Chronography of The Crusades

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20 April 1545. The Waldensians were massacred in Provence.


28 July 1480, An Ottoman Army landed near Otranto, Italy.Pope Sixtus IV called for a crusade to drive them out.


15 August 1309, The city of Rhodes surrendered to the forces of the Knights of St. John, completing their conquest of Rhodes. The knights established their headquarters on the island, and renamed themselves as the Knights of Rhodes.

9 March 1309. Pope Clement V (French) arrived at Avignon to set up court there. Rome was no longer the Papal Seat.

5 September 1307, Pope Clement V confirmed the Knights Hospitaller possession of Rhodes, although only Feracle had fallen to their attacks.


31 July 1291, The Mamluks took Beirut, completing their conquest of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

18 May 1291, Al-Ashraf Khalil of Egypt captured Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. Christians in Acre, who had broken a truce by massacring all Muslims in the town, scrambled for places on boats to Cyprus. Most Christians in Acre were captured, and sent to the slave market in Damascus.

6 April 1291, Mamluks under Sultan al-Ashraf of Egypt began a siege of the Crusaders at Acre.

27 April 1289, Fall of Tripoli: Mamluk Sultan Qalawun captured the County of Tripoli (in present-day Lebanon) after a month-long siege, thus extinguishing the Crusader state.

8 August 1288, Pope Nicholas IV (died 1292) proclaimed a Crusade against Ladislaus IV of Hungary. who had lost credibility by favouring his semi-pagan Cuman subjects and in general refusing to conform to the social standards of western Europe.

31 May 1287, The Genoese defeated the Venetian fleet off Acre, Crusader Kingdon of Jerusalem.

25 April 1285, Mamluk Sultan Qalawun began a siege of the Crusader fortress of Margat (in present-day Syria), a major stronghold of the Knights Hospitaller thought to be impregnable; he captured the fortress a month later.

3 July 1281, By the Treaty of Orvieto, the Venetians promised to help Charles of Anjou, King of Sicily, restore the Latin Kinhgdom of Jerusalem.

17 July 1274, The Second Council of Lyons ended. It had commenced 7 May 1274, to 1) end the Greek Schsim, 2) call a new Crusade, and 3) counter moral corruption within the clergy.

22 May 1272, A peace treaty was agreed between Babyars I and the Crusader Kingdom of Acre.

9 May 1271, Edward, heir of King Henry III of England, arrived in Acre, where the Crusaders were under siege by Mamluk forces under Babyars I.

8 April 1271, Mamluk Sultan Baibars continued his territorial expansion, capturing the strategically important castle Krak des Chevaliers from the Knights Hospitaller in present-day Syria.

23 November 1270, A storm destroyed the Crusader fleet at Trapani, Sicily, preventing Charles of Anjou from setting out for the Holy Land.

25 July 1270, King Louis IX of France took Tunis (8th Crusade).

18 July 1270, King Louis IX of France landed at Carthage on his way to the Eight Crusade.

1 July 1270, King Louis IX of France set sail on the Eight Crusade.


18 May 1268, The Principality of Antioch, a crusader state, fell to the Mamluk Sultan Baibars in the Battle of Antioch;

7 March 1268, Egyptian Sultan Babyars I seized the Crusader city of Jaffa.

24 March 1267, �Saint� Louis of France called his knights to Paris in preparation for his Crusade.

23 July 1266, Babyars I, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, seized the Templar fortress of Safed and overran the Galilee region.

4 April 1263, Egyptian Sultan Babyars I attacked Acre, inamajor effort to eliminate the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli and the Principality of Antioch.


Seventh Crusade, see also Egypt

11 July 1254, Louis IX returned to France from the Seventh Crusade.

24 April 1254, French King Louis IX left Palestine. Civil War broke in the Outremer (Crusader States).

11 February 1250, The Muslims counterattacked the exhausted Crusaders, who only just hung on by their use of Greek Fire.

6 April 1250, Battle of Fariskur. Louis IX surrendered to the Mamluks, after a failed breakout and thwarted retreat to Damietta. The Crusaders were weakened by scurvy. Louis IX and his forces were allowed to depart on payment of a ransom of 800,000 gold livres.Louis� surviving soldiers returned to France. Louis himself sailed for Acre, but his further negotiations, including an attempted alliance with the Mongols,came to nothing.

