Chronography of Hungary

Page last modified 6 February 2023

 

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Map of Budapest 1905

 

Box index:-

2.0, Fall of Communism in Hungary 1988-91

1.0, Imre Nagy era � attempted liberalisation, 1953-58

0.0, Communism established in Hungary, 1945-52

-1.0, Hungarian territorial expansion pre-World War Two, 1938-41

-2.0, Hungary, inter-War years, 1922-37

-3.0, Hungary, territorial adjustments post World War One, 1919-21

-4.0, Hungary moves to independence from Austria, rise of Communism, 1918-19

-5.0, Hungarian Revolution 1848-9

 

X.

3 April 2022, In Hungary, Viktor Orban�s Populist Party, Fidesz, won the elections. It secured half the vote but two thirds of Parliamentary seats.

 

2.0, Fall of Communism in Hungary 1988-91

16 June 1991. The Soviet Army finally left Hungary after 47 years.

15 February 1991, The Visegrad Agreement was signed; the leaders of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland agreed to move towards free-market systems.

26 February 1990. Soviet troops began withdrawing from Hungary. By July 1991, all 73,500 should have gone.

7 October 1989. The Hungarian Communist party changed its name to the Socialist Party.

27 September 1989. Hungary abolished its restrictive emigration laws.

16 September 1989. Hungary opened its border with Austria to refuges fleeing the East on 11 September 1989. At least 16,000 East German refugees cross from Hungary into Austria.

10 September 1989, Hungary began accepting many refugees from East Germany. Hungary opened its border with Austria, providing a route to the West. The East German Government condemned the move as �treachery�.

23 August 1989, Hungary removed all border restrictions with Austria.

15 March 1989. 15,000 Hungarians marched in Budapest, calling for democracy.

11 February 1989, Political Parties were allowed in Hungary.

22 May 1988, Janos Kadar was replaced as Communist leader of Hungary by Karoly Grosz. This paved the way for reforms such as the legalisation of other political Parties.

 

1.0, Imre Nagy era � attempted liberalisation, 1953-58

17 June 1958. Ex-Hungarian Prime Minister Imre Nagy was executed after a secret trial, two years after the suppressed Hungarian Revolution.

10 December 1956, Martial law was declared in Hungary.

9 November 1956. The UN told the USSR to leave Hungary.

4 November 1956, 16 Soviet divisions moved into Hungary, with 2,000 tanks, to suppress the Hungarian Revolution.

28 October 1956, Imre Nagy ordered a cease fire by security forces.

27 October 1956, Prime Minister Imre Nagy formed a new Hungarian Government, see 5 November 1956.

25 October 1956. In Poland, thousands demonstrated in favour of the new regime in Hungary. Hungarian security forces fired on demonstrators near the Hungarian Parliament, killing some 600 people.

24 October 1956, The Hungarian Government declared martial law and Soviet tanks appeared in Budapest.

23 October 1956. Anti Communist uprising began in Hungary, see 5 November 1956. Protests were against the pro-Soviet regime which had replaced the reforming regime of Imre Nagy. Stalin's statue in Budapest was torn down and the return of Nagy only served to inflame matters further. The uprising was crushed on 26 October 1956.

5 July 1953, In Hungary, Matyas Rakosi was replaced as Prime Minister by Imre Nagy. This led to a more relaxed regime.

 

0.0, Communism established in Hungary, 1945-52

14 August 1952, In Hungary, Matyas Rakosi, Secretary of the |Hungarian Workers Party, was also appointed Prime Minister.

7 September 1950. All religions were dissolved in Hungary.

16 June 1949, The Hungarian Communist Party began a Stalinist purge, starting with the arrest of Foreign Minister Laszlo Rajk.

1 February 1949, The People�s Republic of Hungary was officially proclaimed.

26 December 1948, In Hungary, the Protestant and Jewish communities accepted compensation payments for the government nationalisation of their religious schools. However the Hungarian Catholic Church, under the authority of Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty, refused to accept this measure. On this day Mindszenty was arrested, and on 8 February 1949 sentenced to life imprisonment.

