and from 1847 Jewish marriages gained the same legal recognition as Christian ones. From 1853 they could become Alderman and Lord Mayor. In 1846 Jewish schools gaimned the same legal standing as dissenting Protestant schools, and in 1871 the University Test Act allowed Jews to graduate at British universities. In 1858 the British Parliamentary Oath was modified to allow Jews to become MPs. In 1885 the first Jew became a member of the House of Lords, when Baron Rothschild became a peer.
1655, The last Auto-da-Fe in Portugal, a burning alove of supposedly converted Jews (to Christianity) who were suspected of still being secret Jews.
1655, Sephardic Jews from Brazil established a congregation in New Amsterdam (New York), despite the efforts of Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant to exclude them.
15 October 1655, The Jews of Lublin, Poland, were massacred.
1654, The colony of Martinique gave sanctuary to 300 Jews who had been expelled from Brazil.
27 January 1654, Some 150 Sephardic Jewish families fled Brazil for the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (now, New York). The colony mamnager Peter Stuyvesant wanted to expel these Jews, but the company refused.
1648, Greek Orthodox peasants in Ukraine began a massacre of all Jews who would not convert to Christianity. Politically, Ukraine was seeking independence from Poland; the Polish nobility owned much land along the Dneiper River, and employed Jews as tax collectors.
24 November 1632, Benedict Spinoza, Jewish philosopher, was born in Amsterdam.
1 February 1620, Mario de Calasio, scholar of the Hebrew Bible, died (born 1550).
1603, The Jews were permitted to settle in Holland; however they did not acquire full citizenship rights until 1796.
13 August 1599, Johannes Buxtorf, Hebrew scholar, was born (died 1664).
1588, Pope Sixtus V allowed the Jews to settle in the Papal States.
1573, The Jews were expelled from Brandenberg.
25 December� 1564, Johannes Buxtorf, German Jewish scholar, was born (died 1629).
12 July 1555, The Jewish Ghetto in Rome was created, on the orders of Pope Paul IV.
1553, The Jews were expelled from Bavaria.
1551, Persecution of the Jews began in Bavaria.
1550, The Jews were allowed to settle in Bayonne and Bordeaux.
27 November 1518, Daniel Bomberg completed the Rabbinical Bible.
1516, In Venice, the city established a special area for Jews to live. Built on the site of a former ironworks, it was called the ghetto nuovo, the Italian for �casting� being getto. Jews specialised in finance, and were a useful source of tax revenue. The Italian word getto itself derives from the Latin jactus or iactus, casting or founding iron. An alternative derivation (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910, vol.11, p.920) is from the Italian borghetto, dimutive of borgo, a borough.
Meanwhile many other Jews had moved to the Muslim areas of North Africa or the Balkan provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
1509, Persecution of the Jews in Germany began, led by a former Jew now converted, Johann Pfefferkorn, under the leadership of Maximillian I.
1506, In riots in Lisbon, almost 4,000 Jews were massacred.
5 December� 1497, King Manuel I of Portugal proclaimed an edict in which he demanded that Jews convert to Christianity or leave the country.
1494, The Jews were expelled from Tuscany.
31 December� 1492, About 100,000 Jews were expelled from Sicily.
30/3/1492. The Jews were expelled from Spain by edict of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella unless they agreed to convert to Roman Catholicism. Under the Moslem rule, the Jews had benefited from tolerant Arab rulers. But the last Moslem state was conquered by Christian Spain on 2 January 1492 when Granada fell. On 30/3/1492 �the 150,000 strong Jewish community was ordered out by Queen Isabella and her husband Ferdinand. Urban anti-Semitism in Spain had been growing for years, and the Spanish Inquisition, founded in 1487, made things worse. See 12 February 1502.
1489, The Jews were expelled from Milan and Lucca.
1488, The Jews were expelled from Parma.
1486, The Jews were expelled from Vicenza.
14/3/1486, Queen Isabella of Castile decreed that150,000 Jews within Spain must convert to Christianity or be expelled.
1485, The Jews were expelled from Perugia, Italy.
1 January 1483, Jews were expelled from Andalusia.
1476, The Jews were expelled from Ratisbon.
1454, The Jews were expelled from the cities of Moravia.
5 October 1450, Jews were expelled from Lower Bavaria by order of Ludwig IX.
1424, The Jews were expelled from Cologne.
1421, The Jews were expelled from Vienna and Linz.
1396, Date of oldest known document in the Yiddish language.
17 September 1394, King Charles VI of France ordered the expulsion of all Jews from France.
1391, The Jews were expelled from Prague.
5 August 1391, Anti-Jewish riots spread to Toledo, Spain and Barcelona. Many Jews left Barcelona after the following massacres, though many remained in the city.
6/6/1391, Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Seville, Spain. Many thousands of Jews were massacred and the violence spread throughout Spain and Portugal. Some 200,000 Spanish Jews were forcibly �converted� to Chrstianity. Many others were burnt alive.
1390, The Jews were expelled from Nuremburg.
5 November 1370. King Casimir III of Poland died in a hunting accident, aged 60, after a 30 year reign. He had repulsed a Mongol invasion, annexed Galicia, and encouraged the immigration of Jews to serve as bankers and tax collectors. He founded the University of Cracow, and codified the law and administration.
21/3/1349, Many of the 900 strong Jewish community of Erfurt (Germany) were� murdered by the rest of the population which accused them �of causing of the Black Death. Pope Clement VI issued two Bulls declariung the Jews innocent, but the persecution continued, with many fleeing to Poland and other regions of eastern Europe.
14 February 1349, 2,000 Jews were burned to death in Strasbourg.
1334, King Casimir III of Poland began to encourage Jewish immigration, granting the Jews extensive priveliges.
24/6/1322, Jews were expelled from France for third time.
1306, Jews were expelled from France by King Philip IV.
1301, In Valencia, Spain, 11,000 Jews were compelled to become baptised as Christians on pain of death. Elswehere in Spain, the entire Jewish population of towns were massacred.
20 April 1298, Beginning of the Rintfleisch-Pogrom, the Jews of R�ttingen were burned en masse, other Jewish communities were destroyed later in the year.
1293, Jewish communities in southern Italy had almost been destroyed after three years of persecution.
