Chronography of Austria

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Demography of Austria


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2 November 2020, A major terror attack took place in Vienna. 4 people were killed and 23 injured, several seriously, when an Islamist radicalised Austrian-North Macedonian man went on the rampage with a gun and a knife.

15 October 2017, Elections in Austria produced gains for the far-right party, over issues of immigration.

22 May 2016, In Austrian Presidential elections, Mr Norbert Hofer of the far-Right lost to Mr Alexander Van der Bellen of the Greens by the narrow margin of 0.6%. The result was connected to rising concern about migration into Europe from Asia and Africa.

26 April 2008, Police arrested Josef Fritzl in Amstetten, Austria, after he held women and children for years in a dungeon below his home. He was jailed for life in March 2009.

14 June 2007, Kurt Waldheim, President of Austria from 1985, also UN Secretary General 1972-82, died (born 21 December 1918).

20 February 2006, British historian David Irving was sentenced to three years in prison by an Austrian court for Holocaust denial.

11 November 2000, A fire on a funicular railway in the Austrian ski resort of Kaprun killed 155 holidaymakers.

3 October 2000, In Austrian Parliamentary elections, the radical Right-wing Freedom Party (FPO) became the second-largest Party.

5 February 2000, Jorg Haider�s extreme Right wing Freedom Party joined the Austrian coalition Government. There was international condemnation.

8 July 1992, Thomas Klestil became President of Austria

24 September 1991, A mummified 5,000 year old corpse was found in the Austrian Alps. It was named �Otzi�, and revealed much about Bronze Age life in Europe.

21 January 1987, In Austria, a coalition government under Dr Franz Ranitzky took office.

8 June 1986, Kurt Waldheim was elected president of Austria, amid controversy over his alleged collaboration with the Nazis in World War Two.He was inaugurated on 8 July 1986.

18 November 1977, Kurt von Schuschnigg, Austrian politician, died.

21 December 1975, Left wing terrorists, including Carlos The Jackal, kidnapped delegates of an OPEC conference in Vienna. They killed three hostages, extorted US$ 3 million, and vanished into the Middle East.

1 March 1970, Socialists won an unexpected victory in Austrian general elections.

22 June 1956, In Austria, following the general election of 13 May 1956, Julius Raab formed a coalition government of the People�s Party and the Socialists.

26 October 1955, Last foreign troops left Austria.

15 May 1955. Austria became de jure an independent state within its 1937 borders under the Austrian State Treaty, signed by the USA, USSR, France, and Britain (see 7 January 1946). All the four-power occupation forces were withdrawn by 26 October 1955. On 5 November 1955 Austria declared itself constitutionally to be permanently neutral.

30 December 1954, Archduke Eugen, Austrian Field Marshal, died aged 91.

30 October 1953, Demonstrations in Austria against continued Allied occupation.

1950, An attempted Communist coup in Austria failed.

7 January 1946. Austria was established as a de facto independent state, divided into four zones of military occupation, as was Germany. See 15 May 1955. Vienna was also divided into four zones, apart from the Innere Stadt district which was occupied jointly by all four powers (Britain, France, the USA, and the USSR).

For more events of World War Two in Europe see World War Two

11 August 1939, The Axis Conference opened at Salzburg.

4 July 1939, In Austria, Nazi thugs beat up the Archbishop of Vienna.

For Austrian referendum 1939 on joining Germany, see France-Germany

22 April 1937. The Austrian Chancellor, Schuschnigg, met Mussolini.

14 February 1937, In Austria, Suschnigg claimed the right to decide on whether the Hapsburg monarchy should be restored. Restoration was vehemently opposed by Hitler and the Nazis, who staged several demonstrations against the idea.

21 May 1936, In Austria, Kurt Schusnigg was made leader of the Fatherland Front, the only permitted Party.

1 April 1936. Austria introduced conscription.

4 July 1935, Austria, encouraged by Mussolini, abolished anti-Hapsburg laws and restored some imperial property.

14 March 1935, Anton Rintelen was sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in the July Putsch.

30 April 1934, Chancellor Dollfuss became dictator of Austria.

28 March 1934, Austria banned jokes about the small size of Chancellor Dolfuss.

17 February 1934. A Socialist revolt in Austria was brutally crushed.

30 January 1934. All Austrian political parties were banned except the 'Fatherland Front'.

10 November 1933. Dollfuss declared martial law in Austria.

29 March 1933, Austrian Nazis staged a large demonstration, in defiance of Chancellor Dollfuss. Meanwhile Germany instituted a punitive 1,000 Mark tourist tax on any German visiting Austria, which severely damaged the Austrian tourist industry.

