Chronography of Italy, San Marino and Malta
Page last modified 6/9/2022
See also Sicily
See also Malta
See also Roman Empire
See Earthquakes for major Italian earthquakes
Venice � see Appendix ii
San Marino � see Appendix 2
Vatican City, Papal States � see Appendix 3; see also Christianity
1/2020, The Rightist League party failed to defeat ther Leftat a crucial election in Emilia-Romana.
8/2019, The Rightist League Party, led by Matteo Salvini, withdrew from Government, to trigger early elections in which it hoped to do well. However the Leftist Five-Star Party formed a workable coalition with the Centre-Left Democratic Party, and Guiseppe Conte remained as Prime Minister.
14/8/2018, A 200 metre stretch of motorway bridge collapsed in Genoa, Italy, plunging 45 metres onto a riverbed and factories, killing 43 people. There were suggestions that the bridge, built in 1967, had been poorly maintained, or badly constructed under Mafia influence.
27/5/2018, Italy�s Populist Government nominated Paolo Savona as Finance Minister; an economist who supported Italy quitting the Eurozone. President Sergio Mattarella vetoed that appointment. The Italian Right hoped to cut taxes and boost welfare, and cut immigration. However Italy was forced to scale back its spending after EU objections.
4/3/2018, Elections in Italy, a country still in recession, with high unemployment and with anti-immigrant feeling running high in some areas, produced gains for the two Populist-Right Parties, The League in the north and Five Star in the south.
22/10.2017, Voters in two of Italy�s wealthiest northern regions, Veneto and Lombardy, voted overwhelmingly for greater autonomy. On a turnout of 58% in Veneto and just over 50% in Lombardy, over 95% of votes were for more autonomy.
4/12/2016, Matteo Renzi, Italian Prime Minister, resigned after a referendum rejected his government reform proposals by over 60%.
25/5/1992, Oscar Salfaro was elected President of Italy.
23/5/1992, In Italy, Judge Giovanni Falcone, the principal anti-Mafia investigator, was killed by a massive car bomb.
7/1/1990. The Leaning Tower of Pisa was closed to the public for the first time in 807 years so work could begin to stop it leaning any further; the leaning rate had accelerated. After nearly 12 years of repairs costing 53 billion lire that reduced its lean by 44 cm the tower re-opened in December 2001, and was expected to be safe for another 2 or 3 centuries. Parties of up to 30 are allowed up on guided visits. The Tower of Pisa is the bell tower for a nearby cathedral, and its construction began in 1173, and continues with two long interruptions, for nearly 200 years. Designed to be vertical, a lean developed during its construction.� The walls at its base are eight feet thick, and it has 294 steps. Injection of cement into the base in 1934 had accelerated the lean.
16/12/1987, In Italy, 338 people were convicted in the largest Mafia trial ever.
3/6/1986, Italy released some 8,000 prisoners, including suspected terrorists, to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the republic.
19/7/1985, In Italy, 261 died when a dam burst, flooding the tourist resort of Tesero.
1984, Roman Catholicism no longer the Italian State religion.
23/12/1984. Terrorist bomb killed 29 on a train in Bologna, Italy.
24/9/1983, In Italy, the executives responsible for the Seveso dioxin disaster were jailed.
4/8/1983. Bettino Craxi became Italy�s first Socialist Prime Minister.
18/3/1983, King Umberto II of Italy, in exile since 1946, died in a Geneva clinic aged 78.
3/9/1982, Anti-Mafia chief murdered in Rome.
26/5/1981, The Italian cabinet resigned amidst allegations of Freemason influence in the country�s political and judicial system.
17/5/1981, In a referendum, Italy voted to legalise abortion.
23/11/1980, A series of earthquakes in southern Italy killed 4,800 people, and left 300,000 homeless.
2/8/1980, A right-wing terrorist bomb hit the railway station at Bologna, Italy, killing 85 people and wounding over 200.
3/6/1979, In Italian general elections, the Communists lost ground.
9/5/1978. The body of former Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro was found in the boot of a car in central Rome, a victim of the Red Brigade.
16/3/1978, In Rome, former Prime Minister Aldo Moro was kidnapped and murdered by the Red Brigade.
12/1/1978, Italy, the Andreotti government collapsed.
1976, Communist Party support in Italy peaked at 34% under Enrico Berlinguer, who was a proponent of �moderate� Communist policies.
11/2/1976, In Italy, Aldo Moro formed a minority Christian Democrat Government.
17/10/1974, 10 million Italian workers went on strike demanding measures to protect them against recession and inflation.
1972, Extreme-Right support in Italy reached a post-War high of 9%. There was a rise in urban terrorism by both extreme Right and extreme Left.
1970, The Red Brigades, extreme Left terrorists, were formed.
6/12/1964, Antonio Segni, Italian Prime Minister resigned for health reasons. He was succeedd on 28/12/1964 by Guiseppe Saragat.
9/10/1963, Three thousand were killed as the Vaijont Dam burst in the Italian Alps. Despite warnings that the valley sides were being destabilised as the dam filled, work continued until a rock slide hit the site.
4/12/1962, Pietro Tomasi Della Torretta, Italian politician and diplomat, died aged 89.
6/5/1962, In Italy, Antonio Segni was elected President on the 9th ballot.
4/11/1961, Italy's second television network Rai 2 began broadcasting, joining the original RAI (Radiotelevisione Italiana) which had begun in 1954.
1957, Italy became a founder member of the EEC.
19/8/1954, Alcide de Gasperi, Italian statesman, died aged 73.
30/8/1953, Italy moved troops into the border areas of Trieste, near Yugoslavia, a week after the Italian Prime Minister Guiseppe Pella declared that Trieste was �important to Italy�.Yugoslavia alleged that these troops had transgressed 50 metres into Yugoslav territory. President Tito of Yugoslavia demanded the internationalisation of Trieste city and the incorporation of its hinterland into Yugoslavia. The US and UK, unwilling to see Yugoslavia gain a major influence over the northern Adriatic, announced they would end the Allied Military Government in the 25-km coastal strip running NW from Trieste towards Italy and hand the territory over to Italy. Tito said if this happened he would send in Yugoslav troops. In early November Italians demonstrated for unity of Trieste with Italy, and attempted to raise the Italian flag on Trieste Town Hall. There were rioting and arrests; several rioters were killed. Italy protested and for the time being both Italy and Yugoslavia withdrew their troops from the border region, and the Allied Military Government remained in place.