18 July 1290, King Edward I of England ordered all Jews (then numbering around 16,000) to leave England by November 1 (All Saints Day). This enabled him to seize their assets, and not repay debts owed to them. London�s Jews were expelled; they had lived in the area known as Old Jewry. The Italians, who wished to handle English banking, had persuaded Edward I to take this move.
17 November 1278, In England, 680 Jewish people were imprisoned in the Tower of London for coin-clipping, out of a total Jewish population in England at that time of around 3,000. 293 of them were executed a year later. Christians accused of coin-clipping were treated much more leniently, with often just a fine imposed.
1275, King Edward I of England ordered that all Jews above the age of 7 wear a yellow patch on their clothes 6 inches by 3 inches.
19/6/1269, King Louis IX of France ordered all Jews found in public without an identifying round yellow badge to be fined ten livres of silver. This had led to accusations that Louis IX was the inspiration for the Nazi anti-Semitic policies of the 1930s.
1252, Louis IX of France expelled the Jews.
1243, The Jews were expelled from Brandenburg.
6/1242, Louis IX of France organised a major book burning of 24 cartloads of Jewish books, mainly copies of the Talmud.
1241, The Jews were expelled from Frankfurt. In England the Earl of Leicester expelled the Jews from Leicester.
1225, The Jews were expelled from Mecklenburg.
1222, In England the Synod of Oxford confirmed the anti-Semitic measures of the Fourth Lateran council (1215). Jews were also prohibited from holding public office.
1215, The Fourth Lateran Council in Rome set out anti-Semitic measures that included forcing Jews to wear distinctive clothing and a yellow Star of David. This was to prevent marriages between Jews and Christians. 28 January 1167, Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra, Jewish scholar, born in Toledo, Spain, ca. 1092, died.
1163, First confirmed presence of Judaism in China. A synagogue was established at Kaifeng in 1163.
1103, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, protected the Jews within his realm.
13 December� 1204. The Jewish rabbi, lawyer, and philosopher Maimonides died, aged 69 (born 1135), in Cairo.
1196, The Jews were expelled from Vienna.
8 May 1190. After some six months of increasing persecution, 500 Jews were massacred in York after they had taken refuge in the Castle there. The Jews were killed by groups of young men after a three day siege before these men were due to depart on a Crusade, backed by people who were deeply in debt to Jewish moneylenders. Because certain professions like moneylending were forbidden to Christians, these came to be dominated by Jews. King Richard I, crowned on 2 September 189, showed his dislike of the Jews� by forbidding any to attend his coronation feast, and anti-Semitism was on the rise in England from then.
1182, The Jews were expelled from Paris by order of King Philip II of France.
The persecution of the Jews across Europe coincided with the start of the climatic cooling known as the Little |Ice Age, ca. 1200 � 1800, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Ice_Age
1163, A synagogue was founded at Kaifeng, China.
1140, Spanish Rabbi Judah ben Samuel ha�Levi died aged 55.
30/3/1135, The great Jewish teacher Moses ben Maimon (Maimonedes) was born in Cordoba. See 13 December� 1204.
850, German Jews began to develop a new language, Yiddish. This was an amalgam of German, Jewish and other languages.
9 November 694, Hispano-Visigothic King Egica accused the Jews of aiding the Muslims, and sentenced all Jews to slavery. From 711 these Spanish Jews were freed by the Arabs.
637, Jerusalem was captured by Arab forces under Omar. However until the city�s capture by the Seljuk Turks in 1071, Christian pilgrims were well tolerated. For the history of Jerusalem from 637 onwards see Christian History.
619, Jerusalem was sacked by the Persians.
499, Rabbi Abina II, head of the Sora Academy 437-499, died.
427, Rabbi Ashe (375 � 427), head of the Jewish Academy of Sora in Babylonia, died.
279, The Jewish Rabbi (teacher) Johanan died in Tiberias. In Tiberias, Jewish scholars published a collection of Jewish laws and customs, known as the The Talmud; this comprised the Mishnah, plus commentaries known as the Gemara.
219, Death of Rabbi Jehuda ha Nasi (born 135). He put in writing the previously oral Jewish interpretations known as the Mishnah,
189, Rabbi Yehuda codified the sayings of Moses and the Mishnah.
135, A Jewish uprising under Bar Kokhba ended (began in 122). After this was suppressed by the Romans, Judea was deliberately razed, with almost all former Jewish/Judean towns and villages, some 985 places altogether, flattened and the countryside depopulated. The city of Jerusalem was changed to the pagan city of Aelia Capitolina, and no Jew permitted to enter there.
115, Jewish revolt in Cyrenecia against Roman rule.
103 BCE, Aristobulus I died aged 38 and was succeeded by his brother Alexander Janneus. Janneus, a selfish and cruel character, made further conquests for Judea and ruled iuntil 76 BCE. One of Janneus� first acts as King was to murder his brother, a rival clamant for the throne.
104 BCE, John Hyrcanus died after a 30-year reign. He was succeeded by his 37-year-old son who ruled briefly as Aristobulus I. he completed the conquest of Galilee and Judaised the people of Hurae.
110 BCE, The Jewish military leader John Hrycanus conquered Samaria.
112 BCE, Emergence of the Sadducees and Pharisees in Palestine.
134 BCE, Simon Maccabbeus was assassinated by his son-in-law, the Governor of Jericho. Simon�s sons, Mattathias and Judah, were also killed, but he was succeeded by his one surviving son, John Hyrcanus, who ruled Judea until 104 BCE. Hyrcanus extended Judean rule into Samaria, Idumea, and lands east of the Jordan.
135 BCE, Simon Maccabbeus, successor to Jonathan Maccabbeus, expelled the Syrians from Jerusalem again.
141 BCE, Judea was completely liberated from Syrian rule whilst Demetrius was occupied with conquering Babylon. Judea remained independent until 63 BCE.
142 BCE, The boy ruler Antiochus VI died and was succeeded by the son of Demetrius I Soter, who ruled as Demetrius II Nicator.
143 BCE, A usurper to the Syrian throne, Tryphon, killed Jonathan Maccabbeus;Jonathan was succeeded by his older brother, Simon Maccabbeus, who succeded in driving the Syrians out of Jreuslaem and making it virtually an independent state. Judea began to mint its own coins and sent an ambassador to Rome.
145 BCE, In Syria, Alexander Balas was killed in battle near Antioch, by forces under Demetrius II, and Ptolemy VI Philometor and his son by Cleopatra Thea. The son became ruler as Antiochus VI until 142 BCE under a regent.
