Chronography of Austria
See also Albania
See also Bulgaria
See also Germany
See also Greece/Turkey
See also Italy
See also Poland
See also Romania
(see here for Moldova)
See also Russia/USSR
See also Yugoslavia
2/11/2020, A major terror attack took place in Vienna. 4
people were killed and 23 injured, several seriously, when an Islamist
radicalised Austrian-North Macedonian man went on the rampage with a gun and a
15/10/2017, Elections in
Austria produced gains for the far-right
party, over issues of immigration.
Austrian Presidential elections, Mr Norbert Hofer of the far-Right lost to Mr Alexander Van der Bellen of the Greens by the
narrow margin of 0.6%. The result was connected to rising concern about
migration into Europe from Asia and Africa.
Fritzl in Amstetten, Austria, after he held women and children for
years in a dungeon below his home. He was jailed for life in March 2009.
Waldheim, President of Austria from 1985, also UN Secretary General
1972-82, died (born 21/12/1918).
20/2/2006, British historian David
Irving was sentenced to three years in prison by an Austrian court for
11/11/2000, A fire on
a funicular railway
in the Austrian ski resort of Kaprun
killed 155 holidaymakers.
3/10/2000, In Austrian Parliamentary elections, the radical Right-wing Freedom Party (FPO) became the second-largest Party.
5/2/2000, Jorg Haider�s extreme Right wing Freedom Party joined the Austrian coalition Government. There was international
8/7/1992, Thomas Klestil became President
24/9/1991, A mummified 5,000 year old corpse was found in the Austrian Alps. It
was named �Otzi�, and revealed much about Bronze Age life in Europe.
Austria, a coalition government under Dr Franz Ranitzky took office.
8/6/1986, Kurt Waldheim
was elected president of Austria, amid controversy
over his alleged collaboration with the Nazis in World War Two.� He was inaugurated on 8/7/1986.
18/11/1977, Kurt von
Schuschnigg, Austrian politician, died.
21/12/1975, Left wing terrorists, including Carlos
The Jackal, kidnapped delegates of an OPEC conference in Vienna.
They killed three hostages, extorted US$ 3 million, and vanished into the
1/3/1970, Socialists won an unexpected victory in Austrian general elections.
Austria, following the general election of 13/5/1956, Julius Raab formed a coalition
government of the People�s Party and the Socialists.
foreign troops left Austria.
15/5/1955. Austria became de jure an independent
state within its 1937 borders under the Austrian
State Treaty, signed by the USA, USSR, France, and Britain (see 7/1/1946). All the
four-power occupation forces were withdrawn by 26/10/1955. On 5/11/1955 Austria declared itself constitutionally to be permanently
30/12/1954, Archduke Eugen,
Austrian Field Marshal, died aged 91.
Demonstrations in Austria against continued Allied occupation.
1950, An attempted Communist coup in Austria failed.
7/1/1946. Austria was established as a de facto
independent state, divided into four zones of military occupation, as was Germany. See
15/5/1955. Vienna was also divided into four
zones, apart from the Innere Stadt district which was occupied jointly by all
four powers (Britain, France, the USA,
and the USSR).
For more events of World War Two
in Europe see World War Two
11/8/1939, The Axis
Conference opened at Salzburg.
For Austrian referendum 1939 on
joining Germany, see France-Germany
Austrian Chancellor, Schuschnigg, met Mussolini.
21/5/1936, In Austria, Kurt Schusnigg
was made leader of the Fatherland Front, the only permitted Party.
4/7/1935, Austria, encouraged by Mussolini,
abolished anti-Hapsburg laws and restored some imperial property.
14/3/1935, Anton Rintelen
was sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in the July Putsch.
Dollfuss became dictator of Austria.
banned jokes about the small size of Chancellor Dolfuss.
Socialist revolt in Austria was brutally crushed.
Austrian political parties were banned except the 'Fatherland Front'.�
declared martial law in Austria.