18/6/1952, Italy passed a law making the reconstitution of Fascism illegal. The neo-Fascist Movimento Sociale Italiano *MSI) was allowed to convene on 26/6/1852, where they adopted a policy of partial acceptance of NATO but with a strong trade preference for Spain over Britain.
26/11/1951, Ilona Staller, Italian politician (and porn star) was born.
27/1/1950, In Italy, following the resignation of the Democratic Socialist Minister in November 1949 and withdrawal of Liberal support, Alcide de Gasperi formed a new coalition of Christian Democrats, Democratic Socialists and� Republicans.
1949, Italy became a founder member of NATO.
11/4/1949, Italian Foreign Minister Carlo Sforza asked the United Nations to return Italy's pre-war African colonies, promising that Italy would prepare them for independence at the earliest possible date.
11/5/1948, Luigi Einaudi was elected President of Italy.
18/4/1948, The Christian Democrats won an absolute majority in Italian elections, securing 305 out of 574 seats.
15/9/1947, The Free Territory of Trieste was created as the Peace Treaty with Italy came into effect.
17/4/1947, In Rome, a mob of about a thousand unemployed workers staged a noisy protest outside the Parliament building, stopping private cars and sometimes beating the occupants. One of those assaulted was Italian Foreign Minister Carlo Sforza, who was struck by several fists as he stepped out of his car to go to his office. The Foreign Ministry said that Sforza had been shaken but not seriously hurt.
1/2/1947, In Italy, Alcide de Gasperi formed a government of Christian Democrats, Communists and Left-Socialists.
28/6/1946, Enrico de Nicola became first President of Italy.
27/6/1946, Italy ceded the Dodecanese islands to Greece.
1945, Alcide de Gasperi (born 1881) organised the Christian Democratic party, and became Prime Minister of Italy.
22/7/1945, Art treasures worth an estimated $500 million U.S. that had been looted by the Germans during the war were returned to Florence, Italy.
19/7/1943, First Allied air raid on Rome. The raid was a political warning that Mussolini�s regime must be overthrown.
1942, The Christian Democratic Party was founded. It was a clandestine anti-Facist Party, and in fact largely secular. Until 1993 it formed a large bloc in every post-War Italian government; however it began to be plagued by acusations of corruption, and by 1993 its popular support had completely evaporated, The Party disintegrated after 1993.
For main events of World War Two in Europe see France-Germany
4/5/1941, Emperor Haile Selassie returned to Ethiopia from exile in England, after the liberation of his country by British forces.
12/9/1940. Italian forces advanced on Egypt from Libya.
19/8/1940, British Somaliland fell to the Italians.� See 4/8/1940.
12/8/1940. In Albania, a revolt against Italian occupation began.
9/8/1939, Romano Prodi, Prime Minister of Italy, was born.
4/8/1940. Italian troops began to invade British Somaliland from Ethiopia. See 19/8/1940.
4/7/1940, Three weeks after Italy entered the War, Italian forces invaded Sudan, occupying Kassala, 300 kilometers east pf Khartoum, They also occupied Gallabat, further south.
10/6/1940. Italy declared war on France and Britain.
2/4/1940. All Italians aged over 14 were mobilised.
For main European events of World War Two see France-Germany
11/1/1939. Neville Chamberlain visited Mussolini to discuss recognition of the Franco regime in Spain.
17/12/1938, Italy denounced the Franco-Italian agreement of 1935.
14/12/1938, The Italian Parliament was replaced by a Fascist Chamber.
30/11/1938, Speeches in the Italian Chamber claimed Nice and Corsica for Italy.
3/5/1938. Hitler and Mussolini met in Rome.
16/4/1938, Chamberlain, British PM, sought to dissuade Italy from allying with Germany.
11/12/1937. Italy left the League of Nations.
6/11/1937. Italy joined the anti-Communist pact between Germany and Japan.� See 25/11/1936.
2/6/1937, German War Minister Werner von Blomberg began a three-day visit to Italy to discuss German-Italian military ties.
2/1/1937, The UK and Italian governments made an agreement, to curb dangerous levels of friction between the two in the Mediterranean.
24/1/1935. Mussolini dismissed the Italian Cabinet.
18/9/1934. Mussolini said all Italians from the age of 8 must have military training.
13/6/1934, Adolf Hitler and Mussolini met for the first time.in Venice, Italy. Hitler frequently quoted from his book Mein Kampf, and Mussolini later referred to him as a �silly little monkey�.
20/10/1933. Mussolini denounced Roosevelt as a dictator.
19/3/1933, Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister of Italy, proposed a pact with Britain, France and Germany.
2/1933, Official Italian unemployment stood at 1,229,000; up from 765,000 in 1931 and 1,147,000 in late 1932. However the true figure was almost certainly considerably higher, since Mussolini was keener to attack the unemployment statstics than deal with the problem of unemployment itself. He kept excluding new categories of jobless from the figues, so as to massage them downwards. Nevertheless official remained over one million during early 1934, and Italian public works programmes never employed more than 200,000. But in 1935 300,000 Italians were called up for the invasion of Abyssinia, which also reduced the unemployment totals.
1931, Mussolini made extensive use of radio broadcasts, however Italy was a poor country and possessed just 176,000� radios, half of these being in urban areas. Starace therefore organised the distribution of 40,000 free radios to Italian schools, so schoolchildren could hear his broadcasts.
28/10/1932. In Rome the Via dell� Imperio opened. It was part of a grand plan for the reconstruction of Rome, initiated by Mussolini in 1931. This was the tenth anniversary of the Fascist March on Rome.
22/12/1931, The Vatican Library suffered considerable damage when its roof collapsed.
6/11/1931, The Italian government awarded prizes to the country's biggest families.
12/1/1928, The Italian press was banned from reporting suicides or sensational crimes.
6/1/1928, Italian Finance Minister Giuseppe Volpi banned industries from taking out foreign loans without government approval.
5/4/1927, Hungary signed a �Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation� with the Italian leader, Mussolini. Hungary needed allies, and Italy strengthened its influence in the Danube Basin.