8 February 1250, Louis IX�s invading forces dosvovered a ford across the Ashmoun Canal 4 miles from the main battlefield and surprised the Muslim forces with an attack on Damietta on the way to Cairo. However Louis IX�s brother, Robert of Artois, disobeyed orders, he was supposed to hold the opposite bank of the Canal until further French reinforcements joined him, but he rashly attacked into the town of Mansura prematurely. In the streets, Robert�s cavalry were of limited effectiveness; the Miuslims rallied and halted his advance.

1/1250, Crusader forces tried to build a causeway across the Ashmoun Canal, but the Muslims harassed them with war engines, also widened the canal by excavating on the side they held.

22 November 1249, Sultan Al-Salih died, leaving his inexperienced son Turanshah as ruler. This was good news for the invading King Louis IX of France. However initially hois death was kept secret and one of his wives, Shajah ud Durr, ruled in his name.

20 November 1249, The Seventh Crudaders in Egypt had only advanced 50 miles in 4 weeks as they moved towards Cairo. They were halted at Mansura, where the Fifth Crusade had been stopped, as Muslim forces under Emir Fakr ed Din, held tham at the Ashmoun Canal.

6 June 1249, In the Seventh Crusade, King Louis IX of France landed at Damietta, Egypt. Opposaition was light, as the garrison defending the city fled in panic. Mindful of the issues faced by the Fifth Crusade in advancing on Cairo in the midsummer heat, Louis IX delayed until Autumn. However this gave the Egyptian Sultan Malik al Salih, then seriously ill,time to restore morale in his forces.

25 August 1248, The Seventh Crusade left Aigues Mortes, France, under King Louis IX.

1245, The Seventh Crusade was mobilised under King Louis IX of France. It left for Egypt in 8/1248, and invaded Damietta, Egypt in Spring 1249. It then marched on Cairo, but was halted at Mansura. See 6 April 1250, Egypt.


16 March 1244, Following their successful siege of Monts�gur, French royal forces burned about 210 Cathars.

1241, Jerusalem was finally captured by the Muslims. It remained in Egyptian hands until 1517, and in Muslim hands until World War One. A further seventh Crusade was planned to recapture it but this did not happen. See 1245.

22 September 1236, Battle of Saule. In the Northern Crusades, Livonian Kights had fought against Baltic pagan peoples such as the Samogitians of Lithuania. The Pope had previously criticised the Livonian Knights for their rather more materialistic acquisitive as opposed to spiritual agenda. Having taken much loot from the Samogitians in an expedition in 1236, they found themselves blocked at a river crossing this day on the way home. They did not wish to dismount and fight, nor to ride through marshy ground and attempt a breakthrough. The Livonians footsoldiers, perhaps forcibly recruited, deserted, and the light Livonian cavalry cut down the heavily-armoured Livonians. The remnant of the Livonian Order was forced to join with the Teutonic Knights,by Papal order.


17 March 1230, The Archbishop of Bremen, Gerhard II, convened a Great Church Gathering at Bremen. There he organised the excommunication of the Stedinger for such crimes as worshipping wax images of the Devil and consulting evil spirits. In reality the Stedinger had been granted permission, in 1106 by an earlier Archbishop of Bremen, to reclaim the marshlands at the estuary of the River Weser for agriculture. The work was hard, digging drainage ditches and buildingdikes but the inhabitants of this land, called Stedingen, were at least free from Feudalism. They paid a nominal tax to the Archbishop but owned no feudal duties to any Lord. Over time the feudal Lords of the region and the Archbishops of Bremen came to see the freedom of the Stedinger as a threat. Relations deteriorated as the Counts of Oldenburg built two fortresses in Stedingen, at Lechtenburg and Luneberg, kidnapping local people from the area, and in turn the Stedinger formed local militias for their own protection. Gerhard II went to Rome to secure Pope Gregory II�s agreement for a Crusade against the Stedinger, which began in Spring 1233. By the end of 1234 the Stedinger society had been eradicated, although some families claiming descent from the Stedinger remain today in Germany and the USA.