150 BCE, The Syrian usurper Alexander Balas, claiming to be a son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, overthrew Demetrius I Soter in battle and killed him. Balas was supported by the Romans and ruled until 145 BCE.
162 BCE, Antiochus V of Syria was deposed and killed by his cousin, Demetrius I Soter, who ruled until 150 BCE.
163 BCE, Antiochus IV of Syria died and was succeeded by his 10-year-old son who briefly ruled as Antiochus V under the regency of Lydia. Peace was made with the Jews.
165 BCE, Judas Maccabbeus reconsecrated the Temple at Jerusalem after expelling the Syrians. There was only enough oil in the Temple Lamp to burn for one day but somehow the lamp stayed alight for eight days. This is commemorated today in the Jewish festival of Chanukah.
168 BCE, King Antiochus IV, whilst persecuting the Jews, destroyed the Temple at Jerusalem. He outlawed Judiasm and tried to Helenise the Jews by erecting staues of Greek gods for worship across Judea. Previously, the historian and priest Manetho had spread his anti-Jewish ideas across ancient Greece.
198 BCE, Antiochus III, King of Syria, took Palestine from Egypt.
255 BCE, The Septuagint, the Greek version of the Old Testament, was written. Anti-Jewish polemics were written in Egypt.
305 BCE, The Seleucid Empire, which ruled Babylonia and Syria until 64 BCE, was established by Seleucus (Nicator) (then aged 53).
307 BCE, Antigonus I was killed at the Battle of the Kings at Ipsus. Palestine reverted to Egyptian rule.
312 BCE, Antigonus I became King of Judea.
314 BCE, Palestine came under the rule of the Seleucids of Syria.
350 BCE, Revolt by Persian Jews against the rule of King Artaxerxes III.
409 BCE, Renegade Jews (Samaritans) built a rival Temple to Jehovah on Mount Gerizim, to rival the one in Jerusalem.
440 BCE, Judean Law forbade intermarriage beteeen Jews and non-Jews.
445 BCE, Nehemiah completed the walls of Jerusalem. Nehemiah wrote the book of Nehemiah (16). The book of Malachi (39) also completed about this time. This completes the generally accepted 39 books of the Old (Hebrew) Testament. See Christianity for books of the New (Christian/Greek) testament.
458 / 457 BCE, The Jewish prophet Ezra travelled to Jerusalem to restore the Law of Moses.
455 BCE, The command to restore and rebuild Jerusalem, issued by Nehemiah and Ezra.
Ca. 460 BCE, Ezra wrote the books of 1 Chronicles (13), 2 Chronicles (14), Ezra (15). The book of Psalms (19) was also completed about this time.
Ca. 475 BCE, Mordecai wrote the book of Esther (17).
See Iran for events in Persia from 499 BCE onwards.
Temple rebuilt in Jersusalem, 515 BCE
10/3/515 BCE, Proposed date for the completion of the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem. If this was the end of the �Seventy years of desolation�, it would correlate with a Babylonian exile date of 586 BCE.
Note also that the numbers �forty� and �seventy� in the Bilbe may refer to specific time periods, or may symbolise, respectively, an extended period of testing or trial and a �complete period�. In reconstructing Bible chronology it is important but very difficult to determine which instances are literal and which are symbolic of �many years�.
520 BCE, The books of Haggai (37), Zechariah (38) were completed about this time.
521 BCE, Persian nobles chose Darius I �(Hystapes) as successor to his father-n law, Cambyses II, after a period of civil war
522 BCE, Death of King Cambyses II, som of King Cyrus, King of Persia 529 � 522 BCE. Cambyses II conquered Egypt in 525 BCE.
529 BCE, Death of Cyrus.
Babylonian State, 620-539 BCE
5 October 539 BCE. Persian soldiers were encamped outside Babylon. Late in the night they invaded Babylon across the partly-dried up bed of the river; the city�s gates had been left open. The river itself had been diverted by the Persians upstream of Babylon into a nearby depression (maybe, dried-up lake?).
547 BCE, Cyrus the Great of Persia (553-529 BCE) overthrew Croesus, last King of Lydia (561-547 BCE).
549 BCE, Death of the last Median King, Astyages (acceded 584 BCE). Under his reign,Median armies had campaigned as far afield as Azerbaijan and Lydia (in Turkey); however by the 550s BCE Media was under pressure both from Babylon to the south and from Persia to the east.
See also Iran
556 BCE, Accession of Nabonidus, last King of Babylon (to 539 BCE). He moved the royal court to the Arabian oasis of Tema. Popular discontent by the Babylonians rose under his reign.
560 BCE, Evil-Merodach was deposed and killed. He had released the Jewish King Jehoiachim from captivity.
585 BCE, Death of the prophet Jeremiah. He authored the books of 1 Kings (11), 2 Kings (12), Jeremiah (24)
Ca. 582-BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar II died. He was succeeded by his son, Evil-Merodach (Amelmarduk).
580 BCE, The book of Ezekiel (26) was completed.
Final end of the Assyrian State. The Two Babylonian Exiles, end of the Davidic Line of Judean Kings.Remnant left in Mizpah, then fled to Egypt, 609-586 BCE
586. BCE. The Second Babylonian Exile. Soon after this exile began, Jeremiah wrote the book of Lamentations (25). The book of Obadiah� (31) was also completed about this time. The Babylonians did not entirely destroy/deprt the Judenn nation; it was in their interests to leave in autonomous community in place, of those who had not been anti-Babylonian, to act as a bulwark against any future Egyptian advance. This community, including Jeremiah, was centred on Mizpah, just north of Jerusalem, with Gedaliah, grandson of Josiah�s Chancellor, as Governor. However the Ammonites under King Baalis resented the existence of this community, since they awnted t annext the territory. Accordingly Gedalaiah was assassinated, and the Babylonian garrison at Mizpah was also attacked. Fearing reprisals from Babylon, the Jews of Mizpah fled south to Egypt, taking Jeremiah woith them, although he had no wish to associate himself with that country. However there were already established Jewish communities in Lower and Upper Egypt, as Jews, in trhe role of traders, mercenaries and slaves had long before had dealings with Egypt.