25/9/1926, Italy began a campaign against the Mafia in Sicily.
4/8/1926, Umberto Nobile was feted in Rome for his part in the recent North Pole expedition, as 20,000 filled the square in front of the Palazzo Chigi.
7/1/1926, The Royal Academy of Italy was created.
14/11/1923, Italy passed a law stating that the Party winning the greatest number of votes in an election would automatically receive two thirds of the seats.
28/3/1923, The Italian Air Force was created.
14/1/1922, Antonino Gullotti, Italian Christian Democrat politician, was born.
26/6/1921, In Italy, Prime Minister Giolitti fell. He was succeeded by Ivanoe Bonomi.
21/6/1919. Francesco Nitti became Prime Minister of Italy.
14/1/1919, Giulio Andreotti, Italian politician, was born (died 2013).
25/1/1915, Mussolini formed the Fasci d�Azione Rivoluzionara in Milan.
7/6/1914, In Italy, popular uprisings, the so-called Red Week, began in the Marches and Romagna. Rebellious landless labourers confronted strike-breakers hired by the landowners. Revoliutionaries including Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) incited the labourers, who also opposed military conscription. Ancona and other towns proclaimed themselves �independent� and Romagna declared itself a republic 100,000 soldiers had to be deployed to restore order.
For more on 1911-12 conflict between Italy and Turkey see Greece-Turkey
1912, Electoral reform in Italy extended the vote to all literate men aged 21 and over, and all men aged over 30. This expanded the Italian electorate from 3 million to 8.6 million. A subsequent electoral reform soon after abolished the literacy requirement for man aged 21-30, further expanding the electorate to 11 million, and was a measure to ensure continued popular support for the Italian war in Libya. It was estimated that 70% of these new voters were illiterate.
1911,The Camorra were suppressed. Starting as a band of prisoners united against their� gaolers in Naples in the 1820s, the Camorra entered Italian politics in 1848.
29/9/1911. Italy declared war on Turkey, having been assured of the neutrality of other European countries.� The Italian Navy bombarded Preveza, and Italian forces landed at Tripoli and in Cyrenicia. This was in retaliation for the alleged mistreatment of Italians in Libya. The Italians expected the Arabs to welcome them as liberators from Turkish rule, but instead the Arabs sided with the Turks in resisting Italian rule. In May 1912 Italy invaded some islands off Turkey, including Rhodes, to put further pressure on Turkey. Then Italy had some unexpected good fortune when in 1912 Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece started the Balkan War against Turkey, forcing the Ottomans to surrender Libya to Italy. However Arab resistance continued and despite a permanent Italian garrison of 50,000 troops Italian rule only covered Tripoli and other major towns. At least, though, Italy could now claim to have its own African colony.
18/3/1911, Italian Prime Minister Luzzatti resigned.
19/11/1910, Alessandro Mussolini, father of the Italian dictator, died, aged 56.
7/7/1907, Germany, Austro-Hungary and Italy renewed their Triple Alliance for another 6 years.
17/5/1904, The French Ambassador to The Vatican was recalled to Paris. Earlier, on 24/4/1904, the Vatican had objected to a State visit by the French President to King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy.
24/4/1904, The French President Emile Loubert and Foreign Minister Theophile Delcasse visited King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. The Papacy was annoyed at the visit.
26/1/1904, Fire caused major damage at the National Library, Turin, Italy.
1/11/1902, Italy signed the Franco-Italian entente with Italy. Italy assured France it would remain neutral if France was attacked.
4/1/1902, Italy was facing a wave of socialist agitation, as workers campaigned for shorter hours, greater security of employment, better pay, also non work-related matters such as more rights for housing tenants. This day a major railway strike was threatened. Italy was facing a new tendency, the �sympathy strike�.
7/2/1901, The Italian Government of Guiseppe Saracco was overthrown, for its weak response to a dock strike in Genoa.
16/12/1900, France and Italy agreed to respect each other�s sphere of influence in North Africa.
30/7/1900. In Italy, Umberto I, 56, King since 1878, was shot dead in Monza by an anarchist. Victor Emmanuel III, 30, �succeeded him.
1898, Nearly 100 people died in riots in Milan sparked by poverty.
7/8/1898, Enrico Cosenz, Italian soldier, died (born 12/1/1812).
24/5/1898, Benedetto Brin, Italian naval engineer who laid the basis for the Italian navy, died (born 17/5/1833).
6/3/1898, Felice Cavallotti, Italian politician, died (born 6/11/1842)
24/5/1896, Luigi Menabrea, Italian statesman, died (born 4/9/1809).
12/5/1896, Henri Cernuschi, Italian politician, died (born 1821).
27/12/1894, Former King Francis II of Naples died/
3/1/1894, The Italian government ordered the dissolution of the Fasci, and the arrest of their ringleaders. Over 1,000 people were deported to Italian islands, often without trial. The Fasci were small alliances, groups of radical or socialist academics and peasants, and some anarchists, local gentry and Mafiosi. The name derived from the fasces, or bundle, of sticks used in ancient Rome. Starting in Sicily in 1893 the Fasci agitated for political ends, with strikes and riots, alarming the larger landowners.
26/11/1892, Simone St-Bon, Italian admiral, died (born 20/3/1823).
8/9/1892, Enrico Cialdini, Italian politician, died (born 10/8/1811).
22/2/1891, Agostino Magliani, Italian financier, died.
11/4/1890, Birth of Donna Rachele Mussolini, wife of the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini (died 1979)
1/1/1890, The Kingdom of Italy established the colony of Eritrea in Africa.
8/8/1889, Benedetto Cairoli, Italian statesman, died (born 28/1/1825).
4/10/1888, Cesare Correnti, Italian Revolutionary, died (born 3/1/1815).
9/4/1888, Lodovico Corti, Italian diplomat, died (born 28/10/1823).
27/2/1888, As Italian-French relations deteriorated, France imposed selective duties against Italian products. Italy retaliated in kind on 1/3/1888.
29/7/1887, Agostino Depretis, Italian politician, died (born 31/1/1813).
20/2/1887, The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria and Italy was renewed for a further 5 years.
10/12/1886, Marco Minghetti, Italian statesman, died (born 18/11/1818).
30/4/1886, Agostino Bertani, Italian revolutionary, died (born in Milan 19/10/1812).