7 March 1933. Chancellor Dollfuss suspended the Austrian Parliament.

4 November 1932, Thomas Klestil, 10th President of Austria, was born in Vienna (died 2004).

27 July 1932, Archduchess Gisela of Austria died, aged 76.

20 May 1932, Engelbert Dolfuss, Austrian Chancellor, formed a coalition government of Christian Socialists and Agrarians.

13 September 1931, In Austria, an attempted Fascist coup by the Heimwehr under Dr Pfrimer failed.

9 November 1930. Social Democrats won elections to the Austrian Parliament.

26 September 1929, John Schrober became chancellor of Austria.

30 April 1929, Ernst Streeruwitz was appointed Chancellor of Austria.

5 December 1928, Wilhelm Miklas was elected President of Austria, succeeding Michael Hainish.

15 July 1927. Vienna faced a General Strike as Socialists rioted. The left wing was upset that Austrian courts were much more lenient on offences committed by right-wing offenders, even up to murder.

15 October 1926, Ignaz Seipel formed a Christian Socialist Government in Austria, replacing Rudolf Ramek.

15 July 1926, In Vienna, 2 Right-wing militia men were acquitted of murder., this led to riots between Socialist and Right wing groups in which 85 protestors and 4 policemen died.

9 December 1920, Michael Hainish elected first President of Austria.

10 September 1919, The Treaty of St Germain was signed by the Allies with Austria at the Paris Peace Conference. Austria had to pay large reparations to the Allies, and recognise the independence of Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.

10 June 1919, Austria protested against the terms of the Paris Peace Conference.

11 May 1919, The population of Vorarlberg, the westernmost province of Austria, voted for union with Switzerland by a large majority.However this transfer was not supported by the Allies or the Swiss Government, and Vorarlberg became one of the nine Austrian Bundeslander.

21 December 1918, Kurt Waldheim, President of Austria from 1985, also UN Secretary General 1972-82, was born (died 14 June 2007).

12 November 1918, The Republic of Austria was declared, ending the Hapsburg Dynasty, as Emperor Charles abdicated.

10 April 1918, A congress of Austrian-subject peoples was held in Rome.

For main European events of World War One see France-Germany

21 November 1916. Emperor Franz Josef, ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire since 1848, died. He was succeeded by his 29-year old grandson, Charles I.

23 July 1914. Austria determined that the government of Serbia was involved in the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand on 28 June 1914, and sent an ultimatum to the President of Serbia, Narodna Odbrana, drafted so as to prepare for war with Serbia. The terms were designed to be too humiliating for Serbia to accept. In fact Serbia accepted most of the terms, but insisted that an Austro-Serbian judicial enquiry into the assassination would be subject to Serbian law, and Austria rejected this condition. See 28 July 1914. Austria�s real issue with Serbia was that it blocked potential Austrian territorial expansion southwards into the Balkans, to give Austria domination of the Aegean Sea.

5 December 1912, Italy, Germany and Austria renewed their Triple alliance for a further six years.

15 November 1908. Austria sent troops to the Serbian frontier.

7 October 1908. Austria annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina, taking advantage of instability within the Ottoman Empire. Though formally part of the Ottoman Empire, its Serb-Croat population favoured union with Serbia. Other European countries were shocked at Austria�s move. Serbia was especially angry that Serbs in the region had not got autonomy. However Russia agreed with Austria not to oppose this annexation in return for Austria supporting the opening of the Dardanelles to Russian warships. Turkey accepted cash compensation for the loss of Bosnia and Hercegovina on 12 January 1909. See 1 December 1908.

13 August 1908, King Edward VII of Britain met with Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria at Ischl. Edward tried to persuade the Emperor to advise the German Kaiser against aggressive policies aimed at Britain.

7 July 1907, Germany, Austro-Hungary and Italy renewed their Triple Alliance for another 6 years.

26 January 1907, Austria introduced universal male suffrage, for men aged over 24.

10 January 1907, Austria passed a Bill giving the vote to all males aged 24 and over.

13 July 1903, Benjamin von Kallay, Austro-Hungarian statesman, died (born 22 December 1839).

23 June 1902, Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Italy renewed the Triple Alliance.


Nationalist tensions rising within Austro-Hungary, especially with the Czechs

11 March 1904, The Army Bill was passed in Hungary (see 16 September 1903), despite Magyar obstruction, using the guillotine. See 16 September 1903.

16 September 1903, Franz Joseph of Austria proposed to bring Hungarian Army regiments in under a unified military command. This provoked opposition from the Magyars. However see 11 March 1904.

13 September 1900, Emperor Franz Josef of the Austro-Hungarian Empire received a deputation from the Poles, demanding more autonomy, butFranz Josef threatened a harsher rule if these demands continued.

8 August 1900, Czech members of the Austrian Reichsrat disrupted the sitting for 7 hours with noisy cymbals and trumpets.