Nazis staged a large demonstration, in defiance of Chancellor Dollfuss. Meanwhile
Germany instituted a punitive 1,000 Mark tourist tax on any German visiting
Austria, which severely damaged the Austrian tourist industry.
Dollfuss suspended the Austrian Parliament.
4/11/1932, Thomas Klestil,
10th President of Austria, was born in Vienna (died 2004).
Gisela of Austria died, aged 76.
Dolfuss, Austrian Chancellor, formed a coalition government of
Christian Socialists and Agrarians.
Austria, an attempted Fascist coup
by the Heimwehr under Dr Pfrimer failed.
Democrats won elections to the Austrian Parliament.
26/9/1929, John Schrober
became chancellor of Austria.
Streeruwitz was appointed Chancellor of Austria.
5/12/1928, Wilhelm Miklas
was elected President of Austria, succeeding Michael Hainish.
15/7/1927. Vienna faced
a General Strike as Socialists rioted. The left wing was upset that
Austrian courts were much more lenient on offences committed by right-wing
offenders, even up to murder.
15/10/1926, Ignaz Seipel
formed a Christian Socialist Government in Austria, replacing Rudolf Ramek.
Vienna, 2 Right-wing militia men were acquitted of murder., this led to riots
between Socialist and Right wing groups in which 85 protestors and 4 policemen
9/12/1920, Michael Hainish
elected first President of Austria.
10/9/1919, The Treaty
of St Germain was signed by the Allies with Austria at the Paris Peace Conference. Austria had to pay large reparations to
the Allies, and recognise the independence of Yugoslavia, Poland,
Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
protested against the terms of the Paris Peace Conference.
population of Vorarlberg, the
westernmost province of Austria, voted for union with Switzerland by a large
majority.� However this transfer was not
supported by the Allies or the Swiss Government, and Vorarlberg became one of
the nine Austrian Bundeslander.
21/12/1918, Kurt Waldheim, President of Austria from 1985,
also UN Secretary General 1972-82, was born (died 14/6/2007).
12/11/1918, The Republic of Austria was declared, ending the Hapsburg Dynasty, as Emperor Charles
10/4/1918, A congress of Austrian-subject peoples was held in
European events of World War One see France-Germany
21/11/1916. Emperor Franz Josef,
ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire since 1848, died.
He was succeeded by his 29-year old grandson, Charles I.
23/7/1914. Austria determined that the government of Serbia
was involved in the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand on 28/6/1914, and sent
an ultimatum to the President of Serbia, Narodna Odbrana, drafted so as to prepare for
war with Serbia. The terms were designed to be too humiliating for Serbia to
accept. In fact Serbia accepted most of the terms, but insisted that an
Austro-Serbian judicial enquiry into the assassination would be subject to
Serbian law, and Austria rejected this condition. See 28/7/1914. Austria�s real issue with Serbia was that
it blocked potential Austrian territorial expansion southwards into the
Balkans, to give Austria domination of the Aegean Sea.
5/12/1912, Italy, Germany and Austria renewed their Triple
alliance for a further six years.
15/11/1908. Austria sent troops to the Serbian frontier.
7/10/1908. Austria annexed
Bosnia-Herzegovina, taking advantage of instability within the Ottoman Empire.
Though formally part of the Ottoman Empire, its Serb-Croat population favoured
union with Serbia.
Other European countries were shocked at Austria�s move. Serbia was
especially angry that Serbs in the region had not got autonomy. However Russia agreed with Austria not to
oppose this annexation in return for Austria supporting the opening of the Dardanelles
to Russian warships. Turkey accepted cash compensation for the loss of Bosnia and
Hercegovina on 12/1/1909. See 1/12/1908.
Austro-Hungary and Italy renewed their Triple Alliance for
another 6 years.
passed a Bill giving the vote to all males aged 24 and over.
11/3/1904, The Army
Bill was passed in Hungary (see 16/9/1903), despite Magyar obstruction, using
the guillotine. See 16/9/1903.
