Chronography of the Indian subcontinent
(Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan)
Page last modified 21 September 2023
See also Sri Lanka
See also Myanmar
India 1946 with proposed Muslim State (and modern boundaries as actually drawn)
Bangladesh from 1 January 1973 � see Appendix 1
Bhutan� - see Appendix 2
Maldives � see Appendix 3
Nepal � see Appendix 4
Bangladesh, India, Pakistan
15 June 2020, Tensions along the ill-defined and disputed Himalayan border between India and China escalated. India accused China of annexing the Galwan Valley, some 60 square miles. China accused India of building military roads into disputed areas and of attempting to control more of Kashmir, including an area ceded by Pakistan to China that India claims. Some 20 soldiers died, mainly through falling into icy gorges.
14 February 2019, Pakistani terrorists suicide-bombed Indian security forces in Kashmir, killing 45. Tensions briefly rose between the two countries, with Indian jets striking Pakistan and one being shot down. The pilot was later returned to India as tensions eased.
5 January 2016, Violent riots broke out in Kaliachak, West Bengal, India, after political activist Kamlesh Tiwari allegedly insulted the Muslim prophet Muhammad.
16 December 2014, Taliban gunmen scaled the wall of an army-run school in Peshawar, Pakistan, and began shooting indiscriminately. 141 schoolchildren were killed before the army regained control; many more had been injured. This was in revenge for Army attacks on the Taliban.
16 February 2013, A bomb exploded at a marketplace in Quetta, Pakistan, killing over 80 people.
5 September 2011, India and Bangladesh signed a pact to end their 40-year border dispute.
26 November 2008, Pakistani Islamic terrorists struck at several targets in Mumbai, India, taking visitors at the Taj Mahal luxury hotel hostage.� Indian forces stormed the terrorists in the hotel. 183 people were killed and over 300 injured.
2007, India and Pakistan signed an agreement to prevent accidental nuclear war.
27 December 2007, The moderate Pakistani politician, Benazir Bhutto, was assassinated whilst participating in an opposition rally against the hard-line ruler, President Pervez Musharraf.
21 July 2007, Pratibha Patel was elected India�s first female President.
11 July 2006, Bombs exploded in Mumbai railway station, India. 200 were killed. Pakistani Islamic militants were suspected.
6 February 2006, Two fishermen who had landed on North Sentinel Island were murdered by the inhabitants, the Sentinelese, who are one of the world�s last �Stone Age� tribes. They fiercely resist any visitors with a hail of arrows, although the Indian authorities said they would try and clandestinely recover the bodies at a later date.
13 May 2004, In Indian elections, the traditional-Socialist Congress Party gained unexpected victory over the Hindu-Nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). The majority of poorer Indians had failed to benefit from the economic modernisation programmes of the BJP. Manmohan Singh became Prime Minister.
16 March 2004, The Pakistan Army began an offensive against Afghan Al-Qaeda and Taliban militants in the NW border area of Pakistan. When the offensive ended on 30 March 2004, some 150 militants had been killed, but many had escaped through tunnels back to the Afghan border.
2 May 2003, India and Pakistan resumed diplomatic relations.
12 December 2002, In Indian State elections, the Hindu Nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) consolidated its political control of Gujarat.
8 May 2002, In Karachi a suicide car bomber blew himself up next to a bus, killing 14 people � 11 of them were French naval engineers working for the Pakistan navy.
27 February 2002, Muslims attacked a train in Gujarat, western India, carrying Hindi activists. Conflict between Hindus and Muslims had bene growing since the terrorist attack of 13 December 2001 on the Indian parliament.
13 December 2001, Terrorists attacked the Indian Parliament, killing 14 people.� This brought India and Pakistan to the brink of war.
8 October 2001. Anti-American riots in several Pakistani cities. Banks, a shopping mall, and cinemas showing American films, were burnt down. Pakistan was a vital access point for USA forces seeking to enter Afghanistan. Raids continue over the next few days, with anti-American protests in Pakistan and Indonesia.
20 June 2001, Pervez Musharraf was appointed President of Palistan.
24 January 2001, The greatest gathering of people ever recorded took place at Allahabad, India, where 20 million people gathered for the Maha Kumbh Mela.
2000, India�s population now exceeded one billion.
12 October 1999, General Pervez Musharraf (born 1943) took control of Pakistan in a military coup. Nawaz Sherif was deposed.
10 August 1999, A Pakistani plane intruding into Indian airspace was shot down.
11 July 1999, India recaptured the town of Kargil from Pakistan, after two months of conflict.
26 May 1999, Indian air force planes attacked Pakistani intruders in Kashmir, sparking the Kargil War.
23 January 1999, In India, radical Hindus killed US Christian missionaries Graham Stewart Baines and his two sons. The act was blamed on the militant group bajrang Dal, who opposed the conversion of Hindus to Christianity or Islam.
28 November 1997, In India the Congress Party withdrew from the coalition, which then collapsed.
5 September 1997, Mother Teresa died in Kolkata (Calcutta), India, aged 87.
14 July 1997, In India KR Narayanan was elected President. He was the first President to come from the �untouchable� caste.
20 April 1997, In India the minority 13-Party United Front Government led by HD Deve Gowda fell when the Congress party withdrew support. A new United Front government was formed with Congress party backing under former Foreign Minister Kumar Gujral.
1995, In India, the Punjab Chief Minister was assassinated by Sikh extremists.
17 February 1997, The Pakistan Muslim league won general elections. Nawaz Sharif became prime Minister.
5 November 1996, The Pakistan President dismissed Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto after she and her Government were accused of corruption and mismanagement.
20 October 1993, Pakistan elected Benazir Bhutto (1953-2007) as Prime Minister.
12 March 1993, 257 people were killing in a bombing in Mumbai, India.
7 December 1992. Religious riots swept India after Hindu fanatics destroyed the Babri Masjid mosque. 1,200 people died in these riots.
6 December 1992. Riots followed a Hindu attack on the Ayodha Mosque, India. This mosque was built by the first Moghul Emperor Babur in the early 16th century; Hindus contended that it was built on top of a Hindu temple marking the birthplace of the Hindu god, Rama. India appeared to be abandoning its secular legacy in favour of a militant Hinduism.
18 November 1992, In Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto was put under house arrest after police broke up a political demonstration.
21 May 1991. Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated. Police blamed Tamil Tigers.
Sangshad. BNP leader Khaleda Zia, widow of President Zia, became President of Bangladesh on 19 March 1991.
31 October 1990. In India, Hindu fundamentalists again attempted to storm the mosque at Ayodhya. Hindus wanted to demolish the mosque, claiming it stood on the site of the birthplace of one of their gods, Lord Rama. Over 8 days, 170 died in India in clashes over this mosque.
