Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia; key historical events

Page last modified 16/4/2021

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Armenia

9/11/2020, A peace deal between Armenia and Azerbaijan was agreed. Azeris felt victorious; Armenians cursed theoir government in defeat. Azerbaijan had become strong as a petro-State, supported by an increasingly assertive Turkey, and meanwhile on the Armenian side the USA under President Trump had increasingly disengaged from the region. Russia under Putin was also now more concerned about its alliance with Turkey and had developed an anti-Western stance, so began to lift objections to Azeri initiatives towards regaining its territory.Turkey began to provide drones and training to the Azeri military. Under the deal, Armenia will withdraw from the seven occupied Azeri districts (the deal did not specify the future status of Nagorny Karabakh itself)/ Russia will deploy a peacekeeping force oin Nagorno Karabakh, and guarantee the Lachin Corridoor linking Armenia and Nagorno karabakh. Armenia had no choice but to accept, reluctantly, the presence of Russian troops. Turkey gets access to a transport corridor through Armenia into Azerbaijan, thereby linking it to the Caspian Sea and the Chinese Belt and Road initiative.

1994, Ceasefire in the war between Azerbaijan and Armenia.

1992, Armenia was admitted to the United Nations.

23/8/1990, Armenia declared independence from the USSR.

18/1/1990, Azerbaijan declared war on Armenia.

2/3/1988. The Soviet Army was sent to Azerbaijan to quell unrest there. Tension between Azerbaijan and Armenia grew. Azerbaijan rejected a call for the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh to be returned to Armenian control; Karabakh had been part of Azerbaijan since 1921, although mainly populated by Armenians, who were now demanding unity with Armenia. Armenia invaded and occupied large parts of Azerbaijan lying between Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. Russian support for Armenia ensured victory over Azerbaijan, with Armenia now controlling sevan districts of Azeri territory, besides Nagorno Karabakh. Turkey closed its border with Armenia. The conflict froze in this position, unsettled.

1922, Armenia became a Soviet Socialist Republic.

28/5/1919, Armenia declared independence.

22/4/1918, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan united to form the short-lived Transcaucasian Republic, see 26/5/1918.

See Turkey for Armenian massacres

5/9/1905, Hundreds died in clashes between Armenians and Tartars.

1878, Russia began the conquest of Armenia.

22/2/1828, Following the Russian capture of Tehran, Russia and Iran signed the Peace of Turkmanshai, ending their 2 year war. Russia acquired part of Armenia, including Yerevan. The region was divided between Persia to the south of the River Araks and Azerbaijan to the north.

1639, Armenia was partitioned between Turkey in the west and Persia to the east.

1375, Armenian King Levon V surrendered to the Governor of Aleppo, who had been besieging the capital Sis with an army of 30,000 Mamelukes. Many Armenians wer esloughtered; the rest converted to Islam. :Levon V was taken to Cairo where he remainedcaptive until ransomed by his Aragon and Castilian in-laws in 1382. King Charles V of France then gave him a pension and a house.

885, Armenia regained independence, maintaining this until conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the 11th century.

628, Armenia became a province of Byzantium.

301, Armenia became the first nation to become officially Christian.

69-66 BCE, Armenia was conquered by the Romans under Lucullus. However they left the Armenian King, Tigranes, as ruler.

70 BCE, Under Tigranes, Armenian rule now extended from Mount Ararat to Tyre on the Mediterranean. Tigranes began construction of a new capital city, Tigranocerta, at the headwataers of the River Tigris.

95 BCE, The Armenian King Artavazd died and was succeeded by his son Tigranes. Tigranes began a 40-year reign under which Armenia became the most powerful state in the region.

190 BCE, Armenia regained its independence.

325 BCE, Alexander the Great conquered Armenia.

840 BCE, TheArmenian Kingdom of Urartu became powerful.

 

Azerbaijan

9/11/2020, A peace deal between Armenia and Azerbaijan was agreed. Azeris felt victorious; Armenians cursed theoir government in defeat. Azerbaijan had become strong as a petro-State, supported by an increasingly assertive Turkey, and meanwhile on the Armenian side the USA under President Trump had increasingly disengaged from the region. Russia under Putin was also now more concerned about its alliance with Turkey and had developed an anti-Western stance, so began to lift objections to Azeri initiatives towards regaining its territory.Turkey began to provide drones and training to the Azeri military. Under the deal, Armenia will withdraw from the seven occupied Azeri districts (the deal did not specify the future status of Nagorny Karabakh itself)/ Russia will deploy a peacekeeping force oin Nagorno Karabakh, and guarantee the Lachin Corridoor linking Armenia and Nagorno karabakh. Armenia had no choice but to accept, reluctantly, the presence of Russian troops. Turkey gets access to a transport corridor through Armenia into Azerbaijan, thereby linking it to the Caspian Sea and the Chinese Belt and Road initiative.

