Chronography of major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

Page last modified 25 March 2023


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1) Alaska Earthquake, 1964, Image 1, Image 2.

2) Volcanic uplift, Pozzuoli, Naples, 1976-84.

3) Future supercontinent Earth, 250 million years from now

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Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Iceland

14 April 2010, Mount Eyjafjallajokul in Iceland erupted; volcanic ash caused major disruption to European air travel.

23 January 1973. 5,000 evacuated from the island of Heimay in Iceland as a volcano erupted.

5 May 1970, Hekla volcano in southern Iceland erupted, causing the evacuation of the surrounding villages. Hekla had last erupted in 1948; since 1970, the eruptions have occurred every ten years.

14 November 1963. The island of Surtsey, off Iceland, was born as an undersea volcano erupted.

14(-16) August 1783, Severe earthquake hit Iceland, destroying 92 farms and badly damaging another 372 farms and 11 churches.

8 June 1783, The Laki Volcano in Iceland erupted; the world�s largest volcanic eruption. One fifth of Iceland�s inhabitants, over 10,000 people, died as a 28km long fissure opened up, from which lava covered an area of 570 square kilometres. Some 12-15 cubic kilometres of lava were ejected. Deaths were from poisonous gases then from famine and disease as 11,500 cattle (53%of total), 28,000 horses (77% of total) and 190,500 sheep (82% of total) also perished. England faced very cold weather from June to December.

939, Major volcanic eruption in Iceland, affected climate and crops worldwide.


Earthquakes � United Kingdom

17 February 2018, A magnitude 4.4 earthquake occurred near Swansea. It was felt across England from the Isle of Wight to the Lake District.

11 July 2014, A magnitude 4.6 earthquake hit Jersey, Channel Islands; the largest quake in the area since a 5.6 magnitude tremor hit Guernsey in 1926.

4/2008, A 4.3 magnitude earthquake hit Kent, England.

28 April 2007, A magnitude 4.3 earthquake hit Folkestone, Kent, damaging around 200 houses.

19 October 2002. A series of minor but noticeable earthquakes hit Manchester, causing some damage to roofs and chimneys.

23 September 2002, A magnitude 4.8 earthquake occurred with its epicentre 10 km below the Midlands town of Dudley.

2 April 1990. An earthquake measuring 5.2 on the Richter Scale hit the UK.

7 June 1931, Earthquake felt across Britain.

22 April 1884, A great earthquake hit Colchester and parts of East Anglia. 1,200 buildings were damaged, and 4 people killed.

18 November 1795, Significant earthquake in Derbyshre, England, chimneys fell and walls were cracked.

23 August 1750, An earth tremor was felt in Spalding. On 2 March 1750 an earth tremor had been felt in London, and on 2 April 1750 another tremor was felt in Warrington.

6 April 1580, An earth tremor damaged several old London churches, including the old St Paul�s Cathedral.

19 September 1119, Severe earthquake in Gloucestershire & Warwickshire, England.

11 August 1089, A powerful earthquake was recorded in Britain.

964, Earliest recorded earthquake in Britain.

103, According to local tradition, a major earthquake occurred in Somerset, England, causing an entire town (name unknown) to be swallowed up.


Earthquakes � rest of western Europe (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland)

13 April 1992, An earthquake rocked Roermond in The Netherlands, along the Peel fault.

3 April 1960, Earthquake at Havre, Belgium.

11 June 1909. Earthquake killed 60 in Provence, France.

2 November 1570. A tidal wave in the North Sea destroyed sea walls from Holland to Jutland; over a thousand were killed.

18 October 1356, Basel, Switzerland, was badly damaged by an earthquake.


Earthquakes � rest of eastern Europe (Romania, former Yugoslavia)

4 March 1977, Earthquake in Bucharest, magnitude 7.2,killed 1,500 people and injured 7,600.

26 July 1963. Big earthquake hit Skopje, Yugoslavia, killing 1,100. 150,000 were left homeless.


Earthquakes � former USSR

6 October 2008, A magnitude 6.6 earthquake killed 65 in Kyrgzystan.

28 May 1995, Neftegorsk, Russia, was hit by a 7.6 magnitude earthquake that killed 2,000 people, 2/3 of the town�s population.

10 December 1988. Severe earthquake, 6.9 on the Richter scale, hit Armenia. 100,000 were reported to have died as the cities of Spitak and Leninakan were flattened. However the death toll was later reduced to 25,000. 15,000 were injured and 400,000 left homeless.

30 March 1956, Mount Bezymianny, Kamchatka, USSR, erupted, destroying the top 180m of the volcano and sending a volcanic plume 40km high. There was no recorded loss of life.

1948, Earthquake in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan; 100,000 died.

16 December 1902, An earthquake in Turkestan killed 4,000.

25 November 1667, Earthquake at Samakhi, Azerbaijan.


Earthquakes � Portugal, Spain

1829, Severe earthquake hit Murcia, Spain.

1 November 1755, An earthquake reduced two thirds of Lisbon to rubble, killing 60,000 people. Lisbon had been a great city with a population of about a quarter of a million. The quake has been estimated at Richter 9, and caused cracks as wide as 5 metres in the ground to open. Further destruction was caused when a 6 metre high tsunami struck, drowning many who had sought refuge on ships in the harbour. Fire then destroyed many more buildings. Striking on All Saints Day, the quake caused many to be sceptical of God�s existence, and the event spurred research into natural causes for disasters rather than Acts of God, laying the foundations for the Enlightenment.

