Chronography of Canada

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4.0 Reinstatement of Indigenous Rights, 1987-99

3.0 Quebec French-based separatist movement 1967-95

2.5 Brian Mulroney administration 1988-93

2.0 Trudeau administration 1968-84

1.0 Modern Canadian flag created, 1964-65

0.0 Development of Canada as a modern State 1925-52

 

17 October 2018, Canada became the second country (after Uruguay in 2013) to legalise the sale of cannabis.

29 January 2017, A White Supremacist student went to a mosque in Quebec and shot six Muslim worshippers. He was later captured by police.

25 January 2006, Stephen Harper, Conservative Party, became Canadian Prime Minister.

12 December 2003, Paul Martin was elected as 21st President of Canada.

 

4.0 Reinstatement of Indigenous Rights, 1987-99

1 April 1999, Nunavut, an Inuit homeland, part of the Northwest territories, was formed.

7 January 1998, In Canada, the Minister of Indian Affairs, Jane Stewart, officially apologised to indigenous Americans and Inuit people for centuries of mistreatment and injustice.

12/11/1992, In northern Canada, a referendum amongst the Inuit people produced a majority for a semi-autonomous territory to be called Nunavut.

1 January 1987, The town of Frobisher Bay in Canada�s Northwest territories changed its name to Iqaluit. In 1999 it became capital of Nunavut.

 

7 December 1989. A gunman claiming to hate feminists massacred 14 women at the University of Montreal.

22 June 1997, Gerard Pelletier, Canadian politician, died.

2 June 1997, In Canada the governing Liberal Party of Prime Minister Jean Chretien narrowly won general elections.

 

3.0 Quebec French-based separatist movement 1967-95

30 October 1995. Quebec separatists narrowly (by just 1%) lost a referendum to regain independence from Canada.

12 September 1994, In Canada the Parti Quebecois won an overall majority in the State legislature.

1980, Jean Lessage, Canadian politician, died. He became the Liberal Prime Minister of Quebec in 1960, but was defeated in 1966 by the Union Nationale Party. He retired from leadership of the Party in 1970.

20 May 1980. Quebec voted against seceding from Canada.

26 August 1977, French was made the only official language of Quebec, Canada, excluding English.

15/11/1976. The secessionist Party Quebecois won the Quebec provincial elections. It won 41% of the vote.

16 October 1970. State of insurrection proclaimed in Quebec. The Quebec Liberation Front (FLQ) was outlawed and 250 of its members arrested.

11 October 1970, Quebec Separatists kidnapped Pierre Laporte, Minister of Labour. His body was found on 17 October 1970.

7 July 1969, The French language was given equal status to English across the country. This was under the official Languages Act, passed by Canada�s House of Commons this day.

1968, The Parti Quebecois was founded by Rene Levesque (1922-1987). This was in response to the refusal of Quebec�s Liberal Party to become more nationalistic.

25 July 1967, During a State visit to Canada, General Charles de Gaulle of France encouraged French-speaking Quebec citizens to break away; he was rebuked for this breach of etiquette by the Canadian Prime Minister and returned to France.

 

25 October 1993, In Canada the Liberal Party won a decisive victory in the general election. The Progressive Conservative Party, which had been in office since 1984, retained only 2 seats. The Bloc Quebecois became the second-largest Party.

25 June 1993, Kim Campbell (born 1947) became Canada�s first female Prime Minister (Progressive Conservative Party). In October 1993 her Party were defeated in an election by the Liberal Party, led by Jean Chretien, and in December 1993 Campbell resigned as Party leader.

 

2.5 Brian Mulroney administration 1984-93

24/2/1993, Brian Mulroney resigned as Canadian Prime Minister.

13 January 1993. Official statistics from Canada showed that Chinese was the country�s third most common language, after English and French.

13 December 1992, KC Irving, Canadian industrialist, died (born 14 March 1899).

17 December 1991, Joseph Robert Smallwood, Canadian politician who took Newfoundland into the Canadian Federation in 1949 and became its first Prime Minister, died just before his 91st birthday.

11 July 1990, Conflict between indigenous Mohawk Indians and the Quebec provincial police erupted in the small town of Oka, population 3,000. The dispute was sparked by a proposal to build a golf course in land claimed by the Mohawk, including a Mohawk cemetery. The Mohawk set up barricades and Corporal Marcel Lemay was shot and killed by a Mohawk bullet. The conflict ended on 26 September 1990 when the last remaining 50 Mohawk surrendered and were arrested.