588 BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon now determined to put an end to Egyptian resistance forever. He established a military HQ at Riblah (modern Rablah, west-central Syria, close to NE Lebanon). He sent part of his army to secure Tyre, and despatched his main force south to Jerusalem, which he started besieging in Winter 588/7 BCE.� Then an Egyptian army advanced towards Jerusalem and the Babylonian forces were compelled to raise their siege to deal with this threat. Jeremiah then began to make his way home NE from Jerusalem to Anathoth, but was arrested on charges of deserting to the enemy. Jeremiah continued to urge a prudent surrender to |Babylon but the prevailing politics was for war against them. Nebuchadnezzar beat back the Egyptians and returned to renew the siege of Jerusalem. In 586 BC the Babylonian siege engines managed to break through the walls of Jerusalem. The city, including the Temple and the Royal palace, was to be stripped of its treasures then razed to the ground.
589 BCE, Apries (4th ruler, 26th Dynasty) became Pharoah of Egypt. He was also known as 'Wahibre Haaibre' and was identified in the Bible Book of Jeremiah as 'Hophra.' He ruled until 570 BCE. Apries/Hophra was more active than his predecessor in attempting to push back Babylonian hegemony in the eastern Mediterranean, and he invaded Phoencia; Zedekia of Judah somewhat reluctantly then backed Egypt.
590 BCE, The Medes, over whom the Scythians had assisted the Assyrian conquest of, now turned on the Scythians and pushed them back north into the steppelands.
594 BCE, The Judean Royal Court received emissaries from Edom, Ammon, Moab, Tyre and Sidon, who all wanted to form an anti-Babylon alliance. Jeremiah urged a course of prudence, of avoiding such insurrection against Babylonian hegemony.
597-587 BCE, Reign of the last Davidic King of Judah, King Zedekiah, also a son of Josiah. Zedekiah was a weak ruler, and his court was split politically between those who favoured allegiance to Babylon and those who wanted to ally with Egypt to break free from Babylon. Both these factions brought in elements of pagan worship, from Babylon and Egypt respectively, into Judean religious practices..
598 BCE, In repudiation of his oath of 601 BCE, King Jehoiakim of Judah now broke with Babylon. Babylon invaded Judah, King Jehoiakim was killed during a Babylonian siege of Jerusalem, and succeeded by his son Jehoiachin.� Nebuchadnezzar arrived in person to direct the siege, and Jehoiachin immnediaterly surrendered. The Babylonians now took away to Babylon the Judean royal family, the Judean army (7,000-strong), the Judean nobility, 1,000 Judean craftsmen and their families, and large amounts of treasure from the Temple and royal palace at Jerusalem. This was the First Babylonian Exile.
601 BCE, King Jehoiakim of Judah swore allegiance to Babylon. He realised that Ehypt was now powerless to resist the rising power of Babylon.
605 BCE, Pharaoah Necho II and his Assyrian alliess attacked the Babylonians, and atempted to cross the River Euphrates, but they were beaten back by Babylonian forces at Carchemish (Karkamis) in the upper Euphrates Valley.
608 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon took control of Judah.
609 BCE, A small remnant of the Assyrian Empire had clung on �around Harran. A new Assyrian ruler, Ashuruballit, had emerged and attempted to rally his people, but this attempt failed. This year this Assyrian remnant too fell to Babylon. Newly-acceeded Pharaoh Necho II of Egypt sent forces to aid Assyria against all its enemeies and rebel provinces.
King Josiah of Judah died 609 BCE� in battle against these Egyptian forces, who wetre marching northwards through Judean territories, and bein reisted by both Judea and Philistia, who were concerned for their independence. King Josiah was succeeded by his son Jehoahaz, who continued his father�s policies. However after just a few months reign Jehoahaz was summoned to the Assyrian-Egyptian battle headquarters at Riblah in Syria, where he was put in chains and taken as prisoner to Egypt, where he died. Pharaoah Necho II installed Jehoiakim (originally, Eliakim), brother of Jehoahaz, as the new King of Judah. Jehoiakim ruled 608-598 BCE.
Fall of Nineveh (Assyrian capital), 612 BCE
612 BCE, Battle of Nineveh. The Assyrian capital Nineveh itself was sacked by Baylonian forces.
615 BCE, The Scythians had until this point been allies of Assyria, assisting the Assyrians to conquer Media; Scythian King Bartatua had even been given an Assyrian princess as wife. However this year the Scythians switched sides and began to support Babylon against Assyria.
Ca. 617 BCE, Daniel and Ezekiel taken to Babylon.
Ca. 620 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar II became King of Babylon
Period of Assyrian State, ca. 1120 BCE � 626 BCE
Reigns of King Esrahaddon, King Ashurbanipal 681-627 BCE, accession of King Josiah of Judah. Assyria now in steep decline.
626 BCE, �Death of King Ashurbanipal
Ca. 626 BCE, Jeremiah (born ca. 650 BCE, died ca. 570 BCE) commissioned as a prophet.
630 BCE, Assyria having never recovered from its disastrous over-extension into Egypt (670s-660s), was now in retreat on many fronts. The Scythians were now marauding across western Asia, threatening both Assyria and Egypt. Fortunately for Judah, these raiding Scythians kept close to the easten Mediterranean seaboard, not venturing up towards Jerusalem. The strength of the Scythian threat even made former enemies Assyria and Egypt into allies. Egypt now hoped to come to an agreed co-existence with Assyria.
638 BCE, Josiah, now 8 years old, became King of Judah (died 609 BCE), He succeeded his father, King Amon. Josiah began to restore pure Mosiac worship, with the aid of a buried copy of the Torah found during temple renovations that had escaped the destructions of King Manasseh.
638 BCE, King Manasseh of Judah died. His son Amon began a brief reign; he continue dthe poagan practices of his father, He was soon deposed and killed by his servants.
652 BCE, A Babylonian rebellion threatened the Assyrian Empire, but was suppressed in 649 BCE. The rebellion was led by Shamash-Shuma-Ukin, against his younger brother, Ashurbanipal. Although the rebellion was suppressed, it weakened Assyrian power, also that of their allies the Elamites.. By 630 BCE Assyria had lost control over Egypt and Palestine, and in 626 BCE Babylon again recovered its independence.
Assyria conquers Egypt; Assyrian power now at its peak
662 BCE, The Assyrians returned to Egypt and sacked Thebes. This was the zenith of Assyrian power.
666 BCE, The Egyptian city of Thebes was captures by the Assyrians.
668 BCE, Memphis, Egyptian capital,was again captured by the Assyrians under King Ashurbanipal. Egypt had supported Syrian rebels against Assyria.