25 February 1531. A severe earthquake killed an estimated 20,000 people in Lisbon.


Earthquakes, volcanoes � Italy

18 January 2017, Four further earthquakes of magnitudes 5.3, 5.7, 5.3 and 5.1 hit central Italy, close to the site of last year�s quakes. The epicentre was about 130 km NE of Rome, where the tremors were felt. The earthquake was blamed for a snow avalanche that killed 30 tourists at a hotel in eastern-central Italy.

30 October 2016, A magnitude 6.6 shallow (10km) earthquake hit central Italy; this was the 4th significant quake there in four months. Further damage was done to historic buildings but no fatalities were reported.

24 August 2016, A shallow magnitude 6.2 earthquake struck the Umbria region of central Italy.247 people were killed.

29 May 2012, A magnitude 5.9 earthquake killed 24 people near Bologna, Italy.

6 April 2009, Magnitude 6.3 earthquake hit L�Aquila, Italy. 300 were killed and 1,500 injured.

20 October 1991, Magnitude 7.0 earthquake in northern Italy, killed 2,000 people.

4 September 1983, Earthquake at Pozzuoli, Naples, caused major panic, as people feared another eruption of nearby Vesuvius.

23 November 1980, A series of earthquakes in southern Italy killed 4,800 people, and left 300,000 homeless.people.

6 May 1976. Major earthquake in northern Italy killed 2,000.

5 April 1971, A 70-day eruption of Mount Etna, lasting until 14 June 1971, began.

23 July 1930, Earthquake in southern Italy; 1,700 killed.

5 November 1928. Mount Etna erupted.

27 November 1926. Vesuvius erupted.

13 January 1915. An earthquake killed 20,000 in central Italy.

9 May 1914. Earthquake killed over 150 in Catania, Italy.

27 March 1910. Mount Etna in Italy erupted.

28 December 1908. An earthquake killed more than 75,000 people in Messina, Sicily, over half the population. This was the most violent earthquake ever recorded in Europe.

24 October 1907, Severe earthquake hit Calabria, southern Italy.

7 April 1906. Mount Vesuvius erupted, destroying the town of Ottaiano. Hundreds died. Over 105 were killed when the church of San Guiseppe collapsed in Naples.The weight of ash killed many more as roofs collapsed.

9 September 1905. Severe earthquake killed thousands in Calabria, Italy.

23 February 1887, The town of Bussana Vecchia, Liguria, Italy, was abandoned after an earthquake which killed 2,000 people. 80 years later the town was repopulated as an artist�s colony.

1883, Earthquake hit Ischia Italy, 2,000 died.

4/1872, Mount Vesuvius erupted.

12/1857, Large area east of Naples, Italy, devastated by an earthquake.

5 February 1783, Large earthquake in Calabria, Italy, 30,000 killed.

1757, Earthquake in Calabria, 10,000 killed.

3 November 1706, A severe earthquake hit Abruzzi, Italy, destroying the town and killing 15,000 of its inhabitants.

14 February 1703, An earthquake hit Norcia, Italy.

2 February 1703, An earthquake hit the town of L�Aquila, Italy.

11/1693, Earthquake in Catania, Italy, killed 40,000.

11 January 1693, Mount Etna erupted; a large earthquake affected Sicily and Malta; with 60,000 dead.

11 March 1669, Mount Etna, Sicily, erupted, killing 20,000.

16 December 1631, Major eruption of Vesuvius killed 18,000 people.

1538, At Tripergole, a town near Pozzouli and Vesuvius, in the previous few years the ground having risen seven metres, exposing ancientRoman ruins from the Pompeii era; a new offshore volcano called Monte Nuovo appeared, reaching a height of 140 metres.

4 February 1169, An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of around 7 struck the eastern coast of Sicily, causing an estimated 15,000 deaths.

472, Vesuvius erupted.

25 August 79, Pliny the Elder, naturalist, died, in the eruption of Vesuvius.

24 August 79. Vesuvius erupted, destroying the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum and killing 2,000 people.

3/44 BCE, Mount Etna began a series of eruptions, lasting from March until May. Dust emitted by the volcano hung in the atmosphere, causing three years of crop failures in China.


Earthquakes � Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey

6 February 2023, A magnitude 7.8 earthquake hit eastern Turkey and northern Syria, killing over 42,000. It was felt as far away as Egypt.

30 October 2020, A magnitude 7.0 earthquake hit Izmir, western Turkey, killing 12, also 2 died in nearby Samos, Greece.

26 November 2019, A magnitude 6.4 quake hit Albania, killing at least 21 and injuring 600. There had been an earlier magnitude 5.6 quake in Albania in September.

21 July 2017, A magnitude 6.7 earthquake struck Bodrum, SW Turkey.

23 October 2011, A magnitude 7.2 earthquake hit the city of Van, eastern Turkey.

8 January 2006, A 6.9 magnitude quake epicentre hit just off the Greek island of Kythira. It was felt across the entire eastern Mediterranean.

14 August 2003, A magnitude 6.4 earthquake hit the Greek Ionian island of Lefkada, injuring 24.

12 November 1999, A 7.2 magnitude earthquake hit Duzce, north-west Turkey, killing 845 and injuring 4,948.

7 September 1999, A magnitude 5.9 earthquake hit Athens, killing 143 people and injuring over 2,000.

17 August 1999. 17,800 killed as an earthquake hit the Turkish cities of Izmit and Istanbul. The quake measured 7.4 on the Richter Scale.17,000 were killed and 44,000 injured.

