Chronography of Chad

Page last modified 18 August 2023


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For map of geographical changes to Lake Chad click here

Demography of Chad


30 May 2016, The trial of Hissein Habre, aged 73, former President of Chad 1982-1990, concluded. He was found guilty by the Court in Senegal of crimes including mass rape and torture. Overall, an estimated 40,000 people were murdered under his rule before he was deposed and fled into Senegal.

20 July 2015, The trial of former Chadian President (1982-1990), Hissein Habre, began, see 30 May 2016.

2 February 2008, Rebels attacked N�Djamena, capital of Chad.

23 December 2005, Chad declared a state of war with Sudan. Chad alleged that Libya was trying to destabilise its border region in the wake of the Darfur Crisis.

2003, A peace deal ended a 4-year rebellion in northern Chad.

1996, The Chadian Govermnment made peace with a range of opposition groups on the North and the South

1994, Libya formally relinquished claims on the Aozou Strip in northern Chad.

1993, Habre attempted a coup against Deby, but failed.

5 April 1993, Republican Guards killed 64 in Chad.


President Habre (1989-91); deposed by pro Libyan forces (Deby)

28 November 1990, The President of Chad, Hissein Habre, was deposed by the Patriotic Salvation Movement and replaced as President by its leader, Idriss Deby. Deby set free some 400 Libyan prisoners, leading many to suspect he was being supported by Qaddaffi.

1 September 1990, Chad instituted proceedings against Libya in the International Court of Justice, a day after Libya had done the same against Chad. Both sides were claiming the Aozou Strip

1989, Habre became President of (all of) Chad.


1982-89, Libyan occupation of northern Chad; Habre rules the South

31 August 1989. Libya and Chad signed a peace agreement ending 25 years of war.

1987, Oueddi�s forces now turned against Libya (Oueddi had been shot and injured by the Libyans in 10/1986). Oueddi and Habre now joined forces to oust the Libyans from northern Chad, including the Aozou Strip. Habre�s advisor, Colonel Idriss Deby, led the successful military push against Libyan forces through 1987.

17/9/1984, France and Libya reached agreement on the withdrawal of both countries� troops from Chad by mid-November.

19 August 1983, France sent a further 3,500 troops to assist Hissein Habre, who was leader of southern Chad.

11 August 1983, Faya Largeau in Chad fell to Libyan troops.

7 August 1983, France sent paratroopers to supplement 500 �military instructors� in Chad.

2 August 1983, Libyan planes bombed Faya Largeau in Chad.

7 June 1982, Hissein Habre�s forces seized N�Djamena and forced Oueddi to flee. N�Djamena, the Chadian capital, is located in southern Chad, latitude 12 N. However Chad north of 15 N was occupied by pro-Libyan forces, effectively partitioning the country.


President Oueddi (Libyan-backed) 1979-82; ousted from the capital by Hissein Habre

19 November 1981, Civil war in Chad as the rebel FAN (Armed Forces of the North) army backed by Libya fought to oust President Goukoni Oueddei, who himself had been installed with Libyan backing following the assassination of President Francois Tombalbaye in 1975. Tombalbaye had been the first President since Chad gained independence on 11 August 1960. See 7 June 1982.

26 December 1980, President Oeddi of Chad accepted thye Libyan annexation of the Aozou Strip as �an accomplished fact�.

15 June 1980, Libya and Chad signed a Treaty of Friendship, with Libya still in possession of the Aozou Strip.

1980, Libyan forces supporting Oueddi occupied N�Djamena, and Colonel Qaddaffi proclaimed a union of Chad and Libya. Libyan troops were withdrawn in 1981.


President Malloum (southern) (1975-79); deposed by Libyan backed forces

1979, President Malloum was deposed, and fled to Nigeria. Goukouni Oueddi, former FROLINAT leader, became President, with Hissein Habre as Defence Minister. Rivalry soon developed between these two Muslim leaders.

15 March 1979, In Chad, President Felix Malloum, President Hissen Habre and guerrilla leaders of FROLINAT signed an agreement in Kano, Nigeria, to end hostilities and form a coalition government. On 20 March France began withdrawing its 2,500 troops that had been supporting the President.

1978, FROLINAT overran the Chadian Governmant�s military stronghold at Tibesti. The French Foreign legion were brought in to push back FROLINAT

1975, Military coup by Bantu General Felix Malloum. He was opposed by the Libyan-backed Chadian National Liberation Front (FROLINAT). By 1978 FROLINAT controlled some 80% of Chad.


1972, Libya seized the Aozou Strip in northern Chad, taking advantage of factional fighting within Chad. The Strip was thought to contain uranium deposits, which would enable Libya to become a nuclear power.

1965, Northern Chad was inhabitedby Arab Muslim nomads and cattle herders, whilst the South was mainly Bantu Christian and Animist farmers. By 1865 the North felt discriminated against, because the Chadian Govermment was dominated by Southerners.

11 August 1960, Chad formerly a French colony, became an independent Republic.

1959, Pre-indepencence elections produced a victory for Francois (later, Ngarta) Tombalhaye, who became Prime Minister.

10 August 1955, France signed a Treaty of Friendship and Good Neighbourliness with Libya, which by then was independent. This later Treaty is cited by Chad as superseding the unratified 1935 agreement.

7 January 1935, A proposed agreement between France and Italy to cede the Aozou Strip, Chad, to Libya. However France never ratified this agreement.


French subjugation of Chad

11 February 1912, The Niger-Chad border was delineated by the Governors-General of French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa.

1906, The French finally gained control of the Kanem area, near Lake Chad. They gained control of Wadai in 1912, and finally the northern Chadian territory of Borkou in 1914.

1 November 1902, Italy, which had just taken Libya from Turkey, agreed to the Libya-Chad border as settled by Britian and France in 1899.

22 April 1900, France, Britain and Germany were all racing to colonise the Lake Chad area, then thought to be of major economic importance See also Nigeria (7/1890) for the creation of Cameroonian territorial extension northwards to Lake Chad.

The French arrived first, and French explorer Emile Gentil (1866-1914) led an expedition down to the southern part of the lake and made a treaty with the Sultan of Baguirmi to set up a French Protectorate in the area. French forces now (1900) moved south from Algeria and east from Senbegal and Niger, joined with Gentil�s men, and this day defeated Rabah Zobeir, a Muslim chieftain, at the Battle of Lakhta (Kusseri). However it took several years thereafter to subdue the determined resistance from the Senussi people.

13 June 1899, Britain and France agreed upon the line of the Libya-Chad border, as part of an agreement on colonial spheres of influence within the region.


1878, Rabah Zobeir began a conquest of Chad from Sudan.

1500s, 1600s, Baguirmi and Ouaddai Kingdoms ruled the region.

800s, The Kanem-Bornu Empire was founded in what is now northern Chad.


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