12 April 1229, The Treaty of Paris brought the Albigensian Crusade to an end.


Sixth Crusade

18 March 1229, King Frderick II of Germany had himself crowned King of Jerusalem.

12 March 1229. Frederick II of Germany finally arrived in Jerusalem, having been twice excommunicated by the Pope for delaying his Crusade. He had intended to depart in 1215 but was delayed by domestic problems including the Mongol invasion. He reached Acre, with only a small army, but he had been (2/1229) in clandestine negotiations with the Sultan of Egypt, Al-Kamil, who had been shaken by the fifth Crusader�s advance into Egypt. The Sultan was happy to surrender Bethlehem and Nazareth, and a corridor of territory from Jerusalem to the coast as well as much of Jerusalem itself. The Vatican, however, disapproved of Frederick�s negotiating with a non-Christian.

28 June 1228, Frederick II finally embarked on the Crusade; however Pope Gregory IX did not revoke his excommunication.

29 September 1227, Pope Gregory IX excommunicated King Frederick of Germany a second time, for delaying his Crusade.

8 September 1227, Frederick II, King of Germany, departed from Brindisi on a Crusade. However an epidemic in his fleet caused him to abandon the project 3 days later. This was his second abandonment; the first intended departure, in 1215, was delayed by Frederick having to deal with disorder in Sicily.


Fifth Crusade

31 August 1221, Under a peace deal, the Franks left Egypt.

6 November 1219. The Egyptian port of Damietta fell to the Crusaders (Franks) after a siege.

24 May 1218, The Fifth Crusade left Acre for Egypt.

1215, Pope Innocent III called for a Fifth Crusade, to go by way of Egypt.


11 November 1215, Pope Innocent III opened the Fourth Lateran Council in Rome. This officially ended the Albigensian Crusadem and authorised a Fifth Crusade in Palestine. Simon de Montfort was granted the County of Toulouse. The first Papal tithe on the clergy was imposed. The Jews were pordered to wear distinctive clothes.

4 March 1215, King John of England made an oath to Pope Innocent III as a crusader to gain his support. John also technically passed authority of his kingdom over to the Pope, thereby making anyone who tried to depose him an enemy of the Pope and liable to excommunication. This move was a precaution by John who was facing rebellion by his barons. This healed the rift between King John and Pope Innocent III, see 15 July 1207.

8 January 1215, Simon de Montfort the Elder was elected Lord of Languedoc at a Council in Montpellier, after his campaign against the Cathars.

12 September 1213, Battle of Muret: The Toulousain and Aragonese forces of Raymond VI of Toulouse and Peter II of Aragon were defeated by the Albigensian Crusade under Simon de Montfort.

22 July 1209. The Crusade against the Cathars, The Cathars, also known as Albigensians after the French town of Albi, held beliefs heretical to the Catholic Church. They also denied the divinity of Jesus, and the Pope. The Papacy declared them heretics in 1176, and Pope Innocent sent preachers to convert them. However in January 1208 his legate, Pierre of Castelnau, was killed by the Albigensians; the Pope then declared a Crusade against them. Many joined this Crusade, attracted by promises that they could keep any land seized from the Albigensians. In 1209 the 10,000 strong Crusader army gathered in Lyon and marched south under the command of another Papal legate, Arnauld Amalric, Abbot of Citeaux.. The Cathars were massacred in Beziers, but remained active elsewhere for another 20 years.

17 November 1208, Pope Innocent III asked the nobility of northern France to start the Albibegnsian Crusade against the Cathars in southern France.


Crusader assault on Constantinople

16 May 1204, Baldwin, Count of Flanders, was crowned Latin Emperor of Constantinople. In October 1204, Venice and Baldwin partitioned the Byzantine Empire. Venice gained the Adriatic coast,Rhodes and the Aegean Islands. Other Crusaders held their territories as fiefs of Baldwin. The Fourth Crusade had ended, never having reached the Holy Land, diverted from the aims of Pope Innocent III by Venetian and Byzantine politics.