14/3/1884, Quintino Sella, Italian statesman, died (born 7/7/1827).
29/7/1883, Benito Mussolini, Italian founder of the Fascist party and ally of Hitler, was born in Predappio, near Forli, a town in the impoverished Romagna region of east-central Italy.� He was the son of a blacksmith.
9/3/1882, Domenico Lanza, Italian politician, died (born 15/2/1810)
12/5/1881, Tunisia became a French Protectorate. The French invaded in April 1881 when the Tunisian first minister made various reforms taking away French economic privileges. This French move was disturbing to Italy, who had believed that Britain would never permit an extension of French power in North Africa.
3/4/1881, Alcide de Gasperi, Italian politician, was born.
9/1/1878, Victor Emmanuel II, who became the first King of Italy in 1863, died of fever in Rome aged 57. He was succeeded by his son Umberto, aged 33, who ruled until his assassination in 1900.
5/1/1878, Alfonso la Marmora, Italian statesman, died (born 18/11/1804).
6/11/1876, Giacomo Antonelli, Italian Cardinal, died (born 2/4/1806 in Sonnino).
16/12/1873, Nino Bixio, Italian soldier, died (born 2/10/1821).
1867, Milan�s famous Galleria Vittoria Emmanuele, with its glass roof, was completed.
Map of Italian Unification here � Source, Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol.15, p.38, 1910
20/2/1846, Francis IV, Duke of Modena, died
11/3/1841, Luigi Luzzatti, Italian financier, was born.
30/5/1845, Ferdinando Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, Italy, was born (died 18/1/1890).
14/3/1844, Umberto I, King of Italy, was born in Turin, the son of King Victor Emmanuel I.
6/11/1842, Felice Cavallotti, Italian politician, was born (died 6/3/1898).
27/10/1842, Giovanni Giolitti, Italian statesman, was born.
27/6/1835, Domenico Comparetti, Italian scholar of mediaeval studies, was born in Rome (died 1929).
28/8/1834, Mussolini�s paternal grandfather, Luigi Mussolini, was born.
17/5/1833, Benedetto Brin, Italian naval engineer who laid the basis for the Italian navy, was born (died 24/5/1898).
7/7/1827, Quintino Sella, Italian statesman, was born (died 14/3/1884).
8/8/1826, Count Nicolas Robilant, Italian diplomat, was born (died 17/10/1888).
28/1/1825, Benedetto Cairoli, Italian statesman, was born (died 8/8/1889).
4/1/1825, Ferdinand I, King of the Two Sicilies, died aged 73. He was succeeded 47-year old son, Francesco I.
24/1/1824, Ercole Consalvi, Italian statesman, died (born 8/6/1757).
28/10/1823, Lodovico Corti, Italian diplomat, was born (died 9/4/1888).
2/10/1821, Nino Bixio, Italian soldier, was born (died 16/12/1873).
8/4/1821, The revolt in Piedmont was suppressed, its leaders defeated at the Battle of Novara.
10/3/1821, Revolt in Piedmont against the rule of King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia (Piedmont was then a part of the Kingdom of Sardinia).See 8/4/1821.
7/7/1820, King Ferdinand I of Naples promised a national Constitution after a rebellion organised by secret societies, including the Carbonari. The Inquisition was also abolished in Naples.
14/3/1820, Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia and first King of a united Italy, was born.
4/10/1819, Francesco Crispi, Italian statesman, was born (died 12/8/1901).
18/11/1818, Marco Minghetti, Italian statesman, was born (died 10/12/1886).
17/3/1817, Pasquale Mancini, Italian statesman, was born (died 26/12/1888).
12/12/1816, King Ferdinand of Naples abolished the Sicilian Constitution and proclaimed himself King of the Two Sicilies (Naples and Sicily). As a monarch he had made himself virtually an Austrian vassal (see 23/1/1806), even having an Austrian, Count Nugent, as Commander in Chief of the Army. Ferdinand�s ruthless suppression of opposition in Sicily led to the emergence of the Carbonari, who eventually penetrated large sections of the Army. A Sicilian military revolt under General Pepe did intimidate Ferdinand into making some constitutional reforms; however a pro-independence revolt in Sicily was harshly suppressed with Neapolitan troops.
13/10/1815, Joachim Murat, King of the Two Sicilies, was executed.
Murat � see also Napoleonic France
28/9/1815, Joachim Murat, former King of Naples, landed with only 30 men at Pizzon to try and regain the throne. He was soon captured.
3/1/1815, Cesare Correnti, Italian Revolutionary, was born (died 4/10/1888).
1814, The Italian Carabinieri were established by Victor Emmanuel I, newly-restored King of Piedmont.
31/1/1813, Agostino Depretis, Italian politician, was born (died 29/7/1887). They would become an elite 83,000 strong paramilitary force, with distinctive cocked hats.
19/11/1812, Agostino Bertani, Italian revolutionary, was born in Milan (died 30/4/1886).
22/10/1812, Luigi Farini, italian statesman, was born (died 1/8/1866).
12/1/1812, Enrico Cosenz, Italian soldier, was born (died 7/8/1898).
10/8/1811, Enrico Cialdini, Italian politician, was born (died 8/9/1892).
10/8/1810, Count Cavour, Italian politician who played a major role in the unification of Italy, born in Turin.
15/2/1810, Domenico Lanza, Italian politician, was born (died 9/3/1882)
12/1/1810, Ferdinand II, King of the Two Sicilies, was born (died 22/5/1856).
4/9/1809, Luigi Menabrea, Italian statesman, was born (died 24/5/1896).
4/7/1807, Giuseppe Garibaldi, soldier who played a major role in the unification of Italy, was born.
2/4/1806, Giacomo Antonelli, Italian Cardinal, was born in Sonnino (died 6/11/1876).
22/6/1805, Guiseppe Mazzini, Italian patriot, was born (died 10/3/1872).
18/11/1804, Alfonso la Marmora, Italian statesman, was born (died 5/1/1878).
4/4/1804, Nicola Fabrizi, Italian patriot, was born (died 31/3/1885).
23/2/1802, Luigi Cibrario, Italian politician, was born (died 10/1870).
30/6/1799, Francesco Caracciolo, Neapolitan Admiral and revolutionary, died (born 18/1/1732).