13 January 1900, Austro-Hungarian Emperor Franz Josef I informed the Czech leader, Dr Stransky, that German must remain the language of all members of the Austro-Hungarian Army. Nationalist tensions were rising within the Empire.


26 February 1899, Johann Rechberg-Rothenlowen, Austrian statesman, died near Vienna (born 1806)

10 September 1898, Elizabeth, consort of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, was stabbed to death by anarchist Luigi Luccheni.

14 December 1897, Kurt Schusnigg, Austrian politician, was born.

30 July 1897, Alfred Arneth, Austrian historian, died (born 10 July 1819).

18 February 1895, Friedrich Albert, Austrian Field Marshal, died (born 3 August 1817 in Vienna)

23 May 1893, Anton von Schmerling, Austrian statesman, died in Vienna (born 23 August 1805 in Vienna)

4 October 1892, Engelbert Dolfuss, Austrian dictator, was born.

6 May 1891, The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy was renewed.

2 December 1889, Aloys Karolyi, Austro-Hungarian diplomat, died (born 8 August 1825).

30 January 1889, Archduke Rudolph of Austria was found deat at his hunting lodge at Mayerling outside Vienna. He had shot his 17-year-old mistress Baroness Marie Vetser and then himself. He left no direct heir, so his 25-year-old nephew Franz Ferdinand became heir-apparent.

24 October 1886, Friedrich Beust, Austrian statesman, died near Vienna (born in Dresden 13 January 1809).

20 May 1882, Austria formed a Triple Alliance with Germany and Italy; this threatened Russia.

27 April 1881, Ludwig Benedek, Austrian General, died in Graz ( born in Odenburg, Hungary 14 July 1804).

20 February 1887, The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria and Italy was renewed for a further 5 years.

8 July 1876, The Austrian and Russian foreign Ministers, Andrassy and Gorchakov, met at the Reichstadt in Bohemia to discuss the future of the Balkans on the conclusion of the current conflict.

29 June 1875, Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria, died (born 19 April 1793)

7 April 1871, Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, Austrian Admiral, died (born in Marburg, Styria 23 December 1827)


Dual Austro-Hungarian administration established, 1867

15 March 1867, Austria and Hungary buried their differences and agreed to joint rule, sharing defence, foreign, and financial matters but with separate parliaments. However the Czechs, annoyed by the minor role they were given in this arrangement, walked out of the Parliament on 22 August 1868.

8 February 1867, As Prussia became increasingly powerful under Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck and King Wilhelm I, political differences between Germany and the Hapsburgs of Austria, who had ruled Austria since 1278, increased. This weakened Austria to the point where Hungary threatened to break away. To save the unity of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was forced (the �ausgliech� or �compromise�) to agree to a Dual Monarchy, where each State had a separate government and a convoluted system of joint Ministers to oversee the Empire. However this in turn alienated ethnic minorities within Austro-Hungary, ultimately sparking off demands for Serbian independence and the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand that led to World War One.


3 October 1866, A peace treaty was concluded between Austria and Italy.Austria surrendered Venetia to Italy.

23 August 1866. The Treaty of Prague was signed, ending the war between Austria and Prussia. Austria agreed to withdraw from the German Confederation, renounced its claim on Schleswig-Holstein, and ceded Venetia to Italy.

26 July 1866, The preliminary Peace Treaty of Nikolsburg was signed between Austria and Prussia.

24 June 1866, The Italians fighting the Austrians were defeated at Custozza.

14 June 1866, The brief Austro-Prussian War began, over a dispute between Prussia and Austria over the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. For more details see Germany 1866


Austro-Piedmont War 1859, for more details see Italy

10 November 1859, A peace treaty signed at Zurich ended the war between France, allied to Piedmont, and Austria. The effects of the treaty were crucial in the unification of Italy. Under its terms, Lombardy passed from Austria to Piedmont, with the exception of the Quadrilateral forts (see 24 June 1859) which were retained by Austria. Piedmont compensated France 60 million lire for the cost of the war with Austria. Plebiscites were held in various territories to determine which State they would join.