16/9/1903, Franz Joseph
of Austria proposed to bring Hungarian Army regiments in under a unified
military command. This provoked opposition from the Magyars. However see
13/7/1903, Benjamin von
Kallay, Austro-Hungarian statesman, died (born 22/12/1839).
23/6/1902, Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Italy renewed
the Triple Alliance.
8/8/1900, Czech members of the Austrian Reichsrat disrupted
the sitting for 7 hours with noisy cymbals and trumpets.
30/1/1889, Archduke Rudolph of Austria was found deat at
his hunting lodge at Mayerling outside Vienna. He had shot his 17-year-old
Marie Vetser and then himself. He left no direct heir, so his
25-year-old nephew Franz Ferdinand became heir-apparent.
10/9/1898, Elizabeth, consort of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria,
was stabbed to death by anarchist Luigi Luccheni.
14/12/1897, Kurt Schusnigg,
Austrian politician, was born.
30/7/1897, Alfred Arneth,
Austrian historian, died (born 10/7/1819).
18/2/1895, Friedrich Albert, Austrian Field Marshal, died (born 3/8/1817 in
4/10/1892, Engelbert Dolfuss, Austrian dictator, was
6/5/1891, The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy was
2/12/1889, Aloys Karolyi, Austro-Hungarian diplomat, died
24/10/1886, Friedrich Beust, Austrian statesman, died near
Vienna (born in Dresden 13/1/1809).
20/5/1882, Austria formed a Triple Alliance with Germany and
Italy; this threatened Russia.
27/4/1881, Ludwig Benedek, Austrian General, died in Graz
( born in Odenburg, Hungary 14/7/1804).
20/2/1887, The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria and
Italy was renewed for a further 5 years.
8/7/1876, The Austrian
foreign Ministers, Andrassy and Gorchakov, met at the Reichstadt
in Bohemia to discuss the future of the Balkans on the conclusion of the
29/6/1875, Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria, died (born
Austro-Hungarian administration established, 1867
15/3/1867, Austria and Hungary buried their differences and agreed to
joint rule, sharing defence, foreign, and financial matters but with separate
parliaments. However the Czechs, annoyed by the minor role they were given in
this arrangement, walked out of the Parliament on 22/8/1868.
8/2/1867, As Prussia became increasingly powerful
Minister Otto von Bismarck and King Wilhelm I, political differences between Germany
and the Hapsburgs of Austria, who had ruled Austria since 1278, increased. This
weakened Austria to the point where Hungary threatened to break away. To save
the unity of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was forced (the �ausgliech� or �compromise�) to agree to
a Dual Monarchy, where each State had a separate government and a convoluted
system of joint Ministers to oversee the Empire. However this in turn alienated ethnic
minorities within Austro-Hungary, ultimately sparking off demands for Serbian
independence and the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand that led to World War One.
3/10/1866, A peace treaty was concluded between Austria and Italy.�
Austria surrendered Venetia to Italy.�
23/8/1866. The Treaty of Prague was signed, ending the war between Austria and Prussia.
Austria agreed to
withdraw from the German Confederation, renounced its claim on
Schleswig-Holstein, and ceded Venetia to Italy.
26/7/1866, The preliminary Peace Treaty of Nikolsburg was
signed between Austria and Prussia.
24/6/1866, The Italians fighting the Austrians were defeated at Custozza.
14/6/1866, The brief Austro-Prussian
over a dispute between Prussia and Austria over the Duchies of Schleswig and
more details see
War 1859, for more details see Italy
10/11/1859, A peace
treaty signed at Zurich ended the war between France, allied
to Piedmont, and Austria. The effects of the treaty were crucial in the
unification of Italy. Under its terms, Lombardy passed from Austria to
Piedmont, with the exception of the Quadrilateral forts (see 24/6/1859) which
were retained by Austria. Piedmont compensated France 60 million lire
for the cost of the war with Austria. Plebiscites were held in various
territories to determine which State they would join.