2/10/1798, Albert Charles, King of Sardinia, was born (died 28/7/1849).
4/6/1798, Casanova, Italian adventurer, lover, and romancer, died at his Castle of Waldstein, Bohemia.
3/10/1797, Leopold II, Grand-Duke of Tuscany, was born (died 29/1/1870).
3/2/1792, Guiseppe Cerutti, Italian politician, died (born 13/6/1738).
11/7/1781, Bartolommeo Borghesi, Italian antiquarian, was born near Rimini (died in San Marino 16/4/1860).
1778, Inauguration of La Scala opera house, Milan.
4/11/1768, Maria Francesco Appendini, Italian historian, was born (died 1837).
25/3/1767, Joachim Murat, king of Naples, was born.
8/6/1757, Ercole Consalvi, Italian statesman, was born (died 24/1/1824).
16/6/1752, Giulio Alberoni, Italian statesman, died (born 31/5/1664 near Piacenza).
12/1/1751, Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, was born (died 4/1/1825).
8/6/1743, Alessandro Cagliostro, Italian alchemist and impostor, was born (died 1795).
13/6/1738, Guiseppe Cerutti, Italian politician, was born (died 3/2/1792).
19/9/1734, The Battle of Luzzara.
29/6/1734, The Battle of Parma.
25/5/1734, The Battle of Bitonto.
18/1/1732, Francesco Caracciolo, Neapolitan Admiral and revolutionary, was born (died 30/1/1799).
7/5/1718, Mary of Modena died (born 5/10/1658).
See also Spain-Portugal, 1700-1718, for events related to the War of the Spanish Succession
4/7/1714, Antonio Magliabechi, Italian bibliophile, died (born 28/10/1633).
7/9/1706, Prince Eugene of Savoy defeated the French at Turin, helped by Prussian forces under Leopold of Dessau. The French were evicted from Italy, and Charles III was proclaimed King at Milan.
15/6/1671, Execution in Cagliari of the Marquis of Cea, leader of the Sardinian Conspiracy
28/5/1668, Assassination of the Marquis de Camarassa, Viceroy of Sardinia.
31/5/1664, Giulio Alberoni, Italian statesman, was born near Piacenza (died 16/6/1752)
5/10/1658, Mary of Modena was born (died 7/5/1718).
16/7/1647, Tommaso Aniello, fisherman who led the revolt in Naples against Spanish rule, died.
11/7/1635, By the Treaty of Rivoli, Victor Amadeus I of Savoy took command of the Italian league against Milan.
28/10/1633, Antonio Magliabechi, Italian bibliophile, was born (died 4/7/1714).
17/1/1628, Charles I of Goganza took possession of mantua, after the death of his cousin Vincent II.
26/12/1627, Vincent II of Mantua (Lombardy, Italy) died.
5/3/1626, Spanish troops evacuated from the Valtelline, Lombardy, Italy.
12/12/1602, Duke Charles Emmanuel attempted to take the city of Geneva by surprise, for the Kingdom of Savoy.� He failed with heavy losses.
1594, The ancient town of Pompeii was (re)discovered.
1582, The Academia Della Crusca was founded in Florence, for the purpose of maintaining the purity of the Italian language. In 1612 it published, for this purpose, the Vocabulario della Crusca.
1/12/1580, Giovanni Morone, Italian Cardinal, died )born 25/1/1509).
10/8/1557, The Battle of St Quentin. Spanish forces under the Duke of Savoy defeated the French under the Constable of Montmorency. The French were driven out of Italy.
2/8/1553, Battle of Marciano. A French army invading Tuscany was defeated.
18/9/1544, France and Spain concluded the Peace of Crepy. Spain was growing weary of fighting. The Treaty prseerved the status quo, with France retaining north west Italy. Englamnd was suddenly without allies against France. King Henry VIII returned to England, leaving a garrison in Boulogne.
14/4/1544, Battle of Ceresole. France defeated the Spanish south of Turin.
15/4/1542, Leonardo da Vinci was born.� His father, Piero da Vinci, was a notary and his mother, Caterina da Vinci, was a peasant
1/2/1542, Girolamo Aleandro, Italian Cardinal, died in Rome (born 13/2/1480 in Motta, near Venice).
6/1/1537, Alessandro de Medici was assassinated
24/10/1535, Francesco Sforza II, Duke of Milan, died aged 45 without a successor. Milan became a suzerainty of Charles V.
12/8/1530, Florence surrendered to the Holy Roman empire/
2/8/1530, Battle of Gavinana; Florence was fighting to keep out the Holy Roman Empire.
23/2/1530, Carlos I of Spain was crowned Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Italy by Pope Clement V.
5/5/1529, Paulus Aemilius, Italian historian, died in Paris (born in Verona).
22/6/1527. Nicolo Macchiavelli died in Florence, Italy, aged 58.
6/5/1527, German mercenaries sacked the city of Rome, an event considered by many to mark the end of the Renaissance. This occurred during warfare between the Holy League and the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.
24/7/1526, The Spanish captured Milan.
24/2/1525. The Battle of Pavia. Pavia, held by the French, had been under siege by Spanish forces since October 1524. Italy itself was a territory being fought over by the rival powers of France, Germany, Turkey and Spain. The French under King Charles VIII defended Pavia with cavalry and cannon, but the Spanish had adopted the arquebus or hackenbushe, an early version of the handgun; this weapon replaced the Spanish crossbow. The arquebus meant an unskilled infantryman could kill a skilled knight and Pavia was the start of the dominance of the handgun as a military weapon.
25/1/1525, Italian troops approached Pavia from the east and dug in across an unfordable river from the French besieging Pavia.
28/10/1524, France began a siege of Pavia (to 24/2/1525) but the French commender recklessly split his forces, sending some to attack Naples, which they failed to take, and leaving just 25,000 men at Pavia.
30/4/1524, France defeated at the Battle of the Sesia, and retreated back across the Alps.
2/10/1523, Alessandro Alessandri, Italian jurist, died in Rome.
23/11/1521, The Italians under General Prosper Colonna, with their Spanish and Papal allies, made a surprise attack on the French in Milan under Marshal Odet de Lautrec and ousted tehm from the city. Then in 4/1522 Lautrec, having obtained Swiss, Venetian and French reinforcements, and prepared to retake tye city. The Swiss troops threatened to depart unless paid, then agreed tp fight one more time.