13 May 1995, A magnitude 6.6 earthquake hit the Greek Macedonian city of Kozani; nobody was injured.

13 March 1992. A major quake in eastern Turkey, 6.8 on the Richter scale, killed an estimated 1,000 people.

24 February 1981, Just before 11am local time, a magnitude 6.7 earthquake hit Athens. 16 people died, mainly due to heart attacks. The epicentre was in the eastern Corinthian Gulf, near the Alkyonides Islands, 60 km west of Athens. A further aftershock, magnitude 6.4, hit that afternoon, causing further damage in nearby towns.

20 June 1978, A magnitude 6.5 earthquake hit Thessaloniki, Greece�s second-largest city. An apartment block in the central district of Ippodrome collapsed, killing over 40 people.

24 November 1976. The Turkish province of Van was devastated by an earthquake, and 3,700 people were killed.

6 September 1975. A major earthquake in Lice, Turkey, killed nearly 3,000 people.

4 April 1970, A series of earthquakes in western Turkey killed 1,000 and left 90,000 homless, mainly around the town of Gediz.

19 August 1966, Earthquake in eastern Turkey killed 2,000.

5 April 1965, 6.2 magnitude earthquake hit the western Peloponnese, Greece, killing 17 and making 26,000 homeless.

1956, Earthquake struck Thira, killing over 40 and leaving thousands homeless.

27 November 1943, The Tosya�Ladik earthquake in Turkey killed thousands.

26 December 1939, 40,000 killed in Erzincan, Turkey, by a magnitude 8.0 quake.

22 April 1928. Earthquake in Corinth left 50,000 homeless.

9 August 1912. Earthquake in Constantinople, Turkey, killed 6,000.

28 May 1903. Earthquake in Constantinople killed 2,000 people.

29 April 1903. Earthquake in Van, Turkey, killed 860.

10 March 1902, Earthquake in Turkey destroyed the town of Tochangri.

21 February 1858, Corinth, Greece, was destroyed by an earthquake.

10 September 1509, Istanbul earthquake destroyed 109 mosques and killed an estimated 10,000 people.

1273, Durazzo, Albania, was destroyed by an earthquake.

1268, Earthquake in Cilicia, southern Turkey, killed an estimated 60,000.

11 May 1222, Earthquake in Cyprus.

7/1201, Severe earthquake hit the eastern Mediterranean, killing an estimated 1.1 million people.

26 October 740, An earthquake struck Constantinople.

679, Earthquake damaged the main church in Edessa.

7 May 558, In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapsed due to an earthquake. Emperor Justinian I ordered the dome to be rebuilt.

551, Major earthquake in Beirut; 250,000 dead.

29 November 539, Antioch was struck by an earthquake.

6 November 447, The walls of Constantinople were severely damaged by an earthquake, destroying large parts of the wall, including 57 towers. The population was threatened by a plaque. Emperor Theodosius II ordered Constantine, praetorian prefect of the East, to supervise the repairs. He employed the city's demoi ("Circus factions") in the work and rebuilt the walls within 60 days.

21 July 365, An earthquake and tsunami devastated Crete and Alexandria and affected Italy, Greece, and Palestine.

358, Large earthquake in Asia Minor.


Earthquakes - Syria, :Lebanon, Israel, Egypt

22 November 1995, A magnitude 7.2 quake hit Israel, Egypt, and was felt over much of the Mediterranean and North Africa.

12 October 1992. Earthquake hit Cairo. It was 5.9 on the Richter scale, with an epicentre 19 miles from Cairo, tremors were felt in Jerusalem 250 miles away. There was panic as at least 160 buildings collapsed and many were trampled to death in the ensuing chaos. Fortunately the Aswan Dam was not breached.

1822, Earthquake at Aleppo, Syria, 22,000 dead.

8 August 1303, An earthquake destroyed the Lighthouse of Alexandria in Egypt, one of the seven wonders of the world.

20 May 1202, An earthquake in Syria.

11 October 1138, An earthquake in Aleppo, Syria, killed about 230,000 people.

5 December 1033, Major earthquake in Palestine.

9 March 757, A major earthquake struck Palestine and Syria.

18 January 749, A severe earthquake hit Palestine.

24 December 717, An earthquake shook many places in northern Syria, and destroyed the Old Church of Edessa.

28 February 714, An earthquake struck Syria.


Earthquakes � North Africa (Libya, Algeria, Morocco)

19 September 2021, A volcanic eruption began on La Palma, Canary Islands.

24 February 2004, A magnitude 6.5 earthquake hit the Rif Mountains in northern Morocco, near the city of Al Hoceima, killing over 400 there. A further 500 were killed in Ait Kamara.

21 May 2003, A major earthquake hit Algeria, killing over 2,000.

11 October 1980,The Algerian city of El Asnam (formerly Orleansville) was hit by a major earthquake; 80% of the city was destroyed and 20,000 died. The magnitude 7.5 quake was felt as far away as Spain, where it cracked houses in Valencia. The last previous quake here was in 1954.

2 January 1965, M�sila, Algeria, was destroyed in an earthquake.

22 February 1963, Earthquake in Barce, Libya, killed 300 and left 15,000 homeless.

28 February 1960. Agadir, Morocco, was devastated by an earthquake, killing 12,000.

9 September 1954. Earthquake in Algeria killed 1,500 in the city of Orleansville.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Sub-Saharan Africa

17 January 2002, Mount Nyiragongo in the Congo erupted, displacing some 400,000 people.

28 May 2000. The volcano Mount Cameroon erupted.

21 August 1986, Volcanic activity around Lake Nyos, Africa, caused nearly 2,000 people to die from CO2 poisoning.


Earthquakes � Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan

21 June 2022, A magnitude 5.9 earthquake hit eastern Afghanistan., killing 1,000.

12 November 2017, A magnitude 7.3 earthquake struck just after midnight close to Halabja near the Iran-Iraq border. At least 530 people were killed and 8,000 injured.

