Chronography of Austria
Page last modified 18 August 2023
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2 November 2020, A major terror attack took place in Vienna. 4 people were killed and 23 injured, several seriously, when an Islamist radicalised Austrian-North Macedonian man went on the rampage with a gun and a knife.
15 October 2017, Elections in Austria produced gains for the far-right party, over issues of immigration.
22 May 2016, In Austrian Presidential elections, Mr Norbert Hofer of the far-Right lost to Mr Alexander Van der Bellen of the Greens by the narrow margin of 0.6%. The result was connected to rising concern about migration into Europe from Asia and Africa.
26 April 2008, Police arrested Josef Fritzl in Amstetten, Austria, after he held women and children for years in a dungeon below his home. He was jailed for life in March 2009.
14 June 2007, Kurt Waldheim, President of Austria from 1985, also UN Secretary General 1972-82, died (born 21 December 1918).
20 February 2006, British historian David Irving was sentenced to three years in prison by an Austrian court for Holocaust denial.
11 November 2000, A fire on a funicular railway in the Austrian ski resort of Kaprun killed 155 holidaymakers.
3 October 2000, In Austrian Parliamentary elections, the radical Right-wing Freedom Party (FPO) became the second-largest Party.
5 February 2000, Jorg Haider�s extreme Right wing Freedom Party joined the Austrian coalition Government. There was international condemnation.
8 July 1992, Thomas Klestil became President of Austria
24 September 1991, A mummified 5,000 year old corpse was found in the Austrian Alps. It was named �Otzi�, and revealed much about Bronze Age life in Europe.
21 January 1987, In Austria, a coalition government under Dr Franz Ranitzky took office.
8 June 1986, Kurt Waldheim was elected president of Austria, amid controversy over his alleged collaboration with the Nazis in World War Two.� He was inaugurated on 8 July 1986.
18 November 1977, Kurt von Schuschnigg, Austrian politician, died.
21 December 1975, Left wing terrorists, including Carlos The Jackal, kidnapped delegates of an OPEC conference in Vienna. They killed three hostages, extorted US$ 3 million, and vanished into the Middle East.
1 March 1970, Socialists won an unexpected victory in Austrian general elections.
22 June 1956, In Austria, following the general election of 13 May 1956, Julius Raab formed a coalition government of the People�s Party and the Socialists.
26 October 1955, Last foreign troops left Austria.
15 May 1955. Austria became de jure an independent state within its 1937 borders under the Austrian State Treaty, signed by the USA, USSR, France, and Britain (see 7 January 1946). All the four-power occupation forces were withdrawn by 26 October 1955. On 5 November 1955 Austria declared itself constitutionally to be permanently neutral.
30 December 1954, Archduke Eugen, Austrian Field Marshal, died aged 91.
30 October 1953, Demonstrations in Austria against continued Allied occupation.
1950, An attempted Communist coup in Austria failed.
7 January 1946. Austria was established as a de facto independent state, divided into four zones of military occupation, as was Germany. See 15 May 1955. Vienna was also divided into four zones, apart from the Innere Stadt district which was occupied jointly by all four powers (Britain, France, the USA, and the USSR).
For more events of World War Two in Europe see World War Two
11 August 1939, The Axis Conference opened at Salzburg.
4 July 1939, In Austria, Nazi thugs beat up the Archbishop of Vienna.
For Austrian referendum 1939 on joining Germany, see France-Germany
22 April 1937. The Austrian Chancellor, Schuschnigg, met Mussolini.
14 February 1937, In Austria, Suschnigg claimed the right to decide on whether the Hapsburg monarchy should be restored. Restoration was vehemently opposed by Hitler and the Nazis, who staged several demonstrations against the idea.