21/11/1988, Brian Mulroney was re-elected Conservative Prime Minister of Canada, with a reduced majority. He had campaigned on a free trade with the USA policy.

4 September 1984, Brian Mulroney (Progressive Conservative Party) was elected to government.

 

2.0 Trudeau administration 1968-84

30 June 1984, Pierre Trudeau resigned as Prime Minister of Canada.

29/2/1984, Pierre Trudeau announced he was stepping down after 15 years as Canadian Prime Minister.

15/2/1982, 84 died when a storm wrecked an oil rig off the coast of Newfoundland.

18/2/1980, Pierre Trudeau returned to power in the Canadian General Election, after nine months out of office.

31 December 1980, Marshal Mcluhan, Canadian philosopher, died aged 69.

16 August 1979, John George Diefenbaker, Canadian Prime Minister (born 18.9.1895 in rural Ontario) died.

22 May 1979, In Canada, Pierre Trudeau, Liberal, lost the election. Joe Clark became Progressive Conservative Prime Minister of a minority government.

24 January 1978, A Soviet nuclear-powered satellite, Cosmos 954, crashed in north-western Canada, spilling radioactive debris. The Canadian government presented Moscow with a 6 billion dollar bill for the clean-up, of which Moscow eventually paid half.

27 October 1975, 18 year old Robert Poulin began shooting at the Pius X High School in Ottawa, Canada, killing 1 and injuring 5. He then shot himself.

7/2/1975, In response to the global oil crisis, Canada imposed a national speed limit of 55 mph.

9 July 1974, In Canadian elections, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau�s Liberal Party won with 141 seats out of 264. The Conservatives took 95 seats, the New Democratic Party took 11 the Social Credit Party won 11 and there was one independent seat.

27 December 1972, Death of Lester Pearson, Canadian politician and Liberal Prime Minister 1963-8.

30 October 1972, In Canadian elections the incumbernt Liberal party narrowly won and Pierre Trudeau remained as Prime Minister.

17 October 1970, Pierre Laporte, Quebec politician, died.

1968, The Trans-Canada highway was completed/

21 April 1968, Pierre Trudeau succeeded Lester Pearson as Prime Minister of Canada.

 

30 December 1967, Vincent Massey, Canadian lawyer and diplomat, died aged 80.

29 October 1967, Expo 67 closed in Montreal, after having attracted more than 50,306,648 visitors in six months, a record attendance for any world's fair. It had opened on 27 April 1967.

27 April 1967, The Expo �67 exhibition opened in Montreal. It closed on 31 October 1967.

8/11/1965, In Canadian elections, the Liberals under Lester B Pearson became the largest Party with 131 seats, but without an overall majority. The Progressive Conservatives secured 97 seats, Others won 37 seats.

 

1.0 Modern Canadian flag created, 1964-65

15/2/1965, Canada flew the newly-adopted maple leaf flag for the first time.

15 December 1964, The Canadian parliament voted in favour of a single maple leaf design for the Canadian Flag.

 

8 April 1963, General election in Canada was won by the Liberals with 129 seats. The Progressive Conservatives won 95 seats, Others won 41 seats.

19/11/1962, The Newfoundland general election was won by the Liberal Party of Newfoundland and Labrador, led by Joey Smallwood.

18 May 1962, In Canada, the Progressive Conservatives lost their majority in the elections; however John Deifenbaker remained as Prime Minister. The Progressive Conservatives won 116 seats, the Liberals won 100, others 49.

2 May 1962, Canada devalued its Dollar, setting a fixed rate of 1 Canadian Dollar to 92.5 US cents, in place of the floating rate in use since 1950.

1961, The New Democratic Party was founded, through a merger of the Commonwealth Co-operative Federation and the Canadian Labour Congress.

31 March 1958, General election in Canada. The Progressive Conservatives won a large majority, 208 seats, against the Liberals with 49 seats, and the Co-operative Commonwealth Foundation with 8 seats. John Diefenbaker remained Prime Minister.

10 June 1957, In Canada, Progressive Conservatives won the election with 112 seats. The Liberals got 105 seats, the Cooperative Commonwealth foundation got 25 seats, Others got 23 seats. The Liberal leader, Louis St Laurent, resigned, ending 22 years of Liberal rule, and the Conservative, John Diefenbaker, took office.