10 July 1859, The Treaty of Villafranca was signed between France and Austria.

24 June 1859, At the Battle of Solferino, Lombardy, Italy, the French under Napoleon III defeated the Austrians.

4 June 1859, The Battle of Magenta. France defeated Austrian forces and captured Milan.

30 May 1859, Battle of Palestro; Austria defeated by Piedmont.

20 May 1859, Italian Wars of independence, Austria defeated by Piedmont.

See Italy for War of Italian Independence against Austria

For more on Austro-Piedmont War 1859 see Italy

3 May 1859. France declared war on Austria.


11 June 1859, Clemens Metternich, Austrian statesman, died.

5 January 1858, Joseph Radedtsky, Austrian Field-Marshal and national hero, died in Milan aged 91.

2 December 1854, Austria formed a strategic alliance with Britain and France.

24 April 1854, Elizabeth married Archduke Ferdinand, Emperor of Austria.

14 March 1853, Julius Haynau, Austrian general, died (born 1786).

24 June 1852, Viktor Adler, Austrian politician (died 12 November 1918) was born.

25 March 1849, Agenor Goluchowski, Austrian statesman, was born.


Demands for Austrian constitutional reform, ultimately watered down, 1848-49

4 March 1849, A final new constitution was introduced in Austria, with watered-down reforms including limited siuffrage, a reformed judiciary and the abolition of feudalism and serfdom. The population was coereced into accepting this by the invitation to Russian troops (issued 5/1849) to �protect� Austro-Hungasry.

2 December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated in favour of his nephew, Francis Joseph. The Reichstag was moved out to Moravia, then dismissed entirely.

6 October 1848, Renewed popular uprising in Vienna, as reforms stalled. It was harshly suppressed three days later.

8 April 1848, A new Austrian constitution, the Pillersdorf Constitution, was prepared. This proposed a constitutional monarchy and universal suffrage. However the Austrian Prime Minister attempted to block its implementatoion by dissolving trhe Reichstag and arresting reformers. The entire reforming process then stalled because Austria was facing regional problems.

15 March 1848, Emperor Ferdinand of Austria made concessions to the agitants, promising a liberal conasitution amnd freedom of the press.

13 August 1848, Peaceful demonstrationa in central Vienna demanding political reform turned violent and spread to the suburbs. The Austrian Metternich Government was frightened.


30 April 1847, Charles, Archduke of Austria, died (born 5 September 1771).

6 November 1846, Following uprisings in March 1846, the small republic of Cracow was annexed to Austrian-controlled Galicia, losing its independence.

22 December 1839, Benjamin von Kallay, Austro-Hungarian statesman, was born (died 23 July 1903).

24 December 1837, Elizabeth, consort of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria, was born.

2 March 1835, Francis II, last Holy Roman Emperor, died. He was succeeded, as Emperor of Austria only, by his 4-year-old son, Ferdinand I.

24 February 1833, Eduard Taaffe, Austrian statesaman, was born in Vienna (died 29 November 1895 in Bohemia)

29 December 1832, Gustav Kalnocky, Austro-Hungarian statesman, was born (died 13 February 1898).

18 August 1830, Birth of Franz-Joseph I, Emperor of Austria who invaded Serbia, ultimately starting World War One.

22 October 1828, Karl Mack von Leiberich, Austrian soldier, died (born 25 August 1752)

23 December 1827, Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, Austrian Admiral, was born in Marburg, Styria (died 7 April 1871)

8 August 1825, Aloys Karolyi, Austro-Hungarian diplomat, was born (died 2 December 1889).

3 August 1817, Friedrich Albert, Austrian Field Marshal, was born in Vienna (died 18 February 1895).

10 July 1819, Alfred Arneth, Austrian historian, was born in Vienna (died 1897).

20 February 1810, Andreas Hofer, Austrian patriot, died (born 22 November 1767).

13 January 1809, Friedrich Beust, Austrian statesman, was born Dresden (died near Vienna 24 October 1886).


Austria and the Napoleonic Wars, 1805-09

16 March 1812, Austria, concerned at the growth of Russian influence in the Balkans, agreed to provide military support for France, and France guaranteed the integrity of the Ottoman empire. France also promised to restore the Illyrian Provinces (Carniola, Trieste, Carinthia, Croatia and Dalmatia) to Austria.

15 March 1811, The Austrian state was bankrupt, due to inflation caused by soaring military expenditure.

20 February 1811, Austria declared itself bankrupt, due to the huge expense of military mobilisations and the decline in revenues following the Treaty of Schonbrunn, 1809.

14 October 1809. Austria signed the Peace of Schonbrunn, ceding its Illyrian provinces to France.Austria lost Galicia, Salzburg, and Istria.

8 October 1809, Metternich was appointed Austrian Foreign Minister.

13 May 1809, French forces took the Austrian capital Vienna.

4 April 1809, Britain agreed to provide Austria with a monthly subsidy of �150,000 for the war against France, and for Austria to invade the Schedlt region of the French-dominated Kingdom of Holland.

8 February 1809, Emperor Francis I of Austria, fearing that Napoleon would overrun and dismember Austria, launched a pre-emptive attack on France.

28 February 1808, Austria joined the Continental system of Napoleon I against Britain.

12 July 1806, The ruler of Austria, then Francis II, dropped the title Holy Roman Emperor, at Napoleon�s insistence, after 1,000 years of possessing this title.