10/7/1859, The Treaty of
Villafranca was signed between France and Austria.
24/6/1859, At the Battle
of Solferino, Lombardy, Italy, the French under Napoleon III defeated the
4/6/1859, The Battle of
Magenta. France defeated Austrian forces and captured Milan.
30/5/1859, Battle of
Palestro; Austria defeated by Piedmont.
20/5/1859, Italian Wars of independence, Austria
defeated by Piedmont.
See Italy for War of Italian Independence against Austria
For more on Austro-Piedmont War 1859 see Italy
3/5/1859. France declared war on Austria.
11/6/1859, Clemens Metternich, Austrian
5/1/1858, Joseph Radedtsky, Austrian Field-Marshal and
national hero, died in Milan aged 91.
2/12/1854, Austria formed a strategic alliance with Britain
24/4/1854, Elizabeth married Archduke Ferdinand, Emperor of
14/3/1853, Julius Haynau, Austrian general, died (born
24/6/1852, Viktor Adler, Austrian politician (died
12/11/1918) was born.
25/3/1849, Agenor Goluchowski, Austrian statesman, was
Austrian constitutional reform, ultimately watered down, 1848-49
4/3/1849, A final new constitution was introduced in
Austria, with watered-down reforms including limited siuffrage, a reformed
judiciary and the abolition of feudalism and serfdom. The population was
coereced into accepting this by the invitation to Russian troops (issued
5/1849) to �protect� Austro-Hungasry.
Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated in favour of his nephew, Francis Joseph. The Reichstag was moved out to Moravia, then dismissed entirely.
6/10/1848, Renewed popular uprising in Vienna, as reforms stalled. It was harshly
suppressed three days later.
8/4/1848, A new Austrian constitution, the Pillersdorf
Constitution, was prepared. This
proposed a constitutional monarchy and universal suffrage. However the Austrian
Prime Minister attempted to block its implementatoion by dissolving trhe
Reichstag and arresting reformers. The entire reforming process then stalled
because Austria was facing regional problems.
Ferdinand of Austria made concessions to the agitants, promising a
liberal conasitution amnd freedom of the press.
13/8/1848, Peaceful demonstrationa in central Vienna demanding political reform
turned violent and spread to the suburbs. The Austrian Metternich Government was
30/4/1847, Charles, Archduke of Austria, died (born
6/11/1846, Following uprisings in March 1846, the small
republic of Cracow was annexed to Austrian-controlled
Galicia, losing its independence.
22/12/1839, Benjamin von Kallay, Austro-Hungarian
statesman, was born (died 23/7/1903).
24/12/1837, Elizabeth, consort of Emperor Franz Joseph of
Austria, was born.
2/3/1835, Francis II, last Holy
Roman Emperor, died. He was
succeeded, as Emperor of Austria only, by his 4-year-old son, Ferdinand I.
29/12/1832, Gustav Kalnocky, Austro-Hungarian statesman,
was born (died 13/2/1898).
18/8/1830, Birth of Franz-Joseph I,
Emperor of Austria who invaded Serbia, ultimately starting World War One.
22/10/1828, Karl Mack von Leiberich, Austrian soldier,
died (born 25/8/1752).
8/8/1825, Aloys Karolyi, Austro0Hungarian diplomat, was
born (died 2/12/1889).
3/8/1817, Friedrich Albert, Austrian Field Marshal, was
born in Vienna (died 18/2/1895).
10/7/1819, Alfred Arneth, Austrian historian, was born in
Vienna (died 1897).
15/3/1811, The Austrian state was bankrupt, due to inflation
caused by soaring military expenditure.
20/2/1810, Andreas Hofer, Austrian patriot, died (born
8/10/1809, Metternich was appointed Austrian Foreign Minister.