669 BCE, Ashurbanipal became King of Assyria. (reigned 669-626 BCE). He was the son of Esarhaddon. The last ruler of the Sargonid Dynasty, which governed for over a century, his rule brought great prosperity to Assyria. However after his death, 626 BCE, Assyria crumbled and was invaded by Babylon.
671 BCE, Assyrian King Esarhaddon captured Memphis, the capital of Egypt.
681-669 BCE, Reign of King Esarhaddon. He was the son of Sennacherib.
Reigns of Hezekiah and Manasseh of Judah, 720-638 BCE, and Sennacherib of Assyria, 705-681 BCE
681 BCE, Sennacherib was assassinated by his two sons, Adrammalech and Sharezer; they in turn were defeated by their brother Esar-Haddon, who then became King of Assyria. Esar-Haddon subsequently conquered Egypt, driving out its Ethiopian ruler, Tirhakah. Egypt, however, proved to be an over-extension of Assyrian power and they withdrew in the 660s.
682 BCE, Judah fell to the Assyrians.
697 BCE, Manasseh (born 709 BCE) became King of Judah. He acceded at age 12, and reigned 692-638 BCE. �Isaiah wrote the book of Isaiah (23) about this time. Manasseh reintroduced pagan practices, even to the extent of child sacroifices by fire in te valley of Hinnom, just outside Jerusalem; there were also Temple prostitutes, divination, and all copies of the Torah were destroyed if not hidden. Manasseh was complient to Assyria, paying tribute, and even sending Judean troops to fight alongside Assyria in Egypt.
693 BCE, Sennacherib, King of Assyria. destroyed Babylon. The city was later rebuilt under King Esar-Haddon, and became a major commercial centre. This increased status led to its rebellion against Assyria in 652 BCE.
705 BCE, Sennacherib (reigned 705-681 BCE) became King of Assyria. He moved the Assyrian capital to Nineveh. He had to deal with rebellions in Syria. It was one of these expeditions, to plunder and subdue Judah (which had again become rebellious agsainst Assyria) in 701 BCE, that is referred to in the Bible at 2 Kings 19:35 where it says �The Angel of Jehovah killed 185,000 Assyrians overnight�. Perhaps an epidemic? The Assyrians account says that the Assyrians withdrew because King Hezekiah agreed to pay more tribute; Sennacherib may also have returned to Assyiria to put down a revolt �or perhaps the revolt was caused by his military failure. In any event Jerusalem and the Temple were spared destruction. The book of Micah (33) was completed about this time.
711 BCE, Rebellion by King Azuri of Ashdod suppressed by Assyria, and the population deported. Hekekiah had been minded to support Azuri, in the hope of further support form Egypt, but Isiiah dissuaded him from this policy.
714 BCE, King Sargon II of Assyria defeated Urartu and sacked its main religious city of Musasir.
720 BCE, King Hezekiah acceded in Judah, as vassal King to Assyria (reigned 720-692 BCE). He reformed and purified the religion so as to be more faithful to Mosaic ideals.Many pagan emblems and elements were removed from the Temple at Jerusalem, siuch as the Brazen Serpent, although Hezekiah did not risk the wrath of his Assyrian overlored by removing the sun-horses erected by hs father. He was very cautious of offending Assyria, although awaiting an opportune moment to brek free from them. Hezekiah prepared Jeruslaem for a posisbe future siege by diverting the Upper Gihon stream through a circuitous tunnel, Hezekiah�s Tunnel, into a pool west of the old City of David.
Sargon defeats further rebellions against Assyrian hegemony, deports indigenous population and replaces with new �Samaritans�, 727-721 BCE
721 BCE, The Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Assyrians under King Sargon II. Its Ten Tribes were deported to central Asia where they vanish from the historical record; the Lost Tribes of Israel.
722 BCE, Sargon II became King of Assyria (to 705 BCE). He defeated a combined Egyptian-Gazan force of rebels against vassalage to Assyria in 719 BCE.
Meanwhile Israel, who had stopped paying tribute taxes to again when Tiglath Pileser III died, was invaded by the Assyrians who killed Hoshea and installed a Governor. Tens of thousands of Israelites were deported, to work on irrigation and agricultural projects across Assyria. Sargon, to prevent a recurrence of the Gazan-Egyptian rebellion, �repopulated Samaria with a mixture of Arabians and Babylonians, who beceme known as Samaritans. The Samaritan religion came to be a mixture of Judaism and of Babylonian/Arabic religious elements.
727 BCE, King Tiglath-Pileser III died. King Shalmaneser V (727-722 BCE) became King of Assyria. He campaigned against Persia, �blockaded Tyre for five years and also attacked Samaria, but died before they surrendered. 729 BCE, King Tiglath-Pileser III was now free to attack Babylon. After a siege, the victorious Tiglath-Pileser III entered Babylon in 729 BCE to become its new King
Israel and Judah become vassal states to Assyria. Anti-Assyrian rebellion, crushed by Tiglath-Pileser III, 740-732 BCE
740 BCE, King Uzzah (Azariah) of Israel died of leprosy. Jotham his son had been acting as Regent but also died soon after, in 736 BCE. Jotham was succeeded by King Ahaz (reigned 735-720 BCE), who was just 20 years old when he acceded. Under Ahaz, Judah became a Vassal-State to Assyria, with elements of the Assyrian� religion now present in Judea.
740 BCE, The Israelite General Pekah, son of Remaliah, assassinated King Pekahiah and installed the pro- Assyrian King Hoshea instead, However within Israel the anti-Assyrian lobby was gaining support. King Hoshea remained loyal to Assyria whilst King Tiglath-Pileser III reigned, but when Shalmaneser V soon acceded in Assyria, Hoshea made a bid for independence and moved politically towards Egypt. Egypt was weak and could only offer moral support against Assyria. However Tiglath Pileser III began attacks on Persia and now Armenia (Ararat) started an uprising against Assyria, giving hope to anti-Assyria factions in Israel. Israel, Damascus, the Arab Queen Shamsi, and some Philistine towns all began action against Assyria. However the Phoenicians, the Hittites, and in the south, Judah, Moab, Ammon, Edom and some of Philistia declined to support the anti- Assyrians, The armies of Israel and Damsacus now attacked Judah. Meanwhile In retaliation, Assyria destroyed Damascus in 732 BCE, after a two-year siege (Syrian King Rezin was then executed)� and annexed Gilead and NE Galilee, the most fertile northern regions of Israel. The population of these regions was deported to Assyria. Isreal, much reduced in size, was now subdued, if not totally pacified.