1956, The Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) was formed, by a merger between the Trades and Labor Congress and the Canadian Congress of Labour.

26 April 1955, Sir Lyman Poore Duff, Canadian jurist (born 7 January 1865 in Meaford, Ontario) died in Ottawa, Ontario.

21 October 1954, Brian Tobin, Canadian politician, was born.

7 April 1954, The USA announced that, in conjunction with Canada, it would set up a chain of almost 100 radar stations along a 3,000 mile line at the 55th parallel. On 27 September 1954 a second chain of radar stations was announced above the Arctic Circle to warn of enemy aircraft approaching from Russia across the North Pole. This was the Distant Early Warning Line, or DEW; within a few years it was obsolete because missiles would be delivered by rockets not planes.

1953, Large uranium deposits were discovered in Ontario; these would become significant for the world�s emerging nuclear industry.

 

0.0 Development of Canada as a modern State 1925-52

24 January 1952, Vincent Massey became the first Canadian to be appointed Governor-General of Canada. He remained in post until September 1959.

11 December 1948, At a ceremony in Ottawa, terms of union were signed between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland by which Newfoundland would become a province of Canada.

1 October 1947, The powers of the Governor-General of Canada were increased by lettrers pa5tent signed by King George V of Britain, this role now having �full royal powers�.

1931, The Statute of Westminister made Canada a fully independent State.

2 June 1925. The Canadian government claimed all land between Greenland and Alaska up to the North Pole.

 

Newfoundland

31 March 1949. Newfoundland, with its dependency Labrador, joined Canada as the 10th province of the dominion.

21 December 1933, Britain resumed administration of its former colony, Newfoundland, after a financial crisis there. Newfoundland had become a Dominion in 1917.

 

15/11/1948, W L Mackenzie-King, Prime Minister of Canada, resigned and entered retirement. He was succeeded by Louis St Laurent.

10 September 1948, Margaret Trudeau, former Canadian 1st lady, was born in Vancouver, British Columbia.

1947, Oil was first struck in Alberta, at Leduc, near Edmonton.

22 April 1946, Samuel John :Latta, Canadian politician, died.

1942, In Quebec the Bloc Populaire Party was founded. The Party was founded by Liberals who were opposed to Canadian participation in World War Two, and to conscription, and also contained Catholic radicals such as Andre Laurendeau who wanted to base industrial relations on Papal encyclicals and ban foreign capital from Quebec. The Bloc Populaire disintegrated after winning four seats in the 1944 elections.

7 January 1941, A special committee of the Canadian government recommended that Japanese Canadians not be allowed to volunteer for the armed forces on the grounds of strong public opinion against them.

10 December 1939, The first convoy of Canadian troops departed Halifax, Nova Scotia for England.

For main events of World War Two in Europe see France-Germany. For main events of World War in the Pacific see China-Japan

11 January 1934, Jean Chretien, Canada�s 20th Prime Minister, was born.

18 June 1931, Canada raised tariffs on imports from the USA, cutting import levels by two-thirds.

31 October 1929, Nova Scotia voted to repeal Prohibition. This left Prince Edward Island as the only �dry� region in Canada.

30 October 1929, General Election in Ontario. The Conservatives, led by Howard Ferguson, won with an increased majority.

27 August 1927, Emily Gowan Murphy (maiden name Ferguson, born 14 March 1868 in Cookstown, Ontario), petitioned the Canadian Government to have women recognised as full legal �persons�. She had been instrumental in passing the Dower Act (1911),giving women a share in their husband�s property, and in 1916 Murphy had been appointed as the first woman magistrate in the British Empire. However on her first day as magistrate, a lawyer challenged her appointment as illegal as she was not a �person� under Canadian law. Murphy began a legal battle to overturn this law, petitioning the Canadian Government this day. On 14 March 1928 the Supreme Court of Canada decided against Murphy and four other campaigners, Nellie McClung, Irene Parlby, Henrrietta Muir andLouise McKinney. The�Famous Five� took their case to the British Privy Council, where they finally won on 18 October 1929. Murphy died of diabetes in 1933.

28 June 1926, In Canada, W L MacKenzie King resigned as a result of the Canadian Customs scandal. Arthur Meighen formed a Liberal Government,

15 December 1922, Franco-Canadian trade agreement signed.

29 December 1921, MacKenzie King, Liberal Party, became Prime Minister of Canada.

1 July 1920, Robert Borden, Prime Minister of Canada, resigned due to ill-health. He was succeeded on 10 July 1912 by Arthur Meighen.