13 April 1204, The Crusaders captured Constantinople.Venice had provided the shipping to carry the Fourth Crusade eastwards, but in order to repay Venice the Crusaders were obliged to seize, on behalf of Venice, the port of Zara on tye Adriatic from Christian Hungary. Meanwhile the exiled Byzantine Prince Alexius Angelus , son of the deposed King Isaac II, also offered to pay the Crusaders if they would restore him to the Byzantine throne. In June 1203 therefore, the Crusaders arrived in Cinstantinople and set up Alexius as Emperor. However in February 1204 Emperor Alexius was murdered, and replaced by courtier Alexius Doucas, who told the Crusaders to leave. Moreover the promised 200,000 Marks fee for installing Alexius Angelus was never paid. The Crusaders responded by besieging and attacking Constantinople. The Crusader nobleman Baldwin of Flanders was installed as Byzantine ruler, but most of Byzantium refused to recognise him, and the Empire fragmented into four disunited States.

See also Roman Empire for more on Constantinople

1/1204, Increasing resentment by the Byzantine nobility against the Crusaders and thrir puppet rulers, Isaac II and Alexius IV. Alexius Ducas Mourtzouphlous, son in law of Alexius III, mounted an insurrection. Isaac II was imprisoned and Alexius IV executed. Alexius Ducas now seized the throne as Alexius V. The Crusaders now planned an all-out assault on Constantinople.

17 July 1203, The Crusader assault on Constantinople began. The Crusader Army attacked by land from the west whilst the venetian fleet assaulted the sea wall. Alexius III fled the city by night. The Byzantine nobles released Isaac II from prison and restored him as Emperor. Alexius IV became co-emperor.

23 June 1203, The Crusader force arrived at Chalcedon, on the Asiatic shore opposite Byzantium, then, despite efforts by Byzantium, established a fortified camp at Galata. The Venetian fleet then forced its way into the Bosphorus and then into the Golden Horn, the water between Galata and Constantinople. Venice was seeking to recover lands lost in the Balkans; Pope Innocent III objected that Christian Venetians were now killing other (Balkan) Christians.

15 November 1202, The Crusdaers took Zara (now in Croatia) from Hungary and transferred it to Venice. The Crusaders agreed to help deposed Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelus, an ally of Venice, regain the throne.

2 April 1195, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI proclaimed a Crusade at Bari.


End of Third Crusade, 1189-92

2 November 1192. Peace was concluded between Richard I (Lionheart) of England and Saladdin of Jerusalem (see 2 December 1187). The Crusades never achieved their objective of liberating the Holy Land from the Muslims but because they caused the death of so many noblemen the system of serfdom and landholding in Europe was gradually dismantled. Feudalism gradually ended over the period from 1300 to the Thirty Years War, 1618-48.

5 August 1192, Final battle of the Third Crusade, at Jaffa. After victory at Arsuf, Richard I had spent months capturing castles and winning minor fights, but never managed to attain his ultimate objective of gaining Jerusalem. In late July 1192 he was in Acre, planning his return trip to England when Saladin unexpectedly attacked Jaffa. Saladin took the town but not the citadel, Richard I arrived at Jaffa by sea and managed to drive the Muslims away from Jaffa. Saladin and Richard I then opened peace negotiations. The end result was a deal that left the Christians with just a narrow coastal strip in the Holy Land, but did at least ensure their presence there for another century.

28 April 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, Crusader King of Jerusalem, died.

5 April 1192, Easter Sunday. Guy de Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, was deposed and succeeded by Conrad, Marquis of Montferrat. Guy received Cyprus as compensation.

6 September 1191. Richard I defeated the Saracens at the Battle of Arsouf. Richard I then marched on Jaffa.

4 July 1191. The Crusaders under Richard I captured Acre from Saladdin, during the Third Crusade.

21 June 1190, The German Crusaders arrived in Antioch.

10 June 1190. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) drowned in the River Saleph (now, Goksu) on his way to the Holy Land in the Third Crusade. He was succeeded by his son Henry IV.

18 May 1190, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I advanced into Konya, capital of Rum, western Turkey.

12 December 1189, King Richard I of England left on the Crusade.

4 October 1189, Saladin returned to Acre with a larger army tio relieve the Crusader siege. Both sides lost heavily, and the siege continued.