Decline, then recovery of Assyria. End of Jehu Dynasty in Israel, which becomes a Vassal State of Assyria, 783-744 BCE
744 BCE, King Zecharaiah succeeded his father Jeroboam II as King of Israel. However he reigned just 6 months before being assassinated by Shallum. This ended the Dynasty of Jehu. However one month later Shallum himself was deposed by Menahem. Shallum had favoured an alignment with Egypt but Menachem (744-737 BCE) favoured alliances with Assyria. With Assyria now in the ascendancy again, Menachem seemed vindicated. Menachem submitted to a tribute payment to Assyria of 1,000 silver talents, this being raised by taxing 60,000 of the wealthiest men in Israel 50 shekels each.
745 BCE, Tiglath-Pileser III became ruler of Assyria. He ruled until 727 BCE. He recovered earlier Assyrian territorial losses. The northern Syrian city of Arpad became once again Assyrian, and Kings Rezin of Damascus and Hiram of Tyre submitted to Assyria voluntarily.
783-745 BCE, Assyria endured a period of instability, when the rule of the kings was weak, there were frequent coups, and rival rulers vied for power.
Decline, then recovery, of Israel and Judah, assisted by Assyrian attrition of Syrian power, 837-748 BCE
750 BCE, Amos prophesied in Israel. Books of Hosea (28), Joel (29), Amos (30) completed about this time. Amos prophesied a warning that Judah and Israel would soon face disaster due to its unfaithfulness to Jehovah and the Mosiac Law.
772-748 BCE, The prosperity of Israel was assisted by Syrian weakness caused by further Assyrian attacks against it, during the reigns of Syrian Kings Ashurdan III (772-755 BCE) and of Ashuir-Nirari IV (755-746 BCE).
785-745 BCE, King Jeroboam II reigned, successor to King Jehoash of Israel. Both Israel and Judah now enjoyed political stability and prosperity, and regained lost territories, almost to the extent enjoyed under Kings Davod and Solomon. The book of Jonah (32) was completed about this time.
800-785 BCE, Reign of King Jehoash of Israel, son of Jehoahaz. Jehoash of Israel enjoyed military success against Syria, especially at Aphek, and recovered some territories from Syria. He was helped in this by the victory of King Adadnirari IV (810-783) of Assyria against Syria, Damascus and Israel submitted to an annual tribute poayment to Assyria.
816-800 BCE, Reign of King Jehoahaz of Israel, son of Jehu. The decline of Israel continued.
842-816 BCE, An Israelite soldier, Jehu, founded as new dynasty, and reigned until 816 BCE. �Jehu, however, moved away from the insistence on pure Mosaic worship demanded by the priesthood, and by 842 BCE began to make a strategic political alliance with King Shalmaneser III of Assyria who was campaigning against Syria. Israel began to deliver tribute to Assyria . However the Assyrian campaign of 842 BCE, and a furher such offensive in 839 BCE, failed. King Hazael of Syria now attacked Israel, and then began to threaten Judah too. King Jehoash was forced to buy off the Syrians with an annual tribute, giving up treasures from the Temple. The declining pooitical power of Israel and Judah encouraged raids by smaller surrounding nations, the Ammonites, Edomites, Moabites, Philistines and Tyrians, who took many Judean and Israeli village inhabitants as slaves.
837-798 BCE Reign of King Jehoash of Judah. In 798 Jehoash of Judah was assassinated and his som King Amaziah (798-780) began reigning. Amaziah defetaed the Edomites at a location SW of the Dead Sea, and took over their fortress at Jothkeel. This opened up trade routes for Judah into Arabia to the south. King Amaziah, flushed with success, now challenged King Jehoash of Israel militarily. Judah lost badly, and Israel imp[osed humiating peace terms, including the deliverance to Israel of Judean hostrages as guarantee of good behavious., Dissafcted citizens in Jerusalem rebelled against Amaziah, who fled to Lachish, SW of Jerusalem, but was overtaken and killed there. King Amaziah of Judea was succeeded by his son Azariah (Uzziah), reigned 780-740 BCE. Uzziah recovered the port of Elath (Eilat) from the Edomites
King Ahaziah, King Jehoram, Queen Athaliah. Athaliah assassinated and Mosaic worship restored in Judah, 853-837 BCE
837 BCE, Queen Athaliah of Judah was assassinated by the temple Priests, Baal worship was eliminated and its priests slain, and Jehoash installed as King of Judah.
843-837 BCE, Queen Athaliah, daughter of Jezebel and King Ahab of Israel, following the death of her son King Ahaziah of Judah at the hands of Jehu, now seized power as Queen of Judah. Athaliah sought to preserve the pagan religion and influence of Tyre. She therefore set about massacring all males of the royal line of Judah she could, including her own grandchildren. However the infant son of Ahaziah, Jehoash, was saved by his aunt Jehosheba. She hid him in the Temple at Jerusalem during the reign of Athaliah.
851-844 BCE, Jehoram, brother of Ahaziah, succeeded Ahaziah as King of Israel. Jehoram tried to recover sovereignty over Moab but failed.
853 BCE, �Moab, a kingdom immediately east of the Dead Sea, and important for Israeli-Arabian trade, threw off Israelite domination and repudiated the obligation it had been under to pay a large annual tribute, in the form of sheep and wool, to King Ahab. Moab�s example also encouraged Edom (south of the Dead Sea) to declare its own independent dynasty.
853-852 BCE, King Ahaziah succeeded his father Ahab as King of Israel, then died in an accident,
Kings Omri and Ahab of Israel (also Jehosophat of Judah). Defeat and death of Ahab in battle against Assyria, 887-853
853 BCE, King Shalmaneser III of Assyria (ruled 860-825 BCE) won the Battle of Qarqar (fought in the Orontes Valley., modern NW Syria) against a coalition led by the King of Damascus. This coalition was also joined by Osorkon II of Egypt. The Battle of Qarqar ushered in effectively the end of the independence of both Syria and of Palestine for some twenty seven centuries. King Ahab was killed in battle.