21 May 1936, In Austria, Kurt Schusnigg was made leader of the Fatherland Front, the only permitted Party.
1 April 1936. Austria introduced conscription.
4 July 1935, Austria, encouraged by Mussolini, abolished anti-Hapsburg laws and restored some imperial property.
14 March 1935, Anton Rintelen was sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in the July Putsch.
30 April 1934, Chancellor Dollfuss became dictator of Austria.
28 March 1934, Austria banned jokes about the small size of Chancellor Dolfuss.
17 February 1934. A Socialist revolt in Austria was brutally crushed.
30 January 1934. All Austrian political parties were banned except the 'Fatherland Front'.�
10 November 1933. Dollfuss declared martial law in Austria.
29 March 1933, Austrian Nazis staged a large demonstration, in defiance of Chancellor Dollfuss. Meanwhile Germany instituted a punitive 1,000 Mark tourist tax on any German visiting Austria, which severely damaged the Austrian tourist industry.
7 March 1933. Chancellor Dollfuss suspended the Austrian Parliament.
4 November 1932, Thomas Klestil, 10th President of Austria, was born in Vienna (died 2004).
27 July 1932, Archduchess Gisela of Austria died, aged 76.
20 May 1932, Engelbert Dolfuss, Austrian Chancellor, formed a coalition government of Christian Socialists and Agrarians.
13 September 1931, In Austria, an attempted Fascist coup by the Heimwehr under Dr Pfrimer failed.
9 November 1930. Social Democrats won elections to the Austrian Parliament.
26 September 1929, John Schrober became chancellor of Austria.
30 April 1929, Ernst Streeruwitz was appointed Chancellor of Austria.
5 December 1928, Wilhelm Miklas was elected President of Austria, succeeding Michael Hainish.
15 July 1927. Vienna faced a General Strike as Socialists rioted. The left wing was upset that Austrian courts were much more lenient on offences committed by right-wing offenders, even up to murder.
15 October 1926, Ignaz Seipel formed a Christian Socialist Government in Austria, replacing Rudolf Ramek.
15 July 1926, In Vienna, 2 Right-wing militia men were acquitted of murder., this led to riots between Socialist and Right wing groups in which 85 protestors and 4 policemen died.
9 December 1920, Michael Hainish elected first President of Austria.
10 September 1919, The Treaty of St Germain was signed by the Allies with Austria at the Paris Peace Conference. Austria had to pay large reparations to the Allies, and recognise the independence of Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
10 June 1919, Austria protested against the terms of the Paris Peace Conference.
11 May 1919, The population of Vorarlberg, the westernmost province of Austria, voted for union with Switzerland by a large majority.� However this transfer was not supported by the Allies or the Swiss Government, and Vorarlberg became one of the nine Austrian Bundeslander.
21 December 1918, Kurt Waldheim, President of Austria from 1985, also UN Secretary General 1972-82, was born (died 14 June 2007).
12 November 1918, The Republic of Austria was declared, ending the Hapsburg Dynasty, as Emperor Charles abdicated.
10 April 1918, A congress of Austrian-subject peoples was held in Rome.
For main European events of World War One see France-Germany
21 November 1916. Emperor Franz Josef, ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire since 1848, died. He was succeeded by his 29-year old grandson, Charles I.
23 July 1914. Austria determined that the government of Serbia was involved in the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand on 28 June 1914, and sent an ultimatum to the President of Serbia, Narodna Odbrana, drafted so as to prepare for war with Serbia. The terms were designed to be too humiliating for Serbia to accept. In fact Serbia accepted most of the terms, but insisted that an Austro-Serbian judicial enquiry into the assassination would be subject to Serbian law, and Austria rejected this condition. See 28 July 1914. Austria�s real issue with Serbia was that it blocked potential Austrian territorial expansion southwards into the Balkans, to give Austria domination of the Aegean Sea.
5 December 1912, Italy, Germany and Austria renewed their Triple alliance for a further six years.
15 November 1908. Austria sent troops to the Serbian frontier.
7 October 1908. Austria annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina, taking advantage of instability within the Ottoman Empire. Though formally part of the Ottoman Empire, its Serb-Croat population favoured union with Serbia. Other European countries were shocked at Austria�s move. Serbia was especially angry that Serbs in the region had not got autonomy. However Russia agreed with Austria not to oppose this annexation in return for Austria supporting the opening of the Dardanelles to Russian warships. Turkey accepted cash compensation for the loss of Bosnia and Hercegovina on 12 January 1909. See 1 December 1908.
