Chronography of Egypt (inc. Suez)
Page last modified 23/2/2022
also Islam and
also Judaism and
Cairo urban growth 1965 � 2007.
Cairo and environs 1910
7.0, Mubarak era 1981-2011. Terminated by
6.0, Sadat era 1970-81; peace agreement
5.0. Hostilities with Israel, 6-Day War and
4,0, Aswan Dam Project, Soviet backing,
2.0, Colonel Nasser takes power, 1954-56
1.0, Growth of Egyptian Wafd Nationalism.
King Farouk abdicates Neguib. British leave, 1950-53
0.0, Start of Wafd Nationalism, 1907-50
-1.0, Tutenkhamen�s tomb discovered, 1922-23
-1.5, British Protectorate over Egypt,
-2.0, Anti-European mood sweeps Egypt;
Britain and France take over the country, 1881-88
-3.0, Egypt bankrupt; Khedive Ismail
-4.0, Suez Canal built, 1854-69
23/3/2021, A container ship, the Evergiven, strayed off course in the
Suze Canal and ran aground on the bank, blocking the waterway.
24/11/2017, Extremist Muslims bombed a
Sufi mosque in al-Rawdah, Egypt, then shot dead many of those fleeing the
scene. 305 worshippers lost their lives.
11/12/2016, 28 were killed and 49 injured in
an ISIS bomb attack on St Mark�s Cathedral, Cairo.
28/5/2014, Abdel Fattah al Sisi was elected President of
3/7/2013, After massive street
protests across Egypt, President Morsi was deposed by the military; his regime accused of sending the
country towards bankruptcy.
24/6/2012, Mohammed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood became President of
9/10/2011, In Egypt, 24 protestors were killed and 200 injured
in a crackdown by security forces.
era 1981-2011. Terminated by Arab Spring
13/4/2011, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak
was arrested, along with his sons, in Cairo.
11/2/2011, Egyptian President Hosni
Mubarak resigned after widespread protests against him, leaving Egypt
governed by the military. This was during the �Arab Spring�.
4/2/2011, Large crowds gathered in
Cairo calling for the resignation of President Mubarak.
Spring� protests in Egypt and Lebanon.
1/1/2011, 23 were
killed and 70 injured in a bomb attack on a church in Alexandria, Egypt.
3/2/2006, An Egyptian ferry sank in the Red Sea, killing 1,300.
2005, Mubarak was elected for a 5th
term as President.
21/7/2005, 64 were killed by suicide
bombers at the seaside resort of Sharm El Sheikh, on the Red Sea.
7/10/2004, Three bombs exploded in
the Egyptian resorts of Taba, Nuwelba and Raas al Sultan; the victims were� mainly Israeli tourists. The bombings were
timed to coincide with an Israeli military campaign in the Gaza Strip.
20/2/2002, In Egypt, a fire on a
train at Reqa al Gharbiya killed 370, and injured a further 65.
27/12/1989, Egypt and Syria resumed
full diplomatic relations.
17/11/1997, The terrorist group Jamaat
al Islamiyah massacred 58 foreugn tourists and 4 Egyptians at Luxor.
27/12/1993. In Cairo, Muslim militants
opened fire on a tourist bus, wounding 16, including 8 Australians.
Cairo, a caf� used by foreigners was bombed by Muslim extremists. 4 were
killed and 16 injured. Americans, Swedes, and Germans were amongst the injured.
25/1/1993. President Mubarak of Egypt
vowed to end Muslim fundamentalism.
4/1/1993. Muslim fundamentalists killed two Coptic
Christians in Egypt.
12/10/1992. Earthquake hit Cairo. It was 5.9 on the
Richter scale, with an epicentre 19 miles from Cairo, tremors were felt in
Jerusalem 250 miles away. There was panic as at least 160 buildings collapsed
and many were trampled to death in the ensuing chaos. Fortunately the Aswan Dam
was not breached.
15/12/1991. More than 470 drowned when a ferry carrying
returning Egyptian pilgrims and overseas workers sank in the Red Sea.
1986, President Hosni
Mubarak met Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres to discuss Middle
9/10/1984, Jordan mended relations
with Egypt when Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak visited
Amman. Egypt had been despised by the Arab world since the late President Anwar Sadat
signed a peace treaty with |Israel at Camp David in 1979. Now King Hussein
met with Arab hostility for mending relation with Egypt, a move sparked by
problems in the Jordanian economy arising from a downturn in trade resulting
form the Iran-Iraq war.
The last Israeli troops left the Sinai.
15/4/1982. The 5 men who killed Sadat
in Egypt were executed. They were Muslim fundamentalists who disagreed with Sadat�s
negotiating with Israel.
10/11/1981. Hosni Mubarak became
President of Egypt.
era 1970-81; peace agreement with Israel, see also Israeli history
Anwar Sadat of Egypt, 62, was assassinated in Cairo, whilst attending a military parade
celebrating Egyptian successes in the Yom Kippur war of 1973. ��Vice President Hosni Mubarak
became President.� Army members who were
part of Islamic Jihad organisation killed Sadat, opposing his negotiations with Israel,
which led to the historic Camp David Agreement of 1979.
3/9/1981, President Sadat began a crackdown against
dissidents, arresting 1,536 of them on a single night.
15/9/1981. Sadat expelled 1,500 Soviets from Egypt.
27/12/1980, Egypt and Syria resumed diplomatic
relations after a 10-year break.
26/3/1979. In Washington, USA,
Mr Begin of Israel and President Sadat of Egypt signed a peace treaty.
Carter oversaw the signing.
1977, Sadat visited Jerusalem
for a first ever meeting with the Israeli Prime Minister.
5/6/1975. President Sadat opened the Suez Canal reopened to
all international maritime traffic except Israeli shipping, after eight
years of total closure since the Six-Day War.
28/2/1974. The USA and Egypt resumed diplomatic
relations after a break of 7 years.
Yom Kippur war see
6/11/1972, A Coptic Christian church was set alight
during sectarian violence in the northern Cairo suburb of Khanka.
18/7/1972, Sadat expelled 20,000 Soviet advisers after
the USSR failed to supply promised armaments.
2/9/1971, Egypt discontinued its use of the title
United Arab Republic and reverted to its old name.� See 29/9/1961.
15/1/1971, The Aswan
High Dam on the Nile, built with Soviet finance and expertise, was
officially opened by President Sadat, and Podgorny.
14/10/1970, Nasser�s associate, Anwar Sadat,
aged 51, was elected President of Egypt.