1/2/1920, The North West Mounted Police changed their name to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

18 October 1919, Pierre Trudeau, Canadian Liberal and Prime Minister, was born in Montr�al, Quebec.

17/2/1919, Sir Wilfird Laurier, Canada�s first French-speaking Prime Minister, died.

29 March 1918, In Quebec, Canada, the Compulsory Military Service Act of September 1917 provoked such severe rioting from this day until 2 April 1917 that 4 civilians were killed.

30 December 1917, Election-related riots in Quebec; city placed under martial law.

3/2/1916, In Ottawa, Canada, the Parliament Building burnt down.

14 August 1912, Leopold Demers, Canadian Liberal politician, was born (died 21/11/1990),

22/2/1911, Canada voted to remain a part of the British Empire.

1 June 1909, The Seattle World Fair opened.

17/11/1908, Sir Henri Joly de Lotbiniere, Canadian politician, died (born 5 December 1829).

29 August 1907, After four years construction, the Quebec Bridge, still being built, collapsed. 75 workers were killed and half the bridge had gone.

1 May 1907, Death of Canadian Neil Brodie, reportedly the �world�s dirtiest man�, who only bathed when legally ordered to do so.

22 May 1906, The last British troops left the Dominion of Canada.

15 March 1906, Alfred Jones, Canadian politician, died (born 9/1824).

30 August 1905, The Province of Alberta was constituted a province of Canada, created out of part of the North West Territories. Edmonton was chosen as the provincial capital, causing a rapid growth in the city�s size.

1 September 1904, Earl Grey was appointed Governor-General of Canada.

1 March 1903, The Ligue Nationaliste Canadienne was founded in Quebec, Canada, by Henri Bourassa and Olivar Asselin.

23 July 1900. Canada forbade immigration of paupers and criminals.

26 April 1900, Major fire in Ottawa and Hull area of Canada; 12,000 made homeless.

1897, Immigration poster for Western Canada.

31 March 1897, Gold was discovered in The Klondike, Canada.

17 August 1896. Gold was discovered at Bonanza Creek on the Klondike River in Canada�s Yukon Territory. This led to the great Gold Rush of 1898, in which the city of Dawson grew to over 25,000 people.

16 August 1896, Sir David MacPherson, Canadian politician, died.

18 December 1893, The Chateau Frontenac Hotel opened in Quebec after 18 months construction, with 170 bedrooms.

1891, The first Ukrainian migrants (Mennonites) arrived in Canada.

6 June 1891, Sir John Alexander Macdonald, first Prime Minister of Canada, died.

31 May 1891, Sir Antoine Dorion, Canadian politician, died (born 17 January 1816).

1887, The Canadian Commercial Union movement proposed an economic union with the USA. However there were fears that this would lead to total union with, and thereby political dominance by, the USA.

16/11/1885, Louis Riel, leader of the Canadian Metis Rebellion, was hanged by the British.

18 August 1885, Sir Francis Hincks, Canadian politician, died (born 1807).

12 August 1885, Louis Reil and his Metis followers (see 24 August 1870, 16/11/1885) began a second rebellion in Saskatchewan. This day the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (organised 23 May 1873) and the Canadian Army surrounded riel�s headquarters at Batouche and captured him.

9 December 1882, Sir Hugh Allan, Canadian financier, died in Edinburgh (born 29 September 1810 in Saltcoats, Ayrshire).

1/2/1882, Louis Stephen St Laurent, Canadian statesman, was born.

1880, The contract for construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway was signed (ratified by the Canadian Parliament in 1881),

24 June 1880, Canada�s national anthem, �Oh Canada�, was first sung. Music was by Calixa Lavallee, and the words in French were composed by Adolphe Routhier. The English lyrics were written by Robert Weir in 1908.

9 May 1880, George Brown, Canadian statesman, died (born 29/11/1918).

1879, Canada, under a Conservative government, raised customes duties against imports from the US, to protect Canadian industry.

6/11/1879, The first Canadian Thanksgiving Day was observed. It is now generally held on a Monday in October.

1878, Liberal Prime Minister, A. Mackenzie, was defeated. John MacDonald, Conservative (see 7/11/1873) was re-elected and served until his death on 6 June 1891.

20 June 1877, The first commercial telephone service in Canada was started by Hugh Cossart Baker, in Hamilton, Ontario.

7/11/1873, The Conservative Prime Minister, Sir John Macdonald, was defeated, over the Pacific Railway affair.