26 December 1805, Austria abandoned the Third Coalition by signing the Peace of Pressburg with France.Austria was forced to surrender Venetia to the Kingdom of Italy, newly founded by Napoleon.Austria also surrendered Tyrol to Bavaria and its remaining Swabian lands to Wurttemberg and Baden.

See France-Germany for more events of Napoleonic Wars

20 October 1805, The outnumbered French army of Napoleon defeated an Austrian army at Ulm. Napoleon had already realised he cold not gain control of the English Channel, or overcome British naval supremacy, so before the Battle of Trafalgar he had directed his forces eastwards, against Austria. Austria had to submit to the Treaty of Pressburg, by which Venetia was ceded to the French Kingdom of Italy and the States of the Lower Rhine were forced into the Confederation of the Rhine, a French dependency. The Electors of Bavaria and Wurttemberg became Kings independent of Austria, and Austria had to pay Napoleon a war contribution of 40 million francs.

9 August 1805, Austria joined Britain, Russia and Sweden as a signatory to the Treaty of St Petersburg, an alliance against France.


23 August 1805, Anton von Schmerling, Austrian statesman, was born in Vienna (died 2q3 May 1893 in Vienna)

11 August 1804, Francis II of Austria assumed the title of hereditary emperor of Austrian possessions, although he still retained the title of |Holy Roman Emperor.

14 July 1804, Ludwig Benedek, Austrian General, was born in Odenburg, Hungary (died in Graz 27 April 1881).

24 November 1801, Franz Lacy, Austrian Field Marshal, died (born 21 October 1725).

27 June 1794, Wenzel Kaunitz-Rietburg, Austrian Chancellor 1753-92, died (born 2 February 1711).

19 April 1793, Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria, was born (died 29 June 1875).

20 February 1790, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, died. His reforms had provoked rebellion in Belgium and Hungary. He was succeeded by his brother, Archduke Leopold, the Grand Duke of Tuscany; in July 1790 he was elected Holy Roman Emperor as Leopold II.

13 October 1781, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II gramted a patent of religious tolerance within the empire, along with freedom of the press.

29 November 1780, Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, wife of Emperor Francis I (1745-65) died in Vienna. Her son, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II, became sole ruler of the Hapsburg lands.

13 May 1779, At the Peace of Teschen, Austria made peace with Frederick of Prussia.Austria received a small part of Bavaria, the Innvertiel, and renounced all claims to the Bavarian inheritance.

5 September 1771, Charles, Archduke of Austria, was born (died 30 April 1847)

15 April 1771, Karl Philipp Schwartzenberg, Austrian Field Marshal, was born in Vienna (died 15 October 1820 in Leipzig)

6 May 1769, Ferdinand III, Archduke of Austria, was born (died 6/1824).

22 November 1767, Andreas Hofer, Austrian patriot, was born (died 20 February 1810).

2 November 1766, Joseph Radetsky, Austrian Field Marshal, was born in Trebnitz, near Tabor.

5 February 1766, Leopold Daun, Austrian Field Marshal, died (born 24 September 1705).


Seven Years War1756-63

15 February 1763, Austria, seeing hope for a decisive victory over Prussia recede with peace between Russia and Prussia, made peace with Prussia at Hubertusberg this day.Frederick evacuated Saxony but retained Silesia.Austria had failed to destroy Prussia before Prussian power was consolidated.

10 February 1763, The end of the Seven Years War. France ceded Canada to Britain at the Treaty of Paris. See 26 July 1758 and 13 September 1759. The same treaty gave Florida to Britain in exchange for Britain returning Cuba, which it had invaded on 12 August 1762, to Spain; Spain also regained Louisiana and the Philippines. Britain gained all of America east of the Mississippi. Britain also gained Minorca, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Tobago, St Vincent, Grenada, Dominica, and Senegal, as well as becoming pre-eminent in India; Britain therefore became the world�s major colonising power. Frederick of Prussia retained Silesia, which set Prussia on the road to also becoming a major European power.

29 October 1762, The Austrians were defeated at the Battle of Freiburg.The war was making Austria bankrupt and Austria was questioning whether the war was worth it for the recovery of one province.Austria and Prussia agreed on an armistice on 24 November 1762for the winter of 1762/3.

See also France-Germany for Seven Years War

9 October 1762, The Austrians under Daun were defeated by Prussia at Schweidnitz.

16 August 1762, The Austrians under Daun were defeated by Prussia at Reichenbach.

21 July 1762, The Austrians under Daun were defeated by Prussia at Burkersdorf.

16 December 1761 The Russians under Pyotr Aleksandrovitch Rumyantsev captured the Prussian port and fort of Kolberg. It had been a bad year for Frederick of Prussia, with French forces making progress eastwards in south western Germany, and the Austrians under Laudon capturing Schweidnitz on 1 October 1761, ensuring they could over-winter in Silesia. Frederick had failed to prevent the Russian Army, 50,000 strong, joining up with the 72,000-strong Austrian Army on 23 August 1761. Frederick�s biggest concern was that since the change of monarch and the resignation of Pitt in Britain, he could no longer rely on British support. Without a major change of fortune, Prussia faced certain defeat in 1762.