28/9/1970. President Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt since 1954, died
of a heart attack aged 52, after mediating in the Jordan civil war.
with Israel, 6-Day War and aftermath, 1967-70
7/8/1970, Egypt and Israel, both exhausted by their
War of Attrition throughout 1970, agreed a ceasefire. Israel remained in
occupation of Sinai up to the east bank of the Suez Canal. Egypt retained the
west bank of the Canal, and agreed not to site any missiles within 20 miles of
it. After a few months Egypt reneged o the missile agreement and sited missiles
close to the Canal. Israel protested but took no further action. The strategic
depth of the Sinai itself made Israel feel secure.
8/4/1970, Israeli bombs fell on a primary school in the Nile
delta, killing 30 children. The bombs were intended for a military base but
fell off-target; it was a further reprisal for the sinking on 3/2/1970 of an
Israeli ship near Eilat.
12/2/1970, Israeli raid on factories near Cairo; 70
civilians died. This was a further Israeli reprisal for the sinking on 3/2/1970
of an Israeli ship near Eilat.
3/2/1970, Egyptian frogmen sank an Israeli supply
ship off the Israeli port of Eilat. In reprisal Israeli aircraft sank several
Egyptian minesweepers in the Gulf of Suez.
4/11/1967, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser
told former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Robert B Anderson that he was willing to agree
to many of the requests of Israel to end the state of belligerence between the
two nations following the recent Six-Day War but to do so officially would be suicide for any Arab leader.
1967, Six Day War with Israel;
Egypt lost the Sinai. See
Israel for more details
Dam Project, Soviet backing, 1956-70
21/7/1970. The Aswan Dam in Egypt was
annual Nile flooding could now be controlled, and hydro-electric power
produced; the 111 metre high dam
also created a significant fishing industry.
14/5/1964. Soviet leader Nikita Krushchev and Egyptian President Gamal
Abdel Nasser opened the first stage of the Aswan Dam in Egypt. The Nile had been diverted four years earlier to
build the dam, which created a lake 6
miles wide and 350 miles long, displacing 100,000 people but irrigating a
million acres of desert for farmland. Many of Egypt�s historic sites were also
flooded, but the buildings were moved to safe locations.
9/1/1960. Work began on the Aswan High
24/10/1958, The USSR
loaned Egypt 400 million roubles to build the Aswan Dam.
23/8/1958, The Egyptian Government approved
the Aswan Dam project.
and the USA withdrew financial support for Egypt and the Aswan Dam Project
under its new leader, Nasser, who was
seen as too pro-Soviet.
I, King of Egypt from 1936 to 1952, died in exile in Italy.
7/8/1962, Egypt agreed terms
with the UK for compensating British subjects whose property was seized
after the Suez Crisis of 1956.
21/9/1961, In Egypt, Nasser
confiscated the assets of wealthier Egyptians.
1/2/1958. Egypt and Syria joined to form the United Arab
Republic.� See 29/9/1961.
3.0, Suez Crisi 1956, �See also Britain, France, Israel
30/4/1957 Egypt reopened the Suez Canal.
8/3/1957, The Suez Canal reopened for smaller ships.
4/1/1957. In the wake of the Suez Crisis, a UN sponsored force
of German tugs and salvage vessels began to
clear the Suez Canal. 13 ships of various nationalities had been stranded in
the Canal and could now resume sailing towards the Mediterranean. On 1/1/1957 President Colonel Gamal Nasser of Egypt had
abrogated a 1954 treaty that had preciously guaranteed the UK full access to
the Canal during international conflicts.
27/12/1956, Clearance work on the Suez Canal began.
22/12/1956. Britain and France withdrew their forces from Egypt,
under intense pressure from the USA. The Suez Crisis had caused a run on
Sterling, and the US would not halt this without a withdrawal.
withdrawal of Anglo-French troops from Port Said was completed, UN forces moved
15/11/1956. UN emergency forces arrived in Suez, and began to
clear the Canal of wrecked ships on 27/12/1956. UN forces began taking over
from the British, under strong pressure from the
USA. The British PM, Anthony Eden, was
suffering from psychological strain caused by the unanticipated world hostility
to his Suez adventure, and flew to Jamaica on 23/11/1957 to rest.
7/11/1956. Britain and France reluctantly agreed to UN demands
for a ceasefire in the Suez Crisis.
6/11/1956. Israeli forces reached Sharm El Sheikh.
2/11/1956, Gaza fell to British troops.
31/10/1956. France and Britain bombed Egyptian airfields in the
Suez Crisis. The speed of events � Egypt was only given 12 hours to withdraw
from the Canal � suggested to US President
Eisenhower that the whole operation was staged to maintain Anglo-French
influence in Suez.
29/10/1956. 5.pm. Israeli troops invaded the Sinai Peninsula and
troops pushed on towards the Suez Canal, ostensibly to destroy guerrilla
strongholds, coming within 20 miles of the Canal. 30,000 tank-supported Israeli
troops invaded Gaza and the Sinai Peninsula, in retaliation �for Egyptian
attacks on land and sea communications near Gaza�. Israeli forces wanted to
reach the gun batteries at Sharm El Sheikh at the tip of the Sinai peninsula
which were closing the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. These batteries
were destroyed on 5/11/1956.
This was part of the Suez Crisis in which President Nasser
nationalised the canal. See 16/11/1869, 26/7/1956, and 23/6/1956. On 30/10/1956
Britain and France issued an ultimatum to Egypt and Israel to stop fighting and
on 31/10/1956 France and Britain invaded the Suez area �to stop the
Israeli-Egyptian fighting. Nasser closed the canal by sinking 47 old ships full
of concrete in it. In fact this move had been pre-planned with Israel�s co-operation.
On 25/10/1956 the� British, French, and
Israeli PMs, Anthony Eden, Guy Mollet, and David
Ben Gurion, had met in secret at Sevres. On 6/11/1956 Anglo-French
forces, 600 British and 487 French paratroopers, seized the Canal itself,
having landed at Port Said. The UN ordered a ceasefire on 8/11/1956. The US
condemned the invasion and the UN saw the rare sight of US and USSR delegates
voting together. The US had threatened not to defend Sterling against a run on
international markets against it unless the UK pulled out of Suez.
Because of the fighting, backed by Britain and France, and ended by a
UN ceasefire, the Canal was closed for more than six months, blocked by sunken
ships. UK petrol rationing began on 23/11/1956, see this date. The Canal closed
again during the Arab-Israeli war of 1967 and did not reopen until 1975.
However by then very large oil tankers had been developed that were too deep to
pass through the canal. It is hoped that plans to deepen the Canal and reduce
fees will revive the enterprise (2001).
Prime Minister Anthony
Eden and Foreign Secretary Selwyn Lloyd visited Paris and met with French
Mollet and Foreign Minister Christian Pineau to discuss joint action
23/9/1956, Britain and France took the Suez issue to the UN
29/8/1956, Major build up of British and French forces in the
eastern Mediterranean, to intimidate Egypt.