13/1/1809, Friedrich Beust, Austrian statesman, was born
Dresden (died near Vienna 24/10/1886).
the Napoleonic Wars, 1805-09
signed the Peace of Schonbrunn, ceding its Illyrian provinces to France.� Austria
lost Galicia, Salzburg, and Istria.
12/7/1806, The ruler of Austria, then Francis II,
dropped the title Holy Roman Emperor, at Napoleon�s insistence, after 1,000
years of possessing this title.
abandoned the Third Coalition by signing the Peace of Pressburg with France.�
Austria was forced to surrender Venetia to the Kingdom of Italy, newly
founded by Napoleon.� Austria also
surrendered Tyrol to Bavaria and its remaining Swabian lands to Wurttemberg and
for more events of Napoleonic Wars
outnumbered French army of Napoleon
defeated an Austrian army at Ulm. Napoleon
had already realised he cold not gain control of the English Channel, or
overcome British naval supremacy, so before the Battle of Trafalgar he had
directed his forces eastwards, against Austria. Austria had to submit to
the Treaty of Pressburg, by which
Venetia was ceded to the French Kingdom of Italy and the States of the Lower
Rhine were forced into the Confederation of the Rhine, a French dependency. The
Electors of Bavaria and Wurttemberg became Kings independent of Austria, and
Austria had to pay Napoleon a war contribution of 40 million
14/7/1804, Ludwig Benedek, Austrian General, was born in
Odenburg, Hungary (died in Graz 27/4/1881).
24/11/1801, Franz Lacy, Austrian Field
Marshal, died (born 21/10/1725).
27/6/1794, Wenzel Kaunitz-Rietburg, Austrian statesman,
died (born 2/2/1711).
19/4/1793, Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria, was born
20/2/1790, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, died. His
reforms had provoked rebellion in Belgium and Hungary. He was succeeded by his
Leopold, the Grand Duke of Tuscany; in July 1790 he was elected Holy
Roman Emperor as Leopold II.
13/10/1781, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II gramted a patent of
religious tolerance within the empire, along with freedom of the press.
29/11/1780, Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, wife of Emperor Francis
I (1745-65) died in Vienna. Her son, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II,
became sole ruler of the Hapsburg lands.
13/5/1779, At the Peace
of Teschen, Austria made peace with Frederick of Prussia.� Austria received a small part of Bavaria, the
Innvertiel, and renounced all claims to
the Bavarian inheritance.
5/9/1771, Charles, Archduke of Austria, was born (died
6/5/1769, Ferdinand III, Archduke of Austria, was born
22/11/1767, Andreas Hofer, Austrian patriot, was born
2/11/1766, Joseph Radetsky, Austrian Field Marshal, was
born in Trebnitz, near Tabor.
5/2/1766, Leopold Daun, Austrian Field Marshal, died
15/2/1763, Austria, seeing hope for a decisive victory
over Prussia recede with peace between Russia and Prussia, made peace with Prussia
at Hubertusberg this day.� Frederick
evacuated Saxony but retained Silesia.� Austria
had failed to destroy Prussia before Prussian power was consolidated.
10/2/1763, The end
of the Seven Years War. France ceded Canada
to Britain at the Treaty of Paris. See 26/7/1758 and
13/9/1759. The same treaty gave Florida to Britain in exchange for Britain
which it had invaded on 12/8/1762, to Spain; Spain also regained Louisiana and the
Philippines. Britain gained all of America east of the Mississippi. Britain also gained
Minorca, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Tobago, St Vincent, Grenada, Dominica, and
Senegal, as well as becoming pre-eminent in India; Britain therefore became
the world�s major colonising power. Frederick of Prussia retained Silesia,
which set Prussia on the road to also becoming a major European power.
Austrians were defeated at the Battle of Freiburg.� The
war was making Austria bankrupt and Austria was questioning whether the war was
worth it for the recovery of one province.�
Austria and Prussia agreed on an armistice on 24/11/1762� for the winter of 1762/3.
See also France-Germany for Seven Years War
Austrians under Daun
were defeated by Prussia at Schweidnitz.