13 August 1908, King Edward VII of Britain met with Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria at Ischl. Edward tried to persuade the Emperor to advise the German Kaiser against aggressive policies aimed at Britain.
7 July 1907, Germany, Austro-Hungary and Italy renewed their Triple Alliance for another 6 years.
26 January 1907, Austria introduced universal male suffrage, for men aged over 24.
10 January 1907, Austria passed a Bill giving the vote to all males aged 24 and over.
13 July 1903, Benjamin von Kallay, Austro-Hungarian statesman, died (born 22 December 1839).
23 June 1902, Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Italy renewed the Triple Alliance.
26 February 1899, Johann Rechberg-Rothenlowen, Austrian statesman, died near Vienna (born 1806)
10 September 1898, Elizabeth, consort of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, was stabbed to death by anarchist Luigi Luccheni.
14 December 1897, Kurt Schusnigg, Austrian politician, was born.
30 July 1897, Alfred Arneth, Austrian historian, died (born 10 July 1819).
18 February 1895, Friedrich Albert, Austrian Field Marshal, died (born 3 August 1817 in Vienna)
23 May 1893, Anton von Schmerling, Austrian statesman, died in Vienna (born 23 August 1805 in Vienna)
4 October 1892, Engelbert Dolfuss, Austrian dictator, was born.
6 May 1891, The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy was renewed.
2 December 1889, Aloys Karolyi, Austro-Hungarian diplomat, died (born 8 August 1825).
30 January 1889, Archduke Rudolph of Austria was found deat at his hunting lodge at Mayerling outside Vienna. He had shot his 17-year-old mistress Baroness Marie Vetser and then himself. He left no direct heir, so his 25-year-old nephew Franz Ferdinand became heir-apparent.
24 October 1886, Friedrich Beust, Austrian statesman, died near Vienna (born in Dresden 13 January 1809).
20 May 1882, Austria formed a Triple Alliance with Germany and Italy; this threatened Russia.
27 April 1881, Ludwig Benedek, Austrian General, died in Graz ( born in Odenburg, Hungary 14 July 1804).
20 February 1887, The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria and Italy was renewed for a further 5 years.
8 July 1876, The Austrian and Russian foreign Ministers, Andrassy and Gorchakov, met at the Reichstadt in Bohemia to discuss the future of the Balkans on the conclusion of the current conflict.
29 June 1875, Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria, died (born 19 April 1793)
7 April 1871, Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, Austrian Admiral, died (born in Marburg, Styria 23 December 1827)
3 October 1866, A peace treaty was concluded between Austria and Italy.� Austria surrendered Venetia to Italy.�
23 August 1866. The Treaty of Prague was signed, ending the war between Austria and Prussia. Austria agreed to withdraw from the German Confederation, renounced its claim on Schleswig-Holstein, and ceded Venetia to Italy.
26 July 1866, The preliminary Peace Treaty of Nikolsburg was signed between Austria and Prussia.
24 June 1866, The Italians fighting the Austrians were defeated at Custozza.
14 June 1866, The brief Austro-Prussian War began, over a dispute between Prussia and Austria over the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. For more details see Germany 1866
11 June 1859, Clemens Metternich, Austrian statesman, died.
5 January 1858, Joseph Radedtsky, Austrian Field-Marshal and national hero, died in Milan aged 91.
24 April 1854, Elizabeth married Archduke Ferdinand, Emperor of Austria.
14 March 1853, Julius Haynau, Austrian general, died (born 1786).
24 June 1852, Viktor Adler, Austrian politician (died 12 November 1918) was born.
25 March 1849, Agenor Goluchowski, Austrian statesman, was born.
30 April 1847, Charles, Archduke of Austria, died (born 5 September 1771).
6 November 1846, Following uprisings in March 1846, the small republic of Cracow was annexed to Austrian-controlled Galicia, losing its independence.
22 December 1839, Benjamin von Kallay, Austro-Hungarian statesman, was born (died 23 July 1903).
24 December 1837, Elizabeth, consort of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria, was born.
2 March 1835, Francis II, last Holy Roman Emperor, died. He was succeeded, as Emperor of Austria only, by his 4-year-old son, Ferdinand I.