15 September 1189, Saladin attempted to relieve the siege of Acre, which was wanted by Guy of Jerusalem so he could use the port as a base for the expected Third Crusade. However the Muslim forces were driven off.

11 May 1189, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa departed from Regensburg on the Third Crusade, with 100,000 troops.

23 April 1188, Archbishop Baldwin of Canterbury today completed a 49-day tour of Wales to recruit men for a new Crusade to the Holy Land. He was assisted by Gerald, 42-year-old Archdeacon of Brecon, who was a key royal advisor.

21 January 1189. Henry II of England, with Philip Augustus and Frederick Barbraossa, assembled troops for a third Crusade.

22 January 1188, King Henry II of England ,King Philip II of France and Philip of Flanders agreed to support the planned Crusade.

Start of Third Crusade


Loss of Jerusalem to Saladdin 1187

2 December 1187. Jerusalem surrendered to Saladdin (see 2 November 1192). Saladdin was born in 1138, in Tikrit (Saddam Hussein�s native town) of Kurdish parents andwas educated in Syria. In 1164 he accompanies his uncle on a military campaign in Egypt. The aim was to substitute Sunni for Shia Islam there, and also to drive the Crusader Franks out of the Levant. The local Syrian leader died in 1174 and Saladdin defeated his 11 year old successor and seized power. The Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad gave Saladdin power over all the lands from Morocco to Syria; Saladdin later extended his rule into Mesopotamia. Saladdin also subdued the Assassins, a Muslim sect that had twice tried to kill him. He now attacked the Crusaders, and on 1 July 1187 captured Tiberias after a six day siege.

After the capture of Jerusalem by Saladdin, the Franks were almost evicted from the region, holding on only at Antioch, Tripoli, and Tyre. European states set aside their differences in panic and three rulers; Richard I of England, Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, and Philip Augustus of France, set out on a third Crusade. The Crusaders marched on Muslim-held Acre, Saladdin arrived, and there ensued a long battle, control swinging back and forth. After two years, Acre fell to the Crusaders. Peace negotiations began, (see 2 November 1192), the end result being a marriage of his daughter with Saladdin�s brother, Al-Malik, who was knighted by Richard. The peace gave the coast to the Europeans and the interior to the Muslims. In February 1188 Saladdin fell ill with a fever and died 12 days later aged 55.

4 July 1187, The Battle of the Horns of Hattin (an extinct volcano crowned with two rocky outcrops). Saladin�s 20,000 strong army defeated Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem. Guy de Lusignan had made a tactical error in attempting to relieve Saladin�s siege of Tiberias. Thirst drove Lusignan�s troops to drink at a nearby lake, where Saladin then attacked them.

1 May 1187, Battle of Cresson: Saladin defeated the Crusaders.

29 December 1177, The Order of Alcantara (founded 1156 as the Order of Saint Julian) received Papal approval. It was a military order of crusading knights, and played a part in the Reconquista of Spain from the Muslims.

25 November 1177, King Baldwin of Jerusalem defeated Saladin at Montgisard.

17 September 1176, Emperor Manuel of Byzantium was defeated by the Muslims, in the Crusades.


Second Crusade. Christians fail to captiure Damascus

29 June 1149, Raymond of Poitiers, Prince of Antioch, was defeated and killed by Nur ad Din, son of Imad ad Din Zangi. The Second Crusade ended.

28 July 1148, The Crusaders failed to capture Damascus. The troops of Louis II of France and Conrad III of Germany suffered considerable losses at the hands of the Turks on the way to the Holy Land, even before they arrived to join with Baldwin III of Jerusalem. They arrived at Damascus on 23 July 1148 and occupied the large orchards and fields west of Damascus, suffering further losses at the hands of the skilled Damascene archers. Failing to take Damascus from this angle, on 27 July 1148 they moved to the more open ground east of Damascus. The army leaders then began to argue over the best plan of attack, and who should rule Damascus once captured; news also broke of a large Muslim army now in Homs under the command of skilled General Nur-ad-Din. Local Christian lords deserted, taking their men away, and on 28 July 1144 Louis, Conrad and Baldwin began their own retreat back to Jerusalem, having accomplished nothing.