Austrians under Daun
were defeated by Prussia at Reichenbach.
Austrians under Daun
were defeated by Prussia at Burkersdorf.
Russians under Pyotr
Aleksandrovitch Rumyantsev captured the Prussian port and fort of
Kolberg. It had been a bad year for Frederick of Prussia, with French forces
making progress eastwards in south western Germany, and the Austrians under Laudon
capturing Schweidnitz on 1/10/1761, ensuring they could over-winter in Silesia.
had failed to prevent the Russian Army, 50,000 strong, joining up with the 72,000-strong
Austrian Army on 23/8/1761. Frederick�s
biggest concern was that since the change of monarch and the resignation of Pitt in Britain, he could no longer
rely on British support. Without a major change of fortune, Prussia faced
certain defeat in 1762.
Prussia won the Battle of Torgau against the Austrians but failed to
follow up this success and achieve his objective of capturing Dresden.
The Austrians under Laudon captured Glatz from Prussia.
The Austrians under Laudon defeated the Prussians at Landshut.
Austrians under Daun
took Dresden from the Prussians.
who had been unable to prevent the Austrians under Daun and the Russians under Saltykov
joining forces, was heavily defeated by them at Kunersdorf. Frederick
lost 18,000 men in six hours. The Russians did not capitalise on this victory,
then marched on Dresden.
forces under Daun surrounded a Prussian force under General Finck at Maxen,
forcing its surrender.
Austrians under Daun
launched an unexpected counter-attack against the Prussians at Hochkirk;
Prussian losses were 9,500 against 7,500 for the Austrians. Daun
began an advance on Dresden, but fell back to Pirna when he heard of Frederick�s
march on Lusatia. However the Austrian victory at Hochkirk raised French
morale; they had been inclined to abandon the war against Prussia.
25/8/1758, Frederick of
Prussia moved around Fermor�s east flank and his 36,000 men
attacked the Russians at Zorndorf (Sarbinowo). Prussian losses were 13,500,
against Russian casualties of 42,000 (21,000 killed). Frederick now left Christoph von
Dohna to pursue the defeated Russians; Frederick moved south to assist
his brother, Prince
Henry, against the Austrians under Daun at Dresden.
16/4/1758, Frederick of
Prussia defeated the Austrians at Schweidnitz, Silesia.
5/12/1757, Frederick of
Prussia, now confronted by an Austrian army which had invaded
Silesia and seized Breslau, defeated them this day at Leuthen and recovered Breslau, capital of Silesia. Frederick�s
43,000 men attacked the 72,000 Austrians under Charles of Lorraine with a
sudden cavalry charge followed by a heavy artillery bombardment. Frederick�s
losses amounted to 6,000, against 22,000 lost by Charles, including 12,000 taken
prisoner. Meanwhile the Swedes, who had invaded Prussian Pomerania in September
1757 (without Russian approval), were also forced back into Swedish Pomerania,
where they held against the Prussians at Stralsund. With the Russians under Apraksin
also having retreated (see 30/8/1757), the was began to turn in Prussia�s
Silesia, Austria took Breslau (Wroclaw) from Prussia.
Silesia, Austria took Schweidnitz (Swidnica) from Prussia.
forces under Fredrick
Francis of Brunswick-Bevern were defeated at Moys (Zgorzelec) in
Silesia by the Austrians.
Browne, Austrian Field-Marshal, died (born 23/10/1705).
ruler of Prussia, sought to turn back an advancing Austrian army,
50,000 strong under von Daun, but was heavily defeated at Kolin
this day.� Frederick had to give up Bohemia
and raise the siege of Prague.