1/8/1956, The US, Britain, and France met to talk about the
Suez problem. On 8/8/1956 Eden said Nasser could not be trusted.
30/7/1956, Eden tells Nasser he cannot have the
Suez Canal and imposed an arms embargo on Egypt.
26/7/1956. Nasser nationalised the Suez Canal a month after
taking power. Nasser wanted the tolls from the Canal to pay for the Aswan Dam construction. On
28/7/1956 the Cabinet met in London and agreed that as a last resort military
means would be used if the Canal was not kept open for free passage of ships in
perpetuity, not just until the Suez Canal Company�s concession ran out in November
1968. On 9/9/1956 Nasser rejected US plans for international control over the
announced that it would not renew the Suez Canal Company�s concession when it
expired in 1968.
Nasser takes power, 1954-56
Gamal Adbel Nasser was elected Egypt�s first president. However voting was compulsory and he was
the only candidate. Nasser graduated from the Royal Military
Academy in Cairo in 1938, aged 20, and was wounded in the 1948 Arab-Israeli
war. Appointed Prime Minister of Egypt in 1954, he enjoyed popular support.
13/6/1956, The last British troops left the Suez Canal Zone.
31/3/1956, The last British soldiers left Egypt, and 74 years of
British military presence in Egypt ended, as the Grenadier Guards and Life
Guards embarked at Port Said, Suez.
2/3/1955. Egypt and Syria signed a defensive pact.
17/11/1954, Nasser became official head of state in Egypt,
26/10/1954, An assassination attempt on Egyptian Prime
Abdel Nasser failed.
19/10/1954, Colonel Nasser of Egypt agreed with Britain a
timetable for the withdrawal of Britain from the Canal Zone within two years.
27/7/1954, The UK Government agreed to Colonel
Nasser�s request to pull British troops out of Suez. They were to leave by
America and the World Bank turned down a request for aid from President Nasser of Egypt to build the Aswan Dam.
17/4/1954. Colonel Nasser took power in Egypt from President
Neguib and became Prime Minister.
of Egyptian Wafd Nationalism. King Farouk abdicates Neguib. British leave,
18/6/1953, Egypt declared itself a republic.
24/5/1953, The Foreign Office advised British
families to leave Egypt.
10/2/1953, In Egypt, General Neguib was granted
dictatorial powers for three years.
16/1/1953, Egypt dissolved all political parties.
13/10/1952, Egypt signed an agreement with Sudan on use
of the water from the Nile.
26/7/1952. King Farouk
abdicated as King of Egypt.� General Neguib
was the first president.This
ended the 148-year-old Egyptian monarchy which had begun in 1805 with Ottoman
was the 10th generation of Ali�s descendants. General Gamel Abdel Nasser had
orchestrated the coup behind the scenes, organising the revolutionary secret
Free Officers group that had ousted Farouk. In 1954 Nasser overthrew Neguib
as ruler of Egypt. Nasser then held �elections� in which his was
the only name on the ballot paper; Nasser got 99.95% of the vote.
23/7/1952, General Neguib (born 1913) marched on Cairo,
to overthrow King
Farouk I. Farouk fled to France and then Monaco; Egypt
became a dictatorial Republic under Neguib and
Britain lost its influence in the country.
27/1/1952, Anti-British rioters in Egypt burnt down the Shepheard
Hotel, killing 17.
response to the incident of 25/1/1952 mobs in Cairo led by the Muslim
Brotherhood attacked British buildings, killing 10 Britons. Cairo police
declined to intervene until the evening.
25/1/1952, British troops captured the police headquarters in
Ismalia, Egypt; 46 Egyptians were killed This followed guerrilla attacks on
British bases in Egypt, in which the British suspected police complicity.
12/1/1952, The first
violence by Egyptian nationalists against the British began in the village of
Tel el Kebir.
4/12/1951, British forces attacked in Egypt during anti-British
20/11/1951, Evacuation of British Army families from Egypt began.
22/10/1951, Britain stopped arms exports to Egypt.
21/10/1951, Four British warships arrived at Port Said, at the
northern end of the Suez Canal.
troops seized the Suez Canal Zone after Egypt abrogated the 1936 Treaty.
10/9/1951, Anti-British riots in Egypt.
5/4/1951, The UK Government approved, in principle, of withdrawing
troops from the Suez Canal.
16/11/1950, King Farook of Egypt demanded immediate evacuation of British troops
from the Suez Canal.
0.0, Start of
Wafd Nationalism, 1907-50
3/1/1950, In Egypt, the Wafd Nationalist Party won overwhelmingly
in general elections.
17/3/1948. King Farouk of Egypt laid the foundation
stone of the Aswan Dam.
8/1/1945, A general election in Egypt, boycotted by
Nationalists, was won by Ahmed Pasha.
8/10/1944, In Egypt, King Farouk dismissed the Wafd Government
4/2/1942, King Farouk was, despite British appeals,
unwilling to declare war on Germany; he was perhaps keener to see a total end
to British influence over his country. The British, however, were determined to
stop Axis forces approaching eastwards from Libya from acquiring Egypt (see World War Two)
and so denying the Suez Canal to Britain and the Allies. On this day British
tanks approached the Abdeen Palace and despite a short defence by palace guards
forced a capitulation by Farouk. Egyptian Nationalists felt humiliated.
26/8/1936. A treaty (The Anglo-Egyptian Alliance) ended the British protectorate over
Egypt and gave
Britain control over the Suez Canal for the next 20 years.
2/5/1936, General election in Egypt, victory for the Wafd Nationalists.
formed a Wafd Government.
28/4/1936, Farouk, aged 16, became King of Egypt on the
death of his father, King Fuad (68). Fuad had become monarch in 1922
when Britain granted limited independence to Egypt.
1/1/1930, In Egypt, Nahas Pasha formed a Wafd Nationalist
21/10/1929, In Egypt, the Wafd Nationalist Party won the elections.
and Egypt agreed a draft treaty for the withdrawal of British troops from
Egypt, except from the Canal Zone. British troops were no longer a common
sight on Egyptian streets and the country felt more independent.
1928, The Muslim Brotherhood was founded in Egypt by the Sunni Islamic
scholar, Hassan al-Banna.
16/3/1928, In Egypt, the Nationalist leader Nahas Pasha
became Prime Minister.
1/1924, Saad Zaghlul returned to Egypt
from exile to lead the Wafd Party to a landslide victory, winning over 90%
of the vote. Zaghlul
died in 1927.
10/3/1919, After Nationalist riots in Egypt, the British deported
20/2/1910, Egypt�s Christian PM, Butros Ghali, was assassinated by a Nationalist.
25/3/1909, Egypt imposed press censorship, to control
7/12/1907, The first congress of the Egyptian Nationalist
movement, under Mustafa Kamil.