26 October 2015, A magnitude 7.5 earthquake hit eastern Afghanistan, killing over 200 people.

11 August 2013, Two magnitude 6.4 earthquakes hit Tabriz and Ahar, Iran, killing 153 people.

16 April 2013, Earthquake in Khash province, Iran, magnitude 7.8, killed 38.

9 April 2013, Magnitude 6.1 earthquake hit Iran, killing 37 people.

22 February 2005, A magnitude 6.4 earthquake hit the Zarand region of Kermand Province, southern Iran, killing 50 and injuring 1,000.

26 December 2003. Earthquake measuring 6.7 on the Richter scale hit Bam, SE Iran. Over 25,000 killed and 30,000 injured.

25 March 2002, A major earthquake hit Afghanistan, killing 1,800.

30 May 1998, A magnitude 6.6 earthquake hit northern Afghanistan, killing 5,000 people.

14 March 1998, A magnitude 6.9 earthquake hit south eastern Iran.

4 February 1998, A 6.1 magnitude earthquake hit north-east Afghanistan, killing over 5,000 people.

10 May 1997, An earthquake near Ardekul, north east Iran, killed over 2,400 people.

28 February 1997, Major earthquake in NW Iran, close to the Azerbaijan border.

21 June 1990. Earthquake hit Iran, 7.7 on the Richter scale, destroyed towns across 100 square miles of Gilan Province, NW Iran. Over 40,000 died and 100,000 were injured.

16 September 1978. 25,000 died in a quake in Iran measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale around the town of Tabas.

10 April 1972. Earthquakes in Iran killed over 3,000 people.

31 August 1968. A major earthquake in Iran killed over 20,000 people.

1 September 1962, Severe earthquake hit Iran, killing 20,000.

15 June 1923. Earthquake in Iran killed 20,000.

7 July 1855, Earthquake in Shiraz, northern Iran killed 40,000 people.

1824, Earthquake in Shiraz, Iran, killede 4,000 people.

1812, Much of Shiraz, Iran, was destroyed by an earthquake.

7 June 1755, Earthquake hit northern Persia, killing 40,000.

15 February 1549, Major earthquake hit Qayin, Iran, killing 3,000.

22 December 856, Earthquake in Danghan, Iran, killed 200,000.


Earthquakes �India, Nepal, Pakistan

12 May 2015, A second powerful earthquake hit Nepal. The 7.3 magnitude tremor struck 80 kilometres north east of Kathmandu, inuring over 1,000 people.

25 April 2015, Earthquake in Nepal killed 7,500 and injured 14,000. The magnitude 7.9 quake struck 80 kilometres north west of Kathmandu.

29 October 2008, A 6.4 magnitude earthquake hit Quetta, Pakistan

4 November 2005, Severe aftershocks, up to 6.3 on the Richter Scale, hit northern Pakistan.

8 October 2005, A 7.6 magnitude earthquake hit Kashmir, killing around 74,000.

26 January 2001, 25,000 were killed and one million left homeless by a magnitude 6.7 earthquake in the western Indian city of Gujerat.

30 September 1993. Earthquake in southwest India killed 10,000.

1 February 1991. An earthquake in Pakistan killed 1,500 people.

28 December 1974, An earthquake in northern Pakistan killed over 5,000 people.

30 May 1935. More than 50,000 died in a magnitude 7.6 quake in Quetta (then India, now Pakistan).

4 April 1905. An earthquake in Lahore, India, killed 12,000 people.

12 June 1897, A magnitude 8.8 earthquake hit Assam, NE India. 1,542 were killed as a plateau in Shillong district suddenly rose 15 metres, throwing boulders, gravestones and even people into the air.

10 January 1869, Severe earthquake at Cachar, Assam, India.

11 October 1737, An earthquake killed 300,000 in Calcutta.

1505, The last recorded earthquake before modern times in western Nepal.


Earthquakes � China, Taiwan

8 August 2017, A magnitude 7.0 earthquake hit Sichuan province, China, killing 19 and injuring 247.

6 February 2016, A shallow magnitude 6.4 quake hit Taiwan; 38 people died.

13 April 2010, A 6.9 magnitude earthquake in Qinghai, China, killed over 2,000.

12 May 2008, A magnitude 7.9 earthquake hit Sichuan Province, central China, killing 156,000 people, and injuring 290,000.5 million were made homeless.

26 December 2006, Southwestern Taiwan was shaken by a 7.2 magnitude earthquake.

10 January 1998, An earthquake in China killed 50 and injured 10,000.

24 January 1981, A 6.8 magnitude earthquake in Sichuan, China, killed 150 people and injured 300.

28 July 1976. One of the greatest natural disasters of the 20th century occurred when an earthquake, magnitude 7.8, hit Tangshan in China, killing 255,000 � 750,000 people. At least 164,000 were injured.

11 May 1974. Big earthquake killed 20,000 in Sichuan, China.

26 December 1932, Earthquake in China killed 70,000.

22 May 1927, Earthquake in China killed 200,000.

16 December 1920. Earthquake in Kamsu, China, killed 180,000.

30 July 1917, An earthquake measuring 6.9 in magnitude struck Sichuan, China, killing an estimated 1,800 people and causing heavy damage to the area.