3 November 1760 Frederick of Prussia won the Battle of Torgau against the Austrians but failed to follow up this success and achieve his objective of capturing Dresden.

26 July 1760, The Austrians under Laudon captured Glatz from Prussia.

23 June 1760, The Austrians under Laudon defeated the Prussians at Landshut.

14 September 1759, The Austrians under Daun took Dresden from the Prussians.

12 August 1759, Frederick, who had been unable to prevent the Austrians under Daun and the Russians under Saltykov joining forces, was heavily defeated by them at Kunersdorf. Frederick lost 18,000 men in six hours. The Russians did not capitalise on this victory, but Daun then marched on Dresden.

21 November 1758, Austrian forces under Daun surrounded a Prussian force under General Finck at Maxen, forcing its surrender.

14 October 1758, The Austrians under Daun launched an unexpected counter-attack against the Prussians at Hochkirk; Prussian losses were 9,500 against 7,500 for the Austrians. Daun began an advance on Dresden, but fell back to Pirna when he heard of Frederick�s march on Lusatia. However the Austrian victory at Hochkirk raised French morale; they had been inclined to abandon the war against Prussia.

25 August 1758, Frederick of Prussia moved around Fermor�s east flank and his 36,000 men attacked the Russians at Zorndorf (Sarbinowo). Prussian losses were 13,500, against Russian casualties of 42,000 (21,000 killed). Frederick now left Christoph von Dohna to pursue the defeated Russians; Frederick moved south to assist his brother, Prince Henry, against the Austrians under Daun at Dresden.

16 April 1758, Frederick of Prussia defeated the Austrians at Schweidnitz, Silesia.

5 December 1757, Frederick of Prussia, now confronted by an Austrian army which had invaded Silesia and seized Breslau, defeated them this day at Leuthen and recovered Breslau, capital of Silesia. Frederick�s 43,000 men attacked the 72,000 Austrians under Charles of Lorraine with a sudden cavalry charge followed by a heavy artillery bombardment. Frederick�s losses amounted to 6,000, against 22,000 lost by Charles, including 12,000 taken prisoner. Meanwhile the Swedes, who had invaded Prussian Pomerania in September 1757 (without Russian approval), were also forced back into Swedish Pomerania, where they held against the Prussians at Stralsund. With the Russians under Apraksin also having retreated (see 30 August 1757), the was began to turn in Prussia�s favour.

22 November 1757, In Silesia, Austria took Breslau (Wroclaw) from Prussia.

11 November 1757, In Silesia, Austria took Schweidnitz (Swidnica) from Prussia.

7 September 1757, Prussian forces under Fredrick Francis of Brunswick-Bevern were defeated at Moys (Zgorzelec) in Silesia by the Austrians.

26 June 1757, Maximillian Browne, Austrian Field-Marshal, died (born 23 October 1705).

18 June 1757, Frederick, ruler of Prussia, sought to turn back an advancing Austrian army, 50,000 strong under von Daun, but was heavily defeated at Kolin this day.Frederick had to give up Bohemia and raise the siege of Prague.

6 May 1757, The Battle of Prague. Frederick�s Prussian Army of 64,000 routed an Austrian Army of 66,000 under Browne and Prince Charles of Lorraine. This defeat came before the Austrians could be reinforced by more troops under Leopold Joseph, Graf von Daun. 14,000 Austrians were killed, 16,000 escaped to join von Daun, and the rest fled into Prague itself where they were besieged by Frederick.

1 May 1757, Austria and France signed the Second Treaty of Versailles, allying themselves for an offensive against Prussia. Under this Treaty, Austria would regain Silesia (from Prussia) but would cede the Austrian Netherlands (to be divided between King Louis XV of France and his Spanish Bourbon cousin Philip Duke of Parma). Philip�s Italian possessions would revert to Austrian rule. France would garrison 105,000 of its troops in Prussia, in addition to supplying 30,000 men to the Austrian Army (increased from an earlier figure of 24,000). France would provide an annual subsidy to Austria of 12,000,000 livres. Meanwhile on 11 January 1757 France had concluded a secret treaty with Russia whereby France agreed to help Russia in the event of any attack on Russia by Turkey (contravening a long-standing detente between France and Turkey). In return for this Russia would supply 80,000 men against Prussia. All parties swore not to make separate peaces with Prussia, which was to be partitioned between the Allies.