2/1/1939, Howard Carter, British Egyptologist who
discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922, died.
26/5/1937. Egypt joined the League
4/5/1928, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was born.
21/1/1926, Sennar Dam, on the Nile, was completed.
15/3/1924. The first Egyptian Parliament opened.
15/3/1923, Fuad I was proclaimed King of Egypt.
tomb discovered, 1922-23
tomb opened by the Egyptologist Howard Carter. Carter was born in Swaffham,
Norfolk, on 9/5/1873, and joined the British � sponsored archaeological survey of
Egypt at the age of 17. He died in London in 1939.
26/11/1922. The tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamen was
discovered by Howard
Carter and his patron, Lord Carnarvon.
23/11/1922, Lord Carnarvon arrived in Egypt to see the
archaeological excavations he was funding..
4/11/1922, Archaeologist Howard Carter discovered a
stairway near the tomb of Ramses II. Excavations now halted until Howard�s
financial backer, Lord Carnarvon, arrived.
Protectorate over Egypt, 1914-22
abolished its protectorate over Egypt and �recognised its independence�.
Ahmed Fuad became King of Egypt. However a British
military presence remained in Egypt, both on the Suze Canal and in the major
23/5/1921. British troops entered Alexandria, Egypt, to
quell nationalist rioting.
18/11/1920, Mustafa Khalil, 40th Prime Minister of Egypt
(1978-80), was born in Al Qalyubiyah Governorate, Egypt (died 2008).
11/2/1920, King Farouk, last King of Egypt, was
born in Cairo, son of King Fuad I.
21/3/1919, Edmund Allenby became British High
Commissioner in Egypt.
25/12/1918, Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt, was born in Talah Minufiya.
15/1/1918, Gamal Nasser,
the first President of Egypt, was
born in Alexandria.
20/12/1914, The British Protectorate of Egypt was
established, with Hussein Kamil as Sultan.
declared Egypt to be a British Protectorate, deposing the ruler, Khedive Abbas
II, who had sided with Germany�s ally, Turkey. Abbas II, born 14/7/1874, who
succeeded his father on 8/1/1892, died in Geneva on 21/12/1944.
22/10/1914. Britain ordered all foreign ships out of the
6/12/1912, Archaeologists found a bust of Nefertiti
near the River Nile.
10/2/1908, Mustapha Kamal of Egypt died.
large dam at Aswan, Egypt, was completed. At 130 foot high, with a 114
mile long lake, it had taken four years to build.
7/12/1894, Ferdinand de Lesseps, French diplomat and engineer
who promoted the Suez Canal, died aged 89.
Brugsch, German Egyptologist, died (born 18/2/1827).
7/1/1892, Tewfik Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, died. Abbas II (born
1874) became the Khedive of Egypt (ruled to 1914).
10/1/1890, Cleopatra�s tomb was discovered.
mood sweeps Egypt; Britain and France take over the country, 1881-88
29/10/1888, Britain, Germany, Austria, France, Spain, Italy, The Netherlands, Russia, and the Ottoman
Empire signed an agreement that the Suez Canal
was neutral and open in wartime as well as peacetime to all ships.
27/12/1885, Samuel Birch, Egyptologist, died (born in
Woolwich, London 3/11/1813).
14/9/1882, British troops occupied Cairo.
9/11/1882, Joint Anglo-French control of Egypt was
13/9/1882, A British Expeditionary Force under Lieutenant-General
Sir Garnet Wolseley routed the Egyptian forces under Arabi Pasha at Tel el Kebir. Britain feared
for the safety of the Suez Canal.
3/8/1882, Suez was occupied by British marines.
24/7/1882, Arabi Pasha declared a Holy War in Egypt.
11/7/1882, A British fleet bombarded Alexandria in retaliation for nationalist
violence in which 50 Europeans died.
11/6/1882, (see 31/8/1801). After a mutiny of soldiers in Alexandria in 1881, an Anglo-French fleet
arrived off the town in May 1882. This provoked a massacre of Europeans in
Alexandria on 11/6/1882. The ruler of Egypt, Arabi Pasha, was strengthening
the system of forts in Egypt and failed to respond to an ultimatum issued on
10/7/1882 by the British Admiral, Sir Beauchamp Seymour (Lord Alcester). Hence the
British invaded and occupied the whole of Egypt.
1/2/1881, Popular unrest in Cairo after the arrest of
three Egyptian colonels who were accused ossedition, The three were released
and then Ahmad
Bey Urubi, an Egyptian army officer, mounted a revolution against Tewfik, demanding that
more indigenous Egyptians be given control of the government and senior army
bankrupt; Khedive Ismail deposed, 1875-79
25/6/1879, Ismail, Khedive of Egypt, was deposed by the Ottoman
Sultan under pressure from European powers. He was replaced by his son, Tewfik.
(1852-92) was a weak ruler, a mere puppet of the Ottomans.
4/1879, Khedive Ismail dismissed the
European �advisors� who had been overseeing Egyptian financial
had purchased the title of Khedive (a Persian title, meaning �great prince�)
from the Ottomans on 8/6/1867 in return for a promised annual tribute of
�350,000 to Istanbul. Ismail had
then embarked on an ambitious plan to modernise Egypt, installing railways, and
canals to irrigate previously-uncultivable land. Cairo was rebult with new
buildings, boulevards and parks. All this was funded on cheap credit, which precipitated a
collapse of Ottoman and Egyptian securities on the London Stock Exchange in
1875. With these dismissals, Ismail had gone too far for the
European financiers to accept and they began to pressure Ottoman Turkey for his
12/9/1878. Cleopatra�s Needle, an ancient red
granite Egyptian obelisk 68.5 feet high, originally made for Thothmes III
in 1460 BC, was presented to Britain and re-erected on the Thames Embankment.
1876, Egypt was bankrupt. One factor had been the
rise in the price of cotton, cause dby the American Civil
War. This had caused Khedive Ismail to undertake a spending spree, but when
the price of cotton returned to normal levels, the Egyptian National Debt
rocketed so as to require UK� 5 million a year just to pay the interest.
bought Suez Canal shares. Britain bought nearly half the shares for �4million
from the Khedive, or ruler, of Egypt. Disraeli, the British Prime Minister, was relieved to have prevented total
French control of the Canal. When the Canal was built six years ago with French
money and French expertise the British, under Gladstone, took no interest; now Britain accounts for 80% of the Canal traffic.
On 15/11/1875 Disraeli learned that the Khedive owned 177,000 of the 400,000 shares but was on the verge of bankruptcy and wanted to sell, or at least
mortgage the shares to a French syndicate. The British put pressure on the
French syndicate who, without government help, pulled out, whilst Baron Lionel de Rothschild provided finance for the British
to buy the shares for UK� 4 million.