24 February 1833, Eduard Taaffe, Austrian statesaman, was born in Vienna (died 29 November 1895 in Bohemia)
29 December 1832, Gustav Kalnocky, Austro-Hungarian statesman, was born (died 13 February 1898).
18 August 1830, Birth of Franz-Joseph I, Emperor of Austria who invaded Serbia, ultimately starting World War One.
22 October 1828, Karl Mack von Leiberich, Austrian soldier, died (born 25 August 1752)
23 December 1827, Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, Austrian Admiral, was born in Marburg, Styria (died 7 April 1871)
8 August 1825, Aloys Karolyi, Austro-Hungarian diplomat, was born (died 2 December 1889).
3 August 1817, Friedrich Albert, Austrian Field Marshal, was born in Vienna (died 18 February 1895).
10 July 1819, Alfred Arneth, Austrian historian, was born in Vienna (died 1897).
20 February 1810, Andreas Hofer, Austrian patriot, died (born 22 November 1767).
13 January 1809, Friedrich Beust, Austrian statesman, was born Dresden (died near Vienna 24 October 1886).
23 August 1805, Anton von Schmerling, Austrian statesman, was born in Vienna (died 2q3 May 1893 in Vienna)
11 August 1804, Francis II of Austria assumed the title of hereditary emperor of Austrian possessions, although he still retained the title of |Holy Roman Emperor.
14 July 1804, Ludwig Benedek, Austrian General, was born in Odenburg, Hungary (died in Graz 27 April 1881).
24 November 1801, Franz Lacy, Austrian Field Marshal, died (born 21 October 1725).
27 June 1794, Wenzel Kaunitz-Rietburg, Austrian Chancellor 1753-92, died (born 2 February 1711).
19 April 1793, Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria, was born (died 29 June 1875).
20 February 1790, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, died. His reforms had provoked rebellion in Belgium and Hungary. He was succeeded by his brother, Archduke Leopold, the Grand Duke of Tuscany; in July 1790 he was elected Holy Roman Emperor as Leopold II.
13 October 1781, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II gramted a patent of religious tolerance within the empire, along with freedom of the press.
29 November 1780, Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, wife of Emperor Francis I (1745-65) died in Vienna. Her son, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II, became sole ruler of the Hapsburg lands.
13 May 1779, At the Peace of Teschen, Austria made peace with Frederick of Prussia.� Austria received a small part of Bavaria, the Innvertiel, and renounced all claims to the Bavarian inheritance.
5 September 1771, Charles, Archduke of Austria, was born (died 30 April 1847)
15 April 1771, Karl Philipp Schwartzenberg, Austrian Field Marshal, was born in Vienna (died 15 October 1820 in Leipzig)
6 May 1769, Ferdinand III, Archduke of Austria, was born (died 6/1824).
22 November 1767, Andreas Hofer, Austrian patriot, was born (died 20 February 1810).
2 November 1766, Joseph Radetsky, Austrian Field Marshal, was born in Trebnitz, near Tabor.
5 February 1766, Leopold Daun, Austrian Field Marshal, died (born 24 September 1705).
25 August 1752, Karl Mack von Leiberich, Austrian soldier, was born (died 22 October 1828)
4 Otober 1749, Franz Trenck, Austrian soldier, died (born 1 ujanuary 1711)
18 February 1748, Otto Ferdinand Traun, Austrian Field Marshal, died in Hermannstadt (born 21 August 1677 in Oldenburg)
24 May 1736, Johann Thugut, Austrian diplomat, was born in Linz (died 28 May 1818 in Vienna)
21 October 1725, Franz Lacy, Austrian Field Marshal, was born (died 24 November 1801).
2 February 1717, Ernst Loudon, Austrian soldier, was born (died 14 July 1789).
13 May 1717, Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, was born in Vienna.
Accession of Maria Theresa, aged 23.