12 February 1906, Earthquake in Taiwan, 1,228 killed.

23 January 1556. An earthquake in China�s Shanxi province killed an estimated 830,000 people.

27 September 1290, An earthquake in the Gulf of Chili, province of Hebei, China, killed an estimated 100,000.


Earthquakes � Korea

5 December 2012, A magnitude 5.8 earthquake in South Korea killed 6.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Japan

16 April 2016, The second of two earthquakes hit Japan; the first was on 14 April 2016, magnitude 6.2, on the southern island of Kyushu; 44 died. The second quake was magnitude 7.0.

11 March 2011, Japan was hit by a magnitude 9.1 earthquake and tsunami.15,340 people were killed, and a further 3,926 were missing.The nuclear plant at Fukushima was badly damaged.

14 June 2008, A 6.9 magnitude earthquake in Iwate, Japan, killed 12 and injured 400.

16 July 2007, A magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck Niigata, japan, killing 5 and starting a fire at a nuclear power plant.

20 April 2005, A magnitude 5.8 earthquake hit Fukuoka and Kasuga, in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan�� 56 people were injured.

20 March 2005, A magnitude 7 earthquake struck west of Kyushu Island, Japan. 250 were injured and at least one died.

22 October 2004, Major earthquake hit NW Japan.

21 September 1999, Central Japan was hit by an earthquake; 2,400 were killed.

17 January 1995. 5.46 am, local time, earthquake in Kobe, southern Japan, killed 6,433, and injured 27,000. The quake measured 7.2 on the Richter Scale and made 300,000 homeless. Cost of damage was estimated at �63 billion. It was the worst quake to hit Japan since Tokyo, 1923.

12 July 1993, A magnitude 7.8 earthquake off Hokkaido caused a major tsunami to hit Okushuri island, killing 202 people.

1 September 1923. An earthquake magnitude 7.9 in Japan left the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama in ruins and killed over 300,000 people. The epicentre was just outside Tokyo. Half of Tokyo�s houses were destroyed, a million of its people made homeless, and 132,807 killed in Tokyo alone. Altogether 143,000 died and 2.5 million were made homeless.

31 August 1896, Earthquake in Ugo and Rikuchu areas of Japan, 209 killed.

15 June 1896, A tsunami created a 100 foot wave that struck Sanriku, Japan, killing 26,000 along 170 miles of coastline. Earthquake in Sanriku, Japan, killed 27,100.

22 October 1894, Earthquake in Shonai, Japan, killed 726.

28 October 1891, A severe earthquake hit Osaka, Japan; 10,000 were killed.

21 March 1857, Earthquake in Japan killed 107,000.

11 November 1855, Earthquake hit Edo (now Tokyo), Japan. 6,700 were killed.

23 December 1854, Earthquake in Shikoku, Japan, 3,000 killed.

6 July 1854, Earthquake in Yamato, Iga, Ise, area of Japan killed 2,400.

8 May 1844, Earthquake hit Echigo, Japan, 12,000 killed.

28 December 1828, Earthquake at Echigo, Japan, killed 30,000.

18 February 1828, Earthquake hit Echigo, Japan, 1,400 killed.

1 April 1793, Earthquake in Unsen, Japan, killed nearly 53,000.

10 February 1792, Earthquake in Hizen and Higo, Japan, 15,000 killed.

3 August 1783, Mount Asama erupted in Japan, killing 35,000 people.

8 March 1766, Earthquake in Hirosaki, Japan, 1,300 killed.

8 March 1751, Earthquake in Echigo, Japan, 1,700 killed.

16 December 1707, Mount Fuji, Japan, underwent its last eruption before 2000. This was also its biggest recorded eruption, and continued for 16 days, emitting 850 million cubic metres of material.

28 October 1707, Earthquake hit coastal areas of Kyushu and Shikoku, Japan, 4,900 killed.

30 December 1703, In Japan, an earthquake and the resultant fires killed 200,000 people in Edo.

19 February 1694, Earthquake in Ugo,Japan,390 killed.

2 February 1666, Earthquake in Echigo, Japan, 1,500 killed.

16 June 1662, Earthquake in Kyoto, Japan, 500 killed.

2 December 1614, Earthquake in NE Japan, 1,700 killed.

27 September 1611, Earthquake in Aizu,Japan, killed 3,700.

31 January 1605, Earthquake on Pacific coast of Japan killed 5,000.

1596, Earthquake in Kyoto,Japan, killed 2,000.

1569, Earthquake in Bungo, Japan, killed 700.

1498, Earthquake in Tokaido, Japan, formed Hamana lagoon.

1361, Earthquake in Kyoto,Japan.

26 May 1293, An earthquake in Kamakura, Japan killed an estimated 30,000.

26 May 869, An earthquake and tsunami devastated a large part of the Sanrikucoast near Sendai, Japan.

26 November 684, A great earthquake struck Japan. 5,000 square kilometres of land were reputedly swallowed up by the sea at this event.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Indo-China, Indonesia, Philipines

21 November 2022, A magnitude 5.6 earthquake on Java killed 268 people.

28 September 2018, An earthquake and tsunami in Sulawesi, Indonesia, killed over 1,640 people.

5 August 2018, A magnitude 6.9 earthquake hit Lombok Island, Philippines. 321 people were killed, 1,033 seriously injured and 270,000 left homeless. Earlier, on 29 July 2018, a magnitude 6.4 quake had also hit Lombok.