19 January 1990. Free love guru Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh died of a heart attack at his commune in Poona, India. Aged 58, he owned nearly 100 Rolls Royces, and was banned from nearly 20 countries; including the US where his commune in Oregon was closed down.
6 August 1990, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, President of Pakistan, removed the Government of Benazir Bhutto, charging her with corruption. Islamists, the landed aristocracy and other political opponents wanted her gone, and Benazir�s supporters allged that the charges were purely politically motivated.
2 December 1989, VP Singh, leader of the Janata Dat Party, replaced Rajiv Gandhi as Prime Minister of India, although Rajiv�s Congress Party remained the largest single party.
1 October 1989. Pakistan rejoined the Commonwealth after 17 years.
14 February 1989. Union Carbide agreed to pay US$ 470 million to the Indian Government in compensation for the 1984 Bhopal disaster.
31 December 1988, In the Pakistani capital Islamabad, the Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and his Pakistani counterpart Benazir Bhutto signed the first agreement between the two countries for 16 years.
8 December 1988, The new Pakistani Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto, released 1,000 political prisoners.
30 November 1988. Benazir Bhutto became the first woman Prime Minister of Pakistan; the first female leader of an Islamic country. These were the first democratic elections in Pakistan for 11 years. Her father, Zufilqar Ali Bhutto, was leader of Pakistan from 1971 until he was deposed in a military coup headed by General Zia in 1977; Zufilqar was hanged in 1979. Benazir inherited the leadership of the People�s Party and was an ongoing annoyance to the military regime until Zia died in 1987 in a plane crash.
17 August 1988, General Zia ul Haq of Pakistan died when his aircraft crashed shortly after taking off from a military demonstration of US tanks at Bahawalpur for Islamabad. The US ambassador to Pakistan was on board. A bomb or missile attack was suspected.
14 August 1986. In Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto was jailed by General Zia.
10 April 1986, Benazir Bhutto returned to Pakistan.
19 May 1988, In India, Sikh rebels occupying the Golden Temple in Amritsar surrendered.
4 January 1988, Indian Kami Bheel, who possessed the world�s longest moustache at 7ft 10 inches from tip to tip, was found decapitated.
12 May 1987, Rajiv Gandhi imposed direct Federal rule from New Delhi on the mainly Sikh province of Punjab, removing its provincial autonomy. The Sikhs in Punjab had wanted their own country, separate from India as Pakistan was, at Independence in 1947, but this did not happen. They have been agitating for independence ever since. Under Indira Gandhi�s rule (1966-84), which was nominally democratic but veered towards autocracy, especially in times of crisis, the Punjab was even subdivided by creating the new Province of Haryana, to weaken Punjab identity, and attacked the Sikhs at the Golden temple, Amritsar (see 6 June 1984). The Direct Rule was in revenge for the assassination of his mother, Indira Gandhi on 31 October 1984. The immediate cause of Rajiv Gandhi�s move was the assassination of Sant Harchand Singh Longowal, a Sikh politician who had collaborated closely with both Indira and Rajiv, by militant Sikh separatists. Sikh Separatism in the Punjab remains a major issue in Indian politics.
9 May 1986, Tenzing Norgay, or Tensing, the first joint conqueror of Everest, died.
22 January 1986, In India, three Sikhs were sentenced to death for the murder of Indira Gandhi.
30 December 1985, In Pakistan, General Zia ended martial law.
31 December 1984, Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister of India.
19 December 1984. Rajiv Ghandhi won the Indian elections by a large majority.
3 December 1984. The Union Carbide disaster at Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh State, India. 410 died immediately as 30 tons of poison gas (methyl isocyanate) leaked; the final toll was 4,000 dead and 20,000 seriously injured; 150,000 required hospital treatment.
3 November 1984, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was cremated.
1 November 1984, Rajiv Gandhi, son of Indira, was sworn in as Indian Prime Minister
31 October 1984 �Mrs Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, 67, was shot dead by a Sikh member of her bodyguard, whilst in New Delhi. Beant Singh, one of the attackers, was then shot dead by other loyal bodyguards. She was succeeded by her son, Rajiv Gandhi. Indira Gandhi was cremated on 3 November 1984. The assassination was in revenge for Indian troops storming the Golden Temple of Amritsar.
29 June 1984, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi dismissed the Governor and the Police Chief of Punjab.
6 June 1984. Indian troops stormed the Sikh Golden Temple in Amritsar. 712 Sikhs and 90 soldiers were killed.
13 April 1984, India captured most of the Siachen glacier on its disputed Kashmir frontier with Pakistan.
6 January 1980. In India, Indira Ghandhi was re-elected as Prime Minister.
10 December 1979, Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her work helping the destitute in India. Born in Albania in 1910, she joined a convent at age 18 and taught in the convent�s Calcutta premises. In 1946 she began working the streets of Calcutta to relieve poverty.
15 July 1979, Moraji Desai resigned as Indian Prime Minister. On 28 July 1979 Charan Singh became Indian Prime Minister.
10 February 1979, General Zia, ruler of Pakistan, introduced Islamic Shia law.
7 November 1978, Indira Gandhi was re-elected to the Indian Parliament.
3 January 1978. Ex-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was expelled from her Congress Party.
22 March 1977, Indira Gandhi resigned as President of India after an election defeat.
16 April 1976. India, to curb population growth, raised the minimum age for marriage to 21 for men and 18 for women.
30 June 1975, In India, Indira Gandhi imposed press censorship, to suppress dissent.
11 June 1975, The High Court in India ruled that Indira Gandhi had used unfair practices to win the election and must stand down. She refused to go.
16 May 1975, India annexed Sikkim.
16 April 1975, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Indian statesman, died aged 86.
14 April 1975, Voters in the ancient Himalayan kingdom of Sikkim overwhelmingly approved abolishing the monarchy and merging with India. The result was 59,637 in favour and only 1,496 against.
6 March 1975, Large demonstrations in New Delhi against Indira Gandhi.
18 May 1974, India announced that it had successfully underground-tested an atom bomb.
19 March 1974, Food riots in Bihar, India.
20 October 1973, The Dalai Lama first visited Britain.
8 April 1973. Indian troops annexed Sikkim in the Himalayas.
13 March 1972, The Congress Party, led by Indira Gandhi, won Indian elections
1969, The Swat region became fully incorporated into Pakistan. A valley kingdom in the Hindu Kush mountains, half the size of Wales, it remained an independent feudal state with its own monarch long after Pakistan was officially created in 1947.
17 September 1969, A week of violence between Hindus and Muslims broke out in Gujarat.
25 December 1968, 42 Dalits were burned alive in Kilavenmani village, Tamil Nadu, India, in retaliation for a campaign for higher wages by Dalit labourers.