1 January 1711, Franz Trenck, Austrian soldier, was born (died 4 October 1749)
23 October 1705, Maximillian Browne, Austrian Field-Marshal, was born (died 26 June 1757).
16 October 1680, Raimondo Montecucculi, Austrian General, died.
17 September 1679, Don John the Younger of Austria died (born 1629)
27 August 1677, Otto Ferdinand Traun, Austrian Field Marshal, was born in Oldenburg (died 18 February 1748 in Hermannstadt)
11 August 1656, Prince Octavio Piccolomini, Austrian General, died (born in Florence 11 November 1599)
18 October 1634, Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg, Austrian statesman (born 1568) died at Laibach.
22 July 1634, Johann Aldringer, Austrian military commander, died at the defence of Landshut against the Swedes on the Danube.
18 September 1630, Melchior Klesl, Austrian statesman, died.
11 July 1624, Savoy and Venice joined the alliance against the Austrian Hapsburgs. The Alpine passes could now be blocked, preventing effective Spanish-Hapsburg co-operation.
9 July 1624, Sweden and Denmark joined the alliance against the Austrian Hapsburgs.
15 June 1624, England joined the alliance of France and Holland against Hapsburg Austria.
10 June 1624, Treaty of Compeigne. France and Holland allied against the Hapsburgs.
1/1624, France, already at war with Spain, now declared war on the Austrian Hapsburgs.
23 July 1620, Maximillian of Bavaria, with the 25,000 strong army of the Catholic League led by General John Tserclaes, Count Tilly, crossed the Austrian frontier to support the Holy Roman Emperor against the Protestant Bohemians.
11 November 1606, The Treaty of Zsitvatorok ended the Long War between the Hapsburgs and the Ottoman Empire.
11 November 1599, Prince Octavio Piccolomini, Austrian General, was born in Florence (died 11 August 1656)
24 January 1595, Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria of Austria died.
1 October 1578, Don John of Austria died (born 24 February 1545).
24 February 1545, Don John of Austria was born (died 1 October 1578).
29 August 1526, The Battle of Mohacs.� The Turkish army under Suleiman I defeated the Hungarians under King Loius II, who was killed whilst retreating.� Suleiman took Buda, whilst Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and John Zapolya, Prince of Transylvania, disputed over the succession. As a result of this dispute, Dubrovnik achieved independence, although it recognised Turkish overlordship. The Hapsburgs now ruled Bohemia and Hungary.
28 April 1521, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V granted his brother Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria the Habsburg possessions in Lower Austria, Carinthia, Styria and Carniola.
3 December 1463, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, united Upper and Lower Austria on the death of his brother Albert I, Grand Duke of Austria.
3 October 1369, Margaret Maultasch, Countess of Tirol, died.
1 November 1339, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, was born.
2 April 1335, Following the death of Henry Duke of Carinthia, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV conferred the Duchy and South Tyrol on the Habsburgs. His sons received North Tyrol.
Start of the Habsburg Dynasty, ;lasting until 1918
25 August 1278, Ottokar II, King of Bohemia, was killed in the Battle of Durnkrut. Ottokar II had previously lost a battle with Rudolf I of Hapsburg (Habichtsburg, or Hawk�s castle, a town now in Switzerland) in 1276; refusing to accept this defeat, he prepared to attack again. However Rudolf launched a pre-emptive strike, with 2,000 horsemen, and the support of Ladislav of Hungary. This battle paved the way for the rise of the Hapsburg Dynasty.
25 November 1276, Rudolf of Habsburg, King of the Romans, besieged Vienna. Bohemia rebelled, and Ottakar surrendered� all his lands, including Austria and Styria, except for Bohemia and Moravia. Rudolf made Vienna his capital, founding the Habsburg Dynasty, which endured until 1918.
17 September 1156, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa confirmed Austria as a Duchy by the Priveligium Miuns Decree. For early Holy Roman Emperors see Germany
1155, The Margravate of Austria was made a Duchy after 180 years of rule by the Babenberg family.
976, The start of modern-day Austria, as a Margravate on the Danube granted by Holy Roman Emperor Otto II to the Franconian Count Leopold (Luipold); Leopold�s Babenberg family ruled the Margravate until 1246.