1 July 1873, Prince Edward Island was made part of the Dominion of Canada.

1 June 1873, Joseph Howe, Canadian statesman, died (born 13 December 1804).

23 May 1873. The Royal North West Mounted Police were established in Canada. Their name was changed to The Royal Canadian Mounted Police on 1 February 1920.

10 May 1873, Sir George Cartier, Canadian statesman, died (born 6 September 1814).

1871, Canada signed the Treaty of Washington with the USA, settling fisheries rights and the usage of certain canals.

20 July 1871, British Columbia joined the Dominion of Canada.

24 August 1870, A rebellion by Louis Reil (1844-85) was suppressed by British forces under Colonel Garnet J Wolseley (1833-1913), who captured his stronghold at Fort Garry (Winnipeg) without a fight. Riel fled the country. Riel and his Metis (French-Indigenous Indian Canadians) had been concerned that when the Hudson Bay Company sold its rights to the Canadian Government, the Metis would lose their traditional rights in the Red River area. See 12 May 1870, 12 August 1885.

12 May 1870, Manitoba, previously called the Red River Colony and controlled by the Hudson Bay Company, was bought by Canada and made a province.

8 December 1869, In Toronto, T Eaton Ltd, shop, opened at 178 Yonge Street. It had fixed prices and no bartering or credit was allowed.

 

Canada constituted as self-governing Dominion, 1866-69

9 April 1869, The Hudson Bay Company ceded its territory to Canada.

28 January 1868, Sir Edmund Head, British colonial Governor of Canada, died (born 1805).

1 July 1867. Britain granted Canada self-governing dominion status. Britain still maintained control over foreign policy. The Dominion of Canada was set up by the British North America Act. It comprised four million people and four provinces, Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.

29 March 1867, The British North America Act created the dominion of Canada, comprising the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.

8 June 1866, The Canadian Parliament met for the first time, in Ottowa.

 

19 October 1864, The Saint Albans raid. During the US Civil War, some 25 Confederate agents crossed from Canada into Union territory and attacked the town of Saint Albans, Vermont. They killed a man and fled back to Canada, having stolen around US$200,000 from three banks. A US posse pursued the perpetrators into Canada and captured them, but were forced to hand them over to Canadian authories. A Canadian Court then released them unpunished, sparking fears of a war between the USA and Canada/Britain. The raiders were rearrested and charged with breaking Canadian neutrality. The money was returned. However the war scare did not go away, and in 1865 some 2,000 Canadian militiamen were stationed along the US border.

26/2/1864, Sir Louis Lafontaine, Canadian statesman, died (born 4 October 1807).

20/11/1863, James Bruce, Earl of Elgin, Governor of Canada 1847-54, died in Dharmsala, India (born 20 July 1811 in London, England).

29 August 1861, William MacKenzie, Canadian politician, died (born 12 March 1795).

17 September 1859, Frank Adams, Canadian geologist (died 29 December 1942) was born.

9 December 1858, Robert Baldwin, Canadian statesman, died; born in York (now Toronto), 12 May 1804

2 August 1858, British Columbia was constituted a British Colony; it became part of the Dominion of Canada in 1871.

26 June 1854, Robert Borden, Canadian politician, was born in Grand Pre, Nova Scotia.

1849, A.T.Galt of the Montreal Tory Party issued the Annexation Manifesto, calling for the USA to take over the Canadian Colonies. The Canadian economy had been suffering since Britain ended its colonial trading preferneces. However the Canadian French were strongly opposed, and the US showed little interest, so the policy was abandoned.

24/11/1848, William Fielding, Canadian politician, was born.

11 June 1847, Sir John Franklin, British Arctic explorer, died in Canada attempting to discover the north-west passage.

19 January 1843, Sir William Mulock, Canadian statesman, was born.

 

Canadian self-govermnment 1839-51

7 August 1858, Ottawa was selected as capital of Canada.

13 June 1841, The first Canadian Parliament opened, at Ottawa.

15 October 1840, Honore Mercier, Canadian statesman, was born.

23 July 1840, London announced that Canada was to be a self-governing union.

10/2/1840, An Act was passed reuniting the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, 50 years after they were divided by Britain.

11/2/1839, Lord Lambton, Earl of Durham, produced a report advocating the Union of Upper and Lower Canada, and for self-government there, The British Government accepted these recommendations.