1994, Ceasefire in the war between Azerbaijan and Armenia.

14/8/1993. Armenia launched a big offensive inside Azerbaijan near the Iranian border. Azerbaijan was also contending with another separatist movement, also near the Iranian border, at Lenkoran.

4/4/1993. Armenian forces now occupied a tenth of Azerbaijan. Armenia laid claim to the enclave of Nagorny-Karabakh and was occupying territory separating the enclave from Armenia.

19/1/1990. Soviet troops fired on an Azerbaijani crowd, killing many people. Thousands of Armenians fled Azerbaijan.

18/1/1990, Azerbaijan declared war on Armenia.

13/1/1990, 24 people died in riots in Baku, Azerbaijan.

2/3/1988. The Soviet Army was sent to Azerbaijan to quell unrest there. Tension between Azerbaijan and Armenia grew. Azerbaijan rejected a call for the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh to be returned to Armenian control; Karabakh had been part of Azerbaijan since 1921, although mainly populated by Armenians, who were now demanding unity with Armenia. Armenia invaded and occupied large parts of Azerbaijan lying between Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. Russian support for Armenia ensured victory over Azerbaijan, with Armenia now controlling sevan districts of Azeri territory, besides Nagorno Karabakh. Turkey closed its border with Armenia. The conflict froze in this position, unsettled.

1/3/1988, Soviet troops enforced a curfew in Sumgait, Azerbaijan, following ethnic unrest.

20/2/1988, The Regional Soviet of Nagorny Karabakh voted to transfer the region from Azerbaijan to Armenia.

1945, Azerbaijan attempted to seize Azeri regions of Iran.

1930, Enforced collectivisation of agriculture in Azerbaijan.

27/4/1920, Soviet Russian troops invaded Azerbaijan, ending its independence (see 28/5/1918).On 28/5/1920 the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan was declared.

28/5/1918, Azerbaijan officially proclaimed its independence.See 27/4/1920.

22/4/1918, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan united to form the short-lived Transcaucasian Republic, see 26/5/1918.

22/2/1828. Following the Russian capture of Tehran, Russia and Iran signed the Peace of Turkmanshai, ending their 2 year war. Russia acquired part of Armenia, including Yerevan. The region was divided between Persia to the south of the River Araks and Azerbaijan to the north.

1728, The Treaty of Constantinople confirmed Ottoman Turkish control of the area, which Persia had disputed.

641, Muslims conquered the Azxerbaijan area.

 

Georgia 4-21

4/2017, South Ossetia planned to change its name to the State of Alania, and rejoin the Russian Federation.

8/2015, Russian forces in South Ossetia moved the �border� 1.5km south into Georgian territory near the Georgian town of Gori, putting Russian forces very close to a crucial east-west main road within Georgia.

3/2015, Russia signed an �alliance and integration� treaty with South Ossetia; Georgia protested.

2014, Georgia signed a comprehensive trade agreement with the EU.

11/2014, Russia signed a �strategic partnership� with Abkhazia; Georgia protested.

1/2010, Air links reopened between Georgia and Russia, for the frist time since 2008.

2/9/2008, EU leaders began a mediation initiative with Russia over Georgia.

29/8/2008, Georgia cut all diplomatic relations with Russia and increased links to the USA.

25/8/2008, Both Russian Houses of parliament voted to recognise as independent states the breakaway regions of Georgia; South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

9/8/2008, Russian ships sailed from Ukrainian ports to mount a blockade of the Georgian coast.

8/8/2008, Russian forces backed South Ossetian fighters who were seeking secession from Georgia. 130,000 Georgians fled South Ossetia.

7/8/2008, Intense fighting erupted between Georgia and Russia.Georgia attempted to retake South Ossetia by force. Russia backed the territory of South Ossetia, a Muslim area that had broken away from Georgia after Georgia declared independence as the USSR broke up.The USA backed Georgia.

4/2008, NATO put Georgia�s application to join on hold. Meanwhile Russia said it would increase links with the secessionist regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. Georgia accused Russia of planning toi annex these areas. Russia began assisting with railway repairs in Abkhazia. Abkhazia severed all links to Georgia.

11/2007, Russia pulled out of the last base it held in �Georgia�; however it retained bases located in Georgian regions that were seeking secession.

11/2006, Another unofficial referendum in South Ossetia came out in favour of independence.

9/2006, Tensions with Russia rose as Georgia arrested Russian Army Officers in spying charges. Russia imposed sanctions.