1 October 1756, The Battle of Lobositz (midway between Dresden and Prague).The Prussians defeated the Austrians. Russia would have marched to help Austria against Prussia, but this would entail Russian troops crossing Poland. Although France would nominally have welcomed this, as it would relieve the French from helping Austria, and Poland was allied to France, in secret the French would not welcome any Russian influence upon Poland.


25 August 1752, Karl Mack von Leiberich, Austrian soldier, was born (died 22 October 1828)

4 Otober 1749, Franz Trenck, Austrian soldier, died (born 1 ujanuary 1711)

18 February 1748, Otto Ferdinand Traun, Austrian Field Marshal, died in Hermannstadt (born 21 August 1677 in Oldenburg)


War of the Austrian Succession 1740-48 See also France-Germany

1748, Comclusion of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48). On the sudden death of Emperor Charles VI, Bavaria, Saxony and Spain, backed by France, refused to recognise the Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Bohemia and Upper Austria. Prussia put in a claim, and then invaded Silesia (Second Silesian War ended 1745). Bavaria withdrew its claim, and under the 1748 Treaty of Aachen the Hapsburgs retained all their dominions, excepting Silesia.

25 December 1745, The Peace of Dresden concluded the Second Silesian War.Frederick of Prussia retained Silesia, and recognised Francis as ruler of Austria.

15 December 1745, Frederick invaded Bohemia, and occupied most of Saxony.On this day his chief general, Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau, defeated the Austrians and Saxons at Kesselsdorf, near Dresden.

4 June 1745, The Austrians attacked Silesia, allied with troops from Saxony,but were defeated by Prussia at Hohenfriedburg.

26 January 1744, Ludwig Khevenhuller, Austrian Field Marshal, died.

8 February 1743, Battle of Campo Santo, War of the Austrian Succession, Inconclusive fight between Spain, under Moertemar, and the Imperialists under Count Traum.

28 July 1742, Maria Theresa of Austria made peace with Prussia; ceding control of all of Silesia to Prussia.

11 June 1742, The Peace of Breslau concluded the First Silesian War.Austria ceded most of Silesia along with Glatz to Prussia, retaining only the principalities of Troppau and Teschen.In return Frederick promised his neutrality.

17 May 1742, The Prussian cavalry defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Chotusitz.

10 April 1741, The German Emperor crossed the Silesian frontier, advanced as far as Breslau, and this day defeated an Austrian Army near Mollwitz.This was during the War of the Austrian Succession.

8 February 1741. Neisse and Brieg still held out but the Prussians stormed and occupied Glogau on 9 March 1741. At the Battle of Mollwitz, 10 April 1741, the Prussians narrowly won the day. Europe realised that Prussia was now a major military power and France sent an envoy, Marshal Belleisle, to negotiate an alliance with Frederick.The �Silesian adventure� now became the War of the Austrian Succession. France supported the Elector of Bavaria. Sweden was supposed to stop Russia attacking Prussia but on 3 September 1742 the Swedes were heavily defeated by the Russians at Wilmanstrand, and Sweden capitulated in 1742 at Helsingfors, the Swedish capital. At the Peace of Dresden, 25 December 1745 Frederick recognised the Elector of Bavaria as ruler of Austria in return for his acquiring Silesia. The war of the Austrian Succession ended on 18 October 1748 with the Peace of Aachen (Aix la Chapelle).

16 December 1740. Without a declaration of war. Frederick II of Prussia invaded Silesia, an Austrian province. He occupied Silesia quite easily, besieging the few towns of Glogau, Breig, and Neisse still held by the Austrians. In February 1741 Austria prepared to reconquer Silesia.

See also events in Germany

20 October 1740, Emperor Charles VI died unexpectedly. Maria Theresa, aged 23, became ruler of Austria. Frederick II of Prussia, taking advantage of Austria having a young female ruler, prepared to invade the wealthy Austrian provoince of Silesia. Meanwhile Bavaria and Saxony also had claims on Austrian lands (their claims supported by France), and Spain wanted the Italian provinces of Austria. Hungary supported Austria.


24 May 1736, Johann Thugut, Austrian diplomat, was born in Linz (died 28 May 1818 in Vienna)

21 October 1725, Franz Lacy, Austrian Field Marshal, was born (died 24 November 1801).

2 February 1717, Ernst Loudon, Austrian soldier, was born (died 14 July 1789).

13 May 1717, Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, was born in Vienna.

Accession of Maria Theresa, aged 23.


Austria defeats Ottoman Turkey, saves Vienna, annexes Hungary

22 August 1717. Austrian forces took Belgrade from the Ottoman Turks.

30 April 1711, The Peace of Szatmar effected a reconciliation between the absolutist Hapsburg Austrian monarchy and the Hungarians.