14/7/1874, Abbas II
(Abbas Hilmi Pasha), the last Khedive of Egypt, was born in Cairo (died
26/5/1871, Ismailia was annexed to Egypt.
26/3/1868, King Fuad I of Egypt was born.
-4.0, Suez Canal
17/11/1869. The Suez Canal was opened after 10 years of
construction. The 100-mile canal, from Port Said to Port Tewfik, 26 feet deep,
with bays and use of lakes to provide passing places for ships and avoid the
need for locks, was designed by Ferdinand De
Lesseps. The distance from London to Bombay by sea was reduced from
11,220 to 6,332 miles. The Canal concession was granted to de Lesseps by Said
Pasha, after whom Port Said is named. The cost was 400 million francs,
ten times the original estimate. See 25/4/1859. By 1875 Britain was the
largest shareholder in the Canal. In 1870 there were 486 transits, and in 1966/67,
20,326 transits. President Nasser
nationalised the Canal in 1956, see 29/10/1956.
However the canal was too shallow right from
the beginning and one in three ships grounded in the first year. In 1875 is was
expanded from a width of 177 feet on the surface and 72 feet on the bottom to
500 feet and 197 feet respectively. Its depth was increased from 22 feet in
1870 to 35 feet by 1955.
25/4/1859. Construction of the 100 mile Suez Canal
Constructed by both Egyptian and French companies, under the direction of Ferdinand de Lesseps, it opened on 17/11/1869. It
was 163 km long and had a minimum width of 60 metres. In 2000, some 25,000
ships used this canal.
30/11/1854. Frenchman Ferdinand de Lesseps obtained, from the Egyptian
ruler Said Pasha, a 99-year concession to
build a canal between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean.
31/10/1854, Johann Erman, Egyptologist, was born.
13/7/1854, Abbas I,
Khedive of Egypt, born 1813, was murdered, aged 41. He was succeeded by his
uncle, 32-year old Said Pasha.
2/8/1849. Mohammed Ali, ruler of Egypt from 1805 to 1848, died. Apart from his military
successes (see also Turkey), he laid the foundations of a modern educational
and administrative system, and revolutionised the Egyptian economy.
27/11/1840, Under the Convention of Alexandria, drawn up by
Napier, Mohammed Ali of Egypt agreed to return the Ottoman fleet and renounce claims over Syria,
in return for hereditary rule over Egypt.
10/10/1840, Beirut fell to British forces. The French
decided not to support Mohammed Ali of Egypt.
9/9/1840, British gunboats bombarded Beirut and landed
15/7/1840, The Treaty
of London. Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia agreed to form a military
alliance against Egypt, which was being pressured to give up the Ottoman fleet it held, and abandon
claims on northern Syria, Medina, Mecca and Crete.
2/7/1839, Mahmud II, Sultan of Turkey, died, aged 54. He
had been poisoned, after his fleet
surrendered to Egypt at Alexandria.�
He was succeeded by his 16-year-old son, Adbul Mejid I.
24/6/1839. The Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud II, launched another
offensive against Mohammed Ali, the pasha of Egypt. However this
day at the Battle of Nezib Egyptian forces under Ibrahim Pasha
defeated the Ottomans. The battle took place near the present day
31/12/1830, Ismail Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, was born.
18/2/1827, Heinrich Brugsch, German Egyptologist, was
born (died 9/9/1894).
3/12/1823, Giovanni Belzoni, Egyptologist, died in Egypt
(born in Padua 1778).
3/11/1813, Samuel Birch, Egyptologist, was born in
Woolwich, London (died 27/12/1885).
1811, The Malelukes were
massacred by Mohammed Ali (born 1769 in Macedonia, died 1849). 470 of them
were killed in Cairo and some 1,200 across the whole of Egypt. He then
went on to fight the Wahabi tribe in Arabia, on the instructions of the Ottoman
Porte, a campaign which secured him the Hejaz region. This campaign was
successfully concluded by Ali�s son, Ibrahim,
who also subdued the Sudan.
19/11/1805, Ferdinand de Lesseps, French
diplomat and engineer, builder of the Suez Canal, was born in Versailles.
31/8/1801. The British captured Alexandria, Egypt,
from the French
Alexandria had, despite its classical prominence, become by 1801 an
insignificant town. The French occupied the town on 2/7/1798, and
captured Cairo on 3//8/1801.
21/3/1801, At the Battle of
Alexandria, The French made a surprise attack on the British near
Alexandria, Egypt. The British under General Abercrombie defeated the French, but Abercrombie
himself was mortally wounded.
8/3/1801, The British Army captured
See also France for British-French military
conflict 1801 in Egypt
19/7/1799. The Rosetta Stone was found near the town of
Rosetta on the Nile, bearing Greek, Hieroglyphic, and Demotic (ancient
1/8/1798. At the Battle of the Nile, at Aboukir
Bay, Admiral Nelson, on the ship Vanguard,
destroyed 11 out of 13 French battleships which were the convoy that took Napoleon to Egypt.� The French commander was Brueys, aboard the ship L�Orient.� The crew were mostly ashore getting water,
leaving no one to man the 120 French guns. This
effectively trapped the French Army in Egypt.� Five French ships with 5,000 men were sunk, 2
ships were captured, and 2 ships managed to escape from Nelson.� On 10/2/1799 Napoleon left Egypt for Syria,
occupying Gaza on 24/2/1799. On 7/3/1799 Napoleon captured Jaffa, where his soldiers
massacred over 2,0000 Albanian prisoners. On 17/5/1799 Napoleon lifted the siege of
Acre after failing to capture it.
23/7/1798. An uprising by the people
of Cairo against the French occupiers was brutally repressed on
22/10/1798. The French captured Suez on 7/12/1798. However a British expeditionary force arrived in Egypt on
6/3/1801. The battle of Alexandria was fought on 11/3/1801, just outside the
actual town. After this British victory the British advanced on the town which
surrendered on 31/8. See 11/6/1882.
21/7/1798, At the Battle of the
soon after his invasion of Egypt, defeated an army of some 60,000 Mamelukes.
Napoleon now intended to establish a French base in Egypt from where he could
harass British-India sea traffic. He could also attack the Ottoman Empire form
here via Syria. He sought to assure the ulema, the Egyptian intelligentsia,
that he was no modern Crusader but had come to empower them and facilitate
Egyptian self-rule independent of the Ottomans. However the Egyptians were not
yet ready for such self-determination, and failed to follow the French
23/12/1790, Jean Champollion, French
Egyptologist, was born (died 1832).
1524, Revolt in Egypt crushed by the Ottomans.
20/1/1517, The Ottomans conquered Cairo, Egypt.
15/3/1377, The Sultan of Egypt was
murdered by the Mamelukes over a large unpaid debt.
