Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; key historical events

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Kazakhstan

2005, Nazarbayev was �re-elected� President with over 90% of the vote; Opposition leader Zamanbek Nurkadilov was murdered.

2003, The private sale of formerly-collectivised farmland was legalised.

2000, President Nazarbayev was granted extensive and lifelong political powers.

1999, President Nazarbayev was �re-elected� for a further 7-year term, in elections widely believed to be flawed.

1997, The Kazakh capital was moved from Almaty northwards toAkmola (renamed Astana in 1998), partly to facilitate greater control overthe ethnic Russian population in the north of the country.

1995, Legislation permitted the expension of President Nazarbayev�s term to 2000, even without elections.

1993, Kazakhstan adopted a new currency, the Tenge.

1992, Kazakhstan was admitted to the United Nations.

16/12/1991, Kazakhstan became independent from the former USSR. It was the last SSR to declare independence.

1990, Nazarbayev was appointed First President of Kazakhstan.

1989, Gennadi Kolbin (ethnic Russian) was replaced by Nursultan Nazarbayev (ethnic Kazakh) as Head of the Kazakh Communist Party (CPK).

1986, Riots in Almaty, the Kazakh capital, after the ethnic Russian, Gennadi Kolbin, was appointed as Head of the CPK,replaceing the ethnic Kazakh, Dinmukhamed Konayev.

1954, The Soviet policy of ploughing the �virgin lands� of Kazakhstan began; there were dire environmental consequences.

29/8/1949, The Soviet Union successfully tested its first nuclear device, at Semipalatinsk, in what is now Kazakhstan. Soviet testing here ended in 1991.

1941, Russia began deporting, to Kazakhstan, large numbers of ethnic Germans, Jews, Crimean Tatars, Chechens, Ingush, and others who were precieved as being potentially disloyal to Moscow during World War Two.

1936, The Kazakhsta Soviet Socialist Republic was formally constituted, Meanwhile, Stalin�s enforced collectivisation of Kazakh farms and resettlement of Russians in the region led to the deaths of some one million Kazakhs.

1920, Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bolshevik forces secured control of the Kazakh region.

1917, As the Russian Revolution got underway, civil war in Kazakhstan began between the Bolsheviks, anti-Bolsheviks, and Kazakh Nationalists. Kazakhstan briefly became an autonomous Republic, and industrialised rapidly.

1916, An anti-Russian rebellion was harshly crushed.

1865, Russian domination over Kazakhstan was complete.

1846, The Senior Zhuz tribe (See https://fehrplay.com/novosti-i-obschestvo/75610-prisoedinenie-kazahstana-k-rossii-istoricheskie-fakty.html ) joined the Russian Empire.

1500s, Various Turkic, Mongol, and Iranian tribes, including the Kipchak, broke away from the Mongol Golden Horde and migrated to present-day Kazakhstan. Three tribal groupings emerged; the Senior Zhuz (=Horde) in the southeast of Kazakhstan, the Middle Zhuz in ther north and central areas, and the Junior Zhuz in the north-west.

7/751, Battle of Talas, on the Talas River in modern-day Kazakhstan. Chinese expansion westwards had met Islamic Arab expansion estwards. Local Uighurs asked the Arabs for protection. The Arab army under Ziadh Ibn Salih was bosletered by Uighurs and Tibetans, giving it numerical superiority over the Chinese forcres led by Korean-born General Gao Xianzhi. The Chinese were attacked in the rear by Turkic nomadic horsemen, the Karluks, and defeated. Many Chinese were taken prisoner, including two experts in papermaking. From the Arab world, papermaking technology then reached the West. Maenwhile China plunged ointo civil war and abandoned iyts expansion intio central Asia, leaving the region to be Islamicised.

 

Kyrgyzstan

9/6/2010, Ethnic conflict in Kyrgyzstan between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks.

1/4/2010, Major rioting in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, caused President Bakiyev to flee.

2005, The �Tulip Revolution�; Akayev was ousted from power after accusations that he attempted to rig the Presidential elections. Kurmanbek Bakiyev was elected President.

1991, Kyrgyzstan became independent from the former USSR. The President was Askar Akayev, who was already in powerunder Soviet rule pre-1991.

3/6/1990. Kyrgizstan suffered violence between ethnic Kyrgiz (50% of the population) and ethnic Uzbeks (30%). The trouble began when 10,000 Uzbeks protested at plans by 1,500 Kyrgiz to seize farmland near the city of Osh to build houses.

1924, The Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic was set up, as part of the USSR.

1/8/1934, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, President of Kyrgyzstan, was born.

1876, Russia took control of the Kyrgyzstan area.

1855, Borombei Bekmuratov, chief of the nomadic Bugu tribe, who lived east of Issyk Kul, accepted Russian protection. Other tribes in the region were ruled by the Khanate of Khokand.

700s, Kyrgyz people began to settle and trade in the Chu Valley, where the present day Kyrgyz capital of Bishkek (known as Frunze under Soviet rule) islocated. By the 1700s there was a distinct ethnic Kyrgyz culture.

 

Tajikistan

2006, Rakhmonov was re-elected; however the election was widely condemned as corrupt.

1998, Islamist rebels signed a peace agreement with the Tajik Government, and joined the administration.

13/7/1993. Tajik rebels, helped by Afghani guerrillas from across the border in Afghanistan, attacked Russian troops in Tajikistan who were there to prop up the local government clinging to power against Muslim fundamentalists.