 

Rebellion against British rule

29 December 1837, Canadian forces loyal to Britain burnt the US steamboat Caroline, which had been supplying rebels under Papineau.

14 December 1837, British troops crushed a rebellion in Canada.

5 December 1837, Louis Joseph Papineau began a rebellion in Canada against British rule. This day he attacked Toronto but was repulsed and fled across the border to the USA.

 

7 June 1832, Irish immigrants in Lowerr Canada, from the ship Carrick, began dying of cholera. Thgis was the beginning of an epidemic that killed 9,000 people.

1831, Canadian Christian missionaries opened the first of many �schools for natives�. Set up to convert indigenous Canadian children, from 4 years old, into �docile English settlers�, they were hotbeds of sadism and abuse, and in reality part of a programme of cultural genocide. The last such school closed in 1997. Parents had to send their children away to these schools or face jail, a law enforced by the Canadian Mounties. This programme was intended to eradicate the mnomadic way of life and free up land for European settlers.

5 December 1829, Sir Henri Joly de Lotbiniere, Canadian politician, was born (died 17/11/1908).

5 June 1829, George Mountstephen, Canadian financier, was born.

27 December 1823, Sir Mackenzie Bowell, Canadian politician, was born.

28 January 1822, Alexander MacKenzie, Canadian statesman, was born (died 17 April 1892).

6 August 1820, Lord Strathcona, Canadian businesman, was born.

22 July 1820, Sir Oliver Mowat, Canadian statesman, was born (died 19 April 1803).

29/11/1818, George Brown, Canadian statesman, was born (died 9 May 1880).

6 September 1817, Sir Alexander Galt, Canadian statesman, was born (died 19 September 1893).

17 January 1816, Sir Antoine Dorion, Canadian politician, was born (died 31 May 1891).

23/11/1815, Canada�s frist street lights were lit, in Montreal. They were fuelled by whale oil, which burnt cleanly.

11 January 1815, Sir John Alexander, Canada�s first Prime Minister, was born.

6 September 1814, Sir George Cartier, Canadian statesman, was born (died 10 May 1873).

12 December 1812, John MacDonald, Canadian statesman, was born (died 1 June 1872).

29 September 1810, Sir Hugh Allan, Canadian financier, was born in Saltcoats, Ayrshire (died 9 December 1882 in Edinburgh)

10/11/1808, Guy Dorchester, British Governor of Canada, died (born 3 September 1724).

4 October 1807, Sir Louis Lafontaine, Canadian statesman, was born (died 26/2/1864).

13 December 1804, Joseph Howe, Canadian statesman, was born (died 1 June 1873).

12 May 1804, Robert Baldwin, Canadian statesman, was born in York (now Toronto); died 9 December 1858.

10 May 1798, George Vancouver, British explorer who surveyed the Pacific coast of America, died.

12 March 1795, William MacKenzie, Canadian politician, was born (died 29 August 1861).

1794, The city of Toronto was founded by Governor Simcoe, on the site of an American-Indian village of the same name.

1794, Fort Augustus was established on the site of what is now Edmonton, Alberta.

22 July 1793, A party led by Sir Alexander MacKenzie arrived on the Pacific coast of Canbada, becoming the first Europeans to cross Canada, by foot and canoe.

24 May 1793, The British recaptured the archipelago of St Pierre et Miquelon, off Canada, which was a severe blow to the French cod fishing fleet.

1791, The Constitutional Act set aside one seventh of the public land in Upper and Lower Canada for the support of the Protestant clergy. In practice these lands served to enrich the already-wealthy clerical elite whilst beong of no benefit to lower-status clergy, and were secularised in 1841.

10 June 1791, Bitain passed the Canada Act, dividing the country into a mainly English Upper canada and a mainly French Lower Canada, with two elected assemblies.

19 March 1791, French and English speaking settlers in Canada were granted equal rights.

28 October 1790, The Nootka Sound Convention, between Britain and Spain. Spain, claiming the entire Pacific coastline of North America, had seized four British ships at Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, Canada. Britain disputed the Spanish claim because Spain had not actually settled the coastline it claimed; at the Convention, Spain backed down, opening up the area to British settlement.

3 June 1789, Alexander Mackenzie set out to explore the Mackenzie River by canoe from central Canada to the Arctic Ocean.

 

1783, American War of Independence

1783, About 50,000 �Loyalists� arrived in Canada, having left the newly-independent United States of America to live in the British colony of Canada.