14 June 1948, In Hungary the Social Democrats, under force-majeure, reluctantly agreed to merge with the Communists to form the Hungarian Workers Party.

31 August 1947. The Communists won Hungarian elections.

30 May 1947, In Hungary the coalition Government was overtherown by the Hungarian Communist Party, acting with Soviet backing.

1 February 1946. Hungary declared itself a republic.

21 January 1945, Russia and Hungary signed an armistice. Hungarian borders were returned to their position at 31 December 1937, renouncing the Vienna Awards.

4 November 1945. General election in Hungary. Communists won just 17% of the vote, with the Smallholders Party winning with 60% of the vote. Zoltan Tildy of the Smallholders Party formed a coalition government.

24 October 1945. In Hungary, key industries and the banking sector were nationalised, as part of the Kosice Programme.

18 June 1945, In Hungary, as part of the Kosice Programme, the expulsion of all Germans and Magyars who had not been anti-Fascists was ordered. They had mostly left by the end of 1946. Large Hungarian estates were expropriated and converted into State farms.

 

For events of World War Two in Europe see France-Germany

8 May 1945, The Second World War officially ended in Europe, at one minute past midnight. Some 400,000 Hungarians had been killed, and excesses such as rapes by Soviet troops, summary arrests, and deportations to Soviet labour camps continued after this date. Total property damage at 22 billion pre-War Pengo amounted to five times national income for 1938 and about 40% of the country�s total wealth. All bridges over the rivers Danube and Tisza had been destroyed. A quarter of Hungary�s housing stock had been damaged or destroyed, along with half its industrial buildings. Half of all agricultural livestock and a third of agricultural machinery was lost; along with radical Soviet land reform that caused the 1945 harvest to be just 30% of per-War levels. The economy collapsed amidst rampant inflation, with food obtainable only by bartering objects likely to retain some value.

 

-1.0, Hungarian territorial expansion pre-World War Two, 1938-41

11 April 1941. Hungary regained the Bacska region from Yugoslavia.

30 August 1940, The Second Vienna Award restored the territory of Northern Transylvania to Hungary, from Romania. However Hungary, although succeeding in breaking the power of the �Little Entente� against it (the nations of Czechoslovakia, Romania, Serbia), had only managed to regain some of its lost territories (from the pre-World War One era) by becoming almost totally dependent on the Nazi economy and politics of Germany.

11 April 1939. Hungary left the League of Nations.

4 April 1939, Hungary annexed further territory in eastern Slovakia, giving it a common frontier with Poland.

16 March 1939, Hungary annexed Ruthenia, another part of Czechoslovakia.

24 February 1939, Hungary joined the Anti-Comintern Pact.

2 November 1938, The First Vienna Award returned 12,000 square kilometres of Slovakia, a strip along the Hungarian-Slovakian frontier, to Hungarian rule (see 20 September 1938). There was, however, disappointment in Hungary that a common frontier with Poland had not been attained.

20 September 1938, The Hungarian leaders, Imredy and Kanya, were summoned to Germany. Hitler told them he had no objections to Hungary�s desires to regain Slovakia and Ruthenia, so long as Hungary actively took part in the destruction of Czechoslovakia.

 

-2.0, Hungary, inter-War years, 1922-37

16 October 1937. Fascists formed a Nazi party in Hungary.

4 February 1934, Hungary established diplomatic relations with the USSR.

29 July 1932, In Hungary, two Communist leaders were court-martialled and hanged on the same day, despite international pleas for clemency due to the speed of the trial and lack of any evidence that they were plotting to overthrow the political and social order.

20 July 1928, A government decree in Hungary ordered the country's Romani people to integrate with the general population in dress and language and live in fixed abodes.

5 April 1927, Hungary signed a �Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation� with the Italian leader, Mussolini. Hungary needed allies, and Italy strengthened its influence in the Danube Basin.