854 BCE, The threat to Israel from both Syria (under King Ben-Hadad II) and from Assyria was mounting. Ahab succeeded in defeating the Syrians, but Ahab did not kill Ben Hadad II; rather he began to forge military and commercial alliances with him (e.g. concessions to set up Israelite bazaars in certain streets of Damascus) against the greater Assyrian threat they both faced from the north.� Northern Syria had already been overrun by Assyrian King Shalmaneser III (ruled 860-825 BCE)
875 -854 BCE, Accession of King Ahab of Israel. To please his Phoenician (Tyrian) wife he bought in ivory to beautify his palace; he also introduced worship of the god Baal-Melkarth (Lord of the City). This alienated his Mosaic priests. Jezebel ordered the priests to be killed en masse, but Obadiah, Household Minister of Ahab, hid 100 of them in a cave to ensure their safety. The priesthood was determined to preserve purity of Mosaic worship, regardless of the exigencies of statecraft. A three-year drought and consequent famine now hit Israel, which the prophet Elijah attributed to Jehovah�s anger against Ahab. Elijah accused Ahab of being the source of Israel�s woes; Ahab retorted that Elijah was the troublemaker. There ensued a �religious contest� on Mount Carmel, with both religious factions erecting altars. The �Fire of Jehovah� came down and consumed Elijah�s sacrifice, but nothing happened with the Baalite alter, despite much worship and waling by that faction. Upon this the people now immediately declared allegiance with Elijah, and 450 priests of Baal were slaughtered at the River Kishon. The drought now ended with a downpour. Jezebel was now determined to kill Elijah, but he escaped by way of Beer-Sheba into the Negev (southern desert). Ahab further alienated the Israelite people by attempting to buy some land owned by Naboth, a Jezreelite, and when Naboth refused to sell, Ahab trumped up false charges of blasphemy against him and had him killed. Elijah now passed his priestly ;leadership ro;le ro Elisha.
875-851 BCE, Reign of King Jehosophat of Judah. Jehosophat sought to renew Solomon�s trading and diplomatic links with Ophir, a region further south along the Red Sea. However his fleet was wrecked off Ezion-Geber in the Gulf of Aqaba.
887-876, Reign of King Omri of Israel. He subdued the Philistine threat. However Syria continued to menace him from the north. To counter this, Omri allied with the Phoemians. To cement this alliance, Ahab, hier to the throne, married Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, King of Tyre. The coastal Phoenicians gained an inland market for their goods, and both Kingdoms sought to form a counterweight against Syria. Assyria, however, had ambitions to rule the area, and even penetrate further south against Egypt.
Kings of Judah and Israel; Abijah, Nadab, Baasa, Asa, 917-875 BCE
875, King Asa of Judah died of gout, in old age. Asa had made efforts to restore the purity of Mosaic worship in Jerusalem, elimninating practices such as religious sodomy and Worship of the Queen-Goddess Astarte. However some non-Mosaic religious practices continued to persist outside of Jerusalem
888-887, Reign of King Elah of Israel (son of Baasa). He was assassinated by one of his Captains, Zimri, who now assumed the throne. However General Omri then mounted a successful coup against Zimri, who committed suicide by burning down his palace and immolating himself. Tibni, son of Ginath, now also attempted a coup. However Omri gained the upper hand and Tibni was killed.
915-875 BCE, Reign of King Asa of Judah.
911-888 BCE, Reign of King Baasa of Israel. Whilst Nadab was away besieging the Philistine fortress of Gibbethon, Baasa, a General, mounted a coup. Baasa attempted to forge an alliance with King Hadad of Syria, but was outbid by King Asa of Judah. Syria occupied some northern areas of Israel, and Judah became more secure, with the fortifications around Jerusalem strengthened.
912-911 BCE, Reign of Nadab, son of Jeroboam, as King of Israel.
917-915 BCE, Reign of Rehoboam�s son, Abijah, as King of Judah. Judah made an alliance with the Syrian King, Hadad son of Tabrimmon, in order to harass Israel.
Rise of Assyria to peak power, dominates Middle East, 912-853 BCE
853 BCE, King Shalmaneser III of Assyria (ruled 860-825 BCE) won the Battle of Qarqar (fought in the Orontes Valley., modern NW Syria) �against a coalition led by the King of Damascus. The Battle of Qarqar ushered in effectively the end of the independence of both Syria and of Palestine for some twenty seven centuries.
860 BCE, The death of King Assur-Nazir-Pal of Assyria. Under his rule, Assyria had become the principal world power. He was succeeded by his son, Shalmaneser II, who conquered Babyon. He also exacted tribute from Damascus and Israel (Kings Ahab and Jehu).
878 BCE, King Assur-Nazir-Pal of Assyria had conquered most of the eastern Mediterranean, including Phoenicia. Assyria would give vassal State Kings an offer they couldn�t refuse; accept our overlordship, and we leave you in peace, or resist and we put you to death cruelly. Vassal States could even keep their own religion, so long as they �acknowledged� that Ashur, chief God of Assyria, was divine overlord over their Gods too. Rebellion against Assyria then became a religious as well as political crime, so was punished severely.
880 BCE,The city of Nimrud was made capital of the Assyrian Empire.
912 BCE, Death of Assyrian King Ashur-Dan II. Under his rule Assyria regained power and prosperity; agriculture was promoted. His successor, Adad-Nirari II, increased the extent of the Assyrian Empire, regaining lands that had been part of the Middle Assyrian Empire in the 1200s BCE.
Rise of Assyria to peak power, dominates Middle East, 912-853 BCE
Reigns of Jeroboam I and Rehoboam I. Attempted invasion by Egypt, bought off, 933-912 BCE
912 BCE, Jeroboam I, first King of Israel, died.
917 BCE, Rehoboam I, first King of Judah, died.
926 BCE, Sheshonk I of Egypt attempted an invasion of Israel and Judah, but failed. He had initially been invited in by Jeroboam I, who, facing military threats from Judah, had moved his capital across the River Jordnn from Shechem to Penuel. Jeroboam I also set up centres of Mosaic worship at Dan and Bethel, to distance his p[eople from Jerusalem. However he then introduced elements of Canaanite calf-worship there, alienating his Jewish priests. Pharaoh Sheshonk (Shishak) invaded as far north as Jerusalem, but was then bought off by Rehoboam I with treasures from the Temple there. Rehoboam I then fortified the southern cities of Judah, against any further Egyptian attack.