11 May 1783, The first British-loyalist refugees from the newly-independent United States of America arrived at the estuary of the St John�s River, Canada, having set sail from New York on 16 April 1783. They founded the city of St Johns.

For more on American War of Independence, see United States of America

 

11 July 1776. Explorer Captain James Cook set sail from Plymouth on his third and last voyage of discovery. He was looking for a passage around the north west side of America from the Pacific side.

1774, Spanish explorer Perez made the first visit by a European to what is now British Columbia.

22 June 1774, The Quebec Act received Royal Assent. This safeguarded the French-speaking inhabitants of Quebec the right to maintain their own langiage and customes, legal and religious, within a British-governed Canada, It also extended the province south to the Ohio and west to the Mississippi. However the territorial claims of Massachusetts, Virginia and Connecticut were ignored.

 

1758-63, Seven Years War. British capture Canada from the French

10/2/1763. France ceded Canada to Britain at the Treaty of Paris. See 26 July 1758 and 13 September 1759. The same treaty gave Florida to Britain in exchange for Britain returning Cuba, which it had invaded on 12 August 1762, to Spain; Spain also regained Louisiana and the Philippines. Britain gained all of America east of the Mississippi. Britain also gained Minorca, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Tobago, St Vincent, Grenada, Dominica, and Senegal.

8 September 1760. The French surrendered Montreal to the British under General Jeffrey Amherst. This completed the British conquest of Canada. Britain had declared war in France in 1756 as part of the Seven Years War; Amherst won in Canada in 1758 when he took the French fortress at Louisbourg, opening up the way to Montreal.

13 September 1759. General James Wolfe killed in the siege of Quebec; in a fight on the Plains of Abraham near the city, although the British won the siege. See 26 July 1758 and 10/2/1763. The French commander, Louis Montcalm, was also killed, dying of his wounds on 14 September 1759. The British won the surrender of Quebec on 18 September 1759.

24 July 1759, In Canada, the British captured Fort Niagara from the French.

27 June 1759, Battle of Quebec, Seven Years War.

27 August 1758, Battle of Fort Frontenac, Canada, Seven Years War. Colonel Bradstreet, British, defeated the French under Noyan, who lost control of Lake Ontario.

26 July 1758. A British force authorised by William Pitt to attack the French in North America had its first success with the capture of Louisburg. See 13 September 1759 and 10/2/1763.

2 June 1758, A British war fleet anchored in Gabarus Bay, off Canada, to fight the French.

19/2/1758, British General Amherst, recalled from Germany by Pitt, sailed this day from Portsmouth with Brigadier-General Lawrence and Brigadier James Wolfe, for Canada, to pursue the war against the French.See 28 May 1758

 

1745-58, Nova Scotia, Anglo-French conflict

28 May 1758, Amherst, Wolfe, and Lawrence arrived at Halifax, Nova Scotia, see 19/2/1758.

28 July 1755, The �Great Upheaval� in Nova Scotia, Canada. The British colony decided to expel all French colonists who would not swear allegiance to the British Crown. In the subsequent conflict, thousands died over the next 8 years.

17 June 1755, After a siege by British Colonel Monckton, French-held Fort Beuasojour in Nova Scotia (Acadia) surrendered.

9 July 1749, The British founded the naval settlement of Halifax, Nova Scotia, as an answer to the French base of Louisburg.

11/2/1747, A combined force of French and American Indians under Captain Coulon de Villiers attacked the British at Grand Pre, Nova Scotia.

16 June 1745, The British took Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, from the French, then also captured the fortress of Louisberg, at the mouth of the St Lawrence River.

 

22 June 1758, George Vancouver, the explorer who gave his name to the city of Vancouver, Canada, was born in Kings Lynn, England.

22 June 1757, George Vancouver, English naval captain who surveyed the Pacific coast of North America, was born in Kings Lynn, Norfolk.

1756, Martin Frobisher explored Newfoundland.

3 September 1724, Guy Dorchester, British Governor of Canada, was born (died `10/11/1808).

28/11/1698, Frontenac, French colonial Governor of Canada, died. He was very much mourned by the French Canadians.

6 July 1696, Frontenac, French colonial Governor of Canada, left Lachine for a campaign against the Iroquois people. However the Iroquois abandoned their villages and pursuit of them proved impracticable so on 10 August 1696 Frontenac left the area.

1691, Henrey Kelsey of the Hudson Bay Company reached what is now the eastern border of Alberta.

