Chronography of Cyprus

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Demography of Cyprus


16 March 2013, To rescue its banks, Cyprus announced a plan that would partially confiscate the savings of its biggest depositors.

1 January 2008, Cyprus adopted the Euro.

2007, Greek and Turkish Cypriots broke down the wall dividing Nicosia.

2004, Cyprus (southern, Greek, portion) joined the EU.

2001, Turkey threatened to annex northern Cyprus.


Northern Cyprus separated as Turkish entity 1974-83

15 November 1983, The Turkish part of Cyprus declared independence. Led by Rauf Dektash, the �republic� was recognised only by Turkey.

3 August 1977, Archbishop Makarios, religious leader and first President of Cyprus, died.

13 February 1975, Turkish held northern Cyprus declared itself �The Turkish Federated State of Cyprus�.

3 January 1975. The Turkish president, Mr Bulent Ecevic, received a hero�s welcome as he arrived in Famagusta, northern Cyprus. He had ordered the Turkish invasion of part of the island 6 months earlier.

7 December 1974, President Makarios returned to Cyprus; however almost half of it was occupied by Turkey.

22 July 1974. Greece and Turkey agreed to a ceasefire in Cyprus. On 23 July 1974 Sampson was replaced as President by Glafkos Clerides. 2,000 British and foreign residents and tourists were evacuated by the Royal Navy.

20 July 1974. Turkey invaded northern Cyprus, after the overthrow of Makarios.


Cyprus independent; Greek-Turkish conflict, 1960-74

15 July 1974. In Cyprus. Archbishop Makarios was deposed as President in a coup by officers of the Greek National Guard. Nicos Sampson was installed as President.Makarios, nearly assassinated, went into exile for 6 months.Cyprus descended into near-anarchy, and Turkey took advantage of this to invade (see 20 July 1974).By August 1974 Turkey occupied the northern 40% of Cyprus; Greeks were forced to leave this area.

28 January 1974, President Grivas of Cyprus died aged 75.

8 February 1973. Makarios was re-elected President of Cyprus.

9 August 1964, The United Nations ordered a ceasefire in Cyprus.

8 August 1964. Turkish planes attacked Cyprus.

4 April 1964, Archbishop Makarios rejected the 1960 treaty; fighting broke out in Cyprus.

27 March 1964. A UN peace force took over in Cyprus.

9 March 1964, Fighting in Ktima, Cyprus.

11 February 1964. Fighting broke out at Limassol, Cyprus, between Greeks and Turks.

22 December 1963, Violent clashes between Greeks and Turks in Cyprus; UN Peace Forces intervened.

24 May 1961, Cyprus joined the Council of Europe.

20 January 1961, Queen Elizabeth II met Archbishop Makarios in Cyprus.

16 August 1960. Cyprus became independent, with Archbishop Makarios as President.Fazil Kuchuk, leader of the Turkish Cypriots, was Vice-President, but relations between the two communities were strained. The island�s Greek population, some 80% of the total, wanted union, or enosis, with Greece. See 15 July 1974 and 3 April 1955. Britain retained military bases on the island.


14 December 1959, Makarios III (1913-1977), Archbishop of Cyprus, was elected first President of Cyprus; he assumed office on 16 August 1960. His Turkish rival Fazil Kucuk became Vice-President.

1 March 1959. Archbishop Makarios returned to Cyprus, after almost three years exile.

22 February 1959, As part of the Cyprus Agreement, Britain released all EOKA prisoners in Cyprus.

19 February 1959. Greece and Turkey agreed on plans for the independence of Cyprus.

15 February 1959, Archbishop Makarios arrived in London for talks on Cyprus with Macmillan.

3 October 1958, The wife of a British soldier was shot in the back whilst shopping in Famagusta, Cyprus. After this British soldiers rounded up 650 Greek Cypriots and beat up 250 of them.

3 December 1957, Sir Hugh Foot became the new British Governor of Cyprus.

4 November 1957, Sir John Harding retired as British Governor of Cyprus.


Unrest in Cyprus as Cypriot Greek population demanded union with Greece, but Turkey objected on behalf of the Cypriot Turkish population

9 August 1957, The State of Emergency in Cyprus ended.

17 April 1957, Archbishop Makarios arrived back in Athens, from a 13-month exile in the Seychelles.

28 March 1957, Britain freed Archbishop Makarios.

20 March 1957. Britain favoured UN mediation over Cyprus but the Greeks rejected it.

9 March 1956. Archbishop Makarios, implicated in terrorism, was deported by the British from Cyprus to the Seychelles. Riots broke out in Cyprus.