2 February 1711, Wenzel Kaunitz-Rietburg, Austrian statesman, was born (died 27 June 1794).

1691, Austria took Transylvania from the Ottomans,

6 July 1686. The Austrians took Buda from the Ottoman Turks and annexed Hungary.

11 September 1683. The conquering armies of Islam under Vizier Kara Mustafa were defeated at the gates of Vienna. The Turks had been besieging Vienna since July 1683. Relief came under Poland�s King John III and Charles, Duke of Normandy. The Ottoman Sultan ordered Mustafa to commit suicide.


1 January 1711, Franz Trenck, Austrian soldier, was born (died 4 October 1749)

23 October 1705, Maximillian Browne, Austrian Field-Marshal, was born (died 26 June 1757).

16 October 1680, Raimondo Montecucculi, Austrian General, died.

17 September 1679, Don John the Younger of Austria died (born 1629)

27 August 1677, Otto Ferdinand Traun, Austrian Field Marshal, was born in Oldenburg (died 18 February 1748 in Hermannstadt)

11 August 1656, Prince Octavio Piccolomini, Austrian General, died (born in Florence 11 November 1599)

18 October 1634, Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg, Austrian statesman (born 1568) died at Laibach.

22 July 1634, Johann Aldringer, Austrian military commander, died at the defence of Landshut against the Swedes on the Danube.

18 September 1630, Melchior Klesl, Austrian statesman, died.

11 July 1624, Savoy and Venice joined the alliance against the Austrian Hapsburgs. The Alpine passes could now be blocked, preventing effective Spanish-Hapsburg co-operation.

9 July 1624, Sweden and Denmark joined the alliance against the Austrian Hapsburgs.

15 June 1624, England joined the alliance of France and Holland against Hapsburg Austria.

10 June 1624, Treaty of Compeigne. France and Holland allied against the Hapsburgs.

1/1624, France, already at war with Spain, now declared war on the Austrian Hapsburgs.

23 July 1620, Maximillian of Bavaria, with the 25,000 strong army of the Catholic League led by General John Tserclaes, Count Tilly, crossed the Austrian frontier to support the Holy Roman Emperor against the Protestant Bohemians.

11 November 1606, The Treaty of Zsitvatorok ended the Long War between the Hapsburgs and the Ottoman Empire.

11 November 1599, Prince Octavio Piccolomini, Austrian General, was born in Florence (died 11 August 1656)

24 January 1595, Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria of Austria died.

1 October 1578, Don John of Austria died (born 24 February 1545).

24 February 1545, Don John of Austria was born (died 1 October 1578).

29 August 1526, The Battle of Mohacs.The Turkish army under Suleiman I defeated the Hungarians under King Loius II, who was killed whilst retreating.Suleiman took Buda, whilst Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and John Zapolya, Prince of Transylvania, disputed over the succession. As a result of this dispute, Dubrovnik achieved independence, although it recognised Turkish overlordship. The Hapsburgs now ruled Bohemia and Hungary.

28 April 1521, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V granted his brother Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria the Habsburg possessions in Lower Austria, Carinthia, Styria and Carniola.

3 December 1463, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, united Upper and Lower Austria on the death of his brother Albert I, Grand Duke of Austria.

3 October 1369, Margaret Maultasch, Countess of Tirol, died.

1 November 1339, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, was born.

2 April 1335, Following the death of Henry Duke of Carinthia, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV conferred the Duchy and South Tyrol on the Habsburgs. His sons received North Tyrol.


Start of the Habsburg Dynasty, ;lasting until 1918

25 August 1278, Ottokar II, King of Bohemia, was killed in the Battle of Durnkrut. Ottokar II had previously lost a battle with Rudolf I of Hapsburg (Habichtsburg, or Hawk�s castle, a town now in Switzerland) in 1276; refusing to accept this defeat, he prepared to attack again. However Rudolf launched a pre-emptive strike, with 2,000 horsemen, and the support of Ladislav of Hungary. This battle paved the way for the rise of the Hapsburg Dynasty.

25 November 1276, Rudolf of Habsburg, King of the Romans, besieged Vienna. Bohemia rebelled, and Ottakar surrenderedall his lands, including Austria and Styria, except for Bohemia and Moravia. Rudolf made Vienna his capital, founding the Habsburg Dynasty, which endured until 1918.


17 September 1156, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa confirmed Austria as a Duchy by the Priveligium Miuns Decree. For early Holy Roman Emperors see Germany

1155, The Margravate of Austria was made a Duchy after 180 years of rule by the Babenberg family.

976, The start of modern-day Austria, as a Margravate on the Danube granted by Holy Roman Emperor Otto II to the Franconian Count Leopold (Luipold); Leopold�s Babenberg family ruled the Margravate until 1246.


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