11 September 1968, India announced plans to create Meghalaya� out of the southwestern hill country of the State of Assam. Meghalaya became the 20th state of India in 1972.
1967, The Mangla Dam on the Jhelum River was completed. This was the first part of a World Bank scheme to improve irrigation and agriculture in Pakistan.
8 July 1967, Fatima Jinnah, Pakistani politician, died.
(15)5/1967, In the village of Naxalbari, West Bengal, peasants rebelled against landowners. This was the start of the Maoist rebel Naxalite movement in eastern India.
12 March 1967. Mrs Gandhi re-elected Prime Minister of India.
1966, The planned city of Chandigarh was built. Designed by le Corbusier, it was to be the capital of Haryana and Punjab.
6 March 1966, Food riots in West Bengal, India, spreading to Kolkata and Delhi.
19 January 1966. Indira Gandhi (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi) became Prime Minister of India. She succeeded her father Jawaharlal Nehru. She had been leader of the National Congress Party since 1959.
2 January 1965, In Pakistani presidential elections, President Ayub Khan gained a clear majority over Miss Fatimah Jinnah.
30 December 1964. 500 were arrested in India on suspicion of spying for China.
27 May 1964 Indian statesman 'Pandit' Nehru died, aged 74, having been the first Prime Minister of India since independence in 1947. He was succeeded by Lal Shastri.
22 March 1964. Anti-Muslim violence broke out in India.
13 January 1964. In Calcutta, 200 died in Muslim-Hindu riots.
29 August 1963, Gulzarilal Nanda replaced Lal Bahadur Shastri as Indian Minister for Home Affairs.
19 December 1961. India annexed Goa from the Portuguese, after 400 years of Portuguese rule.
1960, The State of Bombay was divided into the States of Gujarat and Maharashtra.
12 June 1960, Sikhs in New Delhi demanded autonomy..
14 February 1960, Muhammad Ayub Khan was elected President of Pakistan.
1959, The first newsprint mill was established in the Sundarbans region of East Pakistan (Bangladesh) to exploit the forest resources there.
29 December 1959, Durgapur steel works, West Bengal, officially opened.
23 December 1959, The Earl of Halifax, politician and Viceroy of India, 1926-31, died.
13 May 1957, India�s second election since independence continued the administration of Nehru�s Congress Party; however in the southern State of Kerala a Communist administration was elected.
31 March 1957, India continued its modernisation programme under Nehru with the introduction of a decimal currency. Nine days earlier the country had adopted a standard calendar.
1956. India passed the States Reorganisation Act. State boundaries were to be redrawn according to ethno-linguistic lines, with some divided, and new States carved out.
1955, King Tribhuvan of Nepal died (reigned from 1951). He was succeeded by his son, King Mahendra.
15 August 1955. India attempted to take over Goa.
10 July 1954, US President Eisenhower signed Public Law 480, the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, better known as PL-480. This facilitated the export of grain to US-aligned governments that were facing threats from Leftist agencies, either internal rebels or intimidation from a Soviet-aligned State next door. PL-480 could be used to keep recalcitrant allies, those possibly sliding towards Communism, in line. For example in 1965 US President Johnson shifted the renewal of PL-480 food aid to India from an annual to a� monthly basis, threatening India with withdrawal of food aid as India�s President Shastri expressed disapproval of US bombing in Vietnam. However if Shastri abandoned Nehru�s ideas of land distribution to Indian peasants then India would receive US agricultural technology, enhancing food yields.
21 June 1953, Benazir Bhutto, Prime Minister of Pakistan, was born in Karachi.
8 December 1951, Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister of India, began his first 5-year Plan. Energy and Agricultire were to be prioritised in this Plan. Each successive Plan would target the sectors of the Indian economy that most needed improving. This tactic helped India�s economy advance rapidly.
3 June 1951, In India, the Socialist Party organised a large protest against the government�s food and housing policies.
3 June 1950, The Himalayan Peak of Annapurna was first climbed, by Herzog and Lachenal, members of a French expedition.
8 April 1950, India and Pakistan signed the Delhi Pact, each nation committing itself to protecting the rights of minorities within their borders.
26 January 1950, India became a democratic republic within the Commonwealth.
1949, The New Awami League demended more autonomy for East Bengal.
15 November 1949, In India, Nathuram Godse was hanged for the murder of Gandhi.
7 March 1949, Ghulam Nabi Azad, Indian politician, was born.
1 January 1949. India and Pakistan agreed a truce in the war over Kashmir.
29 November 1948, Gandhi�s campaign to abolish �unouchability�, which created low status for 40 million Hindus, forced by the upper castes to live in poverty and do menial jobs, came to fruition when the Indian Constitutent Assembly voted to prohibit the practice.
4 November 1948, The new Indian Constitution was formally introduced to the Constituent Assembly.
13 September 1948, Nehru sent Indian troops to occupy the State of Hyderabad, whose ruler, the Nizam, had declined to join India. An appeal by the Nizam to the United Nations was in vain. The Nizam was allowed to keep his palaces and other private property.
11 September 1948, Death of Muhammed Ali Jinnah, first Governor-General of Pakistan.
28 February 1948. Last British troops left India.
12 February 1948, The ashes of Mahatma Gandhi were placed in the �holy waters� of the River Ganges at Allahabad.
30 January 1948. The Indian leader Mahatma (= �Great Soul) or Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic. Gandhi had been at a prayer meeting when he was shot by Nathuram Godse, a fanatic who totally rejected Gandhi's message of goodwill, peace, and love.� Some extremist Hindus saw that India could never become a Hindu-dominated state whilst Gandhi was still alive; Gandhi had preached tolerance between Hindus and Moslems.. Nathuram Godse was hanged on 15 November 1949. A previous attempt on Gandhi�s life had been made on 20 January 1948.
13 January 1948, Mahatma Gandhi began a six-day fast, in order to promote harmony between Muslims and Hindus.
2 January 1948, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru threatened to invade Pakistan to stop Muslim attacks in Kashmir.
20 August 1944, Rajiv Gandhi, younger son of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was born.
26 October 1943, In Kolkata, India, a cholaera epidemic had killed 2,155 people in the last week.
15 January 1942. Gandhi named Nehru as his successor.
13 March 1940, Sir Michael O�Dwyer, former British colonial Governor of the Punjab, was assassinated by an Indian Nationalist.
8 February 1936, Jawaharlal Nehru was elected President of the India National Congress.
6 July 1935, The Dalai Lama was born.
19 March 1935, British troops in India fired on Muslims and Hindus rioting against each other, killing 27.
October 1932, The Indian Air Force was founded.