1 January 1927. Hungary reformed its currency with a new unit, the Pengo, equivalent to 12,500 paper Crowns. The country had suffered rampant inflation in the early 1920s, and the League of Nations now helped with economic reconstruction.

31 January 1923, Hungary was admitted to the League of Nations.

18 September 1922. Hungary applied to join the League of Nations.

1 April 1922, Ex-Emperor Charles of Hungary died in Madeira (see 29 October 1921).

 

-3.0, Hungary, territorial adjustments post World War One, 1919-21

14 December 1921, A (somewhat dubious) plebiscite resulted in the retention by Hungary of the Sopron district, which would otherwise have gone to Austria.

29 October 1921, Ex-Emperor Charles was expelled from Hungary after he mounted a further failed coup bid; he moved to Madeira where he died on 1 April 1922.

7 March 1921, In Hungary, ex-Emperor Charles attempted a coup.

4 June 1920. At Versailles, the Treaty of Trianon cut Hungary to 25% of its former size. See maps athttp://www.dvhh.org/history/1900s/Trianon-index.htm

The population of Hungary was cut from 21 million in 1914 to under 8 million after this Treaty.

1 March 1920, Nicholas Horthy was elected Regent of Hungary, pending a possible restoration of the monarchy.

14 November 1919, Romanian forces withdrew from Budapest, Hungary, which they had occupied since 4 August 1919.

7 November 1919, The Allied War Council demanded the withdrawal of Romanian troops from Hungary.

 

For main European events of World War One see France-Germany

-4.0, Hungary moves to independence from Austria, rise of Communism, 1918-19

1 August 1919, In Hungary, the Socialist regime of Bela Kun was overthrown.

22 March 1919. Bela Kun declared Hungary a Soviet Republic.

24 November 1918, The Communist Party of Hungary (Kommunistik Magyarorszagi Partja) was founded, and soon after, started publishing its own newspaper, Voros Ujsag (Red News).

16 November 1918, Hungary was proclaimed an independent Republic.

13 November 1918, Charles, the former Austro-Hungarian Emperor, formally renounced any participation in the Government of Hungary.

25 October 1918, Disillusioned by defeats and food shortages in World War One, Hungary now called its troops home and effectively abandoned its allies in the War effort.

17 October 1918. Hungary declared its independence from Austria.

20 March 1894, Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian nationalist patriot, died (born 19 September 1802). His son Ferenc returned to Budapest to campaign for Hungarian independence from Austria.

 

10 January 1913, Gustav Husak, First Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party, was born.

7 June 1896, Imre Nagy, Prime Minister of Hungary 1953-55 and 1956, was born.

17 May 1892, Georg Klapka, Hungarian soldier, died (born 7 April 1820).

18 February 1890, Julius Andrassy, Hungarian statesman, died.

1 January 1873, The cities of Pest, Buda and Obuda were merged to form Budapest.

8 June 1867, The Hapsburg Emperor, Francis Joseph I, was crowned Apostolic King of Hungary at Buda.

15 March 1867. Austria and Hungary buried their differences and agreed to joint rule, sharing defence, foreign, and financial matters but with separate parliaments. However the Czechs, annoyed by the minor role they were given in this arrangement, walked out of the Parliament on 22 August 1868.

17 February 1867, Julius Andrassy was appointed first constitutional premier of Hungary. Hungary now acquired a measure of self-government, although Austria still headed foreign and war policies.

12 October 1856, Richard Guyon, General in the Hungarian Revolutionary Army, died

5 October 1849, Count Louis Batthyany, Hungarian statesman, died (born 1806 in Pressburg).

 

-5.0, Hungarian Revolution 1848-9

13 August 1849, Hungarian General, Gorgey, surrendered unconditionally to the Russian Commander in Chief, Field Marshall Paskevic. The Hungarian leader, Kossuth, who had urged the continuation of the conflict right up to the end, escaped to Turkey.