25 October 1147, Battle of Dorylaeum, the Seljuq Turks defeated German crusaders under Conrad III.

24 December 1144, The city of Edessa fell to the Muslims, sparking the Second Crusade. Zengi had been informed that Count Joscelin of Edessa had argued with Prince Raymond of Antioch, and had then taken most of his army to Diyarbakir to interfere in a local dispute there. Therefore Zengi moved to capture Edessa at ths time. Arriving on 28 November 1144, Zengi began undermining the city walls and battering them with trebuchets. Queen Melisende of Jerusalem sent a relief force, but Prince Raymond of Antioch refused to help. On 24 December 1144 a section of Edessa�s walls fell. Zengi separated local Christians from the foreign ones, then executed the latter. Edessa�s citadel held out until 26 December 1144, surrendering on condition that their lives would be spared, just before Joscelin and Melisende�s troops arrived. These relief troops did hold onto lands west of the Euphrates River. When Pope Eugene III heard of the fall of Edessa, he called for the Second Crusade to begin.


First Crusade,

21 August 1131, Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem, died and wsas succeeded by Fulk of Anjou.

1128, Zengi of Mosul captured Aleppo from the Crusaders..

7 July 1124, Tyre fell to the Crusaders.

29 May 1123, The Crusaders defeated the Fatimids at Ibelin, Palestine.

18 April 1123, Danishmend Turkish Emir Balak of Khanzit captured King Baldwin of Jerusalem,and destroyed his army. In June Balak occupied Aleppo (Syria). Baldwin was released in June 1124 on payment of a ransom.

28 June 1119, The Dashmend Turks under Ghazi defeated a Crusader army at Antioch. Roger of Salerno, Prince of Antioch, was killed.

2 April 1118, Baldwin I, Crusader King of Jerusalem, died and was succeeded by Baldwin II, Count of Edessa in Syria.

7 July 1115, Peter the Hermit, a leader of the First Crusade, died.

4 December 1110, First Crusade, the Crusaders conquered Sidon.

12 July 1109, Tripoli, in modern-day Lebanon, surrendered to Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem.

23 March 1106, Pope Paschal II, eager for support from King Henry of England for the Crusades, agreed to compromise over Henry�s royal power to command homage from the clergy.

27 August 1105, Baldwin I, French Crusader King of Jerusalem, decisively defeated the Fatimids at the Third Battle of Ramleh.

28 February 1105, Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, died whilst besieging Tripoli in Palestine.

7 May 1104, Battle of Harran. The Crusaders were about to lay siege to Harran to distract the Seljuk forces of Sokman of Mardin and Jikirmish of Mosul, who wree themselves besieging Edessa. At this point the forces of Sokman and Jikirmish appeared, and drew the Crusaders under Count Baldwin and Prince Bohemond of Antioch. Jikirmish�s cavalry charged and inflicted heavy casualties; Baldwin was taken prisoner. He was freed after paying a ransom, in 1108 and later became King of Jerusalem.

28 May 1102, Baldwin I defeated the Fatimids at Jaffa.

17 May 1102, The Fatimids defeated Baldwin I, French Crusader King, at Jerusalem.

4 September 1101, Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem, defeated the Fatimids at Ramleh.

23 June 1101, Raymond of Toulouse took Ankara with a new Crusader army from Constantinople. However in 8/1101 his army was destroyed by the Danishmend Turkish army at Mersivan, Anatolia.

25 December 1100, Baldwin was crowned King of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem by Dagobert.


Rule of Godfrey de Bouillon

18 July 1100, Godfrey de Bouillon, first Crusader king of Jerusalem, died, aged 39. He had led successful expeditions against the Seljuk Turks as far as Damascus. He was succeeded by his older brother Baldwin, Count of Flanders, who ruled until 1118 with the support of Tancred, a Sicilian Norman who was now Prince of Galilee.