16 April 1930, Rioting in India; police fired on the crowds.
3 February 1930, The first ever �untouchables� were elected to local councils in India.
7 December 1929, Agha Khan III was married at a private ceremony in Aix les Bains, France, to a former candy store clerk and dressmaker. He was founder and first President of the all-India Muslim League.
28 September 1929, In India, marriage of girls aged under 14 was banned by the Sarda Act.
5 May 1929. In Bombay a curfew was imposed to quell Hindu-Moslem fighting.
17 November 1928, Lala Rajpat Raj, Indian politician, died.
1 September 1926, Adbur Rahman Biswas, President of Bangladesh, was born.
2 April 1926. In India, riots broke out between Hindus and Moslems. On 4 April 1926 martial law was declared in Calcutta.
24 March 1925, Quazi Nuruzzaman, Bangladeshi guerrilla commander, was born (died 2011)
18 September 1924. Mohandas Gandhi, serving 6 years in prison for sedition, began a 21-day hunger strike, to try and dissuade Hindus and Moslems from rioting.
11 July 1924. Hindus and Muslims rioted in Delhi.
8 June 1924. George Mallory, on his third attempt to conquer Everest, was seen for the last time at a point 800 feet from the summit.
12 June 1922, The Mallory expedition succeeded in getting within 3,200 feet of the summit of Everest.
18 March 1922. Gandhi was jailed for 6 years for civil disobedience.
11 March 1922, Ghandi was arrested at Ahmedabad.
25 December 1921, Gandhi organised a successful mass boycott of the Prince of Wales as he arrived in Calcutta.
10 October 1921, Ghandi set fire to a large pile of foreign-made clothing in Mumbai.
28 July 1921, The All-India Congress Party voted to boycott a visit to India by the Prince of Wales, and also urged a boycott of imported cloth.
2 February 1921, The new Indian Assembly met, amidst rioting.
3 January 1921, India's first parliament met.
10 September 1920, The Indian National Congress voted to adopt Mahatma Gandhi�s policy of non-co-operation with Britain�s colonial administration.
1 August 1920, Gandhi began his campaign of resistance to British rule in India.
19 November 1917. Indira Gandhi born in Allahabad.� India�s first woman Prime Minister, she was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru.
12 January 1917, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, founder of the Transcendental Meditation Movement,� was born in India (some sources say 12 January 1918).
8 June 1915, Kayyar Kinhanna Rai, Indian poet, known for his poems and activism work for an independent India, was born in Kayyar, India (died 2015).
20 January 1915, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, President of Pakistan, was born (died 27 October 2006)
13 March 1914, Saroj Dutta, Indian Communist Leader, active in the Naxalite movement in India, was born (died 1971).
6 November 1913, Mahatma Gandhi, leader of the Indian Passive Resistance Mobement, was arrested.
12 December 1911, King George V was crowned Emperor of India, and founded the city of New Delhi, as new capital to replace Calcutta.
11 November 1911. The British King and Queen left Britain for the sea voyage to India. On 12 December 1911 there was a splendid ceremony at the Delhi Durbar, at which it was announced that henceforth Delhi would be the capital of India in place of Calcutta.
27 August 1910. Mother Teresa of Calcutta, who dedicated her life to the relief of the poor in India, was born in Skopje (Yugoslavia), of Albanian parents.
10 June 1910, Sir Charles Hardinge, British Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs, was appointed as the Viceroy of India, succeeding the Earl of Minto.
9 January 1903, In India a great durbar (reception) marking the coronation of King Edward VII ended (began 1 January 1903). 16,000 prisoners in India were released to mark the occasion.
1 January 1903, King George VII was proclaimed Emperor of India.
15 March 1902, Sir Richard Temple, British colonial administrator in India, died in Hampstead (born 8 March 1826)
1901, Dabadhai Naoroji published his book, Poverty and Un-British Rule in India, arguing that high taxation and exploitation of resources was damaging the Indian economy. This work inspired Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
1 October 1901, Partap Singh Kairon, India politician and Chief Minister of the Punjab from 1956 to 1964, was born (assassinated 1965).
13 September 1901, Sir Sheshadri Aiyar, Indian statesman, died (born 1845). He did much to develop Mysore State.
24 July 1899, Sir Arthur Cotton, irrigation engineer in India, died (born 15 May 1803).
2 March 1898, Saiyid Ahmed, Indian educationalist, died at Aligarh (born 1817).
24 October 1896, Sir Albert Abdullah David Sassoon, Indian philanthropist, died in Brighton (born 25 July 1818 in Baghdad)
13 June 1896, Sir James Browne, British engineer in India, died (born 1839).
29 February 1896, Ranchhodji Morarji Desai, Indian Prime Minister who was imprisoned with Gandhi, was born.
9 January 1896, Sir Dinkar Rao, Indian statesman, died (born 20 December 1819)
19 July 1894, Khwaja Nazimuddin, Prime Minister of Pakistan from 16 October 1951, was born in Dhaka, Bengal.
22 October 1893, Dhuleep Singh, Maharajah of Lahore, died (born 2/1837).
1892, The first indigenous Indians sat on the legislative council.
29 January 1892, Sir Robert Groves Sandeman, British colonial administrator in India, died (born 25 February 1835)
4 April 1891, Sir T Madhava Rao, Indian statesman, died (born 1828 in Madras)
14 November 1889, Pandit Nehru, first Prime Minister of India, was born in Allahabad.
5 September 1888, Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishanan, Indian statesman, was born.
8 July 1887, Sir Ashley Eden, Britsh administrator of India, died (born 13 November 1831).
16 February 1887, Queen Victoria�s Jubilee was marked in India by the freeing of 25,000 prisoners.
2 February 1887, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Indian politician and social worker, a Punjabi Sikh noblewoman who served as secretary to Mahatma Gandhi for 16 years, was born in the Karpathala Palace, Lucknow.
1885, The Indian National Congress was founded.
3 December 1884, Rajendra Prasad, Indian statesman, was born.
24 July 1884, Kristo Das Pal, Indian statesman, died (born 1839 in Calcutta).
4 December 1883, The International Exhibition at Calcutta opened, the first exhibition to be held in India.
30 December 1879, Sri Ramana Maharshi, Hindu Yogi, was born.
27 June 1879, John Lawrence, colonial Governor-General of India, died (born 24 March 1811).
1 May 1876, Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India.
8 February 1872, Lord Mayo, British Viceroy to India, was murdered by nationalists.
25 January 1871, Sir Proby Cautley, British engineer of canals in India, died (born 1802).
2 October 1869, Mahatma Gandhi, Indian nationalist leader, was born in Porbandar, Gujarat.
23 December 1868, Sir Herbert Edwardes, British soldier in India, died (born 12 November 1819.
7 November 1862, Bahadur Shah II, last titular Mogul Emperor of India, died.
17 June 1862, Charles Canning, British Governor-General of India during the mutiny of 1857, died (born 14 December 1812).