11/12/1366, Yelbogha of Egypt was attacked
and killed by the Sultan.
8/10/1365, A Frankish fleet under Peter I of
Cyprus landed at Alexandria, Egypt and raided it but was forced to
29/5/1363, Sultan Malik al Mansur of Egypt
was dethroned on the grounds of incompetence and replaced by Shaban,
son of Hosain.
16/3/1361, Hasan of Egypt was deposed and
assassinated by Amir
20/10/1354, Sultan Salih of Egypt was
deposed and his brother Hasan reinstated.
7/6/1341, Malik al Nasir, Sultan of Egypt,
5/3/1310, Malik al Nasir was reinstated as
Sultan of Cairo
5/4/1309, Bibars Jashengir was proclaimed
Sultan of Egypt.
7/2/1299, Malik al Nasir was reinstated as
Sultan of Cairo.
1/7/1277, Bibars, tuler of Egypt, died.
1260, Egypt saved from a Mongol invasion at the
Battle of Ain Jalut.
1254, The first Mameluke Sultan acceded. The Mamelukes (Arabic = �slaves�) were
horse mounted soldiers, originally Circassian slaves, but became powerful
enough to install their own ruler this year. The Mameluke Dynasty was overthrown by Selim I in 1517 but continued to
run the country behind the scenes. They were heavily defeated by the French in the late 1700s, and massacred
Ali in 1811.
Seventh Crusade, fails
6/4/1250, Louis IX surrendered to the
Mamluks, after a failed breakout and thwarted retreat to Damietta. He had been
leading the Seventh Crusade (see
Christianity, 1245). The Crusaders were weakened by scurvy.
Louis IX and his forces were allowed to depart on payment of a ransom of
800,000 gold coins.
8/2/1250, Louis IX�s invading forces
crossed a wide canal at Damietta on the way to attack Cairo. However the elite
Muslim slave soldiers, the Mamluks,
counter attacked, besieged his camp, and placed a fleet on the canal to cut his
22/11/1249, Sultan As-Salih died, leaving
his inexperienced son Turanshah as ruler. This was good news for the invading King Louis IX
IX of France landed in Egypt to fight the Ayyubid Sultan, As-Salih,
and force him to surrender Jerusalem to make peace.
1221, The city of Mansurah, in the Nile delta,
31/8/1221, The Franks agreed to
25/1/1200, Battle of Blibeis, Egypt.
Sultan of Egypt, died at Damascus \aged 52.
23/3/1169, Shirguh died of a stomach illness, and Saladin
wasd appointed by the Caliph as� his
6/1/1169, Shirguh, who had hastened to Egypt again to
counter the new threat from Almaric, now seized Shawar and executed him some ten
1168, Ongoing local hostility to
the garrison in Cairo precipitated another invasion of Egypt by King Almaric.
11/4/1167, Battle of
and his nephew Saladin
defeated an alliance of the Franks
The Franks and Shawar then made another attack
besieging him in Alexandria, but after 75 days were compelled to raise this
siege. This was because Shirguh�s forces were threatening Cairo, where
a Frankish garrison had been admitted by Shawar. The Franks and Syrians now agreed to
leave Egypt, although they retained a garrison in Cairo.
4/10/1125, Fatik al Bataihi was seized and imprisdoned on
the orders of Caliph
Amir, who now became ruler of Egypt. Fatik Al Bataihi had also
suffered defeats by the Franks, losing Tyre to them, and losing his fleet to
8/1121, Al Afdal was assassinated in
Cairo; he had suffered defeat by the Crusaders at Ascalon. Al Afdal was
succeeded by Fatik
1118, Egypt was invaded by Baldwin I,
Crusader. He advanced as fat as Tinnis, but then illness forced him to retreat.
990, Construction began on the
Al-Hakim Mosque, Cairo.
969, The Fatimids conquered
Egypt, see Islam
879, Ibn Tulun, the oldest mosque in
Cairo, was built.
Egypt, surrendered to the Arabs led by Amr
Ibn Al-As. Amr invaded
Syria in 633 and attacked Egypt
in 639, taking Pelusium in January 640 and Heliopolis in June 640. In 646 Amr defeated a Greek attempt to retake Alexandria. Amr died, as governor of Egypt, on
6/1/664. The Arabs moved on south to conquer Nubia, also conquering Cyrenicia
and Tripolitania in 643.
616, Persia �invaded Egypt.
See Roman Empire for Roman occupation of
55 BCE, Ptolemy XII was restored to the throne of
145 BCE, Ptolemy VIII Neos Philopater ruled Egypt
under the Regency of his mother Cleopatra II.
181 BCE, Ptolemy VI became ruler of Egypt.
Egyptian native hoplites under Ptolemy IV crushed the Seleucid army under Antiochus III
at Raphia near Gaza.
221 BCE, Ptolemy III died aged 61. He was succeeded by
his 23 year old son, Ptolemy IV, who co-ruled with his sister and
III; he ruled for 18 years.
243 BCE, Revolt in Egypt forced Ptolemy III to return from
military adventures in Syria.
245 BCE, Ptolemy III conquered Babylon and Susa.
246 BCE, Ptolemy Soter II died aged 63. He was
succeeded by his son who ruled as Ptolemy III until 221 BCE.
I Soter abdicated. He was succeeded by his youngest son by his wife Berenice
Philadelphus, who had been co-regent for three years.
323 BCE, On the death of Alexander, Ptolemy became ruler of Egypt.
332 BCE, Alexander the Great conquered Egypt and founded
the port of Alexandria. He was welcomed as a liberator from the Persians. Alexander the
Great envisaged Alexandria, with its great library (destroyed in
riots in the 3rd century CE) as a cultural link between Europe and
342 BCE, Persian invasion of Egypt.
359 BCE, Pharaoh Nectanebo II acceded.
373 BCE, Nectanabo successfully repulsed a
Greek�Persian invasion force.
380 BCE, Start of the last indigenous Egyptian Dynasty, the 30th Dynasty. Nectanabo I was the first
Pharoah of this dynasty.
399 BCE, Egyptian rebellion against Persian rule; start of
the 29th Dynasty.
486 BCE, Egypt rebelled against Persian rule.
519 BCE, Death of Amaninatake-Lebte (ruled 538-519)
522 BCE, Death of King Cambyses II, som of King Cyrus, King of Persia 529 �
522 BCE. Cambyses
II conquered Egypt in 525 BCE.
Ca. 568 BCE, King
Nebuchadnezzar II conquered Egypt.
570 BCE, End of rule of King Aspelte (ruled 589-570). After military
defeats in Palestine in which he was defeated by the Babylonians, General Amasis
II, with popular support, declared jhimself Pharaoh.
