Chronography of Czechia and Slovakia
Page last modified 9/11/2021
See also Albania
See also Austria
See also Bulgaria
See also Germany
See also Greece/Turkey
See also Italy
See also Poland
See also Romania (see here for Moldova)
See also Russia/USSR
See also Yugoslavia
21/10/2017, Elections in the Czech Republic produced gains for the Populist Right.
26/9/2000, Anti-globalisation protests in Prague.� Some 15,000 protestors turned violent during the IMF and World Bank Summits.
17/12/1987, Gustav Husak resigned as General Secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party; succeeded by Milos Jakes.
23/12/1979. In Czechoslovakia, playwright Vaclav Havel was convicted of subversion.
13/3/1977, Czech secret police tortured to death the leader of the Charter 77 Movement, Jan Potocka.
26/1/1977, The US State Department accused Czechoslovakia of violating the Helsinki Accord (1/8/1975) by persecuting dissidents.
7/1/1977, Civil Rights campaigners in Czechoslovakia published their Charter 77, following the signing by the Czechoslovak Government of the International Convention on Human Rights in 1976. In practice, many civil rights such as freedom of expression had been suppressed following the �normalisation� that followed the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. The Charter�s signatories included Jiri Hajek, who was Czechoslovak Foreign Minister in 1968, and the writer Vaclav Havel. The signatories were greatly harassed by the Communist administration, but the Charter contributed to the downfall of Communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989, when Havel became President.
28/1/1975, Antonin Novotkny, Czechoslovak politician, died aged 70.
21/9/1963, Vilian Siroky, Czechoslovak Prime Minister, was dismissed. Jozef Lenart became Prime Minister. Lenart was a pragmatic reformer who succeeded in boosting the Czechoslovak economy. However he became less in favour of political reform and was dismissed when the 1968 Prague Spring began.
1/12/1945, Soviet and US troops, which had jointly occupied Czechoslovakia since the War, now pulled out. However the USSR kept divisions close to its border with Czeckoslovakia.
30/5/1945, Several thousand ethnic Germans were expelled from the Czech city of Brno. Many did not make it as far as the Austrian border but died en route; the Brno Death March.
22/5/1945, Tiso, President of �Slovakia�, was arrested whilst in hiding in Austria.� He was tried for wartime collaboration in a Czechoslovak court and sentenced to death in April 1947.� Some Czechoslovaks pressed for a reprieve but the national government wanted the death sentence and he was executed, see 26/10/1939 and 18/4/1947.
For main European events of World War One see France-Germany
14/9/1937, Thomas Masaryk, the first president of
5/10/1936. Vaclav Havel, Czech playwright, human rights campaigner, and President, was born.
14/12/1935, Thomas Masaryk, first President of Czechoslovakia, resigned aged 85. He was succeeded by Edward Benes.
5/11/1935, In Czechoslovakia, Milan Hodza, Agrarian Party, formed a government.
16/2/1933, Fearing German aggression, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia formed the Little Entente, with a Permanent Council.
29/10/1932, Jan Malypetr became Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia.
27/10/1929, Elections in Czechoslovakia were won by the Republican Party of Agricultural and Smallholder Peoples.
27/5/1927, Tomas Masaryk was re-elected President of Czechoslovakia.
For main European events of World War One see France-Germany
28/5/1884, Eduard Benes, Czech politician and founder of modern Czechoslovakia, was born in Kozlany, Bohemia.
15/3/1867. Austria and Hungary buried their differences and agreed to joint rule, sharing defence, foreign, and financial matters but with separate parliaments. However the Czechs, annoyed by the minor role they were given in this arrangement, walked out of the Parliament on 22/8/1868.
7/3/1850, Thomas Masaryk, the first President of Czechoslovakia in 1918, was born in Hodonin, Moravia.
17/6/1848, The revolt in Prague was suppressed by Austrian troops.
12/6/1848, Revolution by students and workers in Prague.
14/3/1647, The Treaty of Ulm. Elector Maximillian I of Bavaria made an agreement with France to end his alliance with Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.
6/3/1645, Battle of Jankow, Bohemia.
9/6/1642, Battle of Schweidnitz, Moravia.
30/5/1635, The Peace of Prague was signed, ending Saxony�s role in the Thirty Years War.
1632, Catholicism was now completely dominant in Bohemia, and the presecution of Protestants had ceased.
27/4/1622, Battle of Mingolsheim (Thirty Years War). Mansfeld defeated Tilly, and delayed his union with a Spanish force from The Netherlands.
27/4/1621, King Frederick of Bohemia, dispossessed of his lands, now a;llied with the Dutch in an effort to reclaim them. Both Frederick and his adversary Ferdinand rejected offers of mediation by Spain and England.
29/1/1621, King Frederick of Bohemia was formally exiled and his lands confiscated.