20 November 1859, Mountstuart Elphinstone, Indian statesman, died (born 1779).
1 November 1858. Queen Victoria was proclaimed ruler of India. The East India Company, formed in 1600 to exploit trade with the East, but accused of imperial abuse from the early 1700s, was abolished and administration of India was transferred to the British crown. Misconduct by the East India Company had been partially curbed by the Regulating Act (1773) and Pitt�s India Act (1784). The Indian Mutiny broke the Company�s power, British influence being totally regained with the conquest of Lucknow in March 1858.
2 August 1858, The Government of India transferred the East India Company to the British Government.
24 September 1856, Henry Hardinge, British colonial Governor-General of India, died (born 30 March 1785)
10 February 1856, Sir William Henry Sleeman, British colonial administrator in India, died (born 8 August 1788 in Stratton, Cornwall)
1850, Sikkim, a region in the far north of India, became a British dependency, paving the way for British penetration into Tibet.
30 August 1850, Kashinath Trimbak Telang, Indian Judge and scholar, was born in Mumbai (died 1 September 1893 in Mumbai)
5 September 1846, Charles Metcalfe, British colonial administrator of India, died (born 30 January 1785).
13 September 1845, Sir Henry Cotton, British administrator in India, was born.
29 December 1843, The Battle of Maharaipur.
24 March 1843, Battle of Hyderabad, British conquest of Sind. The British under Sir Charles Napier defeated the Baluchis under Shir Mohammed.
17 February 1843, The Muslim Emirs of Sind refused to cede their independence to the East India Company. The British provoked an Anglo-Sind conflict, so that Charles Napier could destroy the 30,000 strong Baluch Army. In March 1843 Napier defeated the Emirs of Sind, and sent a one-word telegram to London �Peccavi�, meaning �I have sinned�.
7 April 1842, British forces defeated Akbar Khan at Jalabad.
4 December 1841, James Skinner, British military adventurer in India, died in Hansi (born 1778 in India)
27 June 1839, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Indian ruler, died (born 2 November 1780)
28 September 1837, Akbar Shah II, last Mughal Emperor of India, died.
24 July 1837, The Indian Post Office was established.
18 February 1836, Ramakrishna, Indian mystic was born in Kamarpukur, India (died 1886).
1835, The British in India ceased using Persian as the official language, replacing it with English.
25 February 1835, Sir Robert Groves Sandeman, British colonial administrator in India, was born (died 29 January 1892)
6 May 1834, Sikh troops from the Punjab under Ranjit Singh took Peshawar.
27 September 1833, Mohan Roy Ram, Indian religious reformer, died (born May 1774)
30 May 1833, Sir John Malcolm, British diplomat to India, died (born 2 May 1769).
28 January 1832, Sir Tiruvarur Aiyar, Indian High Court Judge (Madras), was born (died 1895).
18 November 1831, An uprising in Bengal against tyrannical Hindu rule was suppressed. Its leader, the Muslim Titu Mir, was killed by government forces.
13 November 1831, Sir Ashley Eden, Britsh administrator of India, was born (died 8 July 1887).
21 June 1830, Benoit de Boigne, first of the French military adventurers in India, died (born in Chambery, Savoy 8 March 1751).
17 June 1830, Lord William Bentinck, Governor-General of India, died in Paris).
4 December 1829, The practice of suttee, immolation of widows, was made illegal in British-controlled India.
28 November 1826, Francis Hastings, British colonial Governor of India, died (born 9 December 1754)
8 March 1826, Sir Richard Temple, British colonial administrator in India, was born (died 15 March 1902 in Hampstead)
4 September 1825, Naoroji Dadabhai, Indian statesman, was born.
11 December 1822, John Nicholson, administrator im British India, was born (died 23 September 1857).
20 December 1819, Sir Dinkar Rao, Indian statesman, was born (died 9 January 1896)
12 November 1819, Sir Herbert Edwardes, British soldier in India, was born (died 23 December 1868).
22 August 1818, Warren Hastings, British administrator and first Governor-General of British India, died in Worcestershire aged 85.
25 July 1818, Sir Albert Abdullah David Sassoon, Indian philanthropist, was born in Baghdad (died 24 October 1896 in Brighton)
24 July 1817, Sir Richard Stracey, British colonial administrator of India, was born in Somerset (died 12 February 1908)
28 January 1817, Madhowdas Vurjeevandas, Indian philanthropist, was born (died 12 January 1896)
14 December 1812, Charles Canning, British Governor-General of India during the mutiny of 1857, was born (died 17 June 1862).
11 January 1812, John Jacob, Indian administrator, was born (died 1858)
24 March 1811, John Lawrence, colonial Governor-General of India, was born (died 27 June 1879).
25 April 1809, The British in India concluded a Treaty of Friendship with the Sikhs at Amritsar, setting the boundary of British influence in the NW at the River Sutlej.
29 May 1807, John Russell Colvin, Governor of the north-west provinces of India, was born in Kolkata (died 24 March 1908).
28 June 1806, Sir Henry Lawrence, British colonial administrator in India, was born (died 4 July 1857)
21 August 1805, Gowrishankar Vodeyshankar, Indian Government Minister, was born (died December 1892)
15 May 1803, Sir Arthur Cotton, irrigation engineer in India, was born (died 24 July 1899).
31 December 1802, By the Treaty of Bassein, the Peshwa of Poona, India, effectively surrendered his authority to the British East India Company. He agreed not to make treaties without consulting the British and to accept the �protection� of a large British force.
23 October 1802, At Poona, India, the Maharaja (Prince) Jaswant Rao Holkar of Indore defeated both Baji Rao, Peshwa of Poona, head of the Maratha Confedreacy, and pro British, and also Madhoji Rao Sindhia of Gwalior, a powerful leader in central India.
22 August 1802, George Thomas, British military adventurer in I ndia, died.
23 April 1795, Warren Hastings was acquitted of high treason.
13 February 1788, The corruption trial of Warren Hastings, former British Governor-General of India, began in London.
30 March 1785, Henry Hardinge, British colonial Governor-General of India, was born (died 24 September 1856).
30 January 1785, Charles Metcalfe, British colonial administrator of India, was born (died 5 September 1846).
14 September 1774, Lord William Bentinck, Governor-General of India, was born (died in Paris 17 June 1830).
13 April 1772, Warren Hastings was appointed Governor of Bengal.
2 May 1769, Sir John Malcolm, British diplomat to India, was born (died 30 May 1833).
12 August 1765, Robert Clive received revenue authority over Bengal from the Mogul emperor. The disintegration of the Mogul Empire created opportunities for the British, the French, and also Indian princes. See 12 August 1756.