11 November 2012, A magnitude 6.8 earthquake killed 12 people in Myanmar.

11 April 2012, A magnitude 8.6 earthquake struck off the coast of Indonesia.

6 February 2012, A magnitude 6.9 earthquake hit the Philippines, killing 43 people.

26 October 2010, Mount Merapi volcano in Indonesia began erupting.

25 October 2010, Earthquake off Sumatra killed 400 and caused a tsunami.

12 September 2007, A magnitude 8.4 earthquake hit Sumatra, Indonesia, killing 9.

6 March 2007, A magnitude 6.3 earthquake hit Sumatra, killing over 70 people.

27 May 2006, A magnitude 6.3 earthquake hit central Java, killing over 6,000, injuring 36,000, leaving 1.5 million homeless.

28 March 2005, A magnitude 8.7 earthquake hit Sumatra, 3 months after the 2004 Indian Ocean quake.It was the second largest quake since 1965.

26 December 2004, A very large earthquake struck the floor of the Indian Ocean just off Aceh Province, Indonesia. It was estimated as magnitude 9.3 on the Richter Scale, and shifted parts of the sea bed vertically by ten metres. It caused a very large tsunami to sweep across the Indian Ocean, causing at least 165,000 casualties. In January 2005 the Indonesian government raised its death toll to 166,320, bringing the total estimated number of casualties to 232,010. The confirmed death toll on 18 January 05 stood at 162,705, including 115,229 from Indonesia, 30,920 from Sri Lanka, 10,714 from India, 5,291 from Thailand, 298 from Somalia, 82 from the Maldives, 68 from Malaysia, 10 from Tanzania, 2 from Bangladesh, and 1 from Kenya. The secretive military regime in Burma reported just 90 deaths, a suspiciously low figure. Many tourists from Europe, who had been on winter holidays, died, including at least 400 Britons (possibly 2,000 Britons).

12 December 1993, An earthquake hit Flores, Indonesia, killing 2,200.

12 December 1992. An earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale hit just offshore from Flores Island, Indonesia. At least 1,500 were killed as 80% of the buildings in the island�s capital, Maumere, were destroyed.

17 June 1991. Mount Pinatubo continued to erupt. On 24 June 1991 Mount Didicas, 280 miles north-east of Mount Pinatubo, also erupted, killing 343 people.

9 June 1991. Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines erupted. 500,000 people had to be evacuated as the USA�s biggest overseas air base, Clark Naval Base, was threatened. Manila was covered 30 cm deep in volcanic ash.

16 July 1990. A major earthquake hit the Philippines. Measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale, it was the worst for 14 years. It hit 60 miles north of the capital, Manila. 1,600 people were killed.

20 February 1979, Poisoning by a high concentration of carbon dioxide killed 175 people in the Indonesian village of Pucukan on Java, built on a plateau near the Mount Sinila crater of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Rescuers evacuated 9,000 people in Pucukan and a neighbouring village. A small eruption from Kawah Simla and neighbouring Sigluduk released the gas that had been trapped underground.

19 August 1977, Earthquake and tsunami in Indonesia.

17 August 1976. In the Philippines a severe earthquake followed by tidal waves killed over 3,000 people.

17 March 1963. A volcano erupted in Bali, killing 11,000.

27 August 1883. Krakatoa, a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait between Sumatra and Java, erupted. Thousands were killed by the resulting tsunamis. In all over 50,000 died as noon turned to darkness and a tidal wave flooded 120 feet high. The eruption was allegedly heard 2,200 miles away in Australia. The eruption caused spectacular red sunsets in Britain for several weeks afterwards.

1880, Earthquake hit Manila, Philippines, 3,000 died.

3 February 1864, Severe earthquake in Mindanao, Philippines.

10 April 1815, After five days of volcanic eruptions, Mount Tambora exploded. The top 500 metres of the mountain vanished, and a 6 kilometre wide crater appeared. By July 1815 60,000 had died from the effects of the eruption, and summer 1816 was very cool, bringing starvation, riots and disease.

1 February 1814, Mount Mayon volcano, Philippines, erupted, killing 1200 and destroying the town of Cagsaua, now replaced by Albay.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Oceania and Pacific Islands,

15 January 2022, The eruption of the Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha�apai volcano near Tonga killed 3 people and left thousands without homes, supplies and internet.

3 May 2018, Hawaii�s Kilauea volcano began an intensive eruption, which continued throughout May.

17 April 2016, A magnitude 6.1 earthquake hit Tonga.

22 February 2011, Christchurch, New Zealand, was hit by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake; 185 people died.

4 September 2010, Magnitude 7.1 earthquake near Christchurch, New Zealand.

29 September 2009, An 8.3 magnitude earthquake hit Samoa.

2 April 2007, An 8.1 magnitude earthquake hit the Solomon Islands.52 died and 6,000 were left homeless.

25 March 1998, A magnitude 8.1 earthquake was recorded in Antarctica, near Balleny Island. This was not attributable to fault activity and may have been caused by glacial rebound.

28 December 1989, A magnitude 5.6 earthquake hit Newcastle, New South Wales, killing 13 people and injuring 100.

21 January 1951, Mount Lamington, Papua New Guinea, erupted; at the time it was not realised that it was an extinct volcano. 3,000 died as hot ash clouds smothered the area.

3 February 1932. A severe earthquake hit New Zealand killing 256 people around Hawke�s Bay. Napier�s Bluff Hill, a substantial suburban peninsula, crumbled into the sea. A wide stretch of seabed, Ahuriri Lagoon, was raised in the quake and became 9,000 acres of dry land in a day.