24/6/1519, Lucrezia Borgia, Italian noblewoman from a corrupt family, illegitimate daughter of Pope Alexander VII, died.
12/6/1519, Cosimo I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, was born.
13/6/1516, The Treaty of Noyon. Charles I, newly crowned King of Spain (later Emperor Charles V), made peace with France, recognising French control of Milan in return for French renunciation of its claims over Naples.
13/9/1515, The French defeated the Swiss at the Battle of Marengo (Marignano). After fierce fighting in which many on both sides were killed, the French now occupied Milan. Switzerland negotiated peace with France, a peace that endured until the French Revolution. The Pope then also also sued for peace, and the anti-French alliance collapsed. France now occupied most of Lombardy.
6/1515, The new King of France, Francis, continuing his predecessor�s aim of hegemony there, formed an alliance with English King Henry VIII and with Venice, against Germany, the Pope, Spain Milan, Florence amnd Switzerland. Francis now invaded Italy by the high and diffocult Argentoiere Pass, aided by the defected formerly Spanish engineer Pedro Navarro (who had been captured by French forces after a conflict with Spain and then abandoned hos former allegiance when Spain failed to ransom him back).
12/1513, Despite victories such as Novara and Guinegatte, the Allies against France, discouraged by the defection of Switzerland (9/1513) now made peace one by one with France, first Spain and the Pope this month, then Germany (3/1514) and England (7/1514).
7/10/1513, Battle of La Motta. Cardona, Viceroy of Naples, defeated Venice, due to his superior Spanish pikemen.
9/1513, At Dijon, the Swiss accepted a French indemnity and made peace, letting down their English and German allies.
25/1/1509, Giovanni Morone, Italian Cardinal, was born (died 1/12/1580).
29/4/1507, Louis XII, King of France, led his troops into Genoa.
1505, France now gave up its claims to Naples under the Treaty of Blois, making oeace with Spain which now controlled all of Naples.
1/1/1504, French forces left Gaeta by sea, under the terms of a peace treaty with the victorious Spanish.
29/12/1503, At the Battle of Garigliano, near Gaeta, Italy, Spanish forces under Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba defeated a French-Italian mercenary army under Ludovico II, Marquis of Saluzzo.� French forces withdrew to Gaeta.
13/5/1503, The Spanish captured Naples.
21/4/1503, The Battle of Cerignola, Italy.� The Spanish under Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba defeated the French under the Duc de Nemoura, who was killed.� This was the first battle considered to have been won by gunpowder and small arms.
1502, Spanish-French conflict restarted in Italy.
11/11/1500, The Treaty of Granada. Spain and France agreed to divide Naples between them.
25/9/1496, Piero Capponi, Florentine statesman, died.
7/9/1496, Ferdinand II, King of Naples, died.
18/12/1495, Alfonso II, King of Naples, died.
6/7/1495, At the Battle of Fornovo, the French Army secured its retreat from Italy by defeating a combined Milanese-Venetian force under Giobvanni Francesco Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua. France had contested with Spain over who would control Italy. Charles VIII of France expected support from his one-time allies, the Milanese, but when he arrived in Italy he found they had joined with Venice, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire to oppose his plans for Italy.
28/6/1495, At the Battle of Seminara, Cordoba and Ferrante were defeated by a French army under Bernard Stewart, Lord of Aubigny.
26/5/1495, A Spanish army under Gonzalo de Cordoba landed in Calabria, to oust the French and restore Ferrante II to the throne of Naples.
22/2/1495, King Charles VIII of France entered Naples to claim the city�s throne.� A few months later he returned to France with most of his army, leaving a force under his cousin, Gilbert Count of Montpensier as viceroy.
14/6/1493, Ermolao Barbaro, Italian scholar, died in Rome (born in Venice 21/5/1454).
12/1/1492, Andrea Alcati, Italian jurist, was born in Alzano, near Milan.
8/4/1492, Lorenzo de Medici, patron of learning and the arts, died aged 43, after a 23 year reign of cultural enlightenment.
16/10/1483, Gasparo Contarini, Italiun diplomat ad Cardinal, was born.
10/9/1481, Alphonso II of Naples recaptured the city of Otranto.
18/4/1480, Lucrezia Borgia, Italian noblewoman, illegitimate daughter of Rodrigo Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI) was born in Rome.
13/2/1480, Girolamo Aleandro, Italian Cardinal, was born in Motta, near Venice (died 1/2/1542 in Rome).
1469, Lorenzo de Medici took control of Florence. He promoted the arts and culture.
3/5/1469, Niccolo Machiavelli, Italian statesman and historian, was born in Florence.
7/10/1468, Sigismondo Malatesta, tyrant and soldier, died.
1//8/1464, Cosimo de Medici died aged 75 in Florence. He was succeeded as head of the banking family by his son, Piero.
9/4/1454, Three rival Italian powers � Venice, Milan, and Florence � agreed to unite in an �Italian league�. Rome and Milan also seemed likely to join.
11/2/1435, Joanna II, Queen of Naples, died.
1416, At the naval Battle of Gallipoli, Venice defeated the Ottoman fleet.
7/8/1409, The Council of Pisa was dissolved.
9/10/1406, Florence had long coveted Pisa for an outlet to the sea. In 1362-4 Pisa had defended its independence with the help of a band under Sir John Hawkwood (died 1392), and later secured French protection under French King Charles VI (13680-1422). However in 1405 Florence persuaded France to hand over Pisa in return fpor supporting the AntiPope Benedict XIII (Pedro de Luna). Pisa rebelled against Florentine rule and Florence imposed a six-month siege by land and sea. Pisa fell to Florence this day, giving it its desired seaport.
1400, Five separate States, all very different in culture, economy and politics, dominated the Italian Peninsula. These were the Republics of Venice and Florence, the Duchy of Milan, the Papal States,and the Kingdom of Milan
10/4/1389, Cosimo de Medici, Italian ruler, was born.
22/5/1382, Joanna I Queen of Naples was executed.
29/4/1380, Death of Catherine of Siena, who became the patron saint of Italy. She was born in 1347 in Siena as Caterina Beninasca and became an ascetic. She campaigned against the Papal split (Avignon) and corruption, and was canonised by Pope Pius II in 1471, and is a noted Mediaeval women writer.