12 August 1099, Battle of Ascalon. Fatimid attack on the Crusaders was defeated by Godfrey.

22 July 1099, Godfrey of Bouillon, a Crusader leader from Boulogne, was elected Defender of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, and established the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

15 July 1099. Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders, (see 27 November 1095). 40,000 people, both Jews and Muslims, were slaughtered in two days, an event European scholar-monks acclaimed as �the greatest event since the Crucifixition�. On 12 August 1099 the Crusaders defeated Al-Afdal, the Fatimid Vizier of Egypt, at Ascalon. He was bringing an army to recapture Jerusalem, which the Egyptians had earlier lost to the Turks.


7 June 1099, The Crusaders arrived at Jerusalem.

1 August 1098, Adhemar de Monteil, Criusader, Bishop of Puy en Velay from 1077, died during the plague in Antioch.

28 June 1098, Battle of Orontes. Supposed discovery within Amtioch of the �Holy Lance� � the weapon used to pierce Jesus�s side at his death. Despite doubts even amongst some Crusaders, they collectively believed that with possession of this lance they were invincible, and they sallied out to attack the Muslims. However with determination they prevailed over the Turks, who fled the battle.

5 June 1098, Emir Kerboga�s forces now arrived at Antioch and besieged the Crusaders there.

3 June 1098, The Crusaders took Antioch.

9 February 1098, A second Syrian attempt to relieve Antioch was also driven off by the Crusaders.

31 December 1097, A Syrian army attempting to relieve the Crusader siege of Amtioch was driven off.

21 October 1097, The Crusaders arrived at Antioch.

1 July 1097, Battle of Dorylaeum. Bohemunds forces were losing to a Turkish attack when Godfrey and Raymond�s forces attacked the rear of the Turks, turning the result into a Crusader victory.

24 June 1097, The Crusaders took Nicea.

April 1097, The knightly Crusader force now assembled in Constantinope totalled between 150,000 and 300,000 men.

23 December 1096, Crusader leader Godfrey of Bouillon, along with his brotherBaldwin, arrived in Constantinople.

15 August 1096, The forces of the First Crusade departed from Europe, to rendez-vous at Constantinople.

May 1096, The zealous Peter the Hermit travelled throughout France and the Rhine Valley, recruiting peasants to the First Crusade. As these forces gathered together in 8/1096, they also began a persecution of the Jews in the Rhine area, a Judenhetze. By October 1096 this peasant army had perished in what is now Turkey, at the hands of te Seljuk Turks.

March 1096, The European knights began to assemble for their Crusade.

27 November 1095. Pope Urban II called for a Crusade to the Holy Land, at the Council of Clermont. He talked of how, due to Turkish misrule, it was no longer safe for Christian pilgrims to visit the holy sites of Jerusalem. The Crusaders defeated the Turks at Dorylaeum on 30/6 1097, opening the way to Jerusalem. Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders on 15 July 1099.

19 November 1095, The Council of Clermont began. The council was called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land. See year 1071, Jerusalem.

First Crusade


1071, Jerusalem was captured by the Seljuk Turks from the Egyptian Arabs. The Turks were less tolerant of Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem than its previous rulers. Even before this the schism between the Byzantine and Roman Churches had begun to make things difficult for Western European pilgrims � excessive �taxes� were levied on Roman Catholic pilgrims by the Byzantine Church. See also years 671 and 807 below. These developments were the primary cause of the Crusader Movement from Western Europe. See year 1095.

807, Harun al Rashid, Arab ruler of Jerusalem, acknowledged Charlemagne, Holy Roman Emperor, as spiritual guardian of the Christian heritage of Jerusalem. He was tolerant towards Christian pilgrims visiting the city. See also years 638 and 1071.


Jerusalem lost to Christendom

637, Jerusalem was captured by the Arabs under Osman. For the history of the city before this year see Jewish History. Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem were still tolerated, but see years 807 and 1071 above.

5 May 614. The Persians completed the conquest of Syria by capturing Jerusalem. They seized the �true cross�, the most holy relic of Christendom. However on 3 April 628 the Persian ruler Kavadh sued for peace with Byzantium. He handed back Armenia, Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, as well as the �true cross�. This cross was restored to Jerusalem by Heraclius on 21 March 630.


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