3 February 1931, An earthquake devastated the Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand killing at least 256.

13 March 1888, Volcanic eruption on Ritter Island (New Guinea), causing a large tsunami and obliterating most of the island itself.

10 June 1886, Mount Tarawera Volcano, New Zealand, erupted, killing 153 people and destroying the famous Pink and White terraces.

1855, Earthquake hit New Zealand.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Alaska, Aleutians

30 March 1965, A 7.3 magnitude earthquake hit the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

27 March 1964, Powerful earthquake, magnitude 9.2, hit southern Alaska, 300 died.

1 April 1946, Major earthquake in the Aleutian Islands.

6 June 1912, A huge volcanic eruption began at Mount Katmai, Alaska, creating the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. Two cubic miles of rock was turned into dust and ash, and the volcvano�s height was reduced by 1,500 feet.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Canada, USA

5 July 2019, A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit California, the day after a magnitude 6.4 tremor in the same area.

23 August 2011, A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 23, 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was reportedly felt as far away as Toronto, Canada, Atlanta, Georgia and Florida.

17 June 2005, A magnitude 6.7 earthquake, following on from a 5.3 quake the previous day, became the fourth quake since 12 June 2005 in California.

28 February 2001, A magnitude 6.9 earthquake hit the Nisqually Valley area of Washington State. One elderly person died of a heart attack.

25 January 1999, A magnitude 6.0 earthquake hit western California, killing over 1,000 people.

17 January 1994. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake hit Northridge in the San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles.

28 June 1992. California had its strongest earthquake for 40 years. Measuring 7.4 on the Richter scale, the epicentre was in a sparsely-populated area of the Mojave Desert, 100 miles from Los Angeles, and the only casualty was a child killed by a falling chimney.

18 October 1989. San Francisco was hit by the Loma Prieta earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale. At least 273 people were killed and 650 injured. Many of the deaths occurred when the top deck of the Nimitz Freeway collapsed onto a lower road deck, crushing motorists.

1 October 1987, A 20-second earthquake hit Los Angeles, killing 7 and injuring 100. The 6.1 magnitude quake hit the morning rush hour at 7.40 am, and was the strongest in the area since 1971.

18 May 1980. Mount St Helens volcano erupted in the USA state of Washington, killing 100 people and causing US$ 3 billion in damage. A cloud of ash 2,500 miles long and 1,000 miles wide was created.

10 February 1971, An earthquake, 6.6 on the Richter Scale, hit Los Angeles, killing 64 people.

29 April 1965, Magnitude 7 earthquake hit NW America. The epicentre was just north of Seattle.

27 March 1964, Powerful earthquake, magnitude 9.2, hit Alaska, 139 died.

17 August 1959, Hebgen Lake earthquake, Yellowstone National Park, USA, 7.2 magnitude; 28 died in landslides.

22 March 1957. San Francisco was hit by the worst earthquake since the 1906 disaster.

2 October 1934, A magnitude 6 earthquake hit San Francisco, USA.

11 October 1911. Earthquake in California killed 700.

18 April 1906. Major earthquake hit San Francisco. Over 1,000 people were killed and large fires threatened upmarket homes on Nob Hill, after the water mains were destroyed in the quake. Overall, 3,000 acres of the city were devastated. The fire did more damage than the quake, it took 3 days to bring the blaze under control and 490 blocks were destroyed.

27 July 1902, A powerful earthquake struck Santa Barbara County, California.

31 August 1886, Earthquake hit Charleston, USA. .27 were killed and 90% of the city�s buildings were damaged, with US$5 million incurred. However the city soon recovered.

21 October 1868, San Francisco was devastated by an earthquake, causing US$3million damage.

6 December 1811, A severe earthquake hit the Mississippi Valley. This was a geological animaly,being far from any known plate boundary.

26 January 1700, The Cascadia Earthquake, North America.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Mexico

19 September 2017, A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit central Mexico, killing 248.

7 September 2017, The most powerful earthquake for more than a century struck Tapachula, southern Mexico. The magnitude 8.2 quake killed at least 96 people.

19 September 1985, Major earthquake in Mexico resulted in 4,700 dead and 30,000 injured.The quake measured 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killing 9,000 people and injuring a further 30,000. 95,000 were made homeless. A second quake the following day hampered rescue operations.

24 October 1980, A magnitude 6.4 earthqquake in Oaxaca, Mexico, killed 300.

28 August 1973. 500 killed in Mexican earthquake magnitude 6.2.

6 July 1964, Magnitude 7.4 earthquake struck Guerrero, Mexico, killing 78.

28 July 1957, Magnitude 7.9 earthquake struck Guerrero, Mexico, killing 65.

2/1943, A new volcano appeared at Paracutin, Mexico, erupting through cornfields and growing to a height of 820 feet.

3 June 1932, Magnitude 8.1 earthquake in Jalisco, Mexico, killed 400.

3 January 1920, Earthquake magnitude 7.8 in Vera Cruz, Mexico, killed 648.

7 June 1911. A severe earthquake shook Mexico City, killing over 100.

30 July 1909, Earthquake in Mexico; Acapulco destroyed.

17 January 1902. Earthquake in Mexico City killed 300.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Guatemala to Panama

3 June 2018, The Fuego volcano in Guatemala began erupting. After two days, mudslides had killed 25 and injured 250.

14 October 2014, A magnitude 7.3 earthquake hit El Salvador and Nicaragua.

7 November 2012, Magnitude 7.3 earthquake in Guatemala killed 48 people.

13 February 2001, A magnitude 6.6 earthquake hit El Salvador, killing at least 400.

13 January 2001, A magnitude 7.6 earthquake hit El Salvador.

10 October 1986, An earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter Scale hit San Salvador, killing some 1,500 people.