7/2006, Oil pipeline to Georgia from Azerbaijan became operational. Georgia seized the Kodori Gorge from Abkhaz warlord Emzar Kvitsiani; Abkhazians broke off peace talks with Georgia in protest.

3/2006, Russia banned imports of Georgian wine, allegedly on health grounds.

1/2006, Explosions just inside Russian territory cut a pipeline supplying gas to Georgia. Russia blamed Caucasus terrorists; Georgia accused Moscow of sabotage, meanwhile Georgia started receiving gas from Iran via the Baku pipeline.

8/2004, Further fighting in South Ossetia.

3/2004, Tensions rose in the autonomous region of Ajaria.

1/2004, Mikhail Saakashvili became President after elections.

5/2003, Oil pipeline constructed through Georgia, running from Baku, Azerbaijan to Ceyhan, Turkey.

9/2002, Russia stepped up its rhetoric, threatening military action against Georgia which it accused of harbouring Chechen rebels in the Pankisi Gorge. In 10/2002 Georgia promised to deal with Chechen guerrillas within its borders

4/2002, The USA began training Georgian forces in counter-terrorism techniques. Several Checherns were killed or arrested and deported to Russia.

10/2001, Further conflict in Abkhazia between Georgian forces and Abkhaz fighters. Russia meanwhile accused Georgia of harbouring Chechen rebels; Georgia denied this.

7/2001, Russia evacuated its military base in Georgia at Vaziani.

 

Abkhaz and South Ossetian independence movements

1/12/1993. Georgian and Abkhaz representatives met in Geneva to sign an accord to end their conflict.

18/11/1993, The Georgian President extended the country�s state of emergency indefinitely.

27/9/1993, Abkhaz separatists, backed by Russia, captured the Georgian city of Sukhumi, which they had been besieging.

28/9/1993. Abkhaz rebels took the Georgian Black Sea port and resort city of Sukhumi. Georgian President Eduard Sheverdnadze accused Moscow of helping the rebels.

6/7/1993. Georgia stepped up resistance to Abkhazian rebels, who were seeking their own Muslim state, around the Black Sea resort of Sukhumi.

3/9/1992, After Georgian forces had pulled out of the Gagra region, following an agreed ceasefire, Abkhaz forces under Shamil Basayev began an ethnic cleansing of the local Georgian population, killing 30,000 Georgians and causing many others to flee.

18/8/1992. After five days of fighting, Georgian forces took control of the separatist Abkhazian capital, Sukhumi.

14/8/1992, After Abkhaz Separatists wanting to secede from Georgia had attacked Georgian Government buildings in 6/1992, this day the Georgian police and National Guard entered the Abkhaz capital, Sukhumi, to restore authority. Georgian forces were bolstered by prisoners who had been offered freedom if they fought the Abkhaz.

2/1992, Fighting started in Abkhazia between Abkhaz separatists and the Georgian Army.

1/1992, In an unofficial referendum, South Ossetians voted to separate from Georgia.

9/4/1991. Georgia voted to secede from the USSR.

1989, South Ossetians demanded more autonomy from Georgia. Soviet peacekeepers entered the region. Separatist violence in South Ossetia escalated in 1990 and 1991.

15/7/1989, Georgians and Abkhazians clashed in the Abkhazia region of Georgia; 11 were killed and 127 injured.

 

9/4/1989, Red Army soldiers massacred pro-independence Georgian demonstrators in Tbilisi�s main square, killing 20 people. Poison gas was allegedly used.

21/12/1967, Mikheil Saakashvili, President of Georgia, was born.

2/10/1924, Trotsky took command of the Red Army in Georgia.

 

Georgia briefly independent again from Russia

25/2/1921, The Red Army entered Tbilisi, Georgia.

23/5/1918. Georgia declared independence from Russia.

22/4/1918, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan united to form the short-lived Transcaucasian Republic, see 26/5/1918.

 

1804, Georgia was occupied by the Russian Empire.

 

8/1/1792. The Ottoman Turks bowed to the inevitable and accepted Catherine the Great�s Russian sovereignty over Georgia. Britain feared further Russian expansion in the Black Sea as this could threaten British Mediterranean interests.

1453, The fall of the Byzantine Empire left Georgia isolated from Christian Europe.

1236, The Mongols conquered Georgia.

1184, 25-year-old Tamara became Queen of Georgia, and reigned for 28 years until 1213, a �Golden Age� for Georgia.

1014, King Bagrat III died.

318, Georgia was converted to Christianity.

300 BCE, Earliest records of a Georgian Kingdom, called Kartli, which was conquered by Alexander the Great.

 

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