1378, Revolt of the Ciompi, in Milan. Following the Black Death, workers who were esxcluded from the Guilds, and thereby disenfranchised, breofly overthrew the merchant oligarchy. However their victory was to be only short-lived.
26/5/1362, Louis, King of Naples, died.
24/7/1358, This day a �Great Company� of roving German mercenaries was defeated at Scalella Pass by the Florentines. These mercenaries had originally bene hired by Italian princes fighting Milan, but when their pay ceased they took to roving and plundering anywhere in the Italian Peninsula. This day Florence was saved from lootoing and destruction by them.
8/10/1354, Cola di Rienzi, reformer, was murdered.
27/1/1302, Dante was exiled from Florence. His allies had been overthrown by Charles of Valois.
1299, Construction of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, began (completed 1301)
1285, Death of Charles of Anjou (1227-85), Angevin King of Naples and Sicily. Posthumous son of Louis VIII of France, he was crowned King by Pope Urban IV in 1265.
28/11/1284, Florence began to extend its city walls. The first stone of the new walls was blessed this day.
6/8/1284, Second Battle of Meloria (island off Leghorn). Genoese ships attacked a Pisan force, over their rival claims to the islands of Corsoica and Sardinia. Pisa was defeated.
30/3/1282. Peter III of Aragon opened hostilities against Charles of Anjou for possession of Naples and Sicily.� This war was ended by the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302.
4/9/1260, The Battle of Montaperti. Manfred, King of Sicily, allied to the Ghibbelines, defeated the Guelphs. He now became Protetcor of Tuscany.
2/12/1254, The Battle of Foggia.
26/5/1249, The King of Sardinia, Enzio, was captured by the Bolognese at Fossalta.
25/4/1194, Eccelino da Romano, Ghibelline leader and supporter of Frederick II, was born (died 7/10/1259).
8/8/1173, The construction of what is now known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa began.
10/8/843, The Treaty of Verdun divided the Holy Roman Empire into three equal shares� The imperial crown and central portion from Frisia to Italy went to Lothair.� Louis the German received Germany, and Charles the Bald, son of Pepin, received France.
840, Muslim Arabs attacked the mainland of Italy. See 916.
5/5/840, One of the sons of Charlemagne, Emperor Louis of Bavaria, died of fright during a solar eclipse.� His other sons quarrelled, causing the division of his empire into France, Germany, and Italy, see 843.
774, Charlemagne defeated Lombardy, adding it to his Empire.
756, Aistulf went back on his promises and attacked Rome again. The Pope again allied with Pepin, Lombardy was defeated again, and at the Treaty of Pavia Lombardy became a Frank fiefdom.
751, Aistulf, King of Lombardy, conquered Ravenna in a programme of territorial expansion. This alarmed the Papacy under Pope Stephen, who enlisted the support of Pepin the Short against Aistulf. Pepin invaded Italy in 755, defeated Aistulf, and made him promise to return the conquered territories. Aistulf died in the campaigns of 756. These events paved the way for the Carolingian domination of Italy.
749, Aistulf became Kong of Lombardy (died 756).
569, The Lombards established a capital at Pavia.
1/4/568. King Albion of the Lombards (King since 565, died 573), a Germanic tribe, assembled an army that included his allies, 20,000 Saxons, in order to cross the Alps and form a settlement in Italy. The Lombards, from the Danube Valley, may have been invited to attack Italy by the Byzantine General Narses. Milan was occupied by the Lombards on 4/9/569 and Lombard rule was established in northern Italy.
552, King Totila, Ostrogoth, killed fighting Byzantium (King Narses) at the Battle of Taginae. In 553 Narses again took Roma and Naples for Byzantium.
550, The Ostrogothic King Totila reconquered Rome.
540, The Ostroghtic King Totila took Italy from Byzantium.
12/3/538, Vitiges realised that Rome was not being starved, and the arrival of a Byzantine fleet in the Tiber with 5,000 more men forced him to raise the siege. Vitiges then marched to Ravenna where he besieged John the Sanguinary in Rimini.
21/3/537, Defenders of Rome using arrows, catapults and ballistae inflicted heavy losses on the Goths besieging the city. The Goth forces were now too depleted to keep a continuous siege ring around the city.
2/3/537, Vitiges, leader of the Goths, began laying siege to Rome.
2/10/534. Death of Athalaric, King of the Ostrogoths in Italy. Grandson of Theodoric, he was born in 516 and became King in 526; aged ten, his mother Amalasuntha held the Regency.
15/3/493, Odoacer was killed by Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths.
26/2/493, Ravenna capitulated to Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths.
11/8/490, Theodoric defeated Odoacer at the Battle of the Adda. Odoacer fled to Ravenna. Theodoric now laid seige to Ravenna until a naval blockade forced Odoacer to capitulate.
401, The Visigoths invaded Italy.
For earlier Italian history pre 400 see Roman Empire
Appendix ii � Venice
1/12/2019, In 1926 Mussolini merged the constituency of Venice with the mainland towns of Mestre and Marghera. At the time, Venice was still the largest settlement, but in the 50 years to 2019 the population of Venice fell from 150,000 to 50,000, whereas the two mainland towns grew to 180,000 over the same period. This political balance means most money spent in the region now goes to projects in Mestre. Meanwhile the project to protect Venice from flooding has been put back successively, from 1995 to, currently, 2021. On 1st December 2019 Venice holds a referendum on administratively splitting off from the mainland.
12/11/2019, Venice suffered its worst flooding since 1966 as an acqua alta reached 1.54 metres, amidst heavy rain.
6/9/1987. The historic Venice regatta was held without gondoliers for the first time since 1315. The gondoliers were on strike as a protest against the damage to the fabric of Venice caused by powerboats.
25/5/1915. The Austrians bombarded Venice.
15/7/1902, The 1,000 year old bell tower at st Mark�s Square, venice collapsed.
22/9/1857, Daniele Manin, Venetian statesman, died (born 13/5/1804).
13/5/1804, Daniele Manin, Venetian statesman, was born (died 22/9/1857).