28 July 1849, Hungary�s Diet passed the Nationalities Law, granting the non-Magyar peoples of Hungary substantial rights in the use of their native languages, also regional autonomy. This was a last-ditch effort by the Diet to win over the loyalty of the peasants and make them more willing to fight against Austria; a string of Hungarian defeats, and the entry of Russia on Austria�s side, had demoralised the Hungarian Army and created a shortage of recruits.

17 June 1849, Russian troops invaded Hungary.

6 June 1849, Kossuth entered Budapest in triumph; however his rule was to last only a few weeks.

21 May 1849, Buda Castle was stormed by Austrian forces.

13 April 1849, The Hungarian Diet proclaimed a Republic, with Lajos Kossuth as President.

5 January 1849, Franz Joef�s Austrian troops arrived in Buda, to occupy Buda and Pest, and suppress the Hungarian Revolution.

7 September 1848, The Congress in Vienna, which opened on 22 July 1848, abolished serfdom, and the feudal system of land tenure. This greatly benefited the Czechs, who since the Battle of the White Mountains, 1620, had become a peasant nation, with only the beginnings of a middle class by 1800. After serfdom was abolished, the system of peasant ownership of land allowed national wealth to be built up, and personal liberty enabled an educational system to be established.

31 March 1848, The Emperor of Austria was forced to agree to Hungarian demands for autonomy (voirtual independence); however he planned a military strategy to crush the Hungarian rebels.

23 March 1848, Hungary proclaimed its independence from Austria.On 5 January 1849 Budapest surrendered to the Austrians.

15 March 1848, Emperor Ferdinand of Austria made concessions to the Hungarian agitants, promising a liberal conasitution amnd freedom of the press.

 

9 February 1842, Aurel Dessewffy, Hungarian politician, died (born 1808).

28 October 1843, Dezso Banffy, Hungarian statesman, was born in Klausenberg.

1840, Hungary attempted to impose Hungarian as the official language in Croatia; this provoked the formation of a Croatian Nationalisy (Illyrian) Party under Count Draskovic.

24 November 1833, Prince Miklos Esterhazy died (born 12 December 1765).

8 March 1823, Birth of Hungarian statesman Julius Andrassy, in Kassa, Hungary.

7 April 1820, Georg Klapka, Hungarian soldier, was born (died 17 May 1892).

30 January 1818, Arthur Gorgei, Hungarian soldier, was born.

23 July 1805, Count Balint Miklos died (born 1740).

17 October 1803, Francis Deak, Hungarian statesman, was born (died 28 July 1876).

19 September 1802, Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian patriot, was born (died 20 March 1894).

28 September 1790, Prince Miklos Josef Esterhazy (born 1714) died.

4 July 1784, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria repealed the Hungarian Constitution, and annulled the Hungarian feudal Courts, in an attempt to create a unified Hapsburg empire and break the power of the Hungarian nobility.

12 December 1765, Prince Miklos Esterhazy was born (died 24 November 1833).

9 December 1687, In consequence of the Diet of Pressburg (11 October 1687) Archfuke Joseph, son of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, was crowned King of Hungary.

11 October 1687, The Hungarian Diet of Pressburg renounced its right of resistance and recognised the Hungarian Crown as a hereditary right of the Habsburgs, see 9 December 1687.

11 September 1645, Miklos Esterhazy died (born 8 April 1582)

7 September 1635, Paul Esterhazy was born (died 26 March 1713).

1 July 1618, Ferdinand of Styria was crowned King oif Hungary.

23 June 1606, The Peace of Vienna guaranteed the constitutional rights and privileges of the Hungarians in Transylvania and Imperial Hungary.

8 April 1582, Miklos Esterhazy was born (died 11 September 1645)

4 October 1570, Peter Pazmany, Hungarian statesman, was born (died 1637)

8 September 1563, Maximilian I, King of Germany, was elected King of Hungary.

29 December 1541, By the Treaty of Gyalu, against the wishes of the Hungarian nobility, Isabella, widow of John Zapolya and mother of the infant King John Sigismund Zapolya, ceded Hungary to Frederick I, Archduke of Austria.