8/11/1620, Protestant Bohemian forces were defeated by the Catholics (Hapsburgs and Bavaria) under Maximillian� at the Battle of the White Mountain (Thirty Years War). The Protestant Kingdom of Bohemia had revolted against its rulers, the Hapsburgs, and Bohemia had invited Frederick, Elector of the Palatinate of the Rhine, to become its new monarch. Frederick�s advisors counselled against this move, as rebel Protestant Bohemia was likely to lose against the Hapsburgs, but Frederick took up the monarchy of Bohemia nevertheless. Frederick was forced to flee to Bavaria, and stripped of his title as Elector of the Rhineland Palatinate by the Holy Roman Emperor. Spain�s Catholic Army occupied his lands. Frederick died in 1632 during a clandestine visit to the Palatinate, leaving his widow Elizabeth to bring up their 20 children, produced in some 20 years of marriage.
23/7/1620, Maximillian of Bavaria, with the 25,000 strong army of the Catholic League led by General John Tserclaes, Count Tilly, crossed the Austrian frontier to support the Holy Roman Emperor against the Protestant Bohemians.
3/7/1620, The Treaty of Ulm was signed. Proetstants undertook not to intervene in the Bohemian War. In return the Catholics agreed to respect the Elector palatine�s States.
4/11/1619, Frederick V was crowned King of Bohemia.
5/8/1619, In the Thirty Years War, Bohemian forces defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Vestonice.
10/6/1619, In the Thirty Years War, Protestant forces were defeated at the Battle of Zablati.
20/3/1619, Matthias, Holy Roman Empoeror and King of Bohemia, died.
23/5/1618, The defenestration of Prague.� Rebel nobles hurled the Holy Roman Emperor�s� advisers from the windows of Hradcany Castle (they survived due to landing in a refuse heap), triggering the Thirty Years War (Reformation). Rebel Protestant Bohemian nobles were in protest against their Catholic King, who had been elected as Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. The conflict this started spread to involve other European powers, who were eager to cash in on the weakened state of a severely-split Germany.
19/7/1617, Ferdinand was crowned King of Bohemia.
17/6/1617, Because Matthias was childless, his Catholic counsellors elected his cousin, Archduke Ferdinand of Styria, as his successor. The Protestants, led by Count Matthias of Thurn, refused to recognise Ferdinand.
1612, Matthias was elected as Holy Roman Emperor.
1609, King Rudolph of Bohemia guaranteed religious freedom to his subjects. Protestants could now worship in safety. However this was disapproved of by his brother Matthias, who deposed Rudolph in 1611.
11/5/1509, Louis II was crowned King of Bohemia.
7/6/1424, Ziska defeated the Ultraquists at the Battle of Malesov.
6/1/1424, Ziska defeated the Ultraquists at the Battle of Skalic.
4/8/1423, Ziska (Taborite) defeated the Ultraquists at the Battle of Strachov.
27/4/1423, Ziska (Taborite) defeated the Ultraquists at the Battle of Horid)
10/1/1422, Ziska defeated Sigismund at the Battle of Nemeclysbrod.
6/1/1422, Sigismund again attempted to claim the throne of Bohemia and was again defeated by Ziska at the Battle of Nevobid.
30/7/1419, Battle of Prague. Ziska, Hussite (Protestant), took his army to Prague where he defeated Sigismund (Catholic), who was compelled to withdraw.
30/6/1419, Sigismund, asserting his claim to the throne of Bohemia, besieged Prague. Prague appealed to the Hussites for assistance.
17/1/1411, Jobst, Margrave of Moravia, died.
26/2/1361, Wenceslas, King of Bohemia, was born.
26/8/1346. John the Blind, King of Bohemia, was killed at Crecy whilst assisting the French. Born on 10/8/1296, son of Count Henry III of Luxembourg (later Emperor Henry III), he married (1310) the heiress of the Kingdom of Bohemia, thereby becoming its King in 1311. He acquired Silesia from Poland. In 1334 he married Beatrix of the House of Bourbon, thereby allying with France. He had been blind from 1340.
6/10/1289, King Wenceslaus III, Bohemian King, was born
1253, King Wenceslaus I died, after a 23-year reign. He had encouraged German immigration, which had antagnoised the indigenous nobility. He was succeeded by his 23-year-old son, the Duke of Babenberg, who ruled until 1278 as Ottokar II. Under his rule Bohemia became wealthy from its silver mines.
1230, King Ottokar I died after a 33-year reign. He was succeeded by his son who ruled until 1253 as Wenceslaus I.
10/8/1296, John the Blind, King of Bohemia, was born, see 26/8/1346.
1140, Bohemia�s King Sobeslav I died after a 15-year reign. He was succeeded by King Ladislas II, who reigned until 1173.
1095, Bohemia�s King Vratislav II died after a 33-year reign. His successor Bretislav II ruled until 1110.
28/9/990. King Wenceslas of Bohemia, the Good King Wenceslas of the Christmas carol, died in Stara Boleslav.
28/9/929, Prince Wenceslas of Bohemia was murdered by his brother Boleslav I, who then proclaimed his independence from Henry I of Germany.
15/9/921, The Duchess of Bohemia, later St Ludmila, was assassinated by command of her daughter in law. She and her husband had built the first Christian church in Bohemia, and she had taught her grandson, later known as Good King Wenceslas.