1802, Ludovico Manin, last Doge of Venice (born 1726), died. He was elected as Doge in March 1789. He both antagonised the French by allowing sanctuary to those fleeing it, and refused to join the league of Italian states proposed by Victor Amadeus III to counter French ambitions. The French forced the Republic of Venice to capitulate in 1797 with overwhelming military force.
12/5/1797, Ludovico Manin, the last Doge of Venice, abdicated.
9/5/1789, Ludovico Manin, 1l7th and last Doge of Venice, was elected.
2/4/1725. Giovanni Casanova, Italian adventurer, gambler, secret agent, and �world�s greatest lover�, was born in Venice.
17/11/1617, A naval battle between Sicily and Venice ended inconclusively.
1592,The Rialto Bridge, Venice, was completed.
28/12/1538, Andrea Gritti, Doge of Venice, died.
14/5/1509, French victory over Venice at the Battle of Agnadello, near Milan.
15/4/1509, France began an invasion of Venice.
25/8/1499, The Venetian fleet was defeated at the Battle of Zonchia by the Ottomans. This was the first time cannon had been used in a naval battle. The Venetian-Ottoman War, 1499-1503, started. Venetian sea-power in the Mediterranean was an obstacle to Ottoman expansion. Ottoman Turkey gained the upper hand, and by 1503 Ottoman cavalry raids were reaching into Venetian territory. Venice was forced to recognise Turkish gains.
14/4/1489, The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sold her kingdom to Venice.
8/1/1465, Lorenzo Giustiniani, Bishop of Venice, died (born 1380).
1457, Death of Francesco Foscari, Doge of Venice from 1423. He pursued an aggressive policy on the Italian mainland, gaining territories for the Republic of Venice. However his rule was too nepotistic and despotic for the citizens of Venice, who deposed him in 1457, shortly before his death from grief.
21/5/1454, Ermolao Barbaro, Italian scholar, was born in Venice (died in Rome 14/6/1493).
1/1/1449, Lorenzo de Medici, statesman, was born.
5/5/1432, Francesco Carmagnola, Italian soldier of fortune, was executed in Venice (born 1390).
15/9/1254, Venetian explorer Marco Polo was born.
5/8/1205, Pietro, son of Sebastiano Ziani, was unanimously elected Doge of Venice.
1094, First record of gondolas in Venice.
29/5/1176, The Battle of Legnano; In Spring 1176 Holy Roman Emperor Barbarossa was campaigning in Italy, but withdrawal of support by Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, significantly reduced Barbarossa�s army strength. Meanwhile Milan and the other cities of the Lombard League had built up their defences. The Italian foot soldiers maintained a tight formation against Barbarossa�s cavalry, and the horsemen broke on the foot soldier�s pikes. Then Barbarossa was unhorsed and disappeared from view; his soldiers believed he had been killed, however he turned up in Pavia three days later, where they were mourning his death. However the result was that the Italian city-states gained autonomy from the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa. The Lombard League of Italian towns, supported by Pope Alexander III, objected to Barbarossa�s interference in their internal affairs. Barbarossa had laid waste to Milan, but was defeated at Legnano, north-west of Milan, and admitted defeat.
18/6/1053, Battle of Civitate, Italy. The Normans established domination over southern Italy, defeating a Papal, Byzantine and Swabian force.
18/9/887, Pietro, Doge of Venice, was killed in an expedition against the Dalmatian pirates
801, Venice gained full independence from the Byzantine Empire.
607, Venice elected its first Doge, and began its rise to become a major power in the Mediterranean. The fish and salt trade, and Venice�s central location, helped it become very wealthy. Moreover Venice persistently defied orders from both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperors not to trade with Muslim states.
452, Venice had become a thriving merchant city, founded by refugees from the Huns invading Italy.
25/3/421,� Venice was founded at twelve o'clock noon (according to legend) with the dedication of the first church, San Giacomo, on the islet of Rialto (Italy).
Appendix 2 � San Marino
1992, San Marino joined the UN.
1973, Women gained the right to hold public office.
1960, Women gained the vote.
1945, In San Marino a coalition of Socialists and Communists gained power, which raised suspicions in surrounding Italy. Italy was displeased further when Communist San Martino opened casinos, eroding the profits of the Italian gambling industry. Economic sanctions by Italy forced the closure of these San Marino casinos by 1951. The Communist regime on San Marino ended in 1957, and relations with Italy improved.
1944, San Marino was bombed by the Allies during World War Two.
1862, San Marino signed a Treaty of Friendship with Italy, but refused to join the newly-uniting nation.
1815, San Marino�s independence was guaranteed by the Congress of Vienna.
1797, Napoleon Bonaparte, who liked San Marino as a �model republic�, offered to enlarge its territories. San Marino refused his offer, explaining that �only in poverty and insignificance could San Marino hope to remain free and sovereign throughout the centuries�.
1631, The independence of San Marino was formally recognised by Pope Urban VIII.
3/9/301, The republic of San Marino was established (traditional date) by stonemasons from Dalmatia, who took refuge here.
11/12/1999,� The Sistine Chapel, Vatican, reopened after 20 years restoration work and cleaning.
9/6/1923, In Italy, the Vatican ordered the Catholic Party to disband, and many of its members joined Mussolini�s Fascist party. The Catholic Party, or Partito Popolare Italiano (Italian People�s Party), had been formed in 1919;before then the Vatican had forbidden Catholics to vote. In Italian elections in 1919 and in 1921 the Catholic Party received 20% of the vote, second only to the Italian Socialist Party. Following Mussolini�s victory in 1922 Cardinal Gasparri, the Vatican�s Secretary of State, made a deal with Mussolini that the Catholic Church would support him; in return Mussolini would restore the historic privileges of the catholic Church in Italy. In 1927 Mussolini was baptised as a Catholic, and in 1929 he signed the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican a separate sovereign State. He also made Catholicism the State religion of Italy, and paid the Vatican 750 million lire as compensation for the Vatican�s loss of the ancient Papal States territory in Italy.
1870, Italian forces entered Rome, annexing the formerly extensive Papal States. This left the Pope in self-imposed captivity in the Vatican City.
4/1848, Pope Pius IX announced that he would not back war against Catholic Austria; the Papal Allocution. With this, the Pope lost favour with the Italian Nationalists.
1506, Bologna was incorporated into the Papal States by Pope Julius II.
1415, The Medici family became bankers to the Papacy.