589 BCE, Apries
(4th ruler, 26th Dynasty)
became Pharoah of Egypt. He was also known as 'Wahibre Haaibre' and was identified
in the Bible
Book of Jeremiah as 'Hophra.'
589 BCE, Pharaoh Psamtik II died; his son Apries became ruler.
594 BCE, Pharaoh Necho died (acceded 610 BCE)
605 BCE, Pharaoh Necho was defeated at Carchemish by
the son of Nabopalassar
of the Chadeans.
662 BCE, The Assyrians returned to Egypt and sacked Thebes.
This was the zenith of Assyrian power.
663 BCE, Egypt�s 26th
Dynasty began, when the vassal King of Salis, Psammetichus I, rebelled against
Assyrian rule. This Dynasty endured until 525 BCE. Egypt regained independence
Egyptian capital,was again captured by the Assyrians under King Ashurbanipal.
Egypt had supported Syrian rebels against Assyria.
Iron-working introduced to Egypt.
Esarhaddon captured Memphis, the capital of Egypt. However Tiharqa
recaptured Memphis in 669
BCE. But see 668
was assassinated by his two sons, Adrammalech and Sharezer; they in turn were
defeated by their brother Esar-Haddon, who then became King of Assyria. Esar-Haddon subsequently conquered
Egypt, driving out its Nubian ruler,
Egypt, however, proved to be an over-extension of Assyrian power and they
withdrew in the 660s.
Accession of the Nubian King Tiharqa as Pharaoh of Egypt. This founded
the 25th Dynasty.
(acceded 747 BCE) who had conquered Lower and Upper Egypt and united them under
724 BCE, Egypt conquered by Ethiopians, under the Cushite
First of five Kushite
monarchs, he founded the 24th
750 BCE, Kushite rulers sent armies into Egypt,
conquering it by 747 BCE.
804 BCE, Egypt began to fragment again. It now split onto
three kingdoms, and by 770 comprised a dozen virtually independent
850 BCE, Egypt began to disintegrate as civil war took hold.
926 BCE, Sheshonk I of Egypt attempted an invasion of
Israel and Judah, but failed.
950 BCE, First verified cultivation of poppies in Egypt.
954 BCE, The Egyptian throne was usurped by the Libyan, ruler
He founded the 22nd (Bubastite)
Dynasty which lasted for 200 years.
See also Jewish History
1000 BCE, The Nubian Kingdom of Cush was founded; probably
located on both sides of the southern Red Sea, in what is now Sudan, Ethiopia,
1049 BCE, Start of Third Intermediate
Period in Egypt.
1069 BCE, The vizier of Ramses XI seized power himself.
1072 BCE, Ramses XI died; Smendes became Pharaoh.
Start of the Deltaic
Dynasties 21 - 31
1100 BCE, Egypt was fragmenting, Thebes in Upper Egypt broke
away, and migrants on the Nile Delta were establishing their own communities.
1166 BCE, Ramses V died, of smallpox.
1167 BCE, Pharaoh Ramses III died.
1176 BCE, Ramses III defeated the �Sea People�. These
were probably from the Greek islands, or Siciliy or Sardinia, or the
1198 BCE, Egypt�s 20th
Dynasty began. Pharaoah Ramses III began ruling. His reign
lasted until 1167 BCE.
1209 BCE, Pharaoh Merneptah fought off raids by Libyans,
and Mediterranean-island �Sea People�..
1221 BCE, Pharaoh Merneptah defeated an invading force
1225 BCE, Pharaoh Ramses II died. He was succeded by one
of his many sons, Merneptah.
1245 BCE, Ramses II married the daughter of Hattusili III.
Her name was Maathomeferrure.
1255 BCE, Death of Nefertiti. Another wife, Isetnofret, appears to have
become principal queen to Ramses II.
1258 BCE, Ramses II and the Hittite King Hattusilis
III drew up a peace agreement, ending years of indecisive
skirmishing at their borders. Ramses II took two Hittite princesses in marriage,
making a total of around seven wives in total.
1272 BCE, Egypt made peace with the Hittites.
1274 BCE, Major battle at Kadesh (now in
northern Lebanon) between the Hittites and the
Egyptians. Pharaoh Ramses
II blundered into a trap and barely managed to escape; he
retreated back to Egypt.The Hittites retained
control of the northern Levant, See also early Jewish history.
1279 BCE, Pharaoh Seti I died and was succeeded by his
II, who ruled until 1225 BCE.
1287 BCE, Ramses
II married Nefertiti, who was
probably aged 13 at the time.
1302 BCE, Pharaoh Ramses II was born, son of Seti I.
1313 BCE, Ramses I died and was succeeded by his son, Seti I,
who ruled until 1292 BCE. Under Seti I, Egypt conquered Libya and made peace
with the Hittites.
1315 BCE, Pharaoh Harmhab
died, and was succeeded by the elderly Ramses I.
1350 BCE, The Egyptian throne was seized by the soldier, Harmhab;
he ruled until 1315 BCE, founding the 19th
Dynasty. He restored traditional polytheistic worship.
1358 BCE, Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) died and was
succeeded by his 9-year-old son, Tutankhamen. Tutankhamen died aged 18, probably
of blood poisoning following a chariot accident in which he broke his leg. He
may also have had a deformed spine, and an androgynous body due to a genetic
condition causing over-production of oestrogen.
1374 BCE, Amenhotep IV introduced monotheism, worship of
the Sun God. He changed his name to Akhenaten, meaning �living spirit of Aten�; Aten was the name of this single Sun-God. He founded a new
capital,between Thebes and Memphis, naming it Akhetaten, meaning �horizon of Aten�. However his religious reforms were unpopular, amd were reversed by his
Harmhab (Horemheb), a
powerful courtier and military leader under Amenhotep IV, and Ay
(an advisor to the young King Tutankhamen) were instrumental in
reversing these religious reforms. Harmhab later become
1375 BCE, Pharaoh Amenhotep III died after a 36-year
reign. Under his rule, Babylonia had recognised Egyptian hegemony over the
region, and Nubia had been subdued. He was succeeded by his son, Amenhotep IV
however the Hittites under King Suppiluliumas were soon to
attack Egypt under Amenhotep IV�s weak rule.
canal was constructed by Pharaoh Amenhotep III from the Nile to the Red
Sea using slave labour (see 609 BCE).
1411 BCE, Pharaoah Thutmose IV died after a 9-year
reign. He was succeeded by his son who ruled as Pharaoh Amenhotep III, last
great monarch of the Middle Kingdom, who ruled until 1375 BCE.
1420 BCE, Pharaoh Amenhotep II died and was succeeded by
his son, who ruled as Pharaoh Thutmose IV until 1411 BCE.
1447 BCE, Pharaoh Thutmose III died
and was succeeded by his son, who ruled as Pharaoh
Amenhotep II until 1420 BCE.