Battle of Prague. Frederick�s Prussian Army of 64,000 routed an
Austrian Army of 66,000 under Browne and Prince Charles of Lorraine. This
defeat came before the Austrians could be reinforced by more troops under Leopold Joseph,
Graf von Daun. 14,000 Austrians were killed, 16,000 escaped to join von Daun,
and the rest fled into Prague itself where they were besieged by Frederick.
and France signed the Second Treaty of Versailles, allying themselves for an
offensive against Prussia. Under this Treaty, Austria would regain Silesia
(from Prussia) but would cede the Austrian Netherlands (to be divided between King Louis XV
of France and his Spanish Bourbon cousin Philip Duke of Parma). Philip�s
Italian possessions would revert to Austrian rule. France would garrison
105,000 of its troops in Prussia, in addition to supplying 30,000 men to the
Austrian Army (increased from an earlier figure of 24,000). France would
provide an annual subsidy to Austria of 12,000,000 livres. Meanwhile on
11/1/1757 France had concluded a secret treaty with Russia whereby France
agreed to help Russia in the event of any attack on Russia by Turkey
(contravening a long-standing detente between France and Turkey). In return for
this Russia would supply 80,000 men against Prussia. All parties swore not to
make separate peaces with Prussia, which was to be partitioned between the
Battle of Lobositz (midway between Dresden and Prague).� The Prussians defeated the Austrians. Russia
would have marched to help Austria against Prussia, but this would entail
Russian troops crossing Poland. Although France would nominally have welcomed
this, as it would relieve the French from helping Austria, and Poland was
allied to France, in secret the French would not welcome any Russian influence
25/8/1752, Karl Mack von
Leiberich, Austrian soldier, was born (died 22/10/1828).
War of the Austrian Succession 1740-48
1748, Comclusion of
the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48). On the sudden death of
Emperor Charles VI, Bavaria, Saxony and Spain, backed by France, refused to
recognise the Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Bohemia and Upper Austria. Prussia
put in a claim, and then invaded Silesia (Second Silesian War ended 1745).
Bavaria withdrew its claim, and under
the 1748 Treaty of Aachen the Hapsburgs retained all their dominions, excepting
The Peace of Dresden concluded the Second Silesian War.� Frederick
of Prussia retained Silesia, and recognised Francis as ruler
and occupied most of Saxony.� On this day
his chief general, Leopold
of Anhalt-Dessau, defeated the Austrians and Saxons
at Kesselsdorf, near Dresden.
4/6/1745, The Austrians
attacked Silesia, allied with troops from Saxony,� but were defeated by Prussia at Hohenfriedburg.
26/1/1744, Ludwig Khevenhuller, Austrian Field Marshal,
28/7/1742, Maria Theresa of Austria made peace with
Prussia; ceding control of all of Silesia to Prussia.
11/6/1742, The Peace of Breslau concluded the First
Silesian War.� Austria ceded most of
Silesia along with Glatz to Prussia, retaining only the principalities of
Troppau and Teschen.� In return Frederick
promised his neutrality.
17/5/1742, The Prussian cavalry defeated the Austrians
at the Battle of Chotusitz.
10/4/1741, The German Emperor
crossed the Silesian frontier, advanced as far as Breslau, and this day
defeated an Austrian Army near Mollwitz.� This was during the War of the Austrian
8/2/1741. Neisse and
Brieg still held out but the Prussians stormed and occupied Glogau on 9/3/1741.
At the Battle of Mollwitz, 10/4/1741, the Prussians narrowly won the day. Europe
realised that Prussia was now a major military power and France sent an
Belleisle, to negotiate an alliance with Frederick.� The �Silesian adventure� now became the War
of the Austrian Succession. France supported the Elector of Bavaria. Sweden
was supposed to stop Russia attacking Prussia but on 3/9/1742 the Swedes
were heavily defeated by the Russians at Wilmanstrand, and Sweden capitulated
in 1742 at Helsingfors, the Swedish capital. At the Peace of Dresden,
recognised the Elector
of Bavaria as ruler of Austria in return for his acquiring Silesia.
The war of the Austrian Succession ended on 18/10/1748 with the Peace of Aachen
(Aix la Chapelle).