23 October 1764, The British won the Battle of Buxar, Bengal. Major Munro defeated a confederation of Indian pirates, giving the East India Company control of Bengal and Bihar.
3 May 1764, The British won the Battle of Patna, Bengal.
10 November 1763, Joseph Dupleix, French colonial governor of India, died (born 1 January 1697).
27 May 1761, Sir Thomas Munro, British colonial Governor of India, was born (died 6 July 1827).
23 June 1757. The Battle of Plassey took place in Bengal. The British victory of Robert Clive over the Nawab of Bengal laid the foundations for the British Empire in India.
23 March 1757, The British won the Battle of Chandernagore, Bengal.
7 February 1757, The Treaty of Alinagar was concluded by Clive of Plassey, following his recapture of Calcutta from the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj al Daula. Under this Treaty, Calcutta was returned to the East India Company, who gained the right to fortify the city and to print money. Calcutta became a bridgehead from which the East India Company extended its control across Bengal.
9 December 1754, Francis Hastings, British colonial Governor of India, was born (died 28 November 1826).
10 June 1747, Nadir Shah was assassinated by a bodyguard.
7 February 1736, Rene-Marie Madec, French adventurer in India, was born.
6 December 1732, Warren Hastings, British ambassador and first Governor-General of India, was born in Churchill, Oxfordshire.
13 June 1732, Sir Elijah Impey, Chief Justice of Bengal, was born (died 1809).
28 April 1728, Thomas Pitt, East India Company merchant, died in Swallowfield near Reading, Berkshire (born 5 July 1653 in Blandford, Dorset)
18 November 1727, The Indian city of Jaipur was founded.
17 April 1720, Bairao succeeded his father as Peshwa (Prime Minister) of the Maratha Empire.
Reign of Aurangzeb
24 June 1632, At Hooghly (founded by Portuguese traders, 1537) the Portuguese had secured a monopoly on salt trading and also enforced a high duty on the tobacco trade; they refused to share any of this income with the indigenous Moguls. They also seized Muslim and Hindu children, to sell as slaves. Shah Jehan (1592-1666)� therefore, in 1631, resolved to destroy Hooghly, and this day began a 3-month siege of the port, with a 150,000 man army. Hooghly was defended by 300 Portuguese soldiers and some 700 Indian Christians. After it fell, some 400 surviving defenders were taken captive to Agra, and in 1635 those who refused to convert to Islam were executed.
14 February 1628, Coronation of Mughal Emperor Shah Jehan in Agra.
Death of Jahangir
28 October 1627, Jahangir, ruler of the Moghul Empire, died.
10 January 1615, Sir Thomas Roe, Britain�s first Ambassador to India, presented his credentials at Agra.
15 October 1605, Akbar I (The Great), Jalal ud Din Muhammad Akbar, died. He was Mughal Emperor of India, 1556-1605 (born 1542). Succeeeding his father, Humayun, he took over from the Regent in 1560. He gained control of the whole of India north of the Vindhaya Mountains. He established a uniform system of weights and measures, encouraged the arts and sciences, and was tolerant to non-Muslims. He was succeeded by his son, Jahangir.
31 December 1600. Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter of incorporation to the East India Company. This charter gave George Clifford, the Earl of Cumberland, and 215 knights, aldermen, and merchants the right to trade in the East Indies (i.e. all countries beyond the Cape of Good Hope) for 15 years. The members of the Company paid a total of �72,000 to finance a large scale trading expedition and planned to send five ships to Java and Sumatra, to break the Dutch monopoly on the spice trade. Unauthorised interlopers were liable to confiscation of ships and cargo.� See 20 March 1602.
24 September 1599, 80 English merchants and adventurers met in Lomndon to prepare a petition t Queen Elizabeth I to form the East India Company.
1594, Lisbon closed its spice market to Dutch and English traders; at this time Portugal was in personal union with Spain, both being ruled by Philip II, and England was helping the Dutch to gain independecnce from Spain. This forced traders from those countries to get their spices directly from India, and the creation of the Dutch East India Company followed.
Moghul Emperor Akhbar�s conquests
12 July 1576, Moghul Emperor Akbar defeated Da�ud Khan Karrani, last Sultan of Bengal, at the Battle of Rajmahal
3 March 1575, In India, Mughal Emperor Akbar defeated the forces of Da�ud Khan, Afghan ruler of Bengal and then conquered the territory.
1572, Moghul forces conquered Gujerat region.
5 November 1556, Jalal-ud-Din, Moghul Emperor Akbar, defeated a Hindu army at the Second Battle of Panipat in the Punjab. He regained the Hindustani Empire.
14 February 1556, Akbar was enthroned as Moghal Emperor.
27 January 1556, The Moghul Emperor Humayun died after falling from his library roof in Delhi. He was succeeded by his 14-year old son, Jalal-ud-Din, who returned from exile.
7 September 1539, Guru Angad Dev became the second Guru of the Sikhs.
1537, Portuguese traders founded the port of Hooghly, on the Bay of Bengal. See 24 June 1632.
26 December 1530, Death of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire (born 1483).
1529, End of reign of Rana Sanga, King of Mewar (acceded 1509). He increa=sed Rajput power, defeating the Lodi Sultans, also the Muslim Kings of Malwa and Gujerat.
16 March 1527, The Battle of Khanwa. Babur continued his conquest of northern India.
See also Afghanistan
27 April 1526, Babur occupied Delhi.
21 April 1526, The First battle of Panipat.� Babur became first Moghul (Mughal) Emperor of India.� He invaded the Punjab (1525), also captured Delhi (April 1526) and overran northern India, beginning the Moghul Empire, which lasted until 1857. End of the Sultanate of Delhi, founded 1200.
Start of Mogul Empire
1519, Guru Nanak Dev built the first Sikh Temnple, in Kartapur, Punjab.
20 August 1507, Guru Nanak Dev became the first guru and leader of the Sikh religion.
20 October 1469, Guru Nanak Dev, Sikh leader, was born.
13 October 1240, Death of Sultan Razia of Delhi. She had been nominated by her father Shams ud Din Iltutmish as his successor, because he was impressed by her leadership qualities. However on his death his eldest son Firuz seized power. As his father had anticipated, he was an incapable ruler, spending his life on luxuries. His mother, Shah Turkan, was now the real power behind the throne and tried to have Razia assassinated. However Razia, with popular support, overthrew and executed her brother Firuz in autumn 1236 and took power. This was a period of instability in the region, with external threats from the Mongols and infighting within between various factions, However Razia was militarily talented and successfully led the army in putting down various insurrections.� Then, during a military venture by her against Malik Illtuniah of Bhatinda, there was a coup at home against her. The Delhi nobility dethroned her in favour of one of her younger brothers. Firuz went on to marry Iltuniah and they marched together against Delhi. However they were defeated at the walls of Delhi, her army deserted, and she died, probably assassinated, this day.