23 July 1540, Following the death of John Zapolya, the infant John Sigismund Zapolya succeeded as King of Hungary, in violation of the Treaty of Nagyvarad. Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria, King of Bohemia and Germany, invaded to claim the whole of Hungary.

22 June 1533, Peace treaty arranged between Suleiman I, Ottoman Sultan, and Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria, ruler of Germany and King of Bohemia. Ferdinand retained the parts of Hungary he still controlled, whilst voivoide (military viceroy) John Zapolya, ruler of Transylvania and ally of Suleiman, retained the rest of Hungary.

10 May 1529, Suleiman I, Ottoman Sultan, left Constantinople to attack Habsburg Austria. He was in league with John Zapolya, claimant to the Hungarian throne, who had been elected by anti-Habsburg factions of the Hungarian nobility.

5 November 1527, Ferdinand I of Austria and Bohemia, brother of Emperor Charles V, was recognised as King of Hungary by the Diet in Buda. John Zapolya continued to press his rival claim to the throne until 1528.

10 November 1526, John Zapolya, Voivode (Military Viceroy) of Trasylvania, was elected King of Hungary, by Hungarian nobles eager to avoid Habsburg domination.

13 March 1516, Death of King Ladislas II of Hungary and Bohemia. He was succeeded by his son, aged 10, as King Louis II.

20 July 1514, A peasant�s rebellion in Hiungary, led by George Dozsa, was crushed by John Zapolya, ruler of Transylvania, near Temesvar in the Bansat.

4 June 1508, Louis II was crowned King of Hungary.

1 July 1506, Louis II, King of Hungary and Bohemia, was born.

17 March 1505, Prince Christopher, son of Janos Corvinus of Hungary, died.

12 October 1504, Janos Corvinus of Hungary died (born 1473).

7 November 1491, Ladislas II, King of Bohemia and Hungary, signed the Pact of Bratislava with Holy Roman Empieror Maximilian I. Maximilian recognised ladislas as King of Hungary and ceased to try and take Hungarian territory, and Ladislas agreed the succession rights of the Habsburgs to the Hungarian throne if he died without an heir.

18 September 1490, Ladislas II, King of Bohemia, became King of Hungary.

23 December 1466, George Podobrady, King of Bohemia, was excommunicated as a Hussite by Pope Paul II, who encouraged a Crusade against him.

 

Mathias I Corvinus

6 April 1490, Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, died suddenly. He was succeeded by Ladislas II of Bohemia.

6 December 1463, Mathias I Corvinus, King of Hungary, took Bosnia from Ottoman Turkey. He also claimed Bosnia, Serbia, Moldavia and Wallachia.

20 January 1458, Mathew Corvinas, second son of Janos Hunyadi (the ruler who had successfully defended Belgrade against the Ottomans under Mehmed II in 1456) was elected King of Hungary. He took territory for Hungary from Bohemia, having obtained Papal consent for a Crusade against its Hussite ruler, George of Podebrady (ruled 1458-71). However Hungary eventually came under Ottoman rule in 1526.

 

23 November 1457, Following the execution of Laszlo Hunyadi, King Ladislas V was forced to flee to Prague in Bohemia, where he died suddenly, aged 17.

9 November 1457, Ulrich Cilli, Hungarian governor, was assassinated hy Laszlo Hunyadi.

11 August 1456, Janos Hunyadi died suddenly in Belgrade, However he had secured Hungarian independence from Ottoman Tiurkey.

See also Serbia for wars against Ottoman Tirkey in what is now Yugoslavia

27 March 1443, Matthius Corvinus, King of Hungary, second son of John Hunyadi, was born.

22 February 1440, Ladislaus V, King of Hungary and Bohemia, was born (died 23 November 1457)

27 October 1439. Death of King Albert II of Hungary at Langendorf, from dysentery, whilst fighting the Turks. Born in 1397, he reigned less than two years and spent this in the defence of Hungary against the Turks.