5 August 1689, Massacre of Lachine, Canada.

8 January 1679, La Salle, French explorer, reached the Niagara Falls.

12 September 1672, Frontenac was appointed as French colonial Governor of Canada, to succeed de Courcelle. This day Frontenac arrived in Quebec. However he was to prove too independent-minded and expansionist for the comfort of France.

2 May 1670, Charles II chartered the Hudson Bay Company.

1669, The French discovered Lake Erie. Penetration by Europeans into this area had been delayed by hostile Iriquois Indians.

18 May 1642. Montreal in Canada was founded.

1639, The earliest European settlement in New Brunswick, on the Bay of Chaleur, was founded by the French.

20 July 1629, English adventurer Sir David Kirke seized Quebec from the French.

23 January 1622, William Baffin, British explorer who searched for the North West passage and gave his name to Baffin Island and Baffin Bay, died.

 

Samuel de Champlain

25 December 1635, Explorer Samuel de Champlain died (born ca.1567).

28 July 1615, Samuel de Champlain discovered Lake Huron.

3 July 1608.The French explorer Samuel de Champlain founded the city of Quebec. See 1535.

3 July 1567, Samuel de Champlain, explorer of Canada, was born.

 

1611, The French discovered Lake Ontario.

23 June 1611. The navigator Henry Hudson and eight of his men were cast adrift in a small boat in Hudson Bay after the crew mutinied on his ship Discoverie; they were never seen again.

3 August 1610, HenryHudson discovered Hudson Bay.

5 July 1610, John Guy set sail from Bristol with 39 other colonists, for Newfoundland.

17 April 1610, Henry Hudson set sail from England aboard The Discovery to attempt to find a North West Passage to the Orient.

1605, French colonists founded Port Royal, Nova Scotia.

20 July 1605, French cartographer Samuel de Champlain reached Cape Cod in search of a spot for French setlement in the New World.

9 September 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert (see 5 August 1583) was drowned when his ship, The Squirrel, sank off The Azores drowning all on board.

5 August 1583. Sir Humphrey Gilbert landed on Newfoundland and claimed it for Britain.He founded the colony of St Johns there.

11 August 1576, Martin Frobisher entered �Frobisher Strait�, Baffin Island. Now known as Frobisher Bay, the long inlet was then thought to be a strait separating two islands.

 

Exploration by Jacques Cartier (French)

1 September 1557, Jacques Cartier, French explorer of the North American coast and the St Lawrence river (born 1491), died in St Malo.

16 June 1536, The St Lawrence River was named by explorer Jacques Cartier.

1535, Jacques Cartier first visited the site of what is now the city of Quebec. At that time, it was an Indian village called Stadacona. See 3 July 1608.

24 July 1534, Jacques Cartier landed in Canada, claiming the territory for France.

9 June 1534, Jacques Cartier discovered the estuary of the St Lawrence River in Canada.

10 May 1534, Jacques Cartier explored Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage.

20 April 1534, Jacques Cartier sailed from St Malo, to explore the Canadian coast.

 

21 October 1520, The islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon were discovered by Portuguese explorer Jo�o �lvares Fagundes off Newfoundland. He named them "Islands of the 11,000 Virgins" in honour of Saint Ursula.

6 August 1497. The Genoese navigator John Cabot returned from an expedition across the Atlantic. King Henry VII financed his travels. Though he was Genoese and had Venetian citizenship, Cabot came to England in 1487 to raise support for a transatlantic voyage and settled in Bristol. He sailed from Bristol on 2 May 1497 and landed on 24 June 1497 on the coast of Labrador. There he planted the Tudor banner, in defiance of the Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided up the western world between Spain and Portugal (see 6 December 1492, Papal backing for gold to finance a war against the Moslems). Under this treaty, signed on 7 June 1494, all land west of a line in the western Atlantic would belong to Spain; any land east of it would be Portuguese. He explored the coastline from Labrador to Cape Breton.

24 June 1497, John Cabot, in his exploration of North America, arrived at Cape Breton Island. He believed he had landed in eastern Asia.

2 May 1497,John Cabot set sail from Bristol.

5 March 1496, King Henry VII of England granted John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) a commission to explore for new lands.

31 December 1491, Jacques Cartier, French explorer of the St Lawrence area of north America, was born in St Malo, northern France.

 

36,000 BCE, First humans reached North America,, across the Bering Strait.

 

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