4 February 1976. A major earthquake devastated parts of Guatemala and Honduras, killing over 23,000 people.

25 December 1972. In Managua, Nicaragua, over 10,000 people were killed in an earthquake.

3 May 1965, Major earthquake hit San Salvador City, El Salvador.

29 December 1917, Earthquake in Guatemala City made 125,000 homeless.

5 May 1910. Earthquake in Nicaragua killed 500.

24 October 1902, The Santa Maria volcano in Guatemala began a 2-day eruption.

7 June 1773, Guatemala City was destroyed by an earthquake.

23 February 1770, Izalco Volcano, El Salvador, began an eruption that lasted for several decades.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � Caribbean islands

14 August 2021, Haiti was struck by a ,magnitude 7.2 earthquake.

12 January 2010, A 7.0 magnitude earthquake, the most severe in 200 years, hit Haiti, killing over 316,000 and destroying the capital, Port au Prince. Over 1,000,000 were left homeless.

8 July 1995, Volcanic eruption began on the island of Montserrat.

11 October 1918, In Puerto Rico a major earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale.

14 January 1907. Major quake hit Kingston, Jamaica. Most of the city was destroyed and over 1,000 died. On 22 January 1907 the islands British Governor rejected an offer of food and medical aid from the US navy.

8 May 1902. Mount Pelee on Martinique erupted, destroying the city of St Pierre and killing 30,000 people in just three minutes.

7 May 1902, Mount Soufriere volcano, St Vincent, West Indies, erupted. This killed over 1,000 people and covered a third of the island in lava. Barbados nearby also saw heavy ash falls.

25 April 1902, A heavy fall of ash from Mont Pelee, Martinique, occurred.This was a prelude to the major eruption of 8 May 1902.

1843, Earthquake hit Guadeloupe.

7 June 1692, Earthquake in Jamaica. 3,000 killed, as Port Royal subsided into the sea.


Volcanic eruptions � Atlantic islands

10 October 1961, A volcanic eruption on the southern Atlantic island of Tristan da Cunha forced the evacuation of the entire population to Britain.


Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions � South America (Colombia to Tierra del Fuego)

21 August 2018, A magnitude 7.3 earthquake hit northern Venezuela.

4/2016, 400 dead and 2,500 injured in a 7.8 magnitude earthquake affecting the coastal region of Ecuador.

16 April 2016, The most powerful quake for 70 years hit Ecuador, magnitude 7.8, killing over 500 and injuring 4,000.

2 April 2014, A magnitude 8.2 earthquake hit just off the coast of northern Chile. Casualties were few as the resultant tsunami was small.

4 June 2011, Puyehue Volcano in Chile erupted, causing major flight chaos as far as Australia.

27 February 2010, A magnitude 8.8 earthquake hit Chile, killing 525.

14 November 2007, A magnitude 8.2 earthquake hit Tocopilla, northern Chile

15 August 2007, A magnitude 8.0 earthquake hit Peru, killing 512 and injuring over 1,500.

7 June 1994, SW Colombia was hit by an earthquake that set off an avalanche. 1,000 died and many more were left homeless.

13 November 1985. Nevado del Ruiz, a volcano in Colombia, dormant since 1845, erupted, sending mudflows down into the town of Armero, killing almost all the population of 25,000.

3 October 1974, 32 people died in major earthquake in Lima, Peru.

23 December 1972, Managua, Nicaragua, was hit by a severe earthquake. More than 10,000 people died as huge fires broke out.

31 May 1970. A major earthquake, magnitude 7.5, at Mount Huascaran in Peru, killed 70,000 people.

29 July 1967,An earthquake in Caracas, Venezuela killed 240.

28 March 1965. Major earthquake in Chile.

21 May 1960, Conception, Chile, was hit by an earthquake that killed 1,000 people and damaged 145,000 buildings,

15 January 1944, Major earthquake hit San Juan province, Argentina.

24 January 1939. In Chile, a major earthquake killed 30,000 in two cities.

20 May 1918, Severe earthquake in Chile.

16 August 1906. Severe earthquake killed 3,000 in Valparaiso, Chile. 100,000 were left homeless.

31 January 1906, Magnitude 8.9 earthquake hit the Colombia and Ecuador coasts.

16 May 1875, Earthquake affected Colombia and Venezuela; 16,000 killed.

13 August 1868, A major earthquake killed over 25,000 people and devastated four cities in Peru and Ecuador.

20 March 1861, The city of Mendoza, Argentina, was destroyed in an earthquake; 12,000 died.

22 March 1859. Major earthquake at Quito,5,000 killed.

20 February 1835, Earthquake destroyed Conception, Chile.

26 December 1812, A severe earthquake hit Barquismeto, a city in western Venezuela.

12 March 1812, A severe earthquake hit Caracas, capital of Venezuela.

4 February 1797, Major earthquake hit Riobamba, Ecuador, 41,000 dead.

28 October 1746, An earthquake destroyed the towns of Lima and Callao in Peru.

1724, Earthquake at Lima, 18,000 dead.

19 February 1600, The volcano Huaynaputina in South America underwent a violent eruption, the most severe recorded in South America.

16 December 1575, A large earthquake at Valdivia, Chile.


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