10 August 1397, Albert II, King of Bohemia and Hungary (died 27 October 1439) was born.

10 September 1382, Louis The Great of Hungary died suddenly at Nagyszombat after a 56-year reign, having also been King of Poland for 12 years. In Hungary he was succeeded by his daughter Maria of Anjou, whose husband Sigismund of Luxembourg now ruled Hungary for 50 years from 1387.

17 November 1370, King Louis I of Hungary, having been nominated by the childless Casimir III as his successor, was crowned King of Poland, formally uniting the two countries. However the Poles never fully submitted to his rule.

1361, Buda became the capital of Hungary (see 1247).

1 July 1346, King Louis I of Hungary, attempting to secure a seaboard on the Adriatic, against the wishes of the Venetian Republic who wishes toi control the entire Adriatic, tried to defend the city of Zara. Zara had declared itself part of Hungary, but was then besieged by Venice. The Venetians won and took Zara.

21 July 1342, King Louis I of Hungary was crowned. Born 1326, he died in 1382.

1307, On the death of 17-year-old King Wenceslas III of Poland and Bohemia (see Poland), Holy Roman Emperor (see Germany) Albrecht I gave the Bohemian Crown to his son Rudolf. However the Bohemians would not accept this, and an interregnum began, lasting until 1310.

 

Death of Andrew (Andros) III; end of the Arpad Dynasty

14 January 1301, The Arpad Dynasty of Hungary ended with the death of Andrew III after a 13-year reign. Wenceslas III, son of King Wenceslas II of Bohemia and Poland, was crowned King. Hungary now endured a 7-year civil war whilst the succession was disputed.

10 July 1290, Ladislaus IV, King of Hungary, was murdered, aged 28, by Cuman rebels. He was succeeded by his senior kinsman who ruled as Andrew III until his death in 1301. Andrew III was the last king of the Arpad Dynasty.

 

6 August 1272, Stephen V, King of Hungary, died.

1247, The city of Buda was founded by King Bela IV, to replace the city of Pest that the Mongols had destroyed in 1241. Many Germans came to live in Buda.

25 December 1241, Batu, Mongol leader, took Budapest, Hungary.

11 April 1241, The Mongols defeated King Bela IV of Hungary at Mohi.

 

King Andras II

1235, King Andras II died, having lost large swathes of territory during his 30-year reign. He was succeeded by his son, Bela IV, who tried to recoup these losses.

19 November 1231, Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew II King of Hungary, died (born 1207).

1205, A low point in the Hungarian Arpad dynasty. King Ladislas III who had succeeded Emeric in 1204 was now dethroned by Emeric�s brother Andras, who began a 30-year reign of profligacy as King Andras II.

 

1196, Hungary�s King Bela III died after a 23-year reign. He was succeeded by his son Emeric, who ruled until 1204, but was later challenged by hs brother Andras, aged 21.

1141, Hungary�s blind King Bela died after a ten-year reign. He was succeeded by King Geza, who reigned until 1161.

1116, King Coloman I of Hungary died aged 44 and was succeeded by King Stephen II, who reigned until 1131.

29 July 1095, King Ladislas I of Hungary, having conquered Dalmatia and Croatia, introduced Catholicism, and founded the Bishopric of Zagreb (Agram), died suddenly this day aged 55 just as he was about to join the upcoming Crusade. Ladislas was succeeded by his nephew Coloman, son of his late brother Geza; he ruled until 1116.

25 April 1077, Hungary�s King Geza died (reigned from 1074). Succededby Ladislas, the 37-year old son of the late Bela I, who reigned until 1095.

15 August 1038, Stephen I, King of Hungary, died and was succeeded by Peter the German.

4 July 907. The Bavarians suffered a disastrous defeat by the Hungarians.

 

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