11 January 1956, Britain sent troops to Cyprus to restore order.

28 November 1955. A state of emergency was declared in Cyprus because of EOKA terrorism. The Greek majority wanted to celebrate Oxi Day, the day Greece entered WW2, but were banned by the British Governor of Cyprus, Sir John Harding. EOKA really wanted enosis, or union with Greece, fiercely opposed by the Turkish minority in Cyprus.

17 September 1955, In Cyprus, Greek supporters of Enosis, who had been urged by Archbishop Makarios to embark on a campaign of �passive resistance� against British troops occupying the island, burnt down the British Institute in Nicosia. There were also attacks on British soldiers, mostly 2-year conscripts doing National Service.

13 September 1955, The crisis in the British colony of Cyprus worsened when EOKA called a General Strike. Illegal marches and demonstrations by both Greeks and Turks led to clashes.

1 April 1955, Greek EOKA terrorists led by Grivas set off a series of bombs in Cyprus, starting a 4-year campaign against British occupation.Ankara sought to defend the minority Turkish population in Cyprus.On 9 March 1956 Archbishop Makarios, spiritual leader of the Greek community, was deported by Britain to the Seychelles, but allowed to return to Athens in 1957.See 16 August 1960.

18 December 1954, Greeks rioted in Cyprus, demanding union with Greece instead of British rule. Two rioters were shot by British police as they tore down the Union Jack outside the police station in Limassol, replacing it with the Greek flag. 42 Greek Cypriots were arrested. Athens demanded that Cypriots be allowed to vote on the matter, knowing that Greek Cypriots outnumbered Turks.


1 May 1925. Cyprus became a British Crown Colony. It had been annexed by Britain from Turkey in 1914 when Turkey supported Germany in World War One.

27 January 1924. Rauf Denktash, Turkish-Cypriot politician, was born.

12 July 1878, Turkey ceded Cyprus to British administration.

1764, Insurrection against Tirkish rule in Cyprus was suppressed.

7 March 1573. Venice concluded a peace with the Turks by which Venice recognised Turkey�s sovereignty over Cyprus.

1570, The Ottomans under Selim I took Cyprus. With an army of 60,000 men, most of the island fell quickly. Nicosia fell after a 45 day siege, and 20,000 of its defenders were massacred by the Turks. Fanagusta still held out, only falling in 8/1571 after nearly a year�s siege.

14 April 1489, The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sold her kingdom to Venice.

1376, Genoa took control of Famagusta, holding it until 1474 when King James II reunited all of Cyprus under his rule. James II married Catherine Cornaro, a high-ranking Venetian lady, to secure the support of the powerful Republic of Venice. However Catherine, after the death of James II, felt unable to stand against the Ottoman Turks and sold her kingdom to Venice. See 14 April 1489.

17 January 1369, Peter I of Lusignan., King of Cyprus (and, nominally of Jerusalem� in practice the Muslims held Jerusalem) was murdered in his palace at Famagusta. He was succeeded by his 14-year-old son, Peter II, Due to his youth, Peter II was not formally crowned King of Cyprus until 1/1372 (and of �Jerusalem� in 10/1372).

1194, Amaury, brother of Guy de Lusignan, became ruler of Cyprus. Amaury began a dynasty of feudal monarchs that endured nearly 300 years.

1192, Guy de Lusignan became ruler of Cyprus, until his death in 1194.

1191, Isaac Comenus, Byzantine ruler of Cyprus, angered King Richard I of England by mistreating his Crusaders. Richard I then seized control of Cyrus, taking Comenus captive. He then sold Cyprus to the Knights Templars, who then resold it to Guy de Lusignan, Crusader King of Jerusalem.

600, Cyprus was part of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium). In 644 the Muslim Arab conquests of the eastern Mediterranean began, with control of Cyprus passing between the Arabs and Byzantium for the next 500 years.

1500 BCE, Cyprus was under Egyptian rule.


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