13 January 1399, Delhi was captured and sacked by Tamerlane.
18 April 1336, Following a Hindu rebellion against Muslim rule, Harihara I was crowned King of the Vijayanagar Empire in southern India.
1279, Rajendra III, last Chola King, died, The Chola Kingdom was overrun by neighbouring kingdoms.
18 February 1266, Thursday (-248,071) Mahmud, Sultan of Delhi, died. Sultan Balban, former slave and chamberlain to Sultan Mahmud in Delhi, now became ruler, founding a new dynasty. he reigned for 21 years, suppressed highway robbers and curbed the powers of the Indian nobility.
1252, The Ahom Kingdom was founded in Assam.
22 December 1241, The Mongols took Lahore, northern India.
1236, Sultan Altamsh of Delhi died after a 25-year reign during which he had extended Moslem rule across northern India, including Bengal and Sind. He was succeeded by his daughter Rayiza, who ruled until 1240 when she was assassinated by Hindus.
15 March 1206, Persian Sultan Mohammed of Ghor, who had created a Moslem empire within India, was assassinated and Delhi was now governed by his former Viceroy, Kuth ud din Aibak. Aibak was killed in 1210 but the dynasty he founded endured until 1266.
1192, Rajput King Prithviraj III was defeated by Muslim forces. End of the Rajput era (began ca. 800).
1187, The Punjab was invaded by Mohammed of Ghor.
1175, India was invaded by Persia, under Muizzadin Mohammed of Ghor.
1044, Death of King Rajendra I of the Chola Dynasty. He ruled over southern India from 1014 and extended his Tamil kingdom into Sri Lanka.
21 April 1030, Mahmud, Emir of Ghazni, died.
1014, Rajendra I became King of the Cholas.
27 November 1001, Mahmud of Ghazni (now, Afghanistan) defated Jaipal of the Punjab at Peshawar and occupied the Punjab. Jaipal committed suicide.
985, Chola King Rajaraja I conqured Kerala, southern India.
973, King Tala II overthrew the Rashtrakuta Dynasty,re-founding the Chalukya Dynasty.
815, Death of King Govinda III (783-815).
773, Death of Rashtrakuta King Krishna I (ca. 756-773).,
711, Muslim armies conquered Sind.
642, Death of Chalukya King Pulakesin II (608-642). He died in battle with his Pallava rivals on the east coast. The Chalukya Kingdom now split into east and west; the west came under Rashtrakuta rule.
606, Shashanka became the first recorded independent King of Bengal.
606, King Harsha (ca.590-647) acceded to the throne of Thanesar and Kannauj.He began expanding his rule across northern India.
185, Vasudeva became Kushan Emperor.
99, An ambassador from India arrived in Rome.
23 BCE,The Buddhist canon was put in writing for the first time, in Sri Lanka.
128 BCE, Start of the Satavahana Dynasty in India.
232 BCE,The Mauryan Empire began to crumble after Ashoka�s death. Taxila was the first region to secede.
268 BCE, Start of the reign of King Asoka of India (died 232 BCE). He is called the �Buddhist Constantine� because he orgamised Buddhism as the State religion. Asoka himself converted to Buddhism in around 260 BCE, and convened the 3rd great Buddhist Council at Patna in 244 BCE.
326 BCE, Alexander the Great reached the Indus River.
370 BCE, Start of the Nanda Dynasty in India.
415 BCE, The reign of Chandragupta II over much of northern India (375 � 415) ended.
480 BCE, Death of Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha), founder of Buddhism (born 563 BCE).
500 BCE, The Aryan language, Sanskrit, became established across India.
529 BCE, Birth of Buddhism. Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha), found enlightenment during a long period of penance in sackcloth at Buddh Gaya, near Benares.
540 BCE, Mahavira, founder of the Jain religion,was born.
7 April 563 BCE, Buddha was born, in the forest of Lumbini, NE India. He was the son of Suddhodana, King of the Shakya tribe. At birth Buddha was named Prince Gautama Siddhartha. His father had been forewarned that his son would forsake material possessions, and so tried to surround his son with every luxury available.
600 BCE, Aryan Kingdoms doiminated much of northern India.
800 BCE, Urban centres developed in the Ganges Valley
817 BCE, Traditional date of birth of early Jain teacher, Parshvanatha.
1500 BCE, Aryan invasion of India. Indus civilisation destroyed.
1750 BCE, Decline of the Indus Valley cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, after two millennia of unregulated irrigation had caused soil salinization and decline in food production.
2600 BCE, Peak of Indus Valley civilisation.
4500 BCE, Estimated date of start of sedentary agriculture, in the Ganges floodplain.
India was named by the Greeks and Persians, after the great Indus or Sindhu River (which today lies mainly in Pakistan).
Appendix 1 � Bangladesh from 1 January 1973
24 April 2013, A large garment factory in Rana Plaza in the outskirts of Dhaka, Bangladesh, collapsed, killing 1,129 people.
24 November 2012, A fire at a clothing factory in Bangladesh killed 112 people.
5 September 2011, India and Bangladesh signed a pact to end their 40-year border dispute.
2 December 1997, The Bangladesh Government signed� a peace accord with the indigenous peoples of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (see 1973). However this agreememnt nwas rather one-sided, as it did not include the withdrawal of Bengali settlers, or the Bangladeshi military, or investigate human rights abuses in the area from 1973 onwards. However it did cover the return of 50,000 refugees from Tripura, and a Hill Council under the Tribal Affairs Ministry was inaugurated.
26 February 1991, In Bangladeshi general elections, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party won 139 of 300 seats in the Jatiyo
1987, In Bangladesh, Ershad announced a State of Emergency as strikes and demonstrations paralysed the country.
10 November 1986, President Ershad announced an end to martial law in Bangladesh
24 March 1982, Military coup in Bangladesh. Ershad took power.
30 May 1981, President Ziaur Rahman of Bangladesh (born 1936) was assassinated. Abdus Sattar took power.
6 April 1979, Martial law in Bangladesh was lifted.
19 February 1979, In Bangladesh, Zia ur Rahman�s Bangladesh Nationalist Party won the elections.
1976, In Bangladesh, trades unions were banned.