1992, Demonstrations forced Nabilev from power. Civil war began as the Islamic Revival Party attempted to set up an Islamic Republic. However a former Communist, Imomali Rakhmonov, won power.

1991, Tajikistan became independent from the former USSR. However the prevuous Communist leader, Rakhmon Nabiev, won power as the Opposition was excluded from government.

1989, Tajik was made the official language.

1940, Cyrillic script was introduced.

1929, The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic was set up as part of the USSR (see Uzbekistan, 1924)

1924, Soviet forces gained full control in Tajikistan.

1873, Russia forced Bukhara and Tajikistan to submit to being protectorates.

 

Turkmenistan

2007, Gurbanguli Berdymukhamedov, the former Health Minister and Deputy Prime Minister, was �elected� President in an �election� with a claimed 89% of the vote, where turnout was claimed to be 99%. He was the only candidate.

2006, Turkmen human rights activist Ogulsapar Muradova died in prison.

21/12/2006, Saparmurat Niyazov, President of Turkmenistan, died of a heart attack, having ruled since 1990. He had styled himself �Turkmenbashi�, or �Father of all Turkmen�. He had created a strong personality cult in Turkmenistan, with his portrait adorning many streets and his guide to living, entitled Ruhnama, being adopted as a national guidebook to be studied by all students. He also had erected a giant gold statue of himself in the capital, Ashgabat, which revolved once every 24 hours so that it always faced the Sun.

2003, Restrictions placed on all public and private meetings. The Turkmen Government removed the right of Russians, who formed 10% of the population, to hold dual citizenship. They were given two months to decide which nationality to opt for.

2002, Turkmen opposition groups in exile formed the Turkmen Democratic Front in Vienna. Later in 2002, an armed coup attempt in Turkmenistan was blamed on the Front, and led to mass repression and imprisonment of government opponents across the country,

2002, Niyazov revised the Turkmen calendar, naming the months after himself, his mother, and his book Ruhnama.

2000, Turkmen became the only official language within the country.

1999, The Turkmen Parliament indefinitely extended Niyazov�s term as President.

1994, The Turkmen Parliament voted to extend Niyazov�s term as President to 2002. A referendum found that 99.99% of voters were in favour of this.

1992, Niyazov was re-elected, unopposed, as President,

1991, Turkmenistan became an independent Republic from the former USSR.

1990, Niyazov was elected President of the Tuirlmen Soviet Socialist Republic.

1985, Saparmurat Niyazov became President of the Turkmen Communist Party.

1948, Earthquake in Ashgabat; 100,000 died.

1924, The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic was constituted.

1921, The Governor-Generalship of Turkestan was abolished, and replaced with an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within Russia.

1920, The Bolsheviks secured Turkestan.

1918, After the 1917 Russian Revolution, an independent Turkmen government was set up, supported by the British.

31/1/1884, The Russians seized the town of Merv in Turkmenistan, near a disputed area of Afghan border territory, alarming the British.

24/1/1881, Russia, advancingfrom the north, took the Turkmen fortress of Geok Tepe. During resistance to the Russians, some 14,000 Takkesh tribesmen died. The Russians founded the town of Ashgabat as a military and trading centre.

1229, Genghiz Khan conquered the Turkestan region.

 

Uzbekistan

2005, At a demonstration in Andijan, Fergana Valley, unarmed protestors against the arrest of 23 local people charged with �extremism� (in reality, with being members of a banned Islamic organisation) were shot at by Government troops.750 protestors were killed.

2001, The US set up a base in Khanabad to help the fight against the Taliban in Afghanistan. However the USA halted aid to Uzbekistan after human rights abuses, and Uzbekistan closed down the Khanabad base in 2005.

2000, Karimov was elected President; the elections were widely believed to be flawed. On 2002 the Presidential term was extended from 5 to 7 years.

1999, The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), formed in 1996, mounted bomb attacks, leading to the arrest of hundreeds of dissidents.

1995, Karimov, leading the People�s Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (PDP), won the elections.

1993, Harrassment of opposition Parties, including the nationalist Erk (Freedom) Party and the religious Birlik (Unity) Party, escalated.

1992, Deregulation of prices led to student riots in Tashkent.

1991, Uzbeikstan became independent from the former USSR. Karimov was conformed as President.

1989, A campaign by the Birlik (Unity) Party led to Uzbek being declared the official language.

1959, Sharaf Rashidov became First Secretary of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan. He held this position until 1983.

1941, Uzbekistan enjoyed an industrial boom, which lasted until 1945.

1936, The Karakalpak SSR, formerly part of the Russian SSR, was incorporated into the Uzbek SSR.

1925, An anti-Islamic campaign saw religious schools and mosques closed.

1924, Resistance to Soviet rule in Uzbekistan by Basmachi rebels was quashed. The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was set up; it also included what is now the Tajik SSR until 1929.

1923, A change from the old Turkic language to a new Uzbek language was instituted. The new language was initially written in Arabic script but this was changed to the Roman alphabet and then to Cyrillic.

1917, During the Russian Revolution, attempts were made to set up an independent Soviet Government at Tashkent.

1916, An armed uprising against Russian rule was crushed in Samarkand.

1868, Russia occupied Samarkand (Uzbekistan).

1865, Russia occupied Tashkent.

1500s, The region was loosely ruled by the Shaybani Uzbeks.

327 BCE, Alexander the Great conquered the region.

 

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