1457 BCE, Battle of Megiddo. Pharaoh Thutmose III
defeated the Canaanites in Palestine.
1473 BCE, Queen Hatshepshut started ruling in Egypt.
Born 1507 BCE, she ruled until 1458 BCE. She was the 4th Pharoah of
the 18th Dynasty.
1490 BCE, Thutmose III had conquered
Palestine, Syria and Nubia. Egypt now
controlled a strip of land up the eastern coast of the Mediterranean and into
the upper Euphrates valley.
1492 BCE, Egyptians reached the Land of Punt, probably
1493 BCE, Pharaoh Thutmose I died after a brief illness.
His weak son Thutmose
II was dispossessed of the throne�
by Thutmose III, who ruled until 1447 BCE.
1496 BCE, Pharaoh Pharaoh Thutmose II was deposed by his father,
who then co-ruled with his brother, Thutmose III until 1493
1492 BCE, Pharaoh Thutmose I was deposed. He was
succeeded by his illegitimate son who ruled as Pharaoh Thutmose II until 1496
1504 BCE, Pharaoh Amenhotep I died. He was succeeded by Pharaoh
Thutmose/Tuthmosis I, who was not of royal descent; he ruled until 1492
BCE. He drove back the Nubians to the south, and reconquered parts of
Sinai, Syria and Palestine to the north and east.
1525 BCE, Pharaoh Amasis died after a 25-year reign. He
was succeeded by his son, Amenhotep I, who ruled until 1540 BCE.
1550 BCE, The New
Kingdom was founded by Pharaoh Amasis/Ahmose I, 18th (Diospolite) Dynasty. he
ruled from 1550 to 1525 BCE. He drove out the Hyksos
and reunited Upper and Lower Egypt; the New Kingdom lasted until 332 BCE. The term �Pharaoh� was now first used
officially by Egyptian rulers; it means �Great House�.
Start of the New Kingdom
Dynasties 18 - 20
the Hyksos Dynasties 15 � 17 (part of the Middle Kingdom Dynasties)
Ca. 1473 BCE, Moses died.
Ca. 1513 BCE. The Jews left Egypt after the 10 Plagues.
Ca. 1593 (Jerome) BCE, Moses born.
1674, The Hyksos (originating
from the northern Levant area) seized the throne of Egypt. Floods on the Nile were becoming erratic, underming the economy. By
Egyptian control over the upper Nile was being lost to the Nubians.
1680 BCE, The horse as war weapon was introduced to Egypt by
invading Hyksos tribesmen from Syria.
1725 BCE, Unrest destroyed the stability of the Middle Kingdom
in Egypt. Start of the Second Intermediate Period, until
ca. 1550 BCE.
Ca. 1728 BCE, �Jacob moved his family to Egypt.
1792 BCE, The 12th
(Theban) Dynasty ended with the death of Pharaoh Amenemhet IV.
1801 BCE, Pharaoh Amenemhet III died, and was succeeded by his
IV, who ruled until 1792 BCE.
1849 BCE, Pharaoh Sesostris III died, and was succeeded
by his son as Amenemhet
III, who ruled until 1801 BCE. He developed copper mines in the
Sinai region, adding to Egypt�s wealth.
1887 BCE, Pharaoh Sesostris II died, and was succeeded
by his son, Sesostris
III, who ruled until 1849 BCE.
1903 BCE, Pharaoh Amenemhet II died, and was succeeded by his
II, who had ruled as co-regent since 1906 BCE and now ruled until
1935 BCE, Pharaoh Sesostris I died, and was succeeded by
his son, Pharaoh
Amenemhet II, who ruled until 1903 BCE. Egyptian trade with Punt
(probably,modern day Somalia).
1965 BCE, Pharaoah Seseostris I of Egypt invaded Nubia.
1970 BCE, Pharaoh Amenemhet I, founder of the 12th (Theban) Dynasty, died after
a ca. 30-year reign. He was succeeded by his son as Pharaoh Sesostris I, who had
ruled as co-regent since 1980 BCE, and who now ruled until 1935 BCE. He
completed the conquest of Nubia.
2040 BCE, Nebhepetre of Thebes defeated his rivals to become ruler of Egypt.
Start of the Middle
Kingdon Dynasties 9 - 17
BCE, End of First Intermediate
Period in Egypt.
2056 BCE, The Theban High Priests of Upper Egypt defeated their main
rivals, gaining control of all of Egypt by 2040.
2150 BCE, Nubia, to the south of Egypt, emerged as a
kingdom. Its capital was at Kerma, on the 3rd Nile Cataract.
End of Old Kingdom Dynasties 1 - 8
2181 BCE, End of the 6th
Dynasty, with the collapse of the
Old Kingdom, due to natural disasters and famine. The authority of the
King,who was believed to control the vital annual Nile floods, was undermined.
2184 BCE, End of the reign of Pepi II, 6th Dynasty (rule began 2278? BCE).
2300 BCE, Egyptian explorer Harkhuf explored up the Nile.
2315 BCE, Death of Pharaoah Unas (ruled from 2345 BCE).
2360 BCE, End of the reign of Pepi I, 6th Dynasty (rule began 2390 BCE).
2550 BCE, The Great
Pyramid was completed, for King Khufu.
Ca. 2600 BCE, First mummies prepared.
2850 BCE, Pharaoh Khafre became the third ruler of the 4th Dynasty.
2900 BCE, The 4th Dynasty
was founded by Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops).
He reigned for 23 years.
Start of the Pyramid Dynasties 4 - 6
2920 BCE, Pharaoah Snefru developed copper mines, and
built large ships to facilitate overseas trade. Cedars were being imported from
Lebanon. Egypt had subdued Nubia and Libya. He was the last Pharaoah of the 3rd Dynasty.
2980 BCE, Egypt�s 3rd Dynasty
was founded by Pharaoah Zoser. He ruled for 30
years with assistance from his adviser and doctor, Imhotep.
3100 BCE, Upper and Lower Egypt united under King Menes.
founder of the 1st Dynasty, (possibly Narmer) conquered Lower Egypt
from the south. City of Memphis was founded.
Start of the Old Kingdom Dynasties 1 - 8
3300 BCE, Urban centres developed in the lower Nile Valley;
start of hieroglyphics.
3500 BCE, The Egyptians first divided the day into 24 �hours�;
however they set each period of light and darkness as 12 hours each, meaning
the length of an hour varied over the year. Babylonian astronomers, in 3000
BCE, adopted the practice of making all 24 hours of equal length, regardless of
times of sunrise or sunset.
4241 BCE, The Egyptians developed a calendar with 12 months of
30 days plus 5 extra days.
5000 BCE, Sedentary agriculture began in the Nile Valley.
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