933 BCE, Accession of Rehoboam I, over Judah only. He ruled until 917 BCE.
933 BCE, Accession of Jeroboam I, over Israel only. He ruled until 912 BCE
King Solomon accedes, reigns 40 years, revolt and split after his death, 973-933 BCE
933 BCE, �Solomon died. Israel split into kingdoms of Israel and Judah, when 10 northern tribes, out of the 12 seceded from Judah to form Israel; they were protesting at high taxation, paid in produce or in forced labour. Rehoboam I became ruler of Judah; Jeroboam I became ruler of Israel.
934 BCE, The Assyrian State began to revive after a 100-years �dark ages�. Royal records recommenced under King Ashur-Dan II.
973 BCE, King Solomon began construction of the Temple in Jerusalem. He also about this time wrote the books of Ecclesiastes (21), Song of Solomon (22) and contributed to the book of Proverbs (20).
973 BCE King Solomon began ruling, for 40 years, to 933.
King Solomon accedes, reigns 40 years, revolt and split after his death, 973-933 BCE
Judges of Israel. Expansion of Assyria
1005 BCE. King David (died 973) began reigning in Jerusalem. He succeeded Saul.
Ca.1015 BCE, King David born.
Ca. 1025 BCE (1020?), Samuel anointed Saul as first King of Israel. The Bible books of 1 Samuel (9). 2 Samuel (10) were written
Ca. 1250 � 1020 BCE, Period of the Judges. Peace and unity prevailed amongst the 12 Tribes of Israel. The Bible books of Judges (7), Ruth (8), were written.
1146 BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar I began a 23 year long reign of Babylon.
(1254?? BCE) Joshua died.
Hittitte Kingdom, 1650-1200 BCE
Ca. 1200 BCE, Hittite capital of Hattusas was destroyed by invaders.
1258 BCE, The Hittites advanced down the eastern Mediterranean coast towards Egypt, but did not invade there as they fought battles with the Assyrians and also with Greek adventurers in what is now northern Turkey. A peace treaty was signed between Pharoah Ramses II and the new Hittite ruler, Hattusilis III. Ramses II took two Hittite princesses in marriage, making a total of around seven wives in total.
1274 BCE, Major battle at Kadesh (now in northern Lebanon) between the Hittites and the Egyptians. Pharaoh Ramses II blundered into a trap and barely managed to escape; he retreated back to Egypt. The Hittites retained control of northern Levant.
1300, The Hittites had absorbed Arzawa, a kingdom in SW Turkey.
1320-1350?, The Hittites (central Turkey; from whose name, Hatay) and the Assyrians had between them taken over the kingdom of Mittani (which lay between them).
1590 BCE, Death of King Mursilis of the Hittites; acceded ca. 1620 BCE,
1595 BCE, The Hittites sacked Babylon. However this victory was short lived; they were soon beaten back and their area of control shrank back westwards again.
1650 BCE, The Hittites had assembled an extensive kingdom in central Anatolia, with its capital at Hattusas.
Israelites in Egypt, ca. 1728 BCE � ca. 1473 BCE
Ca. 1473 BCE, Moses died. Joshua succeeded Moses as leader, and began to write the book of Joshua (6).
Ca. 1513 BCE. Exodus. The Jews left Egypt after the 10 Plagues. Moses began to write the Pentateuch; the books of Genesis (1), Exodus (2), Leviticus (3), Numbers (4), Deuteronomy (5). He also wrote the book of Job (18).
The date of the Exodus is highly uncertain and has been reckoned between 1513 and 1220 BCE
Ca. 1593 (Jerome) BCE, Moses born. See also Egypt.
Ca. 1711 BCE, Jacob died
Ca. 1728 BCE, �Jacob moved his family to Egypt. See also Egypt.
Babylonian Kingdom, 1964-1750 BCE
1750 BCE, Death of Hammurabi, 6th King of the 1st Dynasty of Babylon, ruler from 1792 BCE. He is noted for the comprehensive legal system, containing 282 laws, which he drew up.
1755 BCE, King Hammurabi of Babylon conquered most of northern Mesopotamia, capturing the city of Eshunna after diverting its water supply.
1762 BCE, King Hammurabi of Babylon defeated the kingdoms of Elam to the west and Larsa/Sumer to the south.
1781 BCE, Death and end of the reign of Shamshi-Adad I; acceded 1813 BCE. He conquered northern Mesopotamia to create the Kingdom of Upper Mesopotamia, with its capital at Shubat-Enlil. This kingdom later became the Assyrian Empire. Shamshi-Adad was succeeded by his son, Ishme Dagan, during whose reign Assyria declined, allowing the ascendancy of Babylon in the region. Babylon had formerly been a vassal state of Assyria.
Ca. 1843 BCE Abraham died.
1964 BCE, Founding of the 1st Dynasty of Babylon.
2004 BCE, The city of Ur fell to the Elamites; end of the Kingdom of Ur.
2047 BCE, King Shulgi of Ur died. His country started disintegrating. The Amorites (from modern-day Syria) made constant raids, despite a 150 km wall built by Ur to keep them out. By 2028 BCE Ur�s cities were no longer paying taxes to the centre, and the state finances collapsed. In 2004 BCE raiders sacked Ur and took its last king into slavery. Egypt, however, continued as a viable state.
2094 BCE, Shulgi became King of Ur.
2095 BCE, End of the reign of Ur-Nammu, of Ur (reign began ca. 2112 BCE?-founder of the 3rd Dynasty).
Sumerian Kingdom, 2334-2150 BCE
2150 BCE, The mountain people of Gutium (nomads living in the mountains on what is now the Iran/Iraq border) attacked the Akkadian Empire. Former Sumerian-ruled States such as Kish, Ur and Lagash asserted their independence.
2190 BCE, As the climate dried and agricultural yields fell, the Akkadian / Sumerian state began to disintegrate.
2334 BCE, King Sargon founded the city of Akkad (probably near modern-day Baghdad). He then subjugated other Sumerians to become ruler of the Sumerian Empire.
2750 BCE, The Phoenician city of Tyre (now Lebanon) was founded.
7 October 3761 BCE, Starting date for the Jewish calendar.
Ca. 7000 BCE, The city of Jericho was founded; settlers were attracted by the permanent spring there.