Chronography of Chad

Page last modified 12/12/2021

 

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30/5/2016, The trial of Hissein Habre, aged 73, former President of Chad 1982-1990, concluded. He was found guilty by the Court in Senegal of crimes including mass rape and torture. Overall, an estimated 40,000 people were murdered under his rule before he was deposed and fled into Senegal.

20/7/2015, The trial of former Chadian President (1982-1990), Hissein Habre, began, see 30/5/2016.

2/2/2008, Rebels attacked N�Djamena, capital of Chad.

23/12/2005, Chad declared a state of war with Sudan. Chad alleged that Libya was trying to destabilise its border region in the wake of the Darfur Crisis.

2003, A peace deal ended a 4-year rebellion in northern Chad.

1996, The Chadian Govermnment made peace with a range of opposition groups on the North and the South

1994, Libya formally relinquished claims on the Aozou Strip in northern Chad.

1993, Habre attempted a coup against Deby, but failed.

5/4/1993, Republican Guards killed 64 in Chad.

 

President Habre (1989-91); deposed by pro Libyan forces (Deby)

28/11/1990, The President of Chad, Hissein Habre, was deposed by the Patriotic Salvation Movement and replaced as President by its leader, Idriss Deby. Deby set ffree some 400 Libyan prisoners, leading many to suspect he was being supported by Qaddaffi.

1989, Habre became President of (all of) Chad.

 

1982-89, Libyan occupation of northern Chad; Habre rules the South

31/8/1989. Libya and Chad signed a peace agreement ending 25 years of war.

1987, Oueddi�s forces now turned against Libya (Oueddi had been shot and injured by the Libyans in 10/1986). Oueddi and Habre now joined forces to oust the Libyans from northern Chad. Habre�s advisor, Colonel Idriss Deby, led the successful military push against Libyan forces through 1987.

17/9/1984, France and Libya reached agreement on the withdrawal of both countries� troops from Chad by mid-November.

19/8/1983, France sent a further 3,500 troops to assist Hissein Habre, who was leader of southern Chad.

11/8/1983, Faya Largeau in Chad fell to Libyan troops.

7/8/1983, France sent paratroopers to supplement 500 �military instructors� in Chad.

2/8/1983, Libyan planes bombed Faya Largeau in Chad.

7/6/1982, Hissein Habre�s forces seized N�Djamena and forced Oueddi to flee. N�Djamena, the Chadian capital, is located in southern Chad, latitude 12 N. However Chad north of 15 N was occupied by pro-Libyan forces, effectively partitioning the country.

 

President Oueddi (Libyan-backed) 1979-82; ousted from the capital by Hissein Habre

19/11/1981, Civil war in Chad as the rebel FAN (Armed Forces of the North) army backed by Libya fought to oust President Goukoni Oueddei, who himself had been installed with Libyan backing following the assassination of President Francois Tombalbaye in 1975. Tombalbaye had been the first President since Chad gained independence on 11/8/1960. See 7/6/1982.

1980, Libyan forces supporting Oueddi occupied N�Djamena, and Colonel Qaddaffi proclaimed a union of Chad and Libya. Libayn troops were withdrawn in 1981.

 

President Malloum (southern) (1975-79); deposed by Libyan backed forces

1979, President Malloum was deposed, and fled to Nigeria. Goukouni Oueddi, former FROLINAT leader, became President, with Hissein Habre as Defence Minister. Rivalry soon developed between these two Muslim leaders.

1978, FROLINAT overran the Chadian Governmant�s military stronghold at Tibesti. The French Foreign legion were brought in to push back FROLINAT

1975, Military coup by Bantu General Felix Malloum. He was opposed by the Libyan-backed Chadian National Liberation Front (FROLINAT). By 1978 FROLINAT controlled some 80% of Chad.

 

1973, Libya seized the Aozou Strip in northern Chad.

1965, Northern Chad was inhabitedby Arab Muslim nomads and cattle herders, whilst the South was mainly Bantu Christian and Animist farmers. By 1865 the North felt discriminated against, because the Chadian Govermment was dominated by Southerners.

11/8/1960, Chad formerly a French colony, became an independent Republic.

1959, Pre-indepencence elections produced a victory for Francois (later, Ngarta) Tombalhaye, who became Prime Minister.

 

French subjugation of Chad

11/2/1912, The Niger-Chad border was delineated by the Governors-General of French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa.

1906, The French finally gained control of the Kanem area, near Lake Chad. They gained control of Wadai in 1912, and finally the northern Chadian territory of Borkou in 1914.

22/41900, France, Britain and Germany were all racing to colonise the Lake Chad area, then thought to be of major economic importance See also Nigeria (7/1890) for the creation of Cameroonian territorial extension northwards to Lake Chad.

The French arrived first, and French explorer Emile Gentil (1866-1914) led an expedition down to the southern part of the lake and made a treaty with the Sultan of Baguirmi to set up a French Protectorate in the area. French forces now (1900) moved south from Algeria and east from Senbegal and Niger, joined with Gentil�s men, and this day defeated Rabah Zobeir, a Muslim chieftain, at the Battle of Lakhta (Kusseri). However it took several years thereafter to subdue the determined resistance from the Senussi people.

 

1878, Rabah Zobeir began a conquest of Chad from Sudan.

1500s, 1600s, Baguirmi and Ouaddai Kingdoms ruled the region.

800s, The Kanem-Bornu Empire was founded in what is now northern Chad.

 

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