16/12/1740. Without a
declaration of war. Frederick II of Prussia invaded Silesia, an Austrian
province. He occupied Silesia quite easily, besieging the few towns of
Glogau, Breig, and Neisse still held by the Austrians.
In February 1741 Austria prepared to
See also events in Germany
Charles VI died unexpectedly. Maria Theresa,
aged 23, became ruler of Austria. Frederick II of Prussia, taking advantage of
Austria having a young female ruler, prepared to invade the wealthy Austrian
provoince of Silesia. Meanwhile Bavaria and Saxony also had claims on
Austrian lands (their claims supported by France), and Spain wanted the Italian
provinces of Austria. Hungary supported Austria.
21/10/1725, Franz Lacy, Austrian Field
Marshal, was born (died 24/11/1801).
2/2/1717, Ernst Loudon, Austrian soldier,
was born (died 14/7/1789).
13/5/1717, Maria Theresa,
Empress of Austria, was born in Vienna.
Accession of Maria Theresa, aged 23.
defeats Ottoman Turkey, saves Vienna, annexes Hungary
22/8/1717. Austrian forces took Belgrade from the Ottoman Turks.
30/4/1711, The Peace of Szatmar effected a
reconciliation between the absolutist Hapsburg Austrian monarchy and the
2/2/1711, Wenzel Kaunitz-Rietburg, Austrian statesman,
was born (died 27/6/1794).
1691, Austria took Transylvania from the Ottomans,
6/7/1686. The Austrians
took Buda from the Ottoman Turks and annexed Hungary.
conquering armies of Islam under Vizier Kara Mustafa were defeated at the gates
of Vienna. The Turks had been besieging Vienna since July 1683. Relief
came under Poland�s King John III and Charles, Duke of Normandy. The
Ottoman Sultan ordered Mustafa to commit suicide.
Browne, Austrian Field-Marshal, was born (died 26/6/1757).
Montecucculi, Austrian General, died.
17/9/1679, Don John
the Younger of Austria died (born 1629).
18/10/1634, Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg, Austrian statesman
(born 1568) died at Laibach.
22/7/1634, Johann Aldringer, Austrian
military commander, died at the defence of Landshut against the Swedes on the
18/9/1630, Melchior Klesl, Austrian statesman, died.
11/11/1606, The Treaty
of Zsitvatorok ended the Long War between the Hapsburgs and the Ottoman
24/1/1595, Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria of Austria died.
1/10/1578, Don John of Austria died (born 24/2/1545).
24/2/1545, Don John of Austria was born (died 1/10/1578).
29/8/1526, The Battle
of Mohacs.� The Turkish army under Suleiman I
defeated the Hungarians under King Loius II,
who was killed whilst retreating.� Suleiman
took Buda, whilst Archduke Ferdinand of Austria
and John Zapolya, Prince of Transylvania, disputed over the succession. As a
result of this dispute, Dubrovnik
achieved independence, although it recognised Turkish overlordship. The
Hapsburgs now ruled Bohemia and Hungary.
3/10/1369, Margaret Maultasch, Countess of Tirol, died.
1/11/1339, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, was born.
25/8/1278, Ottokar II, King of Bohemia, was killed in the
Battle of Durnkrut. Ottokar II had previously lost a battle with Rudolf I of
Hapsburg (Habichtsburg, or Hawk�s castle, a town now in Switzerland)
in 1276; refusing to accept this defeat, he prepared to attack again. However Rudolf
launched a pre-emptive strike, with 2,000 horsemen, and the support of Ladislav of
Hungary. This battle paved
the way for the rise of the Hapsburg Dynasty.
17/9/1156, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa confirmed
Austria as a Duchy by the Priveligium Miuns Decree.
1155, The Margravate of Austria was made a Duchy after 180 years of
rule by the Babenberg family.
The start of modern-day Austria, as a
Margravate on the Danube granted by Holy Roman Emperor Otto II to the
Franconian Count Leopold
Babenberg family ruled the
Margravate until 1246.
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