15 August 1975. In a military coup in Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rhaman was overthrown; he and his family were murdered.
1974, Bangladeshi inflation was very high, at 61%. It fell to 9.3% in 1990 and was down to 3% by 1993.
28 November 1974, A severe cyclone hit Bangladesh, after the worst floods in 20 years hit in June 1974, drowning 1.300 and driving 27 million from their homes. In these floods, 0.9 million tons of rice was destroyed, also much jute, a major export earner, was lost. The jute crop was 6.2 million bales in 1973 but just 4 million in 1974.The country had also been severely impacted by the oil price rise. Oil imports consumed 20% of foreign earnings in 1973, but 50% in 1974.
22 February 1974. Pakistan recognised Bangladesh.
1973, Bangladesh, having newly achieved secession from Pakistan, now faced its own insurgency issue from the indigenous, mainly Buddhist, tribes of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, on the borders with India and Myanmar. These tribes established the Shanti Bahini (=Peace Force), to counter doiscrimminatioin and neglect theuy had faced from successive centralised Governments. In the 1960s some 10% of the land (40% of the arable land) of these peoples had been flooded by the Kaptai Hydroelectric Dam, leading many to flee to India, where they still face ddiscrimmination. Then in the 197os Bangladesh began settling Bengali Muslims in ythe Chittagoing Hill Tracts, away from the crowded Delta area. See 2 December 1997.
For events of Bangladesh from 31 December 1972 and earlier, relating to the secession from Pakistan, see India Region
Appendix 2 � Bhutan
24 March 2008, Bhutan held its first-ever general elections.
1999, Bhutan inaugurated its first TV service.
1998, The King of Bhutan reformed the monarchy, making it more constitutional.
2 June 1974, In Bhutan, King Jigme Singye Wangchuk was installed as the 4th hereditary ruler, the Druk Gyalpo, or Dragon King.
1972, Bhutan introduced a Gross National Happiness Index, intended to reflect people�s wellbeing more than GDP does. King Jigme Wangchuk began a process of modernisation.
1971, Nepal joined the United Nations.
1949, India was given influence over Bhutanese foreign affairs.
1907, The Bhutanese monarchy was esatablished, with Ugyen Wangchuk as hereditary ruler.
1864, Bhutan lost territory to Bengal and Assam in a British border war with India.
1731, Tibet imposed control over Bhutan.
1616, Bhutan was unified by Prince Abbot Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal.
Appendix 3 � Maldives
2005, The Maldives Parliament voted uninamimously to permit multi-party politics.
2003, Amnesty International accused the Maldives of torture and political repression. Anti-government riots in Male. Gayyoom was re-elected for a 6th 5-year term.
2000, Amnesty International claimed that opposition candidates in the 1999 Maldives election were tortured.
1998, Gayyoom was elected for a 5th 5-year term.
1988, An anti-Government coup was thwarted.
1985, The increasing tourist industry was fuelling economic growth in the Maldives.
1978, Gayyoom became President, after Nasir retired.
1968, The Maldives Sultanate was abolished. Ibrahim Nasir was elected first Prewsident of the new Republic.
27 July 1965, The Maldives Islands became independent, having been a British Protectorate since 1887.
1932, In a new democratic constitution, the Maldives Sultanate became an elected position.
1887, Britain declared a Protectorate over the Maldives. This formalised British control which had esisted since 1796, when Britain took over Sri Lanka.
1773, The Portuguese were ejected by Bidu Mohammed Takurufana, who founded a new Maldivian dynasty.
1558, Portugal took control of the Maldives.#
1153, Accoreding to legend, Islam reached the Maldives when an Islamic preacher converted the Maldivian ruler.
Appendix 4 � Nepal
2007, Maoists were admitted to the Nepalese Parliament under the terms of a temporary constitution.
24 December 2007, Nepal announced that the country�s 240-year old monarchy was to be replaced by a Republic in 2008.
24 April 2006, King Gyanendra of Nepal restored Parliamentary Government, ending weeks of protests. Gyanendra had seized absolute power in 1/2005. Parliament now curbed the King�s powers and held peace talks with rebels.
2005, King Gyanendra dismissed the Prime Minister and assumed absolute powers.
3 March 2004, Rebels from the Maoist Communist Party of Nepal attacked the Royal Nepalese Army at Bhojpur.
2003, Rebels observed a ceasefire, but pulled out of peace talks with the Government.
14 December 2003, 70 people were killed in Nepal in attacks by Maoist Communist rebels.
16 February 2002, Maoist guerrillas killed 130 people in Nepal.
1 June 2001, Crown Prince Dipendra of Nepal killed his father, the King, and other members of the Royal family with an assault rifle, then shot himself.� He died on 4 June 2001.� King Gyanendra ascended the Nepalese throne.
1999, The Nepalese Communist Party (NCP) won elections. A Maoist insurgency continued in rural areas.
13 February 1996, A Maoist insurgency broke out in rural areas of Nepal; weak central government.
Start of Maoist civil insurgency
1994, Minority Communist Government in Nepal.
1991, The Nepalese Communist Party won elections. Girljad Prasad Koirala became Prime Minister.
15 May 1991, The Nepalese Prime Minister, Bhattarai, resigned.
19 April 1990. Victory for pro-democracy movement in Nepal.
1985, The Nepalese Communist Party began a campaign of civil disobedience, to force a return to multi-Party politics.
1980, The Panchayat System of devolved self-governance was confirmed by referendum.
31 January 1972, King Mahendra Bir Bikram Sha Deva of Nepal died after a 17 year reign during which he made efforts to reduce the isolation of his country. He was succeeded by Crown Prince Birendra.
1960, The Nepalese Constitution was suspended by King Mahendra, who took absolute political control.
1959, Nepal adopted a multi-Party Constitution.
18 February 1951, The King of Nepal proclaimed a constitutional monarchy. End of Rana rule (see 1816)
1923, Treaty with Britain recognised Nepali independence.
11 June 1920, King Mahendra of Nepal, monarch 1955 � 72, was born in Kathmandu (died 1972)
25 February 1877, Bahadur Jung, Prime Minister of Nepal, died aged 61.
1816, After a war with Britain (1814-16), Nepal came under a British quasi-Protectorate ruled by hereditary Ranas.
11/1814, Britain declared war on Nepalese Ghurkas. By early 1816 tye British, having done less aell at first as they despised the enemy and were unaccustomed to mountain warfare, were within 50 miles of the Nepalese capital, Kathmandu.
4/1814, Britain accused Nepalese Ghurkas of encroaching on the territory of the East India Company.
1768, King Prithwi Naryan Shah united Nepal into a single State, bringing together three valley kingdoms.
879